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Sample records for euthyroid reference ranges

  1. Effects of age and health on the euthyroid reference ranges for serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, J.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Age-related trends in serum free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) concentrations were measured in 7248 euthyroid subjects (age-range 3 months to 106 years). 5700 were patients referred to hospitals for investigation of suspected thyroid dysfunction, but who were diagnosed euthyroid. 1548 were healthy blood donors (age-range 18-63 years) with no indication of thyroid dysfunction. FT 4 concentrations were little affected by the age, the sex or the state of health of the subjects in either group. Serum FT 3 concentrations were significantly affected by both age and health factors. The upper limit of the euthyroid reference range for young subjects up to 15 years was about 20% higher (10.4 pmol/l) than for adult subjects older than 25 years (8.8 pmol/l). The change in the upper limits typical of young subjects to that typical of adults occurred steadily over the decade 15-25 years. After this age, little further change occurred, especially in healthy subjects. Additionally, the lower limit of the euthyroid range for FT 3 was extended by the inclusion in the reference group of patients referred to hospitals. Compared with the lower limit of the FT 3 range for healthy subjects (5 pmol/l), the corresponding limit for referred subjects (young or adult) was 3.5-3.8 pmol/l. Broadening of the FT 3 reference range was probably brought about by a significant number of patients in the hospital-referred group with the 'low-T 3 syndrome' of mild non-thyroidal illness. Accordingly, FT 3 was inferior to FT 4 in the discrimination of hypothyroidism, as FT 4 was unaffected by this phenomenon. Effects of age and non-thyroidal illness on serum FT 3 concentrations require great care when selecting subjects for a laboratory euthyroid reference range typical of the routine workload. Constraints on the choice of subjects for FT 4 reference ranges are less stringent. (orig.) [de

  2. Reference intervals for free t/sub 3/ and free t/sub 4/ in pakistani euthyroid patients: effect of age and gender on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, R.; Abbas, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    To establish reference intervals for Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) and Free Thyroxine (FT4) in euthyroid subjects and to assess the effect of age and gender on FT3 and FT4. Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), Lahore, from January 2009 to April 2011. Methodology: FT3 and FT4 were measured in 852 euthyroid patients. Those with previous thyroid surgery, on thyroid related medication and severe non-thyroid illness were excluded. Results: There were 215 males and 637 females with mean age of 46 years. The reference intervals, revealed by this study, for FT3 and FT4 were 2.80 - 5.39 pmol/L and 11.9 - 22.2 pmol/L respectively. The mean difference between gender groups and age groups was found statistically significant for FT3 (gender: p = 0.001; age: p = 0.001) but statistically insignificant for FT4 (gender: p=0.147; age: p=0.201). Conclusion: There was no effect of gender and age on FT3 and FT4. The age with serum FT3 and FT4 significantly negatively correlated but this correlation was stronger for FT3 as compared to FT4 levels. Reference intervals of FT3 and FT4 for male (2.99 - 5.63 pmol/L, 12.3 - 22.6 pmol/L) and female (2.77 - 5.29 pmol/L, 11.7 - 22.1 pmol/L) respectively are suggested. (author)

  3. Relational Stability of Thyroid Hormones in Euthyroid Subjects and Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E.M.; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Operating far from its equilibrium resting point, the thyroid gland requires stimulation via feedback-controlled pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) secretion to maintain adequate hormone supply. We explored and defined variations in the expression of control mechanisms and physiological responses across the euthyroid reference range. Methods We analyzed the relational equilibria between thyroid parameters defining thyroid production and thyroid conversion in a group of 271 thyroid-healthy subjects and 86 untreated patients with thyroid autoimmune disease. Results In the euthyroid controls, the FT3-FT4 (free triiodothyronine-free thyroxine) ratio was strongly associated with the FT4-TSH ratio (tau = −0.22, p < 0.001, even after correcting for spurious correlation), linking T4 to T3 conversion with TSH-standardized T4 production. Using a homeostatic model, we estimated both global deiodinase activity and maximum thyroid capacity. Both parameters were nonlinearly and inversely associated, trending in opposite directions across the euthyroid reference range. Within the panel of controls, the subgroup with a relatively lower thyroid capacity (<2.5 pmol/s) displayed lower FT4 levels, but maintained FT3 at the same concentrations as patients with higher functional and anatomical capacity. The relationships were preserved when extended to the subclinical range in the diseased sample. Conclusion The euthyroid panel does not follow a homogeneous pattern to produce random variation among thyroid hormones and TSH, but forms a heterogeneous group that progressively displays distinctly different levels of homeostatic control across the euthyroid range. This suggests a concept of relational stability with implications for definition of euthyroidism and disease classification. PMID:27843807

  4. Thyroid Function Tests in the Reference Range and Fracture: Individual Participant Analysis of Prospective Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Carole E; Floriani, Carmen; Bauer, Douglas C; da Costa, Bruno R; Segna, Daniel; Blum, Manuel R; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Fink, Howard A; Cappola, Anne R; Syrogiannouli, Lamprini; Peeters, Robin P; Åsvold, Bjørn O; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Luben, Robert N; Bremner, Alexandra P; Gogakos, Apostolos; Eastell, Richard; Kearney, Patricia M; Hoff, Mari; Le Blanc, Erin; Ceresini, Graziano; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Langhammer, Arnulf; Stott, David J; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Williams, Graham R; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Walsh, John P; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased fracture risk, but it is not clear if lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and higher free thyroxine (FT4) in euthyroid individuals are associated with fracture risk. To evaluate the association of TSH and FT4 with incident fractures in euthyroid individuals. Individual participant data analysis. Thirteen prospective cohort studies with baseline examinations between 1981 and 2002. Adults with baseline TSH 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L. Primary outcome was incident hip fracture. Secondary outcomes were any, nonvertebral, and vertebral fractures. Results were presented as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) adjusted for age and sex. For clinical relevance, we studied TSH according to five categories: 0.45 to 0.99 mIU/L; 1.00 to 1.49 mIU/L; 1.50 to 2.49 mIU/L; 2.50 to 3.49 mIU/L; and 3.50 to 4.49 mIU/L (reference). FT4 was assessed as study-specific standard deviation increase, because assays varied between cohorts. During 659,059 person-years, 2,565 out of 56,835 participants had hip fracture (4.5%; 12 studies with data on hip fracture). The pooled adjusted HR (95% CI) for hip fracture was 1.25 (1.05 to 1.49) for TSH 0.45 to 0.99 mIU/L, 1.19 (1.01 to 1.41) for TSH 1.00 to 1.49 mIU/L, 1.09 (0.93 to 1.28) for TSH 1.50 to 2.49 mIU/L, and 1.12 (0.94 to 1.33) for TSH 2.50 to 3.49 mIU/L (P for trend = 0.004). Hip fracture was also associated with FT4 [HR (95% CI) 1.22 (1.11 to 1.35) per one standard deviation increase in FT4]. FT4 only was associated with any and nonvertebral fractures. Results remained similar in sensitivity analyses. Among euthyroid adults, lower TSH and higher FT4 are associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. These findings may help refine the definition of optimal ranges of thyroid function tests. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  5. Epidemiological reference ranges for low-density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is widespread acceptance that total cholesterol (TC) value reference ranges should be based on epidemiological rather than statistical considerations, the epidemiological action limits for Iow-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are still incomplete and only statistical reference ranges for apolipoprotein B ...

  6. Hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges of free-ranging moose (Alces Alces) in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rostal, Melinda K.; Evans, Alina L.; Solberg, Erling L.; Arnemo, Jon Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article is also available here: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/ Baseline reference ranges of serum chemistry and hematology data can be important indicators for the status of both individuals or populations of wild animals that are affected by emerging pathogens, toxicants, or other causes of disease. Frequently, reference ranges for these values are not available for wildlife species or subspecies. We present hematologic and serum chemistry reference ranges for moose (Alces ...

  7. Range Reference Atmosphere 0-70 Km Altitude. Kwajalein Missile Range, Kwajalein, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    DOCUMENT 360-82 KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE KWAJALEIN, MARSHALL ISLANDS RANGE REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE 0-70 KM ALTITUDE, C00 L’’I METEOROLOGY GROUP .RANGE...34Reference Atmosphere (Part 1), Kwajale 4n Missile Range, Kwajalein, Marshall Islands ," ADA002664. * 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on revorsae d. If necoeewy...CLASSIFICATION OF TIlS PAGE (Whe~n Data EnterecD -v DOCUMENT 360-82 Vo- KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE KWAJALEIN, MARSHALL ISLANDS RANGE REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE 0-70 km

  8. Hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostal, Melinda K; Evans, Alina L; Solberg, Erling J; Arnemo, Jon M

    2012-07-01

    Baseline reference ranges of serum chemistry and hematology data can be important indicators for the status of both individuals or populations of wild animals that are affected by emerging pathogens, toxicants, or other causes of disease. Frequently, reference ranges for these values are not available for wildlife species or subspecies. We present hematologic and serum chemistry reference ranges for moose (Alces alces) adults, yearlings, and calves in Norway sampled from 1992-2000. Additionally, we demonstrated that both induction time and chase time were correlated with initial rectal temperature, although they were not significantly correlated with cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, or creatine kinase. Overall, the reference ranges given here are similar to those given for American moose, with a few differences that can be attributed to environment, testing methodology, or subspecies or species status. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of reference ranges for moose in Norway.

  9. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  10. Thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, Mark F.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the formation of thyroid hormones and a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Titers of TPO antibodies also correlate with the degree of lymphocytic infiltration in euthyroid subjects, and they are frequently present in euthyroid subjects

  11. Reference Ranges in [(99m)Tc]Mercaptoacetyltriglycerine Renography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewers, Kate I; Hvidsten, Svend; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to define reference ranges for quantitative parameters in [(99m)Tc]mercaptoacetyltriglycerine ([(99m)Tc]MAG3) renography to assist interpretation in a semi-automated (Xeleris, GE) compared to a manual (Picker, Odyssey) software package. PROCEDURES: Forty......-eight subjects approved for renal donation were evaluated with [(99m)Tc]MAG3 renography using both the Xeleris and the Picker software. RESULTS: Reference ranges for the two software were comparable regarding the relative function of the two kidneys (the split function, SF) and the residual activities (RA......). The time to peak whole-kidney activities (T max whole-kidney) was more dependent on the type of software. Using Bland-Altman limits, we found good and acceptable agreement between the two methods. CONCLUSIONS: We found good correlation between renography results using the Xeleris and Picker software...

  12. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS): Terms of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Van; Noll, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is an established Service within Section II , Advanced Space Technology, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). The primary objective of the ILRS is to provide a service to support, through Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging data and related products, geodetic and geophysical research activities as well as International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The service also develops the necessary standards/specifications and encourages international adherence to its conventions.

  13. Echocardiographic reference ranges for sedentary donkeys in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S L; Dukes-McEwan, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide two-dimensional (2D) and M-mode echocardiographic reference ranges from a sample of the UK population of donkeys including geriatrics (>30 years), owned by The Donkey Sanctuary, and to assess the influence of gender, weight and age on these variables. A total of 36 donkeys with no clinical or echocardiographic evidence of cardiovascular disease were examined; 24 geldings and 12 females, aged 3-45 years old, weighing 130-262 kg. Left atrial to aortic ratio was larger in geldings (P=0.004). There was no significant difference for left ventricular M-mode diastolic diameter between females and geldings (P=0.121) after exclusion of one heavy female outlier. 2D measurements significantly increased with bodyweight including maximal left atrial diameter (R(2)=0.112; P=0.046), aortic diameter at various levels (e.g. annulus: R(2)=0.35; Pdonkeys across a wide age range and shows differences compared with reference ranges from working donkeys. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Establishing a reference range for triiodothyronine levels in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki Won; Koo, Mi Sung; Park, Hye Won; Chung, Mi Lim; Kim, Min-ho; Lim, Gina

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid dysfunction affects clinical complications in preterm infants and older children. However, thyroid hormone replacement in preterm infants has no proven benefits, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate reference range for thyroid hormone levels. We aimed to establish a reference range for triiodothyronine (T3) levels at 1-month postnatal age (PNA) in preterm infants. This retrospective study included preterm infants born at a tertiary referral neonatal center at gestational age (GA)<35 weeks with no apparent thyroid dysfunction, for 6 consecutive years, with follow-up from PNA 2 weeks to 16 weeks. Using thyroid function tests (TFT), the relationships between T3 levels and thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels, birth weight, GA, postmenstrual age (PMA), and PNA were examined. The conversion trend for fT4 to T3 was analyzed using the T3/fT4 ratio. Overall, 464 TFTs from 266 infants were analyzed, after excluding 65 infants with thyroid dysfunction. T3 levels increased with fT4 levels, birth weight, GA, PMA, and PNA but not with TSH levels. The T3/fT4 ratio also increased with GA, PNA, and PMA. The average T3 level at 1 month PNA was 72.56 ± 27.83 ng/dL, with significant stratifications by GA. Relatively low T3 and fT4 levels in preterm infants were considered normal, with T3 levels and conversion trends increasing with GA, PMA, and PNA. Further studies are required to confirm the role of the present reference range in thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha is Inversely Related to Free Thyroxine in Euthyroid Subjects Without Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tienhoven-Wind, L. J. N.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    Lower thyroid functional status within the euthyroid range may confer increased atherosclerosis susceptibility, as evidenced by increased intima media thickness and coronary artery calcification. Associations of lower thyroid functional status with pro-atherogenic (inflammatory) biomarkers may also

  16. Generating method-specific Reference Ranges - A harmonious outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Graham R; Griffin, Alison; Halton, Kieran; Fitzgibbon, Maria C

    2017-12-01

    When laboratory Reference Ranges (RR) do not reflect analytical methodology, result interpretation can cause misclassification of patients and inappropriate management. This can be mitigated by determining and implementing method-specific RRs, which was the main objective of this study. Serum was obtained from healthy volunteers (Male + Female, n > 120) attending hospital health-check sessions during June and July 2011. Pseudo-anonymised aliquots were stored (at - 70 °C) prior t° analysis on Abbott ARCHITECT c16000 chemistry and i 2000SR immunoassay analysers. Data were stratified by gender where appropriate. Outliers were excluded statistically (Tukey method) to generate non-parametric RRs (2.5th + 97.5th percentiles). RRs were compared to those quoted by Abbott and UK Pathology Harmony (PH) where possible. For 7 selected tests, RRs were verified using a data mining approach. For chemistry tests (n = 23), Upper or Lower Reference Limits (LRL or URL) were > 20% different from Abbott ranges in 25% of tests (11% from PH ranges) but in 38% for immunoassay tests (n = 13). RRs (mmol/L) for sodium (138-144), potassium (3.8-4.9) and chloride (102-110) were considerably narrower than PH ranges (133-146, 3.5-5.0 and 95-108, respectively). The gender difference for ferritin (M: 29-441, F: 8-193 ng/mL) was more pronounced than reported by Abbott (M: 22-275, F: 5-204 ng/mL). Verification studies showed good agreement for chemistry tests (mean [SD] difference = 0.4% [1.2%]) but less so for immunoassay tests (27% [29%]), particularly for TSH (LRL). Where resource permits, we advocate using method-specific RRs in preference to other sources, particularly where method bias and lack of standardisation limits RR transferability and harmonisation.

  17. Reference birthweight range for multiple birth neonates in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Noriko

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reference range for the birthweight of multiple births neonates is necessary for the assessment for intrauterine growth. Methods Pairs of multiple births were identified by birthplace, the ages of the parents, gestational age, and the year and month of birth. We studied a total of 32,232 livebirth-livebirth pairs of twins, 1894 triplet live births, and 206 quadruplet live births. Results The median birthweight of males, taking gestational age into account, was ca. 0.05 kg–0.1 kg heavier than that of females. Compared to singleton neonates, the median birthweight of twins was ca. 0.15 kg smaller at the gestational age of 34 weeks, increasing to ca. 0.5 kg at 42 weeks of gestation. As for birth order, the mean birthweight of the first-born twin was heavier than that of the second-born. The standard deviation of birthweight was larger for second-born twins. The birthweight of twins from multiparous mothers was greater than those from primiparous mothers. The median birthweight according to gestational age was found to be the greatest in twins, lower in triplets and the lowest in quadruplets. In triplets, the 50th percentile was 0.08 kg heavier in boys than for girls. Conclusion Our results can be used for assessment of birthweight of multiple births in Japan.

  18. Thyroid Function Variations Within the Reference Range Do Not Affect Quality of Life, Mood, or Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mary H; Kaimal, Rajani; Waring, Avantika; Fink, Howard A; Yaffe, Kristine; Hoffman, Andrew R; Orwoll, Eric; Bauer, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    Variations in thyroid function within the laboratory reference range have been associated with a number of clinical outcomes. However, quality of life, mood, and cognitive function have not been extensively studied, and it is not clear whether mild variations in thyroid function have major effects on these neurocognitive outcomes. Data were analyzed from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study, a cohort of community-dwelling men aged 65 years and older in the United States. A total of 539 participants who were not taking thyroid medications and had age-adjusted TSH levels within the reference range underwent detailed testing of quality of life, mood, and cognitive function at baseline. The same quality of life, mood, and cognitive outcomes were measured again in 193 of the men after a mean follow-up of 6 years. Outcomes were analyzed using thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels as continuous independent variables, adjusting for relevant covariates. At baseline, there were no associations between TSH or FT4 levels and measures of quality of life, mood, or cognition in the 539 euthyroid men. Baseline thyroid function did not predict changes in these outcomes over a mean of 6 years in the 193 men in the longitudinal analysis. Variations in thyroid function within the age-adjusted laboratory reference range are not associated with variations in quality of life, mood, or cognitive function in community-dwelling older men.

  19. Thyroid function tests in the reference range and fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Carole E.; Floriani, Carmen; Bauer, Douglas C.

    2017-01-01

    -vertebral, and vertebral fractures. Results were presented as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) adjusted for age and sex. For clinical relevance, we studied TSH according to five categories: 0.45-0.99mIU/L; 1.00-1.49mIU/L; 1.50-2.49mIU/L; 2.50-3.49mIU/L; 3.50-4.49mIU/L (reference). FT4 was assessed...

  20. Thyroid antibody-negative euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshiya Tabasum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TSH receptor antibodies (TRAbs are the pathological hallmark of Graves’ disease, present in nearly all patients with the disease. Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy (EGO is a well-recognized clinical entity, but its occurrence in patients with negative TRAbs is a potential source of diagnostic confusion. A 66-year-old female presented to our endocrinology clinic with right eye pain and diplopia in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. TRAbs were negative, as measured with a highly sensitive third-generation thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII ELISA assay. CT and MRI scans of the orbit showed asymmetrical thickening of the inferior rectus muscles but no other inflammatory or malignant orbital pathology. Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical and radiological features, and she underwent surgical recession of the inferior rectus muscle with complete resolution of the diplopia and orbital pain. She remained euthyroid over the course of follow-up but ultimately developed overt clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism, 24 months after the initial presentation. By this time, she had developed positive TRAb as well as thyroid peroxidase antibodies. She responded to treatment with thionamides and remains euthyroid. This case highlights the potential for negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies in the presentation of EGO and underscores the variable temporal relationship between the clinical expression of thyroid dysfunction and orbital disease in the natural evolution of Graves’ disease.

  1. Weight changes in euthyroid patients undergoing thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala

    2011-12-01

    Thyroidectomized patients frequently report weight gain resistant to weight loss efforts, identifying their thyroidectomy as the event precipitating subsequent weight gain. We wished to determine whether recently thyroidectomized euthyroid patients gained more weight over 1 year than matched euthyroid patients with preexisting hypothyroidism. We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. One hundred twenty patients had their weight and thyroid status documented after thyroidectomy and achievement of euthyroidism on thyroid hormone replacement, and one year later. Three additional groups of 120 patients with preexisting hypothyroidism, no thyroid disease, and thyroid cancer were matched for age, gender, menopausal status, height, and weight. Anthropometric data were documented at two time points 1 year apart. We compared the weight changes and body mass index changes occurring over a 1-year period in the four groups. Patients with recent postsurgical hypothyroidism gained 3.1 kg during the year, whereas matched patients with preexisting hypothyroidism gained 2.2 kg. The patients without thyroid disease and those with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism gained 1.3 and 1.2 kg, respectively. The weight gain in the thyroidectomized group was significantly greater than that in the matched hypothyroid group (p-value 0.004), the group without thyroid disease (p-value 0.001), and the patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism (p-value 0.001). Within the thyroidectomized group, the weight gain in menopausal women was greater than in either premenopausal women (4.4 vs. 2.3 kg, p-value 0.007) or men (4.4 vs. 2.5 kg, p-value 0.013). Patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in the previous year did, in fact, gain more weight than their matched counterparts with preexisting hypothyroidism. In addition, all patients with hypothyroidism, even though treated to achieve euthyroidism, experienced more weight gain than both

  2. Thyroid Function within the Reference Range and the Risk of Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The currently applied reference ranges for thyroid function are under debate. Despite evidence that thyroid function within the reference range is related with several cardiovascular disorders, its association with the risk of stroke has not been evaluated previously. DESIGN AND SETTING:...

  3. Urinary Iodine Clearance following Iodinated Contrast Administration: A Comparison of Euthyroid and Postthyroidectomy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice D. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare iodine clearance following iodinated contrast administration in thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and euthyroid individuals. Methods. A convenience population (6 thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and 7 euthyroid controls was drawn from patients referred for iodinated contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT studies. Subjects had sequential urine samples collected up to 6 months (50 samples from the thyroidectomised and 63 samples from the euthyroid groups. t-tests and generalised estimating equations (GEE were used to test for group differences in urinary iodine creatinine ratios. Results. Groups had similar urinary iodine creatinine ratios at baseline, with a large increase 2 weeks following iodinated contrast (P=0.005. Both groups had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline by 4 weeks, with no significant group differences overall or at any time point. Conclusions. Thyroidectomised patients did not have a significantly different urinary iodine clearance than euthyroid individuals following administration of iodinated contrast. Both had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline within 4 weeks.

  4. Age-specific reference ranges of serum prostate-specific antigen in Iranian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that PSA levels are correlated with age. It was also revealed that the PSA age-specific reference range obtained in this study is different from other races and is specific to Iranian men. Therefore, age-specific reference ranges of PSA obtained in the present study can increase PSA test sensitivity and specificity by reducing unnecessary diagnostic procedures and early detection of prostate cancer in Iranian men.

  5. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsli, Anne Randi; Fahlman, Åsa; Evans, Alina L.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundEstablishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears...... and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown...... and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears....

  6. Determination of Age-Dependent Reference Ranges for Coagulation Tests Performed Using Destiny Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Fatma Demet; Serdar, Muhittin; Merve Ari, Elif; Onur Oztan, Mustafa; Hikmet Kozcu, Sureyya; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Zeytinli, Merve; Yasar Ellidag, Hamit

    2016-06-01

    In order to apply the right treatment for hemostatic disorders in pediatric patients, laboratory data should be interpreted with age-appropriate reference ranges. The purpose of this study was to determining age-dependent reference range values for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen tests, and D-dimer tests. A total of 320 volunteers were included in the study with the following ages: 1 month - 1 year (n = 52), 2 - 5 years (n = 50), 6 - 10 years (n = 48), 11 - 17 years (n = 38), and 18 - 65 years (n = 132). Each volunteer completed a survey to exclude hemostatic system disorder. Using a nonparametric method, the lower and upper limits, including 95% distribution and 90% confidence intervals, were calculated. No statistically significant differences were found between PT and aPTT values in the groups consisting of children. Thus, the reference ranges were separated into child and adult age groups. PT and aPTT values were significantly higher in the children than in the adults. Fibrinogen values in the 6 - 10 age group and the adult age group were significantly higher than in the other groups. D-dimer levels were significantly lower in those aged 2 - 17; thus, a separate reference range was established. These results support other findings related to developmental hemostasis, confirming that adult and pediatric age groups should be evaluated using different reference ranges.

  7. Hematologic and serum chemistry reference intervals for free-ranging lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Miriam; Keet, Dewald F; Nielen, Mirjam

    2013-08-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are used by veterinarians and wildlife researchers to assess health status and to identify abnormally high or low levels of a particular blood parameter in a target species. For free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) information about these values is scarce. In this study 7 hematologic and 11 serum biochemistry values were evaluated from 485 lions from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Significant differences between sexes and sub-adult (≤ 36 months) and adult (>36 months) lions were found for most of the blood parameters and separate reference intervals were made for those values. The obtained reference intervals include the means of the various blood parameter values measured in captive lions, except for alkaline phosphatase in the subadult group. These reference intervals can be utilized for free-ranging lions, and may likely also be used as reference intervals for captive lions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine ratio rather than thyrotropin is more associated with metabolic parameters in healthy euthyroid adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Park, Se Eun; Jung, Sang Won; Jin, Hyun Seok; Park, Ie Byung; Ahn, Song Vogue; Lee, Sihoon

    2017-07-01

    The interrelation between TSH, thyroid hormones and metabolic parameters is complex and has not been confirmed. This study aimed to determine the association of TSH and thyroid hormones in euthyroid subjects and the relationship between thyroid function and metabolic risk factors. Furthermore, this study examined whether thyroid function has predictive power for metabolic syndrome. This is a cross-sectional study that included subjects in a medical health check-up programme at a single institution. The study included 132 346 participants (66 991 men and 65 355 women) aged over 18 years who had TSH, free T4 (FT4) and free T3 (FT3) levels within the institutional reference ranges. Thyrotropin, FT4, FT3 and metabolic parameters including height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin and glucose were measured. There was a positive association between FT3/FT4 ratio and TSH in both men and women after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status and menopausal status (in women). The FT3/FT4 ratio and TSH were positively associated with risk of metabolic syndrome parameters including insulin resistance. The FT3/FT4 ratio had a greater predictive power than TSH for metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Thyrotropin levels were positively associated with FT3/FT4 ratio within the euthyroid range. The higher FT3/FT4 ratio is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome parameters and insulin resistance. FT3/FT4 ratio has a better predictive power for metabolic syndrome than TSH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Paradoxical euthyroid hormone profile in a case of Graves' disease with cardiac failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor Aditya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac failure is an uncommon complication of juvenile hyperthyroidism. We describe an adolescent boy with Graves' disease who developed manifestations of heart failure while on antithyroid medications. There was no evidence of any underlying cardiac disease. He had paradoxical euthyroid hormone profile which rose to hyperthyroid range when the manifestations of the cardiac failure subsided. The case highlights several unusual features of Graves' disease.

  10. Adult Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Reference Ranges in a Zimbabwean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaneka, Wadzanai P; Mandozana, Gibson; Tinago, Willard; Nhando, Nehemiah; Mgodi, Nyaradzo M; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsawashe F; Munjoma, Marshall W; Gomo, Zvenyika A R; Chirenje, Zvavahera M; Hakim, James G

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry laboratory reference ranges using more rigorous methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. A multistage sampling technique was used. Samples were transported from the field for analysis at the ISO15189 certified University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Central Research Laboratory. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges lower and upper reference limits were estimated at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. A total of 769 adults (54% males) aged 18 to 55 years were included in the analysis. Median age was 28 [IQR: 23-35] years. Males had significantly higher red cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to females. Females had higher white cell counts, platelets, absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts compared to males. There were no gender differences in eosinophils, monocytes, and absolute basophil count. Males had significantly higher levels of urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, amylase, total protein, albumin and liver enzymes levels compared to females. Females had higher cholesterol and lipase compared with males. There are notable differences in the white cell counts, neutrophils, cholesterol, and creatinine kinase when compared with the currently used reference ranges. Data from this study provides new country specific reference ranges which should be immediately adopted for routine clinical care and accurate monitoring of adverse events in research studies.

  11. Adult Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Reference Ranges in a Zimbabwean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadzanai P Samaneka

    Full Text Available Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry laboratory reference ranges using more rigorous methods.A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. A multistage sampling technique was used. Samples were transported from the field for analysis at the ISO15189 certified University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Central Research Laboratory. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges lower and upper reference limits were estimated at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively.A total of 769 adults (54% males aged 18 to 55 years were included in the analysis. Median age was 28 [IQR: 23-35] years. Males had significantly higher red cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to females. Females had higher white cell counts, platelets, absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts compared to males. There were no gender differences in eosinophils, monocytes, and absolute basophil count. Males had significantly higher levels of urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, amylase, total protein, albumin and liver enzymes levels compared to females. Females had higher cholesterol and lipase compared with males. There are notable differences in the white cell counts, neutrophils, cholesterol, and creatinine kinase when compared with the currently used reference ranges.Data from this study provides new country specific reference ranges which should be immediately adopted for routine clinical care and accurate monitoring of adverse events in research studies.

  12. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, β-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149

  13. Cure of tuberculosis despite serum concentrations of antituberculosis drugs below published reference ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Monica; Corti, Natascia; Müller, Daniel; Henning, Lars; Gutteck, Ursula; von Braun, Amrei; Weber, Rainer; Fehr, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic target serum concentrations of first-line antituberculosis drugs have not been well defined in clinical studies in tuberculosis (TB) patients. We retrospectively investigated the estimated maximum serum concentrations (eC max) of antituberculosis drugs and clinical outcome of TB patients with therapeutic drug monitoring performed between 2010-2012 at our institution, and follow-up until March 2014. The eC max was defined as the highest serum concentration during a sampling period (2, 4 and 6 hours after drug ingestion). We compared the results with published eC max values, and categorised them as either "within reference range", "low eC max", or "very low eC max".Low/very low eC max-levels were defined as follows: isoniazid 2-3/max levels were classified as "low" or "very low". The eC max was below the relevant reference range in 80% of isoniazid, 95% of rifampicin, 30% of pyrazinamide, and 30% of ethambutol measurements. All but one patient were cured of tuberculosis. Although many antituberculosis drug serum concentrations were below the widely used reference ranges, 16 of 17 patients were cured of tuberculosis. These results challenge the use of the published reference ranges for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  14. Reference range determination for whole-blood platelet aggregation using the Multiplate analyzer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.; Castellone, Donna D.; Stroobants, A. K.; Francis, John

    2014-01-01

    To develop reference ranges for platelet aggregation using the Multiplate analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in blood anticoagulated with sodium citrate (Na-citrate), lithium heparin (Li-heparin), or hirudin. The study was performed at three sites on consented, healthy adults (n = 193)

  15. Unilateral and Bilateral Adrenalectomy for Pheochromocytoma Requires Adjustment of Urinary and Plasma Metanephrine Reference Ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Thamara E.; van den Eijnden, Maartje H. A.; Kema, Ido P.; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Jong, Wilhelmina H. A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Links, Thera P.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.

    Context: Follow-up after adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma is recommended because of a recurrence risk. During follow-up, plasma and/or urinary metanephrine (MN) and normetanephrine (NMN) are interpreted using reference ranges obtained in healthy subjects. Objective: Because adrenalectomy may

  16. Determination of reference ranges for immature platelet and reticulocyte fractions and reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Vicente Camargo Morkis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The immature platelet and immature reticulocyte fractions represent the ratios of platelets and reticulocytes recently released into the circulation and thus with higher RNA content. They are considered early indicators of bone marrow recovery. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges for the immature platelet and reticulocyte fractions of hematologically normal individuals in a university hospital. Methods: Venous blood samples collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid K3 were analyzed using a Sysmex XE-5000™ analyzer. Individuals with platelet and reticulocyte counts within the reference ranges, and a blood count within the laboratory's screening criteria were included. Individuals with clinical conditions that could affect hematological results were excluded. The immature platelet fraction, high, medium and low fluorescence reticulocyte fractions and reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent were evaluated. The reference ranges were determined according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Results: One hundred and thirty-two outpatients were evaluated. The mean age was 44 years (range: 13-80 years, 72 (54.5% were women treated in a university hospital. The mean platelet count was 250.8 × 109/L and the mean reticulocyte count was 0.052 × 109/L. The following reference ranges were obtained: immature reticulocyte fraction 1.6-12.1%, the high, medium and low fluorescence reticulocyte fractions were 0.0-1.7%, 1.6-11.0% and 87.9-98.4%, respectively, the reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent was 30.0-37.6% and immature platelet fraction was 0.8-5.6%. There was a statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.006 between genders in respect to the immature platelet fraction with 0.8-4.7% for females and 0.7-6.1% for males. The immature reticulocyte fraction was directly correlated with the reticulocyte count. Conclusion: Determining the reference range is

  17. Echocardiographic reference ranges in older children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majonga, Edith D; Rehman, Andrea M; McHugh, Grace; Mujuru, Hilda A; Nathoo, Kusum; Patel, Mohammad S; Munyati, Shungu; Odland, Jon O; Kranzer, Katharina; Kaski, Juan P; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2017-12-01

    Echocardiographic reference ranges are important to identify abnormalities of cardiac dimensions. Reference ranges for children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been established. The aim of this study was to establish echocardiographic z-score references for Black children in sub-Saharan Africa. 282 healthy subjects aged 6-16years (143 [51%] males) with no known history of cardiac disease were enrolled in the study in Harare, Zimbabwe between 2014 and 2016. Standard M-mode echocardiography was performed and nine cardiac chamber dimensions were obtained. Two non-linear statistical models (gamma weighted model and cubic polynomial model) were tested on the data and the best fitting model was used to calculate z-scores of these cardiac chamber measures. The reference ranges are presented on scatter plots against BSA. Normative data for the following cardiac measures were obtained and z-scores calculated: right ventricular diameter at end diastole (RVEDD); left ventricular diameter at end diastole (LVEDD) and systole (LVESD); interventricular septal wall thickness at end diastole (IVSd) and systole (IVSs); left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastole (LVPWd) and systole (LVPWs); left atrium diameter at end systole (LA) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Girls had higher values for BMI and heart rate than boys (p=0.048 and p=0.001, respectively). Mean interventricular septal and left ventricular posterior walls thickness was higher than published normal values in predominantly Caucasian populations. These are the first echocardiographic reference ranges for children from sub Saharan Africa and will allow accurate assessment of cardiac dimensions in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects : The Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Eline H.; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J. N.; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C.M.A.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objective. Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a

  19. Euthyroid goitre with and without functional autonomy: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenhinrichs, H.; Emrich, D.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre. Methods: In an area of moderate iodine deficiency 163 goitrous patients without and 179 with functional autonomy all clinically euthyroid were compared by sex, age, signs and symptoms, sonographic results, qualitative and quantitative scintigraphy without and with suppression, TRH test, hormone concentrations and iodine excretion in the urine. Results: Age, signs and symptoms, thyroid volume and structure did not contribute sufficiently to diagnosis. To detect functional autonomy quantitative scintigraphy under suppression was superior to the TRH test. Increased hormone concentrations were observed in 15% of patients with functional autonomy. A global 99m Tc thyroid uptake of ≥3% under suppression indicates a higher risk of spontaneous hyperthyroidism. It was present in 20% of patients with functional autonomy. Conclusion: to diagnose and treat adequately functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre quantitative scintigraphy, determination of TSH and hormone concentrations are inevitable. (orig.) [de

  20. Leukocyte Reference Intervals for Free-Ranging Hummingbirds in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safra, Noa; Christopher, Mary M; Ernest, Holly B; Bandivadekar, Ruta; Tell, Lisa A

    2018-04-04

      Hummingbirds are specialized nectarivores and important ecological pollinators that are the focus of conservation efforts as well as scientific investigations of metabolism and flight dynamics. Despite their importance, basic information is lacking about hummingbird blood cells. We aimed to establish reference intervals for total and differential leukocyte counts from healthy free-ranging hummingbirds in northern California. Hummingbirds were captured in five counties in spring and summer of 2012. A drop of blood was used to prepare smears for total white blood cell estimate and 200-cell differential leukocyte counts. Reference Value Advisor was used for descriptive statistics and calculation of reference intervals. Blood smears from 42 Anna's Hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) and 33 Black-chinned Hummingbirds ( Archilochus alexandri) were included. The only significant differences in leukocyte counts were due to age, and juvenile hummingbirds had significantly higher lymphocyte counts than adult hummingbirds ( Phummingbirds.

  1. Age- and size-related reference ranges: a case study of spirometry through childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J; Stanojevic, S; Stocks, J; Coates, A L; Hankinson, J L; Wade, A M

    2009-02-28

    Age-related reference ranges are useful for assessing growth in children. The LMS method is a popular technique for constructing growth charts that model the age-changing distribution of the measurement in terms of the median, coefficient of variation and skewness. Here the methodology is extended to references that depend on body size as well as age, by exploiting the flexibility of the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) technique. GAMLSS offers general linear predictors for each moment parameter and a choice of error distributions, which can handle kurtosis as well as skewness. A key question with such references is the nature of the age-size adjustment, additive or multiplicative, which is explored by comparing the identity link and log link for the median predictor.There are several measurements whose reference ranges depend on both body size and age. As an example, models are developed here for the first four moments of the lung function variables forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC in terms of height and age, in a data set of 3598 children and adults aged 4 to 80 years. The results show a strong multiplicative association between spirometry, height and age, with a large and nonlinear age effect across the age range. Variability also depends nonlinearly on age and to a lesser extent on height. FEV(1) and FVC are close to normally distributed, while FEV(1)/FVC is appreciably skew to the left. GAMLSS is a powerful technique for the construction of such references, which should be useful in clinical medicine. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult male Oman is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Shukaili, Ahmed K.; Al-Rashdi, Zowaina T.; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the reference ranges of lymphocyte subsets in serologically HIV-seronegative healthy male adults in Oman. A cohort, of 118 healthy male blood donors ranging in age from 18-51 years, was included in the study. The average was 25 years. Blood samples collected into tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra acetic acid were investigated for lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometer. This study was conducted in the Immunology Laboratory of Sultan Qaboos University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman during the year 2006. For the 118 males investigated, the mean percentage and absolute values of the lymphocyte subsets were as follows: Cd3: 68.53+-7.5%, 1701+-489 cells/ul; CD8: 25.8+-5.9%, 638+-225 cells/ul; CD19: 13.7+-4.7%, 349+-158 cells/ul, CD56: 12.2+-6.7%, 308+-204 cells/ul. The ratio of CD4/CD8 was 1.6. Immunophenotyping has been used to establish reference values of lymphocyte subsets in normal healthy adult males in Oman. The Omani male reference values obtained in this study show wide variations compared with kits values previously used as reference. (author)

  3. Control survey of normal reference ranges adopted for serum thyroxine binding globulin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Hajime; Kameyama, Mayumi; Shibata, Kyoko

    1985-01-01

    A survey using questionnaires was made on 152 facilities from July through September 1984 to examine normal reference ranges of serum thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), thyroxine (TT 4 ), and triiodothyronine (TT 3 ). Normal reference ranges of TBG were in good agreement with each other, with the exception of four facilities showing high upper limits. An average value of the upper and lower limits in 83 facilities was 13.7 +- 1.9 μg/ml; and the standard deviation was 28.6 +- 2.8 μg/ml. Differences (approximately 10 %) in coefficient of variation were comparable to those (5.7-9.6 %) obtained from the previous survey. There were approximately 10 % differences in coefficient of variation for both TT 4 and TT 3 . (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Association of thyroid function with arterial pressure in normotensive and hypertensive euthyroid individuals: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltiki Katerina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt hypothyroidism has been associated with arterial hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. Results in euthyroid individuals have been conflicting. We investigated associations of thyroid function with systolic (SAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressure in euthyroid subjects. Methods 311 euthyroid individuals (185 women, mean age 43.9 ± 9 without a history of diabetes attending a preventive medicine program were examined. Subjects receiving thyroxine (10.6% were excluded; 19.3% had hypertension, 43% had a family history for hypertension. TSH, fT4, thyroid autoantibodies, insulin, glucose were measured. The "fT4.TSH product", which has been suggested as a T4 resistance-index, was calculated. Results TSH range was 0.1–8, median 1.4 mU/L, fT4 range was 11.5–25.2 pmol/L, median 17.4. TSH and the "fT4.TSH product" were positively associated with DAP (p 2 mU/L (35.3% vs 21.3%, p = 0.045. Conclusion In euthyroid individuals the association of thyroid function with diastolic arterial pressure remains significant even when a stricter "normal range" for TSH levels is considered. The "freeT4.TSH" product appears to be an even stronger predictor of DAP, independently of HOMA insulin resistance index and obesity.

  5. Verification of chemistry reference ranges using a simple method in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irith De Baetselier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemistry safety assessments are interpreted by using chemistry reference ranges (CRRs. Verification of CRRs is time consuming and often requires a statistical background. Objectives: We report on an easy and cost-saving method to verify CRRs. Methods: Using a former method introduced by Sigma Diagnostics, three study sites in sub- Saharan Africa, Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria and Bloemfontein, South Africa, verified the CRRs for hepatic and renal biochemistry assays performed during a clinical trial of HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis. The aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and phosphorus results from 10 clinically-healthy participants at the screening visit were used. In the event the CRRs did not pass the verification, new CRRs had to be calculated based on 40 clinically-healthy participants. Results: Within a few weeks, the study sites accomplished verification of the CRRs without additional costs. The aspartate aminotransferase reference ranges for the Bondo, Kenya site and the alanine aminotransferase reference ranges for the Pretoria, South Africa site required adjustment. The phosphorus CRR passed verification and the creatinine CRR required adjustment at every site. The newly-established CRR intervals were narrower than the CRRs used previously at these study sites due to decreases in the upper limits of the reference ranges. As a result, more toxicities were detected. Conclusion: To ensure the safety of clinical trial participants, verification of CRRs should be standard practice in clinical trials conducted in settings where the CRR has not been validated for the local population. This verification method is simple, inexpensive, and can be performed by any medical laboratory.

  6. Verification of chemistry reference ranges using a simple method in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baetselier, Irith; Taylor, Douglas; Mandala, Justin; Nanda, Kavita; Van Campenhout, Christel; Agingu, Walter; Madurai, Lorna; Barsch, Eva-Maria; Deese, Jennifer; Van Damme, Lut; Crucitti, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry safety assessments are interpreted by using chemistry reference ranges (CRRs). Verification of CRRs is time consuming and often requires a statistical background. We report on an easy and cost-saving method to verify CRRs. Using a former method introduced by Sigma Diagnostics, three study sites in sub-Saharan Africa, Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria and Bloemfontein, South Africa, verified the CRRs for hepatic and renal biochemistry assays performed during a clinical trial of HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis. The aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and phosphorus results from 10 clinically-healthy participants at the screening visit were used. In the event the CRRs did not pass the verification, new CRRs had to be calculated based on 40 clinically-healthy participants. Within a few weeks, the study sites accomplished verification of the CRRs without additional costs. The aspartate aminotransferase reference ranges for the Bondo, Kenya site and the alanine aminotransferase reference ranges for the Pretoria, South Africa site required adjustment. The phosphorus CRR passed verification and the creatinine CRR required adjustment at every site. The newly-established CRR intervals were narrower than the CRRs used previously at these study sites due to decreases in the upper limits of the reference ranges. As a result, more toxicities were detected. To ensure the safety of clinical trial participants, verification of CRRs should be standard practice in clinical trials conducted in settings where the CRR has not been validated for the local population. This verification method is simple, inexpensive, and can be performed by any medical laboratory.

  7. Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.S.; Khan, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

  8. Development of a simple driving simulator and determination of the reference range of normative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Noriaki; Saeki, Satoru; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Matsunaga, Katsuya; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    To establish the reference range for assessment items of the 'Simple Driving Simulator' (SiDS) in a normative population and to compare performance of age-matched young adults with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) to this reference data. Normative ranges were calculated from the data of 445 participants in the control group. Three performance ranges were established: 'normal', 'borderline' and 'impaired' defined using standard deviation cutoff values in the control group. The performance of 28 patients with a TBI, aged 18-35 years, was evaluated. The performance score for the TBI group in the 'impaired range' was calculated for each test item and used to make a synthetic judgment regarding the clinical value of the SiDS. In the control group, only 0.6% of the participants exhibited a performance in the impaired range on >2 items, compared to 33.2% for the TBI group. We provide evidence that impaired performance on ≤2 items of the SiDS provides a sensitive criterion of 'driving fitness' in young adults after a TBI.

  9. Echocardiographic reference ranges for normal left atrial function parameters: results from the EACVI NORRE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Tadafumi; Robinet, Sébastien; Dulgheru, Raluca; Bernard, Anne; Ilardi, Federica; Contu, Laura; Addetia, Karima; Caballero, Luis; Kacharava, George; Athanassopoulos, George D; Barone, Daniele; Baroni, Monica; Cardim, Nuno; Hagendorff, Andreas; Hristova, Krasimira; Lopez, Teresa; de la Morena, Gonzalo; Popescu, Bogdan A; Penicka, Martin; Ozyigit, Tolga; Rodrigo Carbonero, Jose David; van de Veire, Nico; Von Bardeleben, Ralph Stephan; Vinereanu, Dragos; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Go, Yun Yun; Marchetta, Stella; Nchimi, Alain; Rosca, Monica; Calin, Andreea; Moonen, Marie; Cimino, Sara; Magne, Julien; Cosyns, Bernard; Galli, Elena; Donal, Erwan; Habib, Gilbert; Esposito, Roberta; Galderisi, Maurizio; Badano, Luigi P; Lang, Roberto M; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2018-02-23

    To obtain the normal ranges for echocardiographic measurements of left atrial (LA) function from a large group of healthy volunteers accounting for age and gender. A total of 371 (median age 45 years) healthy subjects were enrolled at 22 collaborating institutions collaborating in the Normal Reference Ranges for Echocardiography (NORRE) study of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). Left atrial data sets were analysed with a vendor-independent software (VIS) package allowing homogeneous measurements irrespective of the echocardiographic equipment used to acquire data sets. The lowest expected values of LA function were 26.1%, 48.7%, and 41.4% for left atrial strain (LAS), 2D left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF), and 3D LAEF (reservoir function); 7.7%, 24.2%, and -0.53/s for LAS-active, LAEF-active, and LA strain rate during LA contraction (SRa) (pump function) and 12.0% and 21.6% for LAS-passive and LAEF-passive (conduit function). Left atrial reservoir and conduit function were decreased with age while pump function was increased. All indices of reservoir function and all LA strains had no difference in both gender and vendor. However, inter-vendor differences were observed in LA SRa despite the use of VIS. The NORRE study provides contemporary, applicable echocardiographic reference ranges for LA function. Our data highlight the importance of age-specific reference values for LA functions.

  10. An echocardiographic study of healthy Border Collies with normal reference ranges for the breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jake H; Boon, June A; Bright, Janice M

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain standard echocardiographic measurements from healthy Border Collies and to compare these measurements to those previously reported for a general population of dogs. Standard echocardiographic data were obtained from twenty apparently healthy Border Collie dogs. These data (n = 20) were compared to data obtained from a general population of healthy dogs (n = 69). Border Collies were deemed healthy based on normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure, with no evidence of congenital or acquired heart disease on echocardiographic examination. Standard two dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiographic measurements were obtained and normal ranges determined. The data were compared to data previously obtained at our hospital from a general population of normal dogs. Two dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler reference ranges for healthy Border Collies are presented in tabular form. Comparison of the weight adjusted M-mode echocardiographic means from Border Collies to those from the general population of dogs showed Border Collies to have larger left ventricular systolic and diastolic dimensions, smaller interventricular septal thickness, and lower fractional shortening. There are differences in some echocardiographic parameters between healthy Border Collies and the general dog population, and the echocardiographic reference ranges provided in this study should be used as breed specific reference values for Border Collies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Persistent cellular metabolic changes after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie

    2014-01-01

    , 3, 6 and 12 months after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter. In the hemithyroidectomy group, flow cytometry was used to measure the MMP of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM)- and MitoTracker Green (MTG)-stained PBMCs, and V˙O2 was measured by an Oxycon Pro apparatus. RESULTS: One...

  12. Comparison of QT dispersion between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Kıskaç

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroid and QTc dispersionindicating local heterogeneity in repolarization of myocardium, which is well known as independent cardiac risk factor for sudden death and ventricular arrhythmia.Materials and Methods: We compared QTc dispersion of subclinical hypothyroid patients, after treatment and healthy control group. We included a total of 50 patients with 41 women and 9 men in the study group. Electrocardiographywith 12 derivations, thyroid hormones, serum electrolytes and basic biochemical parameters were measured.The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.QT distances were calculated by using Bazet formula. The difference between the longest QTc and the shortest QTc distance was accepted as QTc dispersion (QTcd.Results: Comparison of subclinical hypothyroid patients, their euthyroidic period after treatment and healthy controlgroup, gave no significant differences in age, body weight, body mass index and free thyroxin values. However,significant difference was found in durations of QTd and QTcd between the subclinical hypothyroid, the control and the euthyroidic groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our results suggested that subclinical hypothyroidpatients had longer QTc dispersion compared to euthyroidic period and healthy subjects. However there was no QTcd difference between the euthyroidic period and healthy control group.

  13. Comprehensive reference ranges for hematology and clinical chemistry laboratory parameters derived from normal Nigerian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timzing Miri-Dashe

    Full Text Available Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women.Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors' questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4% males, 125 (32.6% non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2% with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC, Hemoglobin (HB and Hematocrit (HCT had significant gender difference (p = 0.000 but not for total white blood count (p>0.05 which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000. Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001 but lower in pregnant women (p =  .001 with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05 but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3, Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p0.05.Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.

  14. Comprehensive reference ranges for hematology and clinical chemistry laboratory parameters derived from normal Nigerian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Monday Tokdung Nenbammun; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash'le

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors' questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4%) males, 125 (32.6%) non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2%) with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB) and Hematocrit (HCT) had significant gender difference (p = 0.000) but not for total white blood count (p>0.05) which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000). Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001) but lower in pregnant women (p =  .001) with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05) but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (pchemistry parameters between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study (p0.05). Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.

  15. Reference Ranges of Reticulocyte Haemoglobin Content in Preterm and Term Infants: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Laila; Peter, Andreas; Arand, Jörg; Springer, Fabian; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2017-01-01

    Despite iron supplementation, some preterm infants develop iron deficiency (ID). The optimal iron status parameter for early detection of ID has yet to be determined. To establish reference ranges for reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret-He) in preterm and term infants and to identify confounding factors. Retrospective analyses of Ret-He and complete blood count in infants with a clinically indicated blood sample obtained within 24 h after birth. Mean (SD) Ret-He was 30.7 (3.0) pg in very preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) of pH (r = -0.07). There was a slight variation in Ret-He with mode of delivery [normal vaginal delivery: 32.3 (3.2) pg, secondary caesarean section (CS): 31.4 (3.0) pg, instrumental delivery: 31.3 (2.7) pg and elective CS: 31.2 (2.8) pg]. GA at birth has a negligible impact on Ret-He, and the lower limit of the normal reference range in newborns within 24 h after birth can be set to 25 pg. Moreover, Ret-He seems to be a robust parameter which is not influenced by perinatal factors within the first 24 h after birth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Physiologic Reference Ranges for Captive Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

    2010-01-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

  17. [Thyrotropin reference ranges during pregnancy in the province of Huelva, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Carpio, A; Vázquez Rico, I; Castaño López, M A; Duarte González, L; Montilla Álvaro, M; Ruiz Reina, A

    2017-11-18

    The correct diagnosis of hypothyroidism during pregnancy requires knowledge of the local trimester-specific thyrotropin (TSH) reference ranges. When these are not available, the guidelines recommend upper limits of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.0μU/ml for the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd trimesters, respectively. The aim is to establish the reference range for our local population. A population-based observational study was performed on healthy pregnant women from 11 healthcare centres in the province of Huelva. Women were recruited consecutively during 2016 through the pregnancy process. Women were excluded who had a history of thyroid or medical disease, a poor obstetric history, multiple pregnancy, thyroid autoimmunity, and extreme TSH values (10μU/ml), as well as women treated with levothyroxine for thyroid dysfunction. The study included a total of 186 pregnant women, with a mean age of 30.7 years (95% CI: 29.8-31.6) and a body mass index (BMI) of 23.6 (95% CI: 23.2-24.0). Most of them had the first laboratory tests performed before week 11 of pregnancy. Valid subjects for analysis were 145, 105, and 67 pregnant women in the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd trimesters, respectively, after excluding those due to abortion (18.9%), autoimmunity (6.5%), hypo/hyperthyroidism (2.2%), and levothyroxine treatment during the 2 nd /3 rd trimester (18.6%). The 97.5% TSH percentile for the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd trimester was 4.68, 4.83, and 4.57μU/ml, respectively. Thyroid dysfunction was identified in 80 women (55.2%), 33 of whom received treatment with Levothyroxine (22.7%). With the new criteria, thyroid dysfunction prevalence would be reduced to 6.2%, and the need for treatment to 4.1%. The reference range for TSH in our population differs from that proposed by the guidelines. Unnecessary treatment was being given to 18.6% of pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Contributions to reference systems from Lunar Laser Ranging using the IfE analysis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Franz; Biskupek, Liliane; Müller, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) provides various quantities related to reference frames like Earth orientation parameters, coordinates and velocities of ground stations in the Earth-fixed frame and selenocentric coordinates of the lunar retro-reflectors. This paper presents the recent results from LLR data analysis at the Institut für Erdmessung, Leibniz Universität Hannover, based on all LLR data up to the end of 2016. The estimates of long-periodic nutation coefficients with periods between 13.6 days and 18.6 years are obtained with an accuracy in the order of 0.05-0.7 milliarcseconds (mas). Estimations of the Earth rotation phase Δ UT are accurate at the level of 0.032 ms if more than 14 normal points per night are included. The tie between the dynamical ephemeris frame to the kinematic celestial frame is estimated from pure LLR observations by two angles and their rates with an accuracy of 0.25 and 0.02 mas per year. The estimated station coordinates and velocities are compared to the ITRF2014 solution and the geometry of the retro-reflector network with the DE430 solution. The given accuracies represent 3 times formal errors of the parameter fit. The accuracy for Δ UT is based on the standard deviation of the estimates with respect to the reference C04 solution.

  19. Reference ranges for blood concentrations of nucleated red blood cells in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Henry, Erick; Andres, Robert L; Bennett, Sterling T

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies reported a relationship between high nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) in neonates and the development of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and/or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We sought to (1) establish reference ranges for NRBC in neonates based on a large data set, (2) compare NRBC from automated versus manual counts, (3) determine the effect of an elevated NRBC, on the day of birth, on the odds of developing grade ≥3 IVH or ROP. We analyzed all NRBC obtained during 8.5 years in a multihospital system, displaying the 5th and 95th percentile limits according to gestational age and postnatal age. NRBC counts were retrieved from 61,932 neonates, 26,536 of which were excluded from the data set. Comparing 9,000 samples run simultaneously on manual versus automated methods, the manual counts yielded slightly higher counts, but the difference is likely insignificant clinically. Altitude of the birth hospital did not correlate with NRBC, and no correlations were observed with cord pH or 1- or 5-min Apgar. An NRBC count >95th percentile limit was associated with higher odds of developing a grade ≥3 IVH (OR 4.28; 95% CI 3.17-5.77) and grade ≥3 ROP (OR 4.18; 95% CI 2.74-6.38). The figures of this report display reference ranges for NRBC according to gestational age and postnatal age. An NRBC count above the 95% limit at birth is associated with a higher risk of subsequently developing severe IVH and severe ROP. We speculate that this association is because an elevated NRBC count is a marker for prenatal hypoxia. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Reference ranges and reliability of transabdominal ultrasonographic renal dimensions in thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Alexandra C E; Bowen, I Mark; Hallowell, Gayle D

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a normal reference range (mean ± 2 SD) and assess reliability of renal dimensions obtained using transabdominal ultrasonography in Thoroughbred horses (n = 7). A minimum of three ultrasonographic cineloops were obtained from each intercostal space and the left paralumbar fossa by two observers daily for three consecutive days. Renal length, width, and thickness and cortex, medulla, and pelvic dimensions were obtained. Measurements were undertaken by both observers, who were unaware of prior measurements, to assess reproducibility and measured on three separate occasions to evaluate short-term measurement repeatability. Measurements from images obtained by both operators were compared to evaluate image repeatability. The left kidney was consistently identified in the left 15th-17th intercostal space and the paralumbar fossa with maximal length in the 16th intercostal space (12.7 ± 2.0 cm) and maximal width in the paralumbar fossa (7.9 ± 1.1 cm). The right kidney was consistently identified in the right 15th-17th intercostal space with maximal length and maximal width in the 15th intercostal space (16.0 ± 0.7 cm and 7.9 ± 1.0 cm). Reproducibility, image repeatability, measurement repeatability were good to excellent, although were less good for the smaller structures. There were no differences in renal dimensions between horses. Overall renal ultrasonography was reliable and a normal reference range for Thoroughbred horses was established. Renal dimensions vary between rib spaces. As repeatability and reproducibility were excellent for renal length and width, it may be prudent to use those measurements in rib spaces where parameters were maximal. © 2011 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  1. Reference ranges for uterine artery pulsatility index during the menstrual cycle: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Guedes-Martins

    Full Text Available Cyclic endometrial neoangiogenesis contributes to changes in local vascular patterns and is amenable to non-invasive assessment with Doppler sonography. We hypothesize that the uterine artery (UtA impedance, measured by its pulsatility index (PI, exhibits a regular pattern during the normal menstrual cycle. Therefore, the main study objective was to derive normative new day-cycle-based reference ranges for the UtA-PI during the entire cycle from days 1 to 34 according to the isolated time effect and potential confounders such as age and parity.From January 2009 to December 2012, a cross-sectional study of 1,821 healthy women undergoing routine gynaecological ultrasound was performed. The Doppler flow of the right and left UtA-PI was studied transvaginally by colour and pulsed Doppler imaging. The mean right and left values and the presence or absence of a bilateral protodiastolic notch were recorded. Reference intervals for the PI according to the cycle day were generated by classical linear regression.The majority of patients (97.5% presented unilateral or bilateral UtA notches. The crude 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves of the UtA-PI at 1-34 days of the normal menstrual cycle were derived. In all curves, a progressive significant decrease occurred during the first 13 days, followed by an increase and recovery in the UtA-PI. The adjusted 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves for the effects of age and parity were also obtained. These two conditions generated an approximately identical UtA-PI pattern during the cycle, except with small but significant reductions at the temporal extremes.The median, 5th, and the 95th percentiles of the UtA-PI decrease during the first third of the menstrual cycle and recover to their initial values during the last two thirds of the cycle. The rates of decrease and recovery depend significantly on age and parity.

  2. Standard test method for determination of reference temperature, to, for ferritic steels in the transition range

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of a reference temperature, To, which characterizes the fracture toughness of ferritic steels that experience onset of cleavage cracking at elastic, or elastic-plastic KJc instabilities, or both. The specific types of ferritic steels (3.2.1) covered are those with yield strengths ranging from 275 to 825 MPa (40 to 120 ksi) and weld metals, after stress-relief annealing, that have 10 % or less strength mismatch relative to that of the base metal. 1.2 The specimens covered are fatigue precracked single-edge notched bend bars, SE(B), and standard or disk-shaped compact tension specimens, C(T) or DC(T). A range of specimen sizes with proportional dimensions is recommended. The dimension on which the proportionality is based is specimen thickness. 1.3 Median KJc values tend to vary with the specimen type at a given test temperature, presumably due to constraint differences among the allowable test specimens in 1.2. The degree of KJc variability among specimen types i...

  3. Triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels are differentially associated with metabolic profile and adiposity-related cardiovascular risk markers in euthyroid middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roef, Greet L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Van Daele, Caroline M; Taes, Youri E; De Buyzere, Marc L; Gillebert, Thierry C; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2014-02-01

    We have previously shown that in healthy young men, a less favorable body composition is associated with higher free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels within the euthyroid range. Besides, a higher free-triiodothyronine-to-free-thyroxin (fT3-to-fT4) ratio has been related to a less favorable metabolic phenotype and more placental growth in pregnant women. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether serum thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormone levels, and the fT3-to-fT4 ratio are associated with metabolic and adiposity-related cardiovascular risk markers in a healthy population of middle-aged euthyroid men and women. Thyroid parameters were measured in 2524 generally healthy subjects from the Asklepios Study (35-55 years, mean age 46 years). Analyses were restricted to 2315 subjects (1138 women and 1177 men), not using thyroid medication, not having anti-TPO levels above clinical cutoff values or TSH levels outside the reference range (0.27-4.2 mU/L). Twenty-seven percent of the women and 47.5% of the men were overweight, while 13% of women and 17% of men were obese. Twenty percent of the subjects were active smokers. Serum thyroid function parameters were determined by electrochemiluminescence. fT3 and the fT3-to-fT4 ratio were positively related to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and components of metabolic syndrome, that is, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, and negatively with HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas fT4 was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference, and triglycerides (p<0.001). TSH related positively with total cholesterol levels (p<0.01), triglycerides, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001). The fT3-to-fT4 ratio was further positively associated with the adiposity-related inflammation markers interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and to pulse wave velocity. All associations were adjusted for sex, age, height, and smoking, and most associations

  4. Thyroid hormones and mortality risk in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, both overt and subclinical, are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The association between thyroid hormones and mortality in euthyroid individuals, however, is unclear. To examine the prospective association between thyroid hormones levels within normal ranges and mortality endpoints. A prospective cohort study of 212 456 middle-aged South Korean men and women who had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease at baseline from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2009. Free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), and TSH levels were measured by RIA. Vital status and cause of death ascertainment were based on linkage to the National Death Index death certificate records. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 730 participants died (335 deaths from cancer and 112 cardiovascular-related deaths). FT4 was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.95, comparing the highest vs lowest quartile of FT4; P for linear trend = .01), and FT3 was inversely associated cancer mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.85; P for linear trend = .001). TSH was not associated with mortality endpoints. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, FT4 and FT3 levels within the normal range were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality, particularly liver cancer mortality.

  5. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reference range for T lymphocytes populations in blood donors from two different regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.L. Torres

    Full Text Available This study defined the normal variation range for different subsets of T-lymphocyte cells count in two different Brazilian regions. We analysed the T-lymphocytes subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ in blood donors of two Brazilian cities, located in North (Belem, capital state of Para, indian background and Northeast (Salvador, capital state od Bahia, African background regions of Brazil. Results were compared according to gender, stress level (sleep time lower than 8 hours/day, smoking, and alcohol intake. Lymphocytes subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry. Five hundred twenty-six blood donors from two Brazilians cities participated in the study: 450 samples from Bahia and 76 samples from Pará. Most (60% were men, 59% reported alcohol intake, 12% were smokers, and 80% slept at least 8 h/day. Donors from Bahia presented with significantly higher counts for all parameters, compared with Para. Women had higher lymphocytes levels, in both states, but only CD4+ cells count was significantly higher than men's values. Smokers had higher CD4+ counts, but sleep time had effect on lymphocytes levels only for Para's donors (higher CD3+ and CD4+ counts. That state had also, a higher proportion of donors reporting sleep time <8 h/day. The values for CD3, CD4 and CD8+ cells count were significantly higher in blood donors from Bahia than among those from Pará. Female gender, alcohol intake, stress level, and smoking were associated with higher lymphocyte counts. The use of a single reference range for normal lymphocytes count is not appropriate for a country with such diversity, like Brazil is.

  7. Biochemical reference intervals and intestinal microflora of free-ranging Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Roberto; Ramer, Jan; Reichard, Tim; Tolson, Peter J; Christopher, Mary M

    2007-09-01

    Caribbean iguanas, including the Ricord's iguana (Cyclura ricordii) are ranked as critically endangered on the International Union of the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The taxon is endemic to Hispaniola, where it inhabits xeric lowlands and is found in a very limited range in two subpopulations in the southwestern area of the island. The goals of this study were to obtain and analyze plasma biochemical and intestinal microbiological data from Ricord's iguanas in the subpopulation of the Neiba Valley, on Cabritos Island National Park, Dominican Republic, and to establish biochemical reference intervals. A total of 23 blood samples from clinically healthy iguanas (16 males, 7 females) and 14 fecal samples from clinically healthy iguanas were analyzed. Adult female iguanas had higher concentrations of cholesterol, phosphorus, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, and aspartate transaminase activity compared with male iguanas, although the difference was not statistically significant. Seventeen bacterial isolates were obtained, including: Salmonella sp. (serogroup B; serogroup D negative) Escherichia coli, Brevibacterium sp., Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterococcus durans. These data will help contribute to the management and recovery of Ricord's iguana populations.

  8. Reference ranges for serum and salivary testosterone in young men of Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Víctor; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; García de Guadiana, Luis; Sánchez-Pellicer, Pedro; Alfayate, Rocío; Mauri, Montserrat; Sánchez-Payá, José; Picó, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The interassay variability found in the measurement of testosterone (T) levels warrants the need for laboratories to validate their methods to establish trustworthy cut-off points for diagnosis of male hypogonadism. The aims of this study were to validate measurement of total T (TT) at our laboratory in order to obtain reference ranges for TT, calculated free T (CFT), calculated bioavailable T (CBT), and salivary T (ST) in healthy young men from the Mediterranean region, and to evaluate the potential clinical value of ST by establishing its correlation with serum T. An observational, cross-sectional study with sequential sampling. men aged 18-30 years with body mass index (BMI)9.7 nmol/L, CFT>0.22 nmol/L, and/or CBT>4.9 nmol/L make the presence of biochemical hypogonadism unlikely. According to the correlation between serum and ST, the clinical value of ST remains to be established. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Reference ranges of HOMA-IR in normal-weight and obese young Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashaj, Blegina; Luciano, Rosa; Contoli, Benedetta; Morino, Giuseppe Stefano; Spreghini, Maria Rita; Rustico, Carmela; Sforza, Rita Wietrzycowska; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Manco, Melania

    2016-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) may develop very early in life being associated with occurrence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs). Aim of the present study was to identify in young Caucasians normative values of IR as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and cutoffs diagnostic of CMRFs. Anthropometrics and biochemical parameters were assessed in 2753 Caucasians (age 2-17.8 years; 1204 F). Reference ranges of HOMA-IR were defined for the whole population and for samples of normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. The receiver operator characteristic analysis was used to find cutoffs of HOMA-IR accurately identifying individuals with any CMRF among total cholesterol and/or triglycerides higher than the 95th percentile and/or HDL cholesterol lower than the 5th for age and sex, impaired glucose tolerance, and alanine aminotransferase levels ≥40 U/l. Overweight/obese individuals had higher HOMA-IR levels compared with normal-weight peers (p HOMA-IR index rose progressively with age, plateaued between age 13 and 15 years and started decreasing afterward. HOMA-IR peaked at age 13 years in girls and at 15 years in boys. The 75th percentile of HOMA-IR in the whole population (3.02; AUROC = 0.73, 95 % CI = 0.70-0.75), in normal-weight (1.68; AUROC = 0.76, 95 % CI = 0.74-0.79), and obese (3.42; AUROC = 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.69-0.72) individuals identified the cutoffs best classifying individuals with any CMRF. Percentiles of HOMA-IR varied significantly in young Caucasians depending on sex, age, and BMI category. The 75th percentile may represent an accurate cutoff point to suspect the occurrence of one or more CMRFs among high total cholesterol and triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and ALT ≥ 40 UI/l.

  10. Haematological and serum biochemical reference values in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus atlanticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Rosef

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of haematological and biochemical constituents were carried out on the Norwegian subspecies of free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus atlanticus. All animals were captured from January to March by using a mixture of xylazine and tiletamin-zolazepam. Immobilisation was performed with plastic projectile syringes fired from a dart gun. Fourteen haematological parameters were analysed. There were no differences in the values between hinds and stags and between adults and calves (P > 0.01. Of the 22 biochemical compounds investigated there was a significant difference (P < 0.01 between calves and adults for lactate dehydrogenase (LD, globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin, and the minerals Na, K, Mg, Zn, Ca, and P. Differences (P < 0.01 between hinds and stags were found in cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, alpha-1 globulin, alpha-2 globulin and Cu. The blood values determined in this study can be used as reference values for this red deer subspecies immobilised with a mixture of xylazine-tiletamin-zolazepam for health control and diagnosis of diseases.Abstract in Norwegian /Sammendrag:Hematologiske og biokjemiske parametere er analysert på norsk frittlevende hjort (Cervus elaphus atlanticus. Hjorten ble immobilisert i tidsrommet januar til mars ved hjelp av et spesialgevær ladet med plast kanyler som inneholdt en blanding av xylazin og tiletamin-zolazepam. Det var ingen forskjeller i de14 undersøkte hematologiske verdiene mellom hinder, kalver og bukker (P>0,01. Av de 22 biokjemiske parametrene som ble undersøkt var det en signifikant forskjell mellom kalver og voksne (P<0,01 når det gjelder laktat dehydrogenase, globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin og mineralene Na, K, Mg, Zn, Ca og P. Det var en signifikant forskjell mellom hinder og bukker (P<0.01 på parametrene kolesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, alfa-1 globulin, alfa-2 globulin og Cu. Blodverdiene som ble målt i dette studiet kan bli brukt som referanseverdier

  11. Glomerular filtration rate is associated with free triiodothyronine in euthyroid subjects : Comparison between various equations to estimate renal function and creatinine clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Josephine L C; Gruppen, Eke G; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda; Eisenga, Michele F; de Vries, Hanne; Gansevoort, Ron T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Dullaart, Robin P F

    BACKGROUND: Effects of variations in thyroid function within the euthyroid range on renal function are unclear. Cystatin C-based equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are currently advocated for mortality and renal risk prediction. However, the applicability of cystatin C-based

  12. BRIDGING GAPS BETWEEN ZOO AND WILDLIFE MEDICINE: ESTABLISHING REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR FREE-RANGING AFRICAN LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Heather M; Govender, Danny; Shikwambana, Purvance; Chappell, Patrick; Jolles, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The International Species Information System has set forth an extensive database of reference intervals for zoologic species, allowing veterinarians and game park officials to distinguish normal health parameters from underlying disease processes in captive wildlife. However, several recent studies comparing reference values from captive and free-ranging animals have found significant variation between populations, necessitating the development of separate reference intervals in free-ranging wildlife to aid in the interpretation of health data. Thus, this study characterizes reference intervals for six biochemical analytes, eleven hematologic or immune parameters, and three hormones using samples from 219 free-ranging African lions ( Panthera leo ) captured in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using the original sample population, exclusion criteria based on physical examination were applied to yield a final reference population of 52 clinically normal lions. Reference intervals were then generated via 90% confidence intervals on log-transformed data using parametric bootstrapping techniques. In addition to the generation of reference intervals, linear mixed-effect models and generalized linear mixed-effect models were used to model associations of each focal parameter with the following independent variables: age, sex, and body condition score. Age and sex were statistically significant drivers for changes in hepatic enzymes, renal values, hematologic parameters, and leptin, a hormone related to body fat stores. Body condition was positively correlated with changes in monocyte counts. Given the large variation in reference values taken from captive versus free-ranging lions, it is our hope that this study will serve as a baseline for future clinical evaluations and biomedical research targeting free-ranging African lions.

  13. Rhodamine 800 as reference substance for fluorescence quantum yield measurements in deep red emission range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, A., E-mail: andrea.alessi@eni.com [Centro Ricerche per le Energie non Convenzionali, Istituto eni Donegani, e.n.i. S.p.A., Via G. Fauser 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Salvalaggio, M. [Centro Ricerche per le Energie non Convenzionali, Istituto eni Donegani, e.n.i. S.p.A., Via G. Fauser 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Ruzzon, G. [HORIBA Jobin Yvon Srl, Via Cesare Pavese 35/AB, 20090 Opera Milano (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    The determination of fluorescence quantum yields ({Phi}{sub f}) of deep red dyes emitting at 635-900 nm is difficult due to lack of suitable standards. In this work, we propose a commercial dye, rhodamine 800 (Rho800), as reference standard which belongs to the family of xanthenes. The quantum yield of rhodamine 800 in absolute ethanol has been studied using a relative method with cresyl violet (CV) and rhodamine 101 (Rho101) as references, and an absolute fluorometric method by integrating sphere measurements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A red emitting dye Rhodamine 800 was electronic spectroscopy characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its fluorescence quantum yield was studied using a relative and an absolute method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values found are greater than the values currently known in the literature.

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in euthyroid patients | Xu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of hepatic infections, viz, hepatitis B (HBV) virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV), in the euthyroid population of Southern Punjab Province of Pakistan. Methods: A total of 120 euthyroid patients (36 male and 84 female) with a mean age of 30.7 ± 0.09 years) were included in this study.

  15. Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period: data from a multihospital health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopling, Jeffery; Henry, Erick; Wiedmeier, Susan E; Christensen, Robert D

    2009-02-01

    "Reference ranges" are developed when it is impossible or inappropriate to establish "normal ranges" by drawing blood on healthy normal volunteers. Reference ranges for the hematocrit and the blood hemoglobin concentration of newborn infants have previously been reported from relatively small sample sizes by using measurement methods that now are considered outmoded. We sought to develop reference ranges for hematocrit and hemoglobin during the neonatal period (28 days) by using very large sample sizes and modern hematology analyzers, accounting for gestational and postnatal age and gender. Data were assembled from a multihospital health care system after exclusion of patients with a high likelihood of an abnormal value and those who were receiving blood transfusions. During the interval from 22 to 40 weeks' gestation, the hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration increased approximately linearly. For every week advance in gestational age, the hematocrit increased by 0.64% and the hemoglobin concentration increased by 0.21 g/dL. No difference was seen on the basis of gender. During the 4-hour interval after birth, hematocrit/hemoglobin values of late preterm and term neonates (35-42 weeks' gestation) increased by 3.6% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SD), those of neonates of 29 to 34 weeks' gestation remained unchanged, and those of hematocrit/hemoglobin occurred. The figures presented herein describe reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period, accounting for gestational and postnatal age.

  16. Thyroid hormones in the elderly sick: "T4 euthyroidism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, A W; Shakespear, R A; Hesch, R D; Cooper, E; Aickin, C M; Burke, C W

    1975-11-22

    Thyroid function and serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were investigated in 79 euthyroid geriatric patients. Of the 59 inpatients and 20 outpatients 35 (59%) and 2, respectively, had low T3 levels. In contrast, 7 (12%) and 6 (30%), respectively, had raised T4 levels. Two further patients were excluded from the study because of raised levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroxine-binding globulin was greatly increased in both groups of patients, but low serum albumin levels were present in 31 (39%). Despite these changes free T3 and T4 indices closely followed total T3 and T4 levels. The difference between the two groups of patients did not correlate with body weight, diagnostic categories, age, drug treatment, or duration of stay in hospital.

  17. Cardiac autonomic regulation is disturbed in children with euthyroid Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ayhan; Gulgun, Mustafa; Tascilar, Mehmet Emre; Sari, Erkan; Yokusoglu, Mehmet

    2012-03-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (chronic autoimmune thyroiditis) is the most common form of thyroiditis in childhood. Previous studies have found autonomic dysfunction of varying magnitude in patients with autoimmune diseases, which is considered a cardiovascular risk factor. We aimed to evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of cardiac autonomic modulation, in children with euthyroid Hashimoto thyroiditis (eHT). The study included 32 patients with eHT (27 girls and 5 boys; mean age 11 ± 4.1 years, range 8-16; body mass index 0.47 ± 0.69 kg/m(2)), as judged by normal or minimally elevated serum TSH levels (normal range: 0.34-5.6 mIU/l) and normal levels of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3) and 38 euthyroid age-matched controls. Patients with eHT and control subjects underwent physical examination and 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. Time-domain parameters of HRV were evaluated for cardiac autonomic functions. Children with eHT displayed significantly lower values of time-domain parameters of SDANN (standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals), RMSSD (square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals), NN50 counts (number of pairs of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms) and PNN50 (NN50 count divided by the total number of all NN intervals) for each 5-min interval, compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05 for each), indicating the decreased beat-to-beat variation of heart rate. In conclusion, eHT is associated with disturbed autonomic regulation of heart rate. Hence, the children with eHT are at higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Time Biases in laser ranging measurements; impacts on geodetic products (Reference Frame and Orbitography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, A.; Exertier, P.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Zelensky, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The GGOS objectives are to maintain a geodetic network with an accuracy of 1 mm and a stability of 0.1 mm per year. For years, the laser ranging technique, which provide very accurate absolute distances to geodetic targets enable to determine the scale factor as well as coordinates of the geocenter. In order to achieve this goal, systematic errors appearing in the laser ranging measurements must be considered and solved. In addition to Range Bias (RB), which is the primary source of uncertainty of the technique, Time Bias (TB) has been recently detected by using the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) space instrument capability on-board the satellite Jason-2. Instead of determining TB through the precise orbit determination that is applied to commonly used geodetic targets like LAGEOS to estimate global geodetic products, we have developed, independently, a dedicated method to transfer time between remote satellite laser ranging stations. As a result, the evolving clock phase shift to UTC of around 30 stations has been determined under the form of time series of time bias per station from 2008 to 2016 with an accuracy of 3-4 ns. It demonstrated the difficulty, in terms of Time & Frequency used technologies, to locally maintain accuracy and long term stability at least in the range of 100 ns that is the current requirement for time measurements (UTC) for the laser ranging technique. Because some laser ranging stations oftently exceed this limit (from 100 ns to a few μs) we have been studying these effects first on the precision orbit determination itself, second on the station positioning. We discuss the impact of TB on LAGEOS and Jason-2 orbits, which appears to affect the along-track component essentially. We also investigate the role of TB in global geodetic parameters as the station coordinates. Finally, we propose to provide the community with time series of time bias of laser ranging stations, under the form of a data- handling-file in order to be included in

  19. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects: the Lifelines Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Eline H; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C M A; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-02-01

    Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a number of health issues, including atherosclerosis development and biochemical markers of increased cardiovascular risk. However, the association of thyroid hormones with NAFLD in euthyroid subjects has not been unequivocally established. We therefore determined associations of thyroid hormone parameters with NAFLD among euthyroid subjects. The study was conducted in the Lifelines Cohort Study, a population-based cohort study of participants living in the North of the Netherlands. Only euthyroid subjects (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.5-4.0mU/L, free thyroxine (FT4) 11-19.5pmol/L and free triiodothyronine (FT3) 4.4-6.7pmol/L) older than 18years were included. Exclusion criteria were participants with excessive alcohol use, known hepatitis or cirrhosis, liver functions ≥ three times the upper limit, current cancer, non-white ancestry, previous or current use of thyroid medication and current use of lipid or glucose lowering medication. A priori defined liver biochemistry, thyroid function parameters and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied. NAFLD was defined by using the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI); FLI≥60 was categorized as NAFLD. A P<0.01 was considered significant. FLI≥60 was found in 4274 (21.1%) of 20,289 individuals (62.1% male, median age 46years) with increased prevalence of MetS (P<0.0001). In age- and sex-adjusted analysis FLI≥60 was independently associated with a higher FT3 (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29-1.39, per SD increment, P<0.0001) and a lower FT4 (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, P<0.0001) but not by TSH. The strongest association was found for the FT3/FT4 ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.39-1.49, P<0.0001). These associations remained similar after additional

  20. Biochemical and hematologic reference values for free-ranging, chemically immobilized wild norwegian reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) during early winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L; Evans, Alina L; Os, Øystein; Arnemo, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemistry values were evaluated in free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) as part of a reintroduction program in southwestern Norway in November 1995 and 1996. Animals were immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine by dart from a helicopter. Blood was drawn for serum chemistry from 31 adults (nine males and 22 females) and for hematology from 29 adults (eight males and 21 females). Significant differences (Ppaper provides the first report of baseline hematologic and serum biochemistry reference ranges for free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer during early winter.

  1. Thyroid hormone levels and incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  2. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marzoki JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasim M Al-Marzoki1, Zainab W Al-Maaroof2, Ali H Kadhum31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Babylon Medical College, 3Babylon Gynecology and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Hilla, IraqBackground: The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq.Methods: A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually.Results: Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3 g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6 × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472 × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count.Conclusion: Most results

  3. Application of long range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model for Thailand energy outlook 2030 : reference case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charusiri, W.; Eua-arporn, B.; Ubonwat, J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the total energy consumption in Thailand increased 8.8 per cent, from 47,806 to 60,260 ktoe. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) is an accounting tool that simulates future energy scenarios. According to a Business As Usual (BAU) case, the overall energy demand in Thailand is estimated to increase from 61,262 to 254,200 ktoe between 2004 and 2030. Commercial energy consumption, which comprises petroleum products, natural gas, coal and its products, and electricity, increased by 9.0 per cent in Thailand in 2004, and new and renewable energy increased by 7.8 per cent. Nearly 60 per cent of the total commercial energy supply in Thailand was imported and increased for a fifth year in a row. The changes in energy consumption can be attributed to population growth and increase in economic activity and development. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs

  4. Peripheral perfusion index-reference range in healthy Portuguese term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Jardim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peripheral perfusion index (PPI is a non-invasive numerical value of peripheral perfusion derived from a pulse oximeter signal. It has been suggested that PPI may be a valuable adjunct diagnostic tool to detect early clinically significant hemodynamic embarrassment. The aim of this paper was to determine normal PPI in healthy newborns, in order to establish cut-off values that can be use in different pathologic settings. Material and Methods: Prospective observational study performed with term newborns, born in a tertiary level care hospital between January 1st to December 31st 2012. Demographic data such as gender, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar score were collected. PPI, heart rate (HR and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 were evaluated simultaneous on the right hand (preductal and on the left foot (postductal of the newborn, before discharge from the hospital. Results: 2,032 newborns, 52% male, with a mean birth weight of 3,237 ± 432 g and median gestational age of 39 weeks, were evaluated. PPI values obtained were: preductal median of 1.6 with interquartile range of 1.2-2.3, postductal median of 1.4 with interquartile range of 1-2 (p < 0.001. Conclusions: PPI is an easily applicable non invasive method to monitor peripheral perfusion changes. We established normal PPI values in healthy Portuguese newborns. PPI was higher on the upper limb (preductal when compared to the lower limb (postductal.This finding has important implications, in the time of choosing a single probe placement, and in the interpretation of the results.

  5. Brain perfusion abnormalities in patients with euthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piga, M.; Serra, A.; Loi, G.L.; Satta, L. [University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine - Department of Medical Sciences ' ' M. Aresu' ' , Cagliari (Italy); Deiana, L.; Liberto, M. Di; Mariotti, S. [University of Cagliari, Endocrinology - Department of Medical Sciences ' ' M. Aresu' ' , Cagliari (Italy)

    2004-12-01

    Brain perfusion abnormalities have recently been demonstrated by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in rare cases of severe Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) encephalopathy; moreover, some degree of subtle central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been hypothesised in HT, but no direct evidence has been provided so far. The aim of this study was to assess cortical brain perfusion in patients with euthyroid HT without any clinical evidence of CNS involvement by means of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Sixteen adult patients with HT entered this study following informed consent. The diagnosis was based on the coexistence of high titres of anti-thyroid auto-antibodies and diffuse hypoechogenicity of the thyroid on ultrasound in association with normal circulating thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations. Nine consecutive adult patients with non-toxic nodular goitre (NTNG) and ten healthy subjects matched for age and sex were included as control groups. All patients underwent {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Image assessment was both qualitative and semiquantitative. Semiquantitative analysis was performed by generation of four regions of interest (ROI) for each cerebral hemisphere - frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital - and one for each cerebellar hemisphere in order to evaluate cortical perfusion asymmetry. The Asymmetry Index (AI) was calculated to provide a measurement of both magnitude and direction of perfusion asymmetry. As assessed by visual examination, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD cerebral distribution was irregular and patchy in HT patients, hypoperfusion being more frequently found in frontal lobes. AI revealed abnormalities in 12/16 HT patients, in three of the nine NTNG patients and in none of the normal controls. A significant difference in the mean AI was found between patients with HT and both patients with NTNG (p<0.003) and normal controls (p<0.001), when only frontal lobes were considered. These results show the high prevalence of brain perfusion

  6. Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the US population by measurement of urinary monohydroxy metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, James; Huang, Wenlin; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Samuel P.; Wang, Richard Y.; Needham, Larry L.; Sampson, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/Id-HRMS) method for measuring 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites representing seven parent PAHs in 3 mL of urine at low parts-per-trillion levels. PAH levels were determined in urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 from approximately 2400 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and, for the first time, reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the US population. Using this GC/ID-HRMS method, we found detectable concentrations for monohydroxy metabolite isomers of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and benz[a]anthracene. Some monohydroxy metabolite isomers of benzo[c]phenanthrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene exhibited low detection frequencies that did not allow for geometric mean calculations. Our study results enabled us to establish a reference range for the targeted PAHs in the general US population

  7. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marzoki, Jasim M; Al-Maaroof, Zainab W; Kadhum, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    Background The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq. Methods A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks) and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually. Results Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3) g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6) × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472) × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count. Conclusion Most results in the current study were within the reference range. The hematological reference values for Iraqi neonatal cord plasma need to be confirmed by larger numbers of blood samples and by collecting samples from

  8. Assessment of ovarian reserve in euthyroid adolescents with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgon, Ozgur; Sivrice, Cigdem; Demirtas, Hakan; Dundar, Bumin

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the ovarian function and reserve in euthyroid adolescents (TSH Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). This case-control study included 30 adolescent girls (mean age 15.1 ± 1.4 years) newly diagnosed as HT with presence of high thyroid antibodies with gland heterogeneity in ultrasound and age-matched 30 healthy female subjects. Anti-ovarian antibody (AOAb), LH/FSH ratio, estradiol, anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B, total testosterone, antral follicle count, ovarian volumes and uterine length were measured. The clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound data of the HT and control groups were compared. There were no significant differences between the girls with HT and healthy controls in relation to LH/FSH ratio, estradiol and inhibin-B levels. AOAb (p = 0.02), AMH (p = 0.007) and total testosterone levels were higher in HT group than the control group (p = 0.03). AOAb level was found to be positively correlated with LH/FSH ratio (p = 0.03), AMH (p = 0.01) and inhibin-B (p thyroiditis had normal ovarian reserve based on measurements of AMH, inhibin B, FSH, LH/FSH ratio, estradiol and antral follicle counts.

  9. Cognitive functioning and well-being in euthyroid patients on thyroxine replacement therapy for primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wekking, Ellie M.; Appelhof, Bente C.; Fliers, Eric; Schene, Aart H.; Huyser, Jochanan; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is associated with neurocognitive impairment. Sparse data suggest that treatment of hypothyroidism, resulting in a return to euthyroidism, may be associated with only partial recovery of overall neurocognitive functioning. The aim of this study was to assess neurocognitive

  10. Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range, Subclinical Hypothyroidism, and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Christine; da Costa, Bruno R; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Feller, Martin; Floriani, Carmen; Bauer, Douglas C; Cappola, Anne R; Heckbert, Susan R; Ceresini, Graziano; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Peeters, Robin P; Luben, Robert; Völzke, Henry; Dörr, Marcus; Walsh, John P; Bremner, Alexandra; Iacoviello, Massimo; Macfarlane, Peter; Heeringa, Jan; Stott, David J; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Magnani, Jared W; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2017-11-28

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent disorder leading to heart failure, stroke, and death. Enhanced understanding of modifiable risk factors may yield opportunities for prevention. The risk of AF is increased in subclinical hyperthyroidism, but it is uncertain whether variations in thyroid function within the normal range or subclinical hypothyroidism are also associated with AF. We conducted a systematic review and obtained individual participant data from prospective cohort studies that measured thyroid function at baseline and assessed incident AF. Studies were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to July 27, 2016. The euthyroid state was defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism as TSH 4.5 to 19.9 mIU/L with free thyroxine (fT4) levels within reference range. The association of TSH levels in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid range with incident AF was examined by using Cox proportional hazards models. In euthyroid participants, we additionally examined the association between fT4 levels and incident AF. Of 30 085 participants from 11 cohorts (278 955 person-years of follow-up), 1958 (6.5%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 2574 individuals (8.6%) developed AF during follow-up. TSH at baseline was not significantly associated with incident AF in euthyroid participants or those with subclinical hypothyroidism. Higher fT4 levels at baseline in euthyroid individuals were associated with increased AF risk in age- and sex-adjusted analyses (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.66, for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of fT4; P for trend ≤0.001 across quartiles). Estimates did not substantially differ after further adjustment for preexisting cardiovascular disease. In euthyroid individuals, higher circulating fT4 levels, but not TSH levels, are associated with increased risk of incident AF. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of a point-of-care blood analyzer and determination of reference ranges for blood parameters in rockfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Tornquist, Susan J; Miller-Morgan, Timothy J; Fodness, Brian G; Clifford, Kevin E

    2005-01-15

    To compare values of blood parameters in rockfish obtained by use of a point-of-care portable blood analyzer with values determined by a veterinary diagnostic laboratory, calculate reference ranges for various blood parameters in black rockfish, and compare values of blood parameters in clinically normal fish with those of fish with clinical abnormalities. Prospective study. 41 captive adult black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and 4 captive adult blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus). Rockfish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate for collection of blood samples. Heparinized blood samples were immediately analyzed with a point-of-care analyzer. Blood sodium, potassium, chloride, urea nitrogen, and glucose concentrations; Hct; pH; partial pressure of carbon dioxide; total carbon dioxide concentration; bicarbonate concentration; base excess; and hemoglobin concentration were determined. A microhematocrit technique was used to determine PCV, and a refractometer was used to estimate total plasma protein concentration. Paired heparinized blood samples were transported to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for analyses. Data obtained with the point-of-care analyzer were reproducible; however, values for most blood parameters were significantly different from those obtained by the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Fish with poor body condition had several blood parameter values that were lower than corresponding values in clinically normal fish. Point-of-care blood analyses may prove useful in rockfish. Point-of-care data for a large number of clinically normal fish must be obtained for reference ranges to be calculated, and further assessments of clinically abnormal fish are necessary to determine the relevance of the data.

  12. Euthyroid sick syndrome in patients with acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic Slobodan; Vlajkovic Marina; Rajic Milena; Bogicevic Momcilo

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum thyroid hormone profile in acute renal failure (ARF) patients according to the initial 131I-OIH clearance value as a predictor of ARF outcome. Patients and methods: Radioimmuno-assays of T4, T3, FT4, FT3, rT3 and TSH were performed in 32 ARF patients within 7 days and 6 months after ARF onset. The patients were divided into three groups according to the kidney function recovery potential measured by 131I-OIH clearance as follows: Group I: high probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance >250 ml/min), Group II: intermediate probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance 151-250 ml/min) and Group III: low probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance <150 ml/min). The results were compared with those obtained in 20 healthy patients. Results: Total thyroid hormone and TSH values are displayed in the table, Values of total T4 and TSH were slightly declined in the Group I but without reaching the statistical significance, while total T3 value was significantly decreased seven days after ARF onset. In the groups with intermediate and low probability for kidney recovery both T3 and T4 values were significantly dropped, being most prominent in the III group. After six months, the most severe fall of thyroid hormone levels without reaching the normalization was found only in the Group III while in the Group I and II normalization of total thyroid hormone levels was achieved. At the end of the observation period ARF patients with low probability for kidney recovery were found significantly lower values of TSH. Conclusion: Acute renal failure affects thyroid function leading to euthyroid sick syndrome characterized by declined serum T3 and T4 without TSH elevation. Thyroid hormone a disturbance is in accordance with the impairment of renal function being the most pronounced in patient with low probability for kidney recovery. This pattern of altered thyroid hormone levels could be a result of

  13. Blood Chemistry Reference Values for Free-Ranging Asiatic Black Bears ( Ursus thibetanus) by Season, Age, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Jin; Jeong, Dong-Hyuk; Lim, Yoon-Kyu

    2018-04-19

    Physiological characteristics, such as blood chemistry values, are valuable for evaluating the health of the animals. To our knowledge, these values have never been reported for the free-ranging Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus; ABB). Thus, 28 blood chemistry values from 50 free-ranging ABBs captured in Jirisan National Park, Republic of Korea, from 2005 to 2016 were evaluated. The aim of this study was to establish blood chemistry reference values for the free-ranging ABBs during both the hibernating and nonhibernating seasons. During hibernation, mean values of creatinine (CRE), total cholesterol, total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglycerides, and Mg were significantly higher than those during nonhibernation; however, mean values of blood urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen to creatinine (U/C) ratio, inorganic phosphorous (IP), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly lower. Age differences (young vs. adult) were found in IP, LDH, TP, and ALB values during hibernation and in the U/C ratio, Ca, IP, ALP, creatine kinase myocardial band, CRE, total bilirubin, and uric acid values during nonhibernation. However, there were no sex differences (male vs. female).

  14. [Evaluation of autonomic nervous system function with heart rate variability analysis in patients with hyperthyroidism and during euthyroidism after pharmacologic and surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyński, M; Tabor, S; Thor, P

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was both to estimate autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in patients with hyperthyroidism by the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and to evaluate the impact of pharmacological and surgical treatment on the ANS function. Analysis of the HRV underwent 10 female patients in course of thyreotoxicosis and after reaching full clinical and biochemical euthyroidism, after pharmacological therapy and in month after surgical treatment. The 10 minutes records at rest, in horizontal position were evaluated. The HRV parameters like mean of the heart rate, mean of RR intervals, standard deviation of all normal RR intervals (SDNN), range of the heart rate variability, low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) components of the heart rate power spectral density and LF/HF ratio were assessed. The results were compared to those obtained from 10 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched control subjects. The statistical significance (p hyperthyroidism in comparison to the control group (151.6/346.8 ms; 2.4/0.74; 24.4/57.2 ms2). In course of pharmacological euthyroidism there were statistically significant (p hyperthyroidism (270/151.6 ms; 0.995/2.4; 39/24.4 ms2). In euthyroidism after surgical treatment all the above parameters kept the similar levels as in pharmacological euthyroidism (no statistical significance for p hyperthyroid patients there is advantage of sympathetic part of ANS over parasympathetic one which is due to sharp reduction of parasympathetic system activity. Pharmacological therapy with thyreostatics normalises balance of ANS to the level of the control group and after surgical treatment the balance keeps the same. Moreover, in the estimation of ANS as important as LF/HF ratio is the mean range of RR intervals.

  15. To establish trimester-specific reference ranges for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, CM

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Diabetes in Pregnancy imposes additional risks to both mother and infant. These poor outcomes are considered to be primarily related to glycaemic control which is monitored longitudinally through pregnancy by means of HbA1c. The correlation between HbA1c levels with clinical outcomes emphasises the need to measure HbA1c accurately, precisely and for data interpretation comparison to appropriately defined reference intervals. From July 1st 2010, the HbA1c assay in Irish laboratories became fully metrologically traceable to the IFCC standard, permitting HbA1c to be reported in IFCC units (mmol\\/mol) and derived DCCT\\/NGSP units (%) using the IFCC-DCCT\\/NGSP master equation (DCCT = Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, NGSP = National Glycohemoglobin standardisation program). The aim of this project is to establish trimester-specific reference ranges in pregnancy for IFCC standardised HbA1c in non-diabetic Caucasian women. This will allow us to define the goal for HbA1c during pregnancy complicated by diabetes.\\r\

  16. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells and hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, K E; Alleman, A R; Dennis, P M; Maxwell, L K; Lock, B A; Bennett, R A; Jacobson, E R

    2001-03-15

    To determine blood cell morphologic characteristics and hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges for iguanas housed in a warm indoor and outdoor environment with regular exposure to direct sunlight. Original study. 51 clinically normal iguanas (18 males, 25 females, and 8 juveniles) housed in 3 Florida locations. Blood was collected from the coccygeal or ventral abdominal vein. Any samples that had obvious hemolysis or clot formation were not used. Leukocyte counts were determined manually; other hematologic values were obtained by use of a commercially available cell counter. Plasma biochemical values were determined by use of a spectrophotometric chemistry analyzer. Blood smears were stained with Wright-Giemsa and cytochemical stains for morphologic and cytochemical evaluation. Hematologic ranges were generally higher in this study than previously reported. Thrombocytes were variable in appearance between individuals and sometimes difficult to distinguish from lymphocytes on a Wright-Giemsa preparation. Concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, total protein, globulins, and cholesterol were significantly higher, and the albumin:globulin ratio was significantly lower, in healthy gravid females than in male or nongravid female iguanas. Nongravid females had significantly higher calcium and cholesterol concentrations, compared with males. The calcium:phosphorus ratio was > 1 in all iguanas. Gravid females had a calcium phosphorus product ranging between 210 and 800. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were identified within the erythrocytes of some iguanas. Hematologic ranges for iguanas in this study are higher than those reported for iguanas. Sex and age of the iguana should be considered when evaluating biochemical values. Healthy ovulating and gravid females may have significantly increased electrolyte and protein concentrations, but maintain a calcium:phosphorus ratio > 1.

  17. Results of preventive radioiodine therapy in euthyroid patients with history of hyperthyroidism prior to administration of amiodarone with permanent atrial fibrillation--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata; Woliński, Kosma; Płazińska, Maria Teresa; Miechowicz, Izabela; Kwiecińska, Barbara; Czepczyński, Rafał; Królicki, Leszek; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Radioiodine (RAI) therapy is a standard procedure in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. However, the use of RAI in euthyroid patients requiring chronic administration of amiodarone (AM) where other antiarrhythmic drugs may lack efficacy is still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of an AM therapy prior to treatment with radioiodine therapy in euthyroid patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (PAF), who had been treated for hyperthyroidism in the past. This was a retrospective observational study. Patients were assessed at baseline and two, six, eight, and 12 months after RAI therapy. 17 euthyroid patients with PAF were qualified to the RAI (female/male 3/14; age range 65 to 87, median 71). The patients required chronic administration of AM as a prophylaxis against sudden death. Each patient received an ablative dose of 800 MBq (22 mCi) of 131I. At baseline and during follow-up, no side effects of the therapy and no signs of drug intolerance were observed. Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurred in two (11.8%) cases after two months of RAI and five weeks of AM administration. In this situation, RAI therapy was repeated. Three patients (17.6%) after six months, and another two (11.8%) after eight months, required an additional dose of 131I due to amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT). Twelve patients (70.6%) returned to spontaneous sinus rhythm within two months. Fourteen patients (82.4%) had sinus rhythm during follow-up after six and 12 months of treatment. Preventive RAI in euthyroid (but previously hyperthyroid) patients with PAF before administration of AM may be the method of choice. This is particularly important for patients who will require permanent AM administration as a life-saving drug.

  18. Levothyroxine Improves Subjective Sleepiness in a Euthyroid Patient with Narcolepsy without Cataplexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Danielle L.; Spector, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We discuss the use of levothyroxine for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and prolonged nocturnal sleep time in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy. Methods: After failure of first-line narcolepsy treatments, a 48-year-old female began levothyroxine (25 mcg/day). After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient was evaluated for improvement in total sleep time and subjective daytime sleepiness assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results: At baseline, ESS score was 16 and total sleep time averaged 16 h/day. After 12 weeks, ESS was 13 and reported total sleep time was 13 h/day. Conclusions: Levothyroxine improved EDS and total sleep time in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy without cataplexy after 12 weeks without side effects. Citation: Sobol DL, Spector AR. Levothyroxine improves subjective sleepiness in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy without cataplexy. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1231-1232. PMID:25325591

  19. Physiological and Metabolic Changes During the Transition from Hyperthyroidism to Euthyroidism in Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Chiaw-Ling; Lim, Adoree Yi Ying; Tan, Hong Chang; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Tham, Kwang Wei; Bee, Yong Mong; Lim, Weiying; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Lai, Oi Fah; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Yen, Paul Michael

    2016-10-01

    The serum metabolomic profile and its relationship to physiological changes during hyperthyroidism and restoration to euthyroidism are not known. This study aimed to examine the physiological, adipokine, and metabolomic changes that occur when subjects with Graves' disease transition from hyperthyroidism to euthyroidism with medical treatment. Chinese women between 21 and 50 years of age and with newly diagnosed Graves' disease attending the endocrine outpatient clinics in a single institution were recruited between July 2012 and September 2014. All subjects were treated with thioamides to achieve euthyroidism. Clinical parameters (body weight, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient via indirect calorimetry, and reported total energy intake via 24 h food diary), biochemical parameters (thyroid hormones, lipid profile, fasting insulin and glucose levels), serum leptin, adiponectin, and metabolomics profiles were measured during hyperthyroidism and repeated in early euthyroidism. Twenty four Chinese women with an average age of 36.3 ± 8.6 years were included in the study. The average duration of treatment that was required to reach euthyroidism for these subjects was 38 ± 16.3 weeks. There was a significant increase in body weight (52.6 ± 9.0 kg to 55.3 ± 9.4 kg; p hyperthyroidism were noted. Serum metabolomics profile changes complemented the physiological changes observed during the transition from hyperthyroidism to euthyroidism. This study provides a comprehensive and integrated view of the changes in fuel metabolism and energy balance that occur following the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

  20. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F A; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Heemstra, Karen A; Smit, Johannes W A; Schoemaker, Rik C; Romijn, Johannes A; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the long-term effects of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on the autonomic nervous system and the potential effects of restoration of euthyroidism. This was a prospective single-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The study was performed at a university hospital. A total of 25 patients who were on more than 10-yr TSH suppressive therapy after thyroidectomy was examined. Patients were studied at baseline and subsequently randomized to a 6-month thyroid hormone substitution regimen to obtain either euthyroidism or maintenance of the subclinical hyperthyroid state. Urinary excretion of catecholamines and heart rate variability were measured. Baseline data of the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients were compared with data obtained in patients with hyperthyroidism and controls. Urinary excretion of norepinephrine and vanillylmandelic acid was higher in the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients compared with controls and lower compared with patients with overt hyperthyroidism. Heart rate variability was lower in patients with hyperthyroidism, intermediate in subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, and highest in the healthy controls. No differences were observed after restoration of euthyroidism. Long-term exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism has effects on the autonomic nervous system measured by heart rate variability and urinary catecholamine excretion. No differences were observed after restoration to euthyroidism. This may indicate the occurrence of irreversible changes or adaptation during long-term exposure to excess thyroid hormone that is not remedied by 6-month euthyroidism.

  1. Medium-range reference evapotranspiration forecasts for the contiguous United States based on multi-model numerical weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Hanoi; Tian, Di; Srivastava, Puneet; Pelosi, Anna; Chirico, Giovanni B.

    2018-07-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays a fundamental role in agronomic, forestry, and water resources management. Estimating and forecasting ET0 have long been recognized as a major challenge for researchers and practitioners in these communities. This work explored the potential of multiple leading numerical weather predictions (NWPs) for estimating and forecasting summer ET0 at 101 U.S. Regional Climate Reference Network stations over nine climate regions across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Three leading global NWP model forecasts from THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) dataset were used in this study, including the single model ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (EC), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP), and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office forecasts (MO), as well as multi-model ensemble forecasts from the combinations of these NWP models. A regression calibration was employed to bias correct the ET0 forecasts. Impact of individual forecast variables on ET0 forecasts were also evaluated. The results showed that the EC forecasts provided the least error and highest skill and reliability, followed by the MO and NCEP forecasts. The multi-model ensembles constructed from the combination of EC and MO forecasts provided slightly better performance than the single model EC forecasts. The regression process greatly improved ET0 forecast performances, particularly for the regions involving stations near the coast, or with a complex orography. The performance of EC forecasts was only slightly influenced by the size of the ensemble members, particularly at short lead times. Even with less ensemble members, EC still performed better than the other two NWPs. Errors in the radiation forecasts, followed by those in the wind, had the most detrimental effects on the ET0 forecast performances.

  2. Reference intervals and physiologic alterations in hematologic and biochemical values of free-ranging desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M.; Berry, Kristin H.; Wallis, I.R.; Nagy, K.A.; Henen, B.T.; Peterson, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations have experienced precipitous declines resulting from the cumulative impact of habitat loss, and human and disease-related mortality. Evaluation of hematologic and biochemical responses of desert tortoises to physiologic and environmental factors can facilitate the assessment of stress and disease in tortoises and contribute to management decisions and population recovery. The goal of this study was to obtain and analyze clinical laboratory data from free-ranging desert tortoises at three sites in the Mojave Desert (California, USA) between October 1990 and October 1995, to establish reference intervals, and to develop guidelines for the interpretation of laboratory data under a variety of environmental and physiologic conditions. Body weight, carapace length, and venous blood samples for a complete blood count and clinical chemistry profile were obtained from 98 clinically healthy adult desert tortoises of both sexes at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural area (western Mojave), Goffs (eastern Mojave) and Ivanpah Valley (northeastern Mojave). Samples were obtained four times per year, in winter (February/March), spring (May/June), summer (July/August), and fall (October). Years of near-, above- and below-average rainfall were represented in the 5 yr period. Minimum, maximum and median values, and central 95 percentiles were used as reference intervals and measures of central tendency for tortoises at each site and/or season. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance for significant (P < 0.01) variation on the basis of sex, site, season, and interactions between these variables. Significant sex differences were observed for packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, aspartate transaminase activity, and cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations. Marked seasonal variation was observed in most parameters in conjunction with reproductive cycle, hibernation, or seasonal

  3. Elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyreotidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskin Havva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, determined from peripheral blood, is accepted as an available and practical indicator of the systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the NLR was higher in euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyreotidis (CAT patients compared to a healthy control group.

  4. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F. A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Heemstra, Karen A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Schoemaker, Rik C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the

  5. Reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period defined from over 63 000 records in a multihospital health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R D; Jensen, J; Maheshwari, A; Henry, E

    2010-08-01

    Blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes are part of the complete blood count. Reference ranges for these concentrations during the neonatal period, established by very large sample sizes and modern methods, are needed for identifying abnormally low or high values. We constructed reference ranges for eosinophils per microl and monocytes per microl among neonates of 22 to 42 weeks of gestation, on the day of birth, and also during 28 days after birth. Data were obtained from archived electronic records over an eight and one-half-year period in a multihospital health-care system. In keeping with the reference range concept, values were excluded from neonates with a diagnosis of infection or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Eosinophils and monocytes per microl of blood were electronically retrieved from 96 162 records, of which 63 371 that lacked a diagnosis of infection or NEC were included in this reference range report. The mean value for eosinophils per microl on the day of birth increased linearly between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation, as did the 5 and 95% values. The reference range at 40 weeks was 140 to 1300 microl(-1) (mean 550 microl(-1)). Similarly, the mean value for monocytes increased linearly over this interval, with a reference range at 40 weeks of 300 to 3300 microl(-1) (mean 1400 microl(-1)). Over the first 4 weeks after birth, no appreciable change was observed in 5% limit and mean eosinophil count, with a slight increase in the 95% limit in week 4. A slight increase in monocyte count was observed during the first 2 weeks after birth. The results of this analysis describe reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period. Additional study is needed for determining the relevance of values falling outside the reference range.

  6. Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction in Euthyroid Nodular Goiter Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelius, Edy; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lo, Shih-Chang; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Lai, Yung-Rung; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2016-08-01

    The risks of thyroid dysfunction after iodinated contrast media exposure in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter are largely unknown. This observational, retrospective cohort study included a random selection of one million people in Taiwan. All patients with iodinated contrast media exposure during this study period were selected. Patients with euthyroid nodular goiter were identified as cases, while patients without thyroid nodule were selected as controls. We followed these patients until the first event of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure. A total of 334 cases and 2672 matched controls were selected in this study. The mean age of cases and controls were 58.6 and 58.4 years old, and mean follow-up durations were 2.1 and 2 years respectively. After adjustment, patients with euthyroid nodular goiter had a higher risk of thyroid dysfunction (hazard ratio 5.43, [confidence interval (CI) 3.01-9.80]) compared with controls after iodinated contrast media exposure. In the subgroup analysis, the risks of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in cases compared with controls were 5.77 [CI 2.64-12.62] and 4.95 [CI 2.15-11.40] respectively. Half of the euthyroid nodular goiter cases developed thyroid dysfunction within one year after iodinated contrast media exposure. Interestingly, all thyroid-related comorbidities and drug prescriptions did not increase the risk of thyroid dysfunction. Presence of euthyroid nodular goiter was associated with higher risk of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure.

  7. The effect of phototherapies on bone repair of euthyroid and hypothyroid rats: Raman spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Amanda P.; Rodriguez, Tania T.; Soares, Luiz G. P.; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Silveira, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.

    2018-04-01

    The repair of bone tissue is complex and can be influenced by several local and systemic factors that can delay the repair. Laser and LED phototherapies have shown positive results in the repair of bone tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate, through Raman spectroscopy, the influence of laser (λ780 nm) and LED (λ850 nm) phototherapies in the repair of surgical defects in femurs of euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. Thirty Albinus Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. The animals of the hypothyroid groups were submitted to surgical removal of the thyroid gland. After general anesthesia, a surgical bone defect was created in the femur of each animal and filled with blood clot in all groups. In group I (Euthyroid) the defect was created in euthyroid animals; In Group II (Hypo) the defect was created in hypothyroid animals; In Group III (Euthyroid Laser) the defect was irradiated with Laser; on Group IV (Hypo Laser) the defect was made in a hypothyroid animal and irradiated with Laser; on Group V (Euthyroid LED) the defect was irradiated with LED and on Group VI (Hypo LED) the defect was created in hypothyroid animals and LED irradiated. Irradiation was carried out at every 48-h for 15 days. Specimens were taken and stored in liquid nitrogen. Intensity of peaks of phosphate HA ( 960 cm-1), carbonated HA ( 1,070 cm-1) and collagen ( 1,414 cm-1) were measured by Raman Spectroscopy. The results showed that the health status had significant influence all peaks. Irradiation influenced only the peak of 1454 cm-1. It is concluded that phototherapies influences bone repair in cases of thyroid diseases.

  8. Determining the normal range for IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS: new reference data based on current internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Diana-Alexandra; Gleiss, Andreas; Sagmeister, Susanne; Haeusler, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    The measurement of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-3) often serves as first-line testing in children with growth disorders. The role of acid-labile subunit (ALS) as a screening parameter for homozygous or heterozygous mutations of the ALS gene still has to be determined. IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS were measured in 252 samples from children and adolescents. Reference curves were fitted using generalized additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) models and SD-Scores were calculated. Bootstrap analysis was used to quantify the uncertainty of the estimated percentiles. Bland-Altman plots were used to investigate the discrepancy between our newly estimated standard deviation scores (SDS) and SDS calculated on the basis of previous reference data. We present reference data for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurements based on recommended internal standard for IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS suitable for calculation of SD-scores. The Bland-Altman plot shows a rough agreement between the previous SDS calculation and our new one only for SDS around 1; for SDS at -2, an average difference of 0.83 SD was noticed. Our IGF-I reference values for the interval of interest in diagnosing growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (prepubertal age) are solid as proved by bootstrap analysis. The difference in calculated SD scores by using data provided previously highlights the importance of using labor and method specific reference data.

  9. Clinical course of thyroid function and thyroid associated-ophthalmopathy in patients with euthyroid Graves’ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki N

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nami Suzuki,1 Jaeduk Yoshimura Noh,1 Toshiaki Kameda,1 Ai Yoshihara,1 Hidemi Ohye,1 Miho Suzuki,1 Masako Matsumoto,1 Yo Kunii,1 Kenji Iwaku,1 Natsuko Watanabe,1 Koji Mukasa,1 Ai Kozaki,2 Toshu Inoue,2 Kiminori Sugino,1 Koichi Ito1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Ito Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Olympia Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Background: Euthyroid Graves’ disease (EGD is a rare condition defined as the presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO in patients with normal thyroid function. Due to the rarity of this disease, only a limited number of studies and case reports are available for further evaluation of the characteristics of the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the thyroid function, thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb and eye symptoms, and then determine whether TRAb is related to TAO in EGD patients. TRAb in this study was defined as including both thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSAb. Patients and methods: Medical records of patients diagnosed with EGD were reviewed. Ophthalmologists specializing in TAO examined the eyes of all subjects. Results: Of the 58 patients diagnosed with EGD, 24.1% developed hyperthyroidism, while 3.4% developed hypothyroidism. A total of 72.4% of the 58 patients remained euthyroid throughout the entire follow-up period. At the initial presentation, TBII and TSAb were positive in 74.5% and 70.5%, respectively. Ophthalmic treatments were administered to 30 (51.7% out of the 58 patients. A significant spontaneous improvement of the eye symptoms was found in 28 of the EGD patients who did not require eye treatments. EGD patients exhibited positive rates for both TBII and TSAb, with the number of the TRAb-positive patients gradually decreasing while the eye symptoms spontaneously improved over time. There were no correlations found between TRAb at initial presentation and the eye symptoms

  10. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH DIFFUSIVE CLINICALLY EUTHYROID GOITER IN THE REGIONS WITH DIFFERENT IODINE OCCURENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Troshina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the evaluation results of the IQ indices demonstrated by the school students, who reside in the regions with different degrees of the iodine deficiency severity and iodine provided regions. The authors performed the comparative analysis of the IQ indices among children with clinically euthyroid diffusive goiter and among children with normal sizes of the thyroid gland. The research included 260 children aged from 8 to 10 from 13 regions of the Russian Federation: 130 patients with the goiter diagnosed subject to the data of the ultrasound investigation and 130 children, who have normal sizes of the thyroid gland (reference group. The comparison groups were homogenous according to the education conditions (as only children from the city comprehensive schools took part in the research. For the evaluation of the intellectual development, authors used R. Kettell's intellect test free from the cultural impact (Сulture-Fair Intelligence Test, CFIT — CF 2А form. Despite the fact that the average IQ indices in the group of children with goiter were slightly lower than among children with normal sizes of the thyroid gland, the researchers failed to identify statistically significant differences between the average IQ indices among children in the compared groups (р > 0,05. Both in the group of children with goiter and in the reference group, the average IQ indices fell within «the low normal» (80–89 points.Key words: iodine, hypothyroidism, IQ intellect index, children.

  11. Association between Free Triiodothyronine Levels and Peripheral Arterial Disease in Euthyroid Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po; DU, Rui; Lin, Lin; Ding, Lin; Peng, Kui; Xu, Yu; Xu, Min; Bi, Yu Fang; Wang, Wei Qing; Ning, Guang; Lu, Jie Li

    2017-02-01

    This current cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between thyroid hormones and peripheral artery disease (PAD) among euthyroid Chinese population aged 40 years and above. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid antibodies were measured. PAD was defined as ankle-brachial index (ABI) triiodothyronine-to-free-thyroxin (FT3/FT4 ratio) had a decreased risk of prevalent PAD (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.15-0.62, P for trend = 0.01 and 0.31, 0.13-0.66, P for trend = 0.004, respectively) compared to those in the lowest quartile. To conclude, FT3 levels and the FT3/FT4 ratio was inversely associated with prevalent PAD in euthyroid Chinese population aged 40 years and above. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  12. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in euthyroid subjects and in patients with thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, J.; Tarjan, G.; Varga, F.; Mohari, K.; Janoki, G.

    1992-01-01

    An episodic pattern of fluctuation in serum TRH level was demonstrated in euthyroid males. It is suggested that these rises in serum TRH-IR are due to its pulsatile hypothalamic release, however, it must be remembered that a high proportion of circulating TRH is derived from extrahypothalamic sources. The conception that the TSH surge during late evening is secondary to an increased TRH release could not be proved in the present study. In the euthyroid and primary hypothyroid groups the mean values of serum TRH-IR did not differ, while its level was slightly, but not significantly lower in hyperthyroid patients. The evaluation of a single TRH determination is impeded by the short half-life, low serum level and its production in extrahypothalamic sites, too. (authors)

  13. Autonomy in euthyroid goitre: Precursor of non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism in an area of iodine deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Schicha, H.

    1984-01-01

    There is evidence that in an area of iodine deficiency NIM-HY exists to a considerable percentage, probably originating from euthyroid goitre with autonomy, especially if iodine intake is suddenly increased. Separation of IM-HY and NIM-HY is possible with a probability of 90% by clinical criteria and available laboratory investigations. This might be important not only from a pathophysiological point of view but also for diagnosis and selection of the kind of therapy. (orig.)

  14. Serum chemistry reference ranges for Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups from Alaska: stock differentiation and comparisons within a North Pacific sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Michelle E; Fadely, Brian S; Gelatt, Thomas S; Rea, Lorrie D; Loughlin, Thomas R

    2013-12-01

    Blood chemistry and hematologic reference ranges are useful for population health assessment and establishing a baseline for future comparisons in the event of ecosystem changes due to natural or anthropogenic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine if there was any population spatial structure for blood variables of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), an established sentinel species, and to report reference ranges for appropriate populations using standardized analyses. In addition to comparing reference ranges between populations with contrasting abundance trends, data were examined for evidence of disease or nutritional stress. From 1998 to 2011, blood samples were collected from 1,231 pups captured on 37 rookeries across their Alaskan range. Reference ranges are reported separately for the western and eastern distinct population segments (DPS) of Steller sea lion after cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA) supported underlying stock structure. Variables with greater loading scores for the DFA (creatinine, total protein, calcium, albumin, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase) also were greater for sea lions from the endangered western DPS, supporting previous studies that indicated pup condition in the west was not compromised during the first month postpartum. Differences between population segments were likely a result of ecological, physiological, or age related differences.

  15. Prevalence of upper airway obstruction in patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid multi nodular goitre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Menon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the prevalence of upper airway obstruction (UAO in "apparently asymptomatic" patients with euthyroid multinodular goitre (MNG and find correlation between clinical features, UAO on pulmonary function test (PFT and tracheal narrowing on computerised tomography (CT. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid MNG attending thyroid clinic in a tertiary centre underwent clinical examination to elicit features of UAO, PFT, and CT of neck and chest. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 11.5 using paired t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher′s exact test. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Fifty-six patients (52 females and four males were studied. The prevalence of UAO (PFT and significant tracheal narrowing (CT was 14.3%. and 9.3%, respectively. Clinical features failed to predict UAO or significant tracheal narrowing. Tracheal narrowing (CT did not correlate with UAO (PFT. Volume of goitre significantly correlated with degree of tracheal narrowing. Conclusions: Clinical features do not predict UAO on PFT or tracheal narrowing on CT in apparently asymptomatic patients with euthyroid MNG.

  16. Prevalence of upper airway obstruction in patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid multi nodular goitre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sunil K.; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Sarathi, Vijaya; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar R.; Menon, Padmavathy S; Shah, Nalini S.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in “apparently asymptomatic” patients with euthyroid multinodular goitre (MNG) and find correlation between clinical features, UAO on pulmonary function test (PFT) and tracheal narrowing on computerised tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid MNG attending thyroid clinic in a tertiary centre underwent clinical examination to elicit features of UAO, PFT, and CT of neck and chest. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 11.5 using paired t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher's exact test. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Fifty-six patients (52 females and four males) were studied. The prevalence of UAO (PFT) and significant tracheal narrowing (CT) was 14.3%. and 9.3%, respectively. Clinical features failed to predict UAO or significant tracheal narrowing. Tracheal narrowing (CT) did not correlate with UAO (PFT). Volume of goitre significantly correlated with degree of tracheal narrowing. Conclusions: Clinical features do not predict UAO on PFT or tracheal narrowing on CT in apparently asymptomatic patients with euthyroid MNG. PMID:21966649

  17. Vitamin D status in Egyptian euthyroid multinodular non-toxic goiter patients and its correlation with TSH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelnaga, Mohamed M; Elshafei, Maha M; Elsayed, Eman

    2016-10-01

    Although the prevalence of MNG is widespread throughout the world, its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the complex interactions of both genetic predisposition and the individuals' environment are likely. However, to the best of our knowledge, it remains unknown whether there is a relationship between vitamin D status and prevalence or pathogenesis of euthyroid MNG. Therefore, the goal of the present study was determination of vitamin D status in euthyroid MNG as well as exploration of the correlation between vitamin D status & TSH levels. A total of 77 patients diagnosed with euthyroid MNG and 50 subjects without goiter were matched according to age, weight and BMI as control group in this case control study. We found that patients with euthyroid MNG had statistically significant lower mean of [25(OH)D] (24.21±8.68ng/mL) in comparison with its mean in control subjects (28.37±10.91ng/mL, P value=0.019). The 28 sufficient vitamin D MNG patients had statistically significant lower level of TSH than 49 insufficient vitamin D MNG patients. Vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in MNG patients in Pearson correlation. Also 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients in regression analysis. Patients with euthyroid MNG have lower levels of vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in euthyroid MNG patients. In addition, 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients. We recommend hypovitaminosis D evaluation and correction in patients with MNG. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Mapping the Potential Global Range of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys, with Particular Reference to New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Fraser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Originating from Asia, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB is a significant pest of horticultural/agricultural crops, grapes, woody ornamental and herbaceous plants, and is also a nuisance to people, due to its overwintering behavior in human habitation. The global range of this pest is steadily increasing and previous predictions of environmental suitability have shown New Zealand to be highly suitable. Due to the economic value of horticultural and agricultural industries to the New Zealand economy, it is vital to understand the range of potential risk within the country. Global and New Zealand potential suitability for BMSB was modeled using three algorithms and the resulting predictions ensembled to predict the potential range under current climatic conditions and under trajectories of future low (Representative Concentration Pathways, RCP, 2.6 and high (RCP 8.5 greenhouse gas emissions for both 2050 and 2070. Under current conditions, models showed a high global suitability within latitudes 25°–50° N, southern South America, southeast and southwest regions of Australia and large areas of New Zealand. Modeling the effect of climate change on BMSB range in New Zealand resulted in a southerly range shift over time, particularly with high emissions trajectory. Currently, BMSB is not established in New Zealand and it is vital that this remains the case.

  19. Relationship Between Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Free Thyroxine, and Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations and 9-Year Mortality in Euthyroid Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresini, Graziano; Marina, Michela; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceda, Gian P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    To determine the association between plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) levels and all-cause mortality in older adults who had levels of all three hormones in the normal range. Longitudinal. Community-based. Euthyroid Invecchiare in Chianti study participants aged 65 and older (N = 815). Plasma TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels were predictors, and 9-year all-cause mortality was the outcome. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used to examine the relationship between TSH, FT3, and FT4 quartiles and all-cause mortality over 9 years of follow-up. During follow-up (mean person-years 8,643.7, range 35.4-16,985.0), 181 deaths occurred (22.2%). Participants with TSH in the lowest quartile had higher mortality than the rest of the population. After adjusting for multiple confounders, participants with TSH in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 2.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-4.22) had significantly higher all-cause mortality than those with TSH in the highest quartile. Neither FT3 nor FT4 was associated with mortality. In elderly euthyroid subjects, normal-low TSH is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Diagnostic reference range of κ/λ free light chain ratio to screen for Bence Jones proteinuria is not significantly influenced by GFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hieltjes, Yvonne; Elshof, Clemens; Roovers, Lian; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke

    2016-05-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse whether the κ/λ free light chain ratio reference range for screening for Bence Jones proteinuria should be dependent on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The serum κ/λ free light chain ratio, eGFR, serum M-protein and Bence Jones protein were measured in 544 patients for whom Bence Jones protein analysis was ordered. In the population of patients without Bence Jones proteinuria or a M-protein (n = 402), there is no gradual increase in κ/λ free light chain ratio with diminishing eGFR. The κ/λ free light chain ratio in this group was 0.56-1.86 (95% interval). With this diagnostic reference range of the κ/λ ratio, 105 of the 110 patients with Bence Jones protein could be identified correctly. Only five patients with Bence Jones proteinuria (free light chain ratio was measured without the presence of Bence Jones proteinuria. A κ/λ free light chain ratio in serum can be used safely and efficiently to select urine samples which should be analysed for Bence Jones proteinuria with an electrophoresis/immunofixation technique. Using this diagnostic reference range, the number of urine samples which should be analysed by electrophoresis/immunofixation could be reduced by 74%. The diagnostic reference interval can be determined best in a group of patients for whom Bence Jones analysis is indicated. For calculation of this reference range, the eGFR value does not need to be taken into account. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Characteristics and reference ranges of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I measured with a commercially available immunoassay in 724 healthy adult Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Nielsen, Kaspar; Raymond, Ilan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Measurements of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) play a pivotal role in the evaluation of the growth hormone-IGF-I axis. Due to assay variation IGF-I reference ranges are assay specific. We provide serum IGF-I reference ranges for adult men and women obtained...... by a commercially available assay. METHOD: IGF-I was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (R&D Systems). Assay precision was evaluated in low, medium and high IGF-I pools and in single samples from outpatients. The reference ranges were obtained in 724 healthy Caucasians, mean age 48 years (range 19....../mL (mean 1 SD) were 5, 3 and 3%. Interassays CVs for the low, medium and high pool varied between 7-10, 5-7, and 6-9%. Reproducibility between 4 different lots showed a intraclass CV of 0.99 (95%CI 0.98-0.96). Logarithmically transformed IGF-I levels were linearly associated with age with a 13% reduction...

  2. Euthyroid goiter with autonomy: Results of treatment with radioiodine (131I) and by surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Reinhardt, M.

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy of, and the risk associated with, the definite treatment of euthyroid goiter with autonomy, the data of 88 patients treated between 1982 and 1986 (50 by subtotal thyroidectomy; 38 by 131 I-treatment, mean radiation dose 200 Gy without protection by thyroxine) were analyzed in a retrospective study. The following criteria were used before and after treatment: the results of scintigraphy under suppression qualitatively (in focal autonomy) and quantitatively (global thyroid uptake) (TcU s ), the means of FT 4 I, FT 3 I and ΔTSH after TRH, the improvement of mechanical signs and symptoms and the decrease of thyroid volume. Measured by TcU s and ΔTSH, autonomy could be removed completely in 85-90% of all patients. Surgery was slightly more successful (100%) compared to treatment by 131 I (75-80%). This was also true for removal of mechanical symptoms and reduction of the goiter. The incidence of manifest hypothyroidism was greater after surgery (16%) than after 131 I treatment (3%). At a higher grade of autonomy (TcU s > 3.2%) surgery was more effective (95-100%) than treatment with 131 I (60-70%) but at a higher risk of hypothyroidism (24 vs 0%). It is imperative to improve the methods of estimating the amount of 131 I to be administered in euthyroid goiter with autonomy. Selection of patients with autonomy in euthyroid goiter for definite treatment is difficult, since until now their risk to become hyperthyroid cannot be predicted properly. (orig.) [de

  3. Euthyroid goiter with autonomy: Results of treatment with radioiodine (/sup 131/I) and by surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emrich, D.; Reinhardt, M.

    1989-02-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy of, and the risk associated with, the definite treatment of euthyroid goiter with autonomy, the data of 88 patients treated between 1982 and 1986 (50 by subtotal thyroidectomy; 38 by /sup 131/I-treatment, mean radiation dose 200 Gy without protection by thyroxine) were analyzed in a retrospective study. The following criteria were used before and after treatment: the results of scintigraphy under suppression qualitatively (in focal autonomy) and quantitatively (global thyroid uptake) (TcU/sub s/), the means of FT/sub 4/I, FT/sub 3/I and ..delta..TSH after TRH, the improvement of mechanical signs and symptoms and the decrease of thyroid volume. Measured by TcU/sub s/ and ..delta..TSH, autonomy could be removed completely in 85-90% of all patients. Surgery was slightly more successful (100%) compared to treatment by /sup 131/I (75-80%). This was also true for removal of mechanical symptoms and reduction of the goiter. The incidence of manifest hypothyroidism was greater after surgery (16%) than after /sup 131/I treatment (3%). At a higher grade of autonomy (TcU/sub s/ > 3.2%) surgery was more effective (95-100%) than treatment with /sup 131/I (60-70%) but at a higher risk of hypothyroidism (24 vs 0%). It is imperative to improve the methods of estimating the amount of /sup 131/I to be administered in euthyroid goiter with autonomy. Selection of patients with autonomy in euthyroid goiter for definite treatment is difficult, since until now their risk to become hyperthyroid cannot be predicted properly.

  4. Levothyroxine Treatment of Euthyroid Children with Autoimmune Hashimoto Thyroiditis: Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Helmuth G; Bettendorf, Markus; Binder, Gerhard; Karges, Beate; Kneppo, Carolin; Schmidt, Heinrich; Voss, Egbert; Wabitsch, Martin; Dötsch, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (L-T4) treatment of euthyroid children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a controversial issue. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Out of 79 identified euthyroid patients, 59 started the study; 25 patients (21 female, 4 male; age: 11.8 ± 2.3 years) received L-T4 at a mean dose of 1.6 µg/kg (SD, 0.8) daily, and 34 (27 female, 7 male; age: 12.6 ± 1.2 years) were not treated. Patients developing subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up (n = 13) were treated with L-T4 and removed from the observation group. As the main outcome measures, thyroid gland volume (determined by ultrasound) as well as serum levels of TSH, free T4, and antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin were assessed every 6 months for 36 months. At the start, the mean thyroid volume (standard deviation score, SDS) was 2.5 in the treatment group and 1.6 in the observation group. There was a constant decline in mean thyroid volume (SDS) from 2.13 (month 12) to 1.12 (month 30) in the treated group, with a delta thyroid volume of -1.01 SDS. In the observation group, the mean delta thyroid volume increased to +0.27 SDS. The change of the delta thyroid volume was statistically significantly different between both groups during the 12- and 30-month time points (p thyroid function and serum thyroid antibodies. L-T4 treatment can decrease the thyroid volume in euthyroid children with HT, but the effect is limited to a definite time period. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Ultrasonographic findings of thyroid in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: overt hypothyroid and euthyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Tezcan; Varım, Ceyhun; Nalbant, Ahmet; Gündüz, Yasemin; Tamer, Ali

    2013-08-01

    To compare the frequency, size, and sonographic features of thyroid nodules in overt hypothyroid and euthyroid patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. The study included 135 overt hypothyroid (group 1) and 74 euthyroid patients (group 2) with Hashimoto thyroiditis. The two groups were compared for presence of nodule(s), nodule numbers, and nodule sizes obtained by ultrasonography. Nodules were found in 48 (35.5%) patients in group 1 and in 24 (36.9%) in group 2 (p more than 0.05). The numbers of nodules in the group 1 and group 2, respectively, were as follows: single nodule in 12 (25%) and in 9 (33.3%) patients; 2-4 nodules in 20 (41.6%) and in 13 (48.1%) patients; and > 4 nodules in 16 (33.3%) and in 5 (18.5%) patients (p more than 0.05 for all of the results). Nodule sizes of the solitary or dominant nodule in group 1 and group 2, respectively, were as follows: less than 1 cm nodules in 27 (56.2%) and in 14 (51.8%) patients; 1-2 cm nodules in 18 (37.5%) and in 7 (25.9) patients; 2-4 cm nodules in 2 (4.1%) and in 5 (18.5%) patients and > 4 cm nodules in 1 (2%) and in 1 (3.7%) patient (p more than 0.05 for all of the results). Thyroid ultrasound examination of overt hypothyroid and euthyroid patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis reveals similarities in terms of frequency, number, size, and ultrasound features of the thyroid nodules.

  6. Measurement of uterine natural killer cell percentage in the periimplantation endometrium from fertile women and women with recurrent reproductive failure: establishment of a reference range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Mariee, Najat; Jiang, Lingming; Liu, Yingyu; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Tin Chiu; Laird, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Uterine natural killer cells are the major leukocytes present in the periimplantation endometrium. Previous studies have found controversial differences in uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure compared with fertile controls. We sought to compare the uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure and fertile controls. This was a retrospective study carried out in university hospitals. A total of 215 women from 3 university centers participated in the study, including 97 women with recurrent miscarriage, 34 women with recurrent implantation failure, and 84 fertile controls. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained precisely 7 days after luteinization hormone surge in a natural cycle. Endometrial sections were immunostained for CD56 and cell counting was performed by a standardized protocol. Results were expressed as percentage of positive uterine natural killer cell/total stromal cells. The median uterine natural killer cell percentage in Chinese ovulatory fertile controls in natural cycles was 2.5% (range 0.9-5.3%). Using 5th and 95th percentile to define the lower and upper limits of uterine natural killer cell percentage, the reference range was 1.2-4.5%. Overall, the groups with recurrent reproductive failure had significantly higher uterine natural killer cell percentage than the controls (recurrent miscarriage: median 3.2%, range 0.6-8.8%; recurrent implantation failure: median 3.1%, range 0.8-8.3%). However, there was a subset of both groups (recurrent miscarriage: 16/97; recurrent implantation failure: 6/34) that had lower uterine natural killer cell percentage compared to fertile controls. A reference range for uterine natural killer cell percentage in fertile women was established. Women with recurrent reproductive failure had uterine natural killer cell percentages both above and below the reference range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radioiodine therapy increases the risk of cerebrovascular events in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Jensen, Lars Thorbjoern; Vej-Hansen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    to radiation and is capable of inducing atherosclerosis. The objective of the study was to elucidate whether ionizing radiation from radioiodine might contribute to cerebrovascular morbidity. METHODS: In a retrospective register cohort study, 4000 hyperthyroid and 1022 euthyroid goitre patients treated...... with radioiodine between 1975 and 2008 were matched 1:4 on age and sex with random controls. The cohort was followed from the date of treatment until hospitalization due to cerebrovascular event, death, 20 years of follow-up or March 2013. Data were analyzed in competing risk models adjusting for age, sex...

  8. Thyroidectomy improves quality of life in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter – a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Watt, Torquil; Cramon, Per

    compared to a historic group from the general population (n=739). ThyPRO data before, three, and six months after surgery were compared with normative scores from the general population using a linear mixed model and non-paired t-tests. The effect size (ES) was estimated as mean change by standard...... scales either experienced no change or small changes (ES:0.00-0.50). Post-surgery, with exception a reduced level of Anxiety, all scales returned to values similar to the general population.Conclusion: Thyroid surgery leads to significant benefit among patients with euthyroid goiter, and restores Qo...

  9. Age-Specific Normal Reference Range for Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Healthy Chinese Han Women: A nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofang; Ding, Ting; Zhang, Hanwang; Zhang, Cuilian; Ma, Wenmin; Zhong, Ying; Qu, Wenyu; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Yi; Li, Zhiying; Huang, Kecheng; Deng, Song; Ma, Lanfang; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Jingjing; Yang, Shuhong; Huang, Jia; Wu, Meng; Fang, Li; Lu, Yunping; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-08-01

    The increasing use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in clinic has raised concerns regarding the reliable reference range for this test. However, the reference range for AMH in normal Chinese female population has not been established. Furthermore, relationship between AMH and other clinical markers such as body mass index (BMI) and antral follicle counts (AFCs) and other sex-related hormones have not been examined in normal population-based women. We aimed to determine the age-specific reference range for serum AMH in healthy Chinese women throughout reproductive age to menopause and to estimate relationship between AMH and other clinical markers in healthy women. In this multicenter and nationwide study, advertisements were used to recruit 2055 women, aged 20 to 55 years, from 6 different regions in China; 1590 (77.37%) women met the inclusion criteria for the reference range population. We measured the baseline serum AMH levels using new Beckman Coulter Gen II assay. Serum concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), and AFCs were also determined in the follicular phase. The AMH-Age nomogram and AMH levels of different age-groups and the relationship between AMH and other clinical markers. Serum AMH concentrations declined progressively with age. A quadratic model defined as log (AMH) = (-1.970 + 0.296 × Age - 0.006 × Age(2)) fitted best the decline of AMH with age. The median AMH levels were 6.23, 5.65, 4.55, 3.74, 2.78, and 1.09 ng/mL for the 20 ≤ age women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Euthyroid sick syndrome in head injury patients compared with Glasgow Coma and Outcome Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palugniok, R.; Kochanska-Dziurowicz, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of the role of euthyroid sick syndrome and pituitary gland hormonal changes and the prognosis of patient mortality after severe brain injury. METHODS: The research was conducted on 65 patients with isolated severe brain injury. Blood samples were obtained as soon as possible after the injury and on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th day after the injury. Blood concentrations of T3, rT3, T4, FT4, TSH, and PRL were estimated. The patients' state of health was evaluated in the sixth hour after the injury, using Glasgow Coma Scale, and after 180 days, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Multidirectional correlation was sought between the concentrations of the estimated hormones and the score obtained in the Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS: Cluster analysis showed that concentrations of the hormones in the patients who died are grouped in different clusters from those in the patients who survived. This proves that hormonal patterns are different in these groups. Statistically significant lower T3 concentrations were observed on the 3rd day in comparison with the 0 day. Cumulative proportion surviving was lower for the OP group in comparison with the NOP group and amounted to 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: In all patients covered by the research euthyroid sick syndrome was diagnosed. T3 concentration on the 3rd day after the injury together with the evaluation in Glasgow Coma Scale allows for more precise prognosis. (author)

  11. Free Triiodothyronine Levels Are Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy in Euthyroid Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association of thyroid function and diabetic nephropathy (DN in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 421 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. The following parameters were assessed: anthropometric measurements, fast plasma glucose, serum creatinine, lipid profile, HbA1c, free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR. Patients with UACR of ≥30 mg/g were defined as those suffering from DN. Results. Of the 421 patients, 203 (48.2% suffered from DN, and no difference was found between males and females. The patients with DN yielded significantly lower FT3 levels than those without DN (P<0.01. The prevalence of DN showed a significantly decreasing trend across the three tertiles based on FT3 levels (59.6%, 46.4%, and 38.6%, P<0.01. After adjustment for gender and age, FT3 levels were found to correlate positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.03 and negatively with UACR (P<0.01. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that FT3 level was independently associated with UACR (β=-0.18, t=-3.70, and P<0.01. Conclusion. Serum FT3 levels are inversely associated with DN in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors.

  12. Comparison of thyroid stimulating activities measured by cyclic AMP production, those by radioiodine uptake in FRTL-5 cells and TSH-binding inhibitory activities in patients with hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Tokuda, Yasutaka; Arai, Keisuke; Iida, Yasuhiro; Konishi, Junji

    1988-01-01

    By using an assay measuring cAMP production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSab) were detected in all of 15 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease (EG) and of 26 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease (HG). There was no signicant difference between TSab activities in Eg and in HG. In an effort to elucidate why EG patients remain euthyroid in spite of having TSab, we investigated the effect of the patient's crude immunoglobulin fractions 125 I uptake in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, one of the indices of stimulation subsequent to cAMP production. The 125 Iuptake stimulation (IUS) activity was positive in 46,7% (7/15) of EG patients and 88.5% (23/26) of HG patients, being significantly lower in the former than in the latter (P 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 0.401, P 99m Tc thyroid uptake in comparison to 19 HG patients with a similar range of IUS activities. There was a good correlation between thyroid weight and 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 8.827, P 99m Tc and presumably radioiodine in vivo, might be a factor responsible for keeping EG patients euthyroid despite the presence of TSab. (author)

  13. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm. Accessed August 2015. Sources Used in Previous Reviews Books: Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 20th ed. Henry JB, ed. New York: Saunders: 2001. Laboratory Medicine: Test Selection and Interpretation. ...

  14. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E

    2015-01-01

    . The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012). Here......BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine...... administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. METHODS: /Design We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20...

  15. Reference range of fetal nasal bone length between 18 and 24 weeks of pregnancy in an unselected Brazilian population: experience from a single service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Martins, Wellington P; Pires, Claudio Rodrigues; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Zanforlin Filho, Sebastião Marques

    2014-08-01

    To determine reference range of fetal nasal bone length (NBL) during the second trimester of pregnancy in a Brazilian population. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study with 2681 normal singleton pregnancies between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation. The NBL was obtained in the mid-sagittal plane of the fetal face profile using the following landmarks: nasal bone, overlying skin and the tip of the nose. The NBL was measured by placing the calipers in the out-to-out position. To assess the correlation between NBL and gestational age (GA), polynomial equations were calculated, with adjustments by coefficient of determination (R(2)). The mean of NBL ranged from 5.72 ± 0.87 mm at 18-18 + 6 weeks to 7.45 ± 1.23 mm at 24-24+6 weeks of pregnancy. We observed a good correlation between NBL and GA, best represented by a linear equation: NBL = 0.080+0.276*GA (R(2 )= 0.16). We established a reference range of fetal NBL in the second trimester of pregnancy in a Brazilian population.

  16. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background No nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea. Methods Nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564) who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Results The reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10%) and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%), respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%). The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81%) and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%), respectively. Conclusion The Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea. PMID:28116874

  17. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNo nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea.MethodsNation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564 who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015.ResultsThe reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10% and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%, respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81% and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%, respectively.ConclusionThe Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea.

  18. [Reference ranges of gestational weight gain in Chinese population on the incidence of macrosomia: a multi-center cross-sectional survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H; Zhang, W Y; Li, X T

    2017-03-25

    Objective: To investigate the influence of gestational weight gain (GWG) on the incidence of macrosomia, and to establish the reference ranges of GWG based on the incidence of macrosomia. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted. Totally, 112 485 women were recruited from 39 hospitals in 14 provinces in China. Totally, 61 149 cases were eligible with singleton pregnancies and non-premature deliveries. The associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), GWG, newborn gender and gestational diabetes with macrosomia were analyzed with logistic regression. The normal GWG ranges were calculated in all maternal BMI subgroups, based on the normal incidence of macrosomia was set as the range of 5.0% to 10.0%. Results: In this study, the incidence of macrosomia was 7.46% (4 563/611 149). The macrosociam was positive related with maternal height, delivery week, pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG, gestational diabetes, primipara, and male babies significantly ( P< 0.05), based on unadjusted and adjusted logestic regression. The normal range of GWG 20.0-25.0, 10.0-20.0, 0-10.0 and 0-5.0 kg in subgroups of underweight (pre-pregnancy BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (≥30.0 kg/m(2)), respectively. Conclusion: The reference range of GWG in China based on the incidence of macrosomia is established.

  19. Baseline reference range for trace metal concentrations in whole blood of wild and managed West Indian Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Walsh, Michael T; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C.; Barber, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.

  20. Definition of reference ranges for free T4, TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in healthy subjects of the Jaén Health District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José

    2017-10-01

    The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Post-Newtonian reference frames for advanced theory of the lunar motion and for a new generation of Lunar laser ranging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yi.; Kopeikin, S.

    2010-01-01

    We overview a set of post-Newtonian reference frames for a comprehensive study of the orbital dynamics and rotational motion of Moon and Earth by means of lunar laser ranging. We employ a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two post-Newtonian parameters, and utilize the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat at infinity. The primary reference frame covers the entire space-time, has its origin at the solar-system barycenter and spatial axes stretching up to infinity. The solar-system barycenter frame is not rotating with respect to a set of distant quasars that are forming the International Celestial Reference Frame. The secondary reference frame has its origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter. The Earth-Moon barycenter frame is locally-inertial and is not rotating dynamically in the sense that equation of motion of a test particle moving with respect to the Earth-Moon barycenter frame, does not contain the Coriolis and centripetal forces. Two other local frames-geocentric and seleno centric-have their origins at the center of mass of Earth and Moon respectively and do not rotate dynamically. Each local frame is subject to the geodetic precession both with respect to other local frames and with respect to the International Celestial Reference Frame because of their relative motion with respect to each other. Theoretical advantage of the dynamically non-rotating local frames is in a more simple mathematical description. Each local frame can be aligned with the axes of International Celestial Reference Frame after applying the matrix of the relativistic precession. The set of one global and three local frames is introduced in order to fully decouple the relative motion of Moon with respect to Earth from the orbital motion of the Earth-Moon barycenter as well as to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion

  2. A meta-analysis of echocardiographic measurements of the left heart for the development of normative reference ranges in a large international cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    , from multiple studies around the world. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Echocardiographic Normal Ranges Meta-Analysis of the Left heart (EchoNoRMAL) collaboration was established and population-based data sets of echocardiographic measurements combined to perform an individual person data meta-analysis. Data...... from 43 studies were received, representing 51 222 subjects, of which 22 404 adults aged 18-80 years were without clinical cardiovascular or renal disease, hypertension or diabetes. Quantile regression or an appropriate parametric regression method will be used to derive reference values at the 5th...

  3. Re-recognition of Age-dependent Reference Range for the Serum Creatinine Level in Teenagers - A Case of Slowly Progressive Tubulointerstitial Nephritis which Occurred in an Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Kojiro; Shibata, Eriko; Matsuura, Motokazu; Kishi, Seiji; Inagaki, Taizo; Minato, Masanori; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ueda, Sayo; Obata, Fumiaki; Nishimura, Kenji; Tamaki, Masanori; Kishi, Fumi; Murakami, Taichi; Abe, Hideharu; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Urushihara, Maki; Kagami, Shoji; Doi, Toshio

    2017-08-15

    For the first time, a 15-year-old boy was found to have a slight degree of proteinuria and microscopic hematuria during annual school urinalysis screening. His kidney function had already severely deteriorated. A kidney biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration. His medical records showed his serum creatinine level to be 0.98 mg/dL two years ago, which was abnormally high considering his age. Although the etiology of slowly progressive TIN was unclear, glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy improved his kidney function. This case report suggests that all doctors should recognize the reference range for the serum creatinine level in teenagers.

  4. Can dosimetry help to predict euthyroidism after 131I radioiodine treatment of solitary thyroid nodule?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanjeti, A.; Pia, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: recent SNM guidelines suggest to administer 3-8 MBq for each gram of thyroid tissue in order to reach a non hyperthyroid status, while EANM guidelines suggest to reach a dose of 100-400 Gy depending on type of disease. This second point of view is based on the principle that dosimetry, i.e. the metabolism of radioiodine within the thyroid can determine the outcome of radiation in the gland. However, although reasonable, it has not been shown unequivocally that dosimetry allows better outcome. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether dosimetry and parameters that consent a dose evaluation can be useful in order to predict outcome in hyperthyroid patients with solitary nodule and successfully treated with radioiodine. Material and methods. Thirty-one consecutive patients with solitary nodule and successfully treated with 131 I radioiodine were included. In 27 patients euthyroidism was durably reached during the follow up, while in 4 hypothyroid state was the final outcome. All of them underwent Radioiodine Uptake Test (RUT) with 5 measurements (6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h), thyroid scintigraphy to estimate gland mass and radioiodine administration. Bi-compartmental model was used to estimate residence time and dose was estimated according to EANM guidelines based on administered activities of radioiodine. Uptake at 6 h, uptake at 24 h, mass gland, dose, age, residence time, activity and activity/mass were compared in patients with stable euthyroidism versus patients with hypothyroidism in the follow up. Results: only uptake at 6 h was different in these groups of patients (p=0.05 at Welch t-test), the logistic regression seemed to confirm the significant correlation (p=0.08) between uptake at 6 h and outcome of the treatment. The other parameters were not significantly correlated with the treatment effect. Conclusion: this pilot study, performed in a very small population, did not show any significant

  5. A range of newly developed mobile generators to dynamically produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Three new mobile facilities have been developed at METAS to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for a variety of reactive compounds at atmospheric amount of substance fractions and at very low levels of uncertainty (Ux balance. The carrier gas is previously purified from the compounds of interest using commercially available purification cartridges. The permeation chambers of ReGaS2 and ReGaS3 have multiple individual cells allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to 5 different components if required. ReGaS1 allows for the generation of one-component mixtures only. These primary mixtures are then diluted to the required amount of substance fractions using thermal mass flow controllers for full flexibility and adaptability of the generation process over the entire range of possible concentrations. In order to considerably reduce adsorption/desorption processes and thus stabilisation time, all electro-polished stainless steel parts of ReGaS1 and ReGaS2 in contact with the reference gas mixtures are passivated with SilcoNert2000® surface coating. These three state-of-the-art mobile reference gas generators are applicable under both, laboratory and field conditions. Moreover the dynamic generation method can be adapted and applied to a large variety of molecules (e.g. BTEX, CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs and other refrigerants) and is particularly suitable for reactive gas species and/or at concentration ranges which are unstable when stored in pressurised cylinders. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union

  6. Plasma concentrations of free triiodothyronine predict weight change in euthyroid persons2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Emilio; Pannacciulli, Nicola; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Background Factors that influence energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, such as thyroid hormones (THs), may be important regulators of body weight. Objective We investigated associations of THs cross-sectionally with obesity, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation and prospectively with weight change. Design Euthyroid, nondiabetic, healthy, adult Pima Indians (n = 89; 47 M, 42 F) were studied. Percentage body fat (%BF) was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; sleeping metabolic rate (SMR), respiratory quotient, and substrate oxidation rates were measured in a respiratory chamber. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (T3), and leptin concentrations were measured in fasting plasma samples. Results TSH, but neither free T3 nor free T4, was associated with %BF and leptin concentrations (r = 0.27 and 0.29, respectively; both: P ≤ 0.01). In multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, fat mass, and fat-free mass, free T3 was a positive predictor of SMR (P = 0.02). After adjustment for age, sex, %BF, and energy balance, free T3 was a negative predictor of 24-h respiratory quotient (P < 0.05) and a positive predictor of 24-h lipid oxidation rate (P = 0.006). Prospectively, after an average follow-up of 4 ± 2 y, the mean increase in weight was 3 ± 9 kg. Baseline T3 concentrations were associated with absolute and annual percentage of changes in weight (r = −0.27, P = 0.02, and r = −0.28, P = 0.009, for the age-and sex-adjusted associations, respectively). Conclusions In euthyroid Pima Indians, lower free T3 but not free T4 concentrations were an independent predictor of SMR and lipid oxidation and a predictor of weight gain. This finding indicates that control of T4-to-T3 conversion may play a role in body weight regulation. PMID:17284741

  7. Characteristics of recovery from the euthyroid sick syndrome induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feelders, R. A.; Swaak, A. J.; Romijn, J. A.; Eggermont, A. M.; Tielens, E. T.; Vreugdenhil, G.; Endert, E.; van Eijk, H. G.; Berghout, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the euthyroid sick syndrome. Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF) and melphalan in patients with melanoma or sarcoma is accompanied by high systemic TNF levels. We examined the prolonged effects

  8. Post-Newtonian Reference Frames For Advanced Theory Of The Lunar Motion And For A New Generation Of Lunar Laser Ranging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.; Kopeikon, S.

    2010-01-01

    We overview a set of post-Newtonian reference frames for a comprehensive study of the orbital dynamics and rotational motion of Moon and Earth by means of lunar laser ranging (LLR). We employ a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two post-Newtonian parameters, and , and utilize the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat at infinity. The primary reference frame covers the entire space-time, has its origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes stretching up to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to a set of distant quasars that are forming the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The secondary reference frame has its origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is locally-inertial and is not rotating dynamically in the sense that equation of motion of a test particle moving with respect to the EMB frame, does not contain the Coriolis and centripetal forces. Two other local frames geocentric (GRF) and selenocentric (SRF) have their origins at the center of mass of Earth and Moon respectively and do not rotate dynamically. Each local frame is subject to the geodetic precession both with respect to other local frames and with respect to the ICRF because of their relative motion with respect to each other. Theoretical advantage of the dynamically non-rotating local frames is in a more simple mathematical description. Each local frame can be aligned with the axes of ICRF after applying the matrix of the relativistic precession. The set of one global and three local frames is introduced in order to fully decouple the relative motion of Moon with respect to Earth from the orbital motion of the Earth-Moon barycenter as well as to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, an observer on Earth, and a retro-reflector on Moon to directly measurable

  9. Reference Range of Functional Data of Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT by Quantitative Gated SPECT of Cedars-Sinai and 4D-MSPECT of Michigan University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Various programs have been developed for gating of myocardial perfusion SPECT. Among the those program, the most popular program is the Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS)? developed by Cedars-Sinai hospital and most recently released program is 4D-MSPECT? developed by university of Michigan. It is important to know the reference range of the functional data of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT because it is necessary to determine abnormality of individual patient and echocardiographic data is different from those of gated SPECT. Tc-99m MIBI gated myocardial perfusion SPECT image was reconstructed by dual head gamma camera (Siemens, BCAM, esoft) as routine procedure and analyzed using QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? program. All patients (M: F=9: 18, Age 69{+-}9 yrs) showed normal myocardial perfusion. The patients with following characteristics were excluded: previous angina or MI history, ECG change with Q wave or ST-T change, diabetes melitius, hypercholesterolemia, typical chest pain, hypertension and cardiomyopathy. Pre-test likelihood of all patients was low. (1) In stress gated SPECT by QGS?, EDV was 73{+-}25 ml, ESV 25{+-}14 ml, EF 67{+-}11 % and area of first frame of gating 106.4{+-}21cm{sup 2}. In rest gated SPECT, EDV was 76{+-}26 ml, ESV 27{+-}15 ml, EF 66{+-}12 and area of first frame of gating 108{+-}20cm{sup 2}. (2) In stress gated SPECT by 4D-MSPECT?, EDV was 76{+-}28 ml, ESV 23{+-}16 ml, EF 72{+-}11 %, mass 115{+-}24 g and ungated volume 42{+-}15 ml. In rest gated SPECT, EDV was 75{+-}27 ml, ESV 23{+-}12 ml, EF 71{+-}9%, mass 113{+-}25g and ungate dvolume 42{+-}15 ml, (3) s-EDV, s-EF, r-ESV and r-EF were significantly different between QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? (each p=0.016, p<0.001. p=0.003 and p=0.001). We determined the normal reference range of functional parameters by QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? program to diagnose individually the abnormality of patients. And the reference ranges have to adopted to be patients by each specific gating program.

  10. Establishing quality control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cornerstone to develop reference strains for Korean clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Seung Jun; Shin, Saeam; Lee, Wonmok; Pinto, Naina; Shin, Nari; Lee, Kwangjun; Hong, Seong Geun; Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Heejung; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) processes are being performed in the majority of clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure the performance of microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using ATCC strains. To obtain these ATCC strains, some inconveniences are encountered concerning the purchase cost of the strains and the shipping time required. This study was focused on constructing a database of reference strains for QC processes using domestic bacterial strains, concentrating primarily on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Three strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) that showed legible results in preliminary testing were selected. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) of eight antimicrobials for each strain were determined according to the CLSI M23. All resulting MIC and ZD ranges included at least 95% of the data. The ZD QC ranges obtained by using the CLSI method were less than 12 mm, and the MIC QC ranges extended no more than five dilutions. This study is a preliminary attempt to construct a bank of Korean QC strains. With further studies, a positive outcome toward cost and time reduction can be anticipated.

  11. REFERENCE RANGES AND AGE-RELATED AND DIVING EXERCISE EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGY AND SERUM CHEMISTRY OF FEMALE STELLER SEA LIONS ( EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Haulena, Martin; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S

    2018-03-01

    Decreased health may have lowered the birth and survival rates of Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands over the past 30 yr. Reference ranges for clinical hematology and serum chemistry parameters needed to assess the health of wild sea lion populations are limited. Here, blood parameters were serially measured in 12 captive female Steller sea lions ranging in age from 3 wk to 16 yr to establish baseline values and investigate age-related changes. Whether diving activity affects hematology parameters in animals swimming in the ocean compared with animals in a traditional aquarium setting was also examined. Almost all blood parameters measured exhibited significant changes with age. Many of the age-related changes reflected developmental life history changes, including a change in diet during weaning, an improvement of diving capacity, and the maturity of the immune system. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were also higher in the ocean diving group compared with the aquarium group, likely reflecting responses to increased exercise regimes. These data provide ranges of hematology and serum chemistry values needed to evaluate and compare the health and nutritional status of captive and wild Steller sea lions.

  12. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin.......001) and women (r = 0.08, p = 0.05). In non-smokers, alcohol consumption > 14 drinks/week and more than seven drinks/week for men and women, respectively, increased mean haemoglobin by 1.3% in men and by average 1.9% in women compared with those consuming a parts per thousand currency sign14 and less than...... small changes in haemoglobin do not justify the use of separate reference ranges in smokers and alcohol consumers....

  13. Valores de referência do tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa em cães Reference ranges of prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores de coagulação são parte integrante da hemostasia normal, e tanto as coagulopatias hereditárias como adquiridas que envolvem este sistema são de grande importância veterinária, geralmente evidenciadas por manifestações clínicas, tais como, petéquias, equimoses, hematomas e sangramentos tardios. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a determinação dos valores de referência do tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa, por métodos manuais. Para tanto, utilizou-se "kits" para dosagens humanas, devido à inexistência de produtos similares de uso específico veterinário. Foram utilizados 40 cães clinicamente sadios, sem raça definida, machos ou fêmeas, de diferentes idades. As amostras sanguíneas foram de 2,5ml cada, colhidas por venopunção cefálica e acondicionadas em tubos de centrífuga contendo 0,25ml de citrato de sódio a 3,8%. O plasma foi imediatamente separado por centrifugação e as determinações de TP e TTPa foram realizadas utilizando-se "kits" comerciais "HemoStat Thromboplastin-SIª" e "HemoStat aPTT-El b", respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram de 6,87 ± 1,4 segundos para o TP com valores mínimo e máximo de 4,07 e 9,67, respectivamente, e de 15,10 ± 1,6 segundos para TTPa com valores mínimo e máximo de 11,9 e 18,3, respectivamente. Conclui-se, que os valores obtidos neste trabalho podem ser utilizados como referência. Os reagentes utilizados para plasma humano podem ser empregados para o plasma de cães.The coagulation factors are part of normal hemostasis, and both hereditary and acquired coagulopathies that involve this system have an important role in veterinary medicine, generally evidenced by clinical signs such as: petechias, ecchymosis, hematomas and late hemorrhagies. The objective of this experiment was to determine reference range values of prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, for manual methods. Human commercial

  14. Elevated serum free thyroxine by thyroxine analog radioimmunoassays in euthyroid patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajatanavin, R.; Fournier, L.; DeCosimo, D.; Abreau, C.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    A study was done to ascertain whether the serum free T4 measured by free T4 radioimmunoassay kits would, like equilibrium dialysis, be normal in patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia. Five free T4 radioimmunoassay kits were used to measure free T4 in serum samples from 19 patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia and 20 healthy volunteers. Values (mean +/- SE) for T4, free T4 index, and free T4 (equilibrium dialysis) in these normal subjects and patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia, respectively, were as follows: T4, 8.1 +/- 0.2 and 18.3 +/- 0.7 μg/dL; free T4 index, 3.1 +/- 0.1 and 7.3 +/- 0.3 μg/dL; free T4, 1.4 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng/dL. The following free T4 radioimmunoassay methods were used: antibody coated microfine silica, microencapsulated antibody, two-step antibody-coated tube, and one-step 125 I-T4 analog (2 kits). The present findings in patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia and previous observations in ill euthyroid patients suggest that serum free T4 measured by some radioimmunoassay methods must be interpreted with caution in these two clinical situations

  15. Reference Ranges of Serum Blood Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine Concentration and Ultrasonographic Measurement of the Kidneys in Term Healthy Newborns in the Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Kader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute kidney injury is an important problem in neonates. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study to determine normal serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine reference ranges and ranges of ultrasonographic measurement of kidneys in healthy term newborns. Study Design: Blood samples were collected from total 357 healthy newborns at birth (n=45, 1st (n=30, 3rd (n=61, 7th (n=34, 10th (n=132, 14th (n=36, and 28th (n=19 days of life. Renal ultrasonographic was performed by the same two radiologists on 81 newborns aged 10 days. Results: Serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations have reached to the highest level at the first day of life and have returned to cord level at the third day of life. There were gradually decrease in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels after the first day of life. There were significant difference in both right and left renal length, width, and volumes in terms of gender and these parameters were statistically higher in boys than girls (p<0.05. Birth weight of the boys (3548±539g was statistically higher than girls (3307±405 g (p=0.028. There was a positive correlation between birth weight and right (r=0.38, p=0.000 and left kidney volumes (r=0.44, p=0.000. Conclusion: Our findings showed that measured blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels changed in accordance with postnatal days and there was a positive correlation between kidney volume and birth weight of newborns. We concluded that these findings are important for evaluation of acute kidney injury and for screening of for urinary tract anomalies in neonates

  16. Effectiveness and Mechanism of Preoperative Lugol Solution for Reducing Thyroid Blood Flow in Patients with Euthyroid Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Ming; Liao, Wei-Ting; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Sun, H Sunny; Chow, Nan-Haw

    2016-03-01

    To reduce intraoperative and postoperative complications, using Lugol solution to preoperatively prepare patients with Graves' disease has (1) rapidly reduced the severity of thyrotoxicosis and (2) reduced the vascularity of the thyroid gland. The vascularity reduction normally accompanies reducing the severity of thyrotoxicosis. However, the effects and mechanism of Lugol solution for reducing blood flow have not been well investigated in the patients with euthyroid (normally functioning thyroid) Graves' disease. Twenty-five patients with euthyroid Graves' disease being preoperatively treated with Lugol solution for 10 days were measured, at baseline and on the operative day, for (1) superior thyroid artery blood flow; (2) systemic angiogenic factor (VEGF); and (3) systemic inflammatory factor [interleukin (IL)-16]. All three parameters were significantly (p Graves' disease. We recommend routine preoperative Lugol solution treatment for all patients with Graves' disease.

  17. Management of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Euthyroid Women in Pregnancy: Comparison of the American Thyroid Association and the Endocrine Society Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of thyroid autoantibodies is relatively high in women of childbearing age. There is evidence that positive thyroperoxidase antibody even in euthyroid women may increase the risk of spontaneous and recurrent pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. However, the evidence is not enough to justify recommendation on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid autoantibodies or LT4 supplementation for reducing maternal or fetal complications. In this paper we reviewed the related evidence and compared the new guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and Endocrine Society with respect to the screening and management of positive thyroperoxidase antibody in euthyroid pregnant women. As there was no major contradiction or disagreement between the two guidelines, either one of two guidelines may be used by clinicians for the appropriate management of thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy.

  18. Traplining in bumblebees (Bombus impatiens): a foraging strategy's ontogeny and the importance of spatial reference memory in short-range foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Nehal; Chittka, Lars

    2007-04-01

    To test the relative importance of long-term and working spatial memories in short-range foraging in bumblebees, we compared the performance of two groups of bees. One group foraged in a stable array of six flowers for 40 foraging bouts, thereby enabling it to establish a long-term memory of the array, and adjust its spatial movements accordingly. The other group was faced with an array that changed between (but not within) foraging bouts, and thus had only access to a working memory of the flowers that had been visited. Bees in the stable array started out sampling a variety of routes, but their tendency to visit flowers in a repeatable, stable order ("traplining") increased drastically with experience. These bees used shorter routes and converged on four popular paths. However, these routes were mainly formed through linking pairs of flowers by near-neighbour movements, rather than attempting to minimize overall travel distance. Individuals had variations to a primary sequence, where some bees used a major sequence most often, followed by a minor less used route, and others used two different routes with equal frequency. Even though bees foraging in the spatially randomized array had access to both spatial working memory and scent marks, this manipulation greatly disrupted foraging efficiency, mainly via an increase in revisitation to previously emptied flowers and substantially longer search times. Hence, a stable reference frame greatly improves foraging even for bees in relatively small arrays of flowers.

  19. Osteoporotic cytokines and bone metabolism on rats with induced hyperthyroidism; changes as a result of reversal to euthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Gönül; Karter, Yesari; Aydin, Seval; Uzun, Hafize

    2003-12-31

    Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased bone turnover and resorptive activity. Raised levels of serum osteoporotic cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) -1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha have been demonstrated previously in hyperthyroidism. These elevations are controversial and it is difficult to differentiate the contribution of thyroid hormones to the elevation of cytokines from that of the autoimmune inflammation in Graves' disease (GD) and follicular cell damage in thyroiditis. Therefore, we investigated the effect of thyroid hormones on serum IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha levels and bone metabolism on L-thyroxine induced hyperthyroid rats and changes in cytokine levels and bone metabolism on the same rats after reversal to euthyroidism. Rats were treated with L-thyroxine for 5 weeks (0.4 mg/ 100 g food). Plasma T3, T4, TSH and serum IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, Calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), parathyroid hormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) levels were measured and differential leucocyte counts were made initially, at the 5th week of the experiment (hyperthyroid state) and 5 weeks after quitting the administration of L-thyroxine (euthyroid state). Significant rises in serum IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNFalpha were noted in hyperthyroidism (P hyperthyroid state while there was no correlation in euthyroid states. Ca and P levels did not differ significantly while PTH levels declined significantly in the hyperthyroid state (P hyperthyroidism (P hyperthyroid state (P metabolism in hyperthyroidism might be mediated by cytokines and the increased bone turnover in hyperthyroidism failed to decrease despite euthyroidism.

  20. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients

  1. The effect of chronic hyperthyroidism and restored euthyroid state by methimazole therapy in rat small mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi-Behzadi, Mahdi; Alimoradi, Houman; Haghjoo-Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Reza Sharifi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Nastaran; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2013-02-15

    Not much has been reported about the effects of hyperthyroidism and its correction on resistance vessels, and just two inconsistent studies have investigated the impacts of restored euthyroidism on vascular reactivity. In this regard, we designed the current study to evaluate the vascular reactivity of the mesenteric arteries of hyperthyroid and restore euthyroid rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by administration of triiodothyronine (T3; 300μg/kg, i.p., for 12 weeks in T3 group). Euthyroidism was restored by administration of T3 for 8 weeks and then T3+Methimazole (0.003% in drinking water) for 4 weeks (T3+MMI group). According to the McGregor method, vascular relaxation and contractility response were measured in response to acetylcholine or phenylephrine respectively. We found that maximal contractility response (Emax) to phenylephrine in the T3 group was significantly decreased (P0.05). In conclusion, synthesis of both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in mesenteric arteries significantly increased as a consequence of hyperthyroidism, and this abnormal vascular reactivity is corrected by methimazole therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  3. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  4. The Evolution of Thyroid Function after Presenting with Hashimoto Thyroiditis Is Different between Initially Euthyroid Girls with and Those without Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Corrias, Andrea; Mazzanti, Laura; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Corica, Domenico; Aversa, Tommaso; Messina, Maria Francesca; De Luca, Filippo; Valenzise, Mariella

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively investigate, during a 5-year follow-up, whether the prognosis of thyroid function with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is different in euthyroid girls with Turner syndrome (TS) than in euthyroid girls without TS. In 66 TS girls and 132 non-TS girls with euthyroid HT and similar thyroid functional test results at HT diagnosis, we followed up the evolution of thyroid status over time. At the end of follow-up, the TS girls exhibited higher TSH levels, lower fT4 levels, and lower prevalence rates of both euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism, but higher prevalence rates of both overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, irrespective of the karyotype. An association with TS is able to impair the long-term prognosis of thyroid function in girls with HT. Such an effect occurs irrespective of thyroid functional test results at HT diagnosis and is not necessarily linked with a specific karyotype. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air temperatures, daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air temperatures had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average temperature varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development

  6. Visual evoked potentials in overt hypothyroid patients before and after achievement of euthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual evoked potential (VEP measures the time taken for visual stimulus to travel from the eye to the occipital cortex. Hypothyroidism affects the central nervous system (CNS through its role in gene expression, myelin production, axonal transportation, and neurotransmitters. Delay in the conduction of impulses results in abnormal VEP. Objective: Correlate the electrophysiological findings of VEP in newly diagnosed treatment-naive hypothyroid patients before and after 3 months of treatment and to find the correlation with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Materials and Methods: VEP was measured using Recorders and Medicare Systems Electromyograph Evoked Potential Mark II machine in 30 patients (serum TSH ≥10 mIU/L between 18 and 50 years of age who were followed up after 3 months of treatment. Results: The mean age (±standard deviation of the patients was 31.8 (±8.3 years. There was prolongation of VEP latencies which tends to decrease following hormone replacement therapy. It was found to be most significant for P100 (ms waveform (P < 0.001. The amplitude (P100-N75 mV which was decreased in hypothyroid patients showed improvement following achievement of euthyroidism. Significant positive correlation was found between P100, N75 latency and pretreatment serum TSH levels. Conclusion: Hypothyroid patients may have changes in the latencies and the amplitude of VEP which are reversible to a great extent with thyroxine replacement therapy. VEP thus acts as a dependable marker for CNS affection in thyroid diseases to detect subtle early changes and to assess the response to treatment in correlation with the clinical improvement.

  7. Results of radioiodine therapy of manifest hyperthyroidism and autonomous euthyroid goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berding, G.; Schicha, H.

    1990-01-01

    In 200 patients follow-up examinations were performed up to one year after radioiodine therapy (RITh) with individual dose calculation. The mean applied dose was significantly lower in patients with immunogenic hyperhyroidism (Graves' disease) as compared to patients with non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism (disseminated/multifocal autonomy, HYDA). In Graves' disease the rate of recurrent hyperthyroidism was significantly higher and that of posttreatment hypothyroidism lower. Considering the high recurrence rate in Graves' disease a higher dose, e.g. 150 Gy, seems to be appropriate. In patients with HYDA who received antithyroid drugs during RITh, recurrence of hyperthyroidism appeared slightly more, and posttreatment hypothyroidism slightly less, frequent. The efficiency of RITh was not significantly reduced by additional treatment with antithyroid drugs. Posttreatment hypothyroidism in patients with euthyroid goiter and disseminated/multifocal autonomy (EUDA) occurred significnatly more frequent if the basal TSH level was ≥ 0.5 μIE/ml before therapy. The goiter size was reduced independent of the basal TSH level. In HYDA patients after thyroid surgery recurrence appeared less, and in those with EUDA posttreatment hypothyroidism significantly more, frequent. A lower dose seems to be suitable in patients who underwent thyroid surgery before. In patients with focal autonomy after RITh no recurrence of hyperthyroidism was observed. In 9% a suppressed basal TSH level indicating persistent autonomy was seen. Posttreatment hypothyroidism in focal autonomy appeared only in patients without manifest hyperthyroidism before RITh and was significantly more frequent in this group. In patients with focal autonomy who developed hypothyroidism the dose calculation was based on a significantly higher volume of the adenoma. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Preoperative Serum Thyrotropin to Thyroglobulin Ratio Is Effective for Thyroid Nodule Evaluation in Euthyroid Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Li, Hao; Yang, Zhongyuan; Guo, Zhuming; Zhang, Quan

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the efficiency of the serum thyrotropin to thyroglobulin ratio for thyroid nodule evaluation in euthyroid patients. Cross-sectional study. Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China. Retrospective analysis was performed for 400 previously untreated cases presenting with thyroid nodules. Thyroid function was tested with commercially available radioimmunoassays. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine cutoff values. The efficacy of the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio and thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyroid nodule evaluation was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and odds ratio. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve was 0.746 for the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio and 0.659 for thyroid-stimulating hormone. With a cutoff point value of 24.97 IU/g for the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 78.9%, 60.8%, 75.5%, 2.01, and 0.35, respectively. The odds ratio for the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio indicating malignancy was 5.80. With a cutoff point value of 1.525 µIU/mL for thyroid-stimulating hormone, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 74.0%, 53.2%, 70.8%, 1.58, and 0.49, respectively. The odds ratio indicating malignancy for thyroid-stimulating hormone was 3.23. Increasing preoperative serum thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio is a risk factor for thyroid carcinoma, and the correlation of the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio to malignancy is higher than that for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  9. Reference Ranges of Amniotic Fluid Index in Late Third Trimester of Pregnancy: What Should the Optimal Interval between Two Ultrasound Examinations Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad Hebbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Amniotic fluid index (AFI is one of the major and deciding components of fetal biophysical profile and by itself it can predict pregnancy outcome. Very low values are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and renal anomalies of fetus, whereas high values may indicate fetal GI anomalies, maternal diabetes mellitus, and so forth. However, before deciding the cut-off standards for abnormal values for a local population, what constitutes a normal range for specific gestational age and the ideal interval of testing should be defined. Objectives. To establish reference standards for AFI for local population after 34 weeks of pregnancy and to decide an optimal scan interval for AFI estimation in third trimester in low risk antenatal women. Materials and Methods. A prospective estimation of AFI was done in 50 healthy pregnant women from 34 to 40 weeks at weekly intervals. The trend of amniotic fluid volume was studied with advancing gestational age. Only low risk singleton pregnancies with accurately established gestational age who were available for all weekly scan from 34 to 40 weeks were included in the study. Women with gestational or overt diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy, prelabour rupture of membranes, and congenital anomalies in the foetus and those who delivered before 40 completed weeks were excluded from the study. For the purpose of AFI measurement, the uterine cavity was arbitrarily divided into four quadrants by a vertical and horizontal line running through umbilicus. Linear array transabdominal probe was used to measure the largest vertical pocket (in cm in perpendicular plane to the abdominal skin in each quadrant. Amniotic fluid index was obtained by adding these four measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software (Version 16, Chicago, IL. Percentile curves (5th, 50th, and 95th centiles were constructed for comparison with other studies. Cohen’s d coefficient was used

  10. [The euthyroid sick syndrome. Its incidence and clinical significance in an internal medicine department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, M; Reda, G; Zannoni, G; Russo, S; Morace, G; Vasselli, C

    1994-04-01

    In this paper the authors have evaluated the incidence and the clinical implications of sick euthyroid syndrome (SES) in a group of 144 patients in a department of internal medicine. SES is an alteration of thyroid hormone values in the absence of a thyroid disease, which is seen in patients suffering from serious diseases. Having classified SES into 3 subgroups according to the different alterations seen in the values of T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH, rT3 and TBG, they show the hypotheses that explain the biochemical mechanisms which are at the basis of these hormonal alterations. Fourteen of the 144 patients under observation were excluded as they were suffering from ascertained or subclinical thyroid disease. Thirty (23% of cases) of the remaining 130 patients had alterations of the thyroid hormones in accordance with SES diagnosis. Of these 30 patients, 19 had hormone values found in SES type I (63%), 2 in SES type II (6.5%) and 9 in SES type III (30.5%). In SES type I the diseases seen, in order of frequency, were: obstructive chronic bronchopneumopathy with acute respiratory failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, neoplasms, ischemic heart disease, cardiac failure, chronic renal failure, liver diseases, acute cerebral vasculopathies, sepsis and collagenopathies. The disease seen in the 2 cases of SES type II was obstructive chronic bronchopneumopathy with acute respiratory failure. In SES type III the diseases seen were, in order of frequency: diabetic ketoacidosis, lung diseases, ischemic heart disease, cardiac failure, peripheral arteriopathies, acute cerebral vasculopathies, neoplasms, liver diseases, acute renal failure. The incidence of SES in 23% of the admitted to hospital patients was found to be slightly higher than in other studies; this could be explained by a stricter selection of inpatients: in fact self-sufficient patients or those not needing urgent admission, were sent to an efficient out patient clinic where necessary examinations were quickly carried out

  11. Effect of changing from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III spirometry reference range to that of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 at Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embling, Laura A K; Zagami, Debbie; Sriram, Krishna Bajee; Gordon, Robert J; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    The categorisation of lung disease into obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) and tendency to a restrictive ventilatory defect (TRVD) patterns using spirometry is used to guide both prognostication and treatment. The effectiveness of categorisation depends upon having reference ranges that accurately represent the population they describe. The Global Lung Initiative 2012 (GLI 2012) has spirometry reference ranges drawn from the largest sample size to date. This study aimed to determine whether using spirometry reference ranges from the new GLI 2012 dataset, compared to the previously used National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES III) dataset, resulted in a change in diagnosis between OVD, TRVD and normal ventilatory pattern (NVP). Spirometry data were collected from 301 patients, aged 18-80 years, undergoing investigation at the Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service (GCHHS) throughout February and March 2014. OVD was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) less than lower limit of normal (LLN). TRVD was defined as FEV 1 /FVC ≥ LLN, FEV 1 reference range resulted in a change in diagnosis of lung disease in 5.9% of the individuals included in this study. This variance in diagnosis when changing reference ranges should be taken into account by clinicians as it may affect patient management.

  12. Free triiodothyronine levels are positively associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoli; Zheng, Xiao; Guan, Liying; Jiang, Zhi; Lin, Haiyan; Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Yikun; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Chunxiao; Guan, Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between thyroid function and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among euthyroid subjects have produced conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thyroid function and the presence of NAFLD in a large-sample middle-aged euthyroid subjects. A total of 2576 euthyroid subjects who underwent health check-up were included. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasonography. Conventional risk factors for NAFLD were assessed as well as serum levels of TSH, FT3 and FT4. Levels of FT3 were significantly higher in NAFLD group (5.12 ± 0.58 versus 4.84 ± 0.58 pmol/L, adjusted p = 0.000) than non-NAFLD group, while levels of TSH and FT4 were comparable between NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups (TSH: 2.13 ± 0.90 versus 2.20 ± 0.93 mIU/L, adjusted p = 0.190; FT4: 16.41 ± 2.04 versus 16.18 ± 2.06 pmol/L, adjusted p = 0.146, respectively). Levels of FT3 were positively correlated with components of metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high level of FT3 was an independent predictor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 1.253, p = 0.040). The relationship between FT4 and NAFLD in women was different according to menopausal status, with negative association in pre-menopausal women (OR: 0.777, 95% CI: 0.617-0.979, p = 0.032) and null association in post-menopausal women (OR: 1.037, 95% CI: 0.841-1.277, p = 0.736). Our findings suggested that high levels of FT3 were significantly associated with NAFLD among middle-aged euthyroid subjects independently of known metabolic risk factors. A negative correlation of serum FT4 level with NAFLD was only observed in pre-menopausal women.

  13. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Ertan; Elboğa, Umut; Kalender, Ebuzer

    2015-01-01

    It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Between June 2011 and June 2012,461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level) that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed.Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (pbody surface area of the subjects of both sexes (pcountry.

  14. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4. At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively associated with serum fT4 levels in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism. PMID:26844494

  15. Energy Homeostasis and Body Weight before and after Cessation of Block and Replacement Therapy in Euthyroid Patients with Graves' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars P. Klieverik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH treated with a combination of thyrostatic drugs and T4, that is, block and replacement therapy (BRT, often report body weight (BW gain. We aimed to determine changes in BW and energy metabolism upon cessation of BRT in these patients, and to identify possible endocrine determinants. We analysed 22 patients with GH (i during BRT, and (ii 12 weeks after BRT cessation. Patients were euthyroid at both visits. There were no differences in BW or resting energy expenditure (REE between visits. At visit 1, after 13.5 (9.5–48.0 months of BRT, serum free (FT4 correlated positively with REE (=0.433, =0.044 and negatively with body fat % (=−0.450, =0.035. Plasma FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio showed an increase 12 w after cessation of BRT (20%, <0.0001 and 16%, =0.007, resp.. Moreover, the relative change in FT3/FT4 ratio showed a significant, positive correlation with the relative change in REE between the 2 visits (=0.465, =0.029. In conclusion, serum FT4 determines REE in euthyroid patients with GH treated with BRT. Twelve weeks after BRT cessation, BW and energy homeostasis are unaltered. However, as serum FT3/FT4 ratio increases after cessation of BRT, which is a positive determinant of changes in REE, a longer term BW decrease is likely to occur.

  16. The ampakine, Org 26576, bolsters early spatial reference learning and retrieval in the Morris water maze: a subchronic, dose-ranging study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Eugene; Brand, Linda; Shahid, Mohammed; Harvey, Brian H

    2009-10-01

    Ampakines have shown beneficial effects on cognition in selected animal models of learning. However, their ability to modify long-term spatial memory tasks has not been studied yet. This would lend credence to their possible value in treating disorders of cognition. We evaluated the actions of subchronic Org 26576 administration on spatial reference memory performance in the 5-day Morris water maze task in male Sprague-Dawley rats, at doses of 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg twice daily through intraperitoneal injection over 12 days. Org 26576 exerted a dose and time-dependent effect on spatial learning, with dosages of 3 and 10 mg/kg significantly enhancing acquisition on day 1. Globally, escape latency decreased significantly as the training days progressed in the saline and Org 26576-treated groups, indicating that significant and equal learning had taken place over the learning period. However, at the end of the learning period, all doses of Org 26576 significantly improved spatial memory storage/retrieval without confounding effects in the cued version of the task. Org 26576 offers early phase spatial memory benefits in rats, but particularly enhances search accuracy during reference memory retrieval. These results support its possible utility in treating disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive performance.

  17. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şahin Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. Objective. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Methods. Between June 2011 and June 2012, 461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. Results. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (p<0.05. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left in all patients of both sexes. In addition, the study establishes a significant correlation between the thyroid volume and height, weight and body surface area of the subjects of both sexes (p<0.05. In the light of our findings we can provide reference values in order to evaluate patients who have thyroid hyperplasia or who are considered as normal. Conclusion. We consider that further studies are necessary to establish national references thyroid volume for each country.

  18. Negative correlation between bone mineral density and TSH receptor antibodies in long-term euthyroid postmenopausal women with treated Graves’ disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ercolano, Monica A; Drnovsek, Monica L; Croome, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a cause of secondary osteoporosis. High concentrations of triiodotironine (T3) in Graves' disease stimulate bone turnover, but it is unclear if euthyroidism will always normalize bone metabolism. Thyrotropin (TSH) is known to affect directly the bone metabolism through the TSH...... receptor and TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) may have an important role in bone turn-over.The aim of our study was to determine, in pre and postmenopausal euthyroidism patients with previous overt hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as factors that could affect BMD...

  19. Elaboration of standards referred to human exposure to electromagnetic fields in the range of 9kHz to 300GHz in the National System of Health, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Joao Henrique Campos de; Giacomet, Andrea Fatima; Cunha, Tarcisio; Drumond, Ivens; Sa, Fabiana O.; Mendes, Paula

    2005-01-01

    The Portaria of the Ministry of Health no. 279 (Ordinance 279), of February 22, 2005, establishes a Working Group-GT with the purpose to elaborate standards relating to human exposure to electromagnetic fields in the range of 9 kHz to 300 GHz in the Sistema Unico de Saude (National System of Health), Brazil. Since then, we have conducted several studies on the biological effects of radiation exposure in this spectral range. The GT proposes the use of the geographical instruments coupled information systems to define an alternative pattern of surveillance, based on the determination of Areas of Risks. Each source of electromagnetic radiation is associated with territorial boundaries that surround it using progressively larger distances, thus determining areas of influence whose intensity is attenuated as the distance to the source increases. This paper presents the main results obtained by the Working Group

  20. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    . DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound....... Longitudinal growth data from birth were available. RESULTS: TV increased significantly with age (r = 0.487; P TV +/- sd for different age groups were as follows: 4 yr, 2.2 +/- 1.4 ml; 5 yr, 2.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 6 yr, 2.8 +/- 1.3 ml; 7 yr, 3.2 +/- 1.3 ml; 8 yr, 3.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 9 yr, 3.7 +/- 1.3 ml....... We found a significant positive association between IGF-I and TV (P

  1. Leptin and ghrelin concentration in hyperthyroid cats before and after radioactive iodine therapy compared to euthyroid control cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsilio, Sina; Glanemann, Barbara; Martin, Lucile; Szladovits, Balazs; Neiger, Reto

    2017-04-19

    Leptin and ghrelin, two peptide hormones with antagonistic effects on satiety and energy balance, could be involved in the pathogenesis of weight loss and polyphagia in cats with hyperthyroidism. Leptin generally decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure, while ghrelin exerts the opposite effects. Leptin and ghrelin were measured in 42 client owned hyperthyroid cats with a body condition score (BCS) ≤ 5/9 before (T0) and 4 weeks after radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) (T1). Dependent on the serum total thyroxine concentration concentration at T1, cats were sub-classified as still hyperthyroid (ht-ht) (n = 4), euthyroid (ht-eu) (n = 10) or hypothyroid (ht-hypo) (n = 28). Results were compared to those of 22 healthy, euthyroid control cats with a comparable BCS (≤ 5/9) and age (≥ 8 years) to hyperthyroid cats. At T0, there were no significant differences between hyperthyroid and control cats for leptin (p = 0.06) or ghrelin concentrations (p = 0.27). At T1, leptin significantly decreased in ht-hypo cats compared to T0 (p = 0.0008) despite a significantly increased body weight in this group (p = 0.0001). Serum ghrelin concentrations did not differ between hyperthyroid cats with a history of polyphagia compared to non-polyphagic cats (p = 0.42). After RAIT, ghrelin concentration significantly increased in all hyperthyroid cats (p weight in different states of thyroid dysfunction; increasing ghrelin concentrations after RAIT suggest a ghrelin-independent mechanism for polyphagia in hyperthyroid cats.

  2. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Peterson

    Full Text Available Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT.Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18-35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65, and 66-79 years. ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL, length of scleral spur landmark (SSL to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM, iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM, pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe, and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter.Mean (±SD values were 2.24 mm (±0.46, 4.06 mm (±0.27, 3.65 mm (±0.48, 4.16 mm (±0.47, 1.14 (±0.04, 1.51 mm2 (±0.23, and 38.42 μL (±4.91 for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002 and RICe (P = 0.027 decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002 and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001. ICR (P = 0.54 and iris volume (P = 0.49 were not affected by age.This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states.

  3. The contribution of total and free iodothyronines to welfare maintenance and management stress coping in Ruminants and Equines: Physiological ranges and reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Adriana; Cravana, Cristina; Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro

    2018-06-01

    In order to acquire a pattern of thyroid involvement in welfare maintenance in Ruminants and Equines, this review summarizes data concerning the reference values of total and free iodothyronines and their modifications in physiological conditions and in different management conditions (pregnancy, lactation, weaning, growth, isolation, restraint, shearing, confinement and transportation). Thyroidal and extrathyroidal tissues efficiently respond to management practices, giving a differentiated contribution to circulating iodothyronine changes. The hormonal response could be mainly attributed to the intracellular deiodination of T 4 to T 3. Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and free iodothyronines (fT 3 and fT 4 ) result more responsive to management stress, showing different pattern with species and to various conditions, as to environmental conditions in which activities are performed. Intrinsic seasonal changes of iodothyronines and a significant pregnancy effect for T 3 were recorded in mares. Higher, although not significant, T 3 and T 4 concentrations in barren than pregnant mares were observed in donkeys. A positive significant correlation between T 3 and T 4 was described only in pregnant donkeys. Moreover, a significant effect of season on T 3 and fT 3 changes was observed both in pregnant and barren donkeys. A significant lactating effect compared with nonlactating stage for T 3 and T 4 was recorded in mares. In growing foals, body weight (BW) and age were positively correlated with T 3 and negatively correlated with T 4 , fT 4 and fT 3 . Weaning effects were shown for T 3 and fT 4 concentrations, indicating that weaning represents a severe stress and the presence of conspecific does not reduce psychological stress in this phase. Lambs showed significant decreased T 3 and elevated T 4 concentrations two weeks after weaning, with higher concentrations in both males and females compared to 24 h. Significant positive correlations were observed between BW and T 4 , fT 3

  4. Association of low baseline free thyroxin levels with progression of coronary artery calcification over 4 years in euthyroid subjects: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear whether thyroid hormone levels within the normal range are also associated with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between normal variations in thyroid function and changes in CAC. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study of 2173 apparently healthy men and women with normal thyroid hormone levels. Their free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multidetector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years > 0. The mean CACS changes over 4 years by quartiles of baseline FT4 level (lowest to highest) were 12·9, 8·43, 7·82 and 7·81 (P = 0·028). CAC progression was not significantly associated with either the baseline FT3 or TSH levels. The odds ratios (OR) for CAC progression over 4 years (highest vs lowest quartile for baseline FT4) were 0·647 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·472-0·886) after adjustment for confounding factor, which were attenuated with further adjustment for lipid profiles, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hypertension [0·747 (95% CI 0·537-1·038)]. Quartiles of baseline FT3 or TSH level did not show any increased OR for CAC progression after adjustment for confounding factors. In this cohort of euthyroid men and women, a low baseline FT4 level was associated with a high risk of CACS progression over 4 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reference Physiological Ranges for Serum Biochemical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drugs includes measurement of changes in physiological parameters of subjects from known established baseline ... Methods: After informed consent, blood and urine samples were collected from a total of 576 ... a major public health problem in Cameroon with a .... sample collection, processing, storage and handling.

  6. {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi thyroid uptake in euthyroid individuals and in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Allan O. [Campinas State University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas (Brazil); Avenida Independencia, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zantut-Wittmann, D.E.; Tambascia, M.A. [Campinas State University, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas (Brazil); Nogueira, R.O.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Lima, M.C.L.; Camargo, E.E.; Ramos, C.D. [Campinas State University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas (Brazil)

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the biokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in the thyroid of euthyroid volunteers (EVs) and in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases and determined the best time interval between {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injection and calculation of uptake. Forty EVs, 30 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 15 patients with atrophic Hashimoto's thyroiditis (AHT) and 15 patients with hypertrophic Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HHT) underwent {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi thyroid scintigraphy. Dynamic images were acquired for 20 min, and static images were obtained 20 min, 60 min and 120 min post injection. Five-, 20-, 60- and 120-min uptake, time to maximal uptake (T{sub max}) and T{sub 1/2} of tracer clearance were calculated. Thyroid hormones and antibodies were measured. {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake was investigated in GD patients. T{sub max} was approximately 5 min in all four groups. The mean T{sub 1/2} value for EVs was similar to the GD value and lower than the HHT and AHT values. The mean ({+-}SD) 5-min uptake was 0.13% ({+-}0.05%) for EVs. The 5-min uptake in GD was higher than that in EVs(P<0.001) and correlated with free thyroxine (r=0.54) and with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake (r=0.68). Uptake in HHT was higher than that in AHT (P=0.0003) and EVs (P=0.002). Uptake in AHT was lower than uptake in EVs (P=0.0001). Five minutes is the optimal time interval between {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injection and calculation of thyroid uptake. Five-minute uptake differentiates euthyroid individuals from GD patients. There is a high correlation between {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in GD. The reduced {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi uptake in AHT patients is probably due to glandular destruction and fibrosis. Inflammatory infiltrate and high mitochondrial density in thyrocytes possibly explain the increased uptake in GD and HHT. (orig.)

  7. Thyroidal radioisotope uptake in euthyroid cats : a comparison between 131I and 99MTcO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lambrechts

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thyroidal evaluation systems in euthyroid cats (n = 12 were compared. A single, confirmed hyperthyroid cat was included for interest. Firstly, thyroidal uptake of an intravenous bolus of approximately 111 MBq (3 mCi 99MTcO4- was estimated by using a scintillation camera and calculating the ratio of thyroid to salivary activities at 20 min and 4 h. Thyroid to salivary activity ratios were 1:1 at 20 min and 2:1 at 4 h. Two discrete areas of salivary uptake were identified, namely a parotid/mandibular complex and a more rostral buccal/sublingual complex. These results were compared to radioiodine uptake of an oral dose of approximately 0.925 MBq (25 mCi 131I using a standard thyroid uptake system, measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. Mean radioiodine thyroidal uptake started at 33 % at 1 h, stabilised at 21 % between 4 and 24 h, and dropped to 18 % at 48 h. There was a significant correlation between the early thyroid:salivary ratio of the parotid/mandibular complex and the radioiodine uptake at 12 h.

  8. The Expression of T Cell FOXP3 and T-Bet Is Upregulated in Severe but Not Euthyroid Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Tokić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive thyroid failure. Th1 and Treg subset of CD4+ cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis; however, less is known about their respective roles across the spectrum of HT clinical presentations. To shed more light on CD4+ subsets role in HT, we investigated the mRNA expression levels of several Th1/Treg-associated transcription factors (T-bet/ETS1, HIF1α/BLIMP1/FOXP3 in peripheral blood T cells of 10 hypothyroid, untreated HT patients, 10 hypothyroid patients undergoing hormone replacement therapy, 12 euthyroid HT subjects, and 11 healthy controls by the qRT-PCR. Compared to euthyroid HT patients and controls, both hypothyroid (2.34-fold difference versus controls, P<0.01 and thyroxine-supplemented patients (2.5-fold, P<0.001 showed an increased FOXP3 mRNA expression in T cells. Similarly, mRNA expression levels of T-bet were upregulated in severely affected but not in euthyroid HT subjects (2.37-fold and 3.2-fold, hypothyroid and thyroxine-supplemented HT patients versus controls, resp., P<0.01. By contrast, no differences in mRNA expression levels of ETS1, BLIMP1, and HIF1α were observed across the study groups. In summary, severe but not euthyroid HT was associated with robust upregulation of T-bet and FOXP3 mRNA in peripheral T cells, independent of the thyroid hormone status but proportional to disease activity.

  9. Colchicum autumnale in Patients with Goitre with Euthyroidism or Mild Hyperthyroidism: Indications for a Therapeutic Regulative Effect?Results of an Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scheffer, Christian; Debus, Marion; Heckmann, Christian; Cysarz, Dirk; Girke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Goitre with euthyroid function or with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy is common. In anthroposophic medicine various thyroid disorders are treated with Colchicum autumnale (CAU). We examined the effects of CAU in patients with goitre of both functional states. Patients and methods. In an observational study, 24 patients with goitre having suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with normal or slightly elevated free thyroxine (fT4) and free...

  10. Long-Term Results of Fixed High-Dose I-131 Treatment for Toxic Nodular Goiter: Higher Euthyroidism Rates in Geriatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Ege Aktaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Geriatric patient population has special importance due to particular challenges. In addition to the increase in incidence of toxic nodular goiter (TNG with age, it has a high incidence in the regions of low-medium iodine intake such as in our country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall outcome of high fixed dose radioiodine (RAI therapy, and investigate the particular differences in the geriatric patient population. Methods: One hundred and three TNG patients treated with high dose I-131 (370-740 MBq were retrospectively reviewed. The baseline characteristics; age, gender, scintigraphic patterns and thyroid function tests before and after treatment, as well as follow-up, duration of antithyroid drug (ATD medication and achievement of euthyroid or hypothyroid state were evaluated. The patient population was divided into two groups as those=>65 years and those who were younger, in order to assess the effect of age. Results: Treatment success was 90% with single dose RAI therapy. Hyperthyroidism was treated in 7±7, 2 months after RAI administration. At the end of the first year, overall hypothyroidism rate was 30% and euthyroid state was achieved in 70% of patients. Age was found to be the only statistically significant variable effecting outcome. A higher ratio of euthyroidism was achieved in the geriatric patient population. Conclusion: High fixed dose I-131 treatment should be preferred in geriatric TNG patients in order to treat persistent hyperthyroidism rapidly. The result of this study suggests that high fixed dose RAI therapy is a successful modality in treating TNG, and high rates of euthyroidism can be achieved in geriatric patients.

  11. Long-Term Results after Treatment of Very Low-, Low-, and High-Risk Thyroid Cancers in a Combined Setting of Thyroidectomy and Radio Ablation Therapy in Euthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Emmanouilidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Differentiated thyroid cancer treatment usually consists of thyroidectomy and radio ablation in hypothyroidism 4-6 weeks after surgery. Replacing hypothyroidism by recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone can facilitate radio ablation in euthyroidism within one week after surgery. The outcome of this approach was investigated. Methods. This is a prospective randomized trial to compare thyroidectomy and radio ablation within a few days after preconditioning with recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone versus thyroidectomy and radio ablation separated by four weeks of L-T4 withdrawal. Tumors were graded into very low-, low- , or high-risk tumors. Recurrence-free survival was confirmed at follow-up controls by neck ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin. Suspected tumor recurrence was treated by additional radio ablation or surgery. Quality-of-life questionnaires with additional evaluation of job performance and sick-leave time were used in all patients. Results. Radio ablation in euthyroidism in quick succession after thyroidectomy did not lead to higher tumor recurrence rates of differentiated thyroid cancers in any risk category and was significantly advantageous with respect to quality-of-life (P<0.001, sick-leave time (P<0.001, and job performance (P=0.002. Conclusion. Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone can be used safely and with good efficacy to allow radio ablation under sustained euthyroidism within one week after thyroidectomy.

  12. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  13. The Potential Association of Later Initiation of Oral/Enteral Nutrition on Euthyroid Sick Syndrome in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pérez-Guisado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS, and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS. Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd–5th day and second sample collection (9th–12th day after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: 48 h after the injury (Group 3. Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days was, respectively, in each group, 16.77±4.56, 21.98±4.86, and 26.06±5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61±0.92 days in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89±1.01 days. Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients.

  14. The potential association of later initiation of oral/enteral nutrition on euthyroid sick syndrome in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M; Rioja, Luis F; Derosier, Leo C; de la Torre, Jorge I

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS). Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd-5th day) and second sample collection (9th-12th day) after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: 48 h after the injury (Group 3). Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days) was, respectively, in each group, 16.77 ± 4.56, 21.98 ± 4.86, and 26.06 ± 5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61 ± 0.92 days) in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89 ± 1.01 days). Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients.

  15. A Low-Normal Free Triiodothyronine Level Is Associated with Adverse Prognosis in Euthyroid Patients with Heart Failure Receiving Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Rong; Su, Zi-Zhuo; Lin, Rong-Jie; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Yuan, Wo-Liang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Xie, Shuang-Lun

    2017-12-12

    Thyroid dysfunction is prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF) and hypothyroidism is related to the adverse prognosis of HF subjects receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We aim to investigate whether low-normal free triiodothyronine (fT3) level is related to CRT response and the prognosis of euthyroid patients with HF after CRT implantation.One hundred and thirteen euthyroid patients who received CRT therapy without previous thyroid disease and any treatment affecting thyroid hormones were enrolled. All of patients were evaluated for cardiac function and thyroid hormones (serum levels of fT3, free thyroxine [fT4] and thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]). The end points were overall mortality and hospitalization for HF worsening. During a follow-up period of 39 ± 3 weeks, 36 patients (31.9%) died and 45 patients (39.8%) had hospitalization for HF exacerbation. A higher rate of NYHA III/IV class and a lower fT3 level were both observed in death group and HF event group. Multivariate Cox regression analyses disclosed that a lower-normal fT3 level (HR = 0.648, P = 0.009) and CRT response (HR = 0.441, P = 0.001) were both independent predictors of overall mortality. In addition, they were also both related to HF re-hospitalization event (P < 0.01 for both). Patients with fT3 < 3.00 pmol/L had a significantly higher overall mortality than those with fT3 ≥ 3.00 pmol/L (P = 0.027). Meanwhile, a higher HF hospitalization event rate was also found in patients with fT3 < 3.00 pmol/L (P < 0.001).A lower-normal fT3 level is correlated with a worse cardiac function an adverse prognosis in euthyroid patients with HF after CRT implantation.

  16. Association of triiodothyronine levels with future development of metabolic syndrome in euthyroid middle-aged subjects: a 6-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Bae, Ji Cheol; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Jae Hwan, Jee; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-04-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have reported that thyroid hormone levels are associated with cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) even in euthyroid subjects. However, the prognostic role of serum thyroid hormone levels in the risk of incident MetS has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the associations of baseline serum thyroid hormone levels with the development of MetS in healthy subjects. This 6-year, cross-sectional, longitudinal and follow-up study was conducted in 12 037 euthyroid middle-aged subjects without MetS subjected to comprehensive health examinations. Subjects were grouped according to total triiodothyronine (T3) quartiles. The hazard ratio (HR) for the development of MetS according to T3 quartiles was estimated using Cox proportional hazards model. During the 6-year period, 3544 incident cases of MetS (29%) were identified. The proportion of subjects with incident MetS increased across the T3 quartiles ( P for trend <0.001). The HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the development of MetS were significantly higher in the highest T3 quartile compared with the lowest T3 quartile even after adjusting for confounding variables including gender, age and smoking (HR: 1.238, 95% CI: 1.128-1.358, P  < 0.001). In euthyroid middle-aged subjects, serum T3 levels are associated with increased risk for future development of MetS. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Euthyroid goitre with and without functional autonomy: A comparison; Jodmangelstruma mit und ohne funktionelle Autonomie in der euthyreoten Phase: Ein Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillenhinrichs, H.; Emrich, D. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1998-05-01

    Analysis of functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre. Methods: In an area of moderate iodine deficiency 163 goitrous patients without and 179 with functional autonomy all clinically euthyroid were compared by sex, age, signs and symptoms, sonographic results, qualitative and quantitative scintigraphy without and with suppression, TRH test, hormone concentrations and iodine excretion in the urine. Results: Age, signs and symptoms, thyroid volume and structure did not contribute sufficiently to diagnosis. To detect functional autonomy quantitative scintigraphy under suppression was superior to the TRH test. Increased hormone concentrations were observed in 15% of patients with functional autonomy. A global {sup 99m}Tc thyroid uptake of {>=}3% under suppression indicates a higher risk of spontaneous hyperthyroidism. It was present in 20% of patients with functional autonomy. Conclusion: to diagnose and treat adequately functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre quantitative scintigraphy, determination of TSH and hormone concentrations are inevitable. (orig.) [Deutsch] Analyse der funktionellen Autonomie in der euthyreoten Phase. Methoden: Es wurden 163 klinisch euthyreote Patienten mit Jodmangelstruma ohne und 179 mit funktioneller Autonomie anhand von Geschlechtsverhaeltnis, Lebensalter, Beschwerden, Symptomen, sonographischem Befund, qualitativer und quantitativer Szintigraphie ohne und mit Suppression, TRH-Test, Hormonkonzentrationen und Jodausscheidung im Urin verglichen. Ergebnisse: Lebensalter, Beschwerden und Symptome, Schilddruesenvolumen und Echomuster lieferten keinen ausreichend sicheren Beitrag zur Diagnose. Die quantitative Szintigraphie war dem TRH-Test ueberlegen. Erhoehte Hormonkonzentrationen ergaben sich bei 15% der Patienten mit funktioneller Autonomie. Als Grenzwert fuer ein erhoehtes spontanes Hyperthyreoserisiko wurde eine globale thyreoidale {sup 99m}Tc-Aufnahme unter Suppression von {>=}3% ermittelt, die in 20% der Patienten mit funktioneller

  18. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  19. New decision criteria for selecting delta check methods based on the ratio of the delta difference to the width of the reference range can be generally applicable for each clinical chemistry test item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Kim, So-Young; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2012-09-01

    Many laboratories use 4 delta check methods: delta difference, delta percent change, rate difference, and rate percent change. However, guidelines regarding decision criteria for selecting delta check methods have not yet been provided. We present new decision criteria for selecting delta check methods for each clinical chemistry test item. We collected 811,920 and 669,750 paired (present and previous) test results for 27 clinical chemistry test items from inpatients and outpatients, respectively. We devised new decision criteria for the selection of delta check methods based on the ratio of the delta difference to the width of the reference range (DD/RR). Delta check methods based on these criteria were compared with those based on the CV% of the absolute delta difference (ADD) as well as those reported in 2 previous studies. The delta check methods suggested by new decision criteria based on the DD/RR ratio corresponded well with those based on the CV% of the ADD except for only 2 items each in inpatients and outpatients. Delta check methods based on the DD/RR ratio also corresponded with those suggested in the 2 previous studies, except for 1 and 7 items in inpatients and outpatients, respectively. The DD/RR method appears to yield more feasible and intuitive selection criteria and can easily explain changes in the results by reflecting both the biological variation of the test item and the clinical characteristics of patients in each laboratory. We suggest this as a measure to determine delta check methods.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of iodine metabolism state in euthyroid and nodular goiter under conditions of moderately increased intake of fluorine with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidora, V.D.; Mazurik, M.F.; Shlyakhta, A.I.; Kuznetsov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A reliable decrease of triiodotyronine in blood cerum in the region with moderately increased intake of fluorine with drinking water (1.2-3.1 mg/l) is detected. This results in increase of euthyroid goiter among population by 14-16 times, of nodular - by 6 times. In the studied area there is indirect dependence between function of thyroid gland and degree of its hyperplasia, i.e., the larger is the gland, the weaker is its ability to produce hormones. The practical significance of detected dependence lies in the fact, that in surgical removal of the nodes (malignant cases are excluded) not only morphological but functional criteria as well of the gland increase should be taken account of. Such approach to nodular goiter therapy promotes sufficient reduction of postoperative hypothyrosis. These peculiarities of the ratio between the thyroid gland hyperplasia degree and its function under conditions of studied area must be taken account of when selecting methods of conservative treatment of patients with euthyroid goiter

  1. Colchicum autumnale in Patients with Goitre with Euthyroidism or Mild Hyperthyroidism: Indications for a Therapeutic Regulative Effect-Results of an Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christian; Debus, Marion; Heckmann, Christian; Cysarz, Dirk; Girke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Goitre with euthyroid function or with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy is common. In anthroposophic medicine various thyroid disorders are treated with Colchicum autumnale (CAU). We examined the effects of CAU in patients with goitre of both functional states. Patients and methods. In an observational study, 24 patients with goitre having suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with normal or slightly elevated free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) (group 1, n = 12) or normal TSH, fT3, and fT4 (group 2, n = 12) were included. After 3 months and after 6 to 12 months of CAU treatment, we investigated clinical pathology using the Hyperthyroid Symptom Scale (HSS), hormone status (TSH, fT4, and fT3), and thyroidal volume (tV). Results. After treatment with CAU, in group 1 the median HSS decreased from 4.5 (2.3-11.8) to 2 (1.3-3) (p hyperthyroidism and thyroidal volume in patients with euthyroid goitre by normalization of the regulation of thyroidal hormones.

  2. Colchicum autumnale in Patients with Goitre with Euthyroidism or Mild Hyperthyroidism: Indications for a Therapeutic Regulative Effect—Results of an Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christian; Debus, Marion; Heckmann, Christian; Cysarz, Dirk; Girke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Goitre with euthyroid function or with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy is common. In anthroposophic medicine various thyroid disorders are treated with Colchicum autumnale (CAU). We examined the effects of CAU in patients with goitre of both functional states. Patients and methods. In an observational study, 24 patients with goitre having suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with normal or slightly elevated free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) (group 1, n = 12) or normal TSH, fT3, and fT4 (group 2, n = 12) were included. After 3 months and after 6 to 12 months of CAU treatment, we investigated clinical pathology using the Hyperthyroid Symptom Scale (HSS), hormone status (TSH, fT4, and fT3), and thyroidal volume (tV). Results. After treatment with CAU, in group 1 the median HSS decreased from 4.5 (2.3–11.8) to 2 (1.3–3) (p hyperthyroidism and thyroidal volume in patients with euthyroid goitre by normalization of the regulation of thyroidal hormones. PMID:26955394

  3. Global 99mTc-uptake in the differentiation between normal thyroid, goitre with euthyroidism, and thyroid autonomy in an area of iodine deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreisig, T.; Vaitl, C.; Kirsch, C.M.; Knesewitsch, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Horn, K.; Bechtner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Global TcTU was determined in 568 patients without any specific thyroid drug intake - 54 with normal thyroid, 274 with goitre and euthyroidism and 240 with thyroid autonomy. 57 patients with autonomy and overt hyperthyroidism were the only group with TcTU values significantly higher than normals. Common to all groups was a large scatter of the TcTU values. In 332, the effects of individual iodine supply were studied by measuring the iodine concentration in spot urine samples. There was a significant inverse correlation between the TcTU values and the urinary iodine excretion in the groups of normal thyroids and of goitres with euthyroidism. In the group with autonomy an effect of iodine supply could only be seen in cases of greatly increased urinary iodine excretion, resulting in very low TcTU values. Out of 20 patients with autonomy and iodine contamination, only 4 showed overt hyperthyroidism. The large scatter of TcTU values in all groups may be explained by the persistent iodine deficiency as well as by the frequent exposure to unknown amounts of iodine in patients with thyroid disease. Therefore, the spontaneous TcTU alone cannot identify a small group of patients with autonomy and high risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, from a very large group of patients with goitre. (orig.) [de

  4. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  5. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  6. Colchicum autumnale in Patients with Goitre with Euthyroidism or Mild Hyperthyroidism: Indications for a Therapeutic Regulative Effect—Results of an Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scheffer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Goitre with euthyroid function or with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy is common. In anthroposophic medicine various thyroid disorders are treated with Colchicum autumnale (CAU. We examined the effects of CAU in patients with goitre of both functional states. Patients and methods. In an observational study, 24 patients with goitre having suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels with normal or slightly elevated free thyroxine (fT4 and free triiodothyronine (fT3 (group 1, n=12 or normal TSH, fT3, and fT4 (group 2, n=12 were included. After 3 months and after 6 to 12 months of CAU treatment, we investigated clinical pathology using the Hyperthyroid Symptom Scale (HSS, hormone status (TSH, fT4, and fT3, and thyroidal volume (tV. Results. After treatment with CAU, in group 1 the median HSS decreased from 4.5 (2.3–11.8 to 2 (1.3–3 (p<0.01 and fT3 decreased from 3.85 (3.5–4.78 to 3.45 (3.3–3.78 pg/mL (p<0.05. In group 2 tV (13.9% (18.5%–6.1% and TSH (p<0.01 were reduced. Linear regression for TSH and fT3 in both groups indicated a regulative therapeutic effect of CAU. Conclusions. CAU positively changed the clinical pathology of subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyroidal volume in patients with euthyroid goitre by normalization of the regulation of thyroidal hormones.

  7. Acute and chronic hypothyroidism are associated with similar left ventricular diastolic dysfunction relative to the euthyroid state: results of doppler echocardiographic comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauna, A; Messuti, H; Papadopulos, G; Benchuga, G; Viale, F; Marlowe, R J; Silva Croome, M C

    2011-10-01

    How the duration of hypothyroidism affects left ventricular diastolic function is not well-characterized. We sought to compare left ventricular diastolic function in acutely vs chronically hypothyroid patients vs euthyroid controls, and within individuals while on vs off T4. We prospectively performed such comparisons measuring pulsed-wave and color M-mode Doppler echocardiographic variables: early or late mitral peak velocities (E wave or A wave, respectively), E wave/A wave ratio, E wave deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), mitral flow propagation velocity (Vp), E wave/Vp ratio. Subjects comprised the acute HYPO group, 10 patients undergoing T4 withdrawal ≥ 6 months post-primary treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC); the chronic HYPO group, 23 treatment-naïve Hashimoto thyroiditis patients; and 21 healthy euthyroid controls. Subjects were adults aged ≤ 60 yr, predominantly female, with sinus rhythm; exclusion criteria were cardiovascular or thyroid disorder besides DTC (Hashimoto thyroiditis) in acute (chronic) HYPO patients or medication (besides thyroid hormone) affecting cardiac or thyroid function. Mean IVRT was significantly delayed and mean Vp, significantly slowed in both HYPO groups vs controls (p<0.0005), but did not differ between HYPO groups. These variables also were significantly impaired (p<0.05) within individuals when off vs on T4 (no.=8 acute, 10 chronic HYPO patients). Both HYPO groups had elevated mean E wave/Vp ratios vs controls, but the elevation reached significance (p<0.05) only in the larger chronic HYPO group. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is largely similar in acutely or chronically hypothyroid patients off T4 vs healthy controls or the same patients on T4.

  8. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  9. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  10. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  11. Hipogonadismo e função tireoidiana em ratas hipertireóideas e eutireóideas Hypogonadism and thyroid function in hyper and euthyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serakides

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A influência do hipogonadismo sobre a função tireoidiana de ratas hipertireóideas e eutireóideas foi medida com base no perfil sérico dos hormônios tireoidianos, dos esteróides ovarianos e do TSH e na histomorfometria da tireóide. Ratas Wistar, com cinco meses de idade, castradas, foram mantidas em estado eutireóideo ou hipertireóideo por períodos de 30, 60 e 90 dias. Um grupo não castrado foi mantido nas mesmas condições e serviu como controle. O hipertireoidismo foi induzido mediante a administração diária 50µg de L-tiroxina, por sonda gástrica. Ao final de cada período, nove ratas por grupo tiveram suas tireóides inspecionadas, pesadas e processadas para avaliação histomorfométrica e o plasma sangüíneo colhido para dosagem de estradiol, progesterona, T4 total, T4 livre, T3 total e TSH. O hipogonadismo não alterou os valores de T3 total e de TSH, mas aumentou significativamente as concentrações de T4 livre, independente do estado hipertireóideo ou eutireóideo. As concentrações de T4 total sofreram influência da castração apenas no grupo hipertireóideo. O peso das tireóides não sofreu influência do hipogonadismo, mas a altura do epitélio folicular nos animais eutireóideos variou ao longo do experimento, apresentando-se maior aos 30 e 90 dias e menor aos 60 dias. Não se observou correlação entre os níveis de estrógeno e as variáveis estudadas, mas os níveis de progesterona foram inversamente proporcionais à elevação dos níveis de T4 total e T4 livre. Concluiu-se que o hipogonadismo altera a histomorfometria da tireoide em indivíduos eutireóideos, aumenta os valores plasmáticos de T4 livre independentemente do estado funcional da tireóide e potencializa a elevação de T4 total no hipertireoidismo, provavelmente sob influência do hipoprogesteronismo e não do hipoestrogenismo.The effects of hypogonadism on thyroid function of hyper and euthyroid rats were measured based on plasmatic

  12. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  13. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  14. A high frequency of peripheral blood NKG2D+NK and NKT cells in euthyroid patients with new onset hashimoto's thyroiditis--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Xu, Bingchuan; Yang, Xige; Wang, Ye; Liu, Xiaobo; Cui, Chengri; Jiang, Yanfang

    2014-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. However, little is known about the role of different subsets of natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells at the early stage of the HT process. A total of 45 euthyroid patients with new onset HT and 40 age/gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were examined for the frequency of different subsets of NK and NKT cells and their function by flow cytometry. In comparison with that in HC, significantly higher percentages of peripheral blood CD3-CD56+ NK, NKG2D+, NKp30+ NK and NKT cells, but significantly lower percentages of NKG2A+, KIR2DL3+ inhibitory NK and NKT cells were detected in the HT patients. Furthermore, the percentages of NKG2D+ NK cells were correlated positively with the concentrations of serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) in the HT patients. Moreover, the percentages of inducible IFN-γ and CD107a+ NK cells in the HT patients were significantly higher than those in HC. Our data suggest that activated NK cells may participate in the early pathogenic process of HT.

  15. Clinical utility of serum folate measurement in tertiary care patients: Argument for revising reference range for serum folate from 3.0 ng/mL to 13.0 ng/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmukh Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assess the need for folate testing, frequency of corrective action, and determine reference level for serum folate. Methods: Serum folate levels in 5313 samples from 4448 patients, and clinical data were reviewed for patient characteristics and for (a evidence of corrective action in patients with serum folate values 25.7 ng/mL. Results: The prevalence of serum folate levels, in patients, 25.7 ng/mL the sample was collected after supplementation with folic acid. Of the 128 patients with serum folate 60% of the patients. Since serum folate levels ≥13.0 ng/mL are needed for optimal prevention of neural tube defects in the embryo/fetus, we propose that normal serum folate level should be designated to be ≥13.0 ng/mL. Keywords: Serum folate, Prevalence of folate deficiency, Neural tube defects, Optimum serum folate level, Utility of folate testing

  16. Range-reference determination of lymphocyte subsets in Moroccan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Centre de Transfusion Sanguine, Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Med V Rabat, Morocco. 3. Service ... The percentage of CD3-CD56+ subsets was affected by smoking (p < 0.01). Our analysis .... lymphocyte subpopulations in non-smokers and.

  17. The reference range of serum magnesium substance concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation, with only a small proportion of the body's content being in the extracellular fluid. It is required for the active transport of other cations such as calcium, sodium and potassium across the membrane by active transport system. It is also needed for many ...

  18. Reference ranges for interrupter resistance technique: the Asthma UK Initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Stocks, J.; Beydon, N.; Lombardi, E.; Jones, M.; McKenzie, S.A.; Kivastik, J.; Arets, B.G.; Stanojevic, S.

    2010-01-01

    Measuring interrupter resistance (R(int)) is an increasingly popular lung function technique and especially suitable for preschool children because it is simple, quick and requires only passive cooperation. A European Respiratory Society (ERS)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) Task Force recently

  19. Reference ranges of some haematological parameters in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The haematological values of populations differ due to numerous factors. It is essential to establish the normal haematological values in every population to ensure appropriate interpretation of results in health and disease states. Materials and Methods: A total of 184 consenting apparently healthy adults (62 ...

  20. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  1. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  2. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  3. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  4. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  5. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  6. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  7. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wandelt

    Full Text Available The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1 the size of the factorization, 2 the time for factorization, and 3 the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%, factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s, and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB. Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization.

  8. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  9. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  10. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  11. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  12. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  13. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  14. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  15. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  16. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  17. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  18. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  19. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  20. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  1. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  2. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  3. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  4. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  5. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  6. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  7. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  8. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  9. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  10. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  11. Energy reference forecast for 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, Michael; Lutz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has commissioned three reputed institutions to prepare an energy reference forecast as well as a target scenario up to the year 2050. The results of this survey evidence a substantial need for political action if the goals of the Federal Government's energy concept are to be achieved as planned. In view of the wide range of interests among the players involved as well as the complexity of the demands facing the political leadership from diverse areas of life it appears unlikely that the targets laid down in the energy concept can be realised.

  12. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  13. Reference costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terraz, N.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of electric power production reference costs is used in France, even in the present case of over-capacity, for comparing the relative interest of the various means of power generation (nuclear plants, coal plants, hydroelectricity, gas combined cycles, etc.) and as an aid for future investment decisions. Reference costs show a sharp decrease between 1993 and 1997 due to advancements in nuclear plant operating ability and fossil fuel price decrease. Actuarial rates, plant service life, fuel costs and exchange rates are important parameters. The various costs from the research stage to the waste processing stages are discussed and the reference costs of the various power generation systems are presented and compared together with their competitiveness; the future of wind energy and cogeneration and the prospective of the renewal of nuclear plants at the 2010 horizon are also addressed

  14. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  15. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  16. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  17. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  18. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  19. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  20. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  1. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  2. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  3. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  4. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  5. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  6. Quantum frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufherr, T.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that only relative variables have physical meaning came to be known as Mach's principle. Carrying over this idea to quantum theory, has led to the consideration of finite mass, macroscopic reference frames, relative to which all physical quantities are measured. During the process of measurement, a finite mass observer receives a kickback, and this reaction of the measuring device is not negligible in quantum theory because of the quantization of the action. Hence, the observer himself has to be included in the system that is being considered. Using this as the starting point, a number of thought experiments involving finite mass observers is discussed which have quantum uncertainties in their time or in their position. These thought experiments serve to elucidate in a qualitative way some of the difficulties involved, as well as pointing out a direction to take in seeking solutions to them. When the discussion is extended to include more than one observer, the question of the covariance of the theory immediately arises. Because none of the frames of reference should be preferred, the theory should be covariant. This demand expresses an equivalence principle which here is extended to include reference frames which are in quantum uncertainties relative to each other. Formulating the problem in terms of canonical variables, the ensueing free Hamiltonian contains vector and scalar potentials which represent the kick that the reference frame receives during measurement. These are essentially gravitational type potentials, resulting, as it were, from the extension of the equivalence principle into the quantum domain

  7. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.; Donders, T.H.; Bijl, P.K.; Wagner, F.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  8. Virtual Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  9. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  10. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variation on human health. Health Conditions More than 1,200 health ...

  11. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  12. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  13. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  14. ``Frames of Reference'' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.

    1992-12-01

    The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of Reference,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of reference, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.

  15. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  16. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  17. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  18. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  19. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  20. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The weight of organs from autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults, children, and infants is presented for the purpose of approaching a Reference Japanese Man. The skeletal content and the daily intake of alkaline earth elements are given. A lower rate of transfer (K 2 ) to the thyroid gland of ingested radioiodine, as well as a remarkably shorter biological half-life than the data adopted by ICRP, is also proved as a result of this study. (author)

  1. Reference handbook: Level detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand level measurement and detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: List three reasons for measuring level. Describe the basic operating principles of the sight glass. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading a sight glass. Describe the basic operating principles of a float level detector. Describe the basic operating principles of a bubbler level indicating system. Explain the differences between a wet and dry reference leg indicating system, and describe how each functions. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Level Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant

  2. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  3. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time

  4. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  5. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  6. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  7. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  8. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  9. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  10. Iodine frequency references for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  11. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  12. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  13. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  14. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  15. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  16. VBScript pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  17. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  18. NUnit Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  19. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  20. Maintaining Euthyroidism: Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological ..... The active catalytic center of D1, D2, and D3 contains the amino acid ..... educed appetite; impaired protein metabolism; reduced glucose deposition ..... insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  2. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  3. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  4. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  5. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  6. AREVA - 2013 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, as well as estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Description of major risks confronting the company; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Situation and activities of the company and its subsidiaries; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Management and supervisory bodies; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of the management and supervisory bodies; 17 - Human resources information; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - Information on holdings; Appendix 1: report of the supervisory board chairman on the preparation and organization of the board's activities and internal control procedures; Appendix 2: statutory auditors' reports; Appendix 3: environmental report; Appendix 4: non-financial reporting methodology and independent third-party report on social, environmental and societal data; Appendix 5: ordinary and extraordinary general shareholders' meeting; Appendix 6: values charter; Appendix 7: table of concordance of the management report; glossaries

  7. Balinese Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Aryawibawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Balinese Frame of Reference. Wassmann and Dasen (1998 did a study on the acquisition of Balinese frames of reference. They pointed out that, in addition to the dominant use of absolute system, the use of relative system was also observed. This article aims at verifying Wassmann and Dasen’ study. Employing monolingual Balinese speakers and using linguistic and non-linguistic tasks, Aryawibawa (2010, 2012, 2015 showed that Balinese subjects used an absolute system dominantly in responding the two tasks, e.g. The man is north/south/east/west of the car. Unlike Wassmann and Dasen’s results, no relative system was used by the subjects in solving the tasks. Instead of the relative system, an intrinsic system was also observed in this study, even though it was unfrequent. The article concludes that the absolute system was dominantly employed by Balinese speakers in describing spatial relations in Balinese. The use of the system seems to affect their cognitive functions.

  8. Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10 - 6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  9. A reference aerosol for a radon reference chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Annette; Keyser, Uwe

    1996-02-01

    The measurement of radon and radon progenies and the calibration of their detection systems require the production and measurement of aerosols well-defined in size and concentration. In the German radon reference chamber, because of its unique chemical and physical properties, carnauba wax is used to produce standard aerosols. The aerosol size spectra are measured on-line by an aerosol measurement system in the range of 10 nm to 1 μm aerodynamic diameter. The experimental set-ups for the study of adsorption of radioactive ions on aerosols as function of their size and concentration will be described, the results presented and further adaptations for an aerosol jet introduced (for example, for the measurement of short-lived neutron-rich isotopes). Data on the dependence of aerosol radius, ion concentration and element selectivity is collected by using a 252Cf-sf source. The fission products of this source range widely in elements, isotopes and charges. Adsorption and the transport of radioactive ions on aerosols have therefore been studied for various ions for the first time, simultaneously with the aerosol size on-line spectrometry.

  10. A reference aerosol for a radon reference chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Keyser, U. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1996-01-11

    The measurement of radon and radon progenies and the calibration of their detection systems require the production and measurement of aerosols well-defined in size and concentration. In the German radon reference chamber, because of its unique chemical and physical properties, carnauba wax is used to produce standard aerosols. The aerosol size spectra are measured on-line by an aerosol measurement system in the range of 10 nm to 1 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter. The experimental set-ups for the study of adsorption of radioactive ions on aerosols as function of their size and concentration are described, the results presented and further adaptations for an aerosol jet introduced (for example, for the measurement of short-lived neutron-rich isotopes). Data on the dependence of aerosol radius, ion concentration and element selectivity is collected by using a {sup 252}Cf-sf source. The fission products of this source range widely in elements, isotopes and charges. Adsorption and the transport of radioactive ions on aerosols have therefore been studied for various ions for the first time, simultaneously with the aerosol size on-line spectrometry. (orig.).

  11. Trimester specific reference intervals for thyroid function tests in normal Indian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Tarun; Juhi, Juhi Agarwal; Wilfred, Reena; Kanwar, Ratnesh S; Sethi, Jyoti; Bhadra, Kuntal; Nair, Sirimavo; Singh, Satveer

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of thyroid function during pregnancy is critical, for initiation of thyroid hormone therapy, as well as for adjustment of thyroid hormone dose in hypothyroid cases. We evaluated pregnant women who had no past history of thyroid disorders and studied their thyroid function in each trimester. 86 normal pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy were selected for setting reference intervals. All were healthy, euthyroid and negative for thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb). These women were serially followed throughout pregnancy. 124 normal nonpregnant subjects were selected for comparison. Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and anti-TPO were measured using Roche Elecsys 1010 analyzer. Urinary iodine content was determined by simple microplate method. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were calculated as the reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels during each trimester. SPSS (version 14.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data processing and analysis. The reference intervals for the first, second and third trimesters for the following parameters: TSH 0.09-6.65, 0.51-6.66, 0.91-4.86 µIU/mL, FT4 9.81-18.53, 8.52-19.43, 7.39-18.28 pM/L and FT3 3.1-6.35, 2.39-5.12, 2.57-5.68 pM/L respectively. Thyroid hormone concentrations significantly differed during pregnancy at different stages of gestation. The pregnant women in the study had median urinary iodine concentration of 150-200 µg/l during each trimester. The trimester-specific reference intervals for thyroid tests during pregnancy have been established for pregnant Indian women serially followed during pregnancy using 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles.

  12. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  13. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  14. Scanning reference electrode techniques in localized corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Vyas, B.

    1979-04-01

    The principles, advantages, and implementations of scanning reference electrode techniques are reviewed. Data related to pitting, intergranular corrosion, welds and stress corrosion cracking are presented. The technique locates the position of localized corrosion and can be used to monitor the development of corrosion and changes in the corrosion rate under a wide range of conditions

  15. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  16. AREVA 2009 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  17. Areva - 2016 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 36,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva

  18. A reference tristimulus colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2002-06-01

    A reference tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at NIST with a transmission-type silicon trap detector (1) and four temperature-controlled filter packages to realize the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) x(λ), y(λ) and z(λ) color matching functions (2). Instead of lamp standards, high accuracy detector standards are used for the colorimeter calibration. A detector-based calibration procedure is being suggested for tristimulus colorimeters wehre the absolute spectral responsivity of the tristimulus channels is determined. Then, color (spectral) correct and peak (amplitude) normalization are applied to minimize uncertainties caused by the imperfect realizations of the CIE functions. As a result of the corrections, the chromaticity coordinates of stable light sources with different spectral power distributions can be measured with uncertainties less than 0.0005 (k=1).

  19. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  20. Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)

  1. Areva, reference document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance

  2. Areva reference document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance

  3. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  4. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  5. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  6. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  7. Doing the work of reference practical tips for excelling as a reference librarian

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Become more versatile, competent, and resourceful with these practical suggestions!Becoming a first-class reference librarian demands proficiency in a wide range of skills. Doing the Work of Reference offers sound advice for the full spectrum of your responsibilities. Though many aspects of a reference librarian's work are changing with astonishing speed, the classic principles in this volume will never go out of date. This comprehensive volume begins with hints for orienting yourself to a new job and concludes with ideas for serving the profession. On the way, Doing the Wo

  8. AREVA - 2012 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this Reference Document, of statutory auditors, and of a summary of financial information, this report address the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risk related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risks (related to political and economic conditions, to Group's structure, and to human resources). The next parts propose information about the issuer, a business overview (markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, customers and suppliers, group's strategy, operations), a brief presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of properties, plants and equipment (principal sites, environmental issues which may affect these items), analysis and comments on the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of capital resources, a presentation of research and development activities (programs, patents and licenses), a brief description of financial objectives and profit forecasts or estimates, a presentation of administration, management and supervision bodies, a description of the operation of corporate bodies, an overview of personnel, of principal shareholders, and of transactions with related parties, a more detailed presentation of financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. Addition information regarding share capital is given, as well as an indication of major contracts, third party information, available documents, and information on holdings

  9. Reference thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driggers, F.E.

    1978-08-01

    In the reference fuel cycle for the TFCT program, fissile U will be denatured by mixing with 238 U; the plants will be located in secure areas, with Pu being recycled within these secure areas; Th will be recycled with recovered U and Pu; the head end will handle a variety of core and blanket fuel assembly designs for LWRs and HWRs; the fuel may be a homogeneous mixture either of U and Th oxide pellets or sol-gel microspheres; the cladding will be Zircaloy; and MgO may be added to the fuel to improve Th dissolution. Th is being considered as the fertile component of fuel in order to increase proliferation resistance. Spent U recovered from Th-based fuels must be re-enriched before recycle to prevent very rapid buildup of 238 U. Stainless steel will be considered as a backup to Zircaloy cladding in case Zr is incompatible with commercial aqueous dissolution. Storage of recovered irradiated Th will be considered as a backup to its use in the recycle of recovered Pu and U. Estimates are made of the time for introducing the Th fuel cycle into the LWR power industry. Since U fuel exposures in LWRs are likely to increase from 30,000 to 50,000 MWD/MT, the Th reprocessing plant should also be designed for Th fuel with 50,000 MWD/MT exposure

  10. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  11. Uranium tailings reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of uranium tailings from Bancroft and Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from Beaverlodge and Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, have been prepared as compositional reference materials at the request of the National Uranium Tailings Research Program. The four samples, UTS-1 to UTS-4, were ground to minus 104 μm, each mixed in one lot and bottled in 200-g units for UTS-1 to UTS-3 and in 100-g units for UTS-4. The materials were tested for homogeneity with respect to uranium by neutron activation analysis and to iron by an acid-decomposition atomic absorption procedure. In a free choice analytical program, 18 laboratories contributed results for one or more of total iron, titanium, aluminum, calcium, barium, uranium, thorium, total sulphur, and sulphate for all four samples, and for nickel and arsenic in UTS-4 only. Based on a statistical analysis of the data, recommended values were assigned to all elements/constituents, except for sulphate in UTS-3 and nickel in UTS-4. The radioactivity of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210 in UTS-1 to UTS-4 and of thorium-232, radium-228, and thorium-228 in UTS-1 and UTS-2 was determined in a radioanalytical program composed of eight laboratories. Recommended values for the radioactivities and associated parameters were calculated by a statistical treatment of the results

  12. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  13. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  14. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  15. Reference neutron activation library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,{alpha}), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,{sup 3}He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10{sup -5} eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain

  16. Reference neutron activation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,α), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n, 3 He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10 -5 eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain almost all the

  17. Usefulness of herbal and dietary supplement references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Burgunda V; Gay, Wendy E; Leady, Michelle A; Stumpf, Janice L

    2003-04-01

    To describe the usefulness of some of the most common tertiary references that healthcare professionals employ to answer requests about herbal and dietary supplements. All requests for information on herbal and dietary supplements received by the drug information service between April and September 2000 were evaluated. Each question was independently reviewed by 4 clinicians using a 4-point scale; 14 references were searched for appropriate answers. The percent of responses for each of the possible scores for each reference overall and by category of question was reported to determine the most helpful references for answering the broadest range of questions. Fifty questions regarding herbal and dietary supplements were analyzed. The electronic databases (Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, Micromedex) and the Internet site (The Natural Pharmacist) were determined to be overall the most helpful references for providing information on herbal and dietary supplements. The Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide was the most helpful book reference. These results will facilitate the retrieval of useful information on herbal and dietary supplements and enable healthcare professionals to determine appropriate allocation of resources as they build a drug information library for handling requests about these products.

  18. The self-referred mammography patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, H.E.; Jackson, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the demographics, knowledge, and attitudes of women who refer themselves for screening mammography with those who undergo mammography on the advice of their physicians. Four hundred eighty-five consecutive mammography patients (437 doctor preferred [DR], 48 self-referred [SR]) completed a survey during their mammography appointment. The sample population contained a wide range of socioeconomic groups. While similar in age, race, and employment status to DR patients, SR patients were significantly more likely to have a family income of more than 30,000 per year, be college graduates, and report that they were in good or excellent health

  19. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  20. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: PURA syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TJ, Vreeburg M, Rouhl RPW, Stevens SJC, Stegmann APA, Schieving J, Pfundt R, van Dijk K, Smeets ... article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  2. Areva - 2014 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 44,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva. Contents: 1 - Person responsible; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risk factors; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - information on holdings; appendix: Report of the Chairman of the Board of Directors on governance, internal control procedures and risk management, Statutory Auditors' report, Corporate social

  3. [The National Reference Centres and Reference Laboratories. Importance and tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, G; Ammon, A

    2005-09-01

    Since 1995, the German Federal Ministry for Health and Social Security funds National Reference Centres (NRC) for the laboratory surveillance of important pathogens and syndromes. Which pathogens or syndromes are selected to be covered by a NRC depends on their epidemiological relevance, the special diagnostic tools, problems with antimicrobial resistance and necessary infection control measures. Currently, there are 15 NRC, which are appointed for a period of 3 years (currently from January 2005 through December 2007). Towards the end of their appointment all NRC are evaluated by a group of specialists. The assessment of their achievements is guided by a catalogue of tasks for the NRC. In addition to the NRC, a total of 50 laboratories are appointed which provide specialist expertise for additional pathogens in order to have a broad range of pathogens for which specialist laboratories are available. Their predominant task is to give advice and support for special diagnostic problems. Both NRC and the specialist laboratories are important parts of the network for infectious disease epidemiology.

  4. Kerlinger's Criterial Referents Theory Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Birenbaum, Menucha

    1980-01-01

    Kerlinger's criterial referents theory of attitudes was tested cross-culturally by administering an education attitude referents summated-rating scale to 713 individuals in Israel. The response pattern to criterial and noncriterial referents was examined. Results indicated empirical cross-cultural validity of theory, but questioned measuring…

  5. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  6. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  7. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  8. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  9. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  10. EDF group - Reference Document 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. With an installed capacity of 130.8 GW (123.9 GW in Europe), it contributes to the supply of energy and services to more than 40 million customers throughout the world (with approximately 36.7 million customers in Europe, more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. In 2005, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 51,051 million, net income (Group share) of euros 3,242 million, and it achieved earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 13,010 million. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2005. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business Overview, Organizational Structure, Property, Plants and Equipment, Operating and Financial Review, Capital Resources, Research and Development, Patents and Licences, Trend Information, Financial Prospects, Administrative, Management, and Supervisory Bodies and Senior Management, Remuneration and Benefits, Board Practices, Employees/Human Resources, Major Shareholders, Related Party Transactions, Financial Information Concerning the Company's Assets and Liabilities, Financial Position and Profits and Losses, Material Contracts, Information on Holdings etc

  11. EDF group - Reference Document 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. With an installed capacity of 125,4 GW, it contributes to the supply of energy and services to more than 42 million customers throughout the world (with approximately 36 million customers in Europe, more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. In 2004, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 46,928 million, net income (Group share) of euros 1,341 million, and it achieved earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 12,127 million. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2004. It contains information about: the Group activities, capital, relations with Gaz de France utility, strategy, industrial environment, history, activity in France, international activity, transverse activities and functions, disputes, arbitration and risk factors, Property, Plants and Equipment, Operating and Financial Review, Administrative, Management, and Supervisory Bodies and Senior Management, Remuneration and Benefits, recent trends and perspectives

  12. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  13. Dosimetric verification for radiotherapy quality audit under reference and non-reference conditions in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Yu Ningle; Yang Chunyong; Du Xiang; Chen Wei; Luo Suming

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To verify the methodology for auditing dosimetric parameters in reference and non-reference conditions with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Methods: Under reference and non-reference conditions, the established TLD methods were used to observe the absorbed dose variations with depth, SSD, field size and 45 wedges for 10 photon beams at 5 hospitals. Dosimetric parameters, including doses at D_m_a_x points in axis, on 5 electron beams of 9 MeV were measured. The measurement results were compared between the TLDs and plane parallel ionization chambers. Results: For 6 MV photon beams, the relative deviation of between finger ionization chamber method and TLD chips was in the range of -1.7% to 5.4% under on-axis non-reference conditions, and -6.3% to -0.6% under off-axis non-reference conditions, respectively, all within the range of ≤ ±7% as required by the IAEA. The relative deviation between plane parallel chamber and TLD method was -2.3% to 3.7%, within ±5% as required by the IAEA. Conclusions: It is convenient and feasible to use TLD method for quality audits of dosimetric parameters in radiotherapy. (authors)

  14. Introduction to sensors for ranging and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Brooker, Graham

    2009-01-01

    ""This comprehensive text-reference provides a solid background in active sensing technology. It is concerned with active sensing, starting with the basics of time-of-flight sensors (operational principles, components), and going through the derivation of the radar range equation and the detection of echo signals, both fundamental to the understanding of radar, sonar and lidar imaging. Several chapters cover signal propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic energy, target characteristics, stealth, and clutter. The remainder of the book introduces the range measurement process, active ima

  15. User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

  16. Java for dummies quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2012-01-01

    A reference that answers your questions as you move through your coding The demand for Android programming and web apps continues to grow at an unprecedented pace and Java is the preferred language for both. Java For Dummies Quick Reference keeps you moving through your coding while you solve a problem, look up a command or syntax, or search for a programming tip. Whether you're a Java newbie or a seasoned user, this fast reference offers you quick access to solutions without requiring that you wade through pages of tutorial material. Leverages the true reference format that is organized with

  17. A study of goiter among female adolescents referred to centre for nuclear medicine, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S; Hassan, M.; Syed, Z.; Hyder, S.W.; Nazeer, L.; Nagra, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study goiter and thyroid dysfunction in female adolescents residing in Lahore referred to Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital for thyroid scanning and thyroid function tests. Design: Retrospective study of thyroid size, thyroid scan patterns and serum FT/sub 4/ and TSH levels. Setting: Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Patients: 350 female adolescent referred during September 2002 to April 2003. Main outcome measures: adolescent goiter, thyroid nodules, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic multi nodular goiter. Results: Among 350 adolescents 212(60.6%) had goiter of various grades mostly visible. Among goiterous patients 136(64.2%) had diffuse and 76 (35.8%) had nodular presentation. The number of patients with solitary nodular goiter (20.7%) was more than multi nodular goiter (15.1%) and number of patients with solitary cold nodule (16.5%) was more than functioning nodule (4.2%). The incidence of biochemical thyroid dysfunction, both overt and subclinical, was detected in 42(19.8%) patients and was significantly more frequent in patients with nodular than diffuse presentation (29% VS 14.7%; p<0.001) and in multinodular than solitary nodular goiter (p<0.005). More than 80% of the patients with solitary nodular goiter were euthyroid. Simple goiter was detected in 116(54.7%), Graves' disease in 5(2.4%) and toxic multinodular goiter in 4(1.9%) patients. Overall incidence of hypothyroidism was more than double as compared to hyperthyroidism. Incidence of nodularity and hypothyroidism was more in large goiter but duration of goiter was not significant in promoting nodularity. Conclusion: Goiterous adolescents need urgent attention because they don't have just diffuse hypertrophy with normal thyroid function. Many are afflicted with dysfunction and nodularity, particularly solitary cold nodule bearing risk of thyroid malignancy. (author)

  18. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  19. middle range theory evaluation: bridging the theory-practice gap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance underlying the practice of nursing education must continue ... describes selected middle range theory evaluation as a tool for bridging ... engaging in innovative ways of acquiring competency. ..... performances, that guides learners attitudes towards ... Reference knowledge acquired by work experience.

  20. EDF group - Reference Document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and holds strong positions in the other three principal European markets (Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy) making it one of the leading electricity groups in Europe, and a recognized actor in the gas market. With an installed capacity of 123.7 GW in Europe (128.2 GW worldwide) it holds, among the major European energy specialists, the largest production fleet and the one emitting the least CO 2 , owing to the share of nuclear technology and hydropower in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies electricity, gas and associated services to more than 37.8 million customers throughout the world and in Europe (more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between France and the international markets, and between deregulated and regulated operations. In 2006, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 58,932 million, net income (Group share) of euros 5,605 million, and it achieved earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 13,930 million. From July 1, 2007, the EDF group will carry out its trading activities in a European energy market fully open to competition. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2006. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business overview, Organizational structure, Property, plants and equipment, Operating and financial review, Capital resources and cash flows, Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Trend information, Financial forecasts or estimates, Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management, Remuneration and benefits, Board practices, Employees/Human resources, Major shareholders, Related party transactions, Financial information

  1. Moving Reference to the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlamery, Susan; Coffman, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explores the possibility of using Web contact center software to offer reference assistance to remote users. Discusses a project by the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System/Santiago Library System consortium to test contact center software and to develop a virtual reference network. (Author/LRW)

  2. Reference vectors in economic choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teycir Abdelghani GOUCHA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the introduction of notion of reference vector paves the way for a combination of classical and social approaches in the framework of referential preferences given by matrix groups. It is shown that individual demand issue from rational decision does not depend on that reference.

  3. "In Your Face" Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    1999-01-01

    Discusses changes in library reference service that have occurred with growing Internet use. Topics include the human factor that is still needed; the nature of reference questions; the goal of user self-sufficiency; the invisible nature of much of librarians' work; and providing real-time, interactive point-of-need service to remote users. (LRW)

  4. Technostress and the Reference Librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmith, John

    1992-01-01

    Defines "technostress" as the stress experienced by reference librarians who must constantly deal with the demands of new information technology and the changes they produce in the work place. Discussion includes suggested ways in which both organizations and individuals can work to reduce stress. (27 references) (LAE)

  5. Reference Services: A Handmaid's Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Clare

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of problems in library reference services focuses on the influence of gender roles. A historical overview of gender roles in the development of American librarianship is presented that highlights stereotyped views of and attitudes toward women, which the author suggests still have influences on librarianship today. (17 references) (LRW)

  6. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  7. Estimation of individual reference intervals in small sample sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Eller, Nanna Hurwitz

    2007-01-01

    In occupational health studies, the study groups most often comprise healthy subjects performing their work. Sampling is often planned in the most practical way, e.g., sampling of blood in the morning at the work site just after the work starts. Optimal use of reference intervals requires...... from various variables such as gender, age, BMI, alcohol, smoking, and menopause. The reference intervals were compared to reference intervals calculated using IFCC recommendations. Where comparable, the IFCC calculated reference intervals had a wider range compared to the variance component models...

  8. Project X: Accelerator Reference Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Stephen D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-06-20

    applications of muon spin rotation techniques provide sensitive probes of the magnetic structure of materials. Goal: Provide MW-class proton beams at 1 GeV, coupled with novel targets required to support a broad range of materials science and energy applications. Platform for Evolution to Future Frontier Facilities: A high-intensity proton source will strengthen and modernize the Fermilab injector complex, providing a robust platform upon which to build future frontier facilities. The Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider are examples that would provide world-leading capabilities at the Intensity and Energy Frontiers for many decades to come. Goal: Provide a straightforward upgrade path for a 4 MW, low-duty-factor source of protons at energies between 5 and 15 GeV. These four elements are expected to form the basis of the Mission Need statement required for the Department of Energy (DOE) Critical Decision 0 (CD-0), and represent the fundamental design criteria for Project X. The following chapters present the Reference Design for the Project X accelerator facility. The Reference Design is based on a continuous wave (CW) superconducting (SC) linac providing up to 1 and 3 MW of beam power at 1 and 3 GeV respectively. A pulsed linac provides acceleration of roughly 4% of the beam delivered from the CW linac to the 8 GeV injection energy of the existing Recycler/Main Injector complex. Upgrades to the Recycler and Main Injector support a factor of three increase, beyond current capabilities, in proton beam power at 60 to 120 GeV. The Reference Design represents a facility that will be unique in the world with unmatched capabilities for the delivery of very high beam power, with flexible beam formats, to multiple users at multiple energies. The utilization of linacs within the Project X facility enables capabilities beyond what is achievable with circular accelerators. It is anticipated that the final configuration and operating parameters of the complex will be further refined through

  9. References

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Achinstein, P. 1983. The Nature of Explanation (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Adler, J.E. 1997. ‘Lying, Deceiving, or Falsely Implicating’, The Journal of Philosophy, 94: 435–52. Adler, J.E. 2002. Belief’s Own Ethics (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). Alicke, M.D., J. Buckingham, E. Zell, & T. Davis. 2008. ‘Culpable Control and Counterfactual Reasoning in the Psychology of Blame’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34: 1371–78, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/014616720832159...

  10. References

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Aldridge, H., Kenway, P. and Born, T. (2015), ‘What Happened to Poverty Under the Coalition’. New Policy Institute. Armour, R. (2014) ‘Charity Shops Buck Trend’, http://thirdforcenews.org.uk,24 March 2014. Beatty, C. and Fothergill, S. (2016), The Uneven Impact of Welfare Reform. The Financial Losses to Places and People, Centre for Regional and Social Economic Research and Sheffield Hallam University, https://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/welfare-reform-2016_1.pdf Belfi...

  11. References

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2005) The Ethics of Identity, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ______ (2006). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, Norton, New York. Clarke, Charles (2006) ‛Global Citizens and Quality International Education: Enlarging the Role of the Commonwealth’. Speech delivered to the Royal Commonwealth Society, 15 November, 2006, London. Estlund, Cynthia (2003) Working Together: How Workplace Bonds Strengthen a Diverse Democracy, Oxford University Press, New...

  12. References:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain drain”'. Globalization and Health 2006, 2:12 doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-2-12. 3. Zijlstra, E., Broadhead, R. 2007. The College of Medicine in the. Republic of Malawi: towards sustainable staff development, Human. Resources for Health 2007, ...

  13. Japanese reference man 1988, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative description of physical properties and other characteristics of the human body is one of the basic data for estimating dose equivalent and calculating Annual Limit on Intake of radionuclides. The exact mass weight of organs and tissues are measured from about 1000 autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults and physical properties are obtained from recent Japanese Government publications. Japanese (Asian) Reference Man is completed by establishing the Normal Japanese, harmonizing with Caucasian Reference Man and coinciding with the ICRP Reference Man Task Group members concept. (author)

  14. Hip strength and range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B.; Crossley, Kay M.; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the normal profiles for hip strength and range of motion (ROM) in a professional football league in Qatar, and examine the effect of leg dominance, age, past history of injury, and ethnicity on these profiles. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Participants...... values are documented for hip strength and range of motion that can be used as reference profiles in the clinical assessment, screening, and management of professional football players. Leg dominance, recent past injury history and ethnicity do not need to be accounted for when using these profiles...... included 394 asymptomatic, male professional football players, aged 18–40 years. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer with an eccentric test in side-lying for hip adduction and abduction, and the squeeze test in supine with 45° hip flexion. Range of motion measures included: hip internal...

  15. Normal reference ranges for semen quality and their relations to fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the fecundity of a man decreases progressively with sperm concentrations below 40 million spermatozoa per mL. Therefore, it is unfortunate that the new World Health Organization guidelines for semen analysis recommend lowering the lower cutoff value for norm...

  16. Gestational age-specific reference ranges from different laboratories misclassify pregnant women's thyroid status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Boas, Malene

    2014-01-01

    , the proportion of women who would be misclassified by doing so was investigated. RESULTS: TSH increased and free thyroxine (FT4) decreased as pregnancy progressed. Results indicated highly significant differences between cohorts in free triiodothyronine (F=21.3, P

  17. Normal reference ranges for semen quality and their relations to fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the fecundity of a man decreases progressively with sperm concentrations below 40 million spermatozoa per mL. Therefore, it is unfortunate that the new World Health Organization guidelines for semen analysis recommend lowering the lower cutoff value for normal...

  18. Reference hearing thresholds in an extended frequency range as a function of age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jilek, Milan; Šuta, Daniel; Syka, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 4 (2014), s. 1821-1830 ISSN 0001-4966 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1342; GA ČR GAP304/10/1872 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : hearing * audiometry * earphones Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.503, year: 2014

  19. Nuclear measurements and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the JRC programs on nuclear data, nuclear metrology, nuclear reference materials and non-nuclear reference materials. Budget restrictions and personnel difficulties were encountered during 1987. Fission properties of 235 U as a function of neutron energy and of the resonances can be successfully described on the basis of a three exit channel fission model. Double differential neutron emission cross-sections were accomplished on 7 Li and were started for the tritium production cross-section of 9 Be. Reference materials of uranium minerals and ores were prepared. Special nuclear targets were prepared. A batch of 250 g of Pu0 2 was characterized in view of certification as reference material for the elemental assay of plutonium

  20. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  1. Thyroid hormones during late pregnancy with special reference to the free hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsch, J.; Bellmann, O.; Oehr, P.; Rasche, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.

    1982-01-01

    In 91 clinically euthyroid pregnants in the last trimenon and in 38 non-pregnant euthyroid women the following parameters were determined: total T 4 (TT 4 ), total T 3 (TT 3 ), reverse T 3 (rT 3 , only in pregnancy), T 3 -uptake (T 3 U), TBG, TSH FT 4 -index (FT 4 I = TT 4 /T 3 U), TT 4 /TBG, free T 4 (FT 4 ) and free T 3 (FT 3 , only 58 pregnants) according to the methods of Corning and Lepetit, respectively. In addition, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed. The results were indicative of an euthyroid status in late pregnancy with slightly decreased FT 4 and normal FT 3 levels. The diagnostic value of the TT 4 /TBG ratio at high TBG-concentrations must be regarded as doubtful. Pregnants with gestational diabetes had lower FT 4 levels which might be due to an altered metabolism of thyroxine. (orig.) [de

  2. TclTk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Raines, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The Tcl/Tk combination is increasingly popular because it lets you produce sophisticated graphical interfaces with a few easy commands, develop and change scripts quickly, and conveniently tie together existing utilities or programming libraries. The Tcl/Tk Pocket Reference,a handy reference guide to the basic Tcl language elements, Tcl and Tk commands, and Tk widgets, is a companion volume to Tcl/Tk in a Nutshell.

  3. EDF group - Reference Document 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The EDF group is an integrated energy company with a presence in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, supply and energy trading. It is France's leading electricity operator and has a strong position in the three other main European markets (Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy), making it one of Europe's leading electrical players as well as a recognized player in the gas industry. With worldwide installed power capacity totaling 136.3 GW as of December 31, 2009 (134.0 GW in Europe) and global energy generation of 618.5 TWh, it has the largest generating capacity of all the major European energy corporations with the lowest level of CO 2 emissions due to the significant proportion of nuclear and hydroelectric power in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies gas, electricity, and associated services to more than 37.9 million customer accounts worldwide (including approximately 27.7 million in France). The EDF group's businesses reflect its adoption of a model aimed at finding the best balance between French and international activities, competitive and regulated operations and based on an upstream-downstream integration. In 2009, the Group's consolidated revenues were euros 66.3 billion, the net income (Group share) was euros 3.9 billion, and earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization was euros 17.5 billion. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2009. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business, Organizational structure, Property plant and equipment, Operating and financial review, Capital resources and cash flows, Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Information on trends, Financial outlook, Administrative, management, and supervisory bodies and senior management, Compensation and benefits, Functioning of the administration and management bodies, Employees/Human resources

  4. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  5. The citation with reference and the citation as a reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Cunha Perrone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio objetiva estabelecer paralelos entre a citação acadêmica e a citação utilizada como referência, para a produção das obras ou projetos de arquitetura. O artigo discute o uso de figuras paradigmáticas ou significativas, transladadas ou amalgamadas nas obras de arquitetura, a partir do entendimento da citação como dado argumentativo e qualitativo. Investiga algumas de suas assimetrias e congruências em sua utilização na linguagem escrita, como transcrição direta ou como fonte interpretativa, reelaborada e incorporada como argumento em outro texto. Pondera que no ensinar, estudar e fazer arquitetura é preciso saber citar com referência, para poder citar como referência.

  6. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  7. Energy reference forecast for 2014; Energiereferenzprognose 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, Michael [Prognos AG, Basel (Switzerland). Energie, Infrastruktur; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst. (EWI); Lutz, Christian [GWS mbH, Osnabrueck (Germany). Energie und Klima

    2014-10-15

    The German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has commissioned three reputed institutions to prepare an energy reference forecast as well as a target scenario up to the year 2050. The results of this survey evidence a substantial need for political action if the goals of the Federal Government's energy concept are to be achieved as planned. In view of the wide range of interests among the players involved as well as the complexity of the demands facing the political leadership from diverse areas of life it appears unlikely that the targets laid down in the energy concept can be realised.

  8. Postural adaptation of the spatial reference frames to microgravity: back to the egocentric reference frame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Viel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to test how gravitational information would affect the choice of stable reference frame used to control posture and voluntary movement, we have analysed the forearm stabilisation during sit to stand movement under microgravity condition obtained during parabolic flights. In this study, we hypothesised that in response to the transient loss of graviceptive information, the postural adaptation might involve the use of several strategies of segmental stabilisation, depending on the subject's perceptual typology (dependence--independence with respect to the visual field. More precisely, we expected a continuum of postural strategies across subjects with 1 at one extreme the maintaining of an egocentric reference frame and 2 at the other the re-activation of childhood strategies consisting in adopting an egocentric reference frame. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To check this point, a forearm stabilisation task combined with a sit to stand movement was performed with eyes closed by 11 subjects during parabolic flight campaigns. Kinematic data were collected during 1-g and 0-g periods. The postural adaptation to microgravity's constraint may be described as a continuum of strategies ranging from the use of an exo- to an egocentric reference frame for segmental stabilisation. At one extremity, the subjects used systematically an exocentric frame to control each of their body segments independently, as under normogravity conditions. At the other, the segmental stabilisation strategies consist in systematically adopting an egocentric reference frame to control their forearm's stabilisation. A strong correlation between the mode of segmental stabilisation used and the perceptual typology (dependence--independence with respect to the visual field of the subjects was reported. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show different subjects' typologies from those that use the forearm orientation in a mainly exocentric reference frame to

  9. Reference Librarian in Digital Environment:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Sohili

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The information explosion of the latter half of the twentieth century, gave rise to online databases and various information media that gradually impacted on the very physical environment of the library. It transformed the librarians’ role. Reference librarians are no exception. The present study aims to investigate the need or lack of need to reference librarians within the digital domains based on the views expressed by LIS authorities in Iran. It would attempt further, to identify the qualities required for such librarian should a need for her/his expressed. The research, while descriptive in nature, was based on analyzing the results obtained by the checklist devised by the authors. LIS Specialist sample was composed of 57 people who filled the checklist. Findings show that there is a significance between employing ICT and need for a reference librarian. LIS experts in Iran believe that introduction of ICT, especially Internet and the WWW not only didn’t decrease the need for such librarians, but has caused the reference librarian to attain a more important and better status than before. Findings further demonstrated that while Iran is not a signatory to the international copyright conventions, the Iranian reference librarians are fully committed to observing author’s copyright and intellectual rights and frown on using software crackers.

  10. Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

  11. JavaScript programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Valentine, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    JavaScript Programmer's Reference is an invaluable resource that won't stray far from your desktop (or your tablet!). It contains detailed information on every JavaScript object and command, and combines that reference with practical examples showcasing how you can use those commands in the real world. Whether you're just checking the syntax of a method or you're starting out on the road to JavaScript mastery, the JavaScript Programmer's Reference will be an essential aid.  With a detailed and informative tutorial section giving you the ins and outs of programming with JavaScript and the DOM f

  12. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    largely unchanged during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum and were within non-pregnant reference intervals. However, levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, and IX increased markedly. Protein S activity decreased substantially, while free protein S decreased slightly and total......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  13. rf reference line for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system

  14. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  15. Sizewell 'B' PWR reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The reference design for a PWR power station to be constructed as Sizewell 'B' is presented in 3 volumes containing 14 chapters and in a volume of drawings. The report describes the proposed design and provides the basis upon which the safety case and the Pre-Construction Safety Report have been prepared. The station is based on a 3425MWt Westinghouse PWR providing steam to two turbine generators each of 600 MW. The layout and many of the systems are based on the SNUPPS design for Callaway which has been chosen as the US reference plant for the project. (U.K.)

  16. Electrical engineering a pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-Walter, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    This essential reference offers you a well-organized resource for accessing the basic electrical engineering knowledge you need for your work. Whether you're an experienced engineer who appreciates an occasional refresher in key areas, or a student preparing to enter the field, Electrical Engineering: A Pocket Reference provides quick and easy access to fundamental principles and their applications. You also find an extensive collection of time-saving equations that help simplify your daily projects.Supported with more than 500 diagrams and figures, 60 tables, and an extensive index, this uniq

  17. Perl/Tk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lidie, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The Perl/Tk Pocket Reference is a companion volume to Learning Perl/Tk, an O'Reilly Animal Guide. Learning Perl/Tk is a tutorial for Perl/Tk, the extension to Perl for creating graphical user interfaces. With Tk, Perl programs can be window-based rather than command-line based, with buttons, entry fields, listboxes, menus, scrollbars, balloons, tables, dialogs, and more. And Perl/Tk programs run on UNIX and Windows-based computers. This small book is a handy reference guide geared toward the advanced Perl/Tk programmer. Novice Perl/Tk programmers will find that its compact size gives th

  18. rf reference line for PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system.

  19. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear forensics support. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material has been an issue of concern since the first seizures in the early 1990s. By the end of 2004 Member States had confirmed 540 cases, while about another 500 remain unconfirmed. Most of the confirmed cases have a criminal dimension, even if they were not for known terrorist purposes. The attacks of September 2001 in the USA dramatically emphasized the requirement for the enhanced control and security of nuclear and other radioactive material. In response to a resolution by the IAEA General Conference in September 2002 the IAEA has adopted an integrated approach to protection against nuclear terrorism. This brings together IAEA activities concerned with the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear installations, nuclear material accountancy, detection and response to illicit nuclear trafficking, the security and safety of radioactive sources, emergency response measures - including pre-emergency measures in Member States and at the IAEA - and the promotion of State adherence to relevant international instruments. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and the inadvertent movements of radioactive material. The IAEA cooperates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by providing relevant advice through a range of technical assistance and documents. In this context, the IAEA issued a group of three technical documents, co-sponsored by the World Customs Organization, Europol and Interpol, on the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive material. The first is Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1311), the second is called Detection of Radioactive Material at Borders (IAEA-TECDOC-1312) and the third is Response to Events Involving the Inadvertent Movement

  1. National reference doses for dental cephalometric radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, J R

    2011-12-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important tool in the optimisation of clinical radiography. Although national DRLs are provided for many diagnostic procedures including dental intra-oral radiography, there are currently no national DRLs set for cephalometric radiography. In the absence of formal national DRLs, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has previously published National Reference Doses (NRDs) covering a wide range of diagnostic X-ray examinations. The aim of this study was to determine provisional NRDs for cephalometric radiography. Measurements made by the Dental X-ray Protection Service (DXPS) of the HPA, as part of the cephalometric X-ray equipment testing service provided to dentists and dental trade companies throughout the UK, were used to derive provisional NRDs. Dose-area product measurements were made on 42 X-ray sets. Third quartile dose-area product values for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiography were found to be 41 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm², respectively, with individual measurements ranging from 3 mGy cm² to 108 mGy cm². This report proposes provisional NRDs of 40 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm² for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively; these doses could be considered by employers when establishing their local DRLs.

  2. Selected Reference Books of 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 40 recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Topics areas covered include philosophy, religion, language, literature, architecture, economics, law, area studies, Russia and the Soviet Union, women's studies, and Christopher Columbus. New editions and…

  3. Development of beta reference radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  4. Referent Communication in Chronic Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorowitz, David A.; Cohen, Bertram D.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty chronic schizophrenics (15 process and 15 reactive) and 15 normal control speakers described colors displayed in three-chip sets containing a referent and two nonreferent colors. Concludes that poor communication accuracy in long-term schizophrenics results from failure to include a self-editing stage as a part of the communication process.…

  5. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  6. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  7. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  8. Verification of SAP reference models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van B.F.; Jansen-Vullers, M.H.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Benatallah, B.; Casati, F.

    2005-01-01

    To configure a process-aware information system (e.g., a workflow system, an ERP system), a business model needs to be transformed into an executable process model. Due to similarities in these transformations for different companies, databases with reference models, such as ARIS for MySAP, have

  9. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  10. Expertise and Intuitions about Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Machery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many philosophers hold that experts’ semantic intuitions are more reliable and provide better evidence than lay people’s intuitions—a thesis commonly called “the Expertise Defense.” Focusing on the intuitions about the reference of proper names, this article critically assesses the Expertise Defense.

  11. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...

  12. Space-Time Reference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soffel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  13. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  14. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  15. Collective Management of Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Cynthia H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a one-year experiment with collective management--i.e., management in which decision-making rests with the department as a whole--in the Oberlin College Library reference department. The planning process, problems, and advantages and disadvantages of this style of management are discussed. Several questions are raised about the…

  16. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  17. Quick Reference for Financial Reporting

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    Quick Reference – Financial Reporting. 6. Complete FR3 - Payment Receipts, Foreign Exchange and Other Income Forms: a. Enter in Section 3A – Payment Receipt Form all payments received from IDRC. b. Use the Cash Exchange Form if the funds received from IDRC are held in a currency other than the project working ...

  18. Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1978-08-01

    The use of the Nuclear Structure References file by the Nuclear Data Project at ORNL is described. Much of the report concerns format information of interest only to those preparing input to the system or otherwise needing detailed knowledge of its internal structure. 17 figures

  19. Perturbation theory for water with an associating reference fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bennett D.

    2017-11-01

    The theoretical description of the thermodynamics of water is challenged by the structural transition towards tetrahedral symmetry at ambient conditions. As perturbation theories typically assume a spherically symmetric reference fluid, they are incapable of accurately describing the liquid properties of water at ambient conditions. In this paper we address this problem by introducing the concept of an associated reference perturbation theory (APT). In APT we treat the reference fluid as an associating hard sphere fluid which transitions to tetrahedral symmetry in the fully hydrogen bonded limit. We calculate this transition in a theoretically self-consistent manner without appealing to molecular simulations. This associated reference provides the reference fluid for a second order Barker-Henderson perturbative treatment of the long-range attractions. We demonstrate that this approach gives a significantly improved description of water as compared to standard perturbation theories.

  20. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  1. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  2. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  3. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  4. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  5. Hot Experimental Facility reference flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a useful set of background information of HEF flowsheets, although many changes have been made in the past three years. The HEF reference flowsheet is a modified high-acid PUREX flowsheet capable of operating in the coprocessing mode or with full partitioning of U and Pu. Adequate decontamination factors are provided to purify high-burnup, fast breeder-reactor fuels to levels required for recycle back to a fuel fabrication facility. Product streams are mixed U-Pu oxide and uranium oxide. No contaminated liquid wastes are intentionally discharged to the environment. All wastes are solidified and packaged for appropriate disposal. Acid and water are recovered for internal recycle. Excess water is treated and discharged from the plant stack. Several changes have been made in the reference flowsheet since that time, and these are noted briefly

  6. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  7. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  8. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  9. National Software Reference Library (NSRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  10. Hanford Waste Mineralogy Reference Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  11. Tv & video engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, K G

    1991-01-01

    TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book presents an extensive examination of the basic television standards and broadcasting spectrum. It discusses the fundamental concepts in analogue and digital circuit theory. It addresses studies in the engineering mathematics, formulas, and calculations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the conductors and insulators, passive components, alternating current circuits; broadcast transmission; radio frequency propagation; electron optics in cathode ray tube; color encoding and decoding systems; television transmitters; and remote supervision of unatten

  12. Energy policy: selected references. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenwrick-Piercy, E [comp.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is based on material held in the UK Department of Energy Library. Energy-related documents published between 1973 and 1980 are emphasized in the 260 references listed. The bibliography is organized under the major headings of United Kingdom, Irish Republic, World, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, and Middle East. For continuing information on energy policy, 5 useful periodicals are listed.

  13. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  14. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  15. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  16. The citation with reference and the citation as a reference

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Antonio Cunha Perrone

    2011-01-01

    O ensaio objetiva estabelecer paralelos entre a citação acadêmica e a citação utilizada como referência, para a produção das obras ou projetos de arquitetura. O artigo discute o uso de figuras paradigmáticas ou significativas, transladadas ou amalgamadas nas obras de arquitetura, a partir do entendimento da citação como dado argumentativo e qualitativo. Investiga algumas de suas assimetrias e congruências em sua utilização na linguagem escrita, como transcrição direta ou como fonte interpreta...

  17. Precise Range Determination Using Laser Ranging Data of LAGEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ryul Kim

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite laser ranging observation of LAGEOS ¥± has been performed using the SLR System at Sheshan Laser Ranging Station, Shanghai Observatory. And we obtained 1,838 observational points The observed range data is corrected by means of system delay correction using ground target observation, atmospheric refraction delay correction, offset correction, general relativistic correction and tide correction including solid tide, polar tide and ocean tide. As a result, the determined range delay mean value is 19.12m and the mean internal accuracy by means of polynomial fitting and least square method is ¡¾7cm. Corrected observational points are 1,340 and noise ratio to total observational points is 27.1%

  18. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  19. Ratchetting in the creep range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponter, A.R.S.; Cocks, A.C.F.; Clement, G.; Roche, R.; Corradi, L.; Franchi, A.

    1985-01-01

    This report attempts to present a ''State of the Art'' of this problem from three contracting and complementary points of view which reflect separate traditions within the discipline of structural analysis. Part I gives a brief summary of the essential elements of the three constitutive parts and a set of conclusions and recommendations are then formulated. Part II is an attempt by a group at CEA Saclay, France, to distil from available experimental data a set of rules expressed in terms of the stress classifications of the ASME codes, which will ensure the prevention of excessive creep ratchetting. The resulting stresses to an effective (or reference) stress and the creep assessment is then made in terms of the creep produced by the effective stress. They aim at analytical procedures for LMFBR components that operate in the creep region and are subject to considerable thermal transients. Part III by Ponter and Cocks of the University of Leicester is a theoretical study of the problem using bounding and other approximate techniques. The problem is studied in a sequence of increasingly complex problems commencing with an isothermal structure subjected to constant load and terminating in a structure subjected to arbitrary cyclic thermal loading. The results are expressed in terms of a reference stress derived from a plastic shakedown solution, and a reference history of temperature. These techniques are capable of providing assessment of the creep deformation of a structure when the plastic shakedown properties of the structures are known. The particular circumstances which occur in a LMFBR are emphasized. Part IV by Corradi and Franchi discusses the methods by which finite element solution may be calculated. These are surveyed with particular reference to the numerical problems involved and the relationship between computational procedure and the form of the constitutive equation. 162 refs

  20. Metrological large range scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gaoliang; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Xu Min; Hasche, Klaus; Wilkening, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We describe a metrological large range scanning probe microscope (LR-SPM) with an Abbe error free design and direct interferometric position measurement capability, aimed at versatile traceable topographic measurements that require nanometer accuracy. A dual-stage positioning system was designed to achieve both a large measurement range and a high measurement speed. This dual-stage system consists of a commercially available stage, referred to as nanomeasuring machine (NMM), with a motion range of 25 mmx25 mmx5 mm along x, y, and z axes, and a compact z-axis piezoelectric positioning stage (compact z stage) with an extension range of 2 μm. The metrological LR-SPM described here senses the surface using a stationary fixed scanning force microscope (SFM) head working in contact mode. During operation, lateral scanning of the sample is performed solely by the NMM. Whereas the z motion, controlled by the SFM signal, is carried out by a combination of the NMM and the compact z stage. In this case the compact z stage, with its high mechanical resonance frequency (greater than 20 kHz), is responsible for the rapid motion while the NMM simultaneously makes slower movements over a larger motion range. To reduce the Abbe offset to a minimum the SFM tip is located at the intersection of three interferometer measurement beams orientated in x, y, and z directions. To improve real time performance two high-end digital signal processing (DSP) systems are used for NMM positioning and SFM servocontrol. Comprehensive DSP firmware and Windows XP-based software are implemented, providing a flexible and user-friendly interface. The instrument is able to perform large area imaging or profile scanning directly without stitching small scanned images. Several measurements on different samples such as flatness standards, nanostep height standards, roughness standards as well as sharp nanoedge samples and 1D gratings demonstrate the outstanding metrological capabilities of the instrument

  1. Normal range of gastric emptying in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Collins, C.; Francis, L.; Henry, R.; O'Loughlin, E.; John Hunter Children's Hospital, Newcastle, NSW

    1999-01-01

    Full text: As part of a larger study looking at gastric emptying times in cystic fibrosis, we assessed the normal range of gastric emptying in a control group of children. Thirteen children (8 girls, 5 boys) aged 4-15 years (mean 10) were studied. Excluded were children with a history of relevant gastrointestinal medical or surgical disease, egg allergy or medication affecting gastric emptying. Imaging was performed at 08.00 h after an overnight fast. The test meal was consumed in under 15 min and comprised one 50 g egg, 80 g commercial pancake mix, 10 ml of polyunsaturated oil, 40 ml of water and 30 g of jam. The meal was labelled with 99 Tc m -macroaggregates of albumin. Water (150 ml) was also consumed with the test meal. One minute images of 128 x 128 were acquired over the anterior and posterior projections every 5 min for 30 min, then every 15 min until 90 min with a final image at 120 min. Subjects remained supine for the first 60 min, after which they were allowed to walk around. A time-activity curve was generated using the geometric mean of anterior and posterior activity. The half emptying time ranged from 55 to 107 min (mean 79, ± 2 standard deviations 43-115). Lag time (time for 5% to leave stomach) ranged from 2 to 26 min (mean 10). The percent emptied at 60 min ranged from 47 to 73% (mean 63%). There was no correlation of half emptying time with age. The normal reference range for a test meal of pancakes has been established for 13 normal children

  2. On inertial range scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed

  3. GPS test range mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  4. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. These maps directly yield an absolute value for the water content of the sample that is unaffected by relaxation and any RF inhomogeneity or calibration errors in the radio frequency pulses applied. It has also been suggested that the signal generated by dipolar field effects may provide novel contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the third application, the effects of microscopic susceptibility variation on the signal are studied and the relaxation rate of the signal is compared to that of a conventional spin echo. (author)

  5. Scientific analysis of satellite ranging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.

    1994-01-01

    A network of satellite laser ranging (SLR) tracking systems with continuously improving accuracies is challenging the modelling capabilities of analysts worldwide. Various data analysis techniques have yielded many advances in the development of orbit, instrument and Earth models. The direct measurement of the distance to the satellite provided by the laser ranges has given us a simple metric which links the results obtained by diverse approaches. Different groups have used SLR data, often in combination with observations from other space geodetic techniques, to improve models of the static geopotential, the solid Earth, ocean tides, and atmospheric drag models for low Earth satellites. Radiation pressure models and other non-conservative forces for satellite orbits above the atmosphere have been developed to exploit the full accuracy of the latest SLR instruments. SLR is the baseline tracking system for the altimeter missions TOPEX/Poseidon, and ERS-1 and will play an important role in providing the reference frame for locating the geocentric position of the ocean surface, in providing an unchanging range standard for altimeter calibration, and for improving the geoid models to separate gravitational from ocean circulation signals seen in the sea surface. However, even with the many improvements in the models used to support the orbital analysis of laser observations, there remain systematic effects which limit the full exploitation of SLR accuracy today.

  6. The value of new genome references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Kim C; Richards, Stephen; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2017-09-15

    Genomic information has become a ubiquitous and almost essential aspect of biological research. Over the last 10-15 years, the cost of generating sequence data from DNA or RNA samples has dramatically declined and our ability to interpret those data increased just as remarkably. Although it is still possible for biologists to conduct interesting and valuable research on species for which genomic data are not available, the impact of having access to a high quality whole genome reference assembly for a given species is nothing short of transformational. Research on a species for which we have no DNA or RNA sequence data is restricted in fundamental ways. In contrast, even access to an initial draft quality genome (see below for definitions) opens a wide range of opportunities that are simply not available without that reference genome assembly. Although a complete discussion of the impact of genome sequencing and assembly is beyond the scope of this short paper, the goal of this review is to summarize the most common and highest impact contributions that whole genome sequencing and assembly has had on comparative and evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Reference Model 2: "Rev 0" Rotor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffith, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd

  8. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  9. Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Kreines, David

    2003-01-01

    If you work with Oracle, then you don't need to be told that the data dictionary is large and complex, and grows larger with each new Oracle release. It's one of the basic elements of the Oracle database you interact with regularly, but the sheer number of tables and views makes it difficult to remember which view you need, much less the name of the specific column. Want to make it simpler? The Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference puts all the information you need right at your fingertips. Its handy and compact format lets you locate the table and view you need effortlessly without stoppin

  10. Dynamic HTML The Definitive Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Danny

    2007-01-01

    Packed with information on the latest web specifications and browser features, this new edition is your ultimate one-stop resource for HTML, XHTML, CSS, Document Object Model (DOM), and JavaScript development. Here is the comprehensive reference for designers of Rich Internet Applications who need to operate in all modern browsers, including Internet Explorer 7, Firefox 2, Safari, and Opera. With this book, you can instantly see browser support for the latest standards-based technologies, including CSS Level 3, DOM Level 3, Web Forms 2.0, XMLHttpRequest for AJAX applications, JavaScript 1.7

  11. Nuclear power a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, nuclear power has been identified as a viable alternative to traditional energy sources to stem global climate change, and condemned as risky to human health and environmentally irresponsible. Do the advantages of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, especially in light of the meltdown at the Fukushima plant in 2011? This guide provides both a comprehensive overview of this critical and controversial technology, presenting reference tools that include important facts and statistics, biographical profiles, a chronology, and a glossary. It covers major controversies and proposed solutions in detail and contains contributions by experts and important stakeholders that provide invaluable perspective on the topic.

  12. VERA: Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan; Tølle, Martin; Bernus, Peter

    2003-01-01

    . To prepare for this is a complex task, in fact all business, management and planning views, and related subject areas and activities, may be involved. In order to deal with this complexity in a systematic way and secure global understanding Globemen has developed a Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture......Globalisation, outsourcing and customisation are main challenges of today not least for one-of-a-kind producers. A crucial competitive factor will be the ability rapidly to form customer focused virtual enterprises comprised of competencies from different partners by taking full advantage of ICT...

  13. PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

  14. JavaScript Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    1998-01-01

    JavaScript is a powerful, object-based scripting language that can be embedded directly in HTML pages. It allows you to create dynamic, interactive Web-based applications that run completely within a Web browser -- JavaScript is the language of choice for developing Dynamic HTML (DHTML) content. JavaScript can be integrated effectively with CGI and Java to produce sophisticated Web applications, although, in many cases, JavaScript eliminates the need for complex CGI scripts and Java applets altogether. The JavaScript Pocket Reference is a companion volume to JavaScript: The Definitive Guide

  15. Reference design for LAMPF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A reference design for the 32-GeV LAMPF II proton accelerator is proposed. This design consists of a 30-Hz rapid-cycling synchrotron with a dc stretcher. A superiodicity 5 design with dispersion-free straight sections is suggested for both machines. Beam-dynamics calculations are partially complete and rf requirements are given. Apertures are calculated for 2 x 10 13 protons per pulse (100 μA average current). No significant problems are observed at any time in the cycle in a longitudinal beam-dynamics simulation including space charge

  16. Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

  17. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  18. AREVA 2009 reference document; AREVA document de reference 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and

  19. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at 60 GHz (figure 9 LIppolito, 1981]). The MMW range is similar to that of the UV links. 3.3.1 Variable Range Similar to...option also requires that the signal be strong enough to overcome the noise from the solar and background sources, although the molecular oxygen and... emisions . Lasing will occur only within the cavity when the alignment is correct and not lasing othem ise. Such a cavity is dcteclable only when an observer

  20. A low-cost density reference phantom for computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Zachary H.; Li, Mingdong; Reeves, Anthony P.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Chen, Joseph J.; Siegel, Eliot L.; Peskin, Adele; Zeiger, Diana N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors characterized a commercially available foam composed of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. The authors found that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below −400 Hounsfield units. This range is coincident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful in making the diagnosis of lung disease more systematic.

  1. A low-cost density reference phantom for computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary H; Li, Mingdong; Reeves, Anthony P; Yankelevitz, David F; Chen, Joseph J; Siegel, Eliot L; Peskin, Adele; Zeiger, Diana N

    2009-02-01

    The authors characterized a commercially available foam composed of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. The authors found that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below -400 Hounsfield units. This range is coincident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful in making the diagnosis of lung disease more systematic.

  2. Areva reference document 2007; Areva document de reference 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance.

  3. Areva, reference document 2006; Areva, document de reference 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance.

  4. Areva reference document 2007; Areva document de reference 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of

  5. Areva, reference document 2006; Areva, document de reference 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance.

  6. Establishment of Traceability of Reference Grade Hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (npli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Harish; Mandal, Goutam; Das, M. B.; Sharma, D. C.

    The present paper discusses the establishment of traceability of reference grade hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI). The reference grade hydrometers are calibrated and traceable to the primary solid density standard. The calibration has been done according to standard procedure based on Cuckow's Method and the reference grade hydrometers calibrated covers a wide range. The uncertainty of the reference grade hydrometers has been computed and corrections are also calculated for the scale readings, at which observations are taken.

  7. Nuclear science references coding manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1996-08-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. In Section H, the structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major TOPICS for which are prepared are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of , generation of and linkage characteristics are also given in Section II. In Section III, a brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Section III. The scope of the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Section IV. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given under Section V as Appendices

  8. Nuclear structure references coding manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1984-02-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Structure References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file, are outlined. The structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major topics for which [KEYWORDS] are prepared are ennumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of [KEYNO ], generation of [SELECTRS] and linkage characteristics are also given. A brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors submitting articles to Journals which require Keyword abstracts should follow the illustrations. The scope of the literature covered at NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc. is discussed. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc. is given

  9. Event boundaries and anaphoric reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexis N; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-06-01

    The current study explored the finding that parsing a narrative into separate events impairs anaphor resolution. According to the Event Horizon Model, when a narrative event boundary is encountered, a new event model is created. Information associated with the prior event model is removed from working memory. So long as the event model containing the anaphor referent is currently being processed, this information should still be available when there is no narrative event boundary, even if reading has been disrupted by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. In those cases, readers may reactivate their prior event model, and anaphor resolution would not be affected. Alternatively, comprehension may not be as event oriented as this account suggests. Instead, any disruption of the contents of working memory during comprehension, event related or not, may be sufficient to disrupt anaphor resolution. In this case, reading comprehension would be more strongly guided by other, more basic language processing mechanisms and the event structure of the described events would play a more minor role. In the current experiments, participants were given stories to read in which we included, between the anaphor and its referent, either the presence of a narrative event boundary (Experiment 1) or a narrative event boundary along with a working-memory-clearing distractor task (Experiment 2). The results showed that anaphor resolution was affected by narrative event boundaries but not by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. This is interpreted as being consistent with the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  10. Multipass Steering: A Reference Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Michael; Tiefenback, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a reference implementation of a protocol to compute corrections that bring all beams in one of the CEBAF linear accelerators (linac) to axis, including, with a larger tolerance, the lowest energy pass using measured beam trajectory data. This method relies on linear optics as representation of the system; we treat beamline perturbations as magnetic field errors localized to regions between cryomodules, providing the same transverse momentum kick to each beam. We produce a vector of measured beam position data with which we left-multiply the pseudo-inverse of a coefficient array, A, that describes the transport of the beam through the linac using parameters that include the magnetic offsets of the quadrupole magnets, the instrumental offsets of the BPMs, and the beam initial conditions. This process is repeated using a reduced array to produce values that can be applied to the available correcting magnets and beam initial conditions. We show that this method is effective in steering the beam to a straight axis along the linac by using our values in elegant, the accelerator simulation program, on a model of the linac in question. The algorithms in this reference implementation provide a tool for systematic diagnosis and cataloging of perturbations in the beam line. Supported by Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University, NSF, DOE.

  11. The Spallation Neutron Source RF Reference System

    CERN Document Server

    Piller, Maurice; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Ma, Hengjie

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) RF Reference System includes the master oscillator (MO), local oscillator(LO) distribution, and Reference RF distribution systems. Coherent low noise Reference RF signals provide the ability to control the phase relationships between the fields in the front-end and linear accelerator (linac) RF cavity structures. The SNS RF Reference System requirements, implementation details, and performance are discussed.

  12. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowers, Paul, E-mail: paul.blowers@cefas.co.uk [Cefas Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Caborn, Jane, E-mail: jane.a.caborn@nnl.co.uk [NNL, Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancashire, PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom); Dell, Tony [Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB (United Kingdom); Gingell, Terry [DSTL, Radiation Protection Services, Crescent Road, Alverstoke, Gosport, Hants, PO12 2DL (United Kingdom); Harms, Arvic [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Long, Stephanie [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh Road, Dublin 14, Ireland (United Kingdom); Sleep, Darren [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Stewart, Charlie [UKAEA (Waste Management Group), Chemical Support Services, D1310/14, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom); Walker, Jill [Radiocarbon Dating, The Old Stables, East Lockinge, Wantage, Oxon OX12 8QY (United Kingdom); Warwick, Phil E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the {sup 14}C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing {sup 14}C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  13. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, Paul; Caborn, Jane; Dell, Tony; Gingell, Terry; Harms, Arvic; Long, Stephanie; Sleep, Darren; Stewart, Charlie; Walker, Jill; Warwick, Phil E.

    2011-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the 14 C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing 14 C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  14. Prediction of the Reference Evapotranspiration Using a Chaotic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-guang; Zou, Shan; Luo, Zhao-hui; Zhang, Wei; Kong, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration is one of the most important hydrological variables in the context of water resources management. An attempt was made to understand and predict the dynamics of reference evapotranspiration from a nonlinear dynamical perspective in this study. The reference evapotranspiration data was calculated using the FAO Penman-Monteith equation with the observed daily meteorological data for the period 1966–2005 at four meteorological stations (i.e., Baotou, Zhangbei, Kaifeng, and Shaoguan) representing a wide range of climatic conditions of China. The correlation dimension method was employed to investigate the chaotic behavior of the reference evapotranspiration series. The existence of chaos in the reference evapotranspiration series at the four different locations was proved by the finite and low correlation dimension. A local approximation approach was employed to forecast the daily reference evapotranspiration series. Low root mean square error (RSME) and mean absolute error (MAE) (for all locations lower than 0.31 and 0.24, resp.), high correlation coefficient (CC), and modified coefficient of efficiency (for all locations larger than 0.97 and 0.8, resp.) indicate that the predicted reference evapotranspiration agrees well with the observed one. The encouraging results indicate the suitableness of chaotic approach for understanding and predicting the dynamics of the reference evapotranspiration. PMID:25133221

  15. Prediction of the Reference Evapotranspiration Using a Chaotic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-guang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration is one of the most important hydrological variables in the context of water resources management. An attempt was made to understand and predict the dynamics of reference evapotranspiration from a nonlinear dynamical perspective in this study. The reference evapotranspiration data was calculated using the FAO Penman-Monteith equation with the observed daily meteorological data for the period 1966–2005 at four meteorological stations (i.e., Baotou, Zhangbei, Kaifeng, and Shaoguan representing a wide range of climatic conditions of China. The correlation dimension method was employed to investigate the chaotic behavior of the reference evapotranspiration series. The existence of chaos in the reference evapotranspiration series at the four different locations was proved by the finite and low correlation dimension. A local approximation approach was employed to forecast the daily reference evapotranspiration series. Low root mean square error (RSME and mean absolute error (MAE (for all locations lower than 0.31 and 0.24, resp., high correlation coefficient (CC, and modified coefficient of efficiency (for all locations larger than 0.97 and 0.8, resp. indicate that the predicted reference evapotranspiration agrees well with the observed one. The encouraging results indicate the suitableness of chaotic approach for understanding and predicting the dynamics of the reference evapotranspiration.

  16. challenges with reference citations among postgraduate students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-12-30

    Dec 30, 2012 ... the year in which the journal was published), title of the article, title of ... gives credit where it is due, adds authority to a statement and ..... The general rating ranged from. “poor .... Available at http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/refere-.

  17. Examiner Reference to Theory in PhD Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2015-01-01

    As we were aware of the confusing and wide-ranging disciplinary and individual positions on the importance of theory in research, this study sought to determine how thesis examiners emphasised theory in their reports in order to inform candidate learning. While references to theory were not prominent in reports, examiner comment coalesced into six…

  18. Reference values for the nickel concentration in human finger nails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Peters, K; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    A reference value for the nickel concentration in finger nails from people who are not occupationally exposed to nickel was determined on the basis of nail samples from 95 healthy individuals. The mean +/- standard deviation was 1.19 +/- 1.61 mg/kg and the median was 0.49 mg/kg (range 0.042-7.50 mg...

  19. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  20. The importance of reference materials in doping-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Lindsey G; Kazlauskas, Rymantas

    2011-08-01

    Currently a large range of pure substance reference materials are available for calibration of doping-control methods. These materials enable traceability to the International System of Units (SI) for the results generated by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited laboratories. Only a small number of prohibited substances have threshold limits for which quantification is highly important. For these analytes only the highest quality reference materials that are available should be used. Many prohibited substances have no threshold limits and reference materials provide essential identity confirmation. For these reference materials the correct identity is critical and the methods used to assess identity in these cases should be critically evaluated. There is still a lack of certified matrix reference materials to support many aspects of doping analysis. However, in key areas a range of urine matrix materials have been produced for substances with threshold limits, for example 19-norandrosterone and testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio. These matrix-certified reference materials (CRMs) are an excellent independent means of checking method recovery and bias and will typically be used in method validation and then regularly as quality-control checks. They can be particularly important in the analysis of samples close to threshold limits, in which measurement accuracy becomes critical. Some reference materials for isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis are available and a matrix material certified for steroid delta values is currently under production. In other new areas, for example the Athlete Biological Passport, peptide hormone testing, designer steroids, and gene doping, reference material needs still need to be thoroughly assessed and prioritised.

  1. An overview of digital reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Hemnani, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Digital reference service is an emerging trend of traditional reference service. Easily accessible digital reference service has become one of the hallmark of the library and information services. The paper highlights how new visage of traditional reference service is developing as a natural solution to keep pace with comprehensive technological environment. It discusses about the basic concepts, elements of digital reference service and give in detail modes, the advantages, limitations, and...

  2. New Concepts in Digital Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lankes, R David

    2009-01-01

    Let us start with a simple scenario: a man asks a woman 'how high is Mount Everest?' The woman replies '29,029 feet'. Nothing could be simpler. Now let us suppose that rather than standing in a room, or sitting on a bus, the man is at his desk and the woman is 300 miles away with the conversation taking place using e-mail. Still simple? Certainly - it happens every day. So why all the bother about digital (virtual, electronic, chat, etc.) reference? If the man is a pilot flying over Mount Everest, the answer matters. If you are a lawyer going to court, the identity of the woman is very importa

  3. The Micropaleontological Reference Centers Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lazarus

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Micropaleontological Reference Centers (MRCscomprise large microfossil slide collections prepared from core samples obtained through the Deep Sea Drilling Project(DSDP and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP. The MRCs have been maintained for three decades, largely as a volunteer effort by a global network of curators at more than a dozen institutions (Fig.1, Table 1. They were originallyintended to provide a permanent micropaleontological archive for the DSDP; however, as their geographic and stratigraphic coverage has increased they have become increasingly valuable for research and teaching. This article describes the MRCs and their current usage, identifi es the need to maintain and improve the accuracy of the microfossil taxonomy upon which most DSDP and ODP geochronologyis based, and cites the potential for the future use of the MRCs by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP.

  4. Teaching Ethos of Reference Professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the teaching ethos of professors who are recognized for their good practice as trainers. The aim of our study is to analyze the influences of such professors’ professional constitution, as well as the explicit and/or tacit teaching knowledge they mobilize in their teaching practices. Based on Shulman, Gauthier, Tardif and Polanyi, we conducted interviews with three professors described by their students as reference. They were also observed in their classes, in the context of an undergraduate program in pedagogy at a public university. Data show similarities between the practices of the investigated professors, as well as a consistent description of their didactics, which is marked by intellective, moral, emotional and behavioral features.

  5. Benchmarking reference services: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J G; Buchanan, H S

    1995-01-01

    Benchmarking is based on the common sense idea that someone else, either inside or outside of libraries, has found a better way of doing certain things and that your own library's performance can be improved by finding out how others do things and adopting the best practices you find. Benchmarking is one of the tools used for achieving continuous improvement in Total Quality Management (TQM) programs. Although benchmarking can be done on an informal basis, TQM puts considerable emphasis on formal data collection and performance measurement. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a common measuring stick to evaluate process performance. This article introduces the general concept of benchmarking, linking it whenever possible to reference services in health sciences libraries. Data collection instruments that have potential application in benchmarking studies are discussed and the need to develop common measurement tools to facilitate benchmarking is emphasized.

  6. SNAP operating system reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuda, J.D.; Polito, J.; Walker, J.L.; Grant, F.H. III.

    1982-03-01

    The SNAP Operating System (SOS) is a FORTRAN 77 program which provides assistance to the safeguards analyst who uses the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) and the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) techniques. Features offered by SOS are a data base system for storing a library of SNAP applications, computer graphics representation of SNAP models, a computer graphics editor to develop and modify SNAP models, a SAFE-to-SNAP interface, automatic generation of SNAP input data, and a computer graphic post-processor for SNAP. The SOS Reference Manual provides detailed application information concerning SOS as well as a detailed discussion of all SOS components and their associated command input formats. SOS was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the US Naval Surface Weapons Center by Pritsker and Associates, Inc., under contract to Sandia National Laboratories

  7. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  8. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  9. Wide range neutron monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Arita, Setsuo; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Nishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention has a function of reliably switching measuring values between a pulse method and a Cambel method even if noise level and saturated level are fluctuated. That is, a proportional range judging means always monitors neutron flux measuring values in a start-up region and neutron flux measuring values in an intermediate power region, so that the proportional range is detected depending on whether the difference or a variation coefficient of both of the measured values is constant or not. A switching value determining means determines a switching value by the result of judgement of the proportional range judging means. A selection/output means selects and outputs measuring signals at a neutron flux level in the start-up region or the intermediate power region by the output of the switching value determining means. With such procedures, since the measuring value is switched after confirming that arrival at the proportional range where the difference or a variation coefficient of the measured value between the pulse processing method and the measured value by the Cambel method is constant, an accurate neutron flux level containing neither noise level nor saturated level can be outputted. (I.S.)

  10. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  11. Heteronuclear Long-Range Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole W.

    The lecture will cover heteronuclear long-range correlation techniques like HMBC, H2BC, and HAT HMBC with the emphasis on determining the number of covalent bonds between two spins being correlated. H2BC and HMBC spectra are quite complementary as a peak can be strong in one of the two spectra...

  12. Avaliação dos intervalos de referência de lípides e lipoproteínas para crianças e adolescentes: associação das dislipidemias e sobrepeso em escolares de 4 a 19 anos de idade de Maracaí (São Paulo Evaluation of lipids and lipoproteins range values for children and adolescents: associations of dyslipidemia to overweight in schoolchildren from 4 to 19 years old from Maracaí (State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Seki

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os intervalos de referência de lípides e lipoproteínas estabelecidos para crianças e adolescentes de Maracaí, São Paulo, através das associações das dislipidemias com sobrepeso em escolares de quatro a 19 anos de idade daquela cidade. MÉTODOS: Foram determinados perfis lipídicos e índices antropométricos de 2.481 estudantes de ambos sexos estratificados em duas faixas etárias de quatro a nove anos (n = 1.121 e dez a 19 anos (n = 1.360. Os pontos de corte para categorizar as dislipidemias foram estabelecidos em estudos prévios sobre os intervalos de referência de lípides e lipoproteínas para crianças e adolescentes de Maracaí. RESULTADOS: Na faixa etária de quatro a nove anos, as associações de triglicérides > 130mg/dl (ambos os sexos e colesterol da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-C > 101,1mg/dl (sexo masculino, com sobrepeso, foram estatisticamente significativas. Entre os alunos de 10 a 19 anos, as associações de triglicérides > 131mg/dl (ambos os sexos, de colesterol total > 161,3mg/dl (sexo masculino e LDL-C > 93mg/dl (sexo masculino, com sobrepeso, foram estatisticamente significativas. Os valores de corte estabelecidos pelo percentil 5 de colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, para ambos os sexos e grupos etários, não apresentaram associações estatisticamente significativas com sobrepeso. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apresentados fornecem subsídios para estudos sobre os intervalos de referência de lípides e lipoproteínas, para crianças e adolescentes, e permitem ampliar discussões sobre os valores dos pontos de corte adequados que possam definir dislipidemias na população infanto-juvenil brasileira.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the lipids and lipoproteins range values established for children and adolescents from Maracaí, State of São Paulo, through the associations of dyslipidemia and overweight in students from four to 19 years old, from that city. METHODS: The lipid

  13. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009 degrees(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions

  14. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  15. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  16. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  17. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  18. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  19. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  20. EDF group - Reference Document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, active in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading and network management. The leader in the French electricity market, the Group also has solid positions in the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy, with a portfolio of 38.5 million European customers and a generation fleet which is unique in the world. It intends to play a major role in the global revival of nuclear and is increasingly active in the gas chain. The Group has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. Given its R and D capability, its track record and expertise in nuclear, fossil-fired and hydro generation and in renewable energies, together with its energy eco-efficiency offers, EDF is well placed to deliver competitive solutions to reconcile sustainable economic growth and climate preservation. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2007. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, human resources, shareholders, etc. The document includes the 2008 half-year financial report and consolidated financial statements, and the report drafted by the Statutory Auditors