WorldWideScience

Sample records for eutrophic aerial compounds

  1. Eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcella, Donald B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of lake eutrophication, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) nutrients sources; (2) lake manipulation and nutrient control; (3) aquatic macrophytes; and (4) nutrients, productivity, and biological interactions. A list of 69 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory compounds from Gymnosporia heterophylla aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Charles O; Opiyo, Sylvia A; Mureka, Edward W; Ishola, Ismail O

    2017-06-01

    Gymnosporia heterophylla (Celastraceae) is an African medicinal plants used to treat painful and inflammatory diseases with partial scientific validation. Solvent extractions followed by repeated chromatographic purification of the G. heterophylla aerial parts led to the isolation of one new β-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene alkaloid (1), and two triterpenes (2-3). In addition, eight known compounds including one β-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene alkaloid (4), and six triterpenes (5-10) were isolated. All structures were determined through extensive analysis of the NMR an MS data as well as by comparison with literature data. These compounds were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activities against COX-1 and -2 inhibitory potentials. Most of the compound isolated showed non selective COX inhibitions except for 3-Acetoxy-1β-hydroxyLupe-20(29)-ene (5), Lup-20(29)-ene-1β,3β-diol (6) which showed COX-2 selective inhibition at 0.54 (1.85), and 0.45 (2.22) IC 50 , in mM (Selective Index), respectively. The results confirmed the presence of anti-inflammatory compounds in G. heterophylla which are important indicators for development of complementary medicine for inflammatory reactions; however, few could be useful as selective COX-2 inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity and a new compound isolated from aerial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-05-05

    May 5, 2011 ... A new compound was isolated from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of the aerial parts of Myrsine africana. The compound was ... O-methyl-muketanin, respectively, were produced. (Ogweno and Arot, 1996). ... africana (Cr.MA) was suspended in distilled water (400 ml) and partitioned with n-hexane (3 x ...

  4. Radical scavenging compounds from the aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Solenostemon monostachys Briq. (Lamiaceae) is a weed widely used in ethno medicine to treat infections and inflammatory conditions but the active compounds are yet to be identified. This study isolated and identified the radical scavenging compounds from S. monostachys crude extract using diphenyl-1, ...

  5. Antiviral activities of compounds from aerial parts of Salvia plebeia R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Sunghee; Quy Ha, Thi Kim; Lee, Changyeol; Li, Wei; Oh, Won-Keun; Shim, Sang Hee

    2016-11-04

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. is an edible plant widely spread in many countries. It has been used as a traditional medicine to treat common cold, flu, cough, hepatitis, hemorrhoids, etc. The purpose of the study is to explicate antiviral compounds responsible for its traditional use for the common cold or flu. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. plebeia was extracted with CHCl3, EtOAc, and n-BuOH, successively. The EtOAc and CHCl3 fractions were subjected to a successive of chromatographic method, which led to the isolation of fourteen compounds. Inhibition activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase. Chemical investigation of the methanolic extracts of S. plebeia resulted in the isolation of two novel benzoylated monoterpene glycosides, named as plebeiosides A (1) and B (2), together with twelve known compounds including four flavonoids (4-5, 7, 10), two sesquiterpenoids (8, 12), four phenolics (9-10, 13-14), a steroid (6), and a triterpenoid (3). Their chemical structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data and absolute stereochemistries of 1 and 2 were determined by comparison of optical rotations of their hydrolysates with literature values. Compounds 5, 7, 9, and 11 exhibited potent enzymatic inhibition against H1N1 neuraminidase (IC50 values ranging from 11.18±1.73 to 19.83±2.28μM). Furthermore, two flavonoids (5 and 7) and one rosmarinic acid methyl ester (9) reduced cytopathic effects of the H1N1 virus during replication. The antiviral activities of the flavonoids and phenolics isolated from the extracts of S. plebeia supported the traditional application of this medicine on common cold or flu. In this study, benzoylated monoterpene glycosides were first found to exist in this species. Moreover, the present study suggested potential of three compounds (5, 7, and 9) to be new lead structures for the development of new neuraminidase inhibitors in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland

  6. Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Activity of the Aerial Parts of Seven Eragrostis Species and Bioactive Compounds from E. japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Sun Na

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in the aerial parts of seven Eragrostis species (Poaceae and to find antioxidant or neuroprotective compounds from the most active species. The total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH RSA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and neuroprotective activity against amyloid beta peptide induced toxicity in PC12 cells were measured in the methanol extracts of the aerial parts of E. ferruginea, E. cilianensis, E. minor, E. multicaulis, E. pilosa, E. japonica, and E. curvula collected from June to August 2013. All species showed antioxidant or neuroprotective activities and, among them, E. japonica was the most active species to isolate antioxidant or neuroprotective compounds, because it was found to show both the highest TPC (10.63 ± 0.31 mg/g and TFC (2.83 ± 0.06 mg/g values, as well as TAC (11.34 ± 0.80 mg/g and DPPH RSA (47.07 ± 2.81 µg/mL, with the second-highest neuroprotective value (23.0 µg/mL. Three known compounds were isolated from E. japonica by the bioassay guided approach and these were identified as isoorientin, isovitexin, and caffeic acid that have antioxidant and neuroprotective activities.

  7. Composition of the oily compounds, phytochemical screening and biological activity of different aerial parts of Smirnovia turkestana Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, Maryam; Yaghoobei, Mahdi; Hamedi, Sepideh

    2017-09-10

    In the present study, chemical composition of the oily compounds isolated from different parts of Smirnovia turkestana (Kashan, central Iran) using n-hexane was determined for the first time. GC-MS analysis revealed that dodecanoic acid, trans-β-ionone and methyl palmitate are the major components of leaves extract. Trans-β-ionone and hexadodecanoic acid were also, identified as the major compounds of flowers extract. Heptacosane, trans-β-ionone and vitamin E acetate were the main components of fruits. Phytochemical screening of the methanol extract proved the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids and anthocyanin in the leaves, flowers and fruits of S. turkestana, while tannins were present only in its fruits. Evaluation of the biological activities showed that different aerial parts of S. turkestana have high antioxidant activities; antimicrobial activities were also considerable against some selected bacteria.

  8. Anti-spasmodic action of crude methanolic extract and a new compound isolated from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana

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    Ahmad Bashir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myrsine africana is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used as appetizer and carminative. Locally, it is used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, rheumatism and diarrhea by healers. The aims of the current study were to screen the crude methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts (leaves and stem of M. africana, for antispasmodic actions on isolated tissues and further to subject the ethyl acetate (EtOAc fraction of plant to column chromatography for isolation of pure compounds. Methods The antispasmodic action of the crude methanol extract was measured on the spontaneous rabbit's jejunum preparations at concentration 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. The crude extract was also applied, in similar concentrations, on KCl (80 mM induced contractions to explain its possible mode of action. Results A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of M. africana. The structure of the compound was identified with the help of 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, HMBC, HMQC, NOESY and COSY. The plant crude methanol extract showed a significant antispasmodic action on rabbit jejunum and abolished the tissue contraction completely at concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Conclusion The study concludes that the methanol crude extract of aerial parts of M. africana has antispasmodic action possibly through the calcium channel blocking mechanisms. A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the plant.

  9. A Model Reference Adaptive Control/PID Compound Scheme on Disturbance Rejection for an Aerial Inertially Stabilized Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method to suppress the effect of nonlinear and time-varying mass unbalance torque disturbance on the dynamic performances of an aerial inertially stabilized platform (ISP. To improve the tracking accuracy and robustness of the ISP, a compound control scheme based on both of model reference adaptive control (MRAC and PID control methods is proposed. The dynamic model is first developed which reveals the unbalance torque disturbance with the characteristic of being nonlinear and time-varying. Then, the MRAC/PID compound controller is designed, in which the PID parameters are adaptively adjusted based on the output errors between the reference model and the actual system. In this way, the position errors derived from the prominent unbalance torque disturbance are corrected in real time so that the tracking accuracy is improved. To verify the method, the simulations and experiments are, respectively, carried out. The results show that the compound scheme has good ability in mass unbalance disturbance rejection, by which the system obtains higher stability accuracy compared with the PID method.

  10. Biological activities of a new compound isolated from the aerial parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the compound possess moderate inhibitory activity against urease (43.3 %) and chymotrypsin (39.8 %) enzymes. Vitexcarpan also showed moderate (48 %) in vitro antiinflammatory activity using activated human neutrophils. Keywords: Vitex agnus castus, vitexcarpan urease, chymotrypsin, anti- ...

  11. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  12. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lucarini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP. It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05, respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05 and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05, respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05, respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1.

  13. Aerial exposure to the bacterial volatile compound trimethylamine modifies antibiotic resistance of physically separated bacteria by raising culture medium pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létoffé, Sylvie; Audrain, Bianca; Bernier, Steve P; Delepierre, Muriel; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-07

    Bacteria release a wide diversity of small bioactive molecules that often correspond to secondary metabolites. Among them, volatile molecules produced under various growth conditions were shown to mediate cross-kingdom interactions with plants, nematodes, and fungi. Although the role of volatile compounds in bacterial biology is not well understood, recent reports indicated that they could play a role in airborne interactions between bacteria and influence antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence. In this study, we investigated long-distance effects of 14 previously described Escherichia coli volatile compounds upon the bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. We show that several of these molecules constitute chemical cues influencing growth, adhesion, and motility in exposed bacteria. Moreover, we show that aerial exposure to trimethylamine (TMA), a volatile compound produced in animal intestines and tissues upon biogenic reduction of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), modifies the antibiotic resistance profiles of all tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We demonstrate that the TMA mode of action is distinct from that previously described for ammonia and results from nonspecific transient alteration of antibiotic uptake due to pH increase in the environment of bacteria aerially exposed to TMA. Our study therefore presents a new way by which volatile compounds can affect community behavior and structure in physically separated bacteria. It further demonstrates that bacterial gases and volatile compounds mediate chemical interactions, triggering functional responses that play an important role in the development of bacterial communities. Bacteria release many different volatile compounds during food transformation and fermentation. Here we sought to investigate the role of several bacterial volatile molecules released by Escherichia coli during long-distance airborne interactions with other

  14. Lake eutrophication as indicated by ERTS satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, J. P.; Van Domelen, J. F.; Holtje, K.; Johnson, W.

    1975-01-01

    Light reflectance from water in the laboratory always correlates to the water quality parameter of turbidity. This turbidity is caused by suspended solids in the water and for a particular type of material there is a good correlation between the weight of these suspended solids and turbidity. However, this correlation is different for different types of material. When this suspended material is living green matter as in an eutrophic lake, the changes in reflectance can be detected as changes in brightness on a particular aerial image. Two test sites have shown that there is indeed a good correlation between the brightness on an ERTS image and lake eutrophication.

  15. Cultural eutrophication: perspectives and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Wassmann, Paul

    2005-01-01

    History of cultural eutrophication. Cultural eutrophication is old as Homo sapiens. In particular after the introduction of agriculture and larger settlements eutrophication has been mans faithful companion. During the pre-agricultural hunting and picking stage only probably a couple million humans inhabited the world and cultural eutrophication was negligible. The 3 orders of magnitude increase in population has changed this considerably. Human population growth an...

  16. Eutrophication in a Beaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, John; Markby, Jane

    1991-01-01

    A method for demonstrating eutrophication that can be used as a simple illustration of the phenomenon or as a basis for problem-solving activities is presented. A sample worksheet with procedures for this activity and discussion questions is included. (Author/KR)

  17. Eutrophication, A Natural Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsour, William

    This environmental education learning unit deals with the topic of eutrophication. The unit is designed to allow secondary teachers of science, language arts, and social studies to use it as supplementary material in their classroom. Teacher information, unit objectives, the unit text, and appendices are included. The teacher information section…

  18. Profiling and elucidation of the phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata collected from different Chinese origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Mangelinckx, Sven; Lü, Han; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Li, Wei-Lin; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata are not only known to be nutritive as cultured vegetables, but also beneficial as folk medicines in East Asia. As demonstrated by the current phytochemical knowledge, the genus Gynura is a promising source of phenolics with multiple medicinal activities. To expand this phytochemical knowledge, the phenolic secondary metabolites of G. bicolor and G. divaricata were studied. From the aerial parts of these two species, collected in five different Chinese locations, two fractions of phenolic compounds with different polarity were obtained by extraction and chromatographic separation. Using UPLC/MS/MS analysis, a total of 53 phenolics were either identified by comparison with respective reference compounds or tentatively characterized by their chromatographic behavior, UV-absorption patterns, and MS fragmentations. Some naturally existing positional isomers of O-caffeoylquinic acid, O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, O-feruloylquinic acid, and dicaffeoylquinic acid as well as their methyl esters were qualitatively characterized by their specific fragmentation patterns in targeted MS/MS. In addition, the aerial parts of the two Gynura species contained kaempferol, quercetin oligoglycosides, and a variety of derivatives of benzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, and caffeic acid. Furthermore, the distribution of phenolic compounds in the two species from different Chinese origins was discussed. Finally, an investigation of the total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of the various phenolic fractions was completed, to evaluate the potential of the extracts of these species for medicinal development. The free-radical-scavenging activities of the extracts derived from plants originating from Nanjing were proven to be higher than those of the other extracts, which correlated well with their total phenolic content. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich. aerial parts against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents and analysis of polyphenolic compounds by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanta Mondal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrothelypteris torresiana is a fern species belonging to family Thelypteridaceae. The present study was conducted to evaluate hepatoprotective potential of ethanol extract from M. torresiana aerial parts (EEMTAP and detect the polyphenolic compounds present in the extract using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. Hepatoprotective potential of EEMTAP were tested at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg, per os (p.o., on Wistar albino rats. The extract and silymarin treated animal groups showed significant decrease in activities of different biochemical parameters like serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, which were elevated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxication. The levels of total bilirubin and total protein alongwith the liver weight were also restored to normalcy by EEMTAP and silymarin treatment. After CCl4 administration the level of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as Glutathione (GSH and Catalase (CAT were decreased whereas the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO was elevated. The level of these hepatic antioxidant enzymes were also brought to normalcy by EEMTAP and silymarin treatment. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and treatment with EEMTAP at doses 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. was found to be effective in restoring CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. A simple HPTLC analysis was conducted for the detection of polyphenolic compounds in EEMTAP, and the result revealed the presence of caffeic acid as phenolic acid and quercetin as flavonoid. The proposed HPTLC method is simple, concise and provides a good resolution of caffeic acid and quercetin from other constituents present in EEMTAP.

  1. Mechanisms and assessment of water eutrophication*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiao-e; Wu, Xiang; Hao, Hu-lin; He, Zhen-li

    2008-01-01

    Water eutrophication has become a worldwide environmental problem in recent years, and understanding the mechanisms of water eutrophication will help for prevention and remediation of water eutrophication. In this paper, recent advances in current status and major mechanisms of water eutrophication, assessment and evaluation criteria, and the influencing factors were reviewed. Water eutrophication in lakes, reservoirs, estuaries and rivers is widespread all over the world and the severity is ...

  2. Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  3. Mechanisms and assessment of water eutrophication*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-e; Wu, Xiang; Hao, Hu-lin; He, Zhen-li

    2008-01-01

    Water eutrophication has become a worldwide environmental problem in recent years, and understanding the mechanisms of water eutrophication will help for prevention and remediation of water eutrophication. In this paper, recent advances in current status and major mechanisms of water eutrophication, assessment and evaluation criteria, and the influencing factors were reviewed. Water eutrophication in lakes, reservoirs, estuaries and rivers is widespread all over the world and the severity is increasing, especially in the developing countries like China. The assessment of water eutrophication has been advanced from simple individual parameters like total phosphorus, total nitrogen, etc., to comprehensive indexes like total nutrient status index. The major influencing factors on water eutrophication include nutrient enrichment, hydrodynamics, environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, carbon dioxide, element balance, etc., and microbial and biodiversity. The occurrence of water eutrophication is actually a complex function of all the possible influencing factors. The mechanisms of algal blooming are not fully understood and need to be further investigated. PMID:18357622

  4. Mechanisms and assessment of water eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-e; Wu, Xiang; Hao, Hu-lin; He, Zhen-li

    2008-03-01

    Water eutrophication has become a worldwide environmental problem in recent years, and understanding the mechanisms of water eutrophication will help for prevention and remediation of water eutrophication. In this paper, recent advances in current status and major mechanisms of water eutrophication, assessment and evaluation criteria, and the influencing factors were reviewed. Water eutrophication in lakes, reservoirs, estuaries and rivers is widespread all over the world and the severity is increasing, especially in the developing countries like China. The assessment of water eutrophication has been advanced from simple individual parameters like total phosphorus, total nitrogen, etc., to comprehensive indexes like total nutrient status index. The major influencing factors on water eutrophication include nutrient enrichment, hydrodynamics, environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, carbon dioxide, element balance, etc., and microbial and biodiversity. The occurrence of water eutrophication is actually a complex function of all the possible influencing factors. The mechanisms of algal blooming are not fully understood and need to be further investigated.

  5. Compound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (6). Figure S4. UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (9). Figure S5. UV-vis spectra showing solvent ___, acidic--- and basic -□- effects on compound (8) in CH2Cl2 solution. Table S1. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of salicylaldimine Schiff bases (5-8).

  6. The role of phosphorus in eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Darinka M.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication is an increase in the biological productivity of water basins resulting from the accumulation of biogenic elements under the influence of anthropogenic factors. Natural eutrophication is a slow and inevitable process. Artifical eutrophica-tion is caused by human activity and it can be very rapid, especially in technologically developed countries. Eutrophication does not represent a mere change of water but a change in the metabolism of the entire ecosystem and hence a change of...

  7. Worldwide Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Causes, Concerns, Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepas, E. E.; Charette, T.

    2003-12-01

    cyanobacteria, heterotrophic, and chemoautotrophic bacteria) can use nitrogen gas directly and incorporate it into organic compounds through a process called nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation is an enzyme-catalyzed process that reduces nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria make up less than 1% of the total biomass of phytoplankton in estuaries of the Atlantic coast of North America, whereas in lakes they often make up more than 50% of phytoplankton biomass (reviewed in Howarth, 1988). An increase in water clarity can also spur the growth of aquatic vegetation in systems where the clarity of water is poor from high concentrations of suspended particles.The biodiversity of most aquatic systems decreases with eutrophication (Figure 1). Phytoplankton species diversity is reduced in highly productive systems. Cyanobacteria are usually dominant in eutrophic systems because these organisms are better adapted to conditions of high nutrients (Smith, 1986; Trimbee and Prepas, 1987; Watson et al., 1997). In addition, fish and macro-invertebrate species diversity can decrease with eutrophication. Depletion of dissolved oxygen in deep water is associated with eutrophication and can lead to a loss or displacement of species intolerant of such conditions ( Ludsin et al., 2001). In eutrophic lakes of North America, characteristic fish types are surface-dwelling, warm water fishes such as pike, perch, and bass, as compared to deep-dwelling, cold-water fishes like salmon, trout, and cisco ( Ryding and Rast, 1989). (9K)Figure 1. Suggested changes in various characteristics of lakes with eutrophication (reproduced by permission of Cambridge University Press from Welch, E. B., Ecological Effects of Waste Water, 1980, p. 273).

  8. Venus Aerial Platform Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    A Venus Aerial Platform Study, which was underway in early 2017, is assessing the science and technologies for exploring Venus with aerial vehicles in order to develop a Venus Aerial Platform Roadmap for the future exploration of the planet.

  9. Ecosystem-based management of coastal eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.

    This thesis focuses on Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) of coastal eutrophication. Special attention is put on connections between science and decision-making in regard to development, implementation and revision of evidence-based nutrient management strategies. Two strategies are presented...... and analysed: the Danish Action Plans on the Aquatic Environment and the eutrophication segment of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Similarities and differences are discussed and elements required for making nutrient management strategies successful are suggested. Key words: Eutrophication, marine, Danish...

  10. Remote sensing and lake eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Horne, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    An infrared photograph of part of Clear Lake, Cal., shows complex patterns of blue-green algal blooms which were not observed by conventional limnological techniques. Repeated observations of patterns such as these can be used to chart the surface movement of these buoyant algae and can also be used to help control algal scums in eutrophic lakes. Although it is believed that most of the observed patterns resulted from Aphanizomenon (a few were also observed which resulted from suspended sediment), spectral signatures of the algal patterns varied.

  11. Editorial - A critical perspective on geo-engineering for eutrophication management in lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lürling, Miquel; Mackay, Eleanor; Reitzel, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    will not be applicable in the field because of costs and other constraints. Aluminium and lanthanum modified compounds are among the most effective compounds for targeting P. Flocculants and ballast compounds can be used to sink cyanobacteria, in the short term. We emphasize that the first step in managing...... kit, may ensure successful management of eutrophication through a range of target effects. In addition, novel developments in modified zeolites offer simultaneous P and nitrogen control. To facilitate research and reduce the delay from concept to market a multi-national centre of excellence...... eutrophication is a system analysis that will reveal the main water and P flows and the biological structure of the waterbody. These site specific traits can be significant confounding factors dictating successful eutrophication management. Geo-engineering techniques, considered collectively, as part of a tool...

  12. Confidence rating of marine eutrophication assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Andersen, Jesper Harbo; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the development of a methodology for assessing confidence in eutrophication status classifications. The method can be considered as a secondary assessment, supporting the primary assessment of eutrophication status. The confidence assessment is based on a transparent scoring ...... of the marine environment....

  13. The role of phosphorus in eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Darinka M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication is an increase in the biological productivity of water basins resulting from the accumulation of biogenic elements under the influence of anthropogenic factors. Natural eutrophication is a slow and inevitable process. Artifical eutrophica-tion is caused by human activity and it can be very rapid, especially in technologically developed countries. Eutrophication does not represent a mere change of water but a change in the metabolism of the entire ecosystem and hence a change of the ecosystem itself. In Serbia and Montenegro, all factors are present that promote eutrophication in both still (especially in lowland areas and running waters. This paper deals with the results of eutrophication monitoring and prognostication for the DTD canal network and major rivers and lakes in Serbia, including a special review of the trophic status of lakes in the country's main lowland region, the Vojvodina Province. As phosphorus concentration is an important factor in the process of eutrophication of a body of water, the study has devoted particular attention to the control of this element.

  14. Disentangling the effects of a century of eutrophication and climate warming on freshwater lake fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter C; Hansen, Gretchen J A; Bethke, Bethany J; Cross, Timothy K

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication and climate warming are profoundly affecting fish in many freshwater lakes. Understanding the specific effects of these stressors is critical for development of effective adaptation and remediation strategies for conserving fish populations in a changing environment. Ecological niche models that incorporated the individual effects of nutrient concentration and climate were developed for 25 species of fish sampled in standard gillnet surveys from 1,577 Minnesota lakes. Lake phosphorus concentrations and climates were hindcasted to a pre-disturbance period of 1896-1925 using existing land use models and historical temperature data. Then historical fish assemblages were reconstructed using the ecological niche models. Substantial changes were noted when reconstructed fish assemblages were compared to those from the contemporary period (1981-2010). Disentangling the sometimes opposing, sometimes compounding, effects of eutrophication and climate warming was critical for understanding changes in fish assemblages. Reconstructed abundances of eutrophication-tolerant, warmwater taxa increased in prairie lakes that experienced significant eutrophication and climate warming. Eutrophication-intolerant, warmwater taxa abundance increased in forest lakes where primarily climate warming was the stressor. Coolwater fish declined in abundance in both ecoregions. Large changes in modeled abundance occurred when the effects of both climate and eutrophication operated in the same direction for some species. Conversely, the effects of climate warming and eutrophication operated in opposing directions for other species and dampened net changes in abundance. Quantifying the specific effects of climate and eutrophication will allow water resource managers to better understand how lakes have changed and provide expectations for sustainable fish assemblages in the future.

  15. Disentangling the effects of a century of eutrophication and climate warming on freshwater lake fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Jacobson

    Full Text Available Eutrophication and climate warming are profoundly affecting fish in many freshwater lakes. Understanding the specific effects of these stressors is critical for development of effective adaptation and remediation strategies for conserving fish populations in a changing environment. Ecological niche models that incorporated the individual effects of nutrient concentration and climate were developed for 25 species of fish sampled in standard gillnet surveys from 1,577 Minnesota lakes. Lake phosphorus concentrations and climates were hindcasted to a pre-disturbance period of 1896-1925 using existing land use models and historical temperature data. Then historical fish assemblages were reconstructed using the ecological niche models. Substantial changes were noted when reconstructed fish assemblages were compared to those from the contemporary period (1981-2010. Disentangling the sometimes opposing, sometimes compounding, effects of eutrophication and climate warming was critical for understanding changes in fish assemblages. Reconstructed abundances of eutrophication-tolerant, warmwater taxa increased in prairie lakes that experienced significant eutrophication and climate warming. Eutrophication-intolerant, warmwater taxa abundance increased in forest lakes where primarily climate warming was the stressor. Coolwater fish declined in abundance in both ecoregions. Large changes in modeled abundance occurred when the effects of both climate and eutrophication operated in the same direction for some species. Conversely, the effects of climate warming and eutrophication operated in opposing directions for other species and dampened net changes in abundance. Quantifying the specific effects of climate and eutrophication will allow water resource managers to better understand how lakes have changed and provide expectations for sustainable fish assemblages in the future.

  16. Historical records of coastal eutrophication-induced hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Gooday

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Under certain conditions, sediment cores from coastal settings subject to hypoxia can yield records of environmental changes over time scales ranging from decades to millennia, sometimes with a resolution of as little as a few years. A variety of biological and geochemical indicators (proxies derived from such cores have been used to reconstruct the development of eutrophication and hypoxic conditions over time. Those based on (1 the preserved remains of benthic organisms (mainly foraminiferans and ostracods, (2 sedimentary features (e.g. laminations and (3 sediment chemistry and mineralogy (e.g. presence of sulphides and redox-sensitive trace elements reflect conditions at or close to the seafloor. Those based on (4 the preserved remains of planktonic organisms (mainly diatoms and dinoflagellates, (5 pigments and lipid biomarkers derived from prokaryotes and eukaryotes and (6 organic C, N and their stable isotope ratios reflect conditions in the water column. However, the interpretation of these indicators is not straightforward. A central difficulty concerns the fact that hypoxia is strongly correlated with, and often induced by, organic enrichment caused by eutrophication, making it difficult to separate the effects of these phenomena in sediment records. The problem is compounded by the enhanced preservation in anoxic and hypoxic sediments of organic microfossils and biomarkers indicating eutrophication. The use of hypoxia-specific proxies, such as the trace metals molybdenum and rhenium and the bacterial biomarker isorenieratene, together with multi-proxy approaches, may provide a way forward. All proxies of bottom-water hypoxia are basically qualitative; their quantification presents a major challenge to which there is currently no satisfactory solution. Finally, it is important to separate the effects of natural ecosystem variability from anthropogenic effects. Despite these problems, in the absence of historical data for dissolved oxygen

  17. AMRMS Aerial survey database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An aerial monitoring program was conducted during the period 1962 - 2003 in cooperation with aerial spotters working for the commercial purse seine fleet. Flights...

  18. Editorial - A critical perspective on geo-engineering for eutrophication management in lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lürling, Miquel; Mackay, Eleanor; Reitzel, Kasper; Spears, Bryan M

    2016-06-15

    Eutrophication is the primary worldwide water quality issue. Reducing excessive external nutrient loading is the most straightforward action in mitigating eutrophication, but lakes, ponds and reservoirs often show little, if any, signs of recovery in the years following external load reduction. This is due to internal cycling of phosphorus (P). Geo-engineering, which we can here define as activities intervening with biogeochemical cycles to control eutrophication in inland waters, represents a promising approach, under appropriate conditions, to reduce P release from bed sediments and cyanobacteria accumulation in surface waters, thereby speeding up recovery. In this overview, we draw on evidence from this special issue Geoengineering in Lakes, and on supporting literature to provide a critical perspective on the approach. We demonstrate that many of the strong P sorbents in the literature will not be applicable in the field because of costs and other constraints. Aluminium and lanthanum modified compounds are among the most effective compounds for targeting P. Flocculants and ballast compounds can be used to sink cyanobacteria, in the short term. We emphasize that the first step in managing eutrophication is a system analysis that will reveal the main water and P flows and the biological structure of the waterbody. These site specific traits can be significant confounding factors dictating successful eutrophication management. Geo-engineering techniques, considered collectively, as part of a tool kit, may ensure successful management of eutrophication through a range of target effects. In addition, novel developments in modified zeolites offer simultaneous P and nitrogen control. To facilitate research and reduce the delay from concept to market a multi-national centre of excellence is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compounds isolated from the aerial part of Crataegus azarolus inhibit growth of B16F10 melanoma cells and exert a potent inhibition of the melanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Bzéouich, Imèn Mokdad; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2015-02-01

    Poor therapeutic results have been reported for treatment of malignant melanoma; therefore in this study, we have investigated inhibitory capacity of vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside as well as the extract from which it was isolated, i.e. the ethyl acetate extract obtained from the leaves of Crataegus azarolus, on mouse melanoma (B16F10) proliferation. Cell viability was determined using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In addition, amounts of melanin and tyrosinase were measured spectrophotometrically at 475nm. Ethyl acetate extract and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside exhibited significant anti-proliferative activity against B16F10 melanoma cells after incubation for 48hours with IC50s of 50μg/mL and 20μM, respectively. Furthermore, these two compounds have the ability to reduce the melanin content by inhibiting the tyrosinase activity of B16F10 cells. Thus, further investigations are merited to ascertain their potential application in treating hyperpigmentation disorders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Interacting effects of sulphate pollution, sulphide toxicity and eutrophication on vegetation development in fens: a mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Jeroen J M; Sarneel, Judith M; Willers, Bart J C; Roelofs, Jan G M; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Lamers, Leon P M

    2009-07-01

    Both eutrophication and SO4 pollution can lead to higher availability of nutrients and potentially toxic compounds in wetlands. To unravel the interaction between the level of eutrophication and toxicity at species and community level, effects of SO4 were tested in nutrient-poor and nutrient-rich fen mesocosms. Biomass production of aquatic and semi-aquatic macrophytes and colonization of the water layer increased after fertilization, leading to dominance of highly competitive species. SO4 addition increased alkalinity and sulphide concentrations, leading to decomposition and additional eutrophication. SO4 pollution and concomitant sulphide production considerably reduced biomass production and colonization, but macrophytes were less vulnerable in fertilized conditions. The experiment shows that competition between species, vegetation succession and terrestrialization are not only influenced by nutrient availability, but also by toxicity, which strongly interacts with the level of eutrophication. This implies that previously neutralized toxicity effects in eutrophied fens may appear after nutrient reduction measures have been taken.

  1. Eutrophication of freshwater and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Val H.; Joye, Samantha B.; Howarth, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Initial understanding of the links between nutrients and aquatic productivity originated in Europe in the early 1900s, and our knowledge base has expanded greatly during the past 40 yr. This explosion of eutrophication-related research has made it unequivocally clear that a comprehensive strategy to prevent excessive amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus from entering our waterways is needed to protect our lakes, rivers, and coasts from water quality deterioration. However, despite these very significant advances, cultural eutrophication remains one of the foremost problems for protecting our valuable surface water resources. The papers in this special issue provide a valuable cross section and synthesis of our current understanding of both freshwater and marine eutrophication science. They also serve to identify gaps in our knowledge and will help to guide future research.

  2. [Ecological engineering for eutrophication control in lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G; Sheng, L

    2001-08-01

    An ecological engineering was conducted for eutrophication control in the Nanhu Lake of Changchun. In 1996, the removal of phosphorus by harvesting aquatic macrophytes and fishes was 149.6 kg and 189.9 kg, respectively, and the phosphorus fixed in molluscs was 153.4 kg. The total output was 492.9 kg, which amounted approximately to the annual phosphorus input to the lake. After ecological engineering, the water quality turned better, the TP concentration in lake water decreased, the phytoplankton density reduced, and the number of phytoplankton species increased. The roles of molluscs and fish in controlling lake eutrophication should be further studied. Ecological engineering is an ideal method to control the eutrophication of urban lakes.

  3. Drainage basin nutrient inputs and eutrophication: an integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wassmann, Paul; Olli, Kalle

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication is an increase in primary production due to increased nutrient supply and its consequences. In its widest sense eutrophication means any increase of nutrient availability that increases primary production. Frequently, however, eutrophication is understood exclusively as the consequence of nutrient input by anthropogenic activities. The primary consequence of eutrophication in aquatic environments is an enhancement of algal productivity and accumulation of algal biomass. Seco...

  4. Use of Coupled Eutrophication and Network Models for Examination of Fisheries and Eutrophication Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cerco, Carl F; Tillman, Dorothy H

    2008-01-01

    ...) was designed to be a flexible, widely applicable eutrophication model. Ecopath with Ecosim (EWE) is a freely distributed network model supported by the Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia...

  5. Viral ecology of a shallow eutrophic lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to give an insight into the ecology of the viral community in a shallow eutrophic lake. To achieve this, the population dynamics, diversity and control of the viral community in Lake Loosdrecht were studied, as well as the impact of the viral community on plankton mortality and

  6. Algae, phytoplankton and eutrophication research and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief history of South African research on and management of algae-, phytoplankton- and eutrophication-related problems is presented, including their ecological, social and economic impacts, which provides a basis for formulation of future research needs. The contributions of southern African research on different ...

  7. The status and characteristics of eutrophication in tropical coastal water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Nooshin; Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Tajfard, Mohammad; Hashim, Rosli; Rezayi, Majid; Karlen, David J

    2017-08-16

    A set of methodological tools was tested to assess the sensitivity of several ecological and biological indices to eutrophication while at the same time attempting to explore a linkage among pressures, classification assessment and drivers. Industrial discharges, harbor activities, natural interactions and river discharges are the pressures most related to the eutrophication process in tropical coastal water bodies. Among the eutrophication indices used, TRIX and operational indicators overestimated the eutrophication status in the study area, but EI and chl-a seems to be a rather responsive index to reflect the first stage of eutrophication. It is noteworthy that EI and chl-a showed better overall agreement with the ecological quality status (EcoQ) showing that probably it reflects the indirect relation of macrobenthic with water eutrophication in a better way. An ecological boundary of EI and chl-a from moderate to poor may be needed in order to explain the poor status of relatively eutrophic Klang Strait coastal sites.

  8. Dynamics of particulate phosphorus in a shallow eutrophic lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Ryuichiro, E-mail: r-shino@nies.go.jp [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Imai, Akio; Kohzu, Ayato; Tomioka, Noriko [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Furusato, Eiichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Satou, Takayuki; Sano, Tomoharu; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Miura, Shingo; Shimotori, Koichi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in shallow, eutrophic Lake Kasumigaura, the concentration of particulate phosphorus (PP) is controlled by biogenic P (P in living or dead phytoplankton and bacterial cells), rather than by resuspension of inorganic P in sediment. Increases in wind velocity and turbidity were associated with bottom shear stress exceeding the critical value for the lake (τ{sub c} = 0.15 N m{sup −2}); this increased turbidity was due to sediment resuspension. However, concentrations of PP; HCl-extractable, reactive P in PP (P-rP); and HCl-extractable, non-reactive P in PP (P-nrP) were not correlated with wind velocity (PP vs. wind velocity: r = 0.40, p > 0.05). Rather, the P-nrP concentration accounted for approximately 79% of PP, and the concentrations of PP, P-rP, and P-nrP were correlated with the particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration (POC vs. PP: r = 0.90, p < 0.01; POC vs. P-rP: r = 0.82, p < 0.01; POC vs. P-nrP: r = 0.86, p < 0.01). In our {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results, mononucleotides accounted for the largest proportion among the detected P compound classes. In addition, concentrations of mononucleotides, orthophosphate, and pyrophosphate were significantly higher in samples with high POC concentrations, whereas the DNA-P concentration was not. These results suggest that biogenic P affects PP concentrations more strongly than does sediment resuspension, and the production of biogenic P creates a pool of mononucleotides, a class of easily degradable P, even in shallow, eutrophic Lake Kasumigaura. - Highlights: • Biogenic P affected the PP concentration more than did sediment resuspension. • PP correlated with particulate organic carbon concentration but not wind velocity. • Mononucleotides accounted for the largest P compound class of organic P in PP.

  9. Aerial Refueling Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    support of the AR Clearance Process. Covered topics include the ground and flight testing of boom/receptacle systems and probe/ drogue systems, test...REFUELING SYSTEMS ADVISORY GROUP 41-09-15 13 April 2015 v REFERENCES N° TITLE REFERENCE IS S U E DATE SOURCE 1. Probe and Drogue Aerial Refueling Data...Equipment: Probe- Drogue Interface Characteristics STANAG 3447 Ed 4 May ‘08 NATO AERIAL REFUELING SYSTEMS ADVISORY GROUP 41-09-15 13 April 2015 vi

  10. Effect of eutrophication on the distribution of arsenic species in eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Azizur; Matsuda, T; Kitahara, T; Maki, T; Ueda, K

    2009-02-01

    Effects of eutrophication on arsenic speciation were studied in eutrophic Lake Kiba and mesotrophic Lake Biwa, Japan. By combining hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with ultraviolet irradiation, inorganic, methyl and ultraviolet-labile fractions of arsenic were determined. In both Lakes, inorganic species (As(V+III)) dominated over other forms of arsenic all the year round. Most of methylarsenic fraction was dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), and the concentration of monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) was below the detection limit. Measurements of size-fractioned arsenic concentrations in water column indicate that most of the DMAA was distributed in truly dissolved fraction (0.45 microm) and colloidal (10 kDa-0.45 microm) fractions. Arsenic speciation in eutrophic Lake Kiba fluctuated greatly with season. The ultraviolet-labile fractions were observed with the increase of DMAA from May to October, and they disappeared with the decrease of DMAA in January. In mesotrophic Lake Biwa, the ultraviolet-labile fractions of arsenic were not influenced as much as those in eutrophic Lake Kiba. On the other hand DMAA concentration was higher in Lake Biwa compared to that in Lake Kiba. The results suggest that the biosynthesis of complex organoarsenicals was enhanced by eutrophication, and the arsenic speciation would be influenced by the balance of biological processes in natural waters.

  11. Effect of eutrophication on the distribution of arsenic species in eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)], E-mail: hhiroshi@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Rahman, M. Azizur; Matsuda, T.; Kitahara, T.; Maki, T.; Ueda, K. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Effects of eutrophication on arsenic speciation were studied in eutrophic Lake Kiba and mesotrophic Lake Biwa, Japan. By combining hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with ultraviolet irradiation, inorganic, methyl and ultraviolet-labile fractions of arsenic were determined. In both Lakes, inorganic species (As(V + III)) dominated over other forms of arsenic all the year round. Most of methylarsenic fraction was dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), and the concentration of monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) was below the detection limit. Measurements of size-fractioned arsenic concentrations in water column indicate that most of the DMAA was distributed in truly dissolved fraction (< 10 kDa), while ultraviolet-labile fractions were distributed in particulate (> 0.45 {mu}m) and colloidal (10 kDa-0.45 {mu}m) fractions. Arsenic speciation in eutrophic Lake Kiba fluctuated greatly with season. The ultraviolet-labile fractions were observed with the increase of DMAA from May to October, and they disappeared with the decrease of DMAA in January. In mesotrophic Lake Biwa, the ultraviolet-labile fractions of arsenic were not influenced as much as those in eutrophic Lake Kiba. On the other hand DMAA concentration was higher in Lake Biwa compared to that in Lake Kiba. The results suggest that the biosynthesis of complex organoarsenicals was enhanced by eutrophication, and the arsenic speciation would be influenced by the balance of biological processes in natural waters.

  12. Carbon fluxes in an eutrophic urban lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nathan; Mendonça, Raquel; Huszar, Vera; Roland, Fábio; Kosten, Sarian

    2014-05-01

    Eutrophic lakes have a still unknown net effect on greenhouse gas emission. On one hand, the high photosynthetic rates enhance the freshwater carbon dioxide (CO2) sink. On the other hand, the intense organic matter decomposition may lead to high CO2 release and, when the sediment becomes anoxic, also to more methane (CH4) production. Here, we measured CO2 and CH4 emissions from a highly eutrophic urban lake monthly during summer, autumn and winter, over 24 hour periods. The lake was predominantly a net carbon source to the atmosphere. On the few periods when the lake was a CO2 sink, the magnitude of CO2 influx to the water was small. The CO2 diffusive emission at night was higher than during the day due to daytime CO2 uptake by photosynthesis. The same pattern was not found for CH4 diffusive emission, which was high both during the day and night even though CH4 oxidation reduced the CH4 emission in almost 50%. CH4 emission through bubbles was proven highly dependent on temperature and no bubbles were emitted during colder months. In our study lake, CO2 and CH4 production through mineralization in the water column and in the sediment should be offsetting CO2 fixation by primary production. The greenhouse emission from this system can be even higher considering CO2-equivalents. As conclusion, our data confront the usually accepted idea that eutrophic lakes are carbon sinks.

  13. Coastal marine eutrophication assessment: a review on data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsiou, Dimitra; Karydis, Michael

    2011-05-01

    A wide variety of data analysis techniques have been applied for quantitative assessment of coastal marine eutrophication. Indicators for assessing eutrophication and frequency distributions have been used to develop scales for characterizing oligotrophy and eutrophication. Numerical classification has also contributed to the assessment of eutrophic trends by grouping sampling sites of similar trophic conditions. Applications of eutrophication assessment based on Principal Component Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling have also been carried out. In addition, the rapid development of Geographical Information Systems has provided the framework for applications of spatial methods and mapping techniques on eutrophication studies. Satellite data have also contributed to eutrophication assessment especially at large scale. Multiple criteria analysis methods can integrate eutrophication variables together with socio-economic parameters providing a holistic approach particularly useful to policy makers. As the current concept of eutrophication problems is to be examined as part of a coastal management approach, more complex quantitative procedures are needed to provide a platform useful for implementation of environmental policy. The present work reviews methods of data analysis used for the assessment of coastal marine eutrophication. The difficulties in applying these methods on data collected from the marine environment are discussed as well as the future perspectives of spatial and multiple criteria choice methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphological and biomechanical response to eutrophication and hydrodynamic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guorong; Yuan, Changbo; Di, Guilan; Zhang, Meng; Ni, Leyi; Cao, Te; Fang, Rongting; Wu, Gongguo

    2017-12-05

    Eutrophication and hydrodynamics determine the final distribution patterns of aquatic macrophytes; however, there is limited available knowledge regarding their interactive effects. Morphological and biomechanical responses to eutrophication and hydrodynamic stresses were assessed by sampling five abundant and dominant species, Potamogeton maackianus, P. pectinatus, P. lucens, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum, in three macrophyte beds in Lake Erhai, Yunnan Province, China: one exposed to eutrophication and moderate southeast (SE) wind; one with mesotrophication, but sheltered by the lakeshore, with weak wind disturbance; and one with meso-eutrophication and strong SE wind. The results showed significant interactive effects of eutrophication and hydrodynamics on most biomechanical traits and some morphological traits, suggesting that aquatic macrophytes preferentially undergo biomechanical adjustments to resist the coexisting eutrophication and hydrodynamic stresses. In particular, hydrodynamics increased both the tensile force and tensile strain of P. maackianus under meso-eutrophication and dramatically decreased them in eutrophic areas, suggesting that eutrophication triggers mechanical failure in this species. Additionally, P. pectinatus, C. demersum and M. spicatum showed the lowest and highest values for the biomechanical variables (greater values for M. spicatum) in the most eutrophic and hydrodynamic areas, respectively, implying that increases in hydrodynamics primarily induce mechanical damage in eutrophic species. The plants generally exhibited greater tensile strain in both shallow and deep waters and the greatest tensile force at moderate depths. The stem cross-sectional area, plant height, stem length, internode length, and branch traits were all responsible for determining the biomechanical variables. This study reveals that hydrodynamic changes primarily induce mechanical damage in eutrophic species, whereas eutrophication triggers

  15. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences. In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors. Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  16. Combination of cheminformatics and bioinformatics to explore the chemical basis of the rhizomes and aerial parts of Dioscorea nipponica Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Yang, Xu-Yan

    2017-12-01

    This study was aimed to explore the chemical basis of the rhizomes and aerial parts of Dioscorea nipponica Makino (DN). The pharmacokinetic profiles of the compounds from DN were calculated via ACD/I-Lab and PreADMET program. Their potential therapeutic and toxicity targets were screened through the DrugBank's or T3DB's ChemQuery structure search. Eleven of 48 compounds in the rhizomes and over half of the compounds in the aerial parts had moderate or good human oral bioavailability. Twenty-three of 48 compounds in the rhizomes and 40/43 compounds from the aerial parts had moderate or good permeability to intestinal cells. Forty-three of 48 compounds from the rhizomes and 18/43 compounds in the aerial parts bound weakly to the plasma proteins. Eleven of 48 compounds in the rhizomes and 36/43 compounds of the aerial parts might pass across the blood-brain barrier. Forty-three 48 compounds in the rhizomes and 18/43 compounds from the aerial parts showed low renal excretion ability. The compounds in the rhizomes possessed 391 potential therapeutic targets and 216 potential toxicity targets. Additionally, the compounds from the aerial parts possessed 101 potential therapeutic targets and 183 potential toxicity targets. These findings indicated that combination of cheminformatics and bioinformatics may facilitate achieving the objectives of this study. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  18. Eutrophication, Nile perch and food-web interactions in south-east Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing eutrophication, the introduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and the increasing fishing pressure has changed Lake Victoria tremendously the last century. Since the 1960s, eutrophication increased primary production, enabling an increase in fish production. However, eutrophication

  19. Aerial view of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1987-01-01

    Aerial view of the CERN site just outside Geneva, with the Jura mountains in the background. The large circle shows the line of the LEP tunnel, 27 km in circumference, the small circle shows the SPS tunnel, 7 km in circumference. The crossed line indicates the the border between France and Switzerland.

  20. Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Velcheva, Maya; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Marinova, Veselka

    2017-04-01

    MARLEN - Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools is a project under the Programme BG02.03: Increased capacity for assessing and predicting environmental status in marine and inland waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Burgas municipality and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. Initial assessment of ecological state of Bulgarian marine waters showed lack of data for some descriptors of MSFD. The main goal of MARLEN is to build up tools for assessment of marine environment by implementing new technologies and best practices for addressing three main areas of interest with lack of marine data in particular: a) Marine litter detection and classification in coastal areas; b) Regular near real time surface water eutrophication monitoring on large aquatory; c) Underwater noise monitoring. Developed tools are an important source of real time, near real time and delay mode marine data for Bulgarian Black Sea waters. The partnership within the project increased capacity for environmental assessments and training of personnel and enhances collaboration between scientific institutes, regional and local authorities. Project results supported implementation of MSFD in Bulgarian marine waters for the benefit of coastal population, marine industry, tourism, marine research and marine spatial planning.

  1. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  2. Eutrophication of lake waters in China: cost, causes, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, C; Zha, Y; Li, Y; Sun, D; Lu, H; Yin, B

    2010-04-01

    Lake water eutrophication has become one of the most important factors impeding sustainable economic development in China. Knowledge of the current status of lake water eutrophication and determination of its mechanism are prerequisites to devising a sound solution to the problem. Based on reviewing the literature, this paper elaborates on the evolutional process and current state of shallow inland lake water eutrophication in China. The mechanism of lake water eutrophication is explored from nutrient sources. In light of the identified mechanism strategies are proposed to control and tackle lake water eutrophication. This review reveals that water eutrophication in most lakes was initiated in the 1980s when the national economy underwent rapid development. At present, the problem of water eutrophication is still serious, with frequent occurrence of damaging algal blooms, which have disrupted the normal supply of drinking water in shore cities. Each destructive bloom caused a direct economic loss valued at billions of yuan. Nonpoint pollution sources, namely, waste discharge from agricultural fields and nutrients released from floor deposits, are identified as the two major sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, all control and rehabilitation measures of lake water eutrophication should target these nutrient sources. Biological measures are recommended to rehabilitate eutrophied lake waters and restore the lake ecosystem in order to bring the problem under control.

  3. Improving the accuracy of estimation of eutrophication state index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trophic Level Index (TLI) is oen used to assess the general eutrophication state of inland lakes in water science, technology, and engineering. In this paper, a data-driven inland-lake eutrophication assessment method was proposed by using an articial neural network (ANN) to build relationships from remote sensing data ...

  4. Eutrophication: Present reality and future challenges for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eutrophication-management options include reduction of phosphorus in detergents, biomanipulation of the food web, accurate prediction of cyanobacterial growth cycles, and mechanical disturbance of the epilimnion. The implementation of adaptive management to deal with eutrophication would ensure the testing and ...

  5. Eutrophication: Present reality and future challenges for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1980-08-01

    Aug 1, 1980 ... ensure the testing and application of the most appropriate methodology to each eutrophic water body. Continued .... Table 1. The classification system used by the Department Water Affairs to classify the National Eutrophication Monitoring .... of Water Affairs continued its support of this initiative by fund-.

  6. Eutrophication potential of Payette Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    Payette Lake was studied during water years 1995-96 to determine the 20.5-square-kilometer lake's assimilative capacity for nutrients and, thus, its eutrophication potential. The study included quantification of hydrologic and nutrient budgets, characterization of water quality in the limnetic and littoral zones, development of an empirical nutrient load/lake response model, and estimation of the limnological effects of a large-scale forest fire in the lake's 373-square-kilometer watershed during the autumn of 1994. Streamflow from the North Fork Payette River, the lake's primary tributary, delivered about 73 percent of the lake's inflow over the 2 years. Outflow from the lake, measured since 1908, was 128 and 148 percent of the long-term average in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The larger volumes of outflow reduced the long-term average water-

  7. Floating rice-culture system for nutrient remediation and feed production in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankita; Chun, Seong-Jun; Ko, So-Ra; Kim, Junhwan; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-12-01

    The increased inputs of nutrients have been demonstrated to be a major contributing factor to the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs which can lead to the production of harmful algal/cyanobacterial blooms and deleteriously affect the aesthetics of water-bodies. Floating plant-culture systems have been widely used for the ecological remediation of eutrophic water in a cost-effective manner. We investigated the applicability of Korean japonica rice variety 'Nampyeong' in a floating-culture system in a eutrophic lake for nutrient uptake and biomass production. Chemical and organic compound compositions were analyzed two times during the growth stages of the rice plant: 98 DAT (days after transplanting) and 165 DAT. Total nitrogen and phosphorus contributed around 1.36 and 0.15 (% dry weight), respectively, in rice plant components at 165 DAT. Crude protein, lipids, fiber and ash were 4.35, 1.91, 23.66 and 5.55 (% dry weight), respectively. In addition, microcystin levels in the rice plant components ranged from 0.0008 to 0.002 μg/g and did not exceed the recommended tolerable limits. These results suggested that the developed floating rice-culture system showed a good potential as a holistic management approach in terms of nutrient reduction, rice production for further use as feed and for bloom control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerial collective systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kernbach, Serge; Zufferey, Jean-Christophe; Hauert, Sabine; Stirling, Timothy; Leven, Severin; Roberts, James; Floreano, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Deployment of multiple flying robots has attracted the interest of several research groups in the recent times both because such a feat represents many interesting scientific challenges and because aerial collective systems have a huge potential in terms of applications. By working together, multiple robots can perform a given task quicker or more efficiently than a single system. Furthermore, multiple robots can share computing, sensing and communication payloads thus leading to lighter robo...

  9. Can microcystins affect zooplankton structure community in tropical eutrophic reservoirs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. S. V. Paes

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of our study was to assess whether cyanotoxins (microcystins can affect the composition of the zooplankton community, leading to domination of microzooplankton forms (protozoans and rotifers. Temporal variations in concentrations of microcystins and zooplankton biomass were analyzed in three eutrophic reservoirs in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil. The concentration of microcystins in water proved to be correlated with the cyanobacterial biovolume, indicating the contributions from colonial forms such as Microcystis in the production of cyanotoxins. At the community level, the total biomass of zooplankton was not correlated with the concentration of microcystin (r2 = 0.00; P > 0.001, but in a population-level analysis, the biomass of rotifers and cladocerans showed a weak positive correlation. Cyclopoid copepods, which are considered to be relatively inefficient in ingesting cyanobacteria, were negatively correlated (r2 = – 0.01; P > 0.01 with the concentration of cyanotoxins. Surprisingly, the biomass of calanoid copepods was positively correlated with the microcystin concentration (r2 = 0.44; P > 0.001. The results indicate that allelopathic control mechanisms (negative effects of microcystin on zooplankton biomass do not seem to substantially affect the composition of mesozooplankton, which showed a constant and high biomass compared to the microzooplankton (rotifers. These results may be important to better understand the trophic interactions between zooplankton and cyanobacteria and the potential effects of allelopathic compounds on zooplankton.

  10. CERN: an aerial view

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 30th January, when CERN still resembled a winter wonderland, a helicopter with a photographer on board took off on an aerial tour. One sunny morning at the end of January, when the area was waking up to an overnight snowfall, a helicopter took off from the Meyrin site with a CERN photographer on board. CERN has been the subject of aerial photographs ever since its creation. Although its appearance has changed over the years, the Laboratory has aged well. The aerial photographs taken during its fifty-year history bear witness to its expansion, showing how a handful of buildings and a first accelerator have blossomed into an entire machine complex. Let's take to the skies and have a look at some of the photos taken on this crisp January morning: a sight for sore eyes! In the foreground, Building 40 on the Meyrin site is recognisable from its magnet shape.On the right of the Route de Meyrin (crossing the photo diagonally), next to Point 1, the work on the Globe of Innovation, which got underway at the beg...

  11. Differences in dietary pattern between obese and eutrophic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balthazar Emilia A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive consumption of energy is a decisive factor of obesity, but a simple quantitative assessment of consumption between obese and eutrophic individuals not always explains the problem, raising questions about the importance of the qualitative aspects of food. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in nutrient composition and meal patterns between eutrophic and obese schoolchildren. Methods The diet of 83 children (42 obese and 41 eutrophic, aged between 7 and 11 years of age, was assessed by two non-consecutive dietary recalls. After the software analysis of macro and micronutrients composition, the different types and amount of legumes, fruits and vegetables were analyzed to verify the dietary patterns. Results No differences were verified in energy consumption between the groups (eutrophic = 1934.2 ± 672.7 kcal, obese = 1835.8 ± 621.2 kcal. In general, children showed consumption within the recommended ranges of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The average consumption of fiber was higher in the eutrophic group (20.7 g when compared to the obese group (14.8 g. The dietary fiber was strongly correlated with the number of servings of beans (r = 0.77, when compared to fruits (r = 0.44 and leafy vegetables (r = 0.13. It was also observed that the higher the consumption of fiber and beans, the lower the proportion of dietary fat (r = -0.22 in the diet. Generally, there was a low consumption of fiber (20.7 g = eutrophic group/14.8 g = obese group, beans (1.1 portions in the eutrophic and obese groups, fruits (0.7 portions eutrophic group and 0.6 obese group and vegetables (1.3 eutrophic group and 1.1 obese group. Conclusions It is concluded that the obesity was more related to a dietary pattern of low intake of dietary fiber than excessive energy consumption and macronutrients imbalance.

  12. Integrated approaches to drainage basin nutrient inputs and coastal eutrophication: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Wassmann, Paul; Olli, Kalle

    2005-01-01

    Ingress Eutrophication is an increase in primary production due to increased nutrient supply and its consequences. In its widest sense eutrophication means any increase of nutrient availability that increases primary production. Frequently, however, eutrophication is understood exclusively as the consequence of nutrient input by anthropogenic activities. The primary consequence of eutrophication in aquatic environments is an enhancement of algal productivity and ...

  13. Eutrophication levels of some South African impoundments III. Roodeplaat Dam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, DJ

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available . The purpose of the study was to determine the present eutrophication status of Roodeplaat dam and the effect of either increased discharges of secondary treated sewage effluents....

  14. Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems: Bistability and soil phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication (the overenrichment of aquatic ecosystems with nutrients leading to algal blooms and anoxic events) is a persistent condition of surface waters and a widespread environmental problem. Some lakes have recovered after sources of nutrients were reduced. In others, recycling of phosphorus from sediments enriched by years of high nutrient inputs causes lakes to remain eutrophic even after external inputs of phosphorus are decreased. Slow flux of phosphorus from overfertilized soils may be even more important for maintaining eutrophication of lakes in agricultural regions. This type of eutrophication is not reversible unless there are substantial changes in soil management. Technologies for rapidly reducing phosphorus content of overenriched soils, or reducing erosion rates, are needed to improve water quality. PMID:15972805

  15. Observations on cyanobacterial population collapse in eutrophic lake water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gons, H.J.; Ebert, J.; Hoogveld, H.L.; Van den Hove, L.; Pel, R.; Takkenberg, W.; Woldringh, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    In two laboratory-scale enclosures of water from the shallow, eutrophic Lake Loosdrecht (the Netherlands), the predominating filamentous cyanobacteria grew vigorously for 2 weeks, but then their populations simultaneously collapsed, whereas coccoid cyanobacteria and algae persisted . The collapse

  16. Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems: bistability and soil phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stephen R

    2005-07-19

    Eutrophication (the overenrichment of aquatic ecosystems with nutrients leading to algal blooms and anoxic events) is a persistent condition of surface waters and a widespread environmental problem. Some lakes have recovered after sources of nutrients were reduced. In others, recycling of phosphorus from sediments enriched by years of high nutrient inputs causes lakes to remain eutrophic even after external inputs of phosphorus are decreased. Slow flux of phosphorus from overfertilized soils may be even more important for maintaining eutrophication of lakes in agricultural regions. This type of eutrophication is not reversible unless there are substantial changes in soil management. Technologies for rapidly reducing phosphorus content of overenriched soils, or reducing erosion rates, are needed to improve water quality.

  17. Modeling of HABs and eutrophication: Status, advances, challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glibert, P.M.; Allen, J.I.; Bouwman, A.F.; Brown, C.W.; Flynn, K.J.; Lewitus, A.J.; Madden, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are often associated with eutrophication of coastal waters and estuaries. However, identifying quantitative relationships between nutrient input and proliferation of specific algal species is very challenging and complex. The complexity arises from the diversity of

  18. Effect of combined ecological floating bed for eutrophic lake remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liguo; Wang, Haiping

    2017-05-01

    A novel combined ecological floating bed(CEFB) integrated high-density hydrophyte and aquatic animals, the wave-making equipments, water cycling automatic aerators and fluorescence inducing equipments. The water quality of a eutrophic lake was improved significantly after three months remediation of CEFB. Compared with the background value, the results showed that the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia(NH3-N), total phosphorous(TP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the water reached 31.5%, 33%, 30.5% and 53%, respectively. CEFB could manipulate biotic interactions in the aquatic ecosystem, and then absorb eutrophic material efficiently by the co-effect of floating the sediment slowly, refreshing the static eutrophic water body, changing the photosynthetic and biochemical environment of the eutrophic water body and inducing plankton directional movement. At the same time, plants and fish grew good in CEFB,which can bring economic income to some extent.

  19. Interacting effects of sulphate pollution, sulphide toxicity and eutrophication on vegetation development in fens: A mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, Jeroen J.M., E-mail: j.geurts@b-ware.e [Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sarneel, Judith M. [Landscape Ecology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Willers, Bart J.C.; Roelofs, Jan G.M. [Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verhoeven, Jos T.A. [Landscape Ecology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lamers, Leon P.M. [Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Both eutrophication and SO{sub 4} pollution can lead to higher availability of nutrients and potentially toxic compounds in wetlands. To unravel the interaction between the level of eutrophication and toxicity at species and community level, effects of SO{sub 4} were tested in nutrient-poor and nutrient-rich fen mesocosms. Biomass production of aquatic and semi-aquatic macrophytes and colonization of the water layer increased after fertilization, leading to dominance of highly competitive species. SO{sub 4} addition increased alkalinity and sulphide concentrations, leading to decomposition and additional eutrophication. SO{sub 4} pollution and concomitant sulphide production considerably reduced biomass production and colonization, but macrophytes were less vulnerable in fertilized conditions. The experiment shows that competition between species, vegetation succession and terrestrialization are not only influenced by nutrient availability, but also by toxicity, which strongly interacts with the level of eutrophication. This implies that previously neutralized toxicity effects in eutrophied fens may appear after nutrient reduction measures have been taken. - Interspecific competition, vegetation succession and terrestrialization in fens depend on the interacting effects of SO{sub 4} pollution, sulphide toxicity and nutrient availability.

  20. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.

  1. Volatile constituents of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil composition of flowering aerial parts of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. (Rutaceae) from Iran was analyzed for the first time using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Thirty six compounds comprising 92.2% of the total oil were characterized. The main components ...

  2. The dilemma of controlling cultural eutrophication of lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, David W

    2012-11-07

    The management of eutrophication has been impeded by reliance on short-term experimental additions of nutrients to bottles and mesocosms. These measures of proximate nutrient limitation fail to account for the gradual changes in biogeochemical nutrient cycles and nutrient fluxes from sediments, and succession of communities that are important components of whole-ecosystem responses. Erroneous assumptions about ecosystem processes and lack of accounting for hysteresis during lake recovery have further confused management of eutrophication. I conclude that long-term, whole-ecosystem experiments and case histories of lake recovery provide the only reliable evidence for policies to reduce eutrophication. The only method that has had proven success in reducing the eutrophication of lakes is reducing input of phosphorus. There are no case histories or long-term ecosystem-scale experiments to support recent claims that to reduce eutrophication of lakes, nitrogen must be controlled instead of or in addition to phosphorus. Before expensive policies to reduce nitrogen input are implemented, they require ecosystem-scale verification. The recent claim that the 'phosphorus paradigm' for recovering lakes from eutrophication has been 'eroded' has no basis. Instead, the case for phosphorus control has been strengthened by numerous case histories and large-scale experiments spanning several decades.

  3. Eutrophication monitoring for Lake Superior's Chequamegon ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A priority for the Lake Superior CSMI was to identify susceptible nearshore eutrophication areas. We developed an integrated sampling design to collect baseline data for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay to understand how nearshore physical processes and tributary loading relate to observed chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling included ship-based water samples combined with vertical CTD casts, continuous in situ towing and data collected from an autonomous underwater glider. Sampling was conducted during June, July and September. The glider collected regional data as part of three extended missions in Lake Superior over the same periods. During the study, two significant storm events impacted the western end of Lake Superior; the first occurred during July 11-12, with 8-10 inches of rain in 24hrs, and the second on July 21 with winds in excess of 161 km/h. Using GIS software, we organized these diverse temporal data sets along a continuous time line with temporally coincident Modis Satellite data to visualize surface sediment plumes in relation to water quality measurements. Preliminary results suggest that both events impacted regional water quality, and that nearshore physical forces (upwelling and currents) influenced the spatial variability. Results comparing in situ measures with remotely sensed images will be discussed. not applicable

  4. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Rosa Huang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Du, Ying-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-12-05

    Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1-3), and 2-cis-entadamide A (4), were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.

  5. Establishing eutrophication assessment standards for four lake regions, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shouliang; Ma, Chunzi; Xi, Beidou; Su, Jing; Zan, Fengyu; Ji, Danfeng; He, Zhuoshi

    2013-10-01

    The trophic status assessment of lakes in different lake regions may provide important and fundamental information for lake trophic state classification and eutrophication control. In this study, a region-specific lake eutrophication assessment standard was established through a frequency distribution method based on chlorophyll-a concentration. The assessment standards under the oligotrophic state for lakes in the Eastern plain, Yungui Plateau, Northeast Plain and Mountain Mongolia-Xinjiang regions are total phosphorus of 0.068, 0.005, 0.011, 0.005 mg/L; total nitrogen of 1.00, 0.16, 0.37, 0.60 mg/L; Secchi depth of 0.60, 8.00, 1.55, 3.00 m; and COD(Mn) of 2.24, 1.00, 5.11, 4.00 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, a region-specific comprehensive trophic level index was developed to provide an understandable assessment method for the public. The results indicated that the frequency distribution analysis based on chlorophyll-a combined with trophic level index provided a useful metric for the assessment of the lake trophic status. In addition, the difference of eutrophication assessment standards in different lake regions was analyzed, which suggested that the sensitivities of algae to nutrients and the assessment standard of trophic status possessed significant regional differences for the four lake ecoregions. Lake eutrophication assessment standards would contribute to maximizing the effectiveness of future management strategies, to control and minimize lake eutrophication problems.

  6. [Lake eutrophication modeling in considering climatic factors change: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie-Qiong; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Climatic factors are considered as the key factors affecting the trophic status and its process in most lakes. Under the background of global climate change, to incorporate the variations of climatic factors into lake eutrophication models could provide solid technical support for the analysis of the trophic evolution trend of lake and the decision-making of lake environment management. This paper analyzed the effects of climatic factors such as air temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and atmosphere on lake eutrophication, and summarized the research results about the lake eutrophication modeling in considering in considering climatic factors change, including the modeling based on statistical analysis, ecological dynamic analysis, system analysis, and intelligent algorithm. The prospective approaches to improve the accuracy of lake eutrophication modeling with the consideration of climatic factors change were put forward, including 1) to strengthen the analysis of the mechanisms related to the effects of climatic factors change on lake trophic status, 2) to identify the appropriate simulation models to generate several scenarios under proper temporal and spatial scales and resolutions, and 3) to integrate the climatic factors change simulation, hydrodynamic model, ecological simulation, and intelligent algorithm into a general modeling system to achieve an accurate prediction of lake eutrophication under climatic change.

  7. Reducing eutrophication increases spatial extent of communities supporting commercial fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Barbara; Meier, H.E. Markus; Casini, Michele

    2018-01-01

    In this study we investigate if eutrophication management has the potential to substantially affect which areas are going to be most suitable for commercial fishing in the future. We use a spatial ecosystem model, forced by a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, to simulate the spatial distribu......In this study we investigate if eutrophication management has the potential to substantially affect which areas are going to be most suitable for commercial fishing in the future. We use a spatial ecosystem model, forced by a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, to simulate the spatial...... suitable for the commercially most valuable demersal fish predator and all types of fisheries. This suggests that strategic planning of fishery management strategies could benefit from considering future changes in species distributions due to changes in eutrophication. We show that combining approaches...

  8. Review on methodology for LCIA of marine eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    As part of the ongoing EU FP7 project LC-Impact (www.lc-impact.eu) new life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods are going to be developed and tested on industry cases. Among the life cycle assessment (LCA) impact categories in focus are aquatic eutrophication. As related to especially the marine...... environment very few and restricted attempts have yet been done on trying to include eutrophication in LCA. The aim of LC-Impact is to develop both a global and a spatial (and temporal) differentiated model, as both central fate processes, sensitivities of receiving environments (e.g. differences in limiting...... concentration and the potentially affected fraction of species in the marine ecosystem. This poster will present a review of the very limited existing attempts on how to include marine eutrophication in LCA and discuss alternative methodologies on how to model the environmental mechanism of this impact category....

  9. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  10. Eutrophication and Warming Boost Cyanobacterial Biomass and Microcystins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lürling, Miquel; van Oosterhout, Frank; Faassen, Elisabeth

    2017-02-11

    Eutrophication and warming are key drivers of cyanobacterial blooms, but their combined effects on microcystin (MC) concentrations are less studied. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes cyanobacterial abundance in a natural plankton community and that eutrophication enhances cyanobacterial biomass and MC concentrations. We incubated natural seston from a eutrophic pond under normal, high, and extreme temperatures (i.e., 20, 25, and 30 °C) with and without additional nutrients added (eutrophication) mimicking a pulse as could be expected from projected summer storms under climate change. Eutrophication increased algal- and cyanobacterial biomass by 26 and 8 times, respectively, and led to 24 times higher MC concentrations. This effect was augmented with higher temperatures leading to 45 times higher MC concentrations at 25 °C, with 11 times more cyanobacterial chlorophyll- a and 25 times more eukaryote algal chlorophyll- a . At 30 °C, MC concentrations were 42 times higher, with cyanobacterial chlorophyll- a being 17 times and eukaryote algal chlorophyll- a being 24 times higher. In contrast, warming alone did not yield more cyanobacteria or MCs, because the in situ community had already depleted the available nutrient pool. MC per potential MC producing cell declined at higher temperatures under nutrient enrichments, which was confirmed by a controlled experiment with two laboratory strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. Nevertheless, MC concentrations were much higher at the increased temperature and nutrient treatment than under warming alone due to strongly promoted biomass, lifting N-imitation and promotion of potential MC producers like Microcystis . This study exemplifies the vulnerability of eutrophic urban waters to predicted future summer climate change effects that might aggravate cyanobacterial nuisance.

  11. Eutrophication and Warming Boost Cyanobacterial Biomass and Microcystins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Lürling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication and warming are key drivers of cyanobacterial blooms, but their combined effects on microcystin (MC concentrations are less studied. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes cyanobacterial abundance in a natural plankton community and that eutrophication enhances cyanobacterial biomass and MC concentrations. We incubated natural seston from a eutrophic pond under normal, high, and extreme temperatures (i.e., 20, 25, and 30 °C with and without additional nutrients added (eutrophication mimicking a pulse as could be expected from projected summer storms under climate change. Eutrophication increased algal- and cyanobacterial biomass by 26 and 8 times, respectively, and led to 24 times higher MC concentrations. This effect was augmented with higher temperatures leading to 45 times higher MC concentrations at 25 °C, with 11 times more cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a and 25 times more eukaryote algal chlorophyll-a. At 30 °C, MC concentrations were 42 times higher, with cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a being 17 times and eukaryote algal chlorophyll-a being 24 times higher. In contrast, warming alone did not yield more cyanobacteria or MCs, because the in situ community had already depleted the available nutrient pool. MC per potential MC producing cell declined at higher temperatures under nutrient enrichments, which was confirmed by a controlled experiment with two laboratory strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. Nevertheless, MC concentrations were much higher at the increased temperature and nutrient treatment than under warming alone due to strongly promoted biomass, lifting N-imitation and promotion of potential MC producers like Microcystis. This study exemplifies the vulnerability of eutrophic urban waters to predicted future summer climate change effects that might aggravate cyanobacterial nuisance.

  12. Stream Macroinvertebrate Occurrence along Gradients in Organic Pollution and Eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Skriver, Jens; Larsen, Søren Erik

    2010-01-01

    We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part of the Da......We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part...

  13. Eutrophication management in surface waters using lanthanum modified bentonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Diego; Finsterle, Karin; Marziali, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific knowledge on the use of a lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) to manage eutrophication in surface water. The LMB has been applied in around 200 environments worldwide and it has undergone extensive testing at laboratory, mesocosm, and whole lake scales. The availa......This paper reviews the scientific knowledge on the use of a lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) to manage eutrophication in surface water. The LMB has been applied in around 200 environments worldwide and it has undergone extensive testing at laboratory, mesocosm, and whole lake scales...

  14. Ocean acidification with (de)eutrophication will alter future phytoplankton growth and succession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Kevin J.; Darren, Clark R.; Mitra, Aditee

    2015-01-01

    Human activity causes ocean acidification (OA) though the dissolution of anthropogenically generated CO2 into seawater, and eutrophication through the addition of inorganic nutrients. Eutrophication increases the phytoplankton biomass that can be supported during a bloom, and the resultant uptake...

  15. From Greenland to green lakes: Cultural eutrophication and the loss of benthic pathways in lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadeboncoeur, Y.; Jeppesen, E.; Zanden, M. J. V.

    2003-01-01

    Benthic community responses to lake eutrophication are poorly understood relative to pelagic responses. We compared phytoplankton and periphyton productivity along a eutrophication gradient in Greenland, U.S., and Danish lakes. Phytoplankton productivity increased along the phosphorus gradient (t...

  16. Investigation on extracellular polymeric substances from mucilaginous cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic freshwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huacheng; Yu, Guanghui; Jiang, Helong

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced knowledge on extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) of mucilaginous cyanobacterial blooms could improve our understanding of its ecological significance. This study for the first time investigated the extraction and fractionation of EPS matrix from cyanobacterial blooms in a eutrophic freshwater lake, and the changes in chemical compositions in EPS matrix during extraction were systematically investigated by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The analyses demonstrated that organic matters were unevenly distributed among the EPS matrix, with most of organic matters being tightly bound to cyanobacterial cells. In addition, the soluble and loosely bound EPS fractions mainly consisted of proteins, while polysaccharides became the predominant compounds in the tightly bound EPS fraction. Heating extraction at 60°C for 30min led to a high EPS yield and low cell lysis when compared with other extraction methods. The 2D-COS results revealed a preferential release of OH in polysaccharides versus amide I in proteins in the initial heating; whereas further extension of heating resulted in EPS degradation, with degradation rates arranging in a decreased order from amide I, amide II, polysaccharides-like substances to polysaccharides. These results obtained would help enhance our insights into EPS characterization from cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic lakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EUTROPHICATION OF WATER RESERVOIRS AND ROLE OF MACROPHYTES IN THIS PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Jadwiga Sender; Cyprian Jaruga

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the problem related with the process of eutrophication, with special emphasis on dam reservoirs. Eutrophication is a global process, threatening the water ecosystem on every continent. It often leads to their degradation. Particularly vulnerable to eutrophication are artificial reservoirs which are dam reservoirs. This paper describes the mechanisms of eutrophication. We also pointed to the importance of aquatic plants in the process of water purification, as well as the po...

  18. Cost-efficient eutrophication control in a shallow lake ecosystem subject to two steady states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication of water bodies is a common problem in many countries. Eutrophication processes are guided by thresholds, which must be taken into account in the formulation of optimal policies for eutrophication control. Whereas a range of general models have been developed to determine the point of

  19. Nitrate removal from eutrophic wetlands polluted by metal-mine wastes: effects of liming and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Héctor Miguel; Álvarez-Rogel, José

    2013-10-15

    remove completely the high concentrations of NO3(-) from the eutrophic water, except in the C2 horizon - which was permanently under water. Hence, our results show that the effectiveness of liming, regarding the removal of NO3(-) from eutrophic flooding water in wetland soils polluted by metal-mine wastes, depends on the presence of plants, their growth and the production of organic compounds in the rhizospheric environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eutrophication-driven deoxygenation in the coastal ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabalais, N.N.; Cai, W.-J.; Carstensen, J.; Conley, D.J.; Fry, B.; Hu, X.; Quiñones-Rivera, Z.; Rosenberg, R.; Slomp, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159424003; Turner, R.E.; Voss, M.; Wissel, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities, especially increased nutrient loads that set in motion a cascading chain of events related to eutrophication, accelerate development of hypoxia (lower oxygen concentration) in many areas of the world's coastal ocean. Climate changes and extreme weather events may modify hypoxia.

  1. Eutrophication: Present reality and future challenges for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1980-08-01

    Aug 1, 1980 ... Keywords: biomanipulation, cyanobacteria, eutrophication, forward prediction, management, low-p detergents, phosphorus, zero-phosphate .... problems and management options after 2000 (Quayle et al.,. 2010; Van Ginkel et al., 2009). .... This perspective prompted the re- investigation of means to control ...

  2. Eutrophication, microbial-sulfate reduction and mass extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    to the Earth system, notably, the biogeochemical sulfur and carbon cycle. This climate warming feedback produces large-scale eutrophication on the continental shelf, which, in turn, expands oxygen minimum zones by increased respiration, which can turn to a sulfidic state by increased microbial-sulfate...

  3. Urban lake system eutrophication – A case study | MAMA | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamic eutrophication process study of Yamoussoukro lake system in Côte d'Ivoire was carried out from February 1997 to January 1998. It appeared that this phenomenon is related to the nutriments that are phosphorus mainly and nitrogen. It was shown that the fluctuations of these nutriments depend on the climatic ...

  4. Agriculture and eutrophication of freshwaters: a review of control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture contributes a larger percentage of phosphorus (P) to freshwaters eutrophication. Fertilizers and manures applications over a period of time lead to P soil build up exceeding the required needs of the crops. Excess P is transferred into the waters through runoff, erosion, leaching and artificial drainage which ...

  5. Towards the classification of eutrophic condition in estuaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemley, DA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available to the success of these programmes is the use of indicators, as they transform data into useful information. The aim of this study was to identify the eutrophic condition of selected estuaries along the southern coast of South Africa, using a multi...

  6. Strategies for Control of Man-Made Eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Richard D.

    1971-01-01

    The key concerns for both long- and short-term control strategies for cultural eutrophication are: (1) controls which reflect the regional character of the problem, and (2) concern for the potential public health and environmental implications of the nonphosphate detergent formulations. (Author/CP)

  7. Macroalgal mats in a eutrophic lagoon : dynamics and control mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malta, Erik-jan

    2000-01-01

    One of the most striking phenomena of eutrophication in shallow coastal waters is the mass accumulation of macroalgae. These macroalgal blooms have a negative effect on the functioning of the ecosystem, fisheries activities and tourism. This thesis focuses on the regulation of seasonal and spatial

  8. Phosphorus dynamics in the sediment of a eutrophic lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, A.J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Since the sixties eutrophication has been recognized to affect the quality of surface waters. The prolonged loading with nutrients has led to high algal concentrations in the water and to concommitant environmental problems such as the depletion of oxygen, the production of toxins and the

  9. Eutrophication alters Si cycling and litter decomposition in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emsens, Willem-Jan; Schoelynck, Jonas; Grootjans, Ab P.; Struyf, Eric; van Diggelen, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic eutrophication of wetlands may have a significant impact on the global biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle, as Si filtering by wetland vegetation codetermines fluxes of Si towards the oceans. We experimentally investigated how macronutrient (NPK) enrichment alters total Si storage and Si

  10. Model studies on the eutrophication of shallow lakes and ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    This study concentrates on eutrophication effects in shallow lakes and ponds on the one hand and in ditches (small water channels in agricultural areas) on the other. In shallow lakes (up to ca 4 m of depth), ihe clear-water community characterized by macrophytes is generally replaced by a dominance

  11. Classifying aquatic macrophytes as indicators of eutrophication in European lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, W.E.; Mjelde, M.; Dudley, B.; Hellsten, S.; Hanganu, J.; Kolada, A.; van den Berg, Marcel S.; Poikane, S.; Phillips, G.; Willby, N.; Ecke, F.

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes are one of the biological quality elements in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for which status assessments must be defined. We tested two methods to classify macrophyte species and their response to eutrophication pressure: one based on percentiles of occurrence along a

  12. New cardenolide and acylated lignan glycosides from the aerial parts of Asclepias curassavica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Shikata, Kimiko; Miyase, Toshio; Fujii, Satoshi; Noro, Tadataka

    2008-08-01

    Three new cardenolide glycosides and six new acylated lignan glycosides were obtained along with nineteen known compounds from the aerial parts of Asclepias curassavica L. (Asclepiadaceae). The structure of each compound was determined based on interpretations of NMR and MS measurements and chemical evidence.

  13. 1944 AAF 661 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. 1944 AAF 547 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  15. 1939 Quay County CII Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  16. Aerial Photos - Photo Reference Mosaics -CS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS and Non USGS Agencies Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics inventory contains indexes to aerial photographs. The inventory contains imagery from various government...

  17. 1955 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  18. 1947 Sandoval County DFD Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  19. 1950 Pecos River CIII Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  20. 1946 Macho Border DDO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  1. 1949 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  2. 1947 Bernalillo County DFC Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  3. 1947 Sierra County DEZ Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  4. 1949 Roosevelt County CIK Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  5. Isolation and structural elucidation of compounds from the non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CARTA

    The aerial parts of Nicandra physaloides plant collected from Kenyatta National. Hospital ... from the plant [4]. It has also been confirmed to have insecticidal properties [5]. This study sought to isolate compounds from the non- alkaloidal extract of aerial parts of the plant and ... visualized using Mini UV/Vis® ultraviolet light.

  6. Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Buddleja crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Nighat; Akhter, Musarrat; Khan, Rashid Ali; Afza, Nighat; Tareen, Rasool Bakh; Malik, Abdul

    2010-05-01

    Studies on the aerial parts of Buddleja crispa yielded 13 known compounds, nonyl benzoate, hexyl p-hydroxy-cinnamate, ginipin, gardiol, 1-heptacosanol, steroidal galactoside (22 R)-stigmasta-7,9 (11)-dien-22 beta-ol-3beta-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 3-methoxy benzoic acid, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Besides this two iridoid galactosides buddlejosides A, buddlejosides B and a benzofuran-type sesquiterpene buddlejone have been isolated from the ETOAC fraction of B. crispa. Together with the above compounds, methyl benzoate (1) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy benzoic acid (2) were also isolated. Compound 2 (C(8)H(8)O(4)) was identified by comparison of its data with those reported earlier, which was originally isolated from Onosma hispidum, and this is the first report of its isolation from this species. For compounds 1 and 2, the total alcoholic soluble extract, methanol soluble, chloroform soluble, ethyl acetate soluble and petroleum ether soluble extract of the aerial parts of B. crispa were screened for nematicidal activity against nematodes of freshly hatched second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode), exhibiting 92%, 40%, 88%, 83%, 82% and 50% mortality, respectively, of eloids M. incognita at 0.5% concentration. Compound 1 was more potent than the nematicide Azadirachta indica at the same concentration. Negative results were obtained for the nematicidal activity of petroleum ether extract of B. crispa leaves.

  7. Remediation of eutrophic water using Lemna minor in a controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was oxidative damage at temperatures of less than 10 °C and greater than 40 °C. The pH of the growth medium was inversely related to the growth responses of Lemna minor. At acidic pH and at temperatures between 20 and 30 °C, the environmental conditions were most suitable for phytoremediation of eutrophic ...

  8. Eutrophication and the dietary promotion of sea turtle tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle S. Van Houtan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tumor-forming disease fibropapillomatosis (FP has afflicted sea turtle populations for decades with no clear cause. A lineage of α-herpesviruses associated with these tumors has existed for millennia, suggesting environmental factors are responsible for its recent epidemiology. In previous work, we described how herpesviruses could cause FP tumors through a metabolic influx of arginine. We demonstrated the disease prevails in chronically eutrophied coastal waters, and that turtles foraging in these sites might consume arginine-enriched macroalgae. Here, we test the idea using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC to describe the amino acid profiles of green turtle (Chelonia mydas tumors and five common forage species of macroalgae from a range of eutrophic states. Tumors were notably elevated in glycine, proline, alanine, arginine, and serine and depleted in lysine when compared to baseline samples. All macroalgae from eutrophic locations had elevated arginine, and all species preferentially stored environmental nitrogen as arginine even at oligotrophic sites. From these results, we estimate adult turtles foraging at eutrophied sites increase their arginine intake 17–26 g daily, up to 14 times the background level. Arginine nitrogen increased with total macroalgae nitrogen and watershed nitrogen, and the invasive rhodophyte Hypnea musciformis significantly outperformed all other species in this respect. Our results confirm that eutrophication substantially increases the arginine content of macroalgae, which may metabolically promote latent herpesviruses and cause FP tumors in green turtles.

  9. Does eutrophication-driven evolution change aquatic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Timothy J; Vonlanthen, Pascal; Seehausen, Ole

    2017-01-19

    Eutrophication increases primary production and changes the relative abundance, taxonomic composition and spatial distribution of primary producers within an aquatic ecosystem. The changes in composition and location of resources alter the distribution and flow of energy and biomass throughout the food web. Changes in productivity also alter the physico-chemical environment, which has further effects on the biota. Such ecological changes influence the direction and strength of natural and sexual selection experienced by populations. Besides altering selection, they can also erode the habitat gradients and/or behavioural mechanisms that maintain ecological separation and reproductive isolation among species. Consequently, eutrophication of lakes commonly results in reduced ecological specialization as well as genetic and phenotypic homogenization among lakes and among niches within lakes. We argue that the associated loss in functional diversity and niche differentiation may lead to decreased carrying capacity and lower resource-use efficiency by consumers. We show that in central European whitefish species radiations, the functional diversity affected by eutrophication-induced speciation reversal correlates with community-wide trophic transfer efficiency (fisheries yield per unit phosphorus). We take this as an example of how evolutionary dynamics driven by anthropogenic environmental change can have lasting effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Restoration in northern Lake Gehu, a eutrophic lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Wenchao; Pan, Jizheng; Ma, Shuzhan; Chen, Bingfa; He, Shangwei

    2017-11-01

    Lake Gehu is a severely eutrophic lake in southeast China. A series of restoration measures have been implemented since 2009 in northern Lake Gehu. This study compared aquatic plants, water quality, sediment, and phytoplankton between restoration and control areas to investigate the effect of restoration measures. The results demonstrated that aquatic macrophyte coverage increased from 0% to 10.6%; mean TP, TN, and CODMn concentrations increased by 50.0%, 42.4%, and 40.8%, respectively, compared with those before the measures were carried out; the mean Secchi depth (SD) increased to 42.5 cm, which is 1.4 times higher than that before restoration; the mean euphotic depth (Zeu) in the summer increased from 91 to 130 cm; the mean chl a concentration decreased from 34.8 to 20.2 μg/L, compared with that before restoration; the Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton increased by 28.7%. The mean TP and TN concentrations in sediments decreased by 63.8% and 52.4%, respectively, compared with that before dredging. These results indicate that the restoration in northern Lake Gehu was effective. To complete the transformation from an algae- to a macrophyte-stable state within the region, further measures must be adopted. This restoration of a eutrophic lake can serve as a reference for similar eutrophic lakes.

  11. Eutrophication and the dietary promotion of sea turtle tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtan, Kyle S; Smith, Celia M; Dailer, Meghan L; Kawachi, Migiwa

    2014-01-01

    The tumor-forming disease fibropapillomatosis (FP) has afflicted sea turtle populations for decades with no clear cause. A lineage of α-herpesviruses associated with these tumors has existed for millennia, suggesting environmental factors are responsible for its recent epidemiology. In previous work, we described how herpesviruses could cause FP tumors through a metabolic influx of arginine. We demonstrated the disease prevails in chronically eutrophied coastal waters, and that turtles foraging in these sites might consume arginine-enriched macroalgae. Here, we test the idea using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to describe the amino acid profiles of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tumors and five common forage species of macroalgae from a range of eutrophic states. Tumors were notably elevated in glycine, proline, alanine, arginine, and serine and depleted in lysine when compared to baseline samples. All macroalgae from eutrophic locations had elevated arginine, and all species preferentially stored environmental nitrogen as arginine even at oligotrophic sites. From these results, we estimate adult turtles foraging at eutrophied sites increase their arginine intake 17-26 g daily, up to 14 times the background level. Arginine nitrogen increased with total macroalgae nitrogen and watershed nitrogen, and the invasive rhodophyte Hypnea musciformis significantly outperformed all other species in this respect. Our results confirm that eutrophication substantially increases the arginine content of macroalgae, which may metabolically promote latent herpesviruses and cause FP tumors in green turtles.

  12. A Prehistorical Record of Cultural Eutrophication from Crawford Lake, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, E J; Teranes, J; Guilderson, T; Turton, C L; McAndrews, J H; Wittkop, C A; Stoermer, E F

    2004-08-05

    Cultural eutrophication--the process by which human activities increase nutrient input rates to aquatic ecosystems and thereby cause undesirable changes in surface-water quality--is generally thought to have begun with the start of the industrial era. The prehistoric dimension of human impacts on aquatic ecosystems remains relatively undescribed, particularly in North America. Here we present fossil plankton data (diatoms and rotifers), organic and inorganic carbon accumulations, and carbon isotope ratios from a 1000-yr sediment core record from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. The data documents increased nutrient input to Crawford Lake caused by Iroquoian horticultural activity from A.D. 1268 to 1486 and shows how this increased nutrient input elevated lake productivity, caused bottom-water anoxia, and irreversibly altered diatom community structure within just a few years. Iroquoian settlement in the region declined in the fifteenth century, yet diatom communities and lake circulation never recovered to the predisturbance state. A second phase of cultural eutrophication starting in A.D. 1867, initiated by Canadian agricultural disturbance, increased lake productivity but had comparatively less of an impact on diatom assemblages and carbon-storage pathways than the initial Iroquoian disturbance. This study deepens our understanding of the impact of cultural eutrophication on lake systems, highlights the lasting influence of initial environmental perturbation, and contributes to the debate on the ecological impacts of density and agricultural practices of native North American inhabitants.

  13. Lake Baikal Ecosystem Faces the Threat of Eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina I. Kobanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been reports about large accumulations of algae on the beaches of Lake Baikal, the oldest and deepest freshwater body on earth, near major population centers and in areas with large concentrations of tourists and tourism infrastructure. To evaluate the observations indicating the ongoing process of eutrophication of Lake Baikal, a field study in July 2012 in the two largest bays of Lake Baikal, Barguzinsky and Chivyrkuisky, was organized. The study of phytoplankton using the sedimentary method and quantitative records of accumulations of macrophytes in the surf zone was made. In Chivyrkuisky Bay, we found the massive growth of colorless flagellates and cryptomonads as well as the aggregations of Elodea canadensis along the sandy shoreline (up to 26 kg/m2. Barguzinsky Bay registered abundantly cyanobacterial Anabaena species, cryptomonads, and extremely high biomass of Spirogyra species (up to 70 kg/m3. The results show the presence of local but significant eutrophication of investigated bays. To prevent further extensions of this process in unique ecosystem of Lake Baikal, the detailed study and monitoring of the coastal zone, the identification of the sources of eutrophication, and the development of measures to reduce nutrient inputs in the waters are urgently needed.

  14. Nutrient profiles in the everglades: examination along the eutrophication gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithiyanathan, P; Richardson, C J

    1997-10-07

    We examined the concentration profiles of nutrients in the surface water, soil and pore water along the eutrophication gradient of the Water Conservation Area-2A (WCA-2A) in the northern Everglades. Phosphorus levels in the surface waters contributed by the agricultural runoff showed an exponential decrease downstream of the inflow structures attaining background values of 7-12, 7-9 and 5-6 micrograms l-1 of TP, TDP and PO4-P, respectively, at distances of 8-10 km. The pore water PO4-P concentration in the oligotrophic areas ranged between 5 and 10 micrograms l-1. Molar ratios of dissolved inorganic N and P suggest a possible switch in nutrient limitation in the surface water from P in the oligotrophic areas to N in the eutrophic areas (DIN:DIP approximately 5). External nutrient loading has also contributed to a three- to four-fold increase in soil TP concentration and enhanced pore water PO4-P in the northern marshes. Unlike P, C and N concentration in the soils remained fairly uniform along the eutrophication gradient. 210Pb dating of soil cores suggests that the increase in soil P concentration (from wetlands. Calcium supply from the underlying bedrock suggested from the surface and pore water chemical profiles has important consequences for P-cycling in the Everglades as Ca-bound P is the major form of inorganic P storage in the soils.

  15. Growth rate of Ulva rigida in different Mediterranean eutrophicated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Casabianca, M L; Barthelemy, N; Serrano, O; Sfriso, A

    2002-03-01

    The growth of juvenile populations of Ulva rigida C. Agardh was measured by means of immersion in in situ cages against environmental parameters (temperature, incident light, salinity, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved reactive phosphorus) in four different eutrophicated southern sites: Channel of the Thau lagoon (France), Lido, Sacca Sessola and Fusina stations (Venice lagoon, Italy). The growth curves as a function of temperature showed that, in all cases, the maximal temperature for Ulva growth was 17 degrees C (limitation in growth below 7 degrees C and above around 25 degrees C). The growth analysis of these four sites showed seasonal differences. In the least eutrophicated and calmest Lido station, grazing and dissolved reactive phosphorus (seven times lower at Lido than at Thau) played a key role. At Thau and Fusina, which are eutrophicated and turbid environments, the incident light had a strong impact on growth. Sacca Sessola, with an intermediate position between the above two mentioned situations, showed the highest growth rate. The values and relative growth rate (RGR) curves of the Mediterranean and open-sea northern sites are discussed. In particular, the temperature defines the type of growth curve (unimodal or bimodal) and the incident light is responsible for the low Mediterranean RGR values (<10% day(-1)).

  16. A bibliometric analysis of eutrophication literatures: an expanding and shifting focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Nan, Ruiqi

    2017-07-01

    This paper examined the eutrophication literatures from 1998 to 2015 using bibliometric techniques basing on the database of Science Citation Index. Bibliometric techniques, social network analysis, and mapping knowledge domains in this paper were used. The results revealed that article was the most used document type accounting for 94.79% (14,006) of the records. With the rapid development of eutrophication domain after 2004, the annual article publishing amount also grew notably in each country, with the list of US tops. International cooperation was not enough to compare with that between institutions. An author keyword analysis showed that "phosphorus," "nutrients," "nitrogen," "water quality," "phytoplankton," and "sediment" were the most popular keywords. And it was also found that climate change, life cycle assessment, and chlorophyll a appear with high frequency in recent years, indicating that the eutrophication mechanism analysis might turn from uni-factor microresearch to multi-factor macroresearch, and the eutrophication management research tends to be whole-process management research. In addition, the future focuses of research directions, including (1) eutrophication and its ecosystem response, (2) eutrophication management, (3) eutrophication and climate change interactions, (4) eutrophication monitoring and forecast, and (5) ecological restoration of eutrophication. These findings are useful for the future endeavor of eutrophication academic research.

  17. Resin glycosides from the aerial parts of Operculina turpethum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenbing; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Wu, Ping; Xu, Liangxiong; Wei, Xiaoyi

    2012-09-01

    Three glycosidic acids, turpethic acids A-C, and two intact resin glycosides, turpethosides A and B, all having a common pentasaccharide moiety and 12-hydroxy fatty acid aglycones of different chain lengths, were obtained from the aerial parts of Operculina turpethum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and chemical correlations. The aglycones were characterized as 12-hydroxypentadecanoic acid in two compounds, 12-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid in two other components, and 12-hydroxyheptadecanoic acid in the fifth compound, which were all confirmed by synthesis. The absolute configurations of these aglycones were all established as S by Mosher's method. These compounds represent the first examples of resin glycosides with a monohydroxylated 12-hydroxy fatty acid as an aglycone, and one compound is the first described resin glycoside having a hydroxylated C(17) fatty acid as its aglycone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerial sampling using drones for measuring trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Ming-Ren; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Pan, Xiang-Xu; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2017-04-01

    Aerial and ground-level samples were simultaneously collected at the northern tip of Taiwan, Cape Fuguei, which is commonly served as a receptor site to receive air parcels from East Asia, Asian continent, the northwest Pacific Ocean and the island of Taiwan itself. Both aerial and surface samples were analyzed for 106 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and divided into three categories as follows: 1. the total concentrations of 106 VOC (T-VOC) at 300-m height that are lower than the T-VOC level at the surface (Category A), 2. T-VOC concentrations at 300-m that are higher than those at the surface (Category B), and 3. comparable concentrations (Category C). Ten VOCs were exploited as tracers for a variety of emission sources linking to possible sources and transport routes of airborne pollutants. The first two categories A and B showed significant differences in the observed composition and concentrations of tracers between aerial and ground-level samples, implying that the pollutants at different heights may have resulted from different sources and poor air mixing, despite only a 300-m difference in vertical height. In contrast, Category C showed good vertical mixing, as indicated by the comparable concentrations between the aerial and surface measurements. Since the three categories occurred in specific meteorological conditions (between, prior to, and after cold fronts), respectively, it suggests that varied prevailing meteorology controlled the distribution and transport of airborne pollutants. Unlike sampling commonly performed at the surface, this study uses aerial sampling to demonstrate that layered structures under different meteorological conditions. Sampling aloft in lower boundary layer avoids samples being over-influenced by the close-by surface sources such as traffic to reveal signatures of a broader region.

  19. Phytochemical study of aerial parts from Phlomis tuberosa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Javzan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three iridoid glycoside lamiide(I, Ipolamiide(II and ipolamiide(III were isolated from N-butanol fractions obtained from the column chromatography of methanol extract from the aerial parts of Phlomis tuberosa. In addition, iridoid cyclopenta[c]pyran-4-carboxylic acid, 7-methyl-, methyl ester and phenol, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl-2-methoxy were determined from the chloroform fraction of methanol extract of aerial parts from Phlomis tuberosa. Isolation and structural elucidation of compounds were accomplished by PTLC, TLC, CC and spectroscopic methods (UV, 13C and 1H NMR and DEPT, GC-MS. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.192 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p20-24

  20. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Corban, J.E. [Guided Systems Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  1. Volatile compounds and biological activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apiaceae family, commonly known as “guezzah” or “Tattai”. It is an endemic plant grows spontaneously in rocky pastures of North Africa. In Algeria, this species is widespread in high plateau and in most regions of the Sahara [2]. The Touareg people are little communities living in the Algerian desert of Tassili and Hoggar, ...

  2. Volatile compounds and biological activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays while antimicrobial activity was screened using the disk diffusion method against a panel of six bacterial (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebseilla pneumonia, Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and four fungal strains (Candida albicans, ...

  3. Combining the ICM Eutrophication Model with the SEDZLJ Sediment Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ER D C/ EL T R -1 2 -1 7 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program Combining the ICM Eutrophication Model with the SEDZLJ...Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program ERDC/EL TR-12-17 August 2012 Combining the ICM Eutrophication Model with the SEDZLJ...formulation of the SEDZLJ sediment transport model, coupling of the model with the ICM eutrophication model, validation of the combined codes on a

  4. Eutrophication as a driver of r-selection traits in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M; Chevalier, M; Lek, S; Zhang, L; Gozlan, R E; Liu, J; Zhang, T; Ye, S; Li, W; Li, Z

    2014-08-01

    This study tested whether eutrophication could influence life-history traits of a cyprinid, Chanodichthys erythropterus, in 10 Chinese lakes. Using the von Bertalanffy growth model, the asymptotic length (L∞ ) and the growth performance index (IGRO ) were significantly affected by eutrophication. The gonado-somatic index (IG ) and relative fecundity (FR ) were significantly lower in mesotrophic lakes than in eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes. These results indicate that increasing eutrophication affects the life-history tactics of a freshwater fish. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Dissolved organic carbon and its potential predictors in eutrophic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toming, Kaire; Kutser, Tiit; Tuvikene, Lea; Viik, Malle; Nõges, Tiina

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the true role of lakes in the global carbon cycle requires reliable estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and there is a strong need to develop remote sensing methods for mapping lake carbon content at larger regional and global scales. Part of DOC is optically inactive. Therefore, lake DOC content cannot be mapped directly. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the relationships of DOC and other water and environmental variables in order to find the best proxy for remote sensing mapping of lake DOC. The Boosted Regression Trees approach was used to clarify in which relative proportions different water and environmental variables determine DOC. In a studied large and shallow eutrophic lake the concentrations of DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were rather high while the seasonal and interannual variability of DOC concentrations was small. The relationships between DOC and other water and environmental variables varied seasonally and interannually and it was challenging to find proxies for describing seasonal cycle of DOC. Chlorophyll a (Chl a), total suspended matter and Secchi depth were correlated with DOC and therefore are possible proxies for remote sensing of seasonal changes of DOC in ice free period, while for long term interannual changes transparency-related variables are relevant as DOC proxies. CDOM did not appear to be a good predictor of the seasonality of DOC concentration in Lake Võrtsjärv since the CDOM-DOC coupling varied seasonally. However, combining the data from Võrtsjärv with the published data from six other eutrophic lakes in the world showed that CDOM was the most powerful predictor of DOC and can be used in remote sensing of DOC concentrations in eutrophic lakes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trends of eutrophication in the Loire River (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaudo, Camille; Moatar, Florentina; Gassama, Nathalie; Curie, Florence

    2016-04-01

    The Loire River (France) was known to be sensible to eutrophication at the end of the 1970s, especially in its lower reaches with extreme phytoplankton growth (chlorophyll a concentration up to 250 μg L-1 in summer). During the 80s and 90s, the Loire estuary was often in state of anoxia in summer, as a result of the biodegradation of large quantities of labile organic matter. In this context, this work aimed at identifying clearly its eutrophication trajectories since the European environmental measures undertook in the early 1990s, and aimed at studying the physical and chemical causes and consequences of phytoplankton blooms. The long-term water quality time-series carried out by the national authorities allowed to identify the Loire River eutrophication trends since 1980. Since the extreme conditions in the early 1990s, phytoplankton developments in summer were divided 3-fold in the Loire River and in the main tributaries, synchronously with the generalized reduction 2-fold of bioavailable phosphorous. This was mostly attributable to the improvement of P treatment in the upstream waste water treatment plants. Thus, controlling and limiting P point sources greatly limited the magnitude of phytoplankton blooms (from 150 to 60 μg Chl. a L-1 between 1990 and 2012 in the lower Loire reaches). These trajectories highly changed the spatio-temporal dynamics of nutrients. Organic carbon (C-org) was not measured within the regular survey, however, based on some strong relationships between particulate C-org, suspended solids and pigments concentrations measured recently within a daily scale survey (2012-2014), C-org fluxes of the past could be reasonably assessed and it was estimated that 50% of the total C-org fluxes entering the estuarine zone in summer had autochthonous origins in the 80s and 90s against 20% during the period 2012-2014. Eutrophication has decreased in the freshwater system but keeps affecting the coastal zone, especially because algal species in

  7. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are assuming more numerous and increasingly important roles in global environmental and atmospheric research. There is a...

  8. Chemical Composition of Buddleja polystachya Aerial Parts and its Bioactivity against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new acylatediridoid glycoside, 6-O-a-L-(2''-acetyl-4''-O-trans-isoferuloyl) rhamnopyranosyl catalpol (9) together with 18 known compounds belonging to the iridoids, flavonoids, triterpene saponin glycosides and phenylethanoids (1-8, 10-18) were isolated from the aerial parts and the flowers of Bud...

  9. Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, F; Begum, S; Raza, S M; Wahab, A; Siddiqui, B S

    2005-09-01

    Lantanilic acid, camaric acid and oleanolic acid possessing nematicidal activity were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. through bio-assay guided fractionation. These compounds exhibited 98%, 95% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration. Conventional nematicide furadan showed 100% mortality at this concentration.

  10. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-21

    R. 4.9.3 Ball Valve/Leakage R. dhkARSAG DOC dtd. 6dec. 13; rev.21jan.14 Aerial Refueling Tanker/Receiver Clearance Compatibility Assessment Checklist...Clearance 9.6 Receiver Canopy/Boom Clearance 9.7 Lightning /Static Discharge Impact 10. Standards Compliance 10.1 STANAG 7191 Boom/ Recp. 10.2 AR...Type R. 4.9.1 Gate/Leakage R. 4.9.2 Poppet/Leakage R. 4.9.3 Ball Valve/Leakage R. 4.9.4 Other Leakage Source R. 4.10 Fuel Ingestion Hazard……... R. 5.0

  11. Automated Orientation of Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Methods for automated orientation of aerial images are presented. They are based on the use of templates, which are derived from existing databases, and area-based matching. The characteristics of available database information and the accuracy requirements for map compilation and orthoimage...... production are discussed on the example of Denmark. Details on the developed methods for interior and exterior orientation are described. Practical examples like the measurement of réseau images, updating of topographic databases and renewal of orthoimages are used to prove the feasibility of the developed...

  12. Ocean acidification: One potential driver of phosphorus eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Changzi; Chai, Yanchao; Wang, Haiqing; Kan, Manman

    2017-02-15

    Harmful algal blooms which may be limited by phosphorus outbreak increases currently and ocean acidification worsens presently, which implies that ocean acidification might lead to phosphorus eutrophication. To verify the hypothesis, oxic sediments were exposed to seawater with different pH 30days. If pH was 8.1 and 7.7, the total phosphorus (TP) content in sediments was 1.52±0.50 and 1.29±0.40mg/g. The inorganic phosphorus (IP) content in sediments exposed to seawater with pH8.1 and 7.7 was 1.39±0.10 and 1.06±0.20mg/g, respectively. The exchangeable phosphorus (Ex-P) content in sediments was 4.40±0.45 and 2.82±0.15μg/g, if seawater pH was 8.1 and 7.7. Ex-P and IP contents in oxic sediments were reduced by ocean acidification significantly (pocean acidification was one potential facilitator of phosphorus eutrophication in oxic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytoplankton and Eutrophication Degree Assessment of Baiyangdian Lake Wetland, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Lusan; Shu, Jianmin; Zhu, Yanzhong; Zhou, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Eight typical sampling sites were chosen to investigate the phytoplankton community structure and to assess the eutrophication degree of Baiyangdian Lake in 2009. Our results showed that among the total 133 species identified, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Bacillariophyta dominated the phytoplankton community. In spring, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were the dominant phyla, and the dominant species included Chlorella sp., Chroomonas acuta Uterm., and Microcystis incerta Lemm.; the density of the phytoplankton ranged from 496 × 104 to 6256 × 104 cells/L with an average of 2384 × 104 cells/L. However, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta became the dominant phyla in summer, and the dominant species were Chlorella sp., Leptolyngbya valderiana Anagn., and Nephrocytium agardhianum Nageli.; the density of the phytoplankton varied from 318 × 104 to 4630 × 104 cells/L with an average of 1785 × 104 cells/L. The density of the phytoplankton has increased significantly compared to the previous investigations in 2005. The index of Carlson nutritional status (TSIM) and the dominant genus assessment indicated that the majority of Baiyangdian Lake was in eutrophic state. PMID:23983633

  14. Can Humic Water Discharge Counteract Eutrophication in Coastal Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F.; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy. PMID:23637807

  15. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq.) Kunth, Boraginaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sâmia Andricia S. da; Agra,Maria de Fátima; Josean F. Tavares; Emídio V. L. da-Cunha; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Silva, Marcelo S. da

    2010-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g) and eriodictyol (0.015 g). These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia. A análise fitoquímica das partes aéreas de Cordia globosa, coletadas no município de Picuí, PB, Brasil, resultou no isolamento e identificação estrutural da ...

  16. Isobenzofuranones from the aerial parts of Leontopodium leontopodioides (Wild.) Beauv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yang, Yuling; Ruan, Jingya; Chen, Qiu; Li, Jian; Guo, Yuanqiang; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation to obtain new triglyceride (TG) accumulation inhibitors resulted in the isolation of six new isobenzofuranones, leontopodiols A (1), B (2), leontopodiosides C (3), D (4), E (5), F (6), together with three known ones (7-9) from the aerial parts of Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd.) Beauv. The structures of these isolates were identified by routine NMR experiments, optical rotation determination, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation, along with chemical reaction. Moreover, compounds 1, 2, 5, and 7-9 displayed TG accumulation inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A New Flavonoid Glycoside from Salix denticulata Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Bamola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new flavonoid glycoside (1 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Salix denticulata (Salicaceae together with five known compounds, β-sitosterol, 2,6-dihydroxy- 4-methoxy acetophenone, eugenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-β-D-(3’-benzoyl salicyl alcohol and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6-glucopyranoside. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 2’,5-dihydroxy-3’-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by means of chemical and spectral data including 2D NMR studies.

  18. Community stoichiometry in a changing world: combined effects of warming and eutrophication on phytoplankton dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senerpont Domis, de L.N.; Waal, van de D.B.; Helmsing, N.R.; Donk, van E.; Mooij, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The current changes in our climate will likely have far-reaching consequences for aquatic ecosystems. These changes in the climate, however, do not act alone, and are often accompanied by additional stressors such as eutrophication. Both global warming and eutrophication have been shown to affect

  19. Microbial Community Structure in Relation to Water Quality in a Eutrophic Gulf of Mexico Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks Bay is a shallow, microtidal, eutrophic sub-estuary of Mobile Bay, AL. High watershed nutrient inputs to the estuary contribute to a eutrophic condition characterized by frequent summertime diel-cycling hypoxia and dissolved oxygen (DO) oversaturation. Spatial and seasonal ...

  20. Community stoichiometry in a changing world: combined effects of warming and eutrophication on phytoplankton dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Van de Waal, D.B.; Helmsing, N.R.; Van Donk, E.; Mooij, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The current changes in our climate will likely have far reaching consequences for aquatic ecosystems. These changes in the climate, however, do not act alone and are often accompanied by additional stressors such as eutrophication. Both global warming and eutrophication have been shown to affect the

  1. Ascendency as an ecological indicator: a case study of estuarine pulse eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, J.; Ulanowicz, R.; Pardal, M. A.; Marques, J. C.

    2004-05-01

    Increasingly, management agencies require that the remediation of eutrophic waters be addressed at the level of the whole ecosystem. One whole-system approach to quantify ecosystems is called ecological network analysis. Ascendency theory, the branch of the field that deals with the quantification of whole-system status, specifically addresses the definition of eutrophication. This definition has been applied to data taken over a gradient of eutrophication. Three separate areas were observed: a non-eutrophic area (with Zostera noltii meadows), an intermediate eutrophic area ( Z. noltii absent and macroalgae abundant at times) and a strongly eutrophic area (where Enteromorpha spp. blooms occur with regularity). Pulse eutrophication was considered as the major driving force behind a gradual shift in primary producers from a community dominated by rooted macrophytes ( Z. noltii) to a community dominated by green macroalgae. The measures associated with the intermediate eutrophic region turned out not to be intermediate to those at the gradient extremes. The most likely explanation appears to be the highly unstable nature of this area. Conditions along the spatial gradient are discussed as representing various stages in the temporal evolution of the system, and analysed in the framework of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, Bifurcation, Chaos, and Catastrophe theories.

  2. “Marine eutrophication is the process of enrich- ment of marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    “Marine eutrophication is the process of enrich- ment of marine systems with plant nutrients that stim- ulate primary production, and, in its most serious manifestation, leads to visible algal blooms and at times massive growth of macrophytes” (Vollenweider. 1992, p. 3). Marine eutrophication has become a.

  3. Top-down control as important as nutrient enrichment for eutrophication effects in North Atlantic coastal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostman, Orjan; Eklof, Johan; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Olsson, Jens; Moksnes, Per-Olav; Bergstrom, Ulf

    Seagrass and seaweed habitats constitute hotspots for diversity and ecosystem services in coastal ecosystems. These habitats are subject to anthropogenic pressures, of which eutrophication is one major stressor. Eutrophication favours fast-growing ephemeral algae over perennial macroalgae and

  4. Bioavailable phosphorus (P) reduction is less than mobile P immobilization in lake sediment for eutrophication control by inactivating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Changhui; He, Rui; Wu, Yu; Lürling, Miquel; Cai, Haiyuan; Jiang, He-Long; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phosphorus (P) immobilization by inactivating agents in the sediment of eutrophic lakes to reduce immediately available P in lake water is often crucial for mitigating nuisance eutrophication symptoms, such as cyanobacterial blooms. Macrophytes and phytoplankton, however, can directly

  5. A new 28-noroleanane triterpenoid from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Ayub, Anjum; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2010-08-01

    A new 28-norolean-12,17-diene triterpene lantigdienone (1) oxidised at C-11 and C-22 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara, along with two known compounds, camarinin (2) and camangeloyl acid (3). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated as 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-22beta-[beta,betadimethylacryloyloxy]-11-oxo-28-norolean-12,17-diene, with the help of spectral studies.

  6. On autonomous and teleoperated aerial service robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, aerial robots have been used in applications that do not require physical interaction with the environment. Recently, however, there is a growing interest in using aerial robots for applications that involve active but nondestructive interaction with the environment, especially in the

  7. Variable impedance control for aerial interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    This paper presents a versatile control architecture for aerial robots in interactive tasks. The control architecture is characterized by its unique capability of varying the apparent impedance of the controlled aerial robot as well as the interaction force, when in contact. This work finds its way

  8. Aerial service robotics: the AIRobots perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, L.; Basile, F.; Caprari, G.; Carloni, Raffaella; Chiacchio, P.; Hurzeler, C.; Lippiello, V.; Naldi, R.; Siciliano, B.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Zwicker, E.

    This paper presents the main vision and research activities of the ongoing European project AIRobots (Innova- tive Aerial Service Robot for Remote Inspection by Contact, www.airobots.eu). The goal of AIRobots is to develop a new generation of aerial service robots capable of supporting human beings

  9. Aerial service robotics : The AIRobots perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, L.; Basile, F.; Caprari, G.; Carloni, R.; Chiacchio, P.; Hurzeler, C.; Lippiello, V.; Naldi, R.; Nikolic, J.; Siciliano, B.; Stramigioli, S.; Zwicker, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the main vision and research activities of the ongoing European project AIRobots (Innovative Aerial Service Robot for Remote Inspection by Contact, www.airobots.eu). The goal of AIRobots is to develop a new generation of aerial service robots capable of supporting human beings in

  10. Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.

    2001-01-01

    A primary focus of coastal science during the past 3 decades has been the question: How does anthropogenic nutrient enrichment cause change in the structure or function of nearshore coastal ecosystems? This theme of environmental science is recent, so our conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem continues to change rapidly. In this review, I suggest that the early (Phase I) conceptual model was strongly influenced by limnologists, who began intense study of lake eutrophication by the 1960s. The Phase I model emphasized changing nutrient input as a signal, and responses to that signal as increased phytoplankton biomass and primary production, decomposition of phytoplankton-derived organic matter, and enhanced depletion of oxygen from bottom waters. Coastal research in recent decades has identified key differences in the responses of lakes and coastal-estuarine ecosystems to nutrient enrichment. The contemporary (Phase II) conceptual model reflects those differences and includes explicit recognition of (1) system-specific attributes that act as a filter to modulate the responses to enrichment (leading to large differences among estuarine-coastal systems in their sensitivity to nutrient enrichment); and (2) a complex suite of direct and indirect responses including linked changes in: water transparency, distribution of vascular plants and biomass of macroalgae, sediment biogeochemistry and nutrient cycling, nutrient ratios and their regulation of phytoplankton community composition, frequency of toxic/harmful algal blooms, habitat quality for metazoans, reproduction/growth/survival of pelagic and benthic invertebrates, and subtle changes such as shifts in the seasonality of ecosystem functions. Each aspect of the Phase II model is illustrated here with examples from coastal ecosystems around the world. In the last section of this review I present one vision of the next (Phase III) stage in the evolution of our conceptual model, organized around 5

  11. Reducing Phosphorus to Curb Lake Eutrophication is a Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, David W; Carpenter, Stephen R; Chapra, Steven C; Hecky, Robert E; Orihel, Diane M

    2016-09-06

    As human populations increase and land-use intensifies, toxic and unsightly nuisance blooms of algae are becoming larger and more frequent in freshwater lakes. In most cases, the blooms are predominantly blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria), which are favored by low ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus. In the past half century, aquatic scientists have devoted much effort to understanding the causes of such blooms and how they can be prevented or reduced. Here we review the evidence, finding that numerous long-term studies of lake ecosystems in Europe and North America show that controlling algal blooms and other symptoms of eutrophication depends on reducing inputs of a single nutrient: phosphorus. In contrast, small-scale experiments of short duration, where nutrients are added rather than removed, often give spurious and confusing results that bear little relevance to solving the problem of cyanobacteria blooms in lakes.

  12. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...... results on the abundance, size distribution and bacterial colonization of ABSP therefore reflect general patterns of TEP. The abundance of ABSP in the size range 3-162 urn and retained by 3 um pore size filters averaged 3.6 ± 2.49 x 10s ml"1 (± SD), which is among the highest concentrations reported...... for comparable size spectra of TEP. On average, 35 % of ABSP (by number) were colonized by bacteria and 8.6 x 105 bacteria ml"1 lake water were attached to ABSP, which corresponds to 7% of the total bacterial abundance....

  13. Optical Changes in a Eutrophic Estuary During Reduced Nutrient Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Markager, Stiig

    2014-01-01

    Loss of water clarity is one of the consequences of coastal eutrophication. Efforts have therefore been made to reduce external nutrient loadings of coastal waters. This paper documents improvements to water clarity between 1985 and 2008–2009 at four stations in the microtidal estuary Roskilde...... Fjord and find significant relationships to freshwater nutrient loadings. The paper then investigates to which extent changes in phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a (Chl a)), non-algal particulate organic matter (POM*), and residual attenuation in the water (K b), respectively, can account...... to 74 % in 1985 to 78 to 85 % in 2008–2009. Overall, efforts to reduce nutrient loading and improve water clarity appeared to have had a larger impact on POM* than on Chl a and colored dissolved organic matter concentrations in the estuary, which can account for the decrease in the scatter...

  14. From fish to jellyfish in the eutrophicated Limfjorden (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Andersen, Per; Hoffmann, Erik

    2012-01-01

    years where the fish have been replaced by an increasing number of especially the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, which mainly preys on zooplankton. Next, we evaluate the ecological consequences of the present high number of jellyfish, based on data from recent years’ research on the abundance...... the historical development of nutrient overloading and subsequent oxygen depletion in near-bottom water, and how the annual landings of edible bottom-dwelling fish species (plaice, flounder, eel and others) caught in Limfjorden have decreased from about 2,500 t in the early 1920s to only about 20 t in recent...... a substantial part of the zooplankton biomass. Marine environmental management programmes should be aware of the increasing importance of both indigenous and new invasive jellyfish species that may show mass occurrence in especially eutrophicated and overfished areas...

  15. Can humic water discharge counteract eutrophication in coastal waters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Andersson

    Full Text Available A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon, in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP, and only with inorganic nutrients (NP. The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

  16. Eutrophic urban ponds suffer from cyanobacterial blooms: Dutch examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waajen, Guido W A M; Faassen, Elisabeth J; Lürling, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Ponds play an important role in urban areas. However, cyanobacterial blooms counteract the societal need for a good water quality and pose serious health risks for citizens and pets. To provide insight into the extent and possible causes of cyanobacterial problems in urban ponds, we conducted a survey on cyanobacterial blooms and studied three ponds in detail. Among 3,500 urban ponds in the urbanized Dutch province of North Brabant, 125 showed cyanobacterial blooms in the period 2009-2012. This covered 79% of all locations registered for cyanobacterial blooms, despite the fact that urban ponds comprise only 11% of the area of surface water in North Brabant. Dominant bloom-forming genera in urban ponds were Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix. In the three ponds selected for further study, the microcystin concentration of the water peaked at 77 μg l(-1) and in scums at 64,000 μg l(-1), which is considered highly toxic. Microcystin-RR and microcystin-LR were the most prevalent variants in these waters and in scums. Cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a peaked in August with concentrations up to 962 μg l(-1) outside of scums. The ponds were highly eutrophic with mean total phosphorus concentrations between 0.16 and 0.44 mg l(-1), and the sediments were rich in potential releasable phosphorus. High fish stocks dominated by carp lead to bioturbation, which also favours blooms. As urban ponds in North Brabant, and likely in other regions, regularly suffer from cyanobacterial blooms and citizens may easily have contact with the water and may ingest cyanobacterial material during recreational activities, particularly swimming, control of health risk is of importance. Monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in urban ponds is a first step to control health risks. Mitigation strategies should focus on external sources of eutrophication and consider the effect of sediment P release and bioturbation by fish.

  17. Coastal eutrophication in Europe caused by production of energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijnen, Jikke; Ivens, Wilfried P M F; Kroeze, Carolien; Löhr, Ansje J

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, the use of biodiesel may increase rapidly in the coming decades as a result of policies aiming to increase the use of renewable fuels. Therefore, the production of biofuels from energy crops is expected to increase as well as the use of fertilisers to grow these crops. Since fertilisers are an important cause of eutrophication, the use of biodiesel may have an effect on the water quality in rivers and coastal seas. In this study we explored the possible effects of increased biodiesel use on coastal eutrophication in European seas in the year 2050. To this end, we defined a number of illustrative scenarios in which the biodiesel production increases to about 10-30% of the current diesel use. The scenarios differ with respect to the assumptions on where the energy crops are cultivated: either on land that is currently used for agriculture, or on land used for other purposes. We analysed these scenarios with the Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model. We used an existing Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenario for 2050, Global Orchestration (GO2050), as a baseline. In this baseline scenario the amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) exported by European rivers to coastal seas decreases between 2000 and 2050 as a result of environmental and agricultural policies. In our scenarios with increased biodiesel production the river export of N and P increases between 2000 and 2050, indicating that energy crop production may more than counterbalance this decrease. Largest increases in nutrient export were calculated for the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Differences in nutrient export among river basins are large. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Can humic water discharge counteract eutrophication in coastal waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

  19. The National Eutrophication Survey: lake characteristics and historical nutrient concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelek, Joseph; Ford, Chanse; Kincaid, Dustin; King, Katelyn; Miller, Heather; Nagelkirk, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Historical ecological surveys serve as a baseline and provide context for contemporary research, yet many of these records are not preserved in a way that ensures their long-term usability. The National Eutrophication Survey (NES) database is currently only available as scans of the original reports (PDF files) with no embedded character information. This limits its searchability, machine readability, and the ability of current and future scientists to systematically evaluate its contents. The NES data were collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency between 1972 and 1975 as part of an effort to investigate eutrophication in freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Although several studies have manually transcribed small portions of the database in support of specific studies, there have been no systematic attempts to transcribe and preserve the database in its entirety. Here we use a combination of automated optical character recognition and manual quality assurance procedures to make these data available for analysis. The performance of the optical character recognition protocol was found to be linked to variation in the quality (clarity) of the original documents. For each of the four archival scanned reports, our quality assurance protocol found an error rate between 5.9 and 17 %. The goal of our approach was to strike a balance between efficiency and data quality by combining entry of data by hand with digital transcription technologies. The finished database contains information on the physical characteristics, hydrology, and water quality of about 800 lakes in the contiguous US (Stachelek et al.(2017), https://doi.org/10.5063/F1639MVD). Ultimately, this database could be combined with more recent studies to generate meta-analyses of water quality trends and spatial variation across the continental US.

  20. Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Vachtsevanos, George

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a reference text for the academic and research communities, industry, manufacturers, users, practitioners, Federal Government, Federal and State Agencies, the private sector, as well as all organizations that are and will be using unmanned aircraft in a wide spectrum of applications. The Handbook covers all aspects of UAVs, from design to logistics and ethical issues. It is also targeting the young investigator, the future inventor and entrepreneur by providing an overview and detailed information of the state-of-the-art as well as useful new concepts that may lead to innovative research. The contents of the Handbook include material that addresses the needs and ‘know how’ of all of the above sectors targeting a very diverse audience. The Handbook offers a unique and comprehensive treatise of everything one needs to know about unmanned aircrafts, from conception to operation, from technologies to business activities, users, OEMs, reference sources, conferences, ...

  1. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  2. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  3. Marker Detection in Aerial Images

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Yazeed

    2017-04-09

    The problem that the thesis is trying to solve is the detection of small markers in high-resolution aerial images. Given a high-resolution image, the goal is to return the pixel coordinates corresponding to the center of the marker in the image. The marker has the shape of two triangles sharing a vertex in the middle, and it occupies no more than 0.01% of the image size. An improvement on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is proposed, eliminating the majority of baseline HOG false positives for marker detection. The improvement is guided by the observation that standard HOG description struggles to separate markers from negatives patches containing an X shape. The proposed method alters intensities with the aim of altering gradients. The intensity-dependent gradient alteration leads to more separation between filled and unfilled shapes. The improvement is used in a two-stage algorithm to achieve high recall and high precision in detection of markers in aerial images. In the first stage, two classifiers are used: one to quickly eliminate most of the uninteresting parts of the image, and one to carefully select the marker among the remaining interesting regions. Interesting regions are selected by scanning the image with a fast classifier trained on the HOG features of markers in all rotations and scales. The next classifier is more precise and uses our method to eliminate the majority of the false positives of standard HOG. In the second stage, detected markers are tracked forward and backward in time. Tracking is needed to detect extremely blurred or distorted markers that are missed by the previous stage. The algorithm achieves 94% recall with minimal user guidance. An average of 30 guesses are given per image; the user verifies for each whether it is a marker or not. The brute force approach would return 100,000 guesses per image.

  4. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  5. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Vermeulen

    Full Text Available The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2 with a coefficient of variation (CV% of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min. Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS. The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  6. AERIAL TERRAIN MAPPING USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Tahar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root

  7. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  8. The role of shellfish aquaculture in reduction of eutrophication in an urban estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bricker, Suzanne B.; Ferreira, Joao Gomes; Zhu, Changbo

    2017-01-01

    Mitigating coastal eutrophication is a global challenge. In many places where land-based management has reduced nutrient discharges, coastal waterbodies remain impaired. This study examined ‘bioextraction’ of nutrients from the water by oyster aquaculture in Long Island Sound, Connecticut......, as an example of how aquaculture might complement land-based measures in urban estuaries. Eutrophication status, nutrient removal, and ecosystem service value were estimated through eutrophication assessment, application of hydrologic, circulation, and local- and ecosystem-scale models, and economic valuation...

  9. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative approach...... to reductions in the scope of monitoring programs. Our study sets a baseline for implementation of the ecosystem-based management strategies and policies currently in place including the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directives and the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan. Key...

  10. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in the...

  11. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from aerial parts of Xanthium sibiricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lun; Wang, Jing; Li, Fu; Liu, Xin; Chen, Bin; Tang, Ya-Xiong; Wang, Ming-Kui

    2013-05-01

    Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Xanthium sibiricum led to the isolation of four new xanthanolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, including two xanthanolide dimers, pungiolide D (1) and pungiolide E (2), and two xanthanolide monomers, 8-epi-xanthatin-1α,5α-epoxide (3) and 1β-hydroxyl-5α-chloro-8-epi-xanthatin (4), together with four known compounds, pungiolide A (5), 8-epi-xanthatin-1β,5β-epoxide (6), xanthatin (7), and 11α,13-dihydro-8-epi-xanthatin (8). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Pungiolide D (1) displayed an unusual structure featuring a 5/5/6-fused tricyclic system in the unit B. Compound 4 was shown to be a rare sesquiterpene lactone containing halogen, and its absolute configuration was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The evaluation of the cytotoxic activities of the isolated new compounds against the SNU387 liver and A-549 lung human cancer cell lines showed that compound 4 possessed significant in vitro cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 5.1 µM against SNU387 liver cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  13. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1954 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  14. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1937 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  15. Aerial view of the works at PGC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Aerial view of the works at PGC : in the foreground, the prefabrication of the concrete slabs. In the background, on the left the storage of the spoil, on the right the extraction tower mounted on PGC.

  16. Aerial Photo - Single Frame Records - CS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Aerial Photography Single Frame Records collection is a large and diverse group of imagery acquired by Federal organizations from 1937 to the present. Over 6.4...

  17. Acoustic Detection from Aerial Balloon Platform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reiff, C; Pham, T; Scanlon, M; Noble, J; Van Landuyt, A; Petek, J; Ratches, J

    2004-01-01

    ... such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and balloons. Our most immediate collaboration focuses on the use of acoustic sensors on small balloons and/or aerostats at several elevations and on the ground with the primary goals...

  18. Low-Cost Aerial Transport in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georgiana Daniela Badicu; Violeta State

    2016-01-01

    .... Competition in aerial transport is very tight especially because of low cost lines that attract customers with low charges for the consumers who do not want to invest a lot of money in a plane ticket...

  19. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A small, modular dropsonde launcher is being developed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Some critical measurement needs can only be satisfied by in-situ...

  20. Atlantic Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the southeastern U.S. Surveys have been conducted...

  1. Aerial Logistics Management for Carrier Onboard Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY by Samuel L. Chen September 2016...AND SUBTITLE AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel L. Chen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...delivery (COD) is the use of aircraft to transport people and cargo from a forward logistics site (FLS) to a carrier strike group (CSG). The goal of

  2. New dammarane triterpenes from the aerial parts of Ibicella lutea grown in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Giordano, Oscar S; Tonn, Carlos E

    2003-12-01

    Two new dammarane triterpenes have been isolated from the aerial parts of Ibicella lutea, 3-acetyl-24-epi-polacandrin (1) and 1,3-diacetyl-24-epi-polacandrin (2), and were obtained along with the known compounds 20S,24S-epoxy-3beta,12beta,25-trihydroxydammarane (3) and apigenin. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were deduced by spectroscopic studies and by chemical transformations leading to the preparation of derivatives 4-11. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were verified by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The natural compounds and selected semisynthetic derivatives were evaluated against several tumor cells.

  3. A new flavonol glucoside from the aerial parts of Sida glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Niranjan; Achari, Basudev; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Dinda, Biswanath

    2011-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the dried aerial parts of Sida glutinosa has led to the isolation of a new flavonol glucoside, glutinoside (1), along with seven known compounds, 24(28)-dehydromakisterone A (2), 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]-quinazolin-3-amine (3), docosanoic acid, 1-triacontanol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic techniques as well as GC/MS analysis (for sterols) and comparison with the literature data. All these seven known compounds are reported from this plant for the first time.

  4. Eutrophication problems in the Western Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Okbah

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication-related problems in the Western Harbour of Alexandria were studied monthly from April 1999 to March 2000. Variation in salinity appeared to be the key to all changes in water quality and plankton abundance in the harbour. Both at the surface and near the bottom the salinity was lower (annual average: 35.1 and 38.3 PSU respectively than in the open sea (39 PSU. Dissolved oxygen levels indicated poor aeration conditions along the water column (2.3-3.98 mg l-1. Average pH values were approximately similar in the two layers (8.1 and 8 respectively but exhibited different ranges of variations. Nutrient salts varied widely, often occurring in high concentrations, with ranges of 0.12-5.7 and 0.06-2.6 µM at the surface and the bottom respectively for phosphate, 0.21-20.46 and 0.25-18.12 µM for nitrate, 0.29-3.3 and 0.23-1.66 µM for nitrite, 0.56-57.46 and 2.32-43.73 µM for ammonia and 0.3-36.3 and 0.48-38.4 µM for silicate. As a result of nutrient enrichment, phytoplankton growth was very intensive, reflected by an abnormally high concentration of chlorophyll a (annual average: 33.82 µg l-1. At the same time the death of large numbers of phytoplankton cells could be inferred from the relatively large amount of phaeopigment (annual average: 10.39 µg l-1. The high levels of nutrient salts and phytoplankton biomass together serve as a good indicator of high eutrophication levels in the Western Harbour throughout the year. These conditions clearly affected the zooplankton stock, which varied between 5.8-93.6 × 103 indiv. m-3, although for most of the time values remained at a low level (annual average: 26 728 indiv. m-3.

  5. Planning and decision making for aerial robots

    CERN Document Server

    Bestaoui Sebbane, Yasmina

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the emerging field of planning and decision making for aerial robots. An aerial robot is the ultimate form of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, an aircraft endowed with built-in intelligence, requiring no direct human control and able to perform a specific task. It must be able to fly within a partially structured environment, to react and adapt to changing environmental conditions and to accommodate for the uncertainty that exists in the physical world. An aerial robot can be termed as a physical agent that exists and flies in the real 3D world, can sense its environment and act on it to achieve specific goals. So throughout this book, an aerial robot will also be termed as an agent.   Fundamental problems in aerial robotics include the tasks of spatial motion, spatial sensing and spatial reasoning. Reasoning in complex environments represents a difficult problem. The issues specific to spatial reasoning are planning and decision making. Planning deals with the trajectory algori...

  6. Spatial differentiated effect assessment for aquatic eutrophication in Life Cycle Assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penailillo, Reinaldo

    2005-01-01

    The conventional evaluation of aquatic eutrophication in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) expresses the contribution of nitrogen and/or phosphorus emissions to biomass production in terms of the equivalent emission of a reference substance. This assessment doe

  7. Spatial Differentiated Effect Assessment for Aquatic Eutrophication in Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Penailillo, R.

    2005-01-01

    The conventional evaluation of aquatic eutrophication in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) expresses the contribution of nitrogen and/or phosphorus emissions to biomass production in terms of the equivalent emission of a reference substance. This assessment doe

  8. Integrated water quality, emergy and economic evaluation of three bioremediation treatment systems for eutrophic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was targeted at finding one or more environmentally efficient, economically feasible and ecologically sustainable bioremediation treatment modes for eutrophic water. Three biological species, i.e. water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), loach (Misgurus anguillicaudatus) and ...

  9. The effects of groundwater discharge, mowing, and eutrophication on fen vegetation evaluated over half a century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J. van; Barendregt, Arie; Schot, P.P.; Wassen, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Questions: Were continued groundwater discharge and mowing regimes sufficient for vegetation preservation from 1944 to 1993? Which has a stronger effect on vegetation development; groundwater discharge or mowing? What is the role of surface water eutrophication as driver of vegetation

  10. How well do ecosystem indicators communicate the effects of anthropogenic eutrophication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Gilbert, A.J.; Mee, L.; Vermaat, J.E.; Artioli, Y.; Humborg, C.; Wulff, F.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic eutrophication affects the Mediterranean, Black, North and Baltic Seas to various extents. Responses to nutrient loading and methods of monitoring relevant indicators vary regionally, hindering interpretation of ecosystem state changes and preventing a straightforward pan-European

  11. Eutrophication and cyanobacteria in South Africa’s standing water bodies: A view from space

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matthews, MW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing can make a significant contribution to monitoring water quality in South African standing water bodies. Eutrophication, defined as enrichment by nutrients, and toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms pose a...

  12. Determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic, hyporheic river sediments polluted with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamonts, K.; Ryngaert, A.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater baseflow. As biotransformation of CAHs in the impacted river sediments might be an effective remediation strategy, we investigated the determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic,

  13. Is nutrient contamination of groundwater causing eutrophication of groundwater-fed meadows?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, N.M.; Olde Venterink, H.; Schot, P.P.; Verkroost, A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether nutrient contamination of groundwater under agricultural fields may cause nutrient-enrichment and subsequent eutrophication in discharge areas. Often, there is only circumstantial evidence to support this supposition (proximity of agricultural fields,

  14. EUTROPHICATION OF WATER RESERVOIRS AND ROLE OF MACROPHYTES IN THIS PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jadwiga Sender

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problem related with the process of eutrophication, with special emphasis on dam reservoirs. Eutrophication is a global process, threatening the water ecosystem on every continent. It often leads to their degradation. Particularly vulnerable to eutrophication are artificial reservoirs which are dam reservoirs. This paper describes the mechanisms of eutrophication. We also pointed to the importance of aquatic plants in the process of water purification, as well as the possibility of multilateral use. Recently, in the world and in Poland there is a tendency to pay attention to the natural or semi-natural method of water purification (including constructed wetland. On the one hand, the presence of macrophytes in water bodies is a guarantor of good ecological status, on the other hand, the undeniable aesthetic value.

  15. The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

  16. Analysis of Mathematics and Sustainability in an Impulsive Eutrophication Controlling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengguo Yu

    2013-01-01

    quite accurate to describe the interaction effect of some critical factors (fishermen catch and releasing small fry, etc., which enables a systematic and logical procedure for fitting eutrophication mathematical system to real monitoring data and experiment data. Mathematical theoretical works have been pursuing the investigation of two threshold functions of some critical parameters under the condition of all species persistence, which can in turn provide a theoretical basis for the numerical simulation. Using numerical simulation works, we mainly focus on how to choose the best value of some critical parameters to ensure the sustainability of the eutrophication system so that the eutrophication removal process can be well developed with maximizing economic benefit. These results may be further extended to provide a basis for simulating the algal bloom in the laboratory and understanding the application of some impulsive controlling models about eutrophication removal problems.

  17. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jesper H; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J; Dromph, Karsten; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Gustafsson, Bo G; Josefson, Alf B; Norkko, Alf; Villnäs, Anna; Murray, Ciarán

    2017-02-01

    Much of the Baltic Sea is currently classified as 'affected by eutrophication'. The causes for this are twofold. First, current levels of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) from human activities exceed the natural processing capacity with an accumulation of nutrients in the Baltic Sea over the last 50-100 years. Secondly, the Baltic Sea is naturally susceptible to nutrient enrichment due to a combination of long retention times and stratification restricting ventilation of deep waters. Here, based on a unique data set collated from research activities and long-term monitoring programs, we report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative approach using coefficients of variation in the observations. The classifications in our assessment indicate that the first signs of eutrophication emerged in the mid-1950s and the central parts of the Baltic Sea changed from being unaffected by eutrophication to being affected. We document improvements in eutrophication status that are direct consequences of long-term efforts to reduce the inputs of nutrients. The reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus loads have led to large-scale alleviation of eutrophication and to a healthier Baltic Sea. Reduced confidence in our assessment is seen more recently due to reductions in the scope of monitoring programs. Our study sets a baseline for implementation of the ecosystem-based management strategies and policies currently in place including the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directives and the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan. © 2015 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. [Response of Phytoplankton Functional Groups to Eutrophication in Summer at Xiaoguan Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Qiu-hua; Jiao, Shu-lin; Li, Yue; Xiao, Jing; Deng, Long; Sun, Rong-guo; Gao, Yong-chun; Luo, Lan

    2015-12-01

    Hydrology and Water Resources Bureau of Guizhou Province, Guiyang 550002, China) Abstract: In order to explore the distribution characteristics of phytoplankton functional groups, eutrophication characteristics and response of phytoplankton functional groups to eutrophication in Xiaoguan Reservoir, phytoplankton and water samples were taken once a week from 25th July 2014 to 27th September 2014. The results showed that there were 22 phytoplankton functional groups, groups S1, D, J, B, G, MP, L₀, SN, X1, Y, Xph, F, T and W1 were comparatively common functional groups, Wherein, S1, D and J were the dominant functional groups. Weekly dynamics of phytoplankton functional groups were: S1-->S1-->S1-->S1-->S1--S1-->S1-->J/D/S1-->Sl1- >/1D. group Sl1dominated over other groups, the cell abundance of S1 appeared two peaks at week 5 and week 7 respectively, but there was a slump at week 8, and rose again at last, compared to two peaks before, the cell abundance had dropped from 10⁸cells · L⁻¹ to 10⁷cells · L⁻¹ Water flush caused by discharge gate opening artificially was the main reason. Based on the three methods of eutrophication evaluation, the water was in moderately eutrophic and eutrophic states in Xiaoguan Reservoir in the summer of 2014. Multivariate analysis (RDA) indicated transparency was the main factor affecting the distribution of phytoplankton functional groups, and nutrients were no longer the limiting factor. The study suggested that phytoplankton functional groups could make a good response to eutrophication: groups S1 and J adapted to the turbid eutrophic water bodies, D adapted to shallow turbid waters and was sensitive to nutrient depletion. Also, common functional groups like G, X1, WW1 F etc. mostly adapted to eutrophic water bodies.

  19. Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Liancourt, Pierre; Gross, Nicolas; Straile, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    1. Eutrophication is a major threat for freshwater ecosystems. Submerged aquatic plants (macrophytes) can maintain clear water conditions in eutrophic lakes by competing with phytoplankton for light and nutrients. The interactions between macrophytes and phytoplankton may lead to indirect facilitation among plants and the maintenance of high macrophyte diversities in eutrophicconditions. Nonetheless, the role of indirect facilitation in promoting macrophyte-dominated clear water states under ...

  20. Enhanced effects of biotic interactions on predicting multispecies spatial distribution of submerged macrophytes after eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Kun; Cui, Yichong; Zhang, Xijin; Pan, Yingji; Xu, Junli; Xu, Kaiqin; Da, Liangjun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Water eutrophication creates unfavorable environmental conditions for submerged macrophytes. In these situations, biotic interactions may be particularly important for explaining and predicting the submerged macrophytes occurrence. Here, we evaluate the roles of biotic interactions in predicting spatial occurrence of submerged macrophytes in 1959 and 2009 for Dianshan Lake in eastern China, which became eutrophic since the 1980s. For the four common species occurred in 1959 and 2009,...

  1. Eutrophication Increases Phytoplankton Methylmercury Concentrations in a Coastal Sea-A Baltic Sea Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Anne L; Schartup, Amina T; Gustafsson, Erik; Gustafsson, Bo G; Undeman, Emma; Björn, Erik

    2016-11-01

    Eutrophication is expanding worldwide, but its implication for production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic monomethylmercury (MeHg) is unknown. We developed a mercury (Hg) biogeochemical model for the Baltic Sea and used it to investigate the impact of eutrophication on phytoplankton MeHg concentrations. For model evaluation, we measured total methylated Hg (MeHg T ) in the Baltic Sea and found low concentrations (39 ± 16 fM) above the halocline and high concentrations in anoxic waters (1249 ± 369 fM). To close the Baltic Sea MeHg T budget, we inferred an average normoxic water column Hg II methylation rate constant of 2 × 10 -4 d -1 . We used the model to compare Baltic Sea's present-day (2005-2014) eutrophic state to an oligo/mesotrophic scenario. Eutrophication increases primary production and export of organic matter and associated Hg to the sediment effectively removing Hg from the active biogeochemical cycle; this results in a 27% lower present-day water column Hg reservoir. However, increase in organic matter production and remineralization stimulates microbial Hg methylation resulting in a seasonal increase in both water and phytoplankton MeHg reservoirs above the halocline. Previous studies of systems dominated by external MeHg sources or benthic production found eutrophication to decrease MeHg levels in plankton. This Baltic Sea study shows that in systems with MeHg production in the normoxic water column eutrophication can increase phytoplankton MeHg content.

  2. Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) from a eutrophic reservoir in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Gloria Garduño; Martinez, Maria Guadalupe Oliva; Vazquez, Alfonso Lugo; Garfias, Maria Berenit Mendoza; Zuñiga, Rafael Emiliano Quintanar; Conforti, Visitacion

    2011-07-01

    This study provides valuable information on the ultrastructure and environmental conditions of the Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyceae) genus in the Guadalupe Dam, a eutrophic reservoir located in the suburbs of Mexico City, which receives a considerable volume of wastewaters. Specimens were collected at surface level between November 2005 and May 2006. Using LM and SEM twelve taxa from phytoplankton were identified of which, 9 are new records for Mexico. The reservoir is warm monomictic, with basic pH values (7.4-10.1), a high concentration of chlorophyll a(18-101 microg l(-1), a permanent anoxic bottom, specific conductivity (K25) of 205 to 290 microS cm(-1), N-NO3, 0.19-1.2 mg l(-1) and P-PO4 0.22-1.6 mg l(-1). Water temperature was 15.6-23.0 degrees C. Most of the Trachelomonas species were found during the dry season, when concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus as well as the temperature were the highest. Higher species richness was also associated with the warmer months. This research contributes to increase our knowledge on Trachelomonas in Mexico and constitutes the first detailed description of lorica ultrastructure of 12 taxa that grow in a body of water with high concentration of nutrients and a moderate amount of mineral contents.

  3. Virioplankton distribution and activity in a tropical eutrophicated bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettarel, Yvan; Arfi, Robert; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvy, Marc; Briand, Enora; Colombet, Jonathan; Corbin, Daniel; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2008-11-01

    The study of lysogeny in aquatic systems is an often overlooked aspect of microbial ecology, especially in tropical environments. Herein, the fraction of lysogenized cells (FLC) was detected in the surface waters of 20 coastal stations distributed from the eutrophicated shoreline to seaward waters of Hann Bay (Senegal). Concurrently, viral lytic infection rates were extrapolated from the frequency of visibly infected bacterial cells (FVIC), as determined from transmission electron microscopy observations. The experimental induction of prophage was observed in less than 3% of indigenous marine bacteria, suggesting that lysogenic stages of infection are rare in Hann Bay. Similarly, only 0.5-4.7% of bacteria showed visible signs of lytic infection. However, the positive correlation between the fraction of lysogenic and lytic cells ( r = 0.67, p < 0.05, n = 20) may actually indicate that the coexistence of both lifestyles may be due to the massive and rapid induction of lysogens, potentially from the high levels of local UV radiation. Overall, we suggest that the determination of FVIC and FLC to examine the predominance of one type of cycle versus the other may be a source of misinterpretation in some particular aquatic environments.

  4. Retrieval of phycocyanin concentration in the eutrophic Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Phycocyanin (PC) in the blue-green algae is usually used to detect the quantity of the blue-green algae, and it has a special absorption at 620nm waveband. Taihu Lake has become severely turbid and eutrophic in recent years. However, the accuracy of empirical models varies highly. Therefore, it is very useful to find a model which can retrieve PC concentration in a good accuracy. In this work, four models (i.e. single band model, the radio model, the first-derivative model, the three-band model and empirical ratio model) were developed based on remote sending reflectance and measured PC concentration in Taihu Lake in May, 2010 to retrieve PC concentration and then to find out which one is the best. The results show that the 2nd order polynomial models generally had a better performance than the line models. The three-band model was the most optimal model because it had the highest values of R2 and the lowest values of RMSE.

  5. Eutrophication endpoints for large rivers in Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltner, Robert J

    2018-01-04

    Relationships between biological and enrichment indicators were explored to demarcate hallmarks of enrichment that can be used in managing eutrophication in large rivers. Biological indicators were sensitive to the measured range of enrichment and generally showed linear responses. However, fish biotic integrity scores, 24-h ranges in dissolved oxygen, and biological oxygen demand all showed strong nonlinear responses coinciding with sestonic chlorophyll concentrations in the range of 20-50 μg/l. Hallmarks of overt overenrichment were defined as sestonic chlorophyll ≥ 100 μg/l, 5-day biological oxygen demand ≥ 6.0 mg/l, and 24-h range in dissolved oxygen ≥ 9.0 mg/l. Acceptable levels were defined as chlorophyll < 30 μg/l, 5-day biological oxygen demand < 2.5 mg/l, and 24-h dissolved oxygen range < 7.0 mg/l. Relationships between nutrient concentrations and sestonic chlorophyll were weak, mainly due to high ambient levels of nutrients. However, total phosphorus concentrations averaged lower at sites showing less overt signs of enrichment, suggesting 130 μg/l total phosphorus as a management target for presently overenriched waters.

  6. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  7. Thiophene Derivatives with Antileishmanial Activity Isolated from Aerial Parts of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq. Cass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq. Cass. is a plant native to Brazil and in the northwest region of the state of Paraná, Brazil, aerial parts of P. ruderale have been used popularly in the treatment of lesions caused by Leishmania sp.. In this study the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of the crude extract, fractions, and isolated compounds from aerial parts of P. ruderale was evaluated. The dichloromethane extract was submitted to chromatography to yield compounds active against Leishmania amazonensis. Their structures were established by comparison of their spectroscopic data with literature values. The activities of crude extract against promastigote and axenic amastigote forms of L. amazonensis (IC50 were 60.3 and 77.7 μg/mL, respectively. Its cytotoxic activity against macrophage cells (CC50 was 500 μg/mL. The thiophene derivatives isolated were: 5-methyl-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene (compound A and 5'-methyl–[5–(4–acetoxy-1–butynyl]–2,2'-bithiophene (compound B. The activity of compound A against promastigote and axenic amastigote forms were 7.7 and 19.0 μg/mL and of compound B were 21.3 and 28.7 μg/mL, respectively. The activity of the isolated compounds against promastigote and axenic amastigote forms was better than that of the crude extract and more selective against protozoa than for macrophage cells.

  8. Passive Aerial Grasping of Ferrous Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Fiaz, Usman Amin

    2017-10-19

    Aerial transportation is probably the most efficient way to supply quick and effective aid especially in cases of emergency like search and rescue operations. Thus the ability to grasp and deliver objects is of vital importance in all sorts of unmanned and autonomous aerial operations. We detail a simple yet novel approach for aerial grasping of ferrous objects using a passive magnetic pickup and an impulse based drop mechanism. The design enables our gripper to grasp ferrous objects using single as well as multiple gripping pads, with visual as well as pickup and drop feedback. We describe the various components of the gripper with emphasis on its low mass and high lift capability since weight is a matter of high consideration in all aerial applications. In addition, we investigate and address the issues that may cause our design to fail. We demonstrate by experiments that the proposed design is robust and effective, based on its high payload capability, its sturdiness against possible slide during aggressive aerial maneuvers, and optimum performance of the drop mechanism for the designed range of payloads. We also show that the gripper is able to pick up and drop a single as well as multiple ferrous objects of different shapes, curvature, and inclination, which also involves picking up an object and then grasping the next, while keeping hold of the previous one.

  9. Assessment of Ilam Reservoir Eutrophication Response in Controlling Water Inflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Nourmohammadi Dehbalaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a 2D laterally averaged model of hydrodynamics and water quality, CE-QUAL-W2, was applied to simulate water quality parameters in the Ilam reservoir. The water quality of Ilam reservoir was obtained between mesotrophic and eutrophic based on the measured data including chlorophyll a, total phosphorus and subsurface oxygen saturation. The CE-QUAL-W2 model was calibrated and verified by using the data of the year 2009 and 2010, respectively. Nutrients, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen were the water quality constituents simulated by the CE-QUAL-W2 model. The comparison of the simulated water surface elevation with the measurement records indicated that the flow was fully balanced in the numerical model. There was a good agreement between the simulated and measured results of the hydrodynamics and water quality constituents in the calibration and verification periods. Some scenarios have been made base on decreasing in water quantity and nutrient inputs of reservoir inflows. The results have shown that the water quality improvements of the Ilam reservoir will not be achieved by reducing a portion of the reservoir inflow. The retention time of water in reservoir would be changed by decreasing of inflows and it made of the negative effects on the chlorophyll-a concentration by reduction of nutrient inputs and keeping constant of discharge inflow to reservoir, the concentration of total phosphorus would be significantly changed and also the concentration of chlorophyll-a was constant approximately. Thus, the effects of control in nutrient inputs are much more than control in discharge inflows in the Ilam reservoir.

  10. Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 μ M in 1987 to 2.7 μ M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

  11. Sesquiterpene lactones from the aerial parts of Vernonia blumeoides growing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Babando; Moodley, Brenda; Chenia, Hafizah; Koorbanally, Neil A

    2015-03-01

    Four eudesmanolide sesquiterpene lactones (1-4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Vernonia blumeoides used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for the treatment of diarrhea and malaria. Compound 1 demonstrated limited but interesting antibacterial activity against Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. The crystal structure of 1 allowed the absolute configuration of the stereocentres in the molecule to be assigned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Amides and neolignans from the aerial parts of Piper bonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Duo-Duo; Wang, Yue-Hu; Chen, Ya-Hui; Mei, Ren-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Luo, Ji-Feng; Li, Yan; Long, Chun-Lin; Kong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Six amides, piperbonamides A-F, three neolignans piperbonins A-C, and 11 known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper bonii (Piperaceae). The structures of piperbonamides A-F and piperbonins A-C were elucidated based on the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Piperbonin A, (+)-trans-acuminatin, (+)-cis-acuminatin, (+)-kadsurenone, and pipernonaline showed weak activity against platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 118.2, 108.5, 90.02, 107.3, and 116.3 μM, respectively, as compared with the positive control, tirofiban, with an IC50 value of 5.24 μM. Piperbonamides A-F were inactive against five tumor cell lines at concentrations up to 40 μM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Potential Impacts of Climate Change Factors on Freshwater Eutrophication: Implications for Research and Countermeasures of Water Management in China

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Xia; Yuan Zhang; Andrea Critto; Jieyun Wu; Juntao Fan; Zhirong Zheng; Yizhang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Water eutrophication has become one of the most serious aquatic environmental problems around the world. More and more research has indicated climate change as a major natural factor that will lead to the acceleration of eutrophication in rivers and lakes. However, understanding the mechanism of climate change’s effect on water eutrophication is difficult due to the uncertainties caused by its complex, non-linear process. There is considerable uncertainty about the magnitude of future tempera...

  14. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  15. USGS Releases New Digital Aerial Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has initiated distribution of digital aerial photographic products produced by scanning or digitizing film from its historical aerial photography film archive. This archive, located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, contains thousands of rolls of film that contain more than 8 million frames of historic aerial photographs. The largest portion of this archive consists of original film acquired by Federal agencies from the 1930s through the 1970s to produce 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps. Most of this photography is reasonably large scale (USGS photography ranges from 1:8,000 to 1:80,000) to support the production of the maps. Two digital products are currently available for ordering: high-resolution scanned products and medium-resolution digitized products.

  16. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  17. Phytochemistry and antioxidant activity of Lallemantia iberica aerial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khosravi Dehaghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Lallemantia iberica (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant distributed in different parts of Iran. This research, has evaluated the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of the plant. Methods: Different chromatographic methods such as column chromatographies using Silica gel (normal and reversed phases, Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC were used for isolation of the compounds from the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of L. iberica aerial parts. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS. Antioxidant activity of the extracts were also evaluated in DPPH and FRAP tests. Results: Two sterols,β-sitosterol acetate (1, β-sitosterol (2, one triterpenoic acid,ursolic acid (3, one polyphenol, rosmarinic acid (4 and six flavonoides,Luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5, 4'-methoxy-luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6, apigenin-7-O-glucoside (7, Luteolin (8,  diosmetin (9, apigenin (10 were isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. The antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate (IC50 189.95±2.8 μg/mL and the methanol extracts (IC50 140±1.2 μg/mL were compared to the standard antioxidant, BHA (IC50 100±1.6 μg/mL in DPPH method. The reducing power of the ethyl acetate (300.28 μmol Eq FeSO4.7H2O/mg DW, the methanol extract (553.14 μmol Eq FeSO4.7H2O/mg DW and BHA (558.36 μmol Eq FeSO4.7H2O/mg of standard were elucidated in FRAP assay. Conclusion: The results introduce L. iberica as a medicinal plant with valuable constituents which are responsible of different pharmacological activities.

  18. Aerial pruning mechanism, initial real environment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Javier; Hirai, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a pruning mechanism for aerial pruning tasks is tested in a real environment. Since the final goal of the aerial pruning robot will be to prune tree branches close to power lines, some experiments related to wireless communication and pruning performance were conducted. The experiments consisted of testing the communication between two XBee RF modules for monitoring purposes as well as testing the speed control of the circular saw used for pruning tree branches. Results show that both the monitoring and the pruning tasks were successfully done in a real environment.

  19. ARM Unmanned Aerial Systems Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) coupled with changes in the regulatory environment for operations of UAS in the National Airspace increase the potential value of UAS to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. UAS include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and tethered balloon systems (TBS). The roles UAVs and TBSs could play within the ARM Facility, particularly science questions they could help address, have been discussed in several workshops, reports, and vision documents, including: This document describes the implementation of a robust and vigorous program for use of UAV and TBS for the science missions ARM supports.

  20. Aerial Robotic System for Transportation and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kakuya; Hashimoto, Naohisa; Komoriya, Kiyoshi

    The status quo of a research on a novel aerial robotic system for transportation and logistics is presented. Under a new concept for an aerial robotic transportation system, three-Dimensional Transportation Robots (3DTR) were constructed with twin turbojet engines equipped by high performance noise reduction system and a flexibly jointed delta wing controlled by 2-axis actuators. This vehicle is also stable in the air due to its pendulum structure. The first flight was successfully conducted on November 22, 2005. Flight examination of 3DTR indicates its short take-off and landing (STOL) capability.

  1. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  2. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors from Aerial Parts of Grown in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadah B. Shehadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis L., grown in Jordan, two furanocoumarins (bergapten and chalepensin, one flavonoid glycoside (rutin as well as several minor compounds have been isolated. The structural elucidation of these compounds was established based on spectral data (UV, IR, MS, 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR. In Jordan, R. chalepensis is recommended for the treatment of rheumatism, mental disorders and menstrual problems. Fresh and dried leaves are used as flavoring agent in food and beverages. Antiplatelet activities of the crude methanolic and ethylacetate extracts in addition to the three isolated major compounds were measured by the aggrometric method according to Beretz and Casenave. Optical aggregometer connected to dual channel recorder was used for measuring aggregation. Both, ethylacetate and methanol extracts inhibited ADP- induced platelet aggregation (ADP-IA of human blood. However, only ethylacetate extract was able to induce 50% inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation (Co-IA platelet rich plasma. Bergapten was more active against ADP-IA compared to chalepensin while the latter was more active against Co-IA compared to bergapten.

  3. Assessment of Eutrophication Quality in Greek Coastal Ecosystem (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Alexandra; Rousselaki, Eleni; Assimakopoulou, Georgia; Tsapakis, Manolis; Simboura, Nomiki

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has always been considered as one of the most oligotrophic areas in the world, especially in the Eastern part of the Sea. However, eutrophication problems occur in some coastal areas of the Mediterranean (e.g. eastern coasts of Spain, Gulf of Lions, northern Adriatic Sea, Apulian coasts, Saronikos Gulf, Thessaloniki Bay, northern coasts of Greece, etc.). This work is focused on the assessment of the Eutrophication Quality in different coastal areas of Greece affected by various anthropogenic and natural pressures and was performed under the Water Framework Directive. A network of 28 sampling stations was used during two relevant sampling periods, April - May 2012 and March - April 2013, in the framework of the National Monitoring Project of Greece. The Eutrophication assessment method integrates chemical and biological parameters of the water column. A synthetic Eutrophication Index (E.I.) was produced for the greek coastal areas by Primpas et al. quality classification scheme, combining the concentrations of nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia) and chlorophyll-α biomass into a single formula. The E.I. assesses the eutrophication status using a five scale scheme according to the requirements of WFD: (High) less than 0.04; (Good) 0.04-0.38; (moderate) 0.38-0.85; (poor) 0.85-1.51; (bad) >1.51. Nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations revealed significant spatial variation among the various coastal areas of Greece influenced by different point and/or diffuse anthropogenic pressures (related to nutrient enrichment), reflecting the level of human-induced impairment where an increase in nutrient loads leads to increased water quality problems. The assessment of E.I showed that during 2012, 32% of the selected coastal areas were characterized as Good, 54% as Moderate and 14% of the selected greek coastal areas were characterized as Poor. During 2012, none of the study areas corresponded to High or Bad eutrophication status. During 2013

  4. 1935 15' Quad #363 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #375 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #417 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #437 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #410 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #454 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #371 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #101 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #087 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #177 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #267 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #386 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #078 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #195 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #055 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #131 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #248 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #411 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #202 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #037 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #133 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #152 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #318 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #195 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #098 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #266 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #009 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #125 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #032 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #149 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #392 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #238 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #281 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #033 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #217 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #151 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1949-50 DIO USFS Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #004 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #366 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #150 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #204 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #368 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #442 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #105 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #246 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #074 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #370 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #028 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #082 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #298 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #227 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #132 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #172 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #226 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #081 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #051 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #099 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #361 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #011 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #129 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #221 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #292 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #035 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #002 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #337 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #373 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #293 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #061 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #218 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #320 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #416 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #387 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #351 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #012 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #220 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #180 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #490 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #203 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #001 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #441 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #058 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #121 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #295 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #222 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #341 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #388 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #223 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #367 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #010 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1936 Roosevelt County AG Index Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #086 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #250 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #062 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #126 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #014 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #271 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #015 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #346 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #122 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #104 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #245 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #244 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #362 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #457 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. Aerial Survey Units for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys of coastal Alaska are the primary method for estimating abundance of harbor seals. A particular challenge associated with aerial surveys of harbor...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #340 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #173 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #319 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #106 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #100 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #273 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #075 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #076 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #374 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #349 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #153 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #155 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. Index for SCS 1934-1937 Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #106 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #243 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #259 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #339 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #199 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #217 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #176 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #025 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #171 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #157 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #156 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #083 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #129 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #365 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #173 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #394 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #079 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #270 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #181 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #054 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #198 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #201 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #200 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1946 Whitewater-Animas DDR Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  6. Comparative proteomics exploring the molecular mechanism of eutrophic water purification using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Xi, Houcheng; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Yang, Shihai; Zhou, Yanli; Zhou, Xinmao; Yang, Yongping

    2015-06-01

    Eutrophication is a serious threat to ecosystem stability and use of water resources worldwide. Accordingly, physical, chemical, and biological technologies have been developed to treat eutrophic water. Phytoremediation has attracted a great deal of attention, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is regarded as one of the best plants for purification of eutrophic water. Previous studies have shown that water hyacinths remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) via diverse processes and that they can inhibit the growth of algae. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these processes, especially the role of proteins, are unknown. In this study, we applied a proteomics approach to investigate the protein dynamics of water hyacinth under three eutrophication levels. The results suggested that proteins with various functions, including response to stress, N and P metabolic pathways, synthesis and secretion, photosynthesis, biosynthesis, and energy metabolism, were involved in regulating water hyacinth to endure the excess-nutrient environment, remove N and P, and inhibit algal growth. The results help us understand the mechanism of purification of eutrophic water by water hyacinth and supply a theoretical basis for improving techniques for phytoremediation of polluted water.

  7. Comprehensive assessment of coastal eutrophication in Taiwan and its implications for management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Chen, Ping; Chen, Hou-Yu

    2015-08-15

    Due to the rapid population growth, anthropogenic activities result in agricultural, industrial, and urban diffuse runoffs that elevate the level of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal waters. Currently there is no integrated analysis for coastal eutrophication in Taiwan. A comprehensive analysis of the coastal eutrophic status was performed in this study based on decade-long coastal water quality monitoring data from Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration. A 3-tiered monitoring strategy is recommended based on the severity of the current eutrophication state. Results indicate that the most problematic area of coastal eutrophication is located in the estuary of the Donggang River (DGR) and its adjacent coastal waters, i.e., the Kao-Ping mouth (KPM) and Dapeng Bay (DPB) in south-western Taiwan. With a worsening eutrophic status, these areas demand intensive monitoring and research with higher spatial and temporal resolutions to evaluate the stresses of nutrient forcing and predict possible future responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive effects of warming, eutrophication and size structure: impacts on biodiversity and food-web structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzer, Amrei; Guill, Christian; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Warming and eutrophication are two of the most important global change stressors for natural ecosystems, but their interaction is poorly understood. We used a dynamic model of complex, size-structured food webs to assess interactive effects on diversity and network structure. We found antagonistic impacts: Warming increases diversity in eutrophic systems and decreases it in oligotrophic systems. These effects interact with the community size structure: Communities of similarly sized species such as parasitoid-host systems are stabilized by warming and destabilized by eutrophication, whereas the diversity of size-structured predator-prey networks decreases strongly with warming, but decreases only weakly with eutrophication. Nonrandom extinction risks for generalists and specialists lead to higher connectance in networks without size structure and lower connectance in size-structured communities. Overall, our results unravel interactive impacts of warming and eutrophication and suggest that size structure may serve as an important proxy for predicting the community sensitivity to these global change stressors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Modeling of eutrophication and strategies for improvement of water quality in reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shourian, Mojtaba; Moridi, Ali; Kaveh, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey the thermal regime and eutrophication states in Ilam reservoir in Iran as the case study. For this purpose and to find solutions for improving the water's quality in the reservoir, two general strategies for reducing the entering pollution loads and water depletions from the reservoir's outlets were analyzed by use of the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Results of the simulation of the present situation show the existence of thermal stratification during summer, which results in the qualitative stratification in the reservoir. According to the qualitative criteria, the Ilam reservoir's state is between mesotrophic and eutrophic. Results of the scenarios of reduction of the nutrients show that in the scenario of 50% reduction of the phosphorus and nitrogen loads into the reservoir, the state of the reservoir would recover from eutrophic to semi-eutrophic. Also, release of water from the reservoir during September, October and November would cause the restoration of the quality of water in the reservoir. To avoid the occurrence of critical eutrophication in the reservoir, reducing the ponding time in the reservoir by fast depletion, preventing entrance of the upstream villages' sewage and agricultural drained waters, which are sources of nitrate and phosphate contamination into the rivers, and also management of the usage of agricultural fertilizers have been suggested.

  10. Climatic variability in combination with eutrophication drives adaptive responses in the gills of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hecky, Robert E; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; Meijer, Saskia E; Pols, Johan; van Tienderen, Kaj M; Ververs, Jan D; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans

    2016-12-01

    Textbook examples of adaptive radiation often show rapid morphological changes in response to environmental perturbations. East Africa's Lake Victoria, famous for its stunning adaptive radiation of cichlids, has suffered from human-induced eutrophication over the past decades. This cultural eutrophication is thought to be partly responsible for the dramatically reduced cichlid biodiversity, but climatic variability in itself might also have contributed to the eutrophication which resulted in low oxygen levels and decreased water transparency. To determine how recent environmental changes have influenced the lake and its cichlids over the past 50 years, we gathered environmental and meteorological variables and compared these with gill surface area of four cichlid species. We found that during the period of severe eutrophication and temperature increase (1980s), reduced wind speeds coincided with a reduction in oxygen levels and a decrease in both water temperature and transparency. The gill surface area in three out of the four cichlid species increased during this period which is consistent with adaptive change in response to increased hypoxia. During the 2000s, wind speeds, oxygen levels, water transparency and water temperature increased again, while cichlid gill surface area decreased. Our results imply that climatic changes and especially wind speed and direction might play a crucial role in tropical lake dynamics. The changes in Lake Victoria's water quality coincide with fluctuations in cichlid gill surface area, suggesting that these fish can respond rapidly to environmental perturbations, but also that climatic variability, together with continued eutrophication, might be detrimental to the lake's cichlid biodiversity.

  11. Discrete modeling of dynamics of zooplankton community at the different stages of an antropogeneous eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholtkevych, G N; Bespalov, G Yu; Nosov, K V; Abhishek, Mahalakshmi

    2013-12-01

    Mathematical modeling is a convenient way for characterization of complex ecosystems. This approach was applied to study the dynamics of zooplankton in Lake Sevan (Armenia) at different stages of anthropogenic eutrophication with the use of a novel method called discrete modeling of dynamical systems with feedback (DMDS). Simulation demonstrated that the application of this method helps in characterization of inter- and intra-component relationships in a natural ecosystem. This method describes all possible pairwise inter-component relationships like "plus-plus," "minus-minus," "plus-minus," "plus-zero," "minus-zero," and "zero-zero" that occur in most ecosystems. Based on the results, a working hypothesis was formulated. It was found that the sensitivity to weak external influence in zooplanktons was the greatest during the mid period of eutrophication in Lake Sevan, whereas in the final stages of eutrophication, an outbreak in the biomass production of cyanobacteria was evident. To support this approach, a weak external disturbance in the form of magnetic storm was used to see its effect on species Daphnia longispina sevanica. A statistically significant correlation between the frequency of magnetic storms and the number of this species was revealed and an increase in the number of toxic cyanobacteria species as a consequence of eutrophication. This paper, for the first time, suggests a DMDS method, to diagnose impact of anthropogenic eutrophication on environment.

  12. What can ecosystem models tell us about the risk of eutrophication in the North Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saux Picart, S; Allen, J I; Butenschön, M; Artioli, Y; de Mora, L; Wakelin, S; Holt, J

    Eutrophication is a process resulting from an increase in anthropogenic nutrient inputs from rivers and other sources, the consequences of which can include enhanced algal biomass, changes in plankton community composition and oxygen depletion near the seabed. Within the context of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, indicators (and associated threshold) have been identified to assess the eutrophication status of an ecosystem. Large databases of observations (in situ) are required to properly assess the eutrophication status. Marine hydrodynamic/ecosystem models provide continuous fields of a wide range of ecosystem characteristics. Using such models in this context could help to overcome the lack of in situ data, and provide a powerful tool for ecosystem-based management and policy makers. Here we demonstrate a methodology that uses a combination of model outputs and in situ data to assess the risk of eutrophication in the coastal domain of the North Sea. The risk of eutrophication is computed for the past and present time as well as for different future scenarios. This allows us to assess both the current risk and its sensitivity to anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Model sensitivity studies suggest that the coastal waters of the North Sea may be more sensitive to anthropogenic rivers loads than climate change in the near future (to 2040).

  13. How green is my river? A new paradigm of eutrophication in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John; O'Hare, Matthew; Bowes, Michael J; Jones, J Iwan

    2006-07-15

    Although the process of eutrophication is reasonably well understood in lakes, there is currently no conceptual understanding of how eutrophication develops in rivers. This issue is addressed here. A review of the main processes controlling the development of eutrophication in lakes has been carried out as a precursor to considering the effect in rivers. The importance of hydraulic flushing in controlling algal growth suggests that short-retention-time rivers will show different effects compared to long retention-time, impounded rivers. The latter are likely to operate like lakes, moving from macrophyte domination to phytoplankton domination whereas the former move to benthic and filamentous algal domination. Subsequently, a conceptual model of the development of eutrophic conditions in short-retention-time rivers is developed. Although there is general agreement in the literature that an increase in nutrients, particularly phosphorus, is a pre-requisite for the eutrophic conditions to develop, there is little evidence in short-retention-time rivers that the plant (macro and micro) biomass is limited by nutrients and a good case can be made that the interaction of hydraulic drag with light limitation is the main controlling factor. The light limitation is brought about by the development of epiphytic algal films on the macrophyte leaves. The implications of this conceptual model are discussed and a series of observable effects are predicted, which should result if the model is correct.

  14. Eutrophication increases methane emission to the atmosphere in tropical lagoons: insights from two Ivory Coast sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-mathieu Koné, Yéfanlan; Vieira Borges, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Eutrophication increases methane emission to the atmosphere in tropical lagoons: insights from two Ivory Coast sites. Y J M Koné (1) & A.V. Borges (2) (1) Centre de recherches océanologiques (CRO) d'Abidjan, (Ivory Coast) (2) University of Liège, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Liège, Belgium (Belgium) Eutrophication is a worldwide environmental problem and a definitive solution is far from being achieved, despite the large number of studies documenting its causes. In small aquatic ecosystems, excessive growth of macrophytes is a well known undesirable consequence of eutrophication. When these plants die and sink to the bottom the decomposing biomass depletes oxygen content in the water column thus leading to anoxia promoting methane (CH4) production. Here, we reported the CH4 data obtained during six campaigns covering the annual cycle in two small lagoons of Ivory Coast (Ono, Kodjoboué) that are contrasted in the degree of eutrophication and the corresponding coverage of macrophytes (e.g. Echinochloa pyramidalis, Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata). Our data showed a high spatio-temporal variability of CH4 within the lagoons and between the two systems, with CH4 concentrations in surface waters ranging between 80 to 74,604 nmol L-1. The highest CH4 concentration values were observed in the eutrophic Ono lagoon that is covered by 80% of macrophytes, suggesting that lagoons dominated by macrophytes are significant sources of CH4 toward the atmosphere.

  15. Eutrophication dynamics in lake Baikal from remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, Jaime; Silow, Eugene; Krashchuk, Lyudmila S.; Pislegina, Elena V.; Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.; Izmestyeva, Lyubov R.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Moore, Marianne V.

    2017-04-01

    Lake Baikal, one of the oldest lakes on earth, the deepest (1642 m), and the largest in volume (23,615 cubic km) of all of Earth's freshwater bodies, is located nearly in the very center of Asia, 456 m above sea level. Baikal stretches for 636 km from the southwest to the northeast between 51°28' and 55°47' N, and 103°43' and 109°58' E. The area of Baikal's watershed is over 550,000 square km. Baikal is also unique in that its waters are rich in oxygen all the way to the bottom of the lake. A large number of the species living in Lake Baikal are endemic. In 1996, Lake Baikal was named a UNESCO Heritage Site, with Russia pledging to protect it. A number of recent studies have reported degradation of the benthic littoral zone such as proliferation of benthic algae, death of snails and endemic sponges, large coastal wash-ups of dead benthic algae and macrophytes, blooms of toxin-producing benthic cyanobacteria, and inputs of industrial contaminants. In the open, pelagic basins, changes in the eutrophication and water transparency have also been noticed. Such studies were based on in-situ collected data, at different spatial and temporal frequencies. Remote sensing (RS) offers a comprehensive monitoring of all littoral and open areas of the lake at a high and regular time frequency. The amount of ecological information retrieved by RS is much lower than that provided by in-situ data, but RS can determine the representativeness of the chosen in-situ stations and detect un-sampled zones that need monitoring. Additionally, RS provides a harmonized methodology in space and time, which is crucial if statistical information is going to be derived. On its turn, in-situ data is required as a ground truth to transform the RS signal into relevant ecological indicators. In this work, we provide the first results of a new international project aimed to re-analize archived RS data to study ecological changes in Lake Baikal and incorporate near-real time RS data to monitoring

  16. HPLC/QTOF-MS/MS application to investigate phenolic constituents from Ficus pandurata H. aerial roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Huiqing; Li, Zuguang; Jiang, Kezhi; Lee, Maw-Rong

    2015-06-01

    Ficus pandurata H. aerial roots are used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of uarthritis, indigestion and hyperuricemia. However, the bioactive constituents responsible for the pharmacological effects of F. pandurata H. are unclear. A simple and efficient HPLC/QTOF-MS/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry) method was established to detect and identify active constituents in the n-butanol extract of F. pandurata H. aerial roots. Chemical constituents were separated and investigated by HPLC/QTOF-MS/MS in the negative-ion mode. Thirty-seven compounds, including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroquinone glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, etc., were identified or tentatively characterized in the n-butanol extract of F. pandurata H. aerial roots by comparing the UV spectra, accurate mass spectra and fragmentation pathways and retrieving the reference literatures. Moreover, the flavonoid trisaccharides and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives were tentatively characterized in F. pandurata H. for the first time. The analytical tool used here is very valuable in the rapid separation and identification of the multiple and minor constituents in the n-butanol extract of F. pandurata H. aerial roots. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. GC-MS Analysis of Insecticidal Essential Oil of Aerial Parts of Echinops latifolius Tausch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The roots of Echinops latifolius Tausch (Asteraceae have been used in the traditional medicine. However, no report on chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of this plant exists. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time. Essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts at flowering stage was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 35 components of the essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts were identified. The major compounds in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (19.63%, (Z-β-ocimene (18.44%, and β-pinene (15.56% followed by β-myrcene (4.75% and carvone (4.39%. The essential oil of E. latifolius possessed contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 36.40 µg/adult. The essential oil also exhibited fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 9.98 mg/L. The study indicates that the essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  18. Crypthophilic acids A, B, and C: resin glycosides from aerial parts of Scrophularia crypthophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliş, Ihsan; Sezgin, Yükselen; Dönmez, Ali A; Rüedi, Peter; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2007-01-01

    The water-soluble part of the methanolic extract from the aerial parts of Scrophularia crypthophila, through chromatographic methods, yielded three new resin glycosides, crypthophilic acids A - C (1-3). Compounds 1-3 are tetraglycosides of (+)-3S,12S-dihydroxypalmitic acid. The structures of these and 10 known compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical means. All natural resin glycosides known so far have been obtained from Convolvulaceae plants; this is the first report of such glycosides from another, taxonomically unrelated family (Scrophulariaceae).

  19. Alkaloids from aerial parts of Houttuynia cordata and their anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jongmin; Chae, Hee-Sung; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Jinwoong

    2017-06-15

    New alkaloids, houttuynamide B and C (1, 2) and houttuycorine (14), were isolated from the aerial parts of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. in addition to eighteen known alkaloids. Their structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis. All the isolates were tested for their inhibitory activity against NO production in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. Of the tested compounds, compound 15 showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 8.7μM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Two Cytotoxic Coumarin Glycosides from the Aerial Parts of Diceratella elliptica (DC. Jonsell Growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M. Marzouk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new coumarin glycosides, 6-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrocoumarin-8-C-glucopyranoside (1 and 5-vinyl-6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydrocoumarin-8-C-glucopyranoside (2, along with four known flavonoid compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Diceratella elliptica (DC. Jonsell growing in Egypt. Their structures were established on the basis of detailed chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (UV, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and ESIMS. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and showed relatively high activity against three human carcinoma cell lines; liver (HEPG2, cervix (HELA and colon (HCT116.

  1. Mechatronic design of a robotic manipulator for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the mechatronic design of a robotic manipulator that is meant to be mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and to be used in industrial applications, for both aerial inspection by contact and aerial manipulation. The combination of an UAV and the robotic manipulator

  2. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship the...

  3. Optimization of the Flight Path of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Myklukha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of optimizing the flight path of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The paper analyzes the composition and designation of main equipment and payload of unmanned aerial vehicle. In particular, attention is drawn to the basic requirements that relate to the unmanned aerial vehicle today.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General...) Welding standards. All welding shall conform to the following standards as applicable: (i) Standard...

  5. Role determination in an aerial dogfight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsder, G.J.; Breakwell, J.V.

    1974-01-01

    A coplanar aerial dogfight is analyzed by assuming constant, not necessarily identical, speeds and individual maximum turning rates and lethal ranges. A combatant (A) is assumed to be victorious when his opponent (B) has been maneuvered into a relative position within A's lethal range and in the

  6. Exploring Security Vulnerabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodday, Nils Miro; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    We are currently observing a significant increase in the popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), popularly also known by their generic term drones. This is not only the case for recreational UAVs, that one can acquire for a few hundred dollars, but also for more sophisticated ones, namely

  7. Converting aerial imagery to application maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last couple of years in Agricultural Aviation and at the 2014 and 2015 NAAA conventions, we have written about and presented both single-camera and two-camera imaging systems for use on agricultural aircraft. Many aerial applicators have shown a great deal of interest in the imaging systems...

  8. Spatial differentiation of marine eutrophication damage indicators based on species density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Jones, Miranda C.; Cheung, William W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Marine eutrophication refers to an ecosystem response to the loading of nutrients, typically nitrogen (N), to coastal waters where several impacts may occur. The increase of planktonic growth due to N-enrichment fuels the organic carbon cycles and may lead to excessive oxygen depletion in benthic...... an indicator of the Ecosystem Response (ER) to N-uptake. The loss of species richness expressed by the ER is further modelled to a marine eutrophication Ecosystem Damage (meED) indicator, as an absolute metric of time integrated number of species disappeared (speciesyr), by applying a newly...... to the environmental relevance of meED scores and to the harmonisation of marine eutrophication impacts with other ecosystem-damage Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) indicators. The novel features improve current methodologies and support the adoption of the meED indicator in LCIA for the characterization...

  9. Eutrophication downstream from small reservoirs in mountain rivers of Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Julio A; Alonso, Alvaro; de la Puente, Marcos

    2005-09-01

    In this research we examined the hypothesis that upper reaches of rivers and streams can experience eutrophication as a consequence of deep releases from dams. Field studies were conducted in four mountain rivers (Tormes, Riaza, Eresma and Miraflores Rivers) of Central Spain. The watersheds of these rivers are underlain by siliceous rocks. A small deep-release storage reservoir is found in the upper reaches of each river. Two sampling sites, upstream and downstream from the reservoir, were established in stony riffles of each impounded river. Significant (P rivers, can act as nutrient sources, causing eutrophication downstream. Nutrients would ultimately come from land/forest runoff. The fact that terrestrial vegetation was not completely removed before filling reservoirs could also contribute to the eutrophication process.

  10. Metal accumulation by submerged macrophytes in eutrophic lakes at the watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Guihua

    2013-10-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Ba, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, Se, Sr and Ti) in submerged macrophytes and corresponding water and sediments were studied in 24 eutrophic lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (China). Results showed that these eutrophic lakes have high metal concentrations in both water and sediments because of human activities. Average concentrations of Al and Na in tissues of submerged macrophytes were very high in sampled eutrophic lakes. By comparison, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas marina accumulated more metals (e.g. Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Sr and Ti). Strong positive correlations were found between metal concentrations in tissues of submerged macrophytes, probably because of co-accumulation of metals. The concentrations of Li, Mg, Na and Sr in tissues of submerged macrophytes significantly correlated with their corresponding water values, but not sediment values.

  11. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by submerged macrophytes: looking for hyperaccumulators in eutrophic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Hao, Beibei; Huang, Wenmin; Liu, Guihua

    2013-05-07

    To directly select submerged macrophytes with high accumulation capability from the field, 24 eutrophic lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were investigated in the study. These eutrophic lakes have large amounts of heavy metals in both water and sediments because of human activities. The results showed that Najas marina is a hyperaccumulator of As and Cd, Ceratophyllum demersum is a hyperaccumulator of Co, Cr, and Fe, and Vallisneria natans is a hyperaccumulator of Pb. Strong positive correlations were found between concentrations of heavy metals in tissues of submerged macrophytes, probably because of coaccumulation of heavy metals. However, for most heavy metals, no significant correlations were found between submerged macrophytes and their surrounding environments. In conclusion, N. marina, C. demersum, and V. natans are good candidate species for removing heavy metals from eutrophic lakes.

  12. Mother/child bond in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children: depression and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Spada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the presence of depression, age, level of schooling, occupation, marital status, number of children and nutritional status (maternal and of the child in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children and relate the data to mother/child bonding. Methods: A total of 120 mothers of children aged up to 10 years participated; 30 of them were overweight and 30 were eutrophic (low-income bracket; 30 were overweight and 30 eutrophic (high-income bracket. The control group was composed of eutrophic children paired according to sex, age, level of schooling, and social condition. Data collection was made through interviews. The assessment instruments were: Mother/Child Bonding Assessment Protocol and Beck Depression Inventory. The nutritional classification was defined by calculation of the body mass index, as per the curves of the World Health Organization. For statistics, McNemar, χ2, and Fisher’s exact tests were used. A 5% level of rejection of the null hypothesis was set. Results: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, or between the presence of depression and level of schooling, marital status, occupation, and maternal nutritional status. Nevertheless, mothers of eutrophic children (high-income bracket showed less depression than mothers of eutrophic children (low-income bracket. Mothers with three or more children displayed more depression than mothers with less than three children. Mothers under 30 years of age showed more depression than mothers aged 30 years or older. Conclusion: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, but the bond was compromised in all mothers of the sample. There was a significant result regarding the presence of depression.

  13. Environmental Impact Analysis of Acidification and Eutrophication Due to Emissions from the Production of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a major material used in the construction industry that emits a large amount of substances with environmental impacts during its life cycle. Accordingly, technologies for the reduction in and assessment of the environmental impact of concrete from the perspective of a life cycle assessment (LCA must be developed. At present, the studies on LCA in relation to greenhouse gas emission from concrete are being carried out globally as a countermeasure against climate change. However, the studies on the impact of the substances emitted in the concrete production process on acidification and eutrophication are insufficient. As such, assessing only a single category of environmental impact may cause a misunderstanding about the environmental friendliness of concrete. The substances emitted in the concrete production process have an impact not only on global warming but also on acidification and eutrophication. Acidification and eutrophication are the main causes of air pollution, forest destruction, red tide phenomena, and deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. For this reason, the main substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that have an impact on acidification and eutrophication were deduced. In addition, an LCA technique through which to determine the major emissions from concrete was proposed and a case analysis was carried out. The substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that are related to eutrophication were deduced to be NOx, NH3, NH4+, COD, NO3−, and PO43−. The substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that are related to acidification, were found to be NOx, SO2, H2S, and H2SO4. The materials and energy sources among those input into the concrete production process, which have the biggest impact on acidification and eutrophication, were found to be coarse aggregate and fine aggregate.

  14. Response of Benthic Macrofauna to Eutrophication in a Mesocosm Experiment: Ecosystem Resilience Prevents Hypoxic Conditions

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    Panagiotis D. Dimitriou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A benthic-pelagic mesocosm experiment was performed to study how the benthic macrofaunal community responds to a eutrophication gradient. The novel experimental setup allowed the induction of an eutrophication gradient in the water column and the detailed documentation of the response of the benthos in terms of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Nine mesocosms were deployed in the facilities of the Hellenic Center for Marine Research in Crete in the eastern Mediterranean. The mesocosms were 4 m deep, contained 1.5 m3 coastal water, and included 85 liters of undisturbed sediment at the bottom. No water or sediment exchange was allowed. The experimental design included a Control and two eutrophication levels (Low and High for the 58-day duration of the experiment. Macrofaunal samples were collected at the end of the experiment from each mesocosm and compared to the ones collected at the beginning of the experiment from the sediment collection area. Results show that the High eutrophication treatment differed significantly from the Control and Low treatments in terms of macrofaunal species composition, diversity, ecological status and ecosystem processes. The increased availability of organic matter in the sediment caused differences in macrofaunal community structure by favoring deposit-feeding species with high bioturbation ability, which significantly increased their abundance. The increased bioturbation potential of the new community combined with the high organic matter consumption contributed to the oxygenation of the sediment within the mesocosm, preventing the creation of hypoxic conditions in the sediment and maintaining ecosystem health despite the highly eutrophic conditions and significant changes in sediment geochemical variables. In the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean, healthy benthic ecosystems may use existing ecosystem processes to “buffer” the negative effects caused by eutrophication.

  15. Immature mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in a eutrophic landfill tank from State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeronimo Alencar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To determine the faunal composition of immature culicids inhabiting a percolation tank in the landfill of Sapucaia, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, immature mosquitoes were collected over a two-day period during the third weeks of April, August and October 2011. Results The species found were Culex usquatus, Lutzia bigoti, Anopheles argyritarsis and Limatus durhamii. This study is the first to report the colonization of eutrophic breeding sites by these species. Conclusions The oviposition behavior observed in this study suggests a secondary adaptation or change in habit to select eutrophic environments during the developmental stages of the observed species.

  16. Lake Peipsi's eutrophication issue: new insights into large scale water quality modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina

    2017-04-01

    The large and shallow European Lake Peipsi was polluted with phosphorus loadings from different point and diffuse sources over decades. The lake's trophic state changed from mesotrophic to eutrophic and hypertrophic. In the 1990s phosphorus pollution dropped significantly. However, more than twenty years later the lake is still eutrophic (L. Peipsi s.s.) and hypertrophic (L. Pihkva). It has been determined that internal loadings from a large nutrient pool in the lake's sediments play an important role in the actual phosphorus balance. For a pursuing and comprehensive understanding, there is a need for detailed and integrated water quality data. This is necessary to assess the current state as well as the younger lake nutrient history. However, in-situ data are scarce and difficult to access. To overcome this data sparse situation the global integrated modeling framework WaterGAP3 was applied (i) to test the applicability of a global scale (5 arc minutes resolution) water quality model in a local scale eutrophication study, and (ii) to provide a detailed local analysis of the eutrophication issue for Lake Peipsi. In this setting WaterGAP3 provides a detailed description of phosphorus sources, loadings and concentrations. Furthermore the newly implemented two box eutrophication module provides a long term description of total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in lakes, the consequent potential for toxic algae blooms, and the TP balance components such as the sediment storage. The WaterGAP3 global results such as river discharge, TP loads from different sectors, TP concentration in the lake and in the catchments river system cover a period of 1990-2010. Our model results indicate that the agricultural sector (diffuse source) is the primary source of TP pollution in the Lake Peipsi catchment (45%) followed by background sources (diffuse sources) such as atmospheric deposition and weathering (33%), and domestic point sources (19%). The model results confirm the reported

  17. Phosphorus retention and fractionation in an eutrophic wetland: A one-year mesocosms experiment under fluctuating flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero, María Del Carmen; Álvarez-Rogel, José; Conesa, Héctor Miguel; Párraga-Aguado, Isabel; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the response of salt marshes to pulses of PO 4 3- -enriched water, with and without the presence of Phragmites australis. A one-year mesocosms experiment was performed in simulated soil profiles (fine-textured surface layers and sandy subsurface layers) from a coastal salt marsh of the Mar Menor lagoon under alternating flooding-drying conditions with eutrophic water, under low (1.95 mg L -1 P-PO 4 3- ) and high (19.5 mg L -1 P-PO 4 3- ) P load, and with the presence/absence of Phragmites. The PO 4 3- concentrations in soil porewater and drainage water were regularly measured, and P accumulated in soils (including a fractionation procedure) and plants (roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves) were analyzed. The experimental mesocosms were highly effective in the removal of P from the eutrophic flooding water (>90% reduction of the P added to the system both in the soil pore water and drainage water), regardless of the nutrient load, the season of the year and the presence/absence of Phragmites. The soil was the main sink of the P added to the system, while Phragmites had a minor role in P removal. The biomass of Phragmites accumulated ∼27% of the P added with the flooding water in the treatment with water of low P load while ∼12% of P in that of high P load; the rhizomes were the organs that contributed the most (∼67-72% of the total P retained by the plants). Ca/Mg compounds were the main contributors to the retention of P in the soil compartment, especially in the fine-textured surface soil layers (∼34-53% of the total P in the soil was present in this fraction). Phragmites favored the retention of P onto metal oxides (∼12% increase of the P retained in the metal oxides fraction in the treatment with water of high P load). Hence, the use of constructed wetlands to ameliorate the negative impacts of P-enriched waters in the Mar Menor lagoon and similar areas is recommended. We propose the incorporation of fine

  18. Prospects for Environmental Communication Based on 25 Years of Newspaper Coverage of Climate Change and Eutrophication in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyytimäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Research on long-term media coverage of environmental issues has focused predominantly on English-speaking industrialized countries and on single isolated topics. This article presents a comparative analysis of the Finnish newspaper coverage of climate change and eutrophication from 1990-2014. The coverage of eutrophication showed an annual cycle…

  19. The Influence of a Eutrophic Lake to the River Downstream : Spatiotemporal Algal Composition Changes and the Driving Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Z.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Zhu, D.

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms have been frequently found at the upper reaches of the Tanglang River, which is downstream from the eutrophic Dianchi Lake. The eutrophic lake upstream is considered to be a potential source of phytoplankton, which contributes to the development of harmful algal blooms in the river

  20. Management of eutrophication in Lake De Kuil (The Netherlands) using combined flocculant – Lanthanum modified bentonite treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waajen, Guido; van Oosterhout, Frank; Douglas, Grant; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Eutrophication of Lake De Kuil (The Netherlands, 6.7 ha, maximum depth 9 m) has frequently caused cyanobacterial blooms resulting in swimming bans or the issue of water quality warnings during summer. The eutrophication was mainly driven by sediment phosphorus (P)-release. The external

  1. Two New Stilbenoids from the Aerial Parts of Arundina graminifolia (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auberon, Florence; Olatunji, Opeyemi Joshua; Krisa, Stéphanie; Antheaume, Cyril; Herbette, Gaëtan; Bonté, Frédéric; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2016-10-27

    Two new phenanthrene derivatives, a phenanthrenequinone named arundiquinone (1) and a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene named arundigramin (2) together with a known lignin dimer (3) and seven known stilbenoids (4-10) were isolated from the aerial parts of the Asian orchid Arundina graminifolia. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D, 2D NMR (heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC), and HR-ESI-MS techniques, as well as comparison with respective literature reports. The cytoprotective activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to reduce beta amyloid induced toxicity on undifferentiated PC12 cells. Compound 8 showed moderate cytoprotective activity at 0.5 µmol/L (71% of cell viability) while the other compounds showed no significant activity at the highest concentration tested.

  2. Effect of coastal eutrophication on heavy metal bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability in the razor clam, Sinonovacula constricta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Tengxiu [College of Chemistry and Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Li, Shunxing, E-mail: lishunxing@mnnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology (China); Chen, Lihui [College of Chemistry and Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xu-Guang [College of Chemistry and Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology (China)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Razor clams are often exposed to coastal eutrophication. • The bioaccumulation of Fe, Ni, V, and As was promoted by eutrophication. • Bionic gastrointestinal tract was used for metal oral bioavailability assessment. • Eutrophication decreased oral bioavailability of Fe and Pb but enhanced for V. • The daily maximum allowable intakes are controlled by eutrophication levels. - Abstract: As traditional seafoods, the razor clams are widely distributed from tropical to temperate areas. Coastal razor clams are often exposed to eutrophication. Heavy metal contamination is critical for seafood safety. However, how eutrophication affects bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability of heavy metals in the razor clams is unknown. After a four-month field experimental cultivation, heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, V, As, and Pb) could be bioaccumulated by the razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) through exposure to metals present in water and sediments or in the food chain, and then transferred to human via consumption of razor clams. Bionic gastrointestinal digestion and monolayer liposome extraction are used for metal oral bioavailability (OBA) assessment. The influence of eutrophication on OBA is decreased for Fe and Pb and increased for V. A significant positive linear correlation was observed between the bioaccumulation factors of Fe, Ni, V, and As in razor clams and the coastal eutrophication. These results may be due to the effect of eutrophication on metal species transformation in coastal seawater and subcellular distribution in razor clams. The maximum allowable daily intakes of razor clams are controlled by eutrophication status and the concentration of affinity-liposome As in razor clams.

  3. The Preventive and Curative Effects of Fresh Garlic Extract And its Aerial Parts on Fibrosarcoma in Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity in some studies; however its effect on fibrosarcoma is not evident. This study intends to examine the preventive and curative effects of fresh garlic extract and its aerial parts on the growth of WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells in Balb/c mice. Methods: In this preclinical study, 48 female inbred Balb/c mice(6 to 7 weeks old were divided in to 6 groups of 8 each. A single aliquot of WEHI-164 cells(5 × 106 cells/100 μl was injected subcutaneously in the chest of animal. Two weeks before or three weeks after cell injection, 0.2 cc of normal saline or 20 mg/kg extract of garlic or its aerial parts were injected intraperitoneally(IP to the Balb/c mice. The tumors sizes were compared with each other, using ANOVA test. The antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of the extracts were also assessed. Results: The mean sizes of tumor growth in groups which received fresh garlic extract or its aerial parts were smaller than that of control group. However this difference was significant on the 21st day only in garlic extract group(p<0.05. The antioxidant power of fresh garlic involved 35.6%, whereas for its aerial parts it was 15.3%. Moreover, the general amount of phenol in fresh garlic was 12.61 mg/g and in its aerial parts was 2.44 mg/g. Conclusion: Garlic consumption might have a crucial role in prevention and control of fibrosarcoma growth. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of garlic aerial parts are less in comparison to garlic itself, however, higher doses might have anticancer activity

  4. A teaching and communication tool based on DPSIR and LCIA indicator for marine eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Olsen, Stig Irving

    to understand D-R. The DPSIR approach was applied to the LCIA indicator for marine eutrophication to communicate sustainability assessment to graduate students. Broadly, this science-based educational example is useful to predict impacts, communicate knowledge, and support decisions. It assesses the high demand...

  5. Eutrophication management in surface waters using lanthanum modified bentonite: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copetti, D.; Finsterle, K.; Marziali, L.; Stefani, F.; Tartari, G.; Douglas, G.C.; Reitzel, K.; Spears, B.M.; Winfield, I.J.; Crosa, G.; Yasseri, S.; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific knowledge on the use of a lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) to manage eutrophication in surface water. The LMB has been applied in around 200 environments worldwide and it has undergone extensive testing at laboratory, mesocosm, and whole lake scales. The available

  6. Contribution of Cultural Eutrophication to Marsh Loss in Jamaica Bay (NY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of salt marsh area in the Jamaica Bay Estuary (NY) has accelerated in recent years, with loss rates as high as 45 acres per year. A contributing factor to this acceleration is likely cultural eutrophication due to over 6 decades of sewage effluent inputs. We examined marsh...

  7. Possible future effects of large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels on coastal eutrophication in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaas, H.; Kroeze, C.

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is increasingly considered as an alternative for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from rapeseed, palm, sunflower, soybean and algae. In this study, the consequences of large-scale production of biodiesel from micro-algae for eutrophication in four large European seas are analysed.

  8. Biomanipulation with quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) to control harmful algal blooms in eutrophic urban ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waajen, Guido W. A. M.; Van Bruggen, Niek C. B.; Pires, L. Miguel Dionisio; Lengkeek, Wouter; Lurling, Miquel

    Many urban ponds in The Netherlands and other countries suffer from eutrophication, resulting in harmful algal blooms which are often dominated by cyanobacteria. A sufficient reduction of nutrients, as prerequisite to mitigate cyanobacterial blooms in urban ponds, is not always feasible. Water

  9. Biomanipulation with quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) to control harmful algal blooms in eutrophic urban ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waajen, Guido W.A.M.; Bruggen, Van Niek C.B.; Pires, Miguel Dionisio L.; Lengkeek, Wouter; Lurling, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Many urban ponds in The Netherlands and other countries suffer from eutrophication, resulting in harmful algal blooms which are often dominated by cyanobacteria. A sufficient reduction of nutrients, as prerequisite to mitigate cyanobacterial blooms in urban ponds, is not always feasible. Water

  10. Rising CO2 levels will intensify phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, J.M.H.; van de Waal, D.B.; Finke, J.F.; Visser, P.M.; van Donk, E.; Huisman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2

  11. Ectomycorrhizal root development in wet Alder carr forests in response to desiccation and eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, J.; Bastiaans, T.; Coevering van de, M.A.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of desiccation and eutrophication on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root development in wet Alder carr forests in The Netherlands were studied. In northwestern Europe, wet Alder carr forests are found mostly in peatlands and along streams, forming an important component of wetland ecosystems. The

  12. Nitrogen inputs from agriculture: towards better assessments of eutrophication status in marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jesper H; Fossing, Henrik; Hansen, Jens W; Manscher, Ole H; Murray, Ciarán; Petersen, Ditte L J

    2014-11-01

    Nutrient enrichment of coastal marine waters caused by losses of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) from agriculture is an increasing global problem. In the European Union, the Nitrates Directive (ND) of 1991 was meant to be a cornerstone in reducing eutrophication effects in coastal waters downstream from intensively farmed catchments. Although reductions in losses of nitrate have been attained, very few Member States have yet been able to reduce eutrophication effects caused by inputs of NO(3)(-) from agriculture. We report trends in concentrations of NO(3)(-) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in Danish coastal and open marine waters during the period from 1996 to 2011 together with an assessment of eutrophication status based on multiple indicators (e.g. nutrient concentrations, Chl-a, submerged aquatic vegetation and benthic macroinvertebrates). Despite decreasing concentrations of both NO(3)(-)and Chl-a, Danish coastal waters are not yet to be classified as 'unaffected by eutrophication'. In order to improve future pan-European evaluations of the effectiveness of the ND, we argue for the added value of including indicators and assessment principles from other European Directives, i.e. the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  13. A restoration-promoting integrated floating bed and its experimental performance in eutrophication remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiming; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Hu, Xinjiang; Li, Xin; Huang, Dawei; Liu, Yunqin; Yin, Yicheng

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies on eutrophication remediation have mainly focused on purifying water first, then restoring submerged macrophytes. A restoration-promoting integrated floating bed (RPIFB) was designed to combine the processes of water purification and macrophyte restoration simultaneously. Two outdoor experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological functions of the RPIFB. Trial 1 was conducted to compare the eutrophication purification among floating bed, gradual-submerging bed (GSB) and RPIFB technologies. The results illustrated that RPIFB has the best purification capacity. Removal efficiencies of RPIFB for TN, TP, NH(+)4-N, NO(-)3-N, CODCr, Chlorophyll-a and turbidity were 74.45%, 98.31%, 74.71%, 88.81%, 71.42%, 90.17% and 85%, respectively. In trial 2, influences of depth of GSB and photic area in RPIFB on biota were investigated. When the depth of GSB decreased and the photic area of RPIFB grew, the height of Potamogeton crispus Linn. increased, but the biomass of Canna indica Linn. was reduced. The mortalities of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Bellamya aeruginosa in each group were all less than 7%. All results indicated that when the RPIFB was embedded into the eutrophic water, the regime shift from phytoplankton-dominated to macrophyte-dominated state could be promoted. Thus, the RPIFB is a promising remediation technology for eutrophication and submerged macrophyte restoration. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ocean acidification with (de)eutrophication will alter future phytoplankton growth and succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin J; Clark, Darren R; Mitra, Aditee; Fabian, Heiner; Hansen, Per J; Glibert, Patricia M; Wheeler, Glen L; Stoecker, Diane K; Blackford, Jerry C; Brownlee, Colin

    2015-04-07

    Human activity causes ocean acidification (OA) though the dissolution of anthropogenically generated CO2 into seawater, and eutrophication through the addition of inorganic nutrients. Eutrophication increases the phytoplankton biomass that can be supported during a bloom, and the resultant uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon during photosynthesis increases water-column pH (bloom-induced basification). This increased pH can adversely affect plankton growth. With OA, basification commences at a lower pH. Using experimental analyses of the growth of three contrasting phytoplankton under different pH scenarios, coupled with mathematical models describing growth and death as functions of pH and nutrient status, we show how different conditions of pH modify the scope for competitive interactions between phytoplankton species. We then use the models previously configured against experimental data to explore how the commencement of bloom-induced basification at lower pH with OA, and operating against a background of changing patterns in nutrient loads, may modify phytoplankton growth and competition. We conclude that OA and changed nutrient supply into shelf seas with eutrophication or de-eutrophication (the latter owing to pollution control) has clear scope to alter phytoplankton succession, thus affecting future trophic dynamics and impacting both biogeochemical cycling and fisheries.

  15. Unexpected Responses of autotrophs to nutrient loading: Influence of water residence time on eutrophication expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water residence time may critically influence the expression of estuarine eutrophication symptoms such as phytoplankton blooms, anoxia/hypoxia, build-up of organic matter, and altered community composition. While a conceptual model was developed in the late 1990’s; pioneer...

  16. Lack of eutrophication in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem over 27 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlan, Kendra K; Craine, Joseph M; Nippert, Jesse B; Ocheltree, Troy W

    2014-05-01

    Many North American grasslands are receiving atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition at rates above what are considered critical eutrophication thresholds. Yet, potential changes in grassland function due to anthropogenic N deposition are poorly resolved, especially considering that other dynamic factors such as land use and precipitation can also affect N availability. To better understand whether elevated N deposition has altered ecosystem structure or function in North American grasslands, we analyzed a 27-year record of ecophysiological, community, and ecosystem metrics for an annually burned Kansas tallgrass prairie. Over this time, despite increasing rates of N deposition that are within the range of critical loads for grasslands, there was no evidence of eutrophication. Plant N concentrations did not increase, soil moisture did not decline, forb diversity did not decline, and the relative abundance of dominant grasses did not shift toward more eutrophic species. Neither aboveground primary productivity nor N availability to plants increased. The fates of deposited N in grasslands are still uncertain, and could include management losses through burning and grazing. However, evidence from this grassland indicates that eutrophication of North American grassland ecosystems is not an inevitable consequence of current levels of N deposition.

  17. Application of LANDSAT to the Surveillance of Lake Eutrophication in the Great Lakes Basin. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert H.

    This document reviews the process by which the cost benefits of using LANDSAT on an operational basis in the surveillance of lake eutrophication was established. The program identified the information needs of users conducting on-going water quality programs, transformed these needs into remote sensing requirements, produced LANDSAT maps and data…

  18. Bioavailability and preservation of organic phosphorus in freshwater sediments and its role in lake eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake eutrophication in China is a serious environmental concern, especially in lakes from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River region and Southwestern China Plateau. The dissolution of organic matter can result in release of phosphorus (P) from lake sediments and organic phosphate (Po) itse...

  19. Assessment of eutrophication in estuaries: Pressure-state-response and source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Whitall; Suzanne Bricker

    2006-01-01

    The National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment (NEEA) Update Program is a management oriented program designed to improve monitoring and assessment efforts through the development of type specific classification of estuaries that will allow improved assessment methods and development of analytical and research models and tools for managers which will help guide and...

  20. Influence of acidification and eutrophication on physiological functions of Conticribra weissflogii and Prorocentrum donghaiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng-Ying; Tu, Teng-Xiu; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Huang, Xu-Guang; Li, Shun-Xing

    2016-12-01

    Eutrophication and acidification have been the most concerned environmental problems in coastal ecosystem. However, their combined effect on coastal ecosystem function was unknown. Both diatom (Conticribra weissflogii) and dinoflagellate (Prorocentrum donghaiense) are used as coastal algal model. Seven parameters were determined for physiological function assessment, including cell density, chlorophyll a (Chl a), protein, malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase, carbonic anhydrase (CA), and nitrate reductase (NR). The influence of nitrate (N) and phosphate (P) on MDA and CA in C. weissflogii was significant, and that on Chl a and protein in P. donghaiense were also significant. However, the influence of acidification on physiological functions was not significant. The effect of acidification could be intensified by coastal eutrophication. More importantly, the coexist influence of acidification and eutrophication on CA, NR and protein in C. weissflogii and MDA in P. donghaiense was significant. Both NR activity and Chl a content in P. donghaiense were positively correlated to N and P concentration when pH were 7.9 and 7.8, respectively. With simultaneous worsening of acidification and eutrophication, the cell growth of P. Donghaiense was accelerated more obviously than C. weissflogii, i.e., dinoflagellate was more adaptable than diatom, thus algal species distribution and abundance could be changed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Eutrophication monitoring for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay before and after large summer storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A priority for the Lake Superior CSMI was to identify susceptible nearshore eutrophication areas. We developed an integrated sampling design to collect baseline data for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay to understand how nearshore physical processes and tributary loading rel...

  2. Fast eutrophication assessment for stormwater wet detention ponds via fuzzy probit regression analysis under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahsin, Subrina; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater wet detention ponds have been a commonly employed best management practice for stormwater management throughout the world for many years. In the past, the trophic state index values have been used to evaluate seasonal changes in water quality and rank lakes within a region or between several regions; yet, to date, there is no similar index for stormwater wet detention ponds. This study aimed to develop a new multivariate trophic state index (MTSI) suitable for conducting a rapid eutrophication assessment of stormwater wet detention ponds under uncertainty with respect to three typical physical and chemical properties. Six stormwater wet detention ponds in Florida were selected for demonstration of the new MTSI with respect to total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and Secchi disk depth (SDD) as cognitive assessment metrics to sense eutrophication potential collectively and inform the environmental impact holistically. Due to the involvement of multiple endogenous variables (i.e., TN, TP, and SDD) for the eutrophication assessment simultaneously under uncertainty, fuzzy synthetic evaluation was applied to first standardize and synchronize the sources of uncertainty in the decision analysis. The ordered probit regression model was then formulated for assessment based on the concept of MTSI with the inputs from the fuzzy synthetic evaluation. It is indicative that the severe eutrophication condition is present during fall, which might be due to frequent heavy summer storm events contributing to high-nutrient inputs in these six ponds.

  3. Impact of drain water on water quality and eutrophication status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological and biological status of Lake Burullus was examined in 2006 to determine its water quality and eutrophication status in response to the quality and quantity of drain water entering it. The lake suffers from excessive nutrient concentrations. Chlorophyll a showed wide variations over the sampling period with ...

  4. Freshwater diatoms as environmental indicators: evaluating the effects of eutrophication using species morphology and biological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Annika; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Landeiro, Victor L; Heino, Jani

    2015-05-01

    Anthropogenic eutrophication is a major form of perturbation in freshwaters, and several approaches aim to recognise its effects on lake ecosystems. We compared the responses of diatom species morphology, diversity indices and diatom indices to total phosphorus, total nitrogen and distance from a point stressor causing eutrophication in a large lake. We specifically examined the degree to which extent nutrients and distance to the stressor affect variation in the values of various biological indices and diatom valve size. In addition, special attention was given to the adequate repetition of diatom valve width measurements in the context of environmental assessment. Our results showed that diatom valve width was a better indicator of nutrient concentrations than any of the diatom and diversity indices examined. However, the results varied between the two study transects, suggesting that the diatom-based variables not only respond to nutrients but also to other environmental factors (e.g. shoreline morphology). We also found that when using the method based on diatom morphology, one should measure more valves than has been originally suggested to provide a more reliable picture of response to eutrophication. We argue that diatom morphology could be considered as an additional environmental assessment tool, because it may complement the information provided by the traditional diatom indices. Diatom valve width may also be more sensitive to early phases of the eutrophication process and its effects on freshwater ecosystems than various diatom indices that were developed in regional contexts with wide ranges in nutrient levels.

  5. Approaches for integrated assessment of ecological and eutrophication status of surface waters in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Aroviita, Jukka; Carstensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches and tools currently used in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) for integrated assessment of ‘ecological status’ sensu the EU Water Framework Directive as well as assessment of ‘eutrophication status’ in coastal and marine waters. Integration principles...

  6. Setting critical nutrient values for ditches using the eutrophication model PCDitch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liere, van L.; Janse, J.H.; Arts, G.H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Critical nutrient loads to prevent duckweed dominance loads in polder ditches were assessed using the eutrophication model PCDitch. In this article the ecological target was set at 50% duckweed coverage. This may be very high for ditches with a nature function, but is not unreasonable for ditches in

  7. Assessment of possible solid-phase phosphate sorbents to mitigate eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucci, Maíra; Maliaka, Valentini; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2018-01-01

    Managing eutrophication remains a challenge to water managers. Currently, the manipulation of biogeochemical processes (i.e., geo-engineering) by using phosphorus-adsorptive techniques has been recognized as an appropriate tool to manage the problem. The first step in finding potential mitigating

  8. The evolution of the eutrophication of the Palić Lake (Serbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eutrophication is a world-wide environmental issue. The Palic Lake is a shallow lake typical for the Pannonian plain. The Lake itself was in a very bad condition during the late sixties of the last century; polluted and hypertrophic. Due to inadequate water quality, it was dried out in 1971 and re-established in 1977 and since ...

  9. Nitrogen Inputs from Agriculture: Towards Better Assessments of Eutrophication Status in Marine Waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersen, Jesper H; Fossing, Henrik; Hansen, Jens W; Manscher, Ole H; Murray, Ciarán; Petersen, Ditte L. J

    2014-01-01

    .... We report trends in concentrations of NO3 − and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in Danish coastal and open marine waters during the period from 1996 to 2011 together with an assessment of eutrophication status based on multiple indicators (e.g...

  10. Marine eutrophication impacts from present and future production of spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Niero, Monia

    2015-01-01

    Environmental emissions of nitrogen (N) from agriculture surplus may enrich coastal waters and trigger marine eutrophication impacts. We estimated these impacts for spring barley production in Denmark, under present and future climatic conditions with double carbon dioxide concentration and 5 °C ...

  11. Modelling reduced coastal eutrophication with increased crop yields in Chinese agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ang A.; Strokal, Maryna M.; Bai, Zhaohai Z.H.; Kroeze, Carolien C.; Ma, Lin L.; Zhang, Fusuo F.S.

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication is a serious problem in Chinese rivers and seas, largely caused by increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agriculture. Chinese agriculture is known to be nutrient inefficient. Previous studies showed that fertiliser use can be reduced while increasing yields in the

  12. Application of Water Quality Model of Jordan River to Evaluate Climate Change Effects on Eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grouw, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Jordan River is a 51 mile long freshwater stream in Utah that provides drinking water to more than 50% of Utah's population. The various point and nonpoint sources introduce an excess of nutrients into the river. This excess induces eutrophication that results in an inhabitable environment for aquatic life is expected to be exacerbated due to climate change. Adaptive measures must be evaluated based on predictions of climate variation impacts on eutrophication and ecosystem processes in the Jordan River. A Water Quality Assessment Simulation Program (WASP) model was created to analyze the data results acquired from a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study conducted on the Jordan River. Eutrophication is modeled based on levels of phosphates and nitrates from point and nonpoint sources, temperature, and solar radiation. It will simulate the growth of phytoplankton and periphyton in the river. This model will be applied to assess how water quality in the Jordan River is affected by variations in timing and intensity of spring snowmelt and runoff during drought in the valley and the resulting effects on eutrophication in the river.

  13. SELECTION OF CANDIDATE EUTROPHICATION MODELS FOR TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOADS ANALYSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tiered approach was developed to evaluate candidate eutrophication models to select a common suite of models that could be used for Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) analyses in estuaries, rivers, and lakes/reservoirs. Consideration for linkage to watershed models and ecologica...

  14. Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A one-dimensional coupled physical–biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the central Black Sea at the end of the 1980s when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The physical model is

  15. The role of shellfish aquaculture in reduction of eutrophication in an urban estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bricker, Suzanne B.; Ferreira, Joao Gomes; Zhu, Changbo

    2018-01-01

    Mitigating coastal eutrophication is a global challenge. In many places where land-based management has reduced nutrient discharges, coastal waterbodies remain impaired. This study examined ‘bioextraction’ of nutrients from the water by oyster aquaculture in Long Island Sound, Connecticut, as an ...

  16. Interactions between fishes and the structure of fish communities in Dutch shallow, eutrophic lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the structure of fish communities in Tjeukemeer (21 km 2) and some other surrounding very eutrophic lakes and emphasizes the interactions of the fishes with each other and their food organisms (predation and

  17. Are bacteria an important food source for rotifers in eutrophic lakes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms-Wilms, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    In situ grazing measurements using fluorescent particles of 0.5, 2.4 and 6.3 mu m diameter in eutrophic Lake Loosdrecht (The Netherlands) showed that Anuraeopsis fissa, a small rotifer, filtered the smallest, bacteria sized particles as efficiently or more efficiently than the larger particles. In

  18. Viral ecology of a shallow eutrophic lake - Virus ecologie in een ondiep eutroof meer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to give an insight into the ecology of the viral community in a shallow eutrophic lake. To achieve this, the population dynamics, diversity and control of the viral community in Lake Loosdrecht were studied, as well as the impact of the viral community on plankton mortality and

  19. Community structure of macrozoobenthic feeding guilds in responses to eutrophication in Jakarta Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM AZBAS TAURUSMAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Taurusman AA (2010 Community structure of macrozoobenthic feeding guilds in responses to eutrophication in Jakarta Bay. Biodiversitas 11: 133-138. The group of benthic fauna which feed on the same food sources are classified as a feeding guild. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the distribution and composition of macrozoobenthic feeding guilds along gradient of organic enrichment (trophic states in Jakarta Bay. The result of the present study was shown that at the hypertrophic stations of the bay dominated by species of surface deposit feeding polychaetes such as, Dodecaceria sp., Cirratulus sp., Capitella sp., and Spionidae. The eutrophic zone of the bay was dominated by suspension feeding bivalves Mactra sp., Chione sp. The offshore area (mesotrophic zone showed a high diversity of species and feeding guilds compared to other areas. The patterns of feeding guilds in the mesotrophic zone indicated a higher stability of macrozoobenthos community, indicated by the presence of deep-deposit feeder (e.g. Acetes sp., surface deposit feeders (e.g. Prionospio sp., suspension feeders (e.g. Chione sp., and carnivores (e.g. Nepthys sp. in comparable proportions. The structure of macrozoobenthic feeding guilds in an eutrophic coastal water is positively related to the quantity and quality of organic matters (eutrophic states, and the capability of benthic species in adaptation to such environmental condition.

  20. Aquatic macrophyte community varies in urban reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Cristina Alves da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Investigate spatial and temporal variation in the aquatic macrophyte community in four urban reservoirs located in Curitiba metropolitan region, Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic macrophyte community differ among reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication. METHODS: The reservoirs selected ranged from oligotrophic/mesotrophic to eutrophic. Sampling occurred in October 2011, January 2012 and June 2012. Twelve aquatic macrophytes stands were sampled at each reservoir. Species were identified and the relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes was estimated. Differences among reservoirs and over sampling periods were analyzed: i through two‑way ANOVAs considering the stand extent (m and the stand biodiversity - species richness, evenness, Shannon-Wiener index and beta diversity (species variation along the aquatic macrophyte stand; and ii through PERMANOVA considering species composition. Indicator species that were characteristic for each reservoir were also identified. RESULTS: The aquatic macrophyte stand extent varied among reservoirs and over sampling periods. Species richness showed only temporal variation. On the other hand, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index varied only among reservoirs. The beta diversity of macrophyte stands did not vary among reservoirs or over time, meaning that species variability among aquatic macrophyte stands was independent of the stand extent and reservoir eutrophication. Community composition depended on the reservoir and sampling period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our initial expectation that reservoirs of different degrees of eutrophication have different aquatic macrophyte communities. As a consequence, each reservoir had particular indicator species. Therefore, monitoring and management efforts must be offered for each reservoir individually.

  1. Growth rate, protein:RNA ratio and stoichiometric homeostasis of submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress

    OpenAIRE

    Xing W.; Shi Q.; Liu H.; Liu G.

    2016-01-01

    Growth rate hypothesis (GRH) and stoichiometric homeostasis of photoautotrophs have always been questioned. However, little is known about GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of aquatic plants, especially submerged macrophytes. Therefore, we aim to test the GRH and explore stoichiometric homeostasis of four freshwater submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress. At the single species level and the multi-species level, N:P ratios ...

  2. A Water–Energy–Food Nexus Perspective on the Challenge of Eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ratna Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to understand and explore the problem of eutrophication in the context of agriculture with the help of a nexus perspective. Eutrophication is significantly linked to water and energy resources with theoretically well-defined trade-offs and threshold levels. While looking at the linkages between water and land resources comprehensively, our paper questions the present approach to designing and implementing watershed management, and analyses the effects of agricultural intensification, especially in dry regions. Eutrophication is the process by which excessive nutrient loads in water bodies lead to undesirable water-quality problems and the degradation of the overall aquatic ecosystem. Due to limited information and knowledge on water and soil quality in most countries, farmers continue to use fertilizers at an increasing rate and agricultural run-off has been carrying ever more nitrogen and phosphorus into water bodies. This is likely to become a vicious cycle of eutrophication affecting food and water security. Of late, soil- and water-conservation interventions, like watershed development, are further reducing run-off. It is argued that there is a need to rethink the assumptions under which watershed interventions are designed and implemented.

  3. Eutrophication threatens Caribbean seagrasses – An example from Curaçao and Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, L.L.; Lamers, L.P.M.; Bouma, T.J.; de Brouwer, J.H.F.; van Katwijk, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass beds are globally declining due to human activities in coastal areas. We here aimed to identify threats from eutrophication to the valuable seagrass beds of Curaçao and Bonaire in the Caribbean, which function as nursery habitats for commercial fish species. We documented surface- and

  4. Aerial photogrammetry procedure optimized for micro uav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the automatic aerial photogrammetry procedure optimized for Micro UAV that has ability of autonomous flight. The most important goal of our proposed method is the reducing the processing cost for fully automatic reconstruction of DSM from a large amount of image obtained from Micro UAV. For this goal, we have developed automatic corresponding point generation procedure using feature point tracking algorithm considering position and attitude information, which obtained from onboard GPS-IMU integrated on Micro UAV. In addition, we have developed the automatic exterior orientation and registration procedure from the automatic generated corresponding points on each image and position and attitude information from Micro UAV. Moreover, in order to reconstruct precise DSM, we have developed the area base matching process which considering edge information. In this paper, we describe processing flow of our automatic aerial photogrammetry. Moreover, the accuracy assessment is also described. Furthermore, some application of automatic reconstruction of DSM will be desired.

  5. Aerial vehicles collision avoidance using monocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.

  6. [Distribution of Chlorophyll-a and Eutrophication State in Tianchi Lake of Tianshan Mountains in Summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Ma, Jian; Wang, Yin-ya; Yin, Xiang-jiang

    2015-07-01

    From June to August in 2014, the distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and correlations with environmental factors were investigated, the eutrophication status and causes were discussed in Tianchi Lake of Tianshan Mountains. The results showed that the Chl-a concentrations ranged from 2. 11 to 4. 06 µg. L -1 with a mean value of (2. 8 ± 0. 69) µg . L-1 in summer, the vertical distribution of Chl-a in different monitoring zones had a similar characteristic that the Chl-a concentration in epilimnionis (2-12 m) was higher than those at the surface (0-2 m) and hypolimnion (below 12 m). The Chl-a concentration had significant negative correlations with depth and conductivity, significant positive correlations with water temperature, pH value, the concentration of dissolved oxygen, the cell density of algae and TP, and less correlation with TN. The mean concentrations of TN and TP in Tianchi Lake in summer were 0.27 mg . L-1 and 0.035 mg. L-1 respectively, both of which exceeded the international standards of general eutrophic lakes. The modified Carlson trophic state index was used to assess the eutrophication status of Tianchi Lake, which is currently at a moderate eutrophication level. The reasons might be the increased nutrients attributed to soil erosion, and algae blooms due to the changes in the composition of hydrobios. Therefore, it is important to use ecological restoration and management to protect the water quality and surrounding vegetation, which may mitigate the risk of eutrophication in Tianchi Lake.

  7. Shifts in coastal fish communities: Is eutrophication always beneficial for sticklebacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Karine; Gräfnings, Max; Boström, Christoffer

    2017-11-01

    Following declines of predatory fish, mesopredators such as sticklebacks have been linked to shifts in coastal trophic networks through both top-down (preying on mesograzers and facilitating algal blooms) and bottom-up (benefitting from eutrophicated conditions) processes. Here, we tested whether the association between eutrophication effects (filamentous algae and turbidity) and sticklebacks held true in the Finnish Archipelago Sea where predatory fish populations have remained stable. If so, sticklebacks should be more abundant in the middle archipelago, where eutrophic conditions have led to increased turbidity, higher filamentous algal loads, and decreased cover of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), than in the outer archipelago, where environmental conditions are better. We measured the spatial and seasonal variation of sticklebacks (three-spined Gasterosteus aculeatus and nine-spined Pungitius pungitius) in middle and outer archipelago sites, as well as environmental variables potentially affecting their abundance. Adults and juveniles of both species were more abundant in the outer than middle archipelago. The outer archipelago was characterized by greater Secchi depth throughout the summer and higher SAV cover in late summer. Secchi depth was positively correlated with stickleback abundance of both species, while SAV cover was also positively correlated in late summer. Filamentous algal cover was high in both the middle and outer archipelago, but not consistently associated with stickleback abundance throughout the summer. While sticklebacks have been thought to both contribute to, and benefit from, eutrophication, our results instead suggest that the resulting environmental changes may have adverse effects on sticklebacks, especially if predators are present. This may lead them to shift their breeding grounds and spatial distribution to less eutrophicated areas where lower turbidity and the resulting increased availability of SAV provide refuge from

  8. Decline in growth of foraminifer Marginopora rossi under eutrophication and ocean acidification scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Claire E; Lloyd, Alicia; Kline, David I; Dove, Sophie G; Pandolfi, John M

    2013-01-01

    The combination of global and local stressors is leading to a decline in coral reef health globally. In the case of eutrophication, increased concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) are largely attributed to local land use changes. From the global perspective, increased atmospheric CO2 levels are not only contributing to global warming but also ocean acidification (OA). Both eutrophication and OA have serious implications for calcium carbonate production and dissolution among calcifying organisms. In particular, benthic foraminifera precipitate the most soluble form of mineral calcium carbonate (high-Mg calcite), potentially making them more sensitive to dissolution. In this study, a manipulative orthogonal two-factor experiment was conducted to test the effects of dissolved inorganic nutrients and OA on the growth, respiration and photophysiology of the large photosymbiont-bearing benthic foraminifer, Marginopora rossi. This study found the growth rate of M. rossi was inhibited by the interaction of eutrophication and acidification. The relationship between M. rossi and its photosymbionts became destabilized due to the photosymbiont's release from nutrient limitation in the nitrate-enriched treatment, as shown by an increase in zooxanthellae cells per host surface area. Foraminifers from the OA treatments had an increased amount of Chl a per cell, suggesting a greater potential to harvest light energy, however, there was no net benefit to the foraminifer growth. Overall, this study demonstrates that the impacts of OA and eutrophication are dose dependent and interactive. This research indicates an OA threshold at pH 7.6, alone or in combination with eutrophication, will lead to a decline in M. rossi calcification. The decline in foraminifera calcification associated with pollution and OA will have broad ecological implications across their ubiquitous range and suggests that without mitigation it could have serious implications

  9. [Nitrogen and phosphate pollution characteristics and eutrophication evaluation for typical urban landscape waters in Hefei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Liu, Ke-Feng; Qian, Jing; Yang, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Pian-Pian

    2014-05-01

    To understand the water environment regimes of the city-circling water system in Hefei City, six typical landscape waters were chosen to investigate pollution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphate and evaluate water eutrophication level according to the monitoring data of water physicochemical characteristics and chlorophyll content from September 2012 to July 2013. Study results showed that (1) the six waters mentioned above have been seriously polluted by nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, with the monthly mean values of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations far exceeding the universally accepted threshold values of water eutrophication; (2) the nitrogen contents in the waters of Nanfeihe River, Heichiba and Yuhuatang scenic spots exhibited a markedly monthly variation, and both TP and PO(3-)(4)-P in Nanfeihe River showed a fluctuated characteristic with high concentrations while presenting a significant upward trend in Yuhuatang scenic spot; (3) the average values of TN/TP ratios for Yuhuatang and Heichiba scenic spots were 104.7 and 158.3, respectively, and the ratios for Baohe Park, Yinhe Park, Xiaoyaojin Park, and city segment of Nanfeihe River were 16.8, 18.7, 6.4 and 16.8, respectively, indicating that the scenic waters of Yuhuatang and Heichiba were phosphate-limited whereas Xiaoyaojin Park was nitrogen-limited; (4) all the six scenic waters were, in general, subsumed under just two broad categories, namely Hechiba scenic spot and Nanfeihe River, which were seriously polluted, and clustered together, and the others fall into the second class; and (5) water eutrophication appraisal result indicated that the six waters were all in the state of eutrophication, and could be arranged in the order of eutrophication level, Yinhe Park > Heichiba scenic spot > city segment of Nanfeihe River > Xiaoyaojin Park > Yuhuatang scenic spot > Baohe Park.

  10. Land-Use Legacies Are Important Determinants of Lake Eutrophication in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, Bronwyn E.; Bennett, Elena M.; MacDonald, Graham K.; Taranu, Zofia E.; Gregory-Eaves, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Background A hallmark of the latter half of the 20th century is the widespread, rapid intensification of a variety of anthropogenically-driven environmental changes—a “Great Acceleration.” While there is evidence of a Great Acceleration in a variety of factors known to be linked to water quality degradation, such as conversion of land to agriculture and intensification of fertilizer use, it is not known whether there has been a similar acceleration of freshwater eutrophication. Methodology/Principal Findings Using quantitative reconstructions of diatom-inferred total phosphorus (DI-TP) as a proxy for lake trophic state, we synthesized results from 67 paleolimnological studies from across Europe and North America to evaluate whether most lakes showed a pattern of eutrophication with time and whether this trend was accelerated after 1945 CE, indicative of a Great Acceleration. We found that European lakes have experienced widespread increases in DI-TP over the 20th century and that 33% of these lakes show patterns consistent with a post-1945 CE Great Acceleration. In North America, the proportion of lakes that increased in DI-TP over time is much lower and only 9% exhibited a Great Acceleration of eutrophication. Conclusions/Significance The longer and more widespread history of anthropogenic influence in Europe, the leading cause for the relatively pervasive freshwater eutrophication, provides an important cautionary tale; our current path of intensive agriculture around the world may lead to an acceleration of eutrophication in downstream lakes that could take centuries from which to recover. PMID:21264341

  11. Seasonal changes of arsenic speciation in lake waters in relation to eutrophication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H., E-mail: hhiroshi@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Rahman, M. Azizur; Kitahara, K.; Itaya, Y.; Maki, T.; Ueda, K. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the influence of eutrophication on arsenic speciation in lake waters was investigated. Surface water samples (n = 1-10) were collected from 18 lakes in Japan during July 2007 and February 2008. The lakes were classified into mesotrophic (7 lakes) and eutrophic (11 lakes) based on the total phosphate (T-P) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in water column. Inorganic, methylated and ultraviolet-labile fractions of arsenic species were determined by combining hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with ultraviolet irradiation. Organoarsenicals (mainly methylated and ultraviolet-labile fractions) comprised 30-60% of the total arsenic in most lakes during summer. On the other hand, inorganic arsenic species (As(III + V)) dominates (about 60-85%) during winter. The occurrence of ultraviolet-labile fractions of arsenic was higher in eutrophic lakes than those in mesotrophic lakes in both seasons. The concentration of dimethyl arsenic (DMAA) was high in eutrophic lakes during winter; and in mesotrophic lakes during summer. The results suggest that the conversion of As(III + V) to more complicated organoarsenicals occurred frequently in eutrophic lakes compared to that in mesotrophic lakes, which is thought to be the influence of biological activity in the water column. The distribution of arsenic species were well correlated with phosphate concentrations than those of Chl-a. This might be due to the competitive uptake of As(V) and phosphate by phytoplankton. The organoarsenicals (OrgAs)/As(V) ratio was higher at low phosphate concentration indicating that conversion of As(V) to OrgAs species was more active in phosphate-exhausted lakes with high phytoplankton density.

  12. Carbon and nitrogen burial in a plateau lake during eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changchun; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Yunmei; Lin, Chen; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Mingli; Zhu, A-Xing; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-11-06

    Organic carbon (OC) buried in lake sediment is an important component of the global carbon cycle. The impact of eutrophication on OC burial in lakes should be addressed due to worldwide lake eutrophication. Fourteen (210)Pb- and (137)Cs-dated sediment cores taken in Dianchi Lake (China) in August 2006 (seven cores) and July 2014 (seven cores) were analyzed to evaluate the response of the organic carbon accumulation rate (OCAR) to eutrophication and algal blooms over the past hundred years. The mean value of OCAR before eutrophication occurred in 1979, 16.62±7.53 (mean value±standard deviation), increased to 54.33±27.29gm(-2)yr(-1) after eutrophication. It further increased to 61.98±28.94gm(-2)yr(-1) after algal blooms occurred (1989). The accumulation rate of organic nitrogen (ONAR) is coupled with OCAR. The high loss rate of OC and organic nitrogen (ON) leads to a long-term burial efficiency of only 10% and 5% of OC and ON. However, this efficiency can still lead to an increase in OCAR by a factor of 4.55 during algal blooms in Dianchi Lake. Dianchi Lake stored 1.26±0.32 Tg carbon and 0.071±0.018 Tg nitrogen, including 0.94±0.23 Tg OC and 0.32±0.14 Tg inorganic carbon, 0.066±0.018 Tg ON, 0.002±0.001 Tg nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and 0.003±0.001 Tg ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) between 1900 and 2012. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of feeding habits and physical activity between eutrophic and overweight/obese children and adolescents: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Pires, Lara Aquino Ferreira; Miyasaka, Jordan; Bueno, Vanessa; Khouri, Juliana Mathias Netto; Ramos, Marianna Lorenzo S Ramos; Ceccato, Yara Cristina; Costa, Vivian; Maia Júnior, Francisco de Assis

    2015-01-01

    it is broadly accepted, but little explored, that obese children practice less physical activity and eat more. This study has the objective of comparing feeding habits and physical activity between eutrophic and overweight/obese children and adolescents. 126 students with ages ranging from 6 to 18 years were evaluated. Eutrophic and overweight/obese students were compared according to calorie intake, macro and micronutrients, prevalence of physical inactivity and ingestion of micronutrients. differences were observed in the amount of calories ingested per unit of BMI (eutrophic, 97.6, and overweight/obese, 70.5, p=0.0061), as well as in calcium intake (eutrophic, 546.2, and overweight/obese, 440.7, p=0.0366). Both groups presented sedentarism, as well as a high prevalence of micronutrient intake deficiency, especially calcium and vitamins A, E, and C, but with no difference observed between eutrophic and overweight/obese subjects. energy and macronutrients consumption, as well as physical activity, were similar between eutrophic and overweight/obese. Calcium intake was lower in the overweight/obese group and the ingestion of vitamin C was lower in the eutrophic group. These results demonstrate the importance of considering all etiologic factors that may lead to obesity, so that new strategies for prevention and control may be added to traditional interventions.

  14. A case study of an enhanced eutrophication model with stoichiometric zooplankton growth sub-model calibrated by Bayesian method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Likun; Peng, Sen; Sun, Jingmei; Zhao, Xinhua; Li, Xia

    2016-05-01

    Urban lakes in China have suffered from severe eutrophication over the past several years, particularly those with relatively small areas and closed watersheds. Many efforts have been made to improve the understanding of eutrophication physiology with advanced mathematical models. However, several eutrophication models ignore zooplankton behavior and treat zooplankton as particles, which lead to the systematic errors. In this study, an eutrophication model was enhanced with a stoichiometric zooplankton growth sub-model that simulated the zooplankton predation process and the interplay among nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen cycles. A case study in which the Bayesian method was used to calibrate the enhanced eutrophication model parameters and to calculate the model simulation results was carried out in an urban lake in Tianjin, China. Finally, a water quality assessment was also conducted for eutrophication management. Our result suggests that (1) integration of the Bayesian method and the enhanced eutrophication model with a zooplankton feeding behavior sub-model can effectively depict the change in water quality and (2) the nutrients resulting from rainwater runoff laid the foundation for phytoplankton bloom.

  15. Comparison of feeding habits and physical activity between eutrophic and overweight/obese children and adolescents: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: it is broadly accepted, but little explored, that obese children practice less physical activity and eat more. This study has the objective of comparing feeding habits and physical activity between eutrophic and overweight/obese children and adolescents. Methods: 126 students with ages ranging from 6 to 18 years were evaluated. Eutrophic and overweight/obese students were compared according to calorie intake, macro and micronutrients, prevalence of physical inactivity and ingestion of micronutrients. Results: differences were observed in the amount of calories ingested per unit of BMI (eutrophic, 97.6, and overweight/obese, 70.5, p=0.0061, as well as in calcium intake (eutrophic, 546.2, and overweight/obese, 440.7, p=0.0366. Both groups presented sedentarism, as well as a high prevalence of micronutrient intake deficiency, especially calcium and vitamins A, E, and C, but with no difference observed between eutrophic and overweight/obese subjects. Conclusion: energy and macronutrients consumption, as well as physical activity, were similar between eutrophic and overweight/obese. Calcium intake was lower in the overweight/obese group and the ingestion of vitamin C was lower in the eutrophic group. These results demonstrate the importance of considering all etiologic factors that may lead to obesity, so that new strategies for prevention and control may be added to traditional interventions.

  16. Preliminary Design of Aerial Spraying System for Microlight Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zamri; Idris, Nurfazliawati; Rahim, M. Zulafif

    2017-10-01

    Undoubtedly agricultural is an important sector because it provides essential nutrients for human, and consequently is among the biggest sector for economic growth worldwide. It is crucial to ensure crops production is protected from any plant diseases and pests. Thus aerial spraying system on crops is developed to facilitate farmers to for crops pests control and it is very effective spraying method especially for large and hilly crop areas. However, the use of large aircraft for aerial spaying has a relatively high operational cost. Therefore, microlight aircraft is proposed to be used for crops aerial spraying works for several good reasons. In this paper, a preliminary design of aerial spraying system for microlight aircraft is proposed. Engineering design methodology is adopted in the development of the aerial sprayer and steps involved design are discussed thoroughly. A preliminary design for the microlight to be attached with an aerial spraying system is proposed.

  17. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of three Ericaceae from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Guendouze, Naïma; Madani, K.; Chibane, M.; Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila B-M L.; Hauchard, D.; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Stevigny, Caroline; Okusa, Philippe P.N.; Duez, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Herbs of the Ericaceae family are commonly found in Algeria and used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, diuretic, astringent, depurative, and to treat scalds and wounds. The methanolic extracts of three species, Arbutus unedo L. (A. unedo, leaves), Erica arborea L. (E. arborea, flowered aerial parts), and Erica multiflora L. (E. multiflora, flowered aerial parts), were compared regarding their content in phenolic compounds, their antioxidant, and antibacterial acti...

  18. Atmospheric deposition in relation to acidification and eutrophication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erisman, J.W.; Draaijers, G.P.J. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Air Research Laboratory

    1995-12-31

    This book was written to collect the results of research in the Netherlands and other countries on atmospheric deposition and critical loads. It covers: the history of atmospheric deposition research in the Netherlands and elsewhere; emission, transformation and transport of nitrogen and sulphur compounds and their atmospheric chemistry; wet, dry, cloud and fog deposition processes and measurement; measurement results for NO{sub x}, HNO{sub x}, PAN, NH{sub 3}, HCl, particles and meteorites; deposition modelling in the Netherlands and elsewhere, including historical variation; evaluation of deposition estimates for SO{sub 2}, soil loads, and DEADM and EDACS results. Three case studies are given from Utrechtese Heuvelrug forest; the Speulder forest; and the Elspeetsche Veld. Impacts on forests and other vegetation are given. 625 refs., 118 figs., 69 tabs.

  19. Decoupled Design of Controllers for Aerial Manipulation with Quadrotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-09

    robotics . Compared to ground robots , aerial robots allow for manipulation tasks to be executed in difficult to access spaces, opening the doors to...in [14], where the manip- ulator tracks the aerial robot attitude dynamics during all the translational motion. In [15], the manipulator static...2013. [3] P. Cruz and R. Fierro. Autonomous lift of a cable-suspended load by an unmanned aerial robot . In Conference on Control Applications, pages

  20. Chemical Composition of Buddleja polystachya Aerial Parts and its Bioactivity against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Ali; Al-Massarani, Shaza; Fawzy, Ghada; Ati, Hanan; Al-Rehaily, Adnan; Basudan, Omer; Abdel-Kader, Maged; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Becnel, James

    2017-09-25

    A new acylatediridoid glycoside, 6-O-α-L-(2″-acetyl-4″-O-trans-isoferuloyl) rhamnopyranosyl catalpol (9) together with 18 known compounds belonging to the iridoids, flavonoids, triterpene saponin glycosides and phenylethanoids (1-8, 10-18) were isolated from the aerial parts and the flowers of Buddleja polystachya. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with that reported in the literature. Promising adulticidal activity was shown for all extracts when tested for adulticidal and larvicidal activities against Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Therefore, isolated compounds (1-10, 12-14 and 19) were bioassayed for their adulticidal activity. Compound 1 (phytol) was highly active with an LD 50 value of 1.27 ± 0.08 μg/mosquito against adult female Ae. aegypti.

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis of Different Extracts from Thymus algeriensis Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Boutaoui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the metabolite recovery from different extraction methods applied to Thymus algeriensis aerial parts. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method using photodiode array detector with gradient elution has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of different phenolic compounds in the extracts and in their corresponding purified fractions. The experimental results show that microwave-assisted aqueous extraction for 15 min at 100 °C gave the most phenolics-enriched extract, reducing extraction time without degradation effects on bioactives. Sixteen compounds were identified in this extract, 11 phenolic compounds and five flavonoids, all known for their biological activities. Color analysis and determination of chlorophylls and carotenoids implemented the knowledge of the chemical profile of this plant.

  2. Intelligent Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and, in particular, intelligent, autonomous aircraft operating in the National Airspace (NAS) have the potential to significantly...

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integration into the NAS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technological innovations have enabled a wide range of aerial vehicles that can be remotely operated. Viable applications include military missions, law enforcement,...

  4. Air emissions in France. Metropolitan area substances implied in acidification, eutrophication and photochemistry; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole substances impliquees dans les phenomenes d'acidification, d'eutrophisation et de photochimie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Acidification, eutrophication and photochemistry: SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NH{sub 3}, NMVOCs (total and speciation relating to more than 200 different compounds), CO, acid equivalent index (Aeq) and photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) are presented. Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Emissions are presented by the mean of charts for each substance and the main source categories with a five years step until 1990 then yearly beyond. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. (author)

  5. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  6. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  7. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Mesoionic Compounds - An Unconventional Class of Aromatic Heterocycles. Bharati V Badami. General Article Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 40-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  9. GC-MS analysis of insecticidal essential oil of flowering aerial parts of Saussurea nivea Turcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Sha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time. Results Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+-limonene (15.46%, caryophyllene oxide (7.62%, linalool (7.20%, α-pinene (6.43%, β-pinene (5.66% and spathulenol (5.02% followed by β-eudesmoll (4.64% and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%. The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 μg/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L. Conclusion The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  10. GC-MS Analysis of Insecticidal Essential Oil of Flowering Aerial Parts of Saussurea Nivea Turcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time.Results:Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+-limonene (15.46%, caryophyllene oxide (7.62%, linalool (7.20%, alpha-pinene (6.43%, beta-pinene (5.66% and spathulenol (5.02% followed by beta-eudesmoll (4.64% and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%. The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 mug/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L.Conclusion: The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  11. Image mosaicking from aerial unmanned airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Gong, Jianhua

    2008-10-01

    In this article, the SIFT method is employed to combine a lot of images together from aerial unmanned airplane, without any control points. And the image number of this method is smaller than that of the triangulation. SIFT feature, which has shown great success in computer vision, is introduced into image registration in remote sensing. We extract distinctive invariant features from images that can be used to perform reliable matching between different views of an object or scene. The features are invariant to image scale and rotation, they are well localized in both the spatial and frequency domains, reducing the probability of disruption by occlusion, clutter, or noise.

  12. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens

    2012-01-01

    measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, especially offshore. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics, and most of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used...... as either an extension of current masts or to build a network of very high 'masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In order to test the potential and limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has...

  13. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens

    2011-01-01

    of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current masts or to build a network of very high 'masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of masts......, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test this assumption and to test the limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has built a lighter-than-air kite with a long tether, Bergen University flies a derivative...

  14. Long-term eutrophication prompts tradeoffs in nitrous oxide and methane emission in a New England salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutrophication is a common problem facing urban estuaries and may stimulate changes in microtopography, plant communities, and microbial processes that drive greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. Since coastal wetlands are known to sequester abundant carbon and GHGs relative to terrestri...

  15. Patterns in nutrient limitation and chlorophyll a along an anthropogenic eutrophication gradient in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souchu, Philippe; Bec, Beatrice; Smith, Val H; Laugier, Thierry; Fiandrino, Annie; Benau, Laurent; Orsoni, Valerie; Collos, Yves; Vaquer, Andre

    2010-01-01

    A cross-ecosystem comparison of data obtained from 20 French Mediterranean lagoons with contrasting eutrophication status provided the basis for investigating the variables that best predict chlorophyll a (Chl...

  16. Effects of elevated CO2 on phytoplankton during a mesocosm experiment in the southern eutrophicated coastal water of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xin Liu; Yan Li; Yaping Wu; Bangqin Huang; Minhan Dai; Feixue Fu; David A Hutchins; Kunshan Gao

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we report the first mesocosm CO2 perturbation study in a eutrophic subtropical bay during summer by investigating the effect of rising CO2 on a model artificial community consisting of well...

  17. Modelling the influence of changing climate in present and future marine eutrophication impacts from spring barley production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Niero, Monia

    2017-01-01

    of different normalisation references when comparing future Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) scenarios with current production systems. A parameterised characterisation model was developed to gauge the influence of future climatic-driven pressures on the marine eutrophication impact pathway. Spatial differentiation...

  18. Eutrophication, risk management and sustainability. The perceptions of different stakeholders in the northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Cecilia

    2013-01-15

    The environmental condition of the Baltic Sea is not only of concern for natural scientists. The awareness of the deteriorating state of the ecosystem has become an issue of interdisciplinary interest, and the amount of organizations with the marine environment and ecosystem health on the agenda is large. To present holistic and sustainable solutions and results of the actions taken, an active cooperation between all stakeholder groups and levels are needed. How different stakeholders in the northern Baltic Sea perceive the structures and assessments of the eutrophication were analyzed by semi-structured interviews with 17 stakeholders representing authorities, scientists, NGOs and national interest organizations. The focus was the view of the governance structures, risk assessment, management and communication. There was an overall consensus that eutrophication is a serious problem. Still variations in the opinions both within and between the stakeholder groups were seen. The scientists were most divergent from the rest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Responses of primary production, leaf litter decomposition and associated communities to stream eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunck, Bárbara; Lima-Fernandes, Eva; Cássio, Fernanda; Cunha, Ana; Rodrigues, Liliana; Pascoal, Cláudia

    2015-07-01

    We assessed the eutrophication effects on leaf litter decomposition and primary production, and on periphytic algae, fungi and invertebrates. According to the subsidy-stress model, we expected that when algae and decomposers were nutrient limited, their activity and diversity would increase at moderate levels of nutrient enrichment, but decrease at high levels of nutrients, because eutrophication would lead to the presence of other stressors and overwhelm the subsidy effect. Chestnut leaves (Castanea sativa Mill) were enclosed in mesh bags and immersed in five streams of the Ave River basin (northwest Portugal) to assess leaf decomposition and colonization by invertebrates and fungi. In parallel, polyethylene slides were attached to the mesh bags to allow colonization by algae and to assess primary production. Communities of periphytic algae and decomposers discriminated the streams according to the trophic state. Primary production decomposition and biodiversity were lower in streams at both ends of the trophic gradient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eutrophication will increase during the 21st century as a result of precipitation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, E; Michalak, A M; Balaji, V

    2017-07-28

    Eutrophication, or excessive nutrient enrichment, threatens water resources across the globe. We show that climate change-induced precipitation changes alone will substantially increase (19 ± 14%) riverine total nitrogen loading within the continental United States by the end of the century for the "business-as-usual" scenario. The impacts, driven by projected increases in both total and extreme precipitation, will be especially strong for the Northeast and the corn belt of the United States. Offsetting this increase would require a 33 ± 24% reduction in nitrogen inputs, representing a massive management challenge. Globally, changes in precipitation are especially likely to also exacerbate eutrophication in India, China, and Southeast Asia. It is therefore imperative that water quality management strategies account for the impact of projected future changes in precipitation on nitrogen loading. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.