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Sample records for euthyroid prepubertal children

  1. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children....... DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound....... Longitudinal growth data from birth were available. RESULTS: TV increased significantly with age (r = 0.487; P

  2. Linear growth in prepubertal children with atopic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, L.; Clayton, P; Addison,G.; Price, D.; David, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To define the evolution of prepubertal growth in atopic dermatitis and the factors influencing that growth pattern.
METHODS—Height and height velocity over two years, weight, triceps and subscapular skin fold thickness, and bone age were assessed in 80 prepubertal patients with atopic dermatitis and a control group of 71 healthy prepubertal school children.
RESULTS—Height standard deviation scores (SDS) and height velocity SDS did not differ between patients ...

  3. Levothyroxine Treatment of Euthyroid Children with Autoimmune Hashimoto Thyroiditis: Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Helmuth G; Bettendorf, Markus; Binder, Gerhard; Karges, Beate; Kneppo, Carolin; Schmidt, Heinrich; Voss, Egbert; Wabitsch, Martin; Dötsch, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (L-T4) treatment of euthyroid children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a controversial issue. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Out of 79 identified euthyroid patients, 59 started the study; 25 patients (21 female, 4 male; age: 11.8 ± 2.3 years) received L-T4 at a mean dose of 1.6 µg/kg (SD, 0.8) daily, and 34 (27 female, 7 male; age: 12.6 ± 1.2 years) were not treated. Patients developing subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up (n = 13) were treated with L-T4 and removed from the observation group. As the main outcome measures, thyroid gland volume (determined by ultrasound) as well as serum levels of TSH, free T4, and antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin were assessed every 6 months for 36 months. At the start, the mean thyroid volume (standard deviation score, SDS) was 2.5 in the treatment group and 1.6 in the observation group. There was a constant decline in mean thyroid volume (SDS) from 2.13 (month 12) to 1.12 (month 30) in the treated group, with a delta thyroid volume of -1.01 SDS. In the observation group, the mean delta thyroid volume increased to +0.27 SDS. The change of the delta thyroid volume was statistically significantly different between both groups during the 12- and 30-month time points (p thyroid function and serum thyroid antibodies. L-T4 treatment can decrease the thyroid volume in euthyroid children with HT, but the effect is limited to a definite time period. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Non-invasive measurement of adrenal response after standardized exercise tests in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Appelhof, Maaike; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of adrenal response in healthy prepubertal children by standardized exercise tests. Methods: On separate occasions, healthy prepubertal children performed a submaximal cycling test, a maximal cycling test, and a 20-m shuttle-run

  5. Lower bone mass in prepubertal overweight children with prediabetes.

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    Pollock, Norman K; Bernard, Paul J; Wenger, Karl; Misra, Sudipta; Gower, Barbara A; Allison, Jerry D; Zhu, Haidong; Davis, Catherine L

    2010-12-01

    Childhood studies of the fat-bone relationship are conflicting, possibly reflecting the influence of metabolic abnormalities in some but not all obese children. Bone mass was compared between prepubertal overweight children with (n = 41) and without (n = 99) prediabetes. Associations of bone mass with measures of total and central adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, systemic inflammation, and osteocalcin also were determined. In 140 overweight children aged 7 to 11 years, an oral glucose tolerance test was used to identify those with prediabetes and for determination of glucose, 2-hour glucose, glucose area under the curve (AUC), insulin, 2-hour insulin, and insulin AUC. Blood samples also were assessed for lipids, C-reactive protein, and osteocalcin. Total-body bone mineral content (BMC), fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST), and fat mass (FM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) were assessed using MRI. Total-body BMC was 4% lower in overweight children with prediabetes than in those without prediabetes after controlling for sex, race, height, and weight (p = .03). In the total sample, FM was positively related with BMC (β = 0.16, p = .01) after adjusting for sex, race, height, and FFST. However, VAT (β = -0.13, p = .03) and SAAT (β = -0.34, p = .02) were inversely associated with BMC after controlling for sex, race, height, FFST, FM, and SAAT or VAT. No significant associations were found between BMC and the biochemical measurements. Prepubertal overweight children with prediabetes may be at risk for poor skeletal development. In addition, it appears that greater levels of central rather than total adiposity may be deleterious for developing bone. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Intelligence and salivary testosterone levels in prepubertal children.

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    Ostatníková, Daniela; Celec, Peter; Putz, Zdenĕk; Hodosy, Július; Schmidt, Filip; Laznibatová, Jolana; Kúdela, Matús

    2007-04-08

    Hormones are one of the regulatory systems influencing brain-cognition interactions and subsequent emotions and behavior in humans and animals. Sex hormones have been found to influence brain structures prenatally, so as to prepare targeted neuronal circuits for activation during and after puberty. Testosterone is believed to affect cognition and thinking in humans as well as between-sex differences in cognitive abilities. The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between testosterone and different levels of intelligence in young prepubertal children of both sexes. Two hundred and eighty four prepubertal children of both sexes between 6 and 9 years of age provided saliva samples. Of these, 107 were intellectually gifted (IQ above 130), 100 children of average intelligence--randomly chosen from general population (IQ between 70 and 130), and 77 children mentally challenged (IQ less than 70). Our results have revealed the differences in salivary testosterone levels in boys grouped according to IQ, intellectually gifted and mentally challenged boys having lower salivary testosterone levels than their peers characterized by average intelligence proposing the common biological characteristic of minority IQ groups on both ends of the Gauss curve. In girls, no differences in salivary testosterone levels were found among IQ groups. Our findings are the first that present the relationship between testosterone and the broad range of general IQ in childhood. The boys of average intelligence had significantly higher testosterone levels than both mentally challenged and intellectually gifted boys, with the latter two groups showing no significant difference between each other. The functional implications of the brain-cognition interactions remain to be fully explored with regard to the internal milieu influencing neural substrate.

  7. Pre-Pubertal Children and Exercise in Hot and Humid Environments: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Wade H.; Crowe, Melissa J.; Spinks, Warwick L.; Leicht, Anthony S.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of pre-pubertal children to regulate their body temperature under thermoneutral environments is similar to that of an adult albeit via differing routes. However, this ability is challenged when exposed to extreme environments. Thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubertal children differ from adults via adaptations that occur during growth and maturation and disadvantage children when exercising in hot and humid environments. When ambient temperatures exceed that of the skin, an infl...

  8. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

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    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  9. Motor activity and severity of depression in hospitalized prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronen, E T; Teicher, M H; Geenens, D; Curtin, S; Glod, C A; Pahlavan, K

    1996-06-01

    To determine whether there is an association between activity levels and the severity and nature of depressive symptoms. Locomotor activity was quantified in 27 consecutively selected hospitalized prepubertal children. Activity was measured in 5-minute epochs over a period of 72 hours using belt-worn monitors. Depressive symptoms were rated using the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised, the Children's Depression Inventory, and an observer rating scale for nursing staff. Measures of reduced daytime activity correlated with scores on the Children's Depression Rating Scale and the observer rating scale, but not the Children's Depression Inventory. Stepwise regression indicated that the strongest association occurred between a composite measure of severity, age, and percentage of low-level diurnal activity periods (r = .724, p Activity measures correlated with clinical ratings of sadness, low self-esteem, anhedonia, and physical complaints, and to a lesser degree with ratings of hypoactivity, fatigue, and slow speech. Reduced levels of activity correlated significantly with clinical ratings of depressive severity across diagnostic groups. The development of objective measures of depressive severity may have prognostic and therapeutic implications.

  10. Total Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Prepubertal Children with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Rowicka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Obesity is accompanied by the formation of oxygen free radicals, whose intensified activity without effective defense mechanisms can lead to oxidative stress and related complications. We evaluated the presence of oxidative stress in obese prepubertal children. Methods. The study included 83 healthy children aged 2–10 years (62 with obesity and 21 nonobese controls. Total oxidant capacity (TOC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, lipid parameters, glucose, and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured in serum. Oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated. Results. Serum TOC concentration was significantly higher (p<0.05 and TAC concentration was lower (p<0.05 in obese children. OSI was higher (p<0.01 in obese subjects compared with controls. CRP levels were normal in all children, but median CRP value was higher (p<0.01 and HDL cholesterol levels were lower (p<0.05 in the obese group. We found a significant negative correlation between TAC and ox-LDL concentrations (r=−0.27, p<0.05 in obese children. Furthermore, obesity duration was positively correlated with TOC level (r=0.32, p<0.05 in this group. Conclusions. Obesity-related oxidative stress already occurs in prepubescence. Early obesity diagnosis and the necessary therapeutic activity implementation is a vital strategy for the prophylaxis of free radical damage and related multiorgan complications.

  11. PRE-PUBERTAL CHILDREN AND EXERCISE IN HOT AND HUMID ENVIRONMENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade H. Sinclair

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of pre-pubertal children to regulate their body temperature under thermoneutral environments is similar to that of an adult albeit via differing routes. However, this ability is challenged when exposed to extreme environments. Thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubertal children differ from adults via adaptations that occur during growth and maturation and disadvantage children when exercising in hot and humid environments. When ambient temperatures exceed that of the skin, an influx of thermal energy from the environment increases thermal stress. When coupled with exercise, the increased thermal stress results in reduced physical performance and an increased risk of developing heat-related illness. Evidence suggesting the severity of heat-related illness is greater in pre-pubertal children than adults is inconclusive because age-related differences in thermoregulatory responses are attributed to either morphologic or functional changes. Additionally, the majority of research on pre-pubertal children exercising in the heat has been maturational or comparative studies with adults conducted in the near absence of convective cooling, complicating extrapolation to field-based environments. However, current consensus is that pre-pubertal children are disadvantaged when exercising in extreme temperatures and that care should be taken in preparing for and conducting sporting activities in hot and humid environments for pre-pubertal children

  12. Growth velocity and weight gain in prepubertal asthmatic children

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    Larissa Celiberto Renosto

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To evaluate the stature growth rate (GR and the weight gain of prepubertal asthmatic children. Method: A retrospective cohort study evaluating medical records of 85 children diagnosed with asthma, aged less than 9 years, of both sexes, with at least one year of follow-up in the allergy outpatient clinic. The data on the disease, weights and heights were collected through a standardized questionnaire on two occasions, with an interval of one year. The curves proposed by Tanner were applied for the analysis of the GR, and the Z-score of the GR (ZGR was calculated. Results: Excess weight (risk for overweight, overweight and obesity was observed in 31.8% (27/85 of the patients, but there was no association with the severity of asthma. Low GR (ZGR < -2 was found in 13.9% (11/79 of patients, most frequently among children with moderate/severe persistent asthma compared to persistent mild and intermittent forms (7/11 - 63.6% vs. 21/68 - 30.2%, respectively, p=0.047. Use of steroids (dose, type and time of use was not associated with GR. Conclusion: GR was most affected in children with moderate/severe asthma.

  13. Serum concentration of adipocytokines in prepubertal vegetarian and omnivorous children.

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    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Rowicka, Grażyna; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    THE AIM of our study was to investigate associations between serum adipocytokines status and anthropometric parameters as well as total energy and macronutrient intake in vegetarian, normal-weight omnivorous and obese omnivorous children. We examined 90 healthy prepubertal children aged 4-10 years who had been referred to the Department of Nutrition at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw for dietary consultation. Patients with endocrine disorders or genetic syndromes, as well as those who were taking medications that could affect growth, pubertal development or nutritional status were excluded. Children were divided into groups: vegetarians (n=30), normal-weight omnivores (n=30) and obese omnivores (n=30). Anthropometric measurement (weight, height) was performed in all children and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. A whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed to determine fat mass, the percentage of body fat and lean body mass using a Lunar Prodigy (GE, USA). Dietary constituents were assessed by questionnaire (nutrient intake from a 3-day period: 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) and calculated using the nutritional computer program Dietetyk2®. Serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides concentrations were assessed by standard enzymatic methods. Serum levels of leptin, soluble leptin receptor and adiponectin were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. There were no significant differences in body weight, height, BMI and lean mass values between vegetarians and normal-weight children on traditional mixed diet. Children on vegetarian diet had lower fat mass (pvegetarian as well to normal-weight omnivorous children. The fat mass/lean mass ratio in obese children was about 2.5-fold higher than in normal-weight subjects on traditional diet. Total energy and percentage of energy from macronutrients in diets of all children were within the recommended daily intake. Children on vegetarian diet

  14. Low serum leptin concentration in vegetarian prepubertal children.

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    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Laskowska-Klita, T; Klemarczyk, W

    2004-01-01

    Vegetarian diet may play a positive role in reducing risk of several chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and some types of cancer. There are different vegetarian dietary patterns, some of which are nutritionally adequate for children, whereas other may lack some essential nutrients. Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue plays a key role in the control of body fat stores and energy expenditure. Higher leptin levels were observed in obese subjects and lower in anorectic patients. Recent studies support that diet may be a factor which influences leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of leptin, lipids and apolipoproteins in prepubertal children with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We examined 22 vegetarians and 13 omnivores in age 2-10 years. Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) and serum lipids were measured by enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods. Average daily dietary energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar for both groups of children. We observed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet. Vegetarians had lower total cholesterol and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than children on traditional mixed diet. There is no significant differences in triglyceride concentration between studied groups. The apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of omnivores. The serum concentration of leptin was lower in vegetarians (3.0 +/- 1.1 ng/mL) than in nonvegetarians (5.1 +/- 2.0 ng/mL) (p vegetarian diet may be accompanied by lower serum leptin concentration. Further studies on large group of children are needed for understanding this problem better.

  15. Serum concentrations of PCBs and OCPs among prepubertal Korean children.

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    Park, Su Hyun; Hong, Young Sun; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-02-01

    Although children are more vulnerable than adults to environmental hazards, due to their physiological and behavioral characteristics, few studies have assessed their internal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The objective of this study was to determine the serum levels of certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) among pre-pubertal children in Korea and examine their variation with age and gender. We analyzed a total of 51 POPs in 214 children (age range, 7-9 years), using data from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study. To examine change over time, POP concentrations were measured at both 7 and 9 years of age in a sub-cohort of 26 children. The median and interquartile range (IQR, 25th to 75th percentiles) data for the sum of PCB congeners was 26.44 ng/g lipid (18.27-37.63 ng/g lipid). The median (IQR) concentration for the sum of OCPs was 74.82 ng/g lipid (51.11-112.45 ng/g lipid). Our results showed significant increases in serum concentrations of total PCBs with age (p = 0.0001), no gender dependence of total PCBs (p = 0.38) and total OCPs (p = 0.12), and strong correlations between individual POPs. Childhood exposure to POPs was relatively low compared to other studies carried out in different countries. However, even though the use of POPs has been banned since 2001, our results indicated that children in the general population are still exposed to various POPs. Because long-term, low-level exposure to POPs in the general population remains a concern for human health, future research should examine major routes of exposure and identification of risk factors.

  16. Sleepwalking and sleep terrors in prepubertal children: what triggers them?

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    Guilleminault, Christian; Palombini, Luciana; Pelayo, Rafael; Chervin, Ronald D

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentation and polysomnography of prepubertal children with repetitive sleep terrors and sleepwalking, to compare them with a control group, and to evaluate the treatment of associated sleep disorders. Patients with complaint of sleep terrors with or without sleepwalking were studied retrospectively. A control group was also recruited. Each subject received a standardized evaluation, which included the following: 1) Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire; 2) interview regarding child's medical and sociofamilial history, orthodontic history, schooling, psychological difficulties, medication intake, and family history of medical and sleep disorders; 3) general pediatric physical examination and neurologic, otolaryngological, and craniofacial examination by a specialist; 4) obtaining medical history on variables relevant to early life sleep disorders; 5) polysomnography, which included electroencephalogram (EEG; C3/A2, Fp1/T1, T1/O1, O1/C3, C4/A1, Fp2/T2, T2/O2, O2/C4), chin and leg electromyelogram, right and left electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram (modified V2 lead); respiration was monitored with a nasal cannula/pressure transducer system, mouth thermistor, chest and abdominal bands, pulse oximeter, and neck microphone; respiratory effort was monitored with calibrated esophageal manometry; variables were collected on a computerized sleep system; and 6) available family members with a positive history of sleep terrors and sleepwalking received clinical evaluations similar to those used for index cases; they also underwent ambulatory monitoring with an Edentrace system, which monitors heart rate, body position, oro-nasal flow, chest impedance, breathing noises (neck microphone), and pulse oximetry. Movements are deduced from artifact, and leg movements may be recorded on one channel if the equipment is preset for such recording. Subjects used logs to record "lights out" time, "lights on" time, nocturnal awakenings, and other events that

  17. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  18. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

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    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  19. Increasing thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in euthyroid obese children and adolescents.

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    Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; von Rosenstiel, Ines A; Weijer, Olivier; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Contrasting data exist regarding the relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and obesity-related risk factors in children. In the present study, we investigated the association between TSH, free T4 (fT4) and cardiometabolic risk factors in euthyroid obese children and adolescents. A retrospective analysis of patient records was performed on data from 703 multi-ethnic obese children and adolescents who visited an obesity-outpatient clinic. We performed anthropometric measurements, an oral glucose tolerance test, and measured serum TSH, fT4 and lipid levels. A positive association between TSH and the standard deviation score of the body mass index (BMI-Z) was found. After adjustment for ethnicity, sex, pubertal stage and BMI-Z, logistic regression analysis showed significant associations between TSH levels and impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high triglycerides. No significant associations between fT4 levels and cardiometabolic risk factors were found in linear/logistic regression analysis. In our multi-ethnic cohort of euthyroid obese children and adolescents increasing TSH was associated with impaired glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia.

  20. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children with constitutional delay of growth and development.

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    Wilson, Dyanne A; Hofman, Paul L; Miles, Harriet L; Sato, Tim A; Billett, Nathalie E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prepubertal children with presumed constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) have enhanced insulin sensitivity and, therefore, insulin sensitivity is associated with later onset of puberty. Twenty-one prepubertal children with presumed CDGD and 23 prepubertal control children, underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and other markers of insulin, glucose, and growth regulation. Children in the CDGD group were shorter and leaner than control subjects. Children with presumed CDGD were 40% more insulin sensitive (17.0 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L] versus 12.1 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L]; P = .0006) and had reduced acute insulin response, thus maintaining euglycemia (216 mU/L versus 330 mU/L; P = .02) compared with control subjects. In addition, the CDGD group had lower serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels (3333 ng/mL versus 3775 ng/mL; P = .0004) and a trend toward lower serum insulin-like growth factor-II levels (794 ng/mL versus 911 ng/mL; P = .06). Prepubertal children with presumed CDGD have enhanced insulin sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity is associated with timing of puberty. It may signify long-term biological advantages with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metformin for Obesity in Prepubertal and Pubertal Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Pastor-Villaescusa, Belén; Cañete, M Dolores; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Hoyos, Raúl; Latorre, Miriam; Vázquez-Cobela, Rocío; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Maldonado, José; Bueno, Gloria; Leis, Rosaura; Gil, Ángel; Cañete, Ramón; Aguilera, Concepción M

    2017-07-01

    Metformin has shown its effectiveness in treating obesity in adults. However, little research has been conducted in children, with a lack of attention on pubertal status. The objectives were to determine whether oral metformin treatment reduces BMI z score, cardiovascular risk, and inflammation biomarkers in children who are obese depending on pubertal stage and sex. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, stratified according to pubertal stage and sex, conducted at 4 Spanish clinical hospitals. Eighty prepubertal and 80 pubertal nondiabetic children who were obese aged 7 to 14 years with a BMI >95th percentiles were recruited. The intervention included 1 g/d of metformin versus placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome was a reduction in BMI z score. Secondary outcomes comprised insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk, and inflammation biomarkers. A total of 140 children completed the study (72 boys). Metformin decreased the BMI z score versus placebo in the prepubertal group (-0.8 and -0.6, respectively; difference, 0.2; P = .04). Significant increments were observed in prepubertal children treated with metformin versus placebo recipients in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (0.010 and -0.007; difference, 0.017; P = .01) and the adiponectin-leptin ratio (0.96 and 0.15; difference, 0.81; P = .01) and declines in interferon-γ (-5.6 and 0; difference, 5.6; P = .02) and total plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (-1.7 and 2.4; difference, 4.1; P = .04). No serious adverse effects were reported. “Metformin decreased the BMI z score and improved inflammatory and cardiovascular-related obesity parameters only in prepubertal children, but a differential effect of metformin was not observed in prepubertal compared to pubertal children. Nevertheless, the doses per kilogram of weight administrated may have had an impact on the metformin effect. Further investigations are necessary. Copyright © 2017 by the

  2. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Abdominal obesity is a strong determinant of obesity related metabolic complications. Data about pre-pubertal children are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the presence of insulin resistance using different insulin sensitivity indices and investigate its relationship with ...

  3. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abdominal obesity is a strong determinant of obesity related metabolic complications. Data about pre-pubertal children are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the presence of insulin resistance using different insulin sensitivity indices and investigate its relationship with abdominal fat distribution by Dual ...

  4. Insulin and HOMA in Spanish prepubertal children: relationship with lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Carmen; Cano, Beatriz; Granizo, Juan J; Benavente, Mercedes; Viturro, Enrique; Gutiérrez-Guisado, Javier; de Oya, Iria; Lasunción, Miguel A; de Oya, Manuel

    2005-10-01

    The effects of insulin or insulin resistance on the lipid profile seem to change with age. The aim of this study was to analyze insulin levels and an insulin resistance index and to investigate the relationship between these and the lipid profile in a population-based sample of Spanish prepubertal children. 1048 (524 boys and 524 girls) randomly selected prepubertal children were studied. Children were 6 to 8 years old with a mean age of 6.7. Plasma lipid, FFA and insulin levels were measured. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) was calculated as an indicator of insulin resistance. When analyzing percentile values of insulin, HOMA and FFA by sex, we observed that girls had significantly higher insulin concentrations than boys (except at the 10th percentile) and significantly higher FFA (except at the 90th percentile) with no significant differences between sexes for HOMA. Multivariate regression analyses showed that insulin was positively associated with glucose, triglycerides and apoB in boys but not in girls, and negatively associated with FFA in both genders. We report here data about the distribution of insulin in the Spanish prepubertal population. The higher levels of insulin in prepubertal girls could indicate that girls start to be more insulin resistant than boys at this age, although other manifestations of insulin resistance are not yet detectable.

  5. Ethics of fertility preservation for prepubertal children: should clinicians offer procedures where efficacy is largely unproven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind J; Gillam, Lynn; Delany, Clare; Jayasinghe, Yasmin

    2018-01-01

    Young children with cancer are treated with interventions that can have a high risk of compromising their reproductive potential. 'Fertility preservation' for children who have not yet reached puberty involves surgically removing and cryopreserving reproductive tissue prior to treatment in the expectation that strategies for the use of this tissue will be developed in the future. Fertility preservation for prepubertal children is ethically complex because the techniques largely lack proven efficacy for this age group. There is professional difference of opinion about whether it is ethical to offer such 'experimental' procedures. The question addressed in this paper is: when, if ever, is it ethically justifiable to offer fertility preservation surgery to prepubertal children? We present the ethical concerns about prepubertal fertility preservation, drawing both on existing literature and our experience discussing this issue with clinicians in clinical ethics case consultations. We argue that offering the procedure is ethically justifiable in certain circumstances. For many children, the balance of benefits and burdens is such that the procedure is ethically permissible but not ethically required; when the procedure is medically safe, it is the parents' decision to make, with appropriate information and guidance from the treating clinicians. We suggest that clinical ethics support processes are necessary to assist clinicians to engage with the ethical complexity of prepubertal fertility preservation and describe the framework that has been integrated into the pathway of care for patients and families attending the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Uric acid, carotid intima-media thickness and body composition in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Díaz-Roldán, F; Osiniri, I; Riera-Pérez, E; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2016-10-01

    Increased uric acid is an independent biomarker for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents and adults. We investigated whether uric acid relates to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in prepubertal children, and whether body mass index (BMI) and preperitoneal fat modulate this association. 359 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children were stratified according to BMI categories (171 with BMI-SDS 50th centile). Uric acid levels, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), triacylglycerol (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), abdominal fat and cIMT (both by ultrasound) were assessed. Uric acid was associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, namely higher HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, BMI, waist, SBP, preperitoneal fat and cIMT (all P uric acid and cIMT (both P uric acid was preferentially related to cIMT in heavier children (β = 0.247, P uric acid is associated with cIMT in asymptomatic prepubertal children. Both higher BMI and preperitoneal fat aggravate the potential risk of atherosclerotic disease imposed by higher concentrations of uric acid. © 2015 World Obesity.

  7. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Hegedus, L.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    . Longitudinal growth data from birth were available. RESULTS: TV increased significantly with age (r = 0.487; P 5 yr, 2.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 6 yr, 2.8 +/- 1.3 ml; 7 yr, 3.2 +/- 1.3 ml; 8 yr, 3.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 9 yr, 3.7 +/- 1.3 ml...

  8. Growth in prepubertal Nigerian children is highly dependent on socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetuga, B; Ogunlesi, T; Olanrewaju, D; Jonsson, B; Albertsson-Wikland, K

    2013-08-01

    To relate height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of prepubertal children in Sagamu, Nigeria, to parental socio-economic class (SEC). Cross-sectional study of 1606 children aged 5-11 years from eight public and eight private primary schools. Height, weight and BMI from 1557 prepubertal children were standardized using two references: US-CDC birth cohorts 1929-1974 and Swedish birth cohort 1974. Children in private schools were taller and heavier than those in public schools (p higher BMIs than those from lower SEC (p higher education/occupation had taller and heavier children with higher BMI than other groups. Children in private schools were taller and heavier than children in public schools. Disparities in parental SEC still constrain optimal child growth in Nigeria: whereas height and weight of children of upper SEC were close to the US-CDC29-74 reference mean, they were still below Swedish74 reference mean representing more optimal growth. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Lactose intolerance: lack of evidence for short stature or vitamin D deficiency in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty-Shah, Nithya; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa; Fong, Jay; Dahod, Idris; Rogol, Alan D; Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka

    2013-01-01

    The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI) are unclear. To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19) were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21). prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025), and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004). Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53), while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049), and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28). MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children.

  10. Fat mass index performs best in monitoring management of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (pFM (95% CI: 50.6-74.8) or 70.0% (95% CI: 57.5-80.1) using FMI. The median time to detect the outcome was 71 days using FMI, shorter than 88 days using %FM, and similar to 70 days using BMI. The agreement between the outcome detected by FMI and by %FM was high (kappa 0.701), but very low between the success detected by BMI and either FMI (kappa 0.231) or %FM (kappa 0.125). FMI achieved the best combination of ability and swiftness to identify reduction of adiposity during monitoring of weight management in prepubertal obese children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional assessment in neonatal and prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Espejo, María; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luís; Muñoz-Villanueva, María Carmen; Mercedes, Gil-Campos

    2013-09-01

    Nutritional deficit during perinatal stage may induce significant alterations in adipose tissue and increase the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR). To describe the nutritional status in neonatal and prepubertal with a history of EUGR and establish an association between EUGR and later conditions. Descriptive, analytical, observational case-control study. The study included a sample of 38 prepubertal children with a history of EUGR, and 123 gender-and-age matched controls. The EUGR group was asked to answer a food frequency questionnaire. Analysis of body composition in both groups included anthropometric measurements, assessment of blood pressure and biochemical markers. Newborns with EUGR received parenteral feeding with a standard nutritional regime and long-chain fatty acid support for 41 ± 23 days; enteral feeding with a special formula for premature infants was initiated at 7 ± 11 days of life. At the prepubertal stage, daily fiber and fatty acid intake in children who had experienced EUGR in the neonatal stage was below the recommended intake. In the EUGR group, the intake of vegetables, fruits and olive oil was below dietary recommendations, while the intake of butchery, fatty meats, pastries and snacks was above the recommendations for the Spanish population. Appropriate nutrition education strategies should be developed for children with a history of EUGR to prevent later associated pathologies, as neonatal nutritional support and feeding during childhood are associated with an increase in diseases in this risk group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between lean and fat mass and indicators of bone health in prepubertal caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kâ, Khady; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Lambert, Marie; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Henderson, Mélanie; Tremblay, Angelo; Alos, Nathalie; Nicolau, Belinda

    2013-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for bone growth. The independent association between lean and fat mass and indicators of bone health in children is not yet known. We aim to examine the association between each of lean and fat mass and indicators of bone health in 8- to 10-year-old prepubertal Caucasian children. We present a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort which study the natural history of obesity. Study participants (n = 483) included prepubertal children aged 8-10 years and their biological parents. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC, g), bone area (cm²), bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm²), lean mass (kg), and fat mass (kg) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data analyses include multiple linear regressions adjusted for potential confounding variables. A 1-kg increase in lean mass was associated with 28.42 g, 19.88 cm², and 0.007 g/cm² increase in whole-body BMC, bone area and BMD respectively. A 1-kg increase in fat mass was associated with 9.32 g, 8.02 cm², and 0.002 g/cm² increase in whole-body BMC, bone area and BMD, respectively. Increasing lean mass in children may help optimize bone acquisition and prevent future osteoporosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effect of Formant Frequency Spacing on Perceived Gender in Pre-Pubertal Children's Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartei, Valentina; Reby, David

    2013-01-01

    Background It is usually possible to identify the sex of a pre-pubertal child from their voice, despite the absence of sex differences in fundamental frequency at these ages. While it has been suggested that the overall spacing between formants (formant frequency spacing - ΔF) is a key component of the expression and perception of sex in children's voices, the effect of its continuous variation on sex and gender attribution has not yet been investigated. Methodology/Principal findings In the present study we manipulated voice ΔF of eight year olds (two boys and two girls) along continua covering the observed variation of this parameter in pre-pubertal voices, and assessed the effect of this variation on adult ratings of speakers' sex and gender in two separate experiments. In the first experiment (sex identification) adults were asked to categorise the voice as either male or female. The resulting identification function exhibited a gradual slope from male to female voice categories. In the second experiment (gender rating), adults rated the voices on a continuum from “masculine boy” to “feminine girl”, gradually decreasing their masculinity ratings as ΔF increased. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the role of ΔF in voice gender perception, which has been reported in adult voices, extends to pre-pubertal children's voices: variation in ΔF not only affects the perceived sex, but also the perceived masculinity or femininity of the speaker. We discuss the implications of these observations for the expression and perception of gender in children's voices given the absence of anatomical dimorphism in overall vocal tract length before puberty. PMID:24312517

  14. Comparison of body composition and adipokine levels between thin and normal-weight prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. Methods: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n = 50 and normal-weight children (n = 50. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Results: Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p < 0.0001 body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Conclusions: Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual.

  15. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. AIM: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. METHODS: Patients were...... treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature....

  16. Do attachment representations predict depression and anxiety in psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents.

  17. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L

    2015-01-01

    ), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1µg/L for Cd, and 0.8µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level...... between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old...... girls, 11 year old boys and 10-11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further...

  18. Lactose intolerance: lack of evidence for short stature or vitamin D deficiency in prepubertal children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Setty-Shah

    Full Text Available The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI are unclear.To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status.LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls.Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19 were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21.prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts, diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.There was no significant difference in 25(OHD between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29. Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85(th percentile vs. overweight/obese (BMI ≥85(th percentile, the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OHD level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025, and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004. Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53, while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049, and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28. MPTH z-score was similar between the groups.Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children.

  19. Placebo-controlled study of montelukast and budesonide on short-term growth in prepubertal asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Agertoft, Lone; Williams-Herman, Debora

    2007-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids and anti-leukotriene agents are widely used in the treatment of pediatric asthma. Although data on the effect of corticosteroids on growth are available, there are few such data on anti-leukotriene agents. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of montelukast on...... on short-term lower leg growth rate (LLGR) in prepubertal children with asthma....

  20. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Prepubertal Children: Predictive Markers of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, Chiara; De Marco, Stefania; Stevens, Adam; Clayton, Peter; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors have been identified in adults with untreated growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Existing evidence suggests that the development of the atheromatous plaque begins early in childhood. Previous reports have shown that GHD children are prone to increased CV risks including impaired cardiac function, dyslipidemia and abnormalities in body composition. Recent studies in epigenetics and metabolomics have defined specific fingerprints that might be associated with an increased risk of CV disease. The aim of this review is to point out the most significant biochemical and clinical predictive markers of CV disease in prepubertal children and to evaluate the effect of recombinant human growth hormone therapy on most of these alterations. The novel findings in epigenetics and metabolomics are also reviewed, with a particular focus on translating them into clinical practice. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Low levels of osteocalcin and leptin in serum of vegetarian prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa; Klemarczyk, Witold

    2003-01-01

    Scientific literature points to the positive association between vegetarian diet and reduced risk for cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer and diabetes. On the other hand elimination of animal products from the diet decreases the intake of some essential nutrients which may influence bone metabolism. This is a very important problem especially in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are the most intensive. Bone metabolism is regulated by variety factors, which are involved in the bone formation and bone resorption processes. Osteocalcin is one of the markers of bone formation (produced by osteoblast) which plays an important role in the regulation of bone growth. Recent data support the concept that other modulators such as leptin (hormone from adipose tissue) may influence bone formation process. Our study is designed to investigate serum concentration of osteocalcin and leptin in prepubertal children with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We examined 49 healthy children in age 2-10 years, who were divided into vegetarian and omnivores groups. The serum osteocalcin levels in prepubertal children on vegetarian diet was significantly lower than in nonvegetarians (86.7+/-27.4 microg/L versus 100.1+/-16.4 microg/L; pchildren on vegetarian diet mean leptin level was 3.0+/-1.0 microg/L, whereas in omnivorous children it was 5.5+/-2.0 microg/L, (p<0.0001). Our observation indicates that deficiencies in some of the nutrient components together with reduced serum concentration of leptin may retard relevant bone growth and development in childhood.

  2. Comparison of inflammation and oxidative stress levels by the severity of obesity in prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Surya Candra Eka Pertiwi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Children with severe obesity are more likely to develop diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Inflammation and oxidative stress associated with childhood obesity may be important in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Objective To compare levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and malondialdehyde (MDA by the severity of obesity in prepubertal children aged 6 to 10 years. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Pediatric Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Clinic, Sanglah Hospital, Bali, from August to December 2015. Subjects were categorized into three body mass index (BMI groups, according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart: overweight (85th-94.9th percentile, obese (95th-98.9th percentile, or severely obese (≥ 99th percentile. Plasma MDA and serum hsCRP were analyzed in blood specimens obtained at enrollment. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test for post-hoc comparison between groups. Results Subjects were 20 overweight children, 29 obese children, and 28 severely obese children. Levels of MDA were significantly higher in the severely obese [median 0.25 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L] than in obese subjects [median 0.19 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L; P=0.001], and than in overweight subjects [median 0.16 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L; P<0.0001]. Also, the severely obese children had significantly higher hsCRP levels compared to obese [median 3.2 (IQR 2.0 mg/L vs. 1.3 (1.6 mg/L, respectively; P<0.0001] and compared to overweight children [median 0.7 (IQR 0.6 mg/L; P<0.0001].     Conclusion Prepubertal children at the ≥ 99th percentile for BMI (severely obese are more likely to have significantly higher hsCRP and MDA compared to those in the obese and overweight groups.

  3. Stunting delays maturation of triceps surae mechanical properties and motor performance in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Maria das Graças; Souza, Thaysa O L; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal; Xavier, Luciana C C; Ferraz, Karla M; Osório, Mônica M; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Lambertz, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition can lead to possible irreversible consequences in the development of muscle function and some of them are yet poorly characterized. The present study evaluated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae and motor performance in stunted (S) and eutrophic (E) prepubertal children (9 years ± 6 months). Height-for-age ratio was used as indicator of stunting due to early malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization. Torque was determined by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and musculotendinous (MT) stiffness was achieved through quick-release tests to obtain MT stiffness index (SI(MT)) and passive stiffness (K (p)) from linear MT stiffness-torque relationships. Percutaneous supramaximal electrically elicited contractions determined twitch torque (Pt) and electromechanical delay (EMD). Motor performance was evaluated by balance test. S group presented significantly lower MVC and a trend of lower Pt values indicating lower capacities to develop force under voluntary or induced conditions. Significantly higher SI(MT) and EMD values were observed, while K (p) and motor performance in balance were significantly lower. Higher SI(MT) values have been reported previously in youngest prepubertal children, indicating that immature activation capacities can mask MT stiffness assessment during voluntary contractions, taking into consideration the higher EMD values as a measure of muscle stiffness contribution. Lower K (p) may indicate a delay in the maturation of tendinous tissue in S group, influencing motor performance in balance. The present study shows that malnutrition leads to adaptation of intrinsic MT elastic properties, but depends on the level of the observed structure.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis for evaluating zinc supplementation in prepubertal and healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of abnormal nutritional status has increased in children and adolescents. Nutritional assessment is important for monitoring the health and nutritional status. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA combines changes in tissue hydration and structure and body composition that can be assessed. Objectives: The objective of this study was to use BIVA to evaluate nutritional status in 60 prepubertal children, aged between 8 and 9 years, supplemented with zinc, to detect possible changes in body composition. Design: We performed a randomized, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into the control group (CG; sorbitol 10%, n=29 or the experimental group (EG; 10 mg Zn/day, n=31, and the duration of the experiment was 3 months. Anthropometric assessments were performed for all of the children. Results: The body mass index-for-age increased after oral zinc supplementation in the EG (p=0.005. BIVA indicated that the CG demonstrated a tendency for dehydration and decreased soft tissue and the EG demonstrated a tendency for increased soft tissue, primarily the fat-free mass. After analyses of BIVA ellipses, we observed that this method could detect improvements in body composition in healthy children supplemented with zinc. Conclusions: These results suggest that BIVA could be an auxiliary method for studying a small population undergoing zinc intervention.

  5. Otolaryngologic findings in prepubertal obese children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Caixêta, Juliana Alves; Saramago, Alex Martins; Moreira, Gustavo Antonio; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate otolaryngologic findings in obese prepubertal children with sleep-disordered breathing. We prospectively evaluated 29 obese children referred by pediatric endocrinologist, complaining of snoring and without a history of nasal surgery or removal of the palatine tonsils and/or adenoids. Patients underwent ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, endoscopy, measurements of weight, height, calculation of body mass index (BMI), assessment of BMI z-score and polysomnography, from which were divided into two groups: those with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (nine children) and those with primary snoring (20 children). Then we proceeded to the statistical analysis of the data collected. The groups did not differ in age, gender, weight, height, BMI and BMI z-score. Among the findings of the ENT examination, the adenoid size was the only one that differed between the groups (p = 0.01). The evaluation of the adenoid size is an important in obese children with symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing and is related to the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Marked elevation of adrenal steroids, especially androgens, in saliva of prepubertal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Hill, Martin; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Namysłowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Autism is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral manifestations, but its biomarkers are not well defined. A strong gender bias typifying autism (it is 4-5 times more prevalent in males) suggests involvement of steroid hormones in autism pathobiology. In order to evaluate the potential roles of such hormones in autism, we compared the salivary levels of 22 steroids in prepubertal autistic male and female children from two age groups (3-4 and 7-9 years old) with those in healthy controls. The steroids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed that autistic children had significantly higher salivary concentrations of many steroid hormones (both C21 and C19) than control children. These anomalies were more prominent in older autistic children and in boys. The levels of androgens (androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone and their polar conjugates) were especially increased, indicative of precocious adrenarche and predictive of early puberty. The concentrations of the steroid precursor, pregnenolone, and of several pregnanolones were also higher in autistic than in healthy children, but cortisol levels were not different. Some steroids, whose levels are raised in autism (allopregnanolone, androsterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate conjugates) are neuroactive and modulate GABA, glutamate, and opioid neurotransmission, affecting brain development and functioning. These steroids may contribute to autism pathobiology and symptoms such as elevated anxiety, sleep disturbances, sensory deficits, and stereotypies among others. We suggest that salivary levels of selected steroids may serve as biomarkers of autism pathology useful for monitoring the progress of therapy.

  7. Effects of resistance training on tendon mechanical properties and rapid force production in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C M; Korff, T; Fath, F; Blazevich, A J

    2014-08-01

    Children develop lower levels of muscle force, and at slower rates, than adults. Although strength training in children is expected to reduce this differential, a synchronous adaptation in the tendon must be achieved to ensure forces continue to be transmitted to the skeleton with efficiency while minimizing the risk of strain-related tendon injury. We hypothesized that resistance training (RT) would alter tendon mechanical properties in children concomitantly with changes in force production characteristics. Twenty prepubertal children (age 8.9 ± 0.3 yr) were equally divided into control (nontraining) and experimental (training) groups. The training group completed a 10-wk RT intervention consisting of 2-3 sets of 8-15 plantar flexion contractions performed twice weekly on a recumbent calf-raise machine. Achilles tendon properties (cross-sectional area, elongation, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus), electromechanical delay (EMD; time between the onset of muscle activity and force), rate of force development (RFD; slope of the force-time curve), and rate of electromyographic (EMG) increase (REI; slope of the EMG time curve) were measured before and after RT. Tendon stiffness and Young's modulus increased significantly after RT in the experimental group only (∼29% and ∼25%, respectively); all other tendon properties were not significantly altered, although there were mean decreases in both peak tendon strain and strain at a given force level (14% and 24%, respectively; not significant) which may have implications for tendon injury risk and muscle fiber mechanics. A decrease of ∼13% in EMD was found after RT for the experimental group, which paralleled the increase in tendon stiffness (r = -0.59); however, RFD and REI were unchanged. The present data show that the Achilles tendon adapts to RT in prepubertal children and is paralleled by a change in EMD, although the magnitude of this change did not appear to be sufficient to influence RFD. These

  8. Breakfast skipping in prepubertal obese children: hormonal, metabolic and cognitive consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Fornari, E; Surano, M G; Comencini, E; Corradi, M; Tommasi, M; Fasan, I; Cortese, S

    2012-03-01

    Skipping breakfast influences cognitive performance. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the variation of hormonal and metabolic postprandial parameters induced by breakfast consumption or fasting and cognitive performance in obese children. Cross-sectional study for repeated measures. Memory and attention assessment tests, hormones and nutrient oxidation were measured before and after consuming breakfast vs fasting in 10 prepubertal obese children. Fasting induced a significant (PLearning Word Selective Reminding (a test of verbal memory), whereas no changes were found after breakfast. Fasting was associated with a reduction of insulin and an increase in glucagon, with no changes in glucose. The increase in inattention was associated with a reduction of carbohydrate oxidation (ρ=-0.66, Pbreakfast or fasting, whereas Ghrelin was significantly lower. No association between postprandial hormone variation and cognitive performance was found. Attention and visual memory performance in the morning were reduced when the children skipped breakfast. No association was found with hormones or metabolic changes, but we did find an association with a reduction of carbohydrate oxidation. Nevertheless, these preliminary findings need confirmation in larger sample size.

  9. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas; de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Érika Dantas; França, Mardone Cavalcante; de Almeida, Maria das Graças; Brandão-Neto, José

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31) and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31) for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Our study showed (1) an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2) a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3) increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4) increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5) an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (pnutritional status of populations.

  10. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  11. Association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome components in prepubertal obese children (Tanner Stage I) from Nuevo Le?n, Mexico - a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Elizabeth Solis; Medina, Mario Alberto Gonz?lez; Lomeli, Manuel Lopez-Cabanillas; Gonz?lez, Ver?nica Tijerina; P?rez, Jes?s Zacar?as Villarreal; Lavalle Gonz?lez, Fernando J.; Imrhan, Victorine; Juma, Shanil; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Boonme, Kittipong; Prasad, Chandan

    2017-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in obese children demonstrating a positive association between serum uric acid (sUA) and components of MetS are confounded by lack of uniformity in age and pubertal status of children. Therefore, we have examined the role of sUA in MetS and its components in pre-pubertal children (Tanner Stage I, age???9?years). Methods Pre-pubertal obese children (32 boys, 27 girls, age 6?9?y...

  12. Evaluation of body growth in prepubertal Japanese children with obstructive sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy over a long postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Shinsaku; Hara, Hirotaka; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify changes in body growth patterns in prepubertal Japanese children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after adenotonsillectomy (AT) over a long postoperative period. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of 69 children, aged 3-10 years with OSA, who were followed-up for a median period of 38 months (range, 24-92 months) after AT. Height and weight were measured during the preoperative period and 12, and 24 months postoperatively, data were converted to standard deviation scores (SDS) using current gender- and age-specific values for the growth parameters adopted by the National growth chart of Japan. Comparisons between the pre and postoperative SDS values for height and weight were performed. The numerical data were examined statistically. The SDS for height and weight of Japanese OSA children significantly increased 24 months post AT and continued over the entire 24-month follow-up period. Height growth acceleration after AT ended earlier in children of 6.0 ± 1.5 years at the time of AT than in children of 4.7 ± 1.3 years who could not catch-up. In prepubertal Japanese children with OSA, AT was effective for the growth of those children over a long postoperative period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thyroid function tests in obese prepubertal children: correlations with insulin sensitivity and body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brufani, Claudia; Manco, Melania; Nobili, Valerio; Fintini, Danilo; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Cappa, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in association with normal/slightly elevated free triiodothyronine (fT(3)) and/or free thyroxine (fT(4)) have been consistently found in obese children. To examine relationships between adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and TSH, fT(3) and fT(4). 240 overweight/obese prepubertal children were studied. Fasting TSH, fT(3), fT(4), glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, leptin and adiponectin were evaluated. Insulin sensitivity and resistance were estimated [quantitative insulin check index (QUICKI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and hepatic insulin resistance index]. Body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The central obesity index was calculated as the ratio of fat tissue in the trunk region to fat tissue in the leg region. The multiple regression analysis with age, gender and measures of fatness as covariates showed that QUICKI was the only significant negative predictor of TSH and central obesity index the strongest positive predictor of fT(3), in association with either age or hepatic insulin resistance index, and that the only positive determinant of fT(4) was hepatic insulin resistance index. Reduced insulin sensitivity is associated with augmented TSH and fT(4), while progressive central fat accumulation is strictly related to a parallel increase in fT(3) levels, independently from total body fat. Further studies are needed to understand mechanisms linking thyroid function to insulin sensitivity and body composition in obese children. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Is there an association between variables of postural control and strength in prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sustaining falls and sports-related injuries is particularly high in children. Deficits in balance and muscle strength represent 2 important intrinsic fall and injury-risk factors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between variables of static and dynamic postural control and isometric and dynamic muscle strength and to find out whether there is an association between measures of postural control and muscle strength in prepubertal children. Thirty children participated in this study (age 6.7 ± 0.5 years; body mass index 16.0 ± 1.8 kg·m(-2)). Biomechanic tests included the measurements of maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, jumping power and height (countermovement jump [CMJ]) on a force plate, and the assessment of static and dynamic posture during bipedal stance on a balance platform. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. No significant associations were observed between variables of static and dynamic postural control. Significant positive correlations were detected between the RFD of the plantar flexors and CMJ height (r = 0.425, p < 0.01). No statistically significant associations were found between measures of postural control and muscle strength. The nonsignificant correlations between static and dynamic postural control and muscle strength imply that primarily dynamic measures of postural control should be incorporated in fall and injury-risk assessment and that postural control and muscle strength appear to be independent of each other and may have to be trained in a complementary manner for fall and injury-preventive purposes.

  15. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Giuseppina Patriciello,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy Background: Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. Methods: The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years, and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years. The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC. Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725, gender (P = 0.886, z-body mass index (P = 0.149, or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient (P = 0.163. The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M

  16. High-dose GH treatment limited to the prepubertal period in young children with idiopathic short stature does not increase adult height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. van Gool; G.A. Kamp; R.J.H. Odink (Roelof); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); H.A. Delemarre-Van de Waal (Henriette); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To assess the long-term effect of prepubertal high-dose GH treatment on growth in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Design and methods: Forty children with no signs of puberty, age at start 4-8 years (girls) or 4-10 years (boys), height SDS <2-.0 SDS, and birth

  17. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  18. Plant stanols do not restore endothelial function in pre-pubertal children with familial hypercholesterolemia despite reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, Lily; Vissers, Maud N.; Rodenburg, Jessica; Wiegman, Albert; Trip, Mieke D.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of plant stanols on lipids and endothelial function in pre-pubertal children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). STUDY DESIGN: Children with FH (n=42), aged 7-12 years, were enrolled in a double-blind crossover trial, in which they consumed 500 mL of a low-fat

  19. Sweating responses to isometric hand-grip exercise and forearm muscle metaboreflex in prepubertal children and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Kai, Seiko; Nakajima, Michi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Gerrett, Nicola; Kondo, Narihiko; Inoue, Yoshimitsu

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-thermal factors (e.g. muscle metaboreflex) contribute to the sweating response during exercise. Although it is well recognized that the sweating responses caused by core temperature elevation in prepubertal children and the elderly are attenuated compared with young adults, it is unknown whether non-thermal sweating is also attenuated in these populations. What is the main finding and its importance? The non-thermal sweating response during isometric hand-grip exercise and isolated muscle metaboreflex were attenuated in prepubertal children compared with young adults in a non-uniform manner over the body, but only during the muscle metaboreflex in the elderly. This may explain the maturation- and ageing-related decline of sweating during exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate sweating responses to isometric hand-grip (IH) exercise and muscle metaboreflex in prepubertal children and the elderly. In hot conditions (ambient temperature, 35°C; relative humidity, 45%), 13 healthy young adults, 10 prepubertal children and 10 elderly subjects (aged 20.4 ± 1.2, 11.4 ± 0.5 and 63.5 ± 3.1 years, respectively) repeated a three hand-grip exercise protocol that consisted of 1 min IH exercise at 15, 30 or 45% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by 2 min postexercise forearm occlusion. Local sweat rates (SRs) on the forehead, chest, forearm, thigh and palm were continuously measured (ventilated capsule method). The forehead SR in prepubertal children during IH exercise at 45% MVC was significantly lower than that of young adults (0.26 ± 0.22 and 0.08 ± 0.15 mg cm-2  min-1 for young adults and children, respectively; P elderly at any exercise intensities. The SR on the chest (0.22 ± 0.22 and -0.01 ± 0.05 mg cm-2  min-1 for young adults and children, respectively), forearm (0.14 ± 0.12 and 0.03 ± 0.04 mg cm-2  min-1 ) and thigh (0.13 ± 0.10 and 0.02 ± 0

  20. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born......, prepubertal children). In this context, we decided to focus our attention on steroid hormones as they are the most potent endocrine disrupters. Our general goal is to investigate whether the steroid intake through food may represent a risk for prepubertal children, from an endocrine disruption point of view...

  1. High prevalence of lipoatrophy in pre-pubertal South African children on antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes Steve

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite changes in WHO guidelines, stavudine is still used extensively for treatment of pediatric HIV in the developing world. Lipoatrophy in sub-Saharan African children can be stigmatizing and have far-reaching consequences. The severity and extent of lipoatrophy in pre-pubertal children living in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Methods In this cross-sectional study, children who were 3-12 years old, on antiretroviral therapy and pre-pubertal were recruited from a Family HIV Clinic in South Africa. Lipoatrophy was identified and graded by consensus between two HIV pediatricians using a standardized grading scale. A professional dietician performed formal dietary assessment and anthropometric measurements of trunk and limb fat. Previous antiretroviral exposures were recorded. In a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (DXA substudy body composition was determined in 42 participants. Results Among 100 recruits, the prevalence of visually obvious lipoatrophy was 36% (95% CI: 27%–45%. Anthropometry and DXA measurements corroborated the clinical diagnosis of lipoatrophy: Both confirmed significant, substantial extremity fat loss in children with visually obvious lipoatrophy, when adjusted for age and sex. Adjusted odds ratio for developing lipoatrophy was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3 - 2.9 for each additional year of accumulated exposure to standard dose stavudine. Cumulative time on standard dose stavudine was significantly associated with reductions in biceps and triceps skin-fold thickness (p=0.008. Conclusions The prevalence of visually obvious lipoatrophy in pre-pubertal South African children on antiretroviral therapy is high. The amount of stavudine that children are exposed to needs review. Resources are needed to enable low-and-middle-income countries to provide suitable pediatric-formulated alternatives to stavudine-based pediatric regimens. The standard stavudine dose for children may need to be reduced. Diagnosis of lipoatrophy at

  2. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Jeong Rye; Lee, Young Seok; Yu, Jee Suk [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  3. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Rye; Lee, Young Seok; Yu, Jeesuk

    2015-01-01

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R(2) ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  4. Growth Hormone Treatment in Children With Prader-Willi Syndrome: Three Years of Longitudinal Data in Prepubertal Children and Adult Height Data From the KIGS Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nienke E; Lindberg, Anders; Heissler, Joseph; Wollmann, Hartmut A; Camacho-Hübner, Cecilia; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C

    2017-05-01

    Longitudinal data of children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) treated with genotropin were registered in the Pfizer International Growth Database (KIGS). To evaluate efficacy and safety of growth hormone (GH) treatment in a large group of children with PWS. Data registered in KIGS from 1987 to 2012. Worldwide retrospective cohort study. Patients included 522 prepubertal children treated with GH for three years and 173 children who had reached adult height. Safety analysis included 2332 children. Intervention involved GH treatment. Height standard deviation score (SDS), body mass index (BMI) SDS, occurrence of serious adverse events, and deaths reported in KIGS. In prepubertal children, mean (standard deviation) height SDS improved to -0.31 (1.34) (P < 0.05) during three years of GH treatment. In the adolescent group, height SDS improved until the start of puberty to -0.22 (1.31) (P < 0.05) but had a loss of -0.77 (0.81) during puberty, resulting in a mean adult height SDS of -1.19 (1.37). Total height gain was 0.95 (1.32) SDS. BMI SDS increased in the prepubertal group from 1.11 (2.09) to 1.53 (1.43) (P < 0.05) and did not significantly change in the adolescent group, who had a BMI SDS at an adult height of 1.78 (1.26). KIGS contained 12 death reports. GH treatment in children with PWS significantly improves linear growth. BMI remains on average below +2 SDS, in contrast to the natural course of increasing obesity in PWS. Safety should be closely monitored in children with PWS, with and without GH treatment.

  5. When do short children realize they are short? Prepubertal short children's perception of height during 24 months of catch-up growth hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, John E; Kriström, Berit; Jonsson, Björn; Halldin Stenlid, Maria; Aronson, A Stefan; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    To examine perceived height during the first 24 months of growth hormone (GH) treatment in short prepubertal children. Ninety-nine 3- to 11-year-old short prepubertal children with either isolated GH deficiency (n = 32) or idiopathic short stature (n = 67) participated in a 24-month randomized trial of individualized or fixed-dose GH treatment. Children's and parents' responses to three perceived height measures: relative height (Silhouette Apperception Test), sense of height (VAS short/tall), and judgment of appropriate height (yes/no) were compared to measured height. Children and parents overestimated height at start (72%, 54%) and at 24 months (52%, 30%). Short children described themselves as tall until 8.2 years (girls) and 9 years (boys). Prior to treatment, 38% of children described their height as appropriate and at 3 months, 63%. Mother's height, parental sense of the child's tallness and age explained more variance in children's sense of tallness (34%) than measured height (0%). Short children and parents overestimate height; a pivotal age exists for comparative height judgments. Even a small gain in height may be enough for the child to feel an appropriate age-related height has been reached and to no longer feel short. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effect of Nutritional Supplementation on Growth in Short and Lean Prepubertal Children after 1 Year of Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackobovitch-Gavan, Michal; Lebenthal, Yael; Lazar, Liora; Shalitin, Shlomit; Demol, Sharon; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe

    2016-12-01

    To determine the 1-year effectiveness and safety of nutritional supplementation with the study formula on linear growth and weight gain in short and lean prepubertal children and to validate the previously reported findings in those initially treated with placebo. Two-phase 1-year intervention (double-blind placebo-controlled [0-6 months] and open-labeled extension [6-12 months]) in which all participants were offered to continue the study using the study formula. Anthropometric measures and 3-day food diary were assessed at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of intervention. A total of 129 out of 150 children (86%) completed the open-labeled extension-phase. In "good" consumers of the formula (intake ≥50% of recommended dose) throughout the entire year height-SDS continued to improve in the extension phase, with a total gain of 0.19 ± 0.14 SD. In "good" consumers of the formula initially randomized to the placebo-group, the gain in height-SDS significantly improved (from 0.04 ± 0.13 to 0.12 ± 0.11; P = .001), replicating the results of the "good" consumers of the formula during the blinded-phase (0.12 ± 0.12). "Poor" consumers (intake nutritional supplement was effective in promoting the linear growth of short and lean prepubertal children, with no change in body mass index status. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01158352. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender differentiations of cognitive-motor functioning in prepubertal and pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav; Barović, Zdenka

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cognitive and motor status factors in female and male children aged 10-14, as well as developmental and/or integration functions according to gender. The study included 162 girls and 134 boys aged 10-14, divided into four groups: 84 girls aged 10-12 (mean age 11.26, SD 0.68), 84 boys aged 10-12 (mean age 11.41, SD 0.50), 78 girls aged 13-14 (mean age 13.52, SD 0.63) and 50 boys aged 13-14 (mean age 13.21, SD 0.53). The significance of quantitative differences between boys and girls in the overall system of variables was defined based on the results of canonic discriminant analysis of variance, and within each variable based on the results on univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). In the younger age group (10-12 years), girls were superior to boys in a test assessing flexibility (Seated straddle stretch), whereas, compared to girls, boys had greater strength of the trunk (Crossed-arm sit-ups), greater explosive strength ofjump and sprint type (Standing broad jump and 20 m dash), and coordination (Obstacle course backwards and Steps laterally). In the older age group (13-14 years) differences in flexibility were even more prominent in favor of girls, whereas the differences in explosive strength increased in favor of boys, especially of the throwing type with better agility (Steps laterally), balance (Board balance) and greater static strength of arms and shoulders (Bent-arm hang). In order to determine qualitative differences between pubertal and prepubertal girls and boys, the matrix of variable inter-correlations was factorized by the procedure of principal components procedure, that were then transformed to promax solution. The results showed that cognitive functioning had a significant role in the motor efficacy of girls and boys aged 10 to 14. In the age group of 10-12 years, in females, cognitive functioning is related to the motor system which integrates the regulation of muscle tone with agility/coordination, whereas

  8. Association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome components in prepubertal obese children (Tanner Stage I) from Nuevo León, Mexico - a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Elizabeth Solis; Medina, Mario Alberto González; Lomeli, Manuel Lopez-Cabanillas; González, Verónica Tijerina; Pérez, Jesús Zacarías Villarreal; Lavalle González, Fernando J; Imrhan, Victorine; Juma, Shanil; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Boonme, Kittipong; Prasad, Chandan

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in obese children demonstrating a positive association between serum uric acid (sUA) and components of MetS are confounded by lack of uniformity in age and pubertal status of children. Therefore, we have examined the role of sUA in MetS and its components in pre-pubertal children (Tanner Stage I, age ≤ 9 years). Pre-pubertal obese children (32 boys, 27 girls, age 6-9 years) were recruited from Nuevo Leon, Mexico. For comparison, an equal number of children with normal body mass index (BMI) in the same age range (22 Boys, 39 girls, age 6-9 years) were also recruited from the same community. Presence of MetS and its components was defined according to the criteria of International Diabetes Federation. Fasting blood was analyzed for lipids, glucose, insulin, and uric acid. Among the obese children, sUA was positively associated with insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia and negatively associated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLc). Subjects were three times more likely to have a MetS diagnosis per one unit (md/dL) difference in sUA. Of the 59 obese pre-pubertal children, 20 were classified as having MetS defined by the presence of abdominal obesity and two or more of other components described under methods. Of these, 57.1% (20/61) had sUA between 5.1 and 7.1 mg/dl. The findings of this study clearly indicate a positive relationship between uric acid and MetS and its components in pre-pubertal obese children with Tanner stage I and ≤9 years of age.

  9. Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time With Arterial Stiffness in Pre-Pubertal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Väistö, Juuso; Veijalainen, Aapo; Lintu, Niina; Wiklund, Petri; Westgate, Kate; Ekelund, Ulf; Lindi, Virpi; Brage, Soren; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the relationships of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) to arterial stiffness in prepubertal children. Altogether 136 children (57 boys, 79 girls) aged 6-8-years participated in the study. Stiffness index (SI) was assessed by pulse contour analysis based on photoplethysmography. ST, light PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA were assessed using combined acceleration and heart rate monitoring. We investigated the associations of ST (<1.5METs) and time spent in intensity level of PA above 2-7METs in min/d with SI using linear regression analysis. We studied the optimal duration and intensity of PA to identify children being in the highest quarter of SI using Receiver Operating Characteristics curves. Moderate PA, vigorous PA, and cumulative time spent in PA above 3 (β=-0.279, p = .002), 4 (β =-0.341, P<0.001), 5 (β =-0.349, P<0.001), 6 (β =-0.312, P<0.001), and 7 (β =-0.254, p = .005) METs were inversely associated with SI after adjustment for age, sex, and monitor wear time. The cutoffs for identifying children being in the highest quarter of SI <68 min/d for PA exceeding 5 METs and <26 min/d for PA exceeding 6 METs. Lower levels of PA exceeding 3-6 METs were related to higher arterial stiffness in children.

  10. Diversity of activity participation determines bone mineral content in the lower limbs of pre-pubertal children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, S S M; Vackova, D; Choi, A W M; Cheng, Y T Y; Yam, T T T; Guo, X

    2017-12-28

    This study examined the relationships between activity participation and bone mineralization in children with developmental coordination disorder. Limited participation in physical, recreational, social, and skill-based and self-improvement activities contributed to lower bone mineral content. For improved bone health, these children should participate in a variety of activities, not only physical activities. Limited activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may have a negative impact on bone mineral accrual. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineralization and activity participation patterns of pre-pubertal children with DCD and those with typical development, and to determine the association between activity participation patterns and bone mineralization in children with DCD. Fifty-two children with DCD (mean age = 7.51 years) and 61 children with typical development (mean age = 7.22 years) participated in the study. Appendicular and total body (less head) bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated by a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Activity participation patterns were assessed using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) questionnaire. Children with DCD had lower appendicular and total body BMCs and BMDs than children with typical development overall (p participation and bone mineralization were lower in pre-pubertal children with DCD. Decreased total activity participation diversity was a contributing factor to lower BMC in the legs of children with DCD.

  11. Accurate long-term prediction of height during the first four years of growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency or Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, Michael B; Lindberg, Anders; Brosz, Mathias; Kaspers, Stefan; Loftus, Jane; Wollmann, Hartmut; Kołtowska-Haggstrom, Maria; Roelants, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to develop and validate models for long-term prediction of growth in prepubertal children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or Turner syndrome (TS) for optimal, cost-effective growth hormone (GH) therapy. Height was predicted by sequential application of annual prediction algorithms for height velocity in cohorts of GHD (n = 664) and TS (n = 607) as documented within KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database). As height prediction models also require an estimate of weight, new algorithms for weight increase during the first to fourth prepubertal years on GH were developed. When height was predicted from the start of GH treatment, the predicted and observed mean (SD) gain over 4 years was 30.4 (3.4) cm and 30.1 (4.9) cm, respectively, in GHD patients, and 27.2 (2.2) cm and 26.6 (3.5) cm, respectively, in TS patients. For all 4 years, gains of weight SD scores (SDS) were accurately described as a function of weight SDS and observed gain in height SDS (R(2) > 0.89). In GHD and TS patients treated with GH, an accurate prepubertal long-term prediction of height development in groups is possible. Based on this, an optimal individual height outcome could be simulated. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Pre-pubertal children born post-term have reduced insulin sensitivity and other markers of the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahila Ayyavoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no data on the metabolic consequences of post-term birth (≥42 weeks gestation. We hypothesized that post-term birth would adversely affect insulin sensitivity, as well as other metabolic parameters and body composition in childhood. METHODS: 77 healthy pre-pubertal children, born appropriate-for-gestational-age were studied in Auckland, New Zealand: 36 born post-term (18 boys and 41 (27 boys born at term (38-40 weeks gestation. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity measured using intravenous glucose tolerance tests and Bergman's minimal model. Other assessments included fasting hormone concentrations and lipid profiles, body composition from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Insulin sensitivity was 34% lower in post-term than in term children (7.7 vs. 11.6 x10⁻⁴·min⁻¹·(mU/l; p<0.0001. There was a compensatory increase in acute insulin response among post-term children (418 vs 304 mU/l; p=0.037, who also displayed lower glucose effectiveness than those born at term (2.25 vs 3.11 x10⁻²·min⁻¹; p=0.047. Post-term children not only had more body fat (p=0.014 and less fat-free mass (p=0.014, but also had increased central adiposity with more truncal fat (p=0.017 and greater android to gynoid fat ratio (p=0.007 compared to term controls. Further, post-term children displayed other markers of the metabolic syndrome: lower normal nocturnal systolic blood pressure dipping (p=0.027, lower adiponectin concentrations (p=0.005, as well as higher leptin (p=0.008 and uric acid (p=0.033 concentrations. Post-term boys (but not girls also displayed a less favourable lipid profile, with higher total cholesterol (p=0.018 and LDL-C (p=0.006 concentrations, and total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio (p=0.048. CONCLUSIONS: Post-term children have reduced insulin sensitivity and display a number of early markers of the metabolic syndrome. These

  13. Relation of oxygen uptake to work rate in prepubertal healthy children - reference for VO2/W-slope and effect on cardiorespiratory fitness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-08-09

    Exercise testing by cycle ergometer allows to observe the interaction between oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and workload (W), and VO2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. Respectively, peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK ) can be estimated by maximal workload. We aim to determine reference for VO2 /W-slope among prepubertal children and define agreement between estimated and measured VO2PEAK . A total of 38 prepubertal children (20 girls) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test with respiratory gas analysis. VO2 /W-slopes were computed using linear regression. Agreement analysis by Bland and Altman for estimated and measured VO2PEAK was carried out including limits of agreement (LA). Determinants for VO2 /W-slopes and estimation bias were defined. VO2/W-slope was in both girls and boys ≥9·4 and did not change with exercise level, but the oxygen cost of exercise was higher among physically more active children. Estimated VO2PEAK had 6·4% coefficient of variation, and LA varied from 13% underestimation to 13% overestimation. Bias had a trend towards underestimation along lean mass proportional VO2PEAK . The primary determinant for estimation bias was VO2/W-slope (β = -0·65; PW-slope among healthy prepubertal children were similar to those published for adults and among adolescents. Estimated and measured VO2PEAK should not be considered to be interchangeable because of the variation in the relationship between VO2 and W. On other hand, variation in the relationship between VO2 and W enables that VO2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A comparison of different definitions of growth response in short prepubertal children treated with growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, P; Bjerknes, R; Dahlgren, J

    2011-01-01

    How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response.......How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response....

  15. Seasonal variation and atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in pre-pubertal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distelmaier, F.; Tibussek, D.; Schneider, D.T.; Mayatepek, E.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is an enigmatic disorder of elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. In adulthood, patients are typically obese women of childbearing age; however, in young children the clinical picture is strikingly different, indicating age-related differences in the aetiology

  16. Neuroendocrine Response to School Load in Prepubertal Children: Focus on Trait Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsdorfer, D; Hlavacova, N; Vondrova, D; Argalasova, L; Sevcikova, L; Jezova, Daniela

    2017-08-31

    At the time of school-age, the most frequent stress stimuli are related to school environment and educational process. Anxiety may play a big role in coping with stressful situations associated with school load. To approach this issue, we performed a real-life study at school during the classwork. The sample consisted of 36 healthy children aged 10 years, which were divided to low and high trait anxiety group based on the median value of the anxiety score. The investigations were carried out in the classroom during a stress condition (final exams) and non-stress condition (without any exam). In the whole sample, the condition with exam was associated with higher cortisol and lower testosterone concentrations in saliva compared to the condition without exam. The activity of salivary alpha-amylase increased at the end of the exam. Anxious children showed higher concentrations of aldosterone and lower activity of alpha-amylase compared to children with low trait anxiety. Cortisol levels were higher in anxious children in the first morning samples before starting the lessons. Children with high and low trait anxiety did not differ in extraversion, neuroticism, as well as non-verbal intelligence and school success. Thus, the anxious children at school showed a more rapid decrease of anticipatory stress-induced cortisol concentrations, higher aldosterone levels, and lower alpha-amylase activities compared to non-anxious children. These changes, particularly high concentrations of aldosterone in children with high trait anxiety, may have an impact on their psychophysiological development.

  17. The association of visuospatial working memory with dysthymic disorder in pre-pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, T; Lee, A; Hall, N; Hetrick, S; Ong, J; Haslam, N; Karsz, F; Vance, A

    2010-02-01

    Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) deficits have not been investigated specifically in children with dysthymic disorder (DD), although they are associated with impairments in attention that commonly occur in DD. This study investigates VSWM impairment in children with DD. A cross-sectional study of VSWM in 6- to 12-year-old children with medication-naive DD (n=26) compared to an age-, gender- and 'performance IQ' (PIQ)-matched healthy control group (n=28) was completed. The DD group demonstrated impairment in VSWM, including impairment in the spatial span and strategy components of VSWM. Furthermore, the VSWM impairment remained after controlling for spatial span. Inattentive symptoms were significantly associated with the VSWM impairment. This study of children with DD found deficits in performance on VSWM tasks, suggesting that fronto-striatal-parietal neural networks that underlie processes of attention and the executive component of VSWM are dysfunctional in children with DD. These findings further our understanding of DD and suggest more specific interventions that might improve functioning.

  18. Baseline Characteristics and Gender Differences in Prepubertal Children Treated with Growth Hormone in Europe, USA, and Japan: 25 Years' KIGS® Experience (1987-2012) and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, Michael B; Lindberg, Anders; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Camacho-Hübner, Cecilia; Dunger, David B; Geffner, Mitchell E

    2017-01-01

    Information about disease-specific and gender-associated differences over longer time of short children treated with recombinant human growth hormone is missing. We analyzed data at growth hormone (GH) start in prepubertal children diagnosed with idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD), congenital GHD, acquired GHD, idiopathic short stature (ISS), and born small for gestational age (SGA) enrolled (1987-2012) in the Pfizer International Growth Study (KIGS®) from Europe, USA, and Japan. The demographic characteristics of patients in the three regions were similar. There was a diagnosis-specific pattern for age and height, and a universal pattern showing that girls were younger and smaller at GH start. There was a predominance of males with IGHD (n = 25,703; 70.1%), congenital GHD (n = 2,860; 63.9%), acquired GHD (n = 3,280; 63.9%), ISS (n = 4,327; 71.4%), and SGA (n = 5,848; 58.0%). Male prevalence in the USA population was more pronounced in IGHD, ISS, and SGA, but less so in congenital and acquired GHD. In IGHD (Europe and Japan) and ISS (Europe), there was a trend toward decreasing male prevalence. The male prevalence in prepubertal children treated with GH varies according to geographical region and is not explained by the underlying diagnoses. A global appreciation of gender biases is required for the proper care of short girls. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Insulin sensitivity modulates the growth response during the first year of high-dose growth hormone treatment in short prepubertal children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Inge; Thomas, Muriel; Tenoutasse, Sylvie; De Waele, Kathleen; Lebrethon, Marie-Christine; Beckers, Dominique; Francois, Inge; Maes, Marc; Rooman, Raoul; de Beaufort, Carine; Massa, Guy; De Schepper, Jean

    2012-01-01

    To study the relationship between insulin sensitivity and growth response in short children born small for gestational age (SGA) treated with growth hormone (GH). Randomized, open-label, 24-month intervention study in 40 short prepubertal SGA children [age (mean ± SD) 5.3 ± 1.5 years], who either remained untreated (n = 20) or were treated with GH (66 µg/kg/day; n = 20). Changes in fasting glucose, insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), IGF-1 and leptin after 1 and 2 years were studied. Mean height SDS increased from -3.3 ± 0.7 to -2.3 ± 0.7 after 1 year, and to -1.9 ± 0.7 after 2 years of treatment. QUICKI decreased significantly (p = 0.008) in the first year of GH treatment and stabilized in the second year. Baseline QUICKI was positively associated (r = 0.40; p growth response to GH, and could be a promising parameter in selecting prepubertal short SGA children for GH treatment. However, this finding needs to be confirmed in larger studies. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  1. Nutritional status and metabolic disorders in HIV-exposed uninfected prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Cristiane Chiantelli; Patin, Rose Vega; Palchetti, Cecília Zanin; Machado, Daisy Maria; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes; Oliveira, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status and metabolic alterations in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIVe) children compared with HIV-unexposed (HIVn) children. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 76 children distributed into two groups: HIVe (n = 31) and HIVn (n = 45). Biochemical data (hematologic test, lipid profile, insulin resistance, hepatic profile, and C-reactive protein) were evaluated. Anthropometric parameters and body composition analyses were performed. The groups were similar regarding body mass index-for-age z-scores (P = 0.297) and height-for-age z-scores (P = 0.666). HIVe had a higher dyslipidemia prevalence (38.7% versus 11.1%; P = 0.010), altered total cholesterol (TC) values (19.4% versus 2.2%; P = 0.016) higher LDL-C mean levels (97.8 mg/dl versus 86 mg/dl; P = 0.028), borderline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (40% versus 14%; P = 0.011) and TC (41.9% versus 20%; P = 0.038) compared with HIVn. Despite the similar nutritional status between groups, our data clearly demonstrated a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia, altered TC, higher LDL-C levels and also LDL-C and TC borderline values in HIVe children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypoglycemia-Associated EEG Changes in Prepubertal Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Grith Lærkholm; Foli-Andersen, Pia; Fredheim, Siri

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the possible difference in the electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern between euglycemia and hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) during daytime and during sleep. The aim is to develop a hypoglycemia alarm based on continuous EEG...... measurement and real-time signal processing. METHOD: Eight T1D patients aged 6-12 years were included. A hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp was performed to induce hypoglycemia both during daytime and during sleep. Continuous EEG monitoring was performed. For each patient, quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures...... in specific bands comparing hypoglycemia to euglycemia both during daytime and during sleep. In daytime the EEG-based algorithm identified hypoglycemia in all children on average at a blood glucose (BG) level of 2.5 ± 0.5 mmol/l and 18.4 (ranging from 0 to 55) minutes prior to blood glucose nadir. During...

  3. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gallai, Beatrice; Roccella, Michele; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Francesco; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Bove, Domenico; Sorrentino, Michele; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic in Western and in developing countries and has been accompanied by many serious and severe comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome, depression, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis, steatohepatitis, and intracranial hypertension, as well as medical concerns unique to youth, such as accelerated pubertal and skeletal development and orthopedic disorders. To date, no specific studies about the psychological assessment in pediatric obesity are present. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the putative relationship between psychological troubles and obesity in a sample of school-aged children. The study population consists of 148 obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] >95th percentile) (69 males, mean age 8.9±1.23 years) consecutively referred from clinical pediatricians to the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry department at the Second University of Naples. In all subjects, weight, height, and BMI z-score were evaluated. In order to assess the anxiety levels and the presence of depressive symptoms, the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Italian Self-Administered Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA) were administered. The control group consisted of 273 healthy children (129 males and 144 females) (mean age 9.1±1.8 years), enrolled in schools within the Campania region of Italy. No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (8.9±1.23 years in the obese sample and 9.1±1.8 years in the control group) (P=0.228) or sex (ratio male/female: 69/79 in the obese group versus 129/144 in the control group) (P=0.983). Obviously, significant difference was found for the BMI z-score (2.46±0.31 in the obese group vs 0.73±0.51 in the control group) (Pobese subjects showed significant higher level of depressive symptoms (CDI total score) (16.82±7.73 vs 8.2±2.9) (Pdepression, in the common management of childhood obesity.

  4. Aerobic fitness in prepubertal children according to level of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ) and body fat in young children on a population-based level. METHODS: Participants were 586 children (311 boys and 275 girls) aged 6.8±0.4 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. VO......(2PEAK) was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test. Percent body fat (BF%) was estimated from skinfold measurements. RESULTS:  Significant relationships existed between BF% and absolute values of VO(2PEAK) (mL/min), VO(2PEAK) scaled by body weight (mL/min/kg) and VO(2PEAK......PEAK) existed between different quartiles of BF%, with the exception when VO(2PEAK) was scaled to FFM. CONCLUSION: Our findings document the coexistence of two known risk factors for disease at a young age on a population-base and confirms that VO(2PEAK) was scaled to FFM represents a body fat...

  5. Shigella flexneri-induced vaginitis in a prepubertal children: description of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Restelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In prepuberal girls vulvo-vaginitis are caused by germs of intestinal origin,mycetes, Gardnerella vaginalis, protozoa. Shigella is an uncommon agent able to induce valvovaginitis in children. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with chronic vulvo-vaginitis caused by S. flexneri. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing revealed that S. flexnery was sensible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, but resistant to amikacin, cefazolin, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. A treatment with ciprofloxacin brought to a rapid resolution of all symptoms. At the follows up at 3 and 6 months the patient did not report symptoms of infection or articular cartilage abnormality; microbiological evaluations were also negative. Even if it is a single case report and other clinical trial may be performed in order to validate this hypothesis,we speculate that in patient with vulvo-vaginal infection living in environment with low hygiene care, a carefully microbiological evaluation of uncommon agents may be performed.

  6. Hypoglycemia-Associated EEG Changes in Prepubertal Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Grith Lærkholm; Foli-Andersen, Pia; Fredheim, Siri

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the possible difference in the electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern between euglycemia and hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) during daytime and during sleep. The aim is to develop a hypoglycemia alarm based on continuous EEG...... measurement and real-time signal processing. METHOD: Eight T1D patients aged 6-12 years were included. A hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp was performed to induce hypoglycemia both during daytime and during sleep. Continuous EEG monitoring was performed. For each patient, quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures...... were calculated. A within-patient analysis was conducted comparing hypoglycemia versus euglycemia changes in the qEEG. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed. A real-time analyzing algorithm developed for adults was applied. RESULTS: The qEEG showed significant differences...

  7. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Francesco Lavano,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Domenico Bove,6 Michele Sorrentino,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy; 6Centro per la Diagnosi e Cura dei Disturbi dell’apprendimento e del Comportamento Associazione per la ricerca scientifica Fusis, Alvignano, Italy Introduction: Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic in Western and in developing countries and has been accompanied by many serious and severe comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome, depression, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis, steatohepatitis, and intracranial hypertension, as well as medical concerns unique to youth, such as accelerated pubertal and skeletal development and orthopedic disorders. To date, no specific studies about the psychological assessment in pediatric obesity are present. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the putative relationship between psychological troubles and obesity in a sample of school-aged children. Materials and methods: The study population consists of 148 obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] >95th percentile (69 males, mean age 8.9±1.23 years consecutively referred from clinical pediatricians to the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry department at the Second University of Naples. In all subjects, weight, height, and BMI z-score were evaluated. In order to assess the anxiety levels and the presence of

  8. Dietary Fiber Is Positively Associated with Cognitive Control among Prepubertal Children12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Converging evidence now indicates that aerobic fitness and adiposity are key correlates of childhood cognitive function and brain health. However, the evidence relating dietary intake to executive function/cognitive control remains limited. Objective: The current study assessed cross-sectional associations between performance on an attentional inhibition task and dietary fatty acids (FAs), fiber, and overall diet quality among children aged 7–9 y (n = 65). Methods: Attentional inhibition was assessed by using a modified flanker task. Three-day food records were used to conduct nutrient-level analyses and to calculate diet quality (Healthy Eating Index–2005) scores. Results: Bivariate correlations revealed that socioeconomic status and sex were not related to task performance or diet measures. However, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), pubertal staging, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and percentage of fat mass (%fat mass) correlated with task accuracy. Hierarchical regression models were used to determine the relation between diet variables and task accuracy and reaction time across both congruent and incongruent trials of the flanker task. After adjustment of confounding variables (age, IQ, pubertal staging, V̇O2max, and %fat mass), congruent accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.26, P = 0.03) and total dietary fiber (β = 0.23, P = 0.05). Incongruent response accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.35, P dietary fiber (β = 0.32, P dietary fiber, is an important correlate of performance on a cognitive task requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. PMID:25527669

  9. Dietary fiber is positively associated with cognitive control among prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence now indicates that aerobic fitness and adiposity are key correlates of childhood cognitive function and brain health. However, the evidence relating dietary intake to executive function/cognitive control remains limited. The current study assessed cross-sectional associations between performance on an attentional inhibition task and dietary fatty acids (FAs), fiber, and overall diet quality among children aged 7-9 y (n = 65). Attentional inhibition was assessed by using a modified flanker task. Three-day food records were used to conduct nutrient-level analyses and to calculate diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2005) scores. Bivariate correlations revealed that socioeconomic status and sex were not related to task performance or diet measures. However, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), pubertal staging, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and percentage of fat mass (%fat mass) correlated with task accuracy. Hierarchical regression models were used to determine the relation between diet variables and task accuracy and reaction time across both congruent and incongruent trials of the flanker task. After adjustment of confounding variables (age, IQ, pubertal staging, V̇O2max, and %fat mass), congruent accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.26, P = 0.03) and total dietary fiber (β = 0.23, P = 0.05). Incongruent response accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.35, P dietary fiber (β = 0.32, P dietary fiber, is an important correlate of performance on a cognitive task requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Different thresholds of tissue-specific dose-responses to growth hormone in short prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Ralph

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to stimulating linear growth in children, growth hormone (GH influences metabolism and body composition. These effects should be considered when individualizing GH treatment as dose-dependent changes in metabolic markers have been reported. Hypothesis: There are different dose-dependent thresholds for metabolic effects in response to GH treatment. Method A randomized, prospective, multicentre trial TRN 98-0198-003 was performed for a 2-year catch-up growth period, with two treatment regimens (a individualized GH dose including six different dose groups ranging from 17–100 μg/kg/day (n=87 and (b fixed GH dose of 43 μg/kg/day (n=41. The individualized GH dose group was used for finding dose–response effects, where the effective GH dose (ED 50% required to achieve 50% Δ effect was calculated with piecewise linear regressions. Results Different thresholds for the GH dose were found for the metabolic effects. The GH dose to achieve half of a given effect (ED 50%, with 90% confidence interval was calculated as 33(±24.4 μg/kg/day for Δ left ventricular diastolic diameter (cm, 39(±24.5 μg/kg/day for Δ alkaline phosphatase (μkat/L, 47(±43.5 μg/kg/day for Δ lean soft tissue (SDS, 48(±35.7 μg/kg/day for Δ insulin (mU/L, 51(±47.6 μg/kg/day for Δ height (SDS, and 57(±52.7 μg/kg/day for Δ insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I SDS. Even though lipolysis was seen in all subjects, there was no dose–response effect for Δ fat mass (SDS or Δ leptin ng/ml in the dose range studied. None of the metabolic effects presented here were related to the dose selection procedure in the trial. Conclusions Dose-dependent thresholds were observed for different GH effects, with cardiac tissue being the most responsive and level of IGF-I the least responsive. The level of insulin was more responsive than that of IGF-I, with the threshold effect for height in the interval between.

  11. High-dose GH treatment limited to the prepubertal period in young children with idiopathic short stature does not increase adult height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, S A; Kamp, G A; Odink, R J; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S M P F; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A; Oostdijk, W; Wit, J M

    2010-04-01

    To assess the long-term effect of prepubertal high-dose GH treatment on growth in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Forty children with no signs of puberty, age at start 4-8 years (girls) or 4-10 years (boys), height SDS -2.0 SDS, were randomly allocated to receive GH at a dose of 2 mg/m(2) per day (equivalent to 75 microg/kg per day at start and 64 microg/kg per day at stop) until the onset of puberty for at least 2 years (preceded by two 3-month periods of treatment with low or intermediate doses of GH separated by two washout periods of 3 months) or no treatment. In 28 cases, adult height (AH) was assessed at a mean (S.D.) age of 20.4 (2.3) years. GH-treated children (mean treatment period on high-dose GH 2.3 years (range 1.2-5.0 years)) showed an increased mean height SDS at discontinuation of the treatment compared with the controls (-1.3 (0.8) SDS versus -2.6 (0.8) SDS respectively). However, bone maturation was significantly accelerated in the GH-treated group compared with the controls (1.6 (0.4) versus 1.0 (0.2) years per year, respectively), and pubertal onset tended to advance. After an untreated interval of 3-12 years, AH was -2.1 (0.7) and -1.9 (0.6) in the GH-treated and control groups respectively. Age was a positive predictor of adult height gain. High-dose GH treatment restricted to the prepubertal period in young ISS children augments height gain during treatment, but accelerates bone maturation, resulting in a similar adult height compared with the untreated controls.

  12. VNN1 Gene Expression Levels and the G-137T Polymorphism Are Associated with HDL-C Levels in Mexican Prepubertal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Aguayo-de la Rosa, Pablo I.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Bojalil, Rafael; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism have been associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mexican American adults. We aim to evaluate the contribution of VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant to HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in Mexican prepubertal children. Methodology/Principal Findings VNN1 mRNA expression levels were quantified in peripheral blood leukocytes from 224 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo children aged 6–8 years (107 boys and 117 girls) and were genotyped for the G-137T variant (rs4897612). To account for population stratification, a panel of 10 ancestry informative markers was analyzed. After adjustment for admixture, the TT genotype was significantly associated with lower VNN1 mRNA expression levels (P = 2.9 × 10−5), decreased HDL-C levels (β = −6.19, P = 0.028) and with higher body mass index (BMI) z-score (β = 0.48, P = 0.024) in the total sample. In addition, VNN1 expression showed a positive correlation with HDL-C levels (r = 0.220; P = 0.017) and a negative correlation with BMI z-score (r = −0.225; P = 0.015) only in girls. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican children, particularly in prepubertal girls. PMID:23185446

  13. Short-term changes in bone formation markers following growth hormone (GH) treatment in short prepubertal children with a broad range of GH secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Björn; Swolin-Eide, Diana; Magnusson, Per; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) promotes longitudinal growth and bone modelling/remodelling. This study investigated the relationship between levels of bone formation markers and growth during GH treatment in prepubertal children with widely ranging GH secretion levels. The study group comprised 113 short prepubertal children (mean age ± SD, 9·37 ± 2·13 years; 99 boys) on GH treatment (33·0 ± 0·06 μg/kg/day) for 1 year. Blood samples were taken at baseline and 1 and 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months, and 1 year after treatment start. Intact amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and osteocalcin were measured using an automated IDS-iSYS immunoassay system. Intact amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), BALP and osteocalcin, increased in the short-term during GH treatment. PINP after 1 week (P = 0·00077), and BALP and osteocalcin after 1 month (P growth response. No significant correlations were found between BALP and first year growth. Multiple regression analysis showed that bone marker levels together with auxological data and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 explained the variation in first year growth response to 36% at start, 32% after 2 weeks and 48% at 3 months. Short-term increases in levels of the bone formation markers PINP, BALP and osteocalcin showed different temporal patterns, but all correlated with first year growth response during GH treatment. These markers may be a useful addition to existing prediction models for growth response. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Complementary Effects of Genetic Variations in LEPR on Body Composition and Soluble Leptin Receptor Concentration after 3-Month Lifestyle Intervention in Prepubertal Obese Children

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    Joanna Gajewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In obese individuals, weight loss might be affected by variants of the adipokine-encoding genes. We verified whether selected functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ are associated with changes in serum levels of the respective adipokines and weight loss in 100 prepubertal obese (SDS-BMI > 2 Caucasian children undergoing lifestyle intervention. Frequencies of the -2548G > A LEP, Q223R LEPR, K656N LEPR, -11377C > G and -11426A > G ADIPOQ polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum adipokine and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R concentrations were measured using the ELISA method. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, only LEPR polymorphisms were associated with changes of SDS-BMI or sOB-R concentrations in children after therapy. Carriers of the wild-type K665N and at least one minor Q223R allele had the greatest likelihood of losing weight (OR = 5.09, p = 0.006, an increase in sOB-R (ptrend = 0.022 and decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with the decrease of fat mass (p < 0.001. In contrast, carrying of the wild-type Q223R and at least one minor K665N allele were associated with a decrease in sOB-R concentrations and a decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with a decrease in fat-free mass (p = 0.002. We suggest that the combination of different LEPR variants, not a single variant, might determine predisposition to weight loss in the prepubertal period.

  15. Evaluation of lipid and glucose metabolism and cortisol and thyroid hormone levels in obese appropriate for gestational age (AGA) born and non-obese small for gestational age (SGA) born prepubertal Slovak children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusková, Zuzana; Koštálová, Ludmila; Celec, Peter; Vitáriušová, Eva; Pribilincová, Zuzana; Maršálková, Marianna; Šemberová, Jana; Kyselová, Tatiana; Hlavatá, Anna; Kovács, László

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is the major determinant of metabolic syndrome. Being born small for gestational age (SGA) may be co-responsible. We aimed at evaluating the association between 1. obesity and 2. being born SGA and the presence of endocrine-metabolic abnormalities in prepubertal Slovak children. The study included 98 children, aged 3-10.9 years: 36 AGA-born obese children (OB), 31 SGA-born children (SGA) and 31 appropriate for gestational age born non-obese children (AGA). Fasting serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, fT4, TSH, cortisol and insulin were determined. HOMA-IR was calculated. Personal data about birth weight and length and family history were collected. Actual anthropometric measurement was done. In every group, high prevalence of positive family history of metabolic disorder was found. In comparison with AGA children, OB children were taller (pSGA-born children were shorter (pSGA-born children in comparison with AGA-born children. SGA-born children are more prone to developing endocrine-metabolic abnormalities than non-obese children born AGA, but they are at less risk than obese AGA-born children. We should provide specialized care for obese children already in prepubertal age and pay attention to SGA-born children.

  16. Excessive refined carbohydrates and scarce micronutrients intakes increase inflammatory mediators and insulin resistance in prepubertal and pubertal obese children independently of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alarcón, Mardia; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Inda-Icaza, Patricia; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Armenta-Álvarez, Andrea; Bram-Falcón, María Teresa; Mayorga-Ochoa, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

  17. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia López-Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P<0.01. Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

  18. Bolus Calculator Settings in Well-Controlled Prepubertal Children Using Insulin Pumps Are Characterized by Low Insulin to Carbohydrate Ratios and Short Duration of Insulin Action Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanas, Ragnar; Adolfsson, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The "500 rule" has been used extensively to find the insulin to carbohydrate ratio (ICR) for carbohydrate counting (CC). Duration of insulin action (DIA) is often recommended to be set to 4 hours. Data are lacking on validating these routines in young children. ICR was calculated by dividing carbohydrate grams by insulin units. Insulin sensitivity factor (ISF) was defined by the 100 rule (100 divided by total daily insulin dose [TDD]). DIA was set to 3 hours. ICR, ISF, and DIA were adjusted continuously. Data for this retrospective analysis were taken from pump downloads at a routine visit. ICR and ISF were recalculated to rules (ICR/ISF multiplied by TDD). A total of 21 prepubertal children aged 7.0 ± 2.3 (mean ± SD), range 2-10 years, with diabetes duration 3.0 ± 1.9, range 0.5-7.7 years, used the pump bolus calculator for CC. HbA1c IFCC (NGSP) was 53 ± 6 mmol/mol (7.0 ± 0.5%). None had experienced severe hypoglycemia (unconsciousness/seizures) since diabetes diagnosis. TDD was 0.7 ± 0.1 U/kg/24 h (range 0.5-1.0), and the percentage basal insulin 38 ± 11%. Median breakfast rule was 211 (Q, quartiles 162;310), and for other meals 434 (Q 301;496). Median ISF rule was 113 (Q 100;128) in the morning, and 120 (Q 104;134) during the rest of the day. DIA was 2.6 ± 0.5 h (range 2-3) and target BG 5.3 ± 0.4 mmol/l (range 5.0-6.0). Prepubertal children seem to need more bolus insulin for meals than calculated from the 500 rule, especially at breakfast, but less insulin for corrections than calculated from the 100 rule. Two to 3 hours seems to be the appropriate range for DIA in this age group.

  19. Euthyroid hyperthyroxinaemia due to assay interference | Klisiewicz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: A 47-year-old female patient was referred for further investigation and management of “hyperthyroidism.” The patient was clinically euthyroid and had previously been treated with carbimazole, but self-discontinued therapy as she felt unwell on treatment. A careful review of this patient's blood results revealed ...

  20. Cortical bone density is normal in prepubertal children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, but initially decreases during GH replacement due to early bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, R; Martin, D D; Schwarze, C P; Binder, G; Georgiadou, A; Ihle, J; Ranke, M B

    2003-11-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has revealed that GH- deficient adults gain in bone mineral density during GH therapy. Measurements of volumetric bone density (grams per cubic centimeter vs. grams per square centimeter) and structure, however, are achieved through peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). In 45 prepubertal GH-deficient children, we studied pQCT measurements before the start and for 12 months of GH treatment. Serum alkaline phosphatase (AP), procollagen I carboxyl-terminal propeptide (PICP), and deoxypyridinoline reflected bone metabolism status. Findings at the start of GH treatment were (mean SD score): bone area, -0.44; cortical density, -0.03; cortical area, -1.32; cortical thickness, -1.41; and marrow area, +0.66. At 12 months, cortical density had fallen to -0.73 (P < 0.001), whereas cortical area and thickness, and marrow area did not change. AP, PICP, and deoxypyridinoline increased significantly within the first 3 months (increase: AP, 66.5 U/liter; PICP, 72 microg/liter; DPD, 11.4 nmol/mmol creatinine). The pQCT showed that cortical density is not reduced in GH-deficient patients. Higher bone metabolism explains the lower cortical density after GH therapy commenced. Thus, the manifestation of GH deficiency is evidently similar in children and adults, and pQCT provides important information in addition to DEXA measurements, as DEXA does not take bone structure into account.

  1. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  2. Potential Use of Singing in Educational Settings with Pre-Pubertal Children Possessing Speech and Voice Disorders: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinta, Tiija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether children who possess speech and voice disorders could benefit from engaging in singing activities in educational settings, based on the psychological benefits of such activities. The impact of singing on children's psychological state and well-being was investigated with a participant population…

  3. Influence of a 3-year exercise intervention program on fracture risk, bone mass, and bone size in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Bjarne; Detter, Fredrik; Dencker, Magnus; Stenevi-Lundgren, Susanna; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-08-01

    Published prospective pediatric exercise intervention studies are short term and use skeletal traits as surrogate endpoints for fractures, whereas other reports infer exercise to be associated with more trauma and fractures. This prospective, controlled exercise intervention study therefore followed both skeletal traits and fracture risk for 36 months. Fractures were registered in children aged 7 to 9 years; there were 446 boys and 362 girls in the intervention group (2129 person-years) and 807 boys and 780 girls in the control group (4430 person-years). The intervention included school physical education of 40 minutes per day for 3 years. The control children achieved the Swedish standard of 60 minutes per week. In a subsample of 76 boys and 48 girls in the intervention group and 55 boys and 44 girls in the control group, bone mineral content (BMC, g) and bone width (cm) were followed in the lumbar spine and hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The rate ratio (RR) for fractures was 1.08 (0.71, 1.62) [mean (95% confidence interval)]. In the DXA-measured children, there were no group differences at baseline in age, anthropometrics, or bone traits. The mean annual gain in the intervention group in lumbar spine BMC was 0.9 SD higher in girls and 0.8 SD higher in boys (both p exercise program in 7- to 9-year-old children increases bone mass and possibly also bone size without increasing fracture risk. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  5. Serum ghrelin levels and gender-related indices of body composition in prepubertal children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Minoo; Ansari, Sara; Sotoudeh, Gity; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Speakman, John R; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2015-03-01

    A wide variety of functions has been attributed to ghrelin, a peptide hormone secreted in the stomach. The objective of the study was to assess the association of ghrelin concentrations with body composition among Iranian children. In this study, blood samples of 57 boys and 54 girls aged 6-10 were collected to measure ghrelin levels. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were examined by body composition analyzer. Actigraph GT3X was administered to assess children's physical activity and sleep. Data were analyzed using linear regression models. All measured parameters did not differ between genders except for sleep time which was higher and sleep efficacy which was lower in boys compared with girls. None of the FM and FFM indices studied in boys was significantly associated with ghrelin levels. In girls, however, ghrelin concentrations were significantly associated with FM (β = 0.04, P = 0.01), fat mass index (β = 0.07, P = 0.008), and fat-free mass index (β = 0.08, P = 0.04) and near-significantly associated with FFM (β = 0.03, P = 0.09) after adjusting for age, physical activity, sleep, and dietary intake. Girls with higher ghrelin levels were more likely to have increased total FM and FFM. Conversely, body composition was not associated with ghrelin levels in boys. Consequently, ghrelin may influence the gender-related differences of body composition during childhood in girls. But, further study is needed to confirm our findings.

  6. Model of normal prepubertal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalange, N K; Foster, P J; Gill, M S; Price, D A; Clayton, P E

    1996-11-01

    Growth over the short term is a highly complex non-linear process. Contrasting models of short term growth have been proposed which include periodic growth cycles versus abrupt growth spurts with intervening growth arrest ('saltation and stasis'). The variability of short term growth has been characterised from a study of 46 healthy prepubertal children measured three times a week over one academic year using a combination of descriptive statistical approaches and regression modelling. Growth in childhood over one year is represented by a biphasic process comprising three to six unpredictable growth spurts, each of mean length 56 days (range 13-155 days), separated by periods of stasis (less than or equal to 0.05 cm height increment over more than seven days), each lasting a mean of 18 days (range 8-52 days) and accounting for at least 20% of the period of observation. This is superimposed on strong seasonal trends in growth with a declining growth rate over the autumn months reaching a nadir in midwinter, followed by a growth spurt in the spring. Human growth over short periods is therefore a discontinuous, irregular, and unpredictable process.

  7. Relationship between body composition and postural control in prepubertal overweight/obese children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrasa-Sapiña, Israel; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Cabeza-Ruiz, Ruth; Redón, Pau; Lurbe, Empar; García-Massó, Xavier

    2018-02-01

    Excess body weight during childhood causes reduced motor functionality and problems in postural control, a negative influence which has been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, no information regarding the effect of body composition on the postural control of overweight and obese children is available. The objective of this study was therefore to establish these relationships. A cross-sectional design was used to establish relationships between body composition and postural control variables obtained in bipedal eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions in twenty-two children. Centre of pressure signals were analysed in the temporal and frequency domains. Pearson correlations were applied to establish relationships between variables. Principal component analysis was applied to the body composition variables to avoid potential multicollinearity in the regression models. These principal components were used to perform a multiple linear regression analysis, from which regression models were obtained to predict postural control. Height and leg mass were the body composition variables that showed the highest correlation with postural control. Multiple regression models were also obtained and several of these models showed a higher correlation coefficient in predicting postural control than simple correlations. These models revealed that leg and trunk mass were good predictors of postural control. More equations were found in the eyes-open than eyes-closed condition. Body weight and height are negatively correlated with postural control. However, leg and trunk mass are better postural control predictors than arm or body mass. Finally, body composition variables are more useful in predicting postural control when the eyes are open. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Sarcolemma tissue of prepubertal concealed penis: pathological characterization and clinical implication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Tao; Yang, Xing-Hai

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the histopathological characteristics and clinical implication of sarcolemma tissue in prepubertal concealed penis. After measurement of the penile length, 10 prepubertal children with congenital concealed penis underwent modified Devine's operation (treatment group), and another 10 normal prepubertal children received circumcision (control group). The anatomic features of the penile sarcolemma tissue was observed intraoperatively, and its fibrosis was evaluated by Masson trichrome staining. The penile length of the treatment group was significantly shorter than that of the control group preoperatively ([1.49 +/- 0.17 ] cm vs [4.26 +/- 0.23 ] cm, P penis, and the key to its management is drastic removal of all the fibrous sarcolemma tissue.

  9. The mode of school transportation in pre-pubertal children does not influence the accrual of bone mineral or the gain in bone size - two year prospective data from the paediatric osteoporosis preventive (POP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Magnus K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking and cycling to school are one source of regular physical activity. The aim of this two years observational study in pre-pubertal children was to evaluate if walking and cycling to school was associated with higher total amount of physical activity and larger gain in bone mineral content (BMC and bone width than when going by car or bus. Methods 133 boys and 99 girls aged 7-9 years were recruited to the Malmö Prospective Paediatric Osteoporosis Prevention (POP study. BMC (g was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in total body, lumbar spine (L2-L4 and femoral neck (FN at baseline and after 24 months. Bone width was measured in L2-L4 and FN. Skeletal changes in the 57 boys and 48 girls who consistently walked or cycled to school were compared with the 24 boys and 17 girls who consistently went by bus or car. All children remained in Tanner stage I. Level of everyday physical activity was estimated by accelerometers worn for four consecutive days and questionnaires. Comparisons were made by independent student's t-tests between means and Fisher's exact tests. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to adjust for group differences in age at baseline, duration of organized physical activity, annual changes in length and BMC or bone width if there were differences in these traits at baseline. Results After the adjustments, there were no differences in the annual changes in BMC or bone width when comparing girls or boys who walked or cycled to school with those who went by car or bus. Furthermore, there were no differences in the levels of everyday physical activity objectively measured by accelerometers and all children reached above the by the United Kingdom Expert Consensus Group recommended level of 60 minutes moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Conclusion A physical active transportation to school for two years is in pre-pubertal children not associated with a higher accrual of BMC or bone width than

  10. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto Erika K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrients, hormones and growth factors in dairy foods may stimulate growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, and raise the ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein, IGFBP-3. We conducted pilot studies in Mongolia and Massachusetts to test the extent to which milk intake raised somatotropic hormone concentrations in prepubertal children. Methods In Ulaanbaatar, we compared plasma levels before and after introducing 710 ml daily whole milk for a month among 46 10–11 year old schoolchildren. In a randomized cross-over study in Boston, we compared plasma hormone levels of 28 6–8 year old girls after one week of drinking 710 ml lowfat (2% milk with their hormone levels after one week of consuming a macronutrient substitute for milk. Results After a month of drinking whole milk, Mongolian children had higher mean plasma levels of IGF-I (p th percentile of GH levels (p = 0.005. After a week of drinking lowfat milk, Boston girls had small and non-significant increases in IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and GH. Conclusion Milk drinking may cause increases in somatotropic hormone levels of prepubertal girls and boys. The finding that milk intake may raise GH levels is novel, and suggests that nutrients or bioactive factors in milk may stimulate endogenous GH production.

  11. The response to growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency in Japan: Comparing three consecutive years of treatment data of The Foundation for Growth Science in Japan between the 1990s and 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2017-09-30

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment for children with GH deficiency (GHD) is effective in improving adult height. To achieve favorable effects, GH treatment before puberty is very important, because prepubertal height gain is highly correlated with total height gain. However, no report has studied the effects by analyzing a nationwide data from recent GHD patients in Japan. We investigated the response to GH treatment using data compiled in the Foundation for Growth Science in Japan, and compared the effects between the 1990s and 2000s using analysis of covariance. We analyzed 534 prepubertal GHD subjects treated in the 2000s with three consecutive years of data from the start and investigated predictive factors for the effects. The cumulative height standard deviation score (SDS) change over three years of GH treatment was 0.91 ± 0.57 and 1.20 ± 0.62 in the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Subjects in the 2000s were divided into three groups by severity, and the cumulative height SDS was 1.60 ± 0.93, 1.20 ± 0.54, and 1.00 ± 0.40 indicating severe, moderate, and mild GHD, respectively. Age and height SDS at the start and severity were identified as independent predictive factors. We also found a significant difference in the effects between the two cohorts after adjusting for the different factors (regression coefficient: -0.069, 95% confidence interval: -0.11 to -0.030, p = 0.0006), which might be due to the GH dose effect. We conclude that the effects of GH treatment in the 2000s had improved compared with those in the 1990s.

  12. Reference curve for the first-year growth response to growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency: validation of the KIGS first-year growth response curve using the Belgian Register for the Study of Growth and Puberty Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straetemans, Saartje; Roelants, Mathieu; Thomas, Muriel; Rooman, Raoul; De Schepper, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Comparing observed and expected growth after first-year growth hormone (GH) therapy is useful for identifying a poor growth response to GH. To generate a first-year, age-specific growth response reference curve for prepubertal Belgian children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (iGHD) treated with a standard weight-adjusted GH dose and to compare this national reference with the response references derived from KIGS. First-year height data of 357 prepubertal children (240 males) with iGHD were analyzed. Smooth reference curves of first-year height velocity (HV) in relation to age were created. Differences with the KIGS targets were evaluated after z-score transformation. The observed first-year HVs were log-normal distributed by age and decreased significantly with age (phormone deficiencies had a positive effect (pgrowth response curves enable rapid identification of poor response to first-year GH treatment in prepubertal iGHD children. Our results validate the published growth targets derived from the KIGS database. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Association between Hyperhomocysteinemia and Thyroid Hormones in Euthyroid Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The concept now emerging is that higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and lower thyroid hormone levels within the euthyroid range may adversely affect atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the potential associations between thyroid parameters and hyperhomocysteinaemia in a cohort of euthyroid diabetic subjects. Material and Methods. Two hundred and seventy-three euthyroid diabetic subjects (167 males and 106 females were consecutively recruited in this cross-sectional study. Clinical and biomedical data was collected. Results. TSH level was higher in females than males. Compared to normal-homocysteine group, hyperhomocysteinaemia group was more likely to be elderly, males, with longer diabetes history, and with lower diastolic blood pressure. Free thyroxine (FT4 level was lower in hyperhomocysteinaemia group than in normal-homocysteine group; however, it was not statistically significant. Adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in logistic regression analyses, hyperhomocysteinaemia was significantly correlated with FT4 (P=0.021. No significant association was found with TSH or free triiodothyronine. When analyzed in subjects with TSH < 2.5 uIU/mL separately, we got similar results. Conclusions. In conclusion, we identified a relation between hyperhomocysteinemia and FT4 in a group of euthyroid diabetic patients.

  14. Selenite supplementation in euthyroid subjects with thyroid peroxidase antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, Silvia A.; Endert, Erik; Fliers, Eric; Birnie, Erwin; Hollenbach, Birgit; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2014-01-01

    Euthyroid thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab)-positive subjects are at risk for progression to subclinical and overt autoimmune hypothyroidism. Previous studies have shown a decrease in TPO-Ab and improvement of quality-of-life (QoL) in L-T4-treated hypothyroid patients upon selenium supplementation. To

  15. Comparison of QT dispersion between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Kıskaç

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroid and QTc dispersionindicating local heterogeneity in repolarization of myocardium, which is well known as independent cardiac risk factor for sudden death and ventricular arrhythmia.Materials and Methods: We compared QTc dispersion of subclinical hypothyroid patients, after treatment and healthy control group. We included a total of 50 patients with 41 women and 9 men in the study group. Electrocardiographywith 12 derivations, thyroid hormones, serum electrolytes and basic biochemical parameters were measured.The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.QT distances were calculated by using Bazet formula. The difference between the longest QTc and the shortest QTc distance was accepted as QTc dispersion (QTcd.Results: Comparison of subclinical hypothyroid patients, their euthyroidic period after treatment and healthy controlgroup, gave no significant differences in age, body weight, body mass index and free thyroxin values. However,significant difference was found in durations of QTd and QTcd between the subclinical hypothyroid, the control and the euthyroidic groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our results suggested that subclinical hypothyroidpatients had longer QTc dispersion compared to euthyroidic period and healthy subjects. However there was no QTcd difference between the euthyroidic period and healthy control group.

  16. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  17. Ultrasonographic Findings of Prepubertal Testicular Teratoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jang Han; Cho, Jae Ho [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of testicular teratoma arising in pre-pubertal children. We studied 6 cases in 5 patients with pathologically proven testicular teratoma. Ultrasonography was performed in all cases and MRI in 5 cases. The location, size, shape, margin and internal echo pattern of the lesion were evaluated on ultrasonography and the shape, signal intensity and presence or absence of contrast enhancement were evaluated on MRI. The shape of all cases was round or oval and the lesion size ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 cm (average, 1.7 cm). Four of 6 cases were seen as cystic lesions, Three of which were multilocular and one was unilocular. The cystic lesions were filled with echo-free fluid without any solid component. The inner wall and septa were minutely granulated. One of 6 cases was seen as a predominantly cystic lesion containing heterogeneous, high echoic portions. One case was seen as a heterogeneous mixed echoic lesion with dirty posterior sonic shadowing. Three of the 4 cases seen as a cyst on ultrasonography were also seen as a cyst on MRI. In one case seen as a predominantly cystic lesion on ultrasonography, the periphery of the lesion was hypointense and the center was hyperintense on T2-weighted image. The remaining case seen as a heterogeneous mixed echoic mass was markedly heterogeneous in signal intensity both on T2- and T1-weighted images and hyperintense fat components were noted. Contrast enhancement was not seen in any of the 4 cases. On ultrasonography, pre-pubertal testicular teratoma is commonly seen as a multilocular or unilocular cyst and a minutely granulated appearance is noted in the inner wall or septa of the cystic lesion

  18. Forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, C W; Lavelle, J M; De Jong, A R; Loiselle, J; Brenner, L; Joffe, M

    2000-07-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends forensic evidence collection when sexual abuse has occurred within 72 hours, or when there is bleeding or acute injury. It is not known whether these recommendations are appropriate for prepubertal children, because few data exist regarding the utility of forensic evidence collection in cases of child sexual assault. This study describes the epidemiology of forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. The medical records of 273 children Criminalistics Laboratory were retrospectively reviewed for history, physical examination findings, forensic evidence collection, and forensic results. Some form of forensic evidence was identified in 24.9% of children, all of whom were examined within 44 hours of their assault. Over 90% of children with positive forensic evidence findings were seen within 24 hours of their assault. The majority of forensic evidence (64%) was found on clothing and linens, yet only 35% of children had clothing collected for analysis. After 24 hours, all evidence, with the exception of 1 pubic hair, was recovered from clothing or linens. No swabs taken from the child's body were positive for blood after 13 hours or sperm/semen after 9 hours. A minority of children (23%) had genital injuries. Genital injury and a history of ejaculation provided by the child were associated with an increased likelihood of identifying forensic evidence, but several children had forensic evidence found that was unanticipated by the child's history. The general guidelines for forensic evidence collection in cases of acute sexual assault are not well-suited for prepubertal victims. The decision to collect evidence is best made by the timing of the examination. Swabbing the child's body for evidence is unnecessary after 24 hours. Clothing and linens yield the majority of evidence and should be pursued vigorously for analysis.

  19. The influence of a six-week, high-intensity games intervention on the pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in prepubertal obese and normal-weight children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambrick, Danielle; Faulkner, James; Westrupp, Nicole; McNarry, Melitta A

    2015-01-01

    ... children during heavy-intensity exercise. Thirteen normal-weight and 15 obese children participated in a twice-weekly exercise intervention involving repeated bouts of 6-min high-intensity, games-orientated exercises followed by 2 min of recovery...

  20. Is prepubertal growth adversely affected by sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, R; Bencke, J; Matthiesen, G; Petersen, J H; Müller, J

    2000-10-01

    To study the effect of genetic factors, birth weight, early childhood growth, sport, hours of training, and pubertal status on the stature and body mass index (BMI) of children aged 9-13 participating in sports at a competitive level. A total of 184 children (96 girls, 88 boys), competing in swimming, tennis, team handball, and gymnastics, were investigated, assessing their height, weight, pubertal development, and BMI. Of these, 137 (76 girls, 61 boys) returned a questionnaire, which enabled us to determine height and BMI at age 2-4, birth weight, and parental heights. Significant differences in standard deviation scores (SDS) for actual height and for height at age 2-4 were found in both sexes between the four sports. In girls, BMI SDS was significantly different between the four sports, whereas no difference was found in boys. Each sport investigated separately showed no change in height SDS and BMI SDS between ages 2-4 and 9-13. A regression analysis showed that target height, height at age 2-4, and pubertal status had a significant impact on actual height. Interestingly, the type of sport and hours of training per week had no effect on height SDS. In boys, BMI at age 2-4 and pubertal status had a significant effect on actual BMI, whereas in girls, only BMI at age 2-4 was significant. The results suggest that prepubertal growth is not adversely affected by sport at a competitive level and that constitutional factors are of importance for choice of sport in children.

  1. Association between height and weight catch-up growth with insulin resistance in pre-pubertal Chinese children born small for gestational age at two different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan-Hong; Su, Zhe; Ma, Hua-Mei; Huang, Yue-Fang; Chen, Hong-Shan; Du, Min-Lian

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to test whether children born small for gestational age (SGA) with catch-up growth (CUG) could be associated with the early development of insulin resistance and the β-cell dysfunction and to explore the impacts of height CUG and weight CUG on the insulin resistance in a Chinese population. A total of 30 children born SGA with CUG, 37 non-CUG (NCUG), and 42 born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) with normal height were recruited. Their fasting serum insulin, fasting glucose, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations, and the homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA%) were evaluated. The values of HOMA-IR in CUG SGA were significantly higher than that in NCUG SGA (P = 0.002) and AGA children (P = 0.036), respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that the concentrations of fasting serum insulin were positively correlated with IGF-1 (r = 0.443, P = 0.001) and Δheight standard deviation score (SDS; r = 0.500, P = 0.002) in ≤ 6-year-old SGA children, but only with Δweight SDS (r = 0.496, P = 0.030) in >6-year-old children. In conclusion, SGA children with CUG in height and a higher body mass index are prone to the development of insulin resistance. Higher levels of insulin were closely correlated with the postnatal height CUG in young SGA children and with the weight CUG in old children.

  2. Levothyroxine monotherapy cannot guarantee euthyroidism in all athyreotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Gullo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Levothyroxine monotherapy is the treatment of choice for hypothyroid patients because peripheral T4 to T3 conversion is believed to account for the overall tissue requirement for thyroid hormones. However, there are indirect evidences that this may not be the case in all patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a large series of athyreotic patients whether levothyroxine monotherapy can normalize serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-pituitary feedback. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Academic hospital. PATIENTS: 1,811 athyreotic patients with normal TSH levels under levothyroxine monotherapy and 3,875 euthyroid controls. MEASUREMENTS: TSH, FT4 and FT3 concentrations by immunoassays. RESULTS: FT4 levels were significantly higher and FT3 levels were significantly lower (p<0.001 in both cases in levothyroxine-treated athyreotic patients than in matched euthyroid controls. Among the levothyroxine-treated patients 15.2% had lower serum FT3 and 7.2% had higher serum FT4 compared to euthyroid controls. A wide range of FT3/FT4 ratios indicated a major heterogeneity in the peripheral T3 production capacity in different individuals. The correlation between thyroid hormones and serum TSH levels indicated an abnormal feedback mechanism in levothyroxine-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Athyreotic patients have a highly heterogeneous T3 production capacity from orally administered levothyroxine. More than 20% of these patients, despite normal TSH levels, do not maintain FT3 or FT4 values in the reference range, reflecting the inadequacy of peripheral deiodination to compensate for the absent T3 secretion. The long-term effects of chronic tissue exposure to abnormal T3/T4 ratio are unknown but a sensitive marker of target organ response to thyroid hormones (serum TSH suggests that this condition causes an abnormal pituitary response. A more physiological treatment than levothyroxine monotherapy may be required in some hypothyroid patients.

  3. The 10x5 metre shuttle run test may be a good predictor of aerobic performance in pre-pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christina; Petersen, Mette; Froberg, Karsten

    . Conclusion: The SSRT may provide scientists, teachers and health care professionals with an important tool to estimate physical fitness in children in an easy, non-expensive, fast and fun way in the future. References: 1. Andersen LB, et Al. Secular trends in physical fitness in Danish adol.. Scand J Med Sci...... Sports. 2009. 2. Bar-Or O & Inbar O. Relationships among anaerobic capacity, sprint and middle distance running of school children. In Shephard, RJ. and Lavallée, H. eds., Physical fitness assessment. Springfield, 1978. 3. Inbar O & Bar-Or O. Relationships of anaerobic and aerobic arm and leg capacities...... to swimming performance of 8-12 year old children. In Shephard, R.J. and Lavallée, H. eds., Frontiers of activity and child health. Quebec: Pélican, 1977. 4. Andersen LB., et Al. An Intermittent running test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake: the Andersen test. J Sports Med Physical Fitness 2008....

  4. The 10x5 metre shuttle run test may be a good predictor of aerobic performance in pre-pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christina; Petersen, Mette; Froberg, Karsten

    as a predictor of aerobic performance, expressed as VO2max, is still to be fully determined. Even though the association between the SSRT and the AT is highly significant, the AT test is only an indirect measure of aerobic performance. This might affect the strength of the validity between the performance...... in the SSRT and the true expression of aerobic performance. However the association between the running distance in the AT and VO2max measured on the treadmill has previously shown a correlation of r=0.68 for children aged 9.9-11.0 years old (4). The SSRT remains to be validated against anaerobic measurements...... their growth and development important in order to intervene if levels decline. Tests that easily can be conducted in school settings are therefore of great importance. Several laboratory-based studies conducted in children show a positive correlation between aerobic and anaerobic performance. Bar-Or suggested...

  5. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Mardia López-Alarcón; Otilia Perichart-Perera; Samuel Flores-Huerta; Patricia Inda-Icaza; Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz; Andrea Armenta-Álvarez; María Teresa Bram-Falcón; Marielle Mayorga-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fa...

  6. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in euthyroid patients | Xu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of hepatic infections, viz, hepatitis B (HBV) virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV), in the euthyroid population of Southern Punjab Province of Pakistan. Methods: A total of 120 euthyroid patients (36 male and 84 female) with a mean age of 30.7 ± 0.09 years) were included in this study.

  7. Chemosensory anxiety signals prime defensive behavior in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Busch, Anne; Hoenen, Matthias; Schaal, Benoist; Pause, Bettina M

    2017-05-01

    Chemosensory anxiety signals effectively prime motor responses related to withdrawal behavior, such as the startle reflex, in adult humans. As the reproductive status strongly affects the response to social chemosignals, the current study examined whether chemosensory anxiety signals would augment the startle response in prepubertal children as it does in adults. Using cotton pads, axillary sweat was collected from 28 men while waiting for an important oral examination (anxiety condition), and during ergometer training (sport control condition). Using a constant-flow olfactometer, sweat samples and pure cotton samples (cotton control) were presented to 10 prepubertal girls aged 9-13years (M=11.25, SD=1.25) for 3000ms during inhalation. White noise bursts of 102dB(A) served as startle probes, and startle responses were recorded via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle. The girls showed larger startle amplitudes to probes presented in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals as compared to a context of sport control sweat (panxiety signals prime defensive motor behavior. This effect appears unrelated to the odorous quality of anxiety sweat, but seems to reflect a specific preparedness to respond to the underlying social alarm signal. Thus, chemosensory communication supporting individual harm protection is independent of the reproductive status in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pediatric Psychopharmacology for Prepubertal Internalizing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszyn, Tom; Carlson, John S.; DeHay, Tamara

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based studies of drug, psychosocial and combined treatments for prepubertal internalizing disorders (depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], and non-OCD anxiety) were reviewed. No age effects were found. Although no combined studies met evidence-based criteria, efficacious and possibly efficacious psychosocial and pharmacological…

  9. Pediatric Resident Training in Prepubertal Vulvar Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Monica; Alaniz, Veronica I; Kobernik, Emily K; Booms, Stephanie; Smith, Yolanda R; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2017-09-14

    To assess pediatric resident training in diagnosing and managing prepubertal gynecologic conditions. Voluntary 32-question survey emailed to participants. Email contact through the American Academy of Pediatrics listserve. 7075 U.S. pediatrics and combined internal medicine-pediatric residents. Descriptive analysis including Chi-square tests was performed on survey results. Residents' training experiences and comfort, confidence, and knowledge in evaluating pediatric gynecologic concerns. In the 866 of 7075 (12%) completed surveys, a greater proportion of residents reported they were "very" or "extremely" comfortable talking to parents about general pediatric topics compared to gynecologic topics (88.5% versus 30.4%, pgeneral pediatric conditions compared to prepubertal gynecologic conditions (87.6% versus 32.8%, pdidactics (34.7%), and conferences, meetings, and workshops (24.1%). Confidence examining, diagnosing, and treating vulvovaginits was associated with participation in any learning activity and exposure to greater than five patients with this concern. Additional education or training in prepubertal vulvovaginal conditions was requested by 97% of residents. Our findings suggest that pediatric residents are lacking in comfort, confidence, and knowledge of prepubertal vulvovaginal conditions, especially when compared to general pediatric topics. Although this improves during training, it remains low, and more education is indicated and desired by residents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Hypothyroidism during neonatal and perinatal period induced by thyroidectomy of the mother causes depressive-like behavior in prepubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Pineda-Reynoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marisol Pineda-Reynoso, Edgar Cano-Europa, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Adelaida Hernandez-Garcia, Margarita Franco-Colin, Rocio Ortiz-ButronDepartamento de Fisiología ‘Mauricio Russek Berman,’ Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: The objective of this study was to see if neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: 1 thyroidectomy caused hypothyroidism, in which the thyroid gland had been removed and the parathyroid reimplanted; and 2 false thyroidectomy. The thyroidectomy was made on rats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. The rats were mated and one day after giving birth, eight pups were assigned to each group randomly and they were distributed into two groups: a hypothyroid group containing male pups of a hypothyroid mother with a hypothyroid wet nurse; and a euthyroid group of male pups of a euthyroid mother with a euthyroid wet nurse. We analyzed the behavioral test at a prepubertal age. The neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused by the mother’s thyroidectomy caused a decrease in body weight and length. We found that the neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism enhanced the total exploratory activity without affecting social contact and the time spent in the open and closed arms in an elevated plus-maze. The hypothyroidism caused immobility without altering the lower climbing duration in the swimming test. This study shows a novel model to cause neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism without using pharmacological drugs. We demonstrated that hypothyroid animals had a reduction in body weight and length, a retardation of neurodevelopment, and they had depressive-like behavior.Keywords: perinatal hypothyroidism, thyroidectomy, thyroid hormone, behavior, metabolism

  11. Brain perfusion abnormalities in patients with euthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piga, M.; Serra, A.; Loi, G.L.; Satta, L. [University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine - Department of Medical Sciences ' ' M. Aresu' ' , Cagliari (Italy); Deiana, L.; Liberto, M. Di; Mariotti, S. [University of Cagliari, Endocrinology - Department of Medical Sciences ' ' M. Aresu' ' , Cagliari (Italy)

    2004-12-01

    Brain perfusion abnormalities have recently been demonstrated by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in rare cases of severe Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) encephalopathy; moreover, some degree of subtle central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been hypothesised in HT, but no direct evidence has been provided so far. The aim of this study was to assess cortical brain perfusion in patients with euthyroid HT without any clinical evidence of CNS involvement by means of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Sixteen adult patients with HT entered this study following informed consent. The diagnosis was based on the coexistence of high titres of anti-thyroid auto-antibodies and diffuse hypoechogenicity of the thyroid on ultrasound in association with normal circulating thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations. Nine consecutive adult patients with non-toxic nodular goitre (NTNG) and ten healthy subjects matched for age and sex were included as control groups. All patients underwent {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Image assessment was both qualitative and semiquantitative. Semiquantitative analysis was performed by generation of four regions of interest (ROI) for each cerebral hemisphere - frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital - and one for each cerebellar hemisphere in order to evaluate cortical perfusion asymmetry. The Asymmetry Index (AI) was calculated to provide a measurement of both magnitude and direction of perfusion asymmetry. As assessed by visual examination, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD cerebral distribution was irregular and patchy in HT patients, hypoperfusion being more frequently found in frontal lobes. AI revealed abnormalities in 12/16 HT patients, in three of the nine NTNG patients and in none of the normal controls. A significant difference in the mean AI was found between patients with HT and both patients with NTNG (p<0.003) and normal controls (p<0.001), when only frontal lobes were considered. These results show the high prevalence of brain perfusion

  12. [A study of parasomnias in the prepubertal age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet-Sanz, T; Oltra, C

    Parasomnias have been little studied in prepubertal age children. When it happens often they can alter the continuity of the sleep and reduce the value restorer of this affecting the academic functioning and daytime behavioural in younger children. We study the total frequency of the parasomnias, the individual frequency of every parasomnia and the association between them in primary education children. We distribute to children's parents (358) of third through sixth grade of Primary Education of one college of Alcoy the Owens Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire of for parents to answer. Rate of response was 58 %. Total frequency of the parasomnias was 6.2 %. The most frequent parasomnia of the research was the periodic limb movements (PLM) (7.7 %) followed of bruxism (6.7%), nightmares (1.9%), enuresis (1.9%) and sleepwalking (1.4%). We did not find any case of night terror. There is a major frequency of enuresis, sleepwalking and nightmares in male children and of PLM in the girls though we have not obtained statistical significance. The PLM associated with nightmares (75%, p continua once the child gets older.

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha is Inversely Related to Free Thyroxine in Euthyroid Subjects Without Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tienhoven-Wind, L. J. N.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    Lower thyroid functional status within the euthyroid range may confer increased atherosclerosis susceptibility, as evidenced by increased intima media thickness and coronary artery calcification. Associations of lower thyroid functional status with pro-atherogenic (inflammatory) biomarkers may also

  14. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH DIFFUSIVE CLINICALLY EUTHYROID GOITER IN THE REGIONS WITH DIFFERENT IODINE OCCURENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Troshina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the evaluation results of the IQ indices demonstrated by the school students, who reside in the regions with different degrees of the iodine deficiency severity and iodine provided regions. The authors performed the comparative analysis of the IQ indices among children with clinically euthyroid diffusive goiter and among children with normal sizes of the thyroid gland. The research included 260 children aged from 8 to 10 from 13 regions of the Russian Federation: 130 patients with the goiter diagnosed subject to the data of the ultrasound investigation and 130 children, who have normal sizes of the thyroid gland (reference group. The comparison groups were homogenous according to the education conditions (as only children from the city comprehensive schools took part in the research. For the evaluation of the intellectual development, authors used R. Kettell's intellect test free from the cultural impact (Сulture-Fair Intelligence Test, CFIT — CF 2А form. Despite the fact that the average IQ indices in the group of children with goiter were slightly lower than among children with normal sizes of the thyroid gland, the researchers failed to identify statistically significant differences between the average IQ indices among children in the compared groups (р > 0,05. Both in the group of children with goiter and in the reference group, the average IQ indices fell within «the low normal» (80–89 points.Key words: iodine, hypothyroidism, IQ intellect index, children.

  15. Assessment of ovarian reserve in euthyroid adolescents with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgon, Ozgur; Sivrice, Cigdem; Demirtas, Hakan; Dundar, Bumin

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the ovarian function and reserve in euthyroid adolescents (TSH Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). This case-control study included 30 adolescent girls (mean age 15.1 ± 1.4 years) newly diagnosed as HT with presence of high thyroid antibodies with gland heterogeneity in ultrasound and age-matched 30 healthy female subjects. Anti-ovarian antibody (AOAb), LH/FSH ratio, estradiol, anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B, total testosterone, antral follicle count, ovarian volumes and uterine length were measured. The clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound data of the HT and control groups were compared. There were no significant differences between the girls with HT and healthy controls in relation to LH/FSH ratio, estradiol and inhibin-B levels. AOAb (p = 0.02), AMH (p = 0.007) and total testosterone levels were higher in HT group than the control group (p = 0.03). AOAb level was found to be positively correlated with LH/FSH ratio (p = 0.03), AMH (p = 0.01) and inhibin-B (p < 0.001) in HT group. This study demonstrated that the adolescent girls diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis had normal ovarian reserve based on measurements of AMH, inhibin B, FSH, LH/FSH ratio, estradiol and antral follicle counts.

  16. [Assessment of nutritional status of prepubertal students in Southeast Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januś, Dominika; Dziatkowiak, Hanna; Starzyk, Jerzy; Ostrowska, Monika; Paprota, Paweł

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition, overweight and obesity in prepubertal schoolchildren from Southeast Poland and to obtain information on obesity risk factors in children. A representative national sample of 480 school children (252 girls and 228 boys) between 8-9 years old was selected from 23 schools from Southeast Poland. Examinations included anthropometric measurements (weight and height) and questionnaires covering familial, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and used as an indicator of overweight. As a statistical method a cross-sectional, three-stage, probability-proportionate-to-size cluster sampling method was used. The prevalence of malnutrition was: 8%, the prevalence of overweight: 6.7% and of obesity 1.9%. A statistical significance between parenteral obesity and obesity of their offspring was found. The mothers obesity represented a higher risk of the condition for girls (p = 0.001), and obesity in fathers represented a higher risk for boys (p = 0.016) than girls. We found the association between obesity in children and physical activity (odds ratio: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.12 5.8). A greater number of obese children skip breakfast as compared with other children (p = 0.058).

  17. Optimal management of hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinaemia and euthyroid TPO antibody positivity preconception and in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiao; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-03-01

    Normal physiological changes of pregnancy warrant the need to employ gestation specific reference ranges for the interpretation of thyroid function tests. Thyroid hormones play crucial roles in foetal growth and neurodevelopment which are dependent on adequate supply of maternal thyroid hormones from early gestation onwards. The prevention of significant adverse obstetric and neurodevelopmental outcomes from hypothyroidism requires a strategy of empirical levothyroxine dose increases and predictive dose adjustments in pregnancy combined with regular thyroid function testing, starting before pregnancy and until the postpartum period. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with an increased risk of pregnancy loss and neurocognitive deficits in children, especially when diagnosed before or during early pregnancy. Whilst trials of levothyroxine replacement for mild hypothyroidism in pregnancy have not indicated definite evidence of improvements in these outcomes, professional guidelines recommend treatment, especially if evidence of underlying thyroid autoimmunity is present. Studies of isolated hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy have shown conflicting evidence with regards to adverse obstetric and neurodevelopmental outcomes and no causative relationships have been determined. Treatment of this condition in pregnancy may be considered in those with underlying thyroid autoimmunity. Whilst the evidence for a link between the presence of anti-TPO antibodies and increased risks of pregnancy loss and infertility is compelling, the results of ongoing randomized trials of levothyroxine in euthyroid women with underlying autoimmunity are currently awaited. Further studies to define the selection of women who require levothyroxine replacement and to determine the benefits of a predictive dose adjustment strategy are required. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Daily profiles of salivary and urinary melatonin and steroids in healthy prepubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan; Auzéby, André; Camus, Françoise; Djeridane, Yasmina

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the circadian hormonal profile of two circadian markers, melatonin and cortisol, as well as other steroids in prepubertal boys (Tanner stage I). Nine volunteer healthy prepubertal boys aged 10.8 +/- 0.11 years participated in this study. Concentrations of daily salivary and urinary hormones were quantified around 24-hours, every 3 hours, in daytime samples (collected between 07.00 h +/- 30 min and 21.00 h +/- 30 min) and night-time samples (collected between 21.00 h +/- 30 min and 07.00 h +/- 30 min). Significant differences (p melatonin and urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, whereas no significant differences were found between day- and nighttime secretion of salivary and urinary cortisol nor between day- and nighttime secretion of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). The circadian profiles of salivary melatonin and cortisol showed large amplitude with a peak occurring at night (approximately 03.00 h) for melatonin and in the early morning (between 06.00 and 09.00 h) for cortisol. The curve patterns of the urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and steroids (free cortisol and 17-OHCS) were coherent with data on saliva. The pattern of salivary androstenedione and testosterone were undetectable due to the very low concentrations of these steroids in the saliva of the prepubertal children. A strong significant positive correlation was observed between the daily salivary melatonin levels and the daily urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion (R = 0.968, p cortisol and urinary 17-OHCS (R = 0.733, p = 0.025). The salivary and urinary hormones studied were independent of body mass index. This study shows the relevance of salivary cortisol and melatonin, although lower than in plasma, in testing adrenal and pineal function as markers of circadian rhythms. The data are of interest for the diagnosis and treatment of chronobiological disorders in prepubertal children.

  19. Prepubertal stress and hippocampal function: sex-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Nichola M; Wood, Emma R; Holmes, Megan C; Hall, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    The chances of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood are increased when stress is experienced early in life. In particular, stress experienced in the childhood or 'prepubertal' phase is associated with the later development of disorders such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and psychosis. Relatively little is known about the biological basis of this effect, but one hypothesis is that prepubertal stress produces long-lasting changes in brain development, particularly in stress sensitive regions such as the hippocampus, leaving an individual vulnerable to disorders in adulthood. In this study, we used an animal model of prepubertal stress to investigate the hypothesis that prepubertal stress induces alterations in hippocampal function in adulthood. Male and female rats were exposed to a brief, variable prepubertal stress protocol (postnatal days 25-27), and their performance in two distinct hippocampal-dependent tasks (contextual fear and spatial navigation) was compared with controls in adulthood. Prepubertal stress significantly impaired contextual fear responses in males and enhanced performance in spatial navigation in females. These results demonstrate that exposure to a brief period of stress in the prepubertal phase alters hippocampal-dependent behaviors in adulthood in a sex-specific manner. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The effect of dropping height on jumping performance in trained and untrained prepubertal boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassa, Eleni I; Patikas, Dimitrios A; Panagiotidou, Aikaterini I; Papadopoulou, Sophia D; Pylianidis, Theofilos C; Kotzamanidis, Christos M

    2012-08-01

    Plyometric training in children, including different types of jumps, has become common practice during the last few years in different sports, although there is limited information about the adaptability of children with respect to different loads and the differences in performance between various jump types. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gender and training background on the optimal drop jump height of 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty prepubertal (untrained and track and field athletes, boys and girls, equally distributed in each group [n = 15]), performed the following in random order: 3 squat jumps, 3 countermovement jumps (CMJs) and 3 drop jumps from heights of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cm. The trial with the best performance in jump height of each test was used for further analysis. The jump type significantly affected the jump height. The jump height during the CMJ was the highest among all other jump types, resulting in advanced performance for both trained and untrained prepubertal boys and girls. However, increasing the dropping height did not change the jumping height or contact time during the drop jump. This possibly indicates an inability of prepubertal children to use their stored elastic energy to increase jumping height during drop jumps, irrespective of their gender or training status. This indicates that children, independent of gender and training status, have no performance gain during drop jumps from heights up to 50 cm, and therefore, it is recommended that only low drop jump heights be included in plyometric training to limit the probability of sustaining injuries.

  1. Short-term neonatal/prepubertal exposure of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) advanced pubertal timing and affected hypothalamic kisspeptin/GPR54 expression differently in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jialei; Du, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Hongyu; Chen, Danni; Wu, Di; Wang, Xinru

    2013-12-06

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) had been widely used and its exposure in children has been thought to be one of the reasons causing a trend of advanced pubertal timing in girls. Puberty starts from hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone release which is controlled by many factors including neurotransmitter kisspeptin and its receptor GPR54. These neural organization or reorganization happens in hypothalamus during neonatal or prepubertal period which may be two target windows of DBP exposure. The present study was designed to determine: (1) the difference between the effects of neonatal and prepubertal DBP exposure on female pubertal timing; (2) whether kisspeptin/GPR54 expression in hypothalamus would respond to neonatal and prepubertal DBP exposure differently. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by subcutaneous injection of 0.5, 5 and 50mg/kg DBP during Postnatal day (P)1-5 (neonatal) or P26-30 (prepubertal). Physiological data demonstrated that both neonatal and prepubertal DBP exposure could advance pubertal timing significantly accompanied by irregular estrous cycles but only a little gonadal impairment. Exposure-period-related difference was found significant with prepubertal exposure groups having longer estrous cycle duration, heavier at vaginal opening and having higher serum estradiol level compared with neonatal exposure groups. Molecular data showed an up-regulated trend in kisspeptin mRNA and immunoreactivity levels of hypothalamic area arcuate but a down-regulation in GPR54 mRNA expression after P1-5 DBP treatment. In P26-30 groups, kisspeptin mRNA and immunoreactivity levels tended to be lower after DBP treatment. These results demonstrated small dose of DBP could induce earlier pubertal timing in females and both neonatal and prepubertal periods were critical windows for DBP exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of zearalenone in prepubertal gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia C. Teixeira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Prepubertal gilts were fed with a diet containing zearalenone (ZEA in a concentration of 0.75 mg/kg for 21 days. The effects of this mycotoxin on morphologic aspects of the reproductive tract as well as on complete blood count (CBC, serum biochemistry analysis (SBA and humoral immune response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC were evaluated. There was a significant increase (P<0.05 on the reproductive tract weight, vulvar area, height of the epithelial cells of endometrial glands and uterine mucosa. These results showed the ability of this nonsteroidal mycotoxin in mimicking actions of 17β estradiol at the concentration of 0.75mg/kg. No changes in weight gain, CBC, SBA parameters and humoral response against SRBC were observed.

  3. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies, levels of thyroid stimulating hormone and development of hypothyroidism in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.; Links, T.P.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.; Gans, R.O.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.; Bakker, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have been found to be related to the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and to predict future development of thyroid failure in selected populations. We investigated these relations in a euthyroid general population. Design: Cross-sectional

  4. Thyroid function is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Annemieke; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Links, Thera P.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    Context: Thyroid disease and the metabolic syndrome are both associated with cardiovascular disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the hypothesis that thyroid function, in euthyroid subjects, is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome, including serum lipid

  5. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F. A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Heemstra, Karen A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Schoemaker, Rik C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the

  6. Individual plasma ghrelin changes in the same patients in hyperthyroid, hypothyroid and euthyroid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchala, Marek; Gurgul, Edyta; Stangierski, Adam; Wrotkowska, Elzbieta; Moczko, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide of widespread expression. Since it has been shown to influence energy homeostatis, its potential role in thyroid dysfunction may have clinical significance. In this study, plasma ghrelin changes have been analyzed in the same patients in three different thyroid states for the first time. The study group consisted of 16 patients who had been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism, were treated with radioiodine, developed hypothyroidism after treatment, and finally became euthyroid on l-thyroxine substitution. In the initial state of hyperthyroidism plasma ghrelin levels correlated negatively with fT3 and fT4. In hypothyroidism ghrelin concentration increased significantly (pghrelin tended to decrease in the euthyroid state, the individual difference between hypothyroidism and euthyroidism was not significant. Plasma ghrelin in euthyroidism was still significantly higher than in hyperthyroidism (pghrelin levels in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. In our opinion, plasma ghrelin fluctuations may reflect metabolic changes in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Moreover, it cannot be excluded that in thyroid disorders ghrelin acts as a compensatory factor, helping to balance metabolic disturbances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction in Euthyroid Nodular Goiter Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelius, Edy; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lo, Shih-Chang; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Lai, Yung-Rung; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2016-08-01

    The risks of thyroid dysfunction after iodinated contrast media exposure in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter are largely unknown. This observational, retrospective cohort study included a random selection of one million people in Taiwan. All patients with iodinated contrast media exposure during this study period were selected. Patients with euthyroid nodular goiter were identified as cases, while patients without thyroid nodule were selected as controls. We followed these patients until the first event of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure. A total of 334 cases and 2672 matched controls were selected in this study. The mean age of cases and controls were 58.6 and 58.4 years old, and mean follow-up durations were 2.1 and 2 years respectively. After adjustment, patients with euthyroid nodular goiter had a higher risk of thyroid dysfunction (hazard ratio 5.43, [confidence interval (CI) 3.01-9.80]) compared with controls after iodinated contrast media exposure. In the subgroup analysis, the risks of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in cases compared with controls were 5.77 [CI 2.64-12.62] and 4.95 [CI 2.15-11.40] respectively. Half of the euthyroid nodular goiter cases developed thyroid dysfunction within one year after iodinated contrast media exposure. Interestingly, all thyroid-related comorbidities and drug prescriptions did not increase the risk of thyroid dysfunction. Presence of euthyroid nodular goiter was associated with higher risk of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure.

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection as a Precipitant of Thyroid Storm in a Previously Undiagnosed Case of Graves' Disease in a Prepubertal Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton RWilliam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is less common in prepubertal than pubertal children, and initial presentation with thyroid storm is rare. We report an 11-year-old prepubertal Hispanic girl who presented with a one-day history of respiratory distress, fever, and dysphagia. She had exophthalmos, a diffuse bilateral goiter and was agitated, tachycardic, and hypertensive. Nasal swab was positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. She was diagnosed with thyroid storm and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. While infection is a known precipitant of thyroid storm and RSV is a common pediatric infection, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RSV infection apparently precipitating thyroid storm in a prepubertal child.

  9. O impacto da obesidade sobre os componentes da síndrome metabólica e as adipocitoquinas em crianças pré-púberes Impact of obesity on metabolic syndrome components and adipokines in prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel R. Madeira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o impacto da obesidade sobre os componentes da síndrome metabólica e sobre os níveis de adipocitoquinas em crianças pré-púberes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal comparando 30 crianças obesas, 31 com sobrepeso e 33 eutróficas, oriundas do ambulatório de pediatria geral de um hospital universitário, quanto às médias de glicose, lipídios séricos, insulina, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, relação glicose/insulina, adiponectina e leptina. Compararam-se as frequências de acantose nigricans e das alterações de cintura, pressão arterial, glicose, lipídios séricos e insulina. Avaliou-se a correlação entre escore z de índice de massa corporal (IMC e adipocitoquinas. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença nas médias dos obesos, quanto a HDL-colesterol e adiponectina, e nas dos eutróficos, quanto a insulina, HOMA-IR, relação glicose/insulina e leptina (p OBJECTIVE: To verify the impact of obesity on metabolic syndrome components and adipokine levels in prepubertal children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared 30 obese, 31 overweight and 33 eutrophic children attending a university hospital-based outpatient pediatric clinic. Parameters assessed included glucose, serum lipids, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, glucose/insulin relation, adiponectin, and leptin. We compared the frequency of acanthosis nigricans and changes in waist, blood pressure, glucose, serum lipids, and insulin. The correlation between body mass index (BMI z score and adipokines was evaluated. RESULTS: Among obese children, there was a difference in the mean values of HDL cholesterol and adiponectin, whereas among the eutrophic children, there was a difference in the mean values of insulin, HOMA-IR, glucose/insulin relation, and leptin (p < 0.001. A difference was also observed regarding the frequency of acanthosis nigricans and alteration in waist and HDL cholesterol (p < 0.005 in the

  10. Gonadal function is associated with cardiometabolic health in pre-pubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S; Lahlou, N; Bardsley, M; Temple, M-C; Kowal, K; Pyle, L; Zeitler, P; Ross, J

    2016-11-01

    The most common sex chromosome aneuploidy, Klinefelter syndrome (KS), is associated with primary gonadal failure and increased morbidity and mortality from cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. Children with KS also have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. To assess the relationship of gonadal and cardiometabolic function in children with KS, we evaluated serum hormones [gonadotropins, inhibin B (INHB), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), total testosterone (TT)], and features of MetS (waist circumference, fasting lipid panel, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure) in 93 pre-pubertal boys with KS age 4-12 years (mean 7.7 ± 2.5 years). The cohort was grouped by age and tanner stage, and biomarkers were compared to normal ranges. A total of 80% of this pre-pubertal cohort had ≥1 feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 11% had ≥3 features of MetS. Risk of MetS was independent of age and body mass index. Sertoli cell dysfunction was common with 18% having an INHB below the normal range. A low INHB was associated with higher FBG, triglycerides, LDL, and lower HDL (p cardiometabolic dysfunction are prevalent in pre-pubertal boys with KS. Although the relationship of testosterone deficiency and MetS is well-known, this study is the first to report an association between impaired Sertoli cell function and cardiometabolic risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Levothyroxine improves subjective sleepiness in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy without cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Danielle L; Spector, Andrew R

    2014-11-15

    We discuss the use of levothyroxine for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and prolonged nocturnal sleep time in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy. After failure of first-line narcolepsy treatments, a 48-year-old female began levothyroxine (25 mcg/day). After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient was evaluated for improvement in total sleep time and subjective daytime sleepiness assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). At baseline, ESS score was 16 and total sleep time averaged 16 h/day. After 12 weeks, ESS was 13 and reported total sleep time was 13 h/day. Levothyroxine improved EDS and total sleep time in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy without cataplexy after 12 weeks without side effects. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  12. Gestational hypothyroidism: development of mild hypothyroidism in early pregnancy in previously euthyroid women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Karen R; Cataldo, Nicholas A; Hubbard, Janice A; Malizia, Beth A; Steinkampf, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    To determine the proportion of euthyroid women attending a fertility practice who develop hypothyroidism in very early pregnancy (gestational hypothyroidism [GHT]), and to examine the association of GHT with exogenous gonadotropin treatment. Retrospective cohort study. A private reproductive medicine practice. All healthy women (N = 94) with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss, TSH level pregnancy detection. Gestational hypothyroidism (TSH ≥ 2.5 mIU/L) developed in 23 of 94 women (24%). The mean increase in serum TSH level from initial evaluation to early pregnancy was 0.45 ± 0.08 [SE] mIU/L. There was a trend toward the association of GHT with use of exogenous gonadotropins. Gestational hypothyroidism was positively associated with initial prepregnancy TSH level. Euthyroid women may develop mild hypothyroidism in early pregnancy, especially after exogenous gonadotropin treatment. Appropriate vigilance will allow for timely levothyroxine treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioiodine therapy increases the risk of cerebrovascular events in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Jensen, Lars Thorbjoern; Vej-Hansen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine have increased morbidity and mortality from cerebrovascular events. This risk has until now has been attributed to the hyperthyroidism. However, radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases exposes the carotid arteries...... to radiation and is capable of inducing atherosclerosis. The objective of the study was to elucidate whether ionizing radiation from radioiodine might contribute to cerebrovascular morbidity. METHODS: In a retrospective register cohort study, 4000 hyperthyroid and 1022 euthyroid goitre patients treated...... of cerebrovascular events among all treated patients, hazard ratio (HR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.09-1.29). The risk was increased among hyperthyroid (HR 1.17; 95% CI 1.07-1.28) as well as euthyroid patients (HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.02-1.44). CONCLUSIONS: We report an increased risk of cerebrovascular events in hyperthyroid as well...

  14. Is thyroid autoimmunity itself associated with psychological well-being in euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Mehmet Muhittin; Altinova, Alev Eroglu; Cavnar, Burcak; Bolayir, Basak; Akturk, Mujde; Arslan, Emre; Ozkan, Cigdem; Cakir, Nuri; Balos Toruner, Fusun

    2017-04-29

    Recent studies imply that euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) might be related with impaired HRQoL, depression and anxiety. Ninety three patients with euthyroid HT and 31 age- and gender-matched euthyroid control subjects were enrolled into this study. SF-36 questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory tests were used for evaluating HRQoL, depression and anxiety. Beck Depression Inventory scores were higher in patients with HT compared to control subjects (7.5 (4.0-14.75) vs. 5.0 (2.25-9.0), p=0.008). Beck Anxiety Questionnaire scores were also higher in patients with HT than controls (9.50 (5.0-17.0) vs. 5.0 (2.0-11.75), p=0.021). In SF-36 questionnaire; physical functioning (26.0 (20.0-28.0) vs. 29.0 (26.0-30.0), p=0.038), general health (16.4 (13.4-20.4) vs. 19.4 (16.3-21.2), p=0.026) and mental health (20.5 (16.0-23.0) vs. 23.0 (21.0-25.0), p=0.001) scores were lower in patients with HT than control subjects. There were no significant differences between patients with HT under levothyroxine replacement therapy compared to those without therapy in terms of depression and anxiety scores and components of SF-36 questionnaire. Beck Depression Inventory scores were positively correlated with TSH (r=0.250, p=0.01). In SF-36, role physical (r=0.192, ppsychological well-being in euthyroid patients with HT.

  15. Selenium supplementation could restore euthyroidism in subclinical hypothyroid patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirola, Ilenia; Gandossi, Elena; Agosti, Barbara; Delbarba, Andrea; Cappelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid is an organ with one of the highest selenium concentrations, containing many selenoproteins implicated in thyroid hormone metabolism. Treatment with levothyroxine has been recommended for all subclinical hypothyroid patients with TSH levels > 10 mU/L, whereas for those with TSHSelenium supplementation could restore euthyroidism in one third of subclinical hypothyroidism patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (6): 567-571).

  16. Risk of Thyroid Cancer in Euthyroid Asymptomatic Patients with Thyroid Nodules with an Emphasis on Family History of Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors?such as patient age, gender, first-degree family h...

  17. Vitamin D status in Egyptian euthyroid multinodular non-toxic goiter patients and its correlation with TSH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelnaga, Mohamed M; Elshafei, Maha M; Elsayed, Eman

    2016-10-01

    Although the prevalence of MNG is widespread throughout the world, its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the complex interactions of both genetic predisposition and the individuals' environment are likely. However, to the best of our knowledge, it remains unknown whether there is a relationship between vitamin D status and prevalence or pathogenesis of euthyroid MNG. Therefore, the goal of the present study was determination of vitamin D status in euthyroid MNG as well as exploration of the correlation between vitamin D status & TSH levels. A total of 77 patients diagnosed with euthyroid MNG and 50 subjects without goiter were matched according to age, weight and BMI as control group in this case control study. We found that patients with euthyroid MNG had statistically significant lower mean of [25(OH)D] (24.21±8.68ng/mL) in comparison with its mean in control subjects (28.37±10.91ng/mL, P value=0.019). The 28 sufficient vitamin D MNG patients had statistically significant lower level of TSH than 49 insufficient vitamin D MNG patients. Vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in MNG patients in Pearson correlation. Also 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients in regression analysis. Patients with euthyroid MNG have lower levels of vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in euthyroid MNG patients. In addition, 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients. We recommend hypovitaminosis D evaluation and correction in patients with MNG. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a contrast training programme on jumping, sprinting and agility performance of prepubertal basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Villar Macias, Francisco Javier; García Pinillos, Felipe

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 10 week contrast training (CT) programme (isometric + plyometric) on jumping, sprinting abilities and agility performance in prepubertal basketball players. Fifty-eight children from a basketball academy (age: 8.72 ± 0.97 years; body mass index: 17.22 ± 2.48 kg/m 2 ) successfully completed the study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental groups (EG, n = 30) and control groups (CG, n = 28). The CT programme was included in the experimental group's training sessions - twice a week - as part of their usual weekly training regime. This programme included 3 exercises: 1 isometric and 2 plyometric. Jumping, sprinting and agility performance were assessed before and after the training programme. Significant differences were found in posttest between EG and CG in sprint and T-test: EG showed better results than CG. Furthermore, there were significant differences in posttest-pretest between EG and CG in squat jump, countermovement jump, drop jump, sprint and T-test with the EG showing better results than CG. The CT programme led to increases in vertical jump, sprint and agility levels, so that the authors suggest that prepubertal children exhibit high muscular strength trainability.

  19. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls

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    Pilar Navarro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (−0.132, p < 0.05 with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  20. Prevalence of upper airway obstruction in patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid multi nodular goitre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Menon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the prevalence of upper airway obstruction (UAO in "apparently asymptomatic" patients with euthyroid multinodular goitre (MNG and find correlation between clinical features, UAO on pulmonary function test (PFT and tracheal narrowing on computerised tomography (CT. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid MNG attending thyroid clinic in a tertiary centre underwent clinical examination to elicit features of UAO, PFT, and CT of neck and chest. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 11.5 using paired t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher′s exact test. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Fifty-six patients (52 females and four males were studied. The prevalence of UAO (PFT and significant tracheal narrowing (CT was 14.3%. and 9.3%, respectively. Clinical features failed to predict UAO or significant tracheal narrowing. Tracheal narrowing (CT did not correlate with UAO (PFT. Volume of goitre significantly correlated with degree of tracheal narrowing. Conclusions: Clinical features do not predict UAO on PFT or tracheal narrowing on CT in apparently asymptomatic patients with euthyroid MNG.

  1. Plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin levels in relation to bone mineral density in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parm, Anna-Liisa; Jürimäe, Jaak; Saar, Meeli; Pärna, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Maasalu, Katre; Neissaar, Inga; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin levels and body composition parameters in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and untrained controls (UC), and to examine the relationships of bone mineral density (BMD) with hormonal status in prepubertal children with different physical activity patterns. Eighty-nine 7- to 9-year-old girls participated in the study (RG, n = 46; UC, n = 43). Body composition and BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone maturity was estimated by using a radiograph of the nondominant hand. The measured whole-body, lumbar spine (LS), and femoral neck (FN) BMD values were significantly higher (P gymnasts than in controls. In addition, RG presented significantly lower and higher values (P < 0.05) for leptin and ghrelin concentrations, respectively, in comparison with UC. No differences were observed for adiponectin levels between the studied groups. No relationships between measured BMD values with leptin and ghrelin were observed even after adjustment for age and fat mass (FM) in RG. Whole-body and LS BMD values were significantly correlated with leptin after controlling for age and FM (r = 0.32, P < 0.05) in UC. Femoral neck BMD remained significantly correlated with ghrelin after adjusting for age and FM (r = -0.4, P < 0.05) in UC. No relationships were found between measured BMD values and adiponectin even after controlling for age and FM values in both groups. In conclusion, although all measured BMD values were significantly higher in RG, plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin concentrations were not directly related to bone mineralization in prepubertal RG in contrast to UC. © The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer 2011

  2. Methylphenidate-induced erections in a prepubertal child.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2013-02-01

    Methylphenidate is a medication used routinely in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We report a case of a prepubertal child who developed unwanted erections after commencing a response-adjusted dosing regimen of sustained release methylphenidate. Despite priapism being a rare adverse reaction associated with methylphenidate, physicians and parents need to be aware as it can have significant long-term complications.

  3. The Condition of Thyroid and Fetoplacental Systems in Pregnant Women with Clinically Euthyroid Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Petrova

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study a condition of thyroid and fetoplacental systems at pregnant women with clinically euthyroid goiter. Materials and methods: 116 pregnant women have been included in the basic group with clinically euthyroid goiter. The control group was made by 60 pregnant women with physiologically proceeding pregnancy, not having anamnestic and the clinical data on diseases of the thyroid. Inspection included: definition of concentration thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (fT4 by a radio-immunologic method, sets “RIA-gnost” (France and the maintenance of antibodies to thyroid peroxydase (anti-TPO by a method hard phase immune-enzyme analysis; ultrasonic assessment of a thyroid with the help of device SONOACE 8800 “GAIA MT”; ultrasonic fetometry, placentography, measurement of amniotic fluid volume, doppler ultrasound examination of the blood flow, an estimation of a functional condition of a fetus on parameters of its biophysical profile (BP and cardiotocography (CTG, carried out on device “Oxford Sonicaid Team S8000”. Results: At studying hormonal function thyroid systems at 25 pregnant (21.6% with euthyroid goiter in the third trimester of pregnancy a level fT4 norms were lower and had values from 4.5 up to 6.9 ng/ml, therefore an average level fT4 at pregnant women of the basic group was authentically lower, than in control (8.26 ± 0.30 and 10.71 ± 0.52 ng/ml, accordingly. At the retrospective analysis it is established, that only at 5 of 116 (4.3% pregnant women with a goiter were not complications pregnancy, at the others — 111 (95.7% took place a combination various obstetric complications: an anemia — at 72 (62.0%, threat noncarrying of pregnancy — at 75 (64.6 %, an early toxicosis — at 45 (38.6%, a gestosis — at 47 (40.5% which frequency authentically is higher, than in control group: 20.0%, 25.0%, 16.6%. 20.0%, accordingly, р < 0.05. Average Estimation CTG at patients of the basic group is

  4. EFFECT OF METFORMIN ON THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE IN EUTHYROID TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS

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    Shailendra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND RATIO NALE: Metformin use is reported to be associated with reduction in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels. However, recent reports suggest that the effect of metformin on TSH is seen only in those who have hypothyroidism and not in those who are euthyroid. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the difference in TSH levels between euthyroid type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients on metformin versus those not on metformin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a cross sectional study design subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N=150 were recruited from a rural community using simple random sampling. Individuals with known thyroid dysfunction were excluded. Data on socio - demographic variables, medications being used and duration of use were collected using structured questionnaire. Laboratory measurements included thyroid function tests, complete blood count, hepatic function tests, renal function tests and HbA1c estimation. RESULTS: The median TSH levels in patients with T2DM on metformin was 1.98 mIU/L (Q1=1.24 mIU/L, Q3=2.76 mIU/L, whereas in patients with T2DM not on metformin the median TSH levels was 2.12 mIU/L (Q1=1.30 mIU/L, Q3=2.87mIU/L.There was no statistically significant difference in the median TSH levels between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on metformin and those not on metformin (p=0.23.Further, there was no correlation between metformin dose and serum TSH levels (p=0.36 . CONCLUSIONS: Metformin use did not affect serum TSH levels in euthyroid patients with T2DM

  5. Evaluation of LED photobiomodulation on wound healing in hypothyroid and euthyroid rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; Xavier, Flávia Calo Aquino; Rodriguez, Tânia Tavares; Ramalho, Maria José Pedreira; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency has been associated to disruption of the body's metabolism, including healing process. LED phototherapy has been shown to be effective in improving healing in many situations, but their usefulness in the improvement of hypothyroidism wound healing remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess histologically the effect of LED (λ630 ± 20nm, 150mW, CW, φ=0.5 cm2, 24J/cm2 per session) on wounds healing in hypothyroid and euthyroid Wistar rats. Standard cutaneous wound (1cm2) was created on the dorsum of 24 animals divided into four groups of 6 animals each: G1: Euthyroid; G2: Euthyroid + LED; G3: Hypothyroid; G4: Hypothyroid + LED. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05g/100mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. The irradiation started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day for 7 days. Animals were killed 8 days after surgery. The specimens were removed, routinely processed and stained with H&E and Sirius red. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher's Test and significance level was 5%. The results of the present investigation showed delayed wounds healing process in hypothyroid rats characterized by incomplete reepithelialization and formation of disorganized collagen fibers (phypothyroid) when compared to non-irradiated ones, but no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). It is concluded that LED light has a positive biomodulative effect on the wound healing process, even when hipothyroidism was present.

  6. Thyroid hormones and erythrocyte indices in a cohort of euthyroid older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindhelm, Roger K; ten Boekel, Edwin; Heima, Nathalie E; van Schoor, Natasja M; Simsek, Suat

    2013-04-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with normocytic anaemia. Indeed, a limited number of studies have shown significant associations between free thyroxin (T4) and erythrocyte indices. These studies did not include vitamin B12, folic acid, iron and renal function in the analyses. We therefore studied the association between thyroid hormones and erythrocyte indices in a population-based cohort of older euthyroid subjects, with adjustment for major confounding parameters. Data, including thyroid hormones and erythrocyte indices, are from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), an ongoing cohort study on predictors and consequences of changes in health in the ageing population in the Netherlands. Multivariable linear regression analyses were applied to study the cross-sectional associations between free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and erythrocyte indices (haemoglobin content, haematocrit, mean cell volume (MCV) and erythrocyte count) in a euthyroid sub-sample. The final models were adjusted for vitamin B12, folic acid, iron levels and renal function. In 708 euthyroid older subjects, an increase of 5pmol/L free T4 was associated with a mean increase of 0.12mmol/L or 0.19g/dL of haemoglobin, 0.068 10(12)/L erythrocytes and 0.006L/L haematocrit (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.001, respectively). Free T4 was not significantly associated with MCV (P>0.05). TSH appeared not to be associated with any of the erythrocyte indices (all P>0.05). In a cohort of older subjects, free T4, but not TSH, was associated with erythrocyte indices, confirming the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of erythropoiesis. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Short children with low birth weight born either small for gestational age or average for gestational age show similar growth response and changes in insulin-like growth factor-1 to growth hormone treatment during the first prepubertal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, M B; Martin, D D; Ehehalt, S; Schwarze, C P; Serra, F; Wollmann, H A; Schweizer, R

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an accepted treatment for short children born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of this analysis was to compare the growth response to GH in children with low birth weight born SGA or appropriate for gestational age (AGA). This retrospective observational study is from one center. Of all the children with a birth weight growth hormone deficiency ([A] SGA, n = 26; [B] AGA, n = 24) and 138 were originally diagnosed SGA or AGA (reclassified: [C] SGA, n = 102; [D] AGA, n = 36). [Median; A, B, C, D]: at an age of 4.9, 5.2, 5.8, 5.8 years, a height of -2.9, -2.4, -2.8, -2.9 SDS and a GH dose of 27, 28, 41, 39 μg/kg/day, the children grew 0.9, 0.9, 0.8, 0.9 SDS in height, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at GH start was, respectively, -2.1, -2.2, -0.4, -0.9 SDS and rose to (delta IGF-1) 1.8, 2.0, 1.7, 1.5 SDS during the first year on GH. All differences were not significant. We show for the first time that short stature children with low birth weight born AGA experience the same increase in height and IGFs to GH treatment as those born SGA irrespective of actual GH secretory status. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Serum free thyroxine concentration is associated with metabolic syndrome in euthyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ladan; Amouzegar, Atieh; Tohidi, Maryam; Moayedi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-11-01

    The association between thyroid hormones within the euthyroid range and metabolic syndrome is not clear. This study evaluated the relationship between thyroid hormones and metabolic syndrome and its components in euthyroid subjects. This is a cross-sectional population based study conducted within the framework of the cohort of the Tehran Thyroid Study. Out of 5786 subjects aged ≥ 20 years, 3755 euthyroid subjects without a history of thyroid disorders, diabetes, or use of steroids or lipid-lowering agents were investigated. Body weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Serum concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, free T4 (FT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) were assayed. Metabolic syndrome was determined by definition of the Joint Interim Statement adjusted for the Iranian population. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking, serum FT4 was significantly associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), WC, systolic BP, and diastolic BP; the associations that remained significant after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) except for HDL-C. Serum TSH was associated only with TGs after adjustments for age, sex, smoking, and BMI, an association that disappeared after further adjustment for HOMA-IR. Serum FT4 was negatively associated (β=-0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI: -0.03, -0.01]) and TSH was positively associated (β = 0.03 [CI: 0.01, 0.04) with insulin resistance. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome decreased from 30.1% in the lowest FT4 tertile to 22.4% in the highest FT4 tertile (p<0.001). The prevalence of other metabolic syndrome components decreased significantly from higher to lower FT4 tertiles. Higher FT4 values were associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.96 [95% CI: 0.92, 0.99]; p=0.01). In euthyroid

  9. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine...... administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. METHODS: /Design We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20...... we discuss the rationale and design of the T4-LIFE study, an international multi-center randomized, double blind placebo controlled, clinical trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of levothyroxine in women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab....

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the presence of thyroid nodules in the euthyroid population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Shen

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with extragastric diseases. The thyroid may be one of the targets of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to investigate whether H. pylori infections were associated with the presence of thyroid nodules. A total of 988 euthyroid subjects from China were included in this cross-sectional study. Four hundred thirty-five (44.0% subjects were diagnosed as having thyroid nodules, and 486 (49.2% were diagnosed with H. pylori infections. The thyroid nodules group had a higher proportion of H. pylori infections than the control group (P = 0.002. Free thyroxine (FT4 levels were lower and the prevalence of thyroid nodules was higher in patients with H. pylori infection compared to those without infection, even after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI; all P < 0.05. The prevalence of H. pylori infection showed a decreasing trend as serum FT4 level increased (P(trend = 0.020. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the risk of thyroid nodules (odds ratio: 1.390, 95% confidence interval: 1.059-1.824, P = 0.018. Our results suggested that H. pylori infections were positively associated with the presence of thyroid nodules in the euthyroid population, whose thyroid functions were in the reference range.

  11. Live-birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and thyroid peroxidase antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Rosa; Fliers, Eric; van der Post, Joris A M; van Wely, Madelon; Bisschop, Peter H; Goddijn, Mariette

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity with normal thyroid function is associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM), but the association with live birth is less clear. Therefore, we determined the association between thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and live-birth rate (LBR) in a retrospective cohort of euthyroid women with unexplained RM. We included 202 women of which 28 were TPO-Ab positive (13.9%) and 174 were TPO-Ab negative. TPO-Ab positive women (n = 10) without levothyroxine treatment had a lower LBR (29%) compared to TPO-Ab negative women (51%) (HR 0.23, 0.07-0.72, p = 0.012). The LBR in women with TPO-Ab receiving levothyroxine was not different compared women without TPO-Ab (60% versus 51%, p = 0.50). In conclusion, TPO-Ab are associated with a lower LBR in euthyroid women with unexplained RM and these women may benefit from treatment with levothyroxine.

  12. Free Triiodothyronine Levels Are Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy in Euthyroid Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association of thyroid function and diabetic nephropathy (DN in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 421 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. The following parameters were assessed: anthropometric measurements, fast plasma glucose, serum creatinine, lipid profile, HbA1c, free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR. Patients with UACR of ≥30 mg/g were defined as those suffering from DN. Results. Of the 421 patients, 203 (48.2% suffered from DN, and no difference was found between males and females. The patients with DN yielded significantly lower FT3 levels than those without DN (P<0.01. The prevalence of DN showed a significantly decreasing trend across the three tertiles based on FT3 levels (59.6%, 46.4%, and 38.6%, P<0.01. After adjustment for gender and age, FT3 levels were found to correlate positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.03 and negatively with UACR (P<0.01. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that FT3 level was independently associated with UACR (β=-0.18, t=-3.70, and P<0.01. Conclusion. Serum FT3 levels are inversely associated with DN in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors.

  13. Thyroid hormones and mortality risk in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, both overt and subclinical, are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The association between thyroid hormones and mortality in euthyroid individuals, however, is unclear. To examine the prospective association between thyroid hormones levels within normal ranges and mortality endpoints. A prospective cohort study of 212 456 middle-aged South Korean men and women who had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease at baseline from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2009. Free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), and TSH levels were measured by RIA. Vital status and cause of death ascertainment were based on linkage to the National Death Index death certificate records. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 730 participants died (335 deaths from cancer and 112 cardiovascular-related deaths). FT4 was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.95, comparing the highest vs lowest quartile of FT4; P for linear trend = .01), and FT3 was inversely associated cancer mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.85; P for linear trend = .001). TSH was not associated with mortality endpoints. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, FT4 and FT3 levels within the normal range were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality, particularly liver cancer mortality.

  14. Chronic low dose Adderall XR down-regulates cfos expression in infantile and prepubertal rat striatum and cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J K; Wilkinson, M; Soo, E C; Hui, J P M; Chase, T D; Carrey, N

    2010-09-15

    We previously reported that treatment of prepubertal male rats with low, injected or oral, doses of methylphenidate stimulated cfos, fosB and arc expression in many areas of the developing brain. In the present study our objective was to determine whether the widely prescribed psychostimulant Adderall XR (ADD) exerted similar effects in infantile and prepubertal rat brain. We report here, for the first time, that low threshold doses of oral ADD, an extended-release mixture of amphetamine salts, now routinely used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), also increased cfos expression in infantile (postnatal day 10; PD10) and prepubertal (PD24) rat brain. These threshold doses were correlated with blood levels of amphetamine determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, we observed that chronic treatment with oral ADD (1.6 mg/kg; x 14 days) not only significantly down-regulated cfos expression following a final challenge dose of ADD in prepubertal (PD24) rat striatum and cortex, quantified in terms of FOS immunoreactivity (FOS-ir), but did so at a daily dose that was without effect with methylphenidate (MPH); that is a much higher oral dose of MPH (7.5 mg/kg; x 14 days) failed to induce down-regulation of cfos expression. Similar experiments in infantile rats (PD10), but using a threshold injected dose of ADD (1.25 mg/kg sc) also significantly reduced striatal and cingulate cortical FOS-ir. An additional finding in the prepubertal rats was that oral ADD-induced FOS-ir was observed in the cerebral cortex following doses lower than the threshold dose necessary to increase FOS-ir in the striatum. This was not the case in the PD10 rats. In conclusion, our efforts to calibrate biological responses, such as immediate early gene expression, to clinically relevant blood levels of stimulants confirmed that expression of cfos is very sensitive to repeated low doses of Adderall XR. It is now feasible to examine whether other

  15. Multidisciplinary treatment for prepubertal juvenile myasthenia gravis with crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yusuke; Inoue, Masayoshi; Nabatame, Shin; Okumura, Meinoshin; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-08-01

    The management of juvenile myasthenia gravis (MG) remains controversial. We report herein the case of a 12-year-old girl with prepubertal juvenile MG with respiratory crisis who underwent thymectomy following methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The patient initially developed progressively worsening fatigability, eyelid ptosis, and diplopia, followed by worsening generalized weakness, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Even after i.v. immunoglobulin, the patient presented with rapid onset of severe dyspnea requiring respiratory support with mechanical ventilation and was graded as Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America class V. After a course of i.v. methylprednisolone pulse therapy, successful control of respiratory crisis was achieved, and trans-sternal thymectomy was performed. Partial remission was achieved postoperatively with oral pyridostigmine without immunosuppressive agents such as steroids or calcineurin inhibitors for 18 months after thymectomy. Early thymectomy following induction methylprednisolone pulse therapy might be a treatment option for prepubertal juvenile MG with severe respiratory crisis. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Higher bone mass in prepubertal and peripubertal female footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Carmona, M; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Gómez-Cabello, A; Martín-García, M; Sánchez-Sánchez, J; Gallardo, L; Ara, I

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the bone mass of female football players with controls of different pubertal stages. Sixty five girls aged 8-14 years (10.14 ± 0.1, Tanner stages I-IV) participated in the study. Twenty participants were prepubertal (10 prepubertal control) and 45 peripubertal (15 peripubertal control). All footballers trained two days per week while the control group did not perform regular physical activity outside of school. Body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analysis of covariance was performed to evaluate differences in lean and bone masses. Significant differences in lower-body extremities lean mass (LLM) between peripubertal groups were found (P pubertal spurt.

  17. Comparison of clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and pubertal girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse E. Yilmaz

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: The etiopathogenesis and culture results differ between prepubertal and adolescent girls with vulvovaginitis, which should be taken into consideration in the treatment approach of this disorder.

  18. Association between thyrotropin levels and insulin sensitivity in euthyroid obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Asma; Balagopal, P Babu; Vella, Adrian; Fischer, Philip R; Piccinini, Francesca; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Giesler, Paula D; Laugen, Jeanette M; Kumar, Seema

    2015-05-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) levels display a positive association with body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of isolated hyperthyrotropinemia is higher in obese adolescents compared to their normal weight controls. However, the metabolic significance of the higher TSH in obese adolescents is less clear. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between TSH concentrations and insulin sensitivity, lipids, and adipokines in euthyroid, non-diabetic, obese adolescents. Thirty-six euthyroid, non-diabetic, obese adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin sensitivity (Si) and pancreatic β-cell function as assessed by disposition index (DI) were measured using the oral glucose minimal model approach. Cholesterol (total, low-density lipoprotein [LDL-C], and high-density lipoprotein [HDL-C]), triglycerides (TG), interleukin-6 (IL-6), total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were also determined. Associations between measures of thyroid function and Si, DI, lipids, and adipokines were computed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. The mean age of the subjects was 14.3±1.88 years, and the mean BMI was 32.5±4.65 kg/m2; 97% were non-Hispanic white and 47% were male. The mean TSH was 2.7±1.2 mIU/L. Increasing serum TSH was correlated with decreasing Si (log Si) in the entire cohort (p=0.03), but this relationship persisted only in males (p=0.02). The correlation between TSH and Si in males remained significant after adjusting for BMI (p=0.02). There was no correlation between TSH and pancreatic β-cell function as assessed by DI (p=0.48). TSH correlated positively with LDL-C (p=0.04) and IL-6 (p=0.03), but these associations vanished or weakened after adjusting for BMI (LDL-C p-value=0.44; IL-6 p-value=0.07). This study suggests a sex-specific association between TSH and insulin sensitivity in euthyroid, non

  19. Learning strategy is influenced by trait anxiety and early rearing conditions in prepubertal male, but not prepubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Bromley-Dulfano, Sarah S; Marino, Sarah E; Stathopoulos, Nicholas G; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-09-01

    Rodents solve dual-solution tasks that require navigation to a goal by adopting either a hippocampus-dependent place strategy or a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy. A variety of factors, including biological sex and emotional status, influence the choice of learning strategy. In these experiments, we investigated the relationship between learning strategy and anxiety level in male and female rats prior to the onset of puberty, before the activational effects of gonadal hormones influence these processes. In the first experiment, prepubertal male rats categorized as high in trait anxiety at 26days of age exhibited a bias toward stimulus-response strategy at 28days of age, whereas age-matched females exhibited no preference in strategy regardless of anxiety level. In the second experiment, male and female rats were separated from their dams for either 15 or 180min per day during the first 2weeks of life and tested on a battery of anxiety and cognitive tasks between 25 and 29days of age. Prolonged maternal separations for 180min were associated with impaired spatial memory on a Y-maze task in both prepubertal males and females. Furthermore, prolonged maternal separations were linked to elevated anxiety and a bias for stimulus-response strategy in prepubertal males but not females. Alternatively, brief separations from dams for 15min were associated with intact spatial memory, lower levels of anxiety, and no preference for either learning strategy in both sexes. These results provide evidence of sex-specific effects of trait anxiety and early maternal separation on the choice of learning strategy used by prepubertal rodents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between high normal TSH levels and metabolic syndrome components in type 2 diabetic subjects with euthyroidism

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    Lilit Petrosyan

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: In type 2 diabetic subjects with biochemical euthyroidism we found significant association between high normal TSH levels and components of metabolic syndrome. High normal TSH levels were associated with more number of subjects with glycemic goal (HbA1c >7%.

  1. Characteristics of recovery from the euthyroid sick syndrome induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feelders, R. A.; Swaak, A. J.; Romijn, J. A.; Eggermont, A. M.; Tielens, E. T.; Vreugdenhil, G.; Endert, E.; van Eijk, H. G.; Berghout, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the euthyroid sick syndrome. Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF) and melphalan in patients with melanoma or sarcoma is accompanied by high systemic TNF levels. We examined the prolonged effects

  2. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects : The Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Eline H.; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J. N.; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C.M.A.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objective. Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a

  3. Adiposity Blunts the Positive Relationship of Thyrotropin with Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin-Kexin Type 9 Levels in Euthyroid Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Lambert, Gilles; Kobold, Anneke C. Muller; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Effects of thyroid function status on lipoprotein metabolism may extend into the euthyroid range. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism is governed by proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which down-regulates LDL receptor expression, resulting in higher LDL

  4. Association of thyroid function with arterial pressure in normotensive and hypertensive euthyroid individuals: A cross-sectional study

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    Saltiki Katerina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt hypothyroidism has been associated with arterial hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. Results in euthyroid individuals have been conflicting. We investigated associations of thyroid function with systolic (SAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressure in euthyroid subjects. Methods 311 euthyroid individuals (185 women, mean age 43.9 ± 9 without a history of diabetes attending a preventive medicine program were examined. Subjects receiving thyroxine (10.6% were excluded; 19.3% had hypertension, 43% had a family history for hypertension. TSH, fT4, thyroid autoantibodies, insulin, glucose were measured. The "fT4.TSH product", which has been suggested as a T4 resistance-index, was calculated. Results TSH range was 0.1–8, median 1.4 mU/L, fT4 range was 11.5–25.2 pmol/L, median 17.4. TSH and the "fT4.TSH product" were positively associated with DAP (p 2 mU/L (35.3% vs 21.3%, p = 0.045. Conclusion In euthyroid individuals the association of thyroid function with diastolic arterial pressure remains significant even when a stricter "normal range" for TSH levels is considered. The "freeT4.TSH" product appears to be an even stronger predictor of DAP, independently of HOMA insulin resistance index and obesity.

  5. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissenberg, R.; van Dijk, M. M.; Fliers, E.; van der Post, J. A. M.; van Wely, M.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Hoek, A.; Kuchenbecker, W. K.; Verhoeve, H. R.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Rombout-de Weerd, S.; Koks, C.; Zwart, J. J.; Broekmans, F.; Verpoest, W.; Christiansen, O. B.; Post, M.; Papatsonis, D. N. M.; Verberg, M. F. G.; Sikkema, J.; Mol, B. W.; Bisschop, P. H.; Goddijn, M.

    Background: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the

  6. Thyroidectomy improves quality of life in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter – a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Watt, Torquil; Cramon, Per

    compared to a historic group from the general population (n=739). ThyPRO data before, three, and six months after surgery were compared with normative scores from the general population using a linear mixed model and non-paired t-tests. The effect size (ES) was estimated as mean change by standard...... through April 2016. Before surgery, patients with goiter experienced poorer scores on all scales compared to the general population. After surgery, moderate to large improvements were seen in Goiter Symptoms (ES: 1.52), Tiredness (ES: 0.60), Anxiety (ES: 0.54), and Overall QoL (ES: 0.74). The remaining...... scales either experienced no change or small changes (ES:0.00-0.50). Post-surgery, with exception a reduced level of Anxiety, all scales returned to values similar to the general population.Conclusion: Thyroid surgery leads to significant benefit among patients with euthyroid goiter, and restores Qo...

  7. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issues for young girls undergoing fertility preservation? Can male children bank sperm to preserve their fertility? What ... fertility preservation options for young boys and adolescent males? What are the fertility preservation options for prepubertal ...

  8. Euthyroid sick syndrome and nutritional status are correlated with hyposelenemia in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao-Lin; Xu, Gang; Huang, Zi-Yan; Zhong, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Su-Hang; Jiang, Ting-Ying

    2011-07-01

    Maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients have altered levels of thyroid hormone (TH) in euthyroid sick syndrome, along with low T3 levels and several nutritional metabolic disturbances. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for living organisms, which has been shown to play a major role in thyroid hormone levels and the nutritional metabolism. The aims of the present study were to assess the changes in serum levels of selenium and their correlation with disorders of the endocrine and nutritional metabolism in HD patients. Fifty-three uremic patients with hemodialysis were evaluated; 30 healthy volunteers served as controls. Baseline serum concentrations of total triiodothyronine (TT3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (TT4), and free thyroxine (FT4) were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured by a sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Serum selenium was analyzed using Hitachi Z- 2000 polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry. Other metabolic variables were measured in all patients and control subjects. Multiple correlation analysis was performed among variables. Higher serum triglyceride, LDL-C, ApoB and lower albumin, HDL-C levels were found in subjects with HD. Mean serum selenium concentration was significantly lower in the HD group than in the control group (pselenium levels were significantly positively correlated with albumin, HDL-C, TT3 and FT3 ; and negatively correlated with triglyceride (TG), LDL-C, ApoB and iPTH. Both serum TT3 and FT3 levels were significantly positively correlated with HDL-C; and negatively correlated with TG, LDL-C and ApoB. These data suggest that hyposelenemia in HD patients correlated with euthyroid sick syndrome with low T3 levels, and nutritional status with hyperlipidemia and hypoalbuminemia which might be involved in dysfunction in the endocrine and nutrition metabolism in dialysis patients.

  9. Thyroid hormone levels and incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  10. Management of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Euthyroid Women in Pregnancy: Comparison of the American Thyroid Association and the Endocrine Society Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of thyroid autoantibodies is relatively high in women of childbearing age. There is evidence that positive thyroperoxidase antibody even in euthyroid women may increase the risk of spontaneous and recurrent pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. However, the evidence is not enough to justify recommendation on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid autoantibodies or LT4 supplementation for reducing maternal or fetal complications. In this paper we reviewed the related evidence and compared the new guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and Endocrine Society with respect to the screening and management of positive thyroperoxidase antibody in euthyroid pregnant women. As there was no major contradiction or disagreement between the two guidelines, either one of two guidelines may be used by clinicians for the appropriate management of thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy.

  11. Effectiveness and Mechanism of Preoperative Lugol Solution for Reducing Thyroid Blood Flow in Patients with Euthyroid Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Ming; Liao, Wei-Ting; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Sun, H Sunny; Chow, Nan-Haw

    2016-03-01

    To reduce intraoperative and postoperative complications, using Lugol solution to preoperatively prepare patients with Graves' disease has (1) rapidly reduced the severity of thyrotoxicosis and (2) reduced the vascularity of the thyroid gland. The vascularity reduction normally accompanies reducing the severity of thyrotoxicosis. However, the effects and mechanism of Lugol solution for reducing blood flow have not been well investigated in the patients with euthyroid (normally functioning thyroid) Graves' disease. Twenty-five patients with euthyroid Graves' disease being preoperatively treated with Lugol solution for 10 days were measured, at baseline and on the operative day, for (1) superior thyroid artery blood flow; (2) systemic angiogenic factor (VEGF); and (3) systemic inflammatory factor [interleukin (IL)-16]. All three parameters were significantly (p Graves' disease. We recommend routine preoperative Lugol solution treatment for all patients with Graves' disease.

  12. Developmental potential of prepubertal mouse oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired synthesis of glutathione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Zhong Jiao

    Full Text Available Although oocytes from prepubertal animals are found less competent than oocytes from adults, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse oocyte model, this paper has tested the hypothesis that the developmental potential of prepubertal oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired potential for glutathione synthesis. Oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice, primed with or without eCG, were matured in vitro and assessed for glutathione synthesis potential, oxidative stress, Ca(2+ reserves, fertilization and in vitro development potential. In unprimed mice, abilities for glutathione synthesis, activation, male pronuclear formation, blastocyst formation, cortical granule migration and polyspermic block were all compromised significantly in prepubertal compared to adult oocytes. Cysteamine and cystine supplementation to maturation medium significantly promoted oocyte glutathione synthesis and blastocyst development but difference due to maternal age remained. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS levels increased, Ca(2+ storage decreased significantly in prepubertal oocytes. Levels of both catalytic and modifier subunits of the γ-glutamylcysteine ligase were significantly lower in prepubertal than in adult oocytes. Maternal eCG priming improved all the parameters and eliminated the age difference. Together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis by showing that prepubertal oocytes have a decreased ability to synthesize glutathione leading to an impaired potential to reduce ROS and to form male pronuclei and blastocysts. The resulting oxidative stress decreases the intracellular Ca(2+ store resulting in impaired activation at fertilization, and damages the microfilament network, which affects cortical granule redistribution leading to polyspermy.

  13. The Evolution of Thyroid Function after Presenting with Hashimoto Thyroiditis Is Different between Initially Euthyroid Girls with and Those without Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Corrias, Andrea; Mazzanti, Laura; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Corica, Domenico; Aversa, Tommaso; Messina, Maria Francesca; De Luca, Filippo; Valenzise, Mariella

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively investigate, during a 5-year follow-up, whether the prognosis of thyroid function with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is different in euthyroid girls with Turner syndrome (TS) than in euthyroid girls without TS. In 66 TS girls and 132 non-TS girls with euthyroid HT and similar thyroid functional test results at HT diagnosis, we followed up the evolution of thyroid status over time. At the end of follow-up, the TS girls exhibited higher TSH levels, lower fT4 levels, and lower prevalence rates of both euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism, but higher prevalence rates of both overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, irrespective of the karyotype. An association with TS is able to impair the long-term prognosis of thyroid function in girls with HT. Such an effect occurs irrespective of thyroid functional test results at HT diagnosis and is not necessarily linked with a specific karyotype. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Stereospecific determination and in vivo monodeiodination of thyroxine enantiomers in euthyroid man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, I D; Gorman, C A; Burman, K D; Jiang, N S

    1985-03-01

    To compare in man the absorption, serum disappearance, and peripheral monodeiodination of the thyroxine enantiomers, we studied six euthyroid subjects who, on separate occasions, orally ingested 3 mg of either dextrothyroxine (DT4) or levothyroxine (LT4). We measured the serum concentrations of total T4 (TT4), total T3, and reverse T3 (rT3) by nonstereospecific radioimmunoassay and we determined serum DT4 and LT4 by stereospecific chromatography. Mean serum TT4 levels from 4 hours were significantly greater after LT4 administration. After DT4 administration, stereospecific analysis of serum revealed two T4 peaks that persisted from 2 to 48 hours. The mean serum LT4 level did not significantly change during the 48 hours after DT4 administration. Increases in serum T3 and rT3 were seen from 2 hours after administration of either enantiomer. From 12 hours the levels of both triiodothyronines after LT4 were significantly higher than after DT4. In this short term study we found no evidence that in man DT4 is converted to LT4, nor is it preferentially deiodinated to rT3. The greater and more persistent increases in serum T4 and T3 observed after LT4 probably contribute to the known higher bioactivity of that enantiomer.

  15. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E; van der Post, J A M; van Wely, M; Bloemenkamp, K W M; Hoek, A; Kuchenbecker, W K; Verhoeve, H R; Scheepers, H C J; Rombout-de Weerd, S; Koks, C; Zwart, J J; Broekmans, F; Verpoest, W; Christiansen, O B; Post, M; Papatsonis, D N M; Verberg, M F G; Sikkema, J; Mol, B W; Bisschop, P H; Goddijn, M

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of levothyroxine administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20th week of gestation. The primary outcome is live birth, defined as the birth of a living fetus beyond 24weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes are ongoing pregnancy at 12weeks, miscarriage, preterm birth, (serious) adverse events, time to pregnancy and survival at 28days of neonatal life. The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012). Here we discuss the rationale and design of the T4-LIFE study, an international multicenter randomized, double blind placebo controlled, clinical trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of levothyroxine in women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

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    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  17. Gender’s Effect on a School-Based Intervention in the Prepubertal Growth Spurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Children aged 10-11 years pass through a dynamic developmental period marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of gender on a school-based intervention in the prepubertal growth spurt. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls, fifth and sixth grade students from an urban public elementary school in Portugal (10.8 ± 0.4 years, were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: a strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls, and an endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls; and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls; no training program. Training program for the two experimental groups was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. Compared with the values at the beginning of the protocol, both strength and endurance training programs produced significant improvements (p 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.16, Power= 0.29 and aerobic (p> 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.05, Power= 0.28 capacity. The results of the present study should be taken into consideration in order to optimize strength training school-based programs.

  18. Use of Flexible Hysteroscopy in Prepubertal Aged Girls with Genital Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Tsai Kung

    2005-12-01

    Conclusion: The advantages of safety, convenience, and effectiveness suggest that flexible hysteroscopy under anesthesia is a good substitute for traditional vaginoscopy and may help in the diagnosis of genital complaints in selected prepubertal patients in the pediatric gynecology clinic.

  19. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery.

  20. Treatment with Myo-Inositol and Selenium Ensures Euthyroidism in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Nordio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical evidences have highlighted the efficacy of myo-inositol and selenium in the treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis. Aim of this study was to further analyze the role of myo-inositol plus selenium (Myo-Ins-Se in restoring a normal thyroid function of Hashimoto’s patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Eighty-six patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis having thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels between 3 and 6 mIU/L, elevated serum antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb and/or antithyroglobulin (TgAb, and normal free thyroxine (fT4 and free triiodothyronine (fT3 levels were enrolled in the study: one hyperthyroid subject with TSH about 0.14 μU/ml was included in this trial as a single case. Patients were assigned to receive Myo-Ins-Se. TSH, TPOAb, and TgAb levels were significantly decreased in patients treated with combined Myo-Ins-Se after 6 months of treatment. In addition, a significant fT3 and fT4 increase, along with an amelioration of their quality of life, was observed. Remarkably, TSH values of the hyperthyroid patient increased from 0.14 μU/ml up to 1.02 μU/ml, showing a complete restoration of TSH values at a normal range. In conclusion, the administration of Myo-Ins-Se is significantly effective in decreasing TSH, TPOAb, and TgAb levels, as well as enhancing thyroid hormones and personal wellbeing, therefore restoring euthyroidism in patients diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis.

  1. Effects of combined electromyostimulation and gymnastics training in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deley, Gaëlle; Cometti, Carole; Fatnassi, Anaïs; Paizis, Christos; Babault, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 6-week combined electromyostimulation (EMS) and gymnastic training program on muscle strength and vertical jump performance of prepubertal gymnasts. Sixteen young women gymnasts (age 12.4 ± 1.2 yrs) participated in this study, with 8 in the EMS group and the remaining 8 as controls. EMS was conducted on knee extensor muscles for 20 minutes 3 times a week during the first 3 weeks and once a week during the last 3 weeks. Gymnasts from both groups underwent similar gymnastics training 5-6 times a week. Isokinetic torque of the knee extensors was determined at different eccentric and concentric angular velocities ranging from -60 to +240° per second. Jumping ability was evaluated using squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), reactivity test, and 3 gymnastic-specific jumps. After the first 3 weeks of EMS, maximal voluntary torque was increased (+40.0 ± 10.0%, +35.3 ± 11.8%, and +50.6 ± 7.7% for -60, +60, and +240°s⁻¹, respectively; p < 0.05), as well as SJ, reactivity test and specific jump performances (+20.9 ± 8.3%, +20.4 ± 26.2% and +14.9 ± 17.2% respectively; p < 0.05). Six weeks of EMS were necessary to improve the CMJ (+10.1 ± 10.0%, p < 0.05). Improvements in jump ability were still maintained 1 month after the end of the EMS training program. To conclude, these results first demonstrate that in prepubertal gymnasts, a 6-week EMS program, combined with the daily gymnastic training, induced significant increases both in knee extensor muscle strength and nonspecific and some specific jump performances.

  2. Dorsal arthrodesis in prepubertal New Zealand white rabbits followed to skeletal maturity: Effect on thoracic dimensions, spine growth and neural elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canavese Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown that severe spinal deformity and early arthrodesis can adversely affect the development of the spine and thorax by changing their shape and reducing their normal function. This article analyzes the consequences of posterior fusion on the growth of spine, thorax and neural elements in New Zealand white rabbits and compares with similar human data. Materials and Methods : The first section of the article analyzes the consequences of T1-T6 dorsal arthrodesis on the growth of the spine, sternum, thorax volume and neural elements in 12 prepubertal female New Zealand white rabbits, through a study of CT scans and histology specimens. The second part, evaluates thoracic dimensions in 21 children with spinal arthrodesis for treatment of deformity performed prior to nine years of age. Results: Dorsal arthrodesis in prepubertal rabbits changes thoracic growth patterns. In operated rabbits thoracic depth grows more slowly than thoracic width. The sternum as well as length of thoracic vertebral bodies in the spinal segment T1-T6 show reduced growth. Children undergoing spinal arthrodesis before nine years of age were noted to have shortened height, short trunk and disproportionate body habitus at skeletal maturity. Observed spine height and chest dimension values were reduced compared to the expected norms. The ratio between chest width and chest depth was below normal values. Conclusions: The first part of the study shows that thoracic dorsal arthrodesis in prepubertal New Zealand white rabbit influences thoracic, spine growth and affects the shape of pseudo unipolar neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. The second part demonstrates that children treated before nine years of age have significantly reduced spine height and thoracic dimensions. The thorax becomes elliptical as chest depth grows less than chest width. Both experimental and clinical findings contribute to explain reduced chest growth and subsequent thoracic

  3. Prepubertal subchronic exposure to soy milk and glyphosate leads to endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Jessica; Moras, Patricia Bonamigo; Koeppe, Carina; Dallegrave, Eliane; Leal, Mirna Bainy; Rossato-Grando, Luciana Grazziotin

    2017-02-01

    Lactose intolerance is characterized by low or inexistent levels of lactase, and the main treatment consists of dietary changes, especially replacing dairy milk by soy milk. Soy contains phytoestrogens, substances with known estrogenic activity, besides, glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in soy crops, being frequently a residue in soy beans, bringing to a concern regarding the consumption of soy-based products, especially for children in breastfeeding period with lactose intolerance. This study evaluated the pubertal toxicity of a soy milk rich feeding (supplemented or not with glyphosate, doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg) during prepubertal period in male rats. Endocrine disruption was observed through decrease in testosterone levels, decrease in Sertoli cell number and increase in the percentage of degenerated Sertoli and Leydig cells in animals receiving soy milk supplemented with glyphosate (both doses) and in animals treated only with soy milk. Animals treated with soy milk with glyphosate (both doses) showed decrease spermatids number and increase of epididymal tail mass compared to control, and decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules compared to soy milk control group. Animals receiving soy milk supplemented with 100 mg/kg glyphosate showed decrease in round spermatids and increase in abnormal sperm morphology, compared to control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inflammatory adipokines, high molecular weight adiponectin, and insulin resistance: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Murdolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR measures in prepubertal childhood. METHODOLOGY: We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr, included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46, 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28 and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70. Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW-, increased progressively (p<0.0001 from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001 HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05 IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1 than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively, leptin or inflammatory markers (positively correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R(2 0.378; p<0.01. Adjustment for age, BMI(z-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R(2 0.513; p<0.01. Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were

  5. Different Short-Term Mild Exercise Modalities Lead to Differential Effects on Body Composition in Healthy Prepubertal Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sontam, D. M.; Vickers, M. H.; O’Sullivan, J M; Watson, M.; Firth, E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling ...

  6. Serum concentrations of myoglobin, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and cardiac isoenzymes in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roti, E; Bandini, P; Robuschi, G; Emanuele, R; Bolognesi, R; Ciarlini, E; Buzzonetti, P; Gnudi, A

    1980-01-01

    Serum concentrations of myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were measured in 33 euthyroid, 21 hyperthyroid and 15 hypothyroid subjects. The results showed that myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were increased and decreased in the hypo- and hyperthyroid states, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase values were inversely related to both the thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations. To study the origin of the increased muscle protein values observed in hypothyroidism, the cardiac isoenzyme fractions were measured; the results obtained support the view that the muscle enzymes are mainly derived from skeletal muscles.

  7. Energy Homeostasis and Body Weight before and after Cessation of Block and Replacement Therapy in Euthyroid Patients with Graves' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars P. Klieverik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH treated with a combination of thyrostatic drugs and T4, that is, block and replacement therapy (BRT, often report body weight (BW gain. We aimed to determine changes in BW and energy metabolism upon cessation of BRT in these patients, and to identify possible endocrine determinants. We analysed 22 patients with GH (i during BRT, and (ii 12 weeks after BRT cessation. Patients were euthyroid at both visits. There were no differences in BW or resting energy expenditure (REE between visits. At visit 1, after 13.5 (9.5–48.0 months of BRT, serum free (FT4 correlated positively with REE (=0.433, =0.044 and negatively with body fat % (=−0.450, =0.035. Plasma FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio showed an increase 12 w after cessation of BRT (20%, <0.0001 and 16%, =0.007, resp.. Moreover, the relative change in FT3/FT4 ratio showed a significant, positive correlation with the relative change in REE between the 2 visits (=0.465, =0.029. In conclusion, serum FT4 determines REE in euthyroid patients with GH treated with BRT. Twelve weeks after BRT cessation, BW and energy homeostasis are unaltered. However, as serum FT3/FT4 ratio increases after cessation of BRT, which is a positive determinant of changes in REE, a longer term BW decrease is likely to occur.

  8. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4. At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively associated with serum fT4 levels in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism. PMID:26844494

  9. TRH-receptor-type-2-deficient mice are euthyroid and exhibit increased depression and reduced anxiety phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuhua; Zupan, Bojana; Raaka, Bruce M; Toth, Miklos; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2009-05-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a neuropeptide that initiates its effects in mice by interacting with two G-protein-coupled receptors, TRH receptor type 1 (TRH-R1) and TRH receptor type 2 (TRH-R2). Two previous reports described the effects of deleting TRH-R1 in mice. TRH-R1 knockout mice exhibit hypothyroidism, hyperglycemia, and increased depression and anxiety-like behavior. Here we report the generation of TRH-R2 knockout mice. The phenotype of these mice was characterized using gross and histological analyses along with blood hematological assays and chemistries. Standard metabolic tests to assess glucose and insulin tolerance were performed. Behavioral testing included elevated plus maze, open field, tail suspension, forced swim, and novelty-induced hypophagia tests. TRH-R2 knockout mice are euthyroid with normal basal and TRH-stimulated serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin), are normoglycemic, and exhibit normal development and growth. Female, but not male, TRH-R2 knockout mice exhibit moderately increased depression-like and reduced anxiety-like phenotypes. Because the behavioral changes in TRH-R1 knockout mice may have been caused secondarily by their hypothyroidism whereas TRH-R2 knockout mice are euthyroid, these data provide the first evidence for the involvement of the TRH/TRH-R system, specifically extrahypothalamic TRH/TRH-R2, in regulating mood and affect.

  10. A retrospective study on IVF outcome in euthyroid patients with anti-thyroid antibodies: effects of levothyroxine, acetyl-salicylic acid and prednisolone adjuvant treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Anti-thyroid antibodies (ATA), even if not associated with thyroid dysfunction, are suspected to cause poorer outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods We retrospectively analyzed: (a) the prevalence of ATA in euthyroid infertile women, (b) IVF outcome in euthyroid, ATA+ patients, and (c) the effect of adjuvant treatments (levothyroxine alone or associated with acetylsalicylic acid and prednisolone) on IVF results in ATA+ patients. One hundred twenty-nine euthyroid, ATA+ women undergoing IVF were compared with 200 matched, ATA-controls. During IVF cycle, 38 ATA+ patients did not take any adjuvant treatment, 55 received levothyroxin (LT), and 38 received LT +acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)+prednisolone (P). Results The prevalence of ATA among euthyroid, infertile patients was 10.5%, similar to the one reported in euthyroid women between 18 and 45 years. ATA+ patients who did not receive any adjuvant treatment showed significantly poorer ovarian responsiveness to stimulation and IVF results than controls. ATA+ patients receiving LT responded better to ovarian stimulation, but had IVF results as poor as untreated ATA+ women. Patients receiving LT+ASA+P had significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates than untreated ATA+ patients (PR/ET 25.6% and IR 17.7% vs. PR/ET 7.5% and IR 4.7%, respectively), and overall IVF results comparable to patients without ATA (PR/ET 32.8% and IR 19%). Conclusion These observations suggest that euthyroid ATA+ patients undergoing IVF could have better outcome if given LT+ASA+P as adjuvant treatment. This hypothesis must be verified in further randomized, prospective studies. PMID:19941670

  11. PH- Mapping Of Prepubertal Skin Of Indian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A B

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available PH- mapping of skin was made by measuring the skin surface pH in 61 normal Indian subjects (35M, 26F in the prepubertal age group at 21 different sites from scalp to sole at an ambient temperature 25-32C and a relative humidity 60-65%. The pH values at axilla, umbilicus, palm, fingerfolds, foot, sole, and cheek were found to be consistently higher than those at scalp, forehead, retroauricular folds, antecubital and popliteal fossae, anterior arm, anterior the mean pH of male skin appeared to be lower than that of female. The highest pH recorded was in axilla (5.98 for male, 6.00 for female, irrespective of sex. The lowest value however was in anterior neck (4.59 for male and in antecubital fossa (4.83 for female. While the origin of the skin pH is yet to be definitely known, it was observed that a high density of both sweat gland and bacteria flora leads to a high pH, and high concentration of sebaceous gland and of bacterial flora to a lower pH.

  12. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal schoolchildren in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amílcar B; Capingana, Daniel P; Magalhães, Pedro; Gonçalves, Mauer A; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Rodrigues, Sërgio L; Baldo, Marcelo P; Mateus, Miguel S; Mill, Josë Geraldo

    The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, especially in countries with accelerated economic growth. We determined the prevalence of and associations between overweight/obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal (seven- to 11-year-old) schoolchildren (both genders, n = 198) in Luanda, Angola. Biochemical (fasting blood) and clinical examinations were obtained in a single visit. Data are reported as prevalence (95% confidence intervals) and association (r, Pearson). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 17.7% (12.4- 23.0%), high blood pressure (BP > 90% percentile) was 14.6% (9.7-19.5%), elevated glucose level was 16.7% (11.5-21.9%) and total cholesterol level > 170 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l) was 69.2% (62.8-75.6%). Significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic BP (r = 0.46 and 0.40, respectively; p Angola and fat accumulation was directly associated with blood pressure increase but not with other cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. A one-year exercise intervention program in pre-pubertal girls does not influence hip structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlborg Henrik G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that a one-year school-based exercise intervention program influences the accrual of bone mineral in pre-pubertal girls. This report aims to evaluate if also hip structure is affected, as geometry independent of bone mineral influences fracture risk. Methods Fifty-three girls aged 7 – 9 years were included in a curriculum-based exercise intervention program comprising 40 minutes of general physical activity per school day (200 minutes/week. Fifty healthy age-matched girls who participated in the general Swedish physical education curriculum (60 minutes/week served as controls. The hip was scanned by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and the hip structural analysis (HSA software was applied to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC, areal bone mineral density (aBMD, periosteal and endosteal diameter, cortical thickness, cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI, section modulus (Z and cross-sectional area (CSA of the femoral neck (FN. Annual changes were compared. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA. Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate associations between activity level and annual changes in FN. All children remained at Tanner stage 1 throughout the study. Results No between-group differences were found during the 12 months study period for changes in the FN variables. The total duration of exercise during the year was not correlated with the changes in the FN traits. Conclusion Evaluated by the DXA technique and the HSA software, a general one-year school-based exercise program for 7–9-year-old pre-pubertal girls seems not to influence the structure of the hip.

  15. Impact of thyroid autoimmunity in euthyroid women on live birth rate after IUI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuane, D; Velkeniers, B; Bravenboer, B; Drakopoulos, P; Tournaye, H; Parra, J; De Brucker, M

    2017-04-01

    Does thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) predict live birth rate in euthyroid women after one treatment cycle in IUI patients? TAI as such does not influence pregnancy outcome after IUI treatment. The role of TAI on pregnancy outcome in the case of IVF/ICSI is largely debated in the literature. This is the first study to address this issue in the case of IUI. This was a retrospective cohort study. A two-armed study design was performed: patients anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO)+ and patients anti-TPO-. All patients who started their first IUI cycle in our fertility center between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014 were included. After exclusion of those patients with or being treated for thyroid dysfunction, 3143 patients were finally included in the study. After approval by the institutional review board we retrospectively included all patients who started their first IUI cycle in our center between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014 with follow-up of outcome until 31 December 2015. Patients with clinical thyroid dysfunction were excluded (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 5 mIU/l) as were patients under treatment with levothyroxine or anti-thyroid drugs. These patients were then divided into two main groups: patients anti-TPO+ and patients anti-TPO- (= control group). Live birth delivery after 25 weeks of gestation was taken as the primary endpoint of our study. As a secondary endpoint, we evaluated differences in live birth delivery after IUI according to different upper limits of preconception TSH thresholds (live birth rate was analyzed. Between-group comparison did not show any significant difference between the anti-TPO+ and anti-TPO- group with respect to live birth delivery-, pregnancy- or miscarriage rate with odds ratio at 1.04 (95% CI: 0.63; 1.69), 0.98 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.55) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.23; 2.39), respectively. In addition, there were no significant differences in live birth delivery-, pregnancy- or miscarriage rate when comparing subgroups according to

  16. No single way to explain cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes from prepubertal and cyclic gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, P; Cieslak, A; Warzych, E; Zejden, Z; Szumacher-Strabel, M; Molinska-Glura, M; Lechniak, D

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate selected aspects of cytoplasmic maturation in oocytes from prepubertal and cyclic crossbred gilts before and after in vitro maturation. For this purpose, cortical granule redistribution, mitochondrial DNA content and mitochondria translocation were analyzed. Moreover, for the first time the fatty acid profiles in follicular fluid (FF) of both gilt categories was evaluated. The nuclear maturation (the percentage of metaphase II oocytes was 83% in prepubertal gilts compared with 87% in cyclic gilts), cortical granule relocation from the cortex to peripheral ooplasm (98.7% vs. 98.8% of oocytes, respectively) and mitochondrial DNA content (227 543 vs. 206 660, respectively) was not affected by sexual maturity of the donor gilt. However, the redistribution of active mitochondria during in vitro maturation was observed only in the oocytes of cyclic gilts. With regard to FF analysis, saturated, unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly more abundant in the FF of prepubertal females. In particular, stearic (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) fatty acids had significantly higher concentrations in the FF of prepubertal gilts. In conclusion, although the oocytes of prepubertal gilts matured in vitro at a rate similar to those of cyclic gilts, they differed with respect to the selected factors attributed to cytoplasmic maturation. We suggest that the higher content of particular fatty acids, which is known to have a negative influence on oocyte maturation, as well as impaired mitochondria redistribution are factors limiting the maturation potential of oocytes from prepubertal gilts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiological adaptations to resistance training in prepubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Giovani Dos Santos; Sant'anna, Marcelo Morganti; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Oliveira, Norton Luis de; Santos, Cinara Bos Dos; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological adaptations of resistance training (RT) in prepubertal boys. Eighteen healthy boys were divided into RT (n = 9, Mage = 10.4 ± 0.5 years) and control (CTR; n = 9, Mage = 10.9 ± 0.7 years) groups. The RT group underwent a resistance training during 12 weeks, 3 times per week, performing 3 sets of 6 to 15 repetitions at intensities ranging from 60% to 80% of maximal dynamic strength (1-repetition maximum [1-RM] values). Before and after the training, the groups were assessed in their body mass and composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), isokinetic dynamometry, 1-RM, and ergoespirometry. Moreover, force per unit of muscle volume was calculated by the quotient between 1-RM and lean mass. Both groups presented statistically significant (p < .05) increases in the 1-RM and force per unit of muscle volume in the knee extension and elbow flexion, but these strength increases were statistically significantly greater in the RT group (effect size [ES] = 2.83-9.00) than in the CTR group (ES = 0.72-1.00). Moreover, both groups statistically significantly increased in lean body mass variables (ES = 0.12-0.38). However, increases in the fat mass variables occurred only in the CTR group (ES = - 0.01-0.50), whereas no changes were observed in the RT group. Furthermore, there were statistically significant increases in all bone mineral content variables (ES = 0.13-0.43), without differences between groups. No cardiorespiratory changes were observed. Twelve weeks of RT was effective in improving strength and force per unit of muscle volume and prevented fat mass increases in boys.

  18. Objective Identification of Prepubertal Female Singers and Non-singers by Singing Power Ratio Using Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M; Geetha, Y V; Darshan, Y S

    2017-03-01

    The field of music is increasingly gaining scope and attracting researchers from varied fields in terms of improvising the art of voice modulation in singing. There has been a lot of competition, and young budding singers are emerging with more talent. This study is aimed to develop software to differentiate a prepubertal voice as that of a singer or a non-singer using an objective tool-singing power ratio (SPR)-as an objective measure to quantify the resonant voice quality. Recordings of singing and phonation were obtained from 30 singers and 30 non-singer girls (8-10 years). Three professional singers perceptually evaluated all samples using a rating scale and categorized them as singers or non-singers. Using Matlab, a program was developed to automatically calculate the SPR of a particular sample and classify it into either of two groups based on the normative values of SPR developed manually. Positive correlation for SPR of phonation or singing was found between perceptual and manual ratings, and objective values of SPR. Software could automatically give the SPR values for samples that are fed and could further differentiate them as singer or non-singer. Researchers need not depend on professional singers or musicians for the judgment of voice for research purposes. This software uses an objective tool, which serves as an instrument to judge singing talent using singing and phonation samples of children. Also, it can be used as a first line of judgment in any singing audition process, which could ease the work of professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neera; Dutta, Deep; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened 791 children, hormonal data from 602 children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. Seventy-one (11.79%) of these had ScH, and 33 (5.48%) had OPH. Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group (51.51%), followed by ScH (30.98%) and euthyroid children (4.41%) (p<0.001). Median (25 th -75 th percentiles) levels for prolactin in euthyroid, ScH, and OPH children were 13.3 (9.4-17.95), 19.15 (15.97-30.12), and 28.86 (17.05-51.9) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). In children, prolactin levels were comparable in males and females. An age-related increase in serum prolactin was noted in euthyroid children, which was statistically significant in post-pubertal (16-18 years) children. Area under the curve for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children was 0.758 (95% confidence interval: 0.673-0.829; p<0.001). TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L had a sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of 77.6% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is common in children with ScH and OPH. TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L has a good sensitivity and specificity in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children. More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should be an indication for treating ScH in children.

  20. Negative correlation between bone mineral density and TSH receptor antibodies in long-term euthyroid postmenopausal women with treated Graves’ disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ercolano, Monica A; Drnovsek, Monica L; Croome, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    receptor and TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) may have an important role in bone turn-over.The aim of our study was to determine, in pre and postmenopausal euthyroidism patients with previous overt hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as factors that could affect BMD...

  1. X Chromosome inactivation pattern is not associated with interindividual variations in thyroid volume: a study of euthyroid danish female twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Bennedbak, Finn Noe

    2009-01-01

    Ahigher frequency of skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is found in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) than in controls. Although goitre is often present in AITD, a recent study failed to show an association between XCI and clinically overt nontoxic goitre. However, the etiology...... a statistically significant association between XCI and thyroid volume: Regression coefficient (beta) = 0.023 (95% confidence interval, -0.062-0.108), p = 0.592 and beta = 0.038 (-0.080-0.156), p = 0.521, respectively. Controlling for potential confounders such as zygosity, age, TSH, smoking habits and use...... of oral contraceptives did not change the findings. In conclusion, in a sample of euthyroid Danish female twins, we found no evidence of a relationship between XCI pattern and thyroid volume....

  2. Assessment of laser photobiomodulation and polarized light on the healing of cutaneous wounds on euthyroid and hypothyroid induced rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Weyll, Barbara Mayoral Pedroso; da Costa Lino, Maíra Dória M.; Ramalho, Maria Jose Pedreira; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antonio Luis

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or polarized light (PL) in cutaneous wound healing of hypothyroid rats at dosages of 20 or 40J/cm2. Bioestimulatory effects of Laser radiation and Polarized light are recognized alternative therapies to improve healing on systemic disease patients, but their usefulness in the improvement of hypothyroidism healing impairment is uncertain till date. Forty Wistar rats were used in this study. Hypothyroidism was propylthiouracil- induced. Standard excisional cutaneous wounds were created without suturing and LLLT (λ660nm, 30mW, φ 3mm) or PL (λ 400-2000nm, 40mW, φ 10mm) was applied every 48 hours up to seven days on experimental groups. The rats were killed on the eighth day when wound contraction was assessed. The healing features were evaluated by light microscopy (H/E and Sirius Red). The cutaneous wounds of hypothyroid rats showed delayed healing process characterized by reduced thickness of epithelial layers, incipient formation of disorganized collagen fibers and wound contraction to a lesser extent (FISHER, p=0.0276), when compared to the euthyroid group. The use of both the Laser and Polarized Light on hypothyroid rats increased the amount of fibroblasts and the thickness of collagen fibers, especially on the L 20J/cm2 group. Euthyroid rats have still demonstrated more regular collagen fibers pattern than hypothyroid rats. It was therefore concluded that hypothyroidism delays wound healing and both Laser photobiomodulation and Polarized Light at 20j/cm2 dosages had improved the healing process in hypothyroid rats.

  3. Adult Immunohistochemical Markers Fail to Detect Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Prepubertal Boys with Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. It is characterized by large germ cells with large nuclei with a hyperchromatic, coarse chromatin pattern, large prominent nucleoli and abundant pale cytoplasm. In prepubertal boys these cells are located both...

  4. Luteinizing hormone secretion as influenced by age and estradiol in the prepubertal gilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to determine if there is an age related reduction in the sensitivity of the negative feedback action of estradiol on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in the prepubertal gilt. Ovariectomized gilts at 90 (n = 12), 150 (n = 11) or 210 (n = 12) days of age received estradiol ...

  5. Growth Development in Pre-Pubertal Female Rabbits Fed Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of crude oil (Bonny Light Grade) on the growth potential of young female rabbits. Forty pre-pubertal female rabbits within the age bracket of 16-17 weeks were used for this study. These forty young rabbits were randomly allocated to five dietary treatment group (A-E) with the ...

  6. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  7. Effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanne Travers

    Full Text Available Testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only potential option for fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys exposed to gonadotoxic treatment. Completion of spermatogenesis after in vitro maturation is one of the future uses of harvested testicular tissue. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of fresh and frozen-thawed mouse pre-pubertal spermatogonial stem cells in an organ culture system. Pre-pubertal CD1 mouse fresh testes were cultured for 7 (D7, 9 (D9 and 11 (D11 days using an organ culture system. Basal medium was supplemented with different concentrations of retinol (Re or retinoic acid (RA alone or in combination. Seminiferous tubule morphology (tubule diameter, intra-tubular cell type, intra-tubular cell death and proliferation (PCNA antibody and testosterone level were assessed at D7, D9 and D11. Pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue were frozen after a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C and after thawing, were cultured for 9 days, using the culture medium preserving the best fresh tissue functionality. Retinoic acid at 10(-6M and retinol at 3.3.10(-7M, as well as retinol 10(-6M are favourable for seminiferous tubule growth, maintenance of intra-tubular cell proliferation and germ cell differentiation of fresh pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonia. Structural and functional integrity of frozen-thawed testicular tissue appeared to be well-preserved after soaking temperature at -8 °C, after 9 days of organotypic culture using 10(-6M retinol. RA and Re can control in vitro germ cell proliferation and differentiation. Re at a concentration of 10(-6M maintains intra-tubular cell proliferation and the ability of spermatogonia to initiate spermatogenesis in fresh and frozen pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue using a soaking temperature at -8 °C. Our data suggested a possible human application for in vitro maturation of cryopreserved pre-pubertal testicular

  8. Subgingival bacteria in a case of prepubertal periodontitis, before and one year after extractions of the affected primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, D; Bimstein, E

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of children with prepubertal periodontitis (PP), may be complicated by the extent of the lesions and the possibility of tetracycline stain of the developing permanent dentition. Therefore, with the purpose of preventing the infection of permanent teeth during the mixed dentition, it has been recommended that the treatment of children with PP, should include the early extraction of the primary teeth affected with alveolar bone loss (ABL). Still, there is little evidence which confirms that extraction of the affected primary teeth do in fact reduce the periodonto-pathogens load of the subgingival plaque. The present study reports values of colony forming units (CFU) of total anaerobic bacteria, Actinobacillus actynomicetemcomitans (Aa) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) from the subgingival plaque from a child with PP, collected immediately before and 1 year after extractions of the primary teeth affected with ABL. CFU of Aa and Pg developed only from the subgingival plaque collected before the extraction of the primary teeth affected with ABL. These findings suggest that in cases of PP, extraction of the affected primary teeth may reduce the possibility of infection of the periodontum of the permanent teeth during the mixed dentition period.

  9. {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi thyroid uptake in euthyroid individuals and in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Allan O. [Campinas State University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas (Brazil); Avenida Independencia, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zantut-Wittmann, D.E.; Tambascia, M.A. [Campinas State University, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas (Brazil); Nogueira, R.O.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Lima, M.C.L.; Camargo, E.E.; Ramos, C.D. [Campinas State University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas (Brazil)

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the biokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in the thyroid of euthyroid volunteers (EVs) and in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases and determined the best time interval between {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injection and calculation of uptake. Forty EVs, 30 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 15 patients with atrophic Hashimoto's thyroiditis (AHT) and 15 patients with hypertrophic Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HHT) underwent {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi thyroid scintigraphy. Dynamic images were acquired for 20 min, and static images were obtained 20 min, 60 min and 120 min post injection. Five-, 20-, 60- and 120-min uptake, time to maximal uptake (T{sub max}) and T{sub 1/2} of tracer clearance were calculated. Thyroid hormones and antibodies were measured. {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake was investigated in GD patients. T{sub max} was approximately 5 min in all four groups. The mean T{sub 1/2} value for EVs was similar to the GD value and lower than the HHT and AHT values. The mean ({+-}SD) 5-min uptake was 0.13% ({+-}0.05%) for EVs. The 5-min uptake in GD was higher than that in EVs(P<0.001) and correlated with free thyroxine (r=0.54) and with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake (r=0.68). Uptake in HHT was higher than that in AHT (P=0.0003) and EVs (P=0.002). Uptake in AHT was lower than uptake in EVs (P=0.0001). Five minutes is the optimal time interval between {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injection and calculation of thyroid uptake. Five-minute uptake differentiates euthyroid individuals from GD patients. There is a high correlation between {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in GD. The reduced {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi uptake in AHT patients is probably due to glandular destruction and fibrosis. Inflammatory infiltrate and high mitochondrial density in thyrocytes possibly explain the increased uptake in GD and HHT. (orig.)

  10. Results of preventive radioiodine therapy in euthyroid patients with history of hyperthyroidism prior to administration of amiodarone with permanent atrial fibrillation--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata; Woliński, Kosma; Płazińska, Maria Teresa; Miechowicz, Izabela; Kwiecińska, Barbara; Czepczyński, Rafał; Królicki, Leszek; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Radioiodine (RAI) therapy is a standard procedure in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. However, the use of RAI in euthyroid patients requiring chronic administration of amiodarone (AM) where other antiarrhythmic drugs may lack efficacy is still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of an AM therapy prior to treatment with radioiodine therapy in euthyroid patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (PAF), who had been treated for hyperthyroidism in the past. This was a retrospective observational study. Patients were assessed at baseline and two, six, eight, and 12 months after RAI therapy. 17 euthyroid patients with PAF were qualified to the RAI (female/male 3/14; age range 65 to 87, median 71). The patients required chronic administration of AM as a prophylaxis against sudden death. Each patient received an ablative dose of 800 MBq (22 mCi) of 131I. At baseline and during follow-up, no side effects of the therapy and no signs of drug intolerance were observed. Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurred in two (11.8%) cases after two months of RAI and five weeks of AM administration. In this situation, RAI therapy was repeated. Three patients (17.6%) after six months, and another two (11.8%) after eight months, required an additional dose of 131I due to amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT). Twelve patients (70.6%) returned to spontaneous sinus rhythm within two months. Fourteen patients (82.4%) had sinus rhythm during follow-up after six and 12 months of treatment. Preventive RAI in euthyroid (but previously hyperthyroid) patients with PAF before administration of AM may be the method of choice. This is particularly important for patients who will require permanent AM administration as a life-saving drug.

  11. Thyroidal radioisotope uptake in euthyroid cats : a comparison between 131I and 99MTcO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lambrechts

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thyroidal evaluation systems in euthyroid cats (n = 12 were compared. A single, confirmed hyperthyroid cat was included for interest. Firstly, thyroidal uptake of an intravenous bolus of approximately 111 MBq (3 mCi 99MTcO4- was estimated by using a scintillation camera and calculating the ratio of thyroid to salivary activities at 20 min and 4 h. Thyroid to salivary activity ratios were 1:1 at 20 min and 2:1 at 4 h. Two discrete areas of salivary uptake were identified, namely a parotid/mandibular complex and a more rostral buccal/sublingual complex. These results were compared to radioiodine uptake of an oral dose of approximately 0.925 MBq (25 mCi 131I using a standard thyroid uptake system, measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. Mean radioiodine thyroidal uptake started at 33 % at 1 h, stabilised at 21 % between 4 and 24 h, and dropped to 18 % at 48 h. There was a significant correlation between the early thyroid:salivary ratio of the parotid/mandibular complex and the radioiodine uptake at 12 h.

  12. Acute and chronic effects of dextro-thyroxine on pituitary thyroid axis and on reverse triiodothyronine production in euthyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busnardo, B; Simioni, N; Girelli, M E; Rampazzo, T; Pagnan, A; Zanetti, G; Dotto, S; Ciuccio, N

    1987-02-01

    Serum levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and TSH were measured in euthyroid subjects after a single dose of 4 mg D-thyroxine (DT4) or of 0.25 mg L-thyroxine (LT4). The same parameters and TSH response to TRH were also evaluated in 7 dyslipidemic patients before and after one month of treatment with 6 mg DT4. T4 levels increased about 165% at h 4 after DT4 and only 47% after LT4; T3 levels remained unchanged until h 10 both after DT4 and after LT4; rT3 levels increased almost 179% after DT4 and only 32% after LT4. TSH levels decreased about 30% after both DT4 and LT4. In the long term study similar variations of the same parameters were observed: basal TSH levels decreased and TSH response to TRH was inhibited in all patients but one; T4 levels increased 62%, T3 levels increased 35%, while rT3 levels increased 545%. Our results show that: both acute and long-term treatment with DT4 suppress TSH secretion; DT4 both in acute and in long-term administration, is preferentially dealogenated in the alaninic ring with production of rDT3, instead of in the phenolic ring with production of DT3. This may contribute to explain its lower metabolic activity.

  13. The effect of TSH change per year on the risk of incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Jee, Jae Hwan; Jun, Ji Eun; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive values of baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone and the rate of thyroid-stimulating hormone change within the euthyroid state on the development of chronic kidney disease. We conducted a longitudinal study in 17,067 Korean adults with normal thyroid function and no history of thyroid disease. Incident chronic kidney disease was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease or at the final visit in subjects without chronic kidney disease, divided by the observation period (years). Subjects were stratified into quintiles according to rates of thyroid-stimulating hormone change. During 86,583 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up 5.2 years), there were 561 incident cases of chronic kidney disease. The risk of incident chronic kidney disease was significantly higher in subjects with rapid increases (quintile 5) or decreases (quintile 1) in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels compared to the reference group (quintile 3). In fully adjusted models, the hazard ratios of quintiles 1 and 5 were 3.15 (95 % confidence interval 2.34 to 4.24; p chronic kidney disease. The development of chronic kidney disease is associated with the rate of changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone level rather than with baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.

  14. Comparison of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the serum of hypothyroxinemic and euthyroid dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Grace; Walter, Kyla; Kass, Philip; Puschner, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    To determine the profile of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 23 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in serum of domestic canines and whether this was predictive of thyroid hormone status. Serum samples were collected from 51 client-owned dogs visiting the University of California Davis William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital during 2012 to 2016 for routine appointments. Fifteen dogs were diagnosed with hypothyroxinemia while 36 were euthyroid. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in canine serum samples were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between the presence/absence of canine hypothyroxinemia and the serum concentration of individual PBDE or PCB congeners. The median concentrations of total PBDE and PCB congeners in the hypothyroxinemic group were 660 and 1,371 ng/g lipid, respectively, which were higher than concentrations detected in the control group. However, logistic regression analysis determined that current concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in canines were not significantly associated with hypothyroxinemia. BDE 183 was the only congener showing near significance (p = 0.068). PBDE and PCB congeners were detected in all canine samples confirming ongoing exposure to these pollutants. Because household dogs share the human environment, they may serve as biosentinels of human exposure to these contaminants.

  15. Marginal growth increase, altered bone quality and polycystic ovaries in female prepubertal rats after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor exemestane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, Sandy A; Wit, Jan M; De Schutter, Tineke; De Clerck, Nora; Postnov, Andreï A; Kremer Hovinga, Sandra; van Doorn, Jaap; Veiga, Sergio J; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Karperien, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Aromatase inhibition has been proposed as a potential approach for growth enhancement in children with short stature, but detailed animal studies are lacking. To assess the effect and potential adverse effects of aromatase inhibition on growth in female rats. Prepubertal Wistar rats received intramuscular injections with placebo or the aromatase inhibitor exemestane at a dose of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg/week (E10, E30, E100) for 3 weeks. A control group was ovariectomized (OVX). Weight and length gain, tibia and femur length, growth plate width, organ weights, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, and histology of the ovaries, uterus and brain were analyzed. X-ray microtomography of femora was performed. E100 significantly increased weight gain and growth plate width, but less prominently than OVX. Trabecular number and thickness were decreased in E100 and OVX in the metaphysis and epiphysis. E100 significantly decreased ovarian weight and multiple cysts were seen upon histological evaluation. No significant effects were found on IGF-I levels and brain morphology in E100. E10 and E30 had no effects on growth. A high dose of exemestane marginally increases axial and appendicular growth in female rats, at the expense of osteopenia and polycystic ovaries.

  16. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    , dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary......We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total...

  17. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Anne; Juul, A A; Andersson, Annica

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of gonadal function during maturation in girls and in adult women can be troublesome. With the recent advent of specific assays for the gonadal peptides inhibin A and inhibin B, it might be possible to achieve a clearer picture of events. We therefore determined serum levels...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  18. Clinical Implications of Obstructed Hemivagina and Ipsilateral Renal Anomaly (OHVIRA Syndrome in the Prepubertal Age Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hee Han

    Full Text Available Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by Müllerian duct and renal anomalies. It is usually regarded as a disease of adolescence; however, due to a number of possible problems, the management of patients before puberty should not be overlooked. We assessed the clinical course of prepubertal patients to propose appropriate management.We retrospectively assessed 43 prepubertal OHVIRA syndrome patients who were diagnosed and followed up at our institution from July 2004 to June 2015. We reviewed medical records, focusing on presentation, radiologic findings, surgical management, and the overall clinical course.Median age at diagnosis was 1.3 months and median follow-up period was 25.5 months. The most common accompanying ipsilateral urologic anomalies were ectopic ureter and ureterocele, while the most common contralateral anomaly was vesicoureteral reflux. During the follow-up period, six patients (14.0% required surgery at a median age of 31.2 months due to recurrent urinary tract infection, uncontrolled vaginal distention compressing adjacent organs, urinary incontinence, or intractable abdominal pain.While OHVIRA syndrome is known as a postpubertal disease, about 13% of prepubertal patients in our study required surgery. When ectopic ureter insertion into the vagina is present, further treatment may be needed to address the complications caused by continuous urine production. Patients should be monitored for complications arising from either obstructed hemivagina or renal anomalies with regular follow-up, especially before the age of five years.

  19. Electrodermal Activity of Undersocialized Aggressive Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katalin; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the electrodermal activity (EDA) of a small group of prepubertal children suffering from a severe form of undersocialized aggressive conduct disorder (CD). The EDA profile of the CD children resembled that of the adult sociopath on phasic measures only. (RH)

  20. Height, muscle, fat and bone response to growth hormone in short children with very low birth weight born appropriate for gestational age and small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Cornelia; Schweizer, Roland; Ranke, Michael B; Binder, Gerhard; Martin, David D

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved for short children born SGA but not for AGA. Our aim was to study the effect of GH in short VLBW SGA and AGA children. The study group comprised 44 prepubertal short children with a birth weight Growth, muscle and fat mass are similarly impaired in short prepubertal AGA and SGA VLBW children. The children born AGA show a similar or better response to GH compared to those born SGA. These results reveal the arbitrary nature of using the criterion 'SGA' for eligibility to GH treatment in children born with a birth weight <1,500 g. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Growth Failure in Children with Intractable Epilepsy Is Not Due to Increased Resting Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y…

  2. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Potential Association of Later Initiation of Oral/Enteral Nutrition on Euthyroid Sick Syndrome in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pérez-Guisado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS, and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS. Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd–5th day and second sample collection (9th–12th day after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: 48 h after the injury (Group 3. Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days was, respectively, in each group, 16.77±4.56, 21.98±4.86, and 26.06±5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61±0.92 days in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89±1.01 days. Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients.

  4. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  5. Left handedness and risk of thoracic hyperkyphosis in prepubertal schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissinen, M; Heliövaara, M; Seitsamo, J; Poussa, M

    1995-12-01

    Hand dominance and spinal posture were studied for their prediction of the development of thoracic hyperkyphosis during the pubertal growth spurt. The cohort consisted of all the fourth-grade school children of the Western School District of Helsinki, Finland, in the spring of 1986. They were examined annually from the mean age of 10.8 to 13.8 years. Handedness was determined at the baseline examination by observing the hand with which the child was writing. Anthropometric measurements, posture and growth were followed-up annually. A lateral standing radiograph was undertaken in those children who had pronounced thoracic kyphosis in spinal pantography. Kyphotic angles > or = 45 degrees were considered hyperkyphotic. In both girls and boys, left handedness was found to be a powerful determinant of hyperkyphosis. In left handed children the odds ratio (OR), adjusted for baseline spinal measurements, was 4.11 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-12.13). Hump size measured by the forward bending test also predicted significantly the development of thoracic hyperkyphosis (OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.23-1.76, per one degree). Left handedness may be a risk factor for thoracic hyperkyphosis during the pubertal growth spurt.

  6. Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels and Body Mass Index Percentiles in Children with Primary Hypothyroidism on Levothyroxine Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoba, Asma; Basu, Sanjib; Mantis, Stelios; Minutti, Carla

    2017-12-15

    To determine the association, if any, between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and body mass index (BMI) percentiles in children with primary hypothyroidism who are chemically euthyroid and on treatment with levothyroxine. This retrospective cross-sectional study consisted of a review of medical records from RUSH Medical Center and Stroger Hospital, Chicago, USA of children with primary hypothyroidism who were seen in the clinic from 2008 to 2014 and who were chemically euthyroid and on treatment with levothyroxine for at least 6 months. The patients were divided into two groups based on their TSH levels (0.34-hypothyroidism who are chemically euthyroid on treatment with levothyroxine, there is a positive association between higher TSH levels and higher BMI percentiles. However, it is difficult to establish if the higher TSH levels are a direct cause or a consequence of the obesity. Further studies are needed to establish causation beyond significant association.

  7. A high normal TSH level is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in euthyroid non-smokers with newly diagnosed asymptomatic coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjia, Xing; Chenggang, Wang; Aihong, Wang; Xiaomei, Yang; Jiajun, Zhao; Chunxiao, Yu; Jin, Xu; Yinglong, Hou; Ling, Gao

    2012-03-27

    Serum lipid profiles may be influenced by thyroid function, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Increasing evidence suggests that thyrotropin (TSH) may exert extra-thyroidal effects. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH levels and the lipid profiles in euthyroid non-smokers with newly diagnosed asymptomatic coronary heart disease (CHD). This was a retrospective study of 406 euthyroid non-smokers (187 males and 219 females) with newly diagnosed asymptomatic CHD from 2004 to 2010 in Jinan, China. Lipid parameters and the levels of TSH, FT3, and FT4 were determined. Multiple linear regression analysis and Logistic regression analysis were used to assess the influence of TSH on the lipid profiles and the risks of dyslipidemia. The TSH level, even within the normal range, was positively and linearly correlated with total cholesterol (TC), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) (Beta = 0.173, 0.181 and 0.103, respectively, P levels of TC, TG and non-HDL-C will increase by 1.010, 1.064, and 1.062 mmol/L, respectively. The odds ratio of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia with respect to the serum TSH level was 1.640 (95% CI 1.199-2.243, P = 0.002) and 1.349 (95% CI 1.054-1.726, P = 0.017), respectively. TSH levels were correlated in a positive linear manner with the TC, non-HDL-C and TG levels in euthyroid non-smokers with newly diagnosed asymptomatic CHD. TSH in the upper limits of the reference range might exert adverse effects on lipid profiles and thus representing as a risk factor for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in the context of CHD. © 2012 Wanjia et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. Different roles of prepubertal and postpubertal germ cells and Sertoli cells in the regulation of serum inhibin B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1998-01-01

    undetectable or barely detectable (n=1) serum levels of inhibin B. In contrast to adults, prepubertal boys with SCO (n=12) all had measurable serum inhibin B levels that corresponded to our previously determined normal range in healthy prepubertal boys (n=114). However, in postpubertal samples from the same......To elucidate the role of germ cells in the regulation of inhibin B secretion, serum inhibin B levels in prepubertal boys and adult men whom had a concurrent testicular biopsy showing either normal or impaired testicular function were compared. In addition, by immunohistochemistry the cellular......-subunit. The correlation in adult men between serum inhibin B levels and spermatogenesis may be due to the fact that inhibin B in adult men is possibly a joint product of Sertoli cells and germ cells, including the stages from pachytene spermatocytes to early spermatids....

  9. A Case of Distal Vaginal Agenesis Presenting with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Pyuria in a Prepubertal Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Ozlem; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Yasa, Cenk; Bastu, Ercan; Eren, Hulya; Yuksel, Bahar; Celik, Serdal; Akhan, Suleyman Engin

    2017-02-01

    Isolated distal vaginal agenesis is a rare anomaly and mostly becomes symptomatic after menarche. We describe an unusual presentation of this anomaly in a prepubertal girl. An 11-year-old prepubertal girl presented with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyuria, and right-sided renal agenesis. The findings of perineal inspection, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a distal vaginal agenesis with pyometrocolpos. Discharging pyometrocolpos with dissection of the atretic portion and a pull-through vaginoplasty were performed. A cystoscopy showed no sign of a vesicovaginal or uterine fistula. This rare presentation of distal vaginal agenesis reminds us that congenital malformations of the female genital tract should be considered in patients with congenital anomalies of the urinary system and/or recurrent urinary tract infection, even during the prepubertal period. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Body composition and bone mineral density of prepubertal boys involved in different kinesiologic treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Borislav; Madić, Dejan; Milosević, Zoran; Maksimović, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Kovacev-Zavisić, Branka

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on the bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. The type, frequency, intensity, and duration of activity that best produce the desired increases in mass and strength of human bones have not yet been well determined. To examine the influence of different kinesiological treatments on body composition and bone mineral density we studied a group of prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. 90 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. The sport group consisted of 28 swimmers (aged 10.80.8) and 32 soccer players (aged 10.70.5), who had been training their chosen high-level sport activity for at least 1 year (8-12 h per week for swimmers, 10-15 h per week for soccer players). 30 boys (aged 11.2 +/- 0.7) doing 1.5 h per week of physical activity in school served as a control group. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and right calcaneus were done by ultrasound densitometer "Sahara". The body composition was assessed by Body Fat Analyser "BES 200 Z". There were significant differences between soccer players and control group as regards fat mass and bone mineral density (p<.01). Besides, significant differences were determined between a group of swimmers and control group as regads fat mass (p<.03), while the differences in bone mineral density were not very obvious (p<.67).

  11. Study of Features of Pregnancy in Women with Onset of Diabetes Type 1 in Prepubertal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Rakhimdjanova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied course of pregnancy in 22 patients with onset of diabetes type 1 in the prepubertal period. It is found that the need for insulin, depending on the duration of pregnancy, varied: decreased in the first trimester, maximized in the II–III trimester, after childbirth returned to the level before pregnancy, tendency to hypoglycemia was observed in the first half of pregnancy. The mode of delivery in 88.8 % was Caesarean section. Delivery of car in specialized centers reduced the risk of complications of pregnancy and childbirth.

  12. Genital Involvement In Pre-Pubertal Pediatric Population: A Rare Aspect of Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurratul Ann Warsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that causes the loss of immune tolerance leading to bizarre inflammatory signals and disruption of mucosal barriers. Environmental triggers and interaction of genetic determinants also play an indispensible role. In this case report, we present a pre-pubertal girl with intermittent and refractory genital swelling. We emphasize that Crohn’s disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent, non-tender, erythematous and edematous lesions of the genital area. We conclude with future directions for diagnosing and managing vulvar Crohn’s disease in pediatric population.

  13. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Astrid Marie; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  14. Characteristics of peripheral blood NK and NKT-like cells in euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity experiencing reproductive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Eva; Meggyes, Matyas; Doba, Katalin; Farkas, Nelli; Bogar, Barbara; Barakonyi, Aliz; Szereday, Laszlo; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Mezosi, Emese

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) appears to play a crucial role in female infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss and IVF failure. Thyroid autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin have been shown to represent an independent risk factor for infertility and miscarriage. Moreover, thyroxin hormone administration reduces the risk of obstetrical complications in TAI positive women. The aim of our present study was to investigate the immunological background of female infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss in euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid women with TAI focusing on innate immunity. Phenotypic and functional analysis was carried out on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and TAI patients by flow cytometry. Our findings show Th1 oriented changes of innate immunity in the peripheral blood of women suffering from thyroid autoimmunity. Elevated NK and NKT-like cells ratios and enhanced natural cytotoxicity of TAI positive women reveal an altered immune status with possible negative impact on pregnancy outcome. It is important to notice that immune alterations are already established in the euthyroid phase of autoimmune thyroiditis before endocrine dysfunction develops and only the presence of thyroid autoantibodies indicate TAI condition. For this reason, screening of healthy women of reproductive age for the presence of thyroid autoantibodies would be beneficial not only from the endocrinological aspect but from the reproductive point of view since, although yet unexplained, thyroid hormone administration may improve pregnancy outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypothalamic response to the chemo-signal androstadienone in gender dysphoric children and adolescents

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    Sarah M Burke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The odorous steroid androstadienone, a putative male chemo-signal, was previously reported to evoke sex differences in hypothalamic activation in adult heterosexual men and women. In order to investigate whether puberty modulated this sex difference in response to androstadienone we measured the hypothalamic responsiveness to this chemo-signal in 39 prepubertal and 41 adolescent boys and girls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. We then investigated whether 36 prepubertal children and 38 adolescents diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria (GD; DSM-5 exhibited sex-atypical (in accordance with their experienced gender, rather than sex-typical (in accordance with their natal sex hypothalamic activations during olfactory stimulation with androstadienone. We found that the sex difference in responsiveness to androstadienone was already present in prepubertal control children and thus likely developed during early perinatal development instead of during sexual maturation. Adolescent girls and boys with GD both responded remarkably like their experienced gender, thus sex-atypical. In contrast, prepubertal girls with GD showed neither a typically male nor female hypothalamic activation pattern and prepubertal boys with GD had hypothalamic activations in response to androstadienone that were similar to control boys, thus sex-typical. We present here a unique data set of boys and girls diagnosed with GD at two different developmental stages, showing that these children possess certain sex-atypical functional brain characteristics and may have undergone atypical sexual differentiation of the brain.

  16. Hypothalamic Response to the Chemo-Signal Androstadienone in Gender Dysphoric Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sarah M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Veltman, Dick J.; Klink, Daniel T.; Bakker, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The odorous steroid androstadienone, a putative male chemo-signal, was previously reported to evoke sex differences in hypothalamic activation in adult heterosexual men and women. In order to investigate whether puberty modulated this sex difference in response to androstadienone, we measured the hypothalamic responsiveness to this chemo-signal in 39 pre-pubertal and 41 adolescent boys and girls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. We then investigated whether 36 pre-pubertal children and 38 adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria (GD; DSM-5) exhibited sex-atypical (in accordance with their experienced gender), rather than sex-typical (in accordance with their natal sex) hypothalamic activations during olfactory stimulation with androstadienone. We found that the sex difference in responsiveness to androstadienone was already present in pre-pubertal control children and thus likely developed during early perinatal development instead of during sexual maturation. Adolescent girls and boys with GD both responded remarkably like their experienced gender, thus sex-atypical. In contrast, pre-pubertal girls with GD showed neither a typically male nor female hypothalamic activation pattern and pre-pubertal boys with GD had hypothalamic activations in response to androstadienone that were similar to control boys, thus sex-typical. We present here a unique data set of boys and girls diagnosed with GD at two different developmental stages, showing that these children possess certain sex-atypical functional brain characteristics and may have undergone atypical sexual differentiation of the brain. PMID:24904525

  17. Quality of life and self-esteem in children treated for idiopathic short stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Kamp, G.A.; Koopman, H.M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Vogels, T.; Wit, J.-M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-esteem were studied in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) participating in a study on the effect of growth hormone treatment. Study design: Prepubertal children (n = 36) with ISS were randomly assigned to a treatment or

  18. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis Functioning in Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) reactivity and proactive and reactive aggression in pre-pubertal children. After a 30-min controlled base line period, 73 7-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental tasks designed to…

  19. Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, C.M.; Zaunbrecher, G.M.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patio, R.; Whisnant, S.; Rendon, A.; Lee, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (family of related proteins. This study was designed to determine the ontogeny of connexin 43 (Cx43) during early stages of follicular development in prepubertal porcine ovaries. A partial-length (412 base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vulnerability of Prepubertal Mice Testis to Iron Induced Oxidative Dysfunctions In Vivo and Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyagaraju BM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study describes the susceptibility of prepubertal testis of mice toprooxidant induced oxidative impairments both under in vitro and in vivo exposure conditions.Materials and Methods: Following in vitro exposure to iron (5,10 and 25 M, oxidative responsemeasured in terms of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxide levels in testis of pre pubertal mice (4wk was more robust compared to that of pubertal mice (6 wk.Results: Further, in an in vivo study, pre pubertal mice administered (i.p sub lethal doses (12.5,25 and 50mg/100g bw/d, 5d of Iron dextran, showed significant induction of oxidative stressresponse in testis cytosol and mitochondria manifested as lipid peroxidation, generation of reactiveoxygen species, hydroperoxide levels and enhanced protein carbonyl levels (a measure of proteinoxidation. Diminished levels of GSH and total thiols in both cytosol and mitochondria of testissuggested an altered redox state. Significant perturbations in the activities of antioxidant enzymessuch as glutathione transferase, glutathione peroxidase and SOD were discernible suggesting theongoing oxidative stress in vivo. These oxidative impairments were accompanied by functionalimplications in testis as reflected in the altered activities of dehydrogenases and reduced activitiesof both 3 - and 17 -hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase.Conclusion: Collectively, these data provide an account of the susceptibility of prepubertal testisto iron-induced oxidative stress, associated functional consequences and this model is being furtherexploited for understanding the implications on the physiology of testis and consequent effect onfertility.

  1. Effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on the development and proliferation of testicular cells in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlalla, Mohamed Babo; Wei, Quanwei; Fedail, Jaafar Sulieman; Mehfooz, Asif; Mao, Dagan; Shi, Fangxiong

    2017-12-01

    Thyroid hormones are important in the development and regulation of testes. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on testicular development in prepubertal rats aged 20-70 days. Weaning male rats (20 days old) until day 70 age were randomly divided into four groups: control, hyperthyroid (hyper-T), hypothyroid (hypo-T) and hypothyroid treated with thyroxine (T4) (hypo-T+T4). The results indicated that thyroid hormones caused a significant effect in body and testis weights, and food and water consumption. In addition there were changes in serum concentrations of tri-iodothyronine, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and testosterone. Histomorphology showed a significant decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter in hyper-T compared to the other groups. Leydig cell numbers showed a significant elevation in hyper-T but not in hypo-T groups. Immunostaining indicated that TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptors α/β (TRαβ) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) have the roles in testicular development. Our findings suggest that hyper- and hypo-thyroidism regulate testicular cell proliferation and spermatogenesis in prepubertal rats, indicating that expression of TSHR, TRαβ and PCNA may be regulated by thyroid hormones that are involved in testicular development; and that the administration of T4 to the hypo-T+T4 group leads to an improvement in the testicular condition. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Cutaneous transmissible venereal tumor without genital involvement in a prepubertal female dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, R; Santos, Marta; Marrinhas, C; Rocha, E

    2006-03-01

    An 11-month-old prepubertal crossbreed female dog was presented with multiple nodular lesions disseminated over the cervical, back, flank, and abdominal regions. The lesions were ulcerated and cauliflowerlike, or nodular and subcutaneous, measuring up to 13 cm in diameter. Cytologic preparations of one of the lesions revealed a uniform population of round to oval cells, with lightly basophilic cytoplasm that contained multiple distinct vacuoles. Frequent mitotic figures and occasional lymphocytes were also observed. The cytologic diagnosis was cutaneous transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) in a progressing growth phase. This was confirmed by histologic and immunohistochemical findings. Vaginal TVT was diagnosed later in the dog's mother. TVT is a contagious neoplasm of sexually mature dogs that usually is transmitted by coitus and affects the genital mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of naturally occurring multicentric TVT in a prepubertal female dog and also is unique in its exclusively cutaneous (no mucosal) involvement. We speculate that transmission of neoplastic cells occurred during cohabitation and social/mothering behavior between the dogs. Despite the atypical clinical presentation, response to chemotherapy with vincristine was excellent, leading to complete regression of the neoplasm without relapse after 6 months.

  3. A European perspective on testicular tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation in prepubertal and adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, Helen M; Wyns, Christine; Anderson, Richard A; Goossens, Ellen; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Kliesch, Sabine; Mitchell, Rod T; Pennings, G; Rives, Natalie; Tournaye, Herman; van Pelt, Ans M M; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Schlatt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    What clinical practices, patient management strategies and experimental methods are currently being used to preserve and restore the fertility of prepubertal boys and adolescent males? Based on a review of the clinical literature and research evidence for sperm freezing and testicular tissue cryopreservation, and after consideration of the relevant ethical and legal challenges, an algorithm for the cryopreservation of sperm and testicular tissue is proposed for prepubertal boys and adolescent males at high risk of fertility loss. A known late effect of the chemotherapy agents and radiation exposure regimes used to treat childhood cancers and other non-malignant conditions in males is the damage and/or loss of the proliferating spermatogonial stem cells in the testis. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is the first line treatment for fertility preservation in adolescent males. Where sperm retrieval is impossible, such as in prepubertal boys, or it is unfeasible in adolescents prior to the onset of ablative therapies, alternative experimental treatments such as testicular tissue cryopreservation and the harvesting and banking of isolated spermatogonial stem cells can now be proposed as viable means of preserving fertility. Advances in clinical treatments, patient management strategies and the research methods used to preserve sperm and testicular tissue for prepubertal boys and adolescents were reviewed. A snapshot of the up-take of testis cryopreservation as a means to preserve the fertility of young males prior to December 2012 was provided using a questionnaire. A comprehensive literature review was conducted. In addition, survey results of testis freezing practices in young patients were collated from 24 European centres and Israeli University Hospitals. There is increasing evidence of the use of testicular tissue cryopreservation as a means to preserve the fertility of pre- and peri-pubertal boys of up to 16 year-old. The survey results indicate that of the 14

  4. Effect of hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development, granulosa cell proliferation and peripheral hormone levels in the prepubertal rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, G.; de rooij, D. G.; de Jong, F. H.; van den Hurk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prepubertal hypothyroidism on ovarian development in rats. Therefore, from birth up to day 40 postpartum, rats were given 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) via the drinking water of mothers and pups. At ages ranging from 12 to 40 days, ovarian weights

  5. Age at voice break in Danish boys: effects of pre-pubertal body mass index and secular trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Scheike, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    in the boys choir and pre-pubertal body mass index (BMI)] by survival analysis techniques based on retrospective analyses of age at voice break in 463 Danish choir boys who were studied over a 10-year period. We found an overall median age at voice break of 14.0 [13.9-14.6] years, and a statistically...

  6. Different Short-Term Mild Exercise Modalities Lead to Differential Effects on Body Composition in Healthy Prepubertal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Sontam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON, bipedal stance (BPS, or wheel exercise (WEX groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.

  7. Different short-term mild exercise modalities lead to differential effects on body composition in healthy prepubertal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontam, D M; Vickers, M H; O'Sullivan, J M; Watson, M; Firth, E C

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON), bipedal stance (BPS), or wheel exercise (WEX) groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.

  8. Characteristics of sleep slow waves in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Salomé; Jenni, Oskar G; Riedner, Brady A; Tononi, Giulio; Carskadon, Mary A; Huber, Reto

    2010-04-01

    Slow waves, a major electrophysiological characteristic of non-rapid eye movement sleep, undergo prominent changes across puberty. This study provides a detailed description of sleep slow waves of prepubertal children and mature adolescents to better understand the mechanisms underlying the decrease of activity in the slow-wave frequency range across puberty. All-night sleep electroencephalographic recordings were performed for baseline and after sleep deprivation. N/A. Eight prepubertal children (Tanner 1/2, 11.9 +/- 0.8 years, 3 boys) and 6 mature adolescents (Tanner 4/5, 14.3 +/- 1.4 years, 3 boys). Thirty-six hours of sleep deprivation. Both during baseline and after sleep deprivation, a steeper slope of slow waves was observed in prepubertal children (351.0 +/- 49.5 microV/s), compared with mature adolescents (215.0 +/- 27.2 microV/s, P<0.05; mean of first 5 NREM sleep episodes from baseline), even accounting for overall amplitude differences. Based on a recent thalamocortical computer model, these findings may indicate a greater synaptic strength of neurons involved in the generation of sleep slow waves in prepubertal children, compared with mature adolescents. Such increased synaptic strength may be due to greater density or greater efficacy of cortical synapses or both.

  9. Prepubertal Ovariectomy Exaggerates Adult Affective Behaviors and Alters the Hippocampal Transcriptome in a Genetic Rat Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha S. Raghavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a debilitating illness that affects twice as many women than men postpuberty. This female bias is thought to be caused by greater heritability of MDD in women and increased vulnerability induced by female sex hormones. We tested this hypothesis by removing the ovaries from prepubertal Wistar Kyoto (WKY more immobile (WMI females, a genetic animal model of depression, and its genetically close control, the WKY less immobile (WLI. In adulthood, prepubertally ovariectomized (PrePubOVX animals and their Sham-operated controls were tested for depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, using the routinely employed forced swim and open field tests, respectively, and RNA-sequencing was performed on their hippocampal RNA. Our results confirmed that the behavioral and hippocampal expression changes that occur after prepubertal ovariectomy are the consequences of an interaction between genetic predisposition to depressive behavior and ovarian hormone-regulated processes. Lack of ovarian hormones during and after puberty in the WLIs led to increased depression-like behavior. In WMIs, both depression- and anxiety-like behaviors worsened by prepubertal ovariectomy. The unbiased exploration of the hippocampal transcriptome identified sets of differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the strains and treatment groups. The relatively small number of hippocampal DEGs resulting from the genetic differences between the strains confirmed the genetic relatedness of these strains. Nevertheless, the differences in DEGs between the strains in response to prepubertal ovariectomy identified different molecular processes, including the importance of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanisms, that may be causative of the increased depression-like behavior in the presence or absence of genetic predisposition. This study contributes to the understanding of hormonal maturation-induced changes in affective behaviors and the hippocampal

  10. Neonatal olfactory bulbectomy enhances locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and binding of NMDA receptors in pre-pubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, G; Ibañez-Sandoval, O; Silva-Gómez, A B; Camacho-Abrego, I; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Morales-Medina, J C

    2014-02-14

    In this study, we investigated the effect of neonatal olfactory bulbectomy (nOBX) on behavioral paradigms related to olfaction such as exploratory behavior, locomotor activity in a novel environment and social interaction. We also studied the effect of nOBX on the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors during development. The behavioral effects of nOBX (postnatal day 7, PD7) were investigated in pre- (PD30) and post-pubertal (PD60) Wistar rats. NMDA receptor activity was measured with [(125)I]MK-801 in the brain regions associated with the olfactory circuitry. A significant increase in the novelty-induced locomotion was seen in the pre-pubertal nOBX rats. Although the locomotor effect was less marked than in pre-pubertal rats, the nOBX rats tested post-pubertally failed to habituate to the novel situation as quickly as the sham- and normal- controls. Pre-pubertally, the head-dipping behavior was enhanced in nOBX rats compared with sham-operated and normal controls, while normal exploratory behavior was observed between groups in adulthood. In contrast, social interaction was increased in post-pubertal animals that underwent nOBX. Both pre- and post-pubertal nOBX rats recovered olfaction. Interestingly, pre-pubertal rats showed a significant increase in the [(125)I]MK-801 binding in the piriform cortex, dorsal hippocampus, inner and outer layers of the frontal cortex and outer layer of the cingulate cortex. At post-pubertal age, no significant differences in [(125)I]MK-801 binding were observed between groups at any of the brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that nOBX produces pre-pubertal behavioral disturbances and NMDA receptor changes that are transitory with recovery of olfaction early in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking and early pregnancy thyroid hormone and anti-thyroid antibody levels in euthyroid mothers of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, Tuija; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Pouta, Anneli; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ruokonen, Aimo; Suvanto, Eila

    2012-09-01

    Smokers in the general population have lower thyrotropin (TSH) and higher free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations, but the results in pregnant population vary from no effect to a decrease in TSH and fT4 concentrations and an increase in fT3 levels. Our objective was to further evaluate the question of whether there is an association between smoking, before and during pregnancy, with maternal thyroid function during pregnancy and with the risk for subsequent hypothyroidism. Our study population was a prospective population-based cohort (N=9362), the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, with extensive data throughout gestation. The mothers underwent serum sampling in early pregnancy. The samples were assayed for TSH, fT3, fT4, thyroid-peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Abs) (n=5805). Mothers with thyroid dysfunction diagnosed before or during pregnancy were excluded, leaving 4837 euthyroid mothers. The smoking status of mothers and fathers were requested by questionnaires during pregnancy. Subsequent maternal morbidity relating to hypothyroidism 20 years after the index pregnancy was evaluated using national registers. Euthyroid mothers who smoked before, or continued smoking during first trimester of pregnancy, had higher serum fT3 (pSmoking in the second trimester was associated with higher fT3 (psmoking than nonsmoking mothers (2.5% vs. 4.7%, psmoking had no independent effect on maternal early pregnancy thyroid hormone or antibody concentrations. The risk of subsequent maternal hypothyroidism after follow-up of 20 years was similar among prepregnancy smokers and nonsmokers. In euthyroid women, smoking during pregnancy was associated with higher fT3 levels and lower fT4 levels; possibly reflecting smoking-induced changes in peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. No differences were found in TSH concentrations between smokers and nonsmokers. Our results differ from those of the general population, which

  12. Association between the serum concentration of triiodothyronine with components of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk, and diet in euthyroid post-menopausal women without and with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vazquez, Fabiola; Cruz-Lumbreras, Rosalía; Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Cervantes-Rodríguez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar; Castelán, Francisco; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Cuevas, Estela

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association between the serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiovascular risk (CVR), and diet in euthyroid post-menopausal women without and with MetS. A cross-sectional study was performed in 120 voluntary women of an indigenous population from Tlaxcala-México. Euthyroid status was assessed measuring the serum concentration of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones, while that of estradiol was measured to confirm the postmenopausal condition. MetS was diagnosed using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement (AHA/NHLBI) criterion. Estimation of CVR was calculated based on the Framingham scale. Diet components were evaluated based on survey applications. Correlations, logistic regression analyses, ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis, and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between women without MetS and women with MetS having different serum concentrations of T3. Triiodothyronine was positively correlated with insulin but negatively correlated with glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and CVR. Compared to women without MetS, women with MetS and low-normal T3 concentration showed a high risk for hyperglycemia and moderate/high risk for CVR. In contrast, a high-normal T3 concentration increased the risk to have a big waist circumference, a high concentration of HDL-C, and insulin resistance. Diet analysis showed a high grade of malnutrition in women from all groups. The intake of calories was positively affected by the T3 concentration, albeit it did not affect the extent of malnutrition. In contrast to concentrations of TSH, total thyroxin (T4), and free T4, the concentration of serum T3 was strongly correlated with cardio-metabolic variables in euthyroid postmenopausal women. In comparison to women without MetS, a high-normal serum concentration of T3 in women with MetS is positively

  13. Residual β-cell function and the insulin-like growth factor system in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper S; Birkebaek, Niels H; Bjerre, Mette

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: C-peptide-positive adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have higher circulating total and free IGF-1 and lower IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) than C-peptide-negative patients. Whether this is also the case in children remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine...... the IGF system in children/adolescents with and without residual β-cell function (RBF). DESIGN AND PATIENTS: This was a cross-sectional study containing 136 prepubertal (hereof 15 RBF positive) and 206 pubertal (hereof 42 RBF positive) children/adolescents with T1D for 3-6 years as well as 40 prepubertal...

  14. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Hip Ratio, and Serum Lipid Concentrations and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone in the Euthyroid Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Rahbar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and lipid parameters and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in healthy euthyroid individuals. This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 1st and July 20th, 2013, at Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. One hundred forty euthyroid individuals were divided into 2 groups: a high-TSH group (TSH between 2.0 and 5.5 mIU/L, n=67 and a low-TSH group (TSH between 0.3 and 2.0 mIU/L, n=73. After overnight fast, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, TSH, thyroxine (T4, and triiodothyronine (T3 were measured. Height and weight were measured with a stadiometer, and BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. Waist-to-hip ratio was determined as waist circumference divided by hip circumference. The simple independent t-test and a general linear model were used for statistical analysis. All statistical analyses were done using the SPSS, version 15, statistical software package. BMI and LDL-C were significantly higher in the high-TSH group than in the low-TSH group after adjustment for age, sex, calorie intake, total fat and carbohydrate intakes, and physical activity. No significant differences were found between the groups in TG, cholesterol, and HDL-C. The association between TSH levels andT4 was significant. Individuals with TSH levels at the upper limit of normality might be at risk of hypercholesterolemia and obesity.

  15. Roles of ultrasound and power Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis of Hashimoto thyroiditis in anti-thyroid marker-positive euthyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Isin; Yener, Serkan; Bayraktar, Firat; Secil, Mustafa

    2014-08-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the contribution of ultrasonographic (US) findings to diagnosis in anti-thyroid marker-positive patients with normal hormone levels among euthyroid subjects with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Forty premenopausal euthyroid patients with a median age of 32 years (range, 20-44 years) with normal levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4), and elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were enrolled in this study. A control group of 46 healthy individuals with a median age of 29 years (range, 18-43 years) was composed of randomly selected volunteers. The examinations included basic morphometric (measurement of thyroid gland dimensions in three axes, the volume of each thyroid lobe, and the total thyroid volume), morphological grayscale imaging (echogenicity, nodularity, septations, undulation of the margins, and reactive lymph nodes), and thyroid gland vascularity. There were no statistically significant differences in morphometric parameters of the thyroid gland between the study and control groups. There were significant differences in the presence of nodularity, undulation of the gland margins, septations inside the glands, infrathyroidal and/or pretracheal reactive lymph nodes, and increased vascularity on power Doppler imaging between the groups. The use of all parameters together yielded a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 84.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 83.7%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 90.7%, and accuracy of 87.2% for diagnosis of HT. US and power Doppler US are helpful for the diagnosis of HT in anti-thyroid marker-positive patients with normal thyroid hormone levels.

  16. Paleopathology in Australopithecus africanus: a suggested case of a 3-million-year-old prepubertal periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, U

    1988-06-01

    The fossil remains of a juvenile Australopithecus africanus specimen from Sterkfontein Member 4 temporally confined on faunal grounds to 2.5-3.0 million years before the present (Myr B.P.) show pathological alterations of the periodontal alveolar process consistent with a case of prepubertal periodontitis. This diagnosis is based on macroscopic features of alveolar bone loss distribution, pattern of periodontal bone destruction, migration of the affected deciduous molars, and on stereomicroscopic and scanning electron microscopic evidence of alveolar bone destruction. Differential diagnoses and pathological exclusions are discussed in terms of localized patterns of periodontal bone destruction and presumptive survival rate. The reported case appears to be the first detailed description of a recognized disease in early hominid evolution.

  17. Plasma and urinary levels of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol in a prepubertal gilt fed zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M; Malmlöf, K; Pettersson, H; Sandholm, K; Kiessling, K H

    1985-03-01

    One prepubertal gilt, fed 192 micrograms zearalenone/kg body weight/day for 4 days, showed plasma concentrations of alpha-zearalenol 3-4 times higher than of the parent compound during the treatment. Zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol could be traced in plasma until the 5th day and in urine until the 4th day of the posttreatment period. A maximum circulating amount of zearalenone plus alpha-zearalenol, 10.4 ng/ml plasma, was found on the 4th day of treatment followed by an urinary excretion of 305 ng/ml urine. All zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol in plasma and urine were bound to glucuronic acid. On the second day of treatment the animal showed oedema and reddening of the vulva which became more pronounced during the treatment. Hormone analysis, however, showed that the animal had no oestrus cycle during the 3 week experimental period.

  18. Generalized aggressive periodontitis in prepubertal age: description and comparison of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piergallini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is a rare form of periodontal disease and it can involve both the deciduous dentition and the permanent one. It causes a rapid loss of periodontal attachment. The paper aims to describe two cases of severe generalized prepubertal periodontitis: the first child doesn’t suffer from neither systemic diseases nor alteration of functionality of polymorphonuclear and periodontal disease involved both his deciduous dentition and the first permanent molars. The second child had a deficiency of functionality of polymorphonuclear but periodontal disease involved only primary dentition thanks to his immediate improvement of home dental hygiene. This comparison shows the importance of early diagnosis and especially of optimal dental oral hygiene. Infant healthcare professionals, as pediatric dentists and pediatricians, should have the necessary knowledge for early and correct diagnosis and clinical management of disease.

  19. GPR54-dependent stimulation of luteinizing hormone secretion by neurokinin B in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Pasha; Li, Xiao Feng; Lin, Yuan Shao; Hu, Ming Han; Elsamani, Leena; Paterson, Stewart J; Millar, Robert P; Lightman, Stafford L; O'Byrne, Kevin T

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A (Dyn) are coexpressed within KNDy neurons that project from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) to GnRH neurons and numerous other hypothalamic targets. Each of the KNDy neuropeptides has been implicated in regulating pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. In isolation, kisspeptin is generally known to stimulate, and Dyn to inhibit LH secretion. However, the NKB analog, senktide, has variously been reported to inhibit, stimulate or have no effect on LH secretion. In prepubertal mice, rats and monkeys, senktide stimulates LH secretion. Furthermore, in the monkey this effect is dependent on kisspeptin signaling through its receptor, GPR54. The present study tested the hypotheses that the stimulatory effects of NKB on LH secretion in intact rats are mediated by kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling and are independent of a Dyn tone. To test this, ovarian-intact prepubertal rats were subjected to frequent automated blood sampling before and after intracerebroventricular injections of KNDy neuropeptide analogs. Senktide robustly induced single LH pulses, while neither the GPR54 antagonist, Kp-234, nor the Dyn agonist and antagonist (U50488 and nor-BNI, respectively) had an effect on basal LH levels. However, Kp-234 potently blocked the senktide-induced LH pulses. Modulation of the Dyn tone by U50488 or nor-BNI did not affect the senktide-induced LH pulses. These data demonstrate that the stimulatory effect of NKB on LH secretion in intact female rats is dependent upon kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling, but not on Dyn signaling.

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  1. GPR54-dependent stimulation of luteinizing hormone secretion by neurokinin B in prepubertal rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasha Grachev

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB and dynorphin A (Dyn are coexpressed within KNDy neurons that project from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC to GnRH neurons and numerous other hypothalamic targets. Each of the KNDy neuropeptides has been implicated in regulating pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. In isolation, kisspeptin is generally known to stimulate, and Dyn to inhibit LH secretion. However, the NKB analog, senktide, has variously been reported to inhibit, stimulate or have no effect on LH secretion. In prepubertal mice, rats and monkeys, senktide stimulates LH secretion. Furthermore, in the monkey this effect is dependent on kisspeptin signaling through its receptor, GPR54. The present study tested the hypotheses that the stimulatory effects of NKB on LH secretion in intact rats are mediated by kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling and are independent of a Dyn tone. To test this, ovarian-intact prepubertal rats were subjected to frequent automated blood sampling before and after intracerebroventricular injections of KNDy neuropeptide analogs. Senktide robustly induced single LH pulses, while neither the GPR54 antagonist, Kp-234, nor the Dyn agonist and antagonist (U50488 and nor-BNI, respectively had an effect on basal LH levels. However, Kp-234 potently blocked the senktide-induced LH pulses. Modulation of the Dyn tone by U50488 or nor-BNI did not affect the senktide-induced LH pulses. These data demonstrate that the stimulatory effect of NKB on LH secretion in intact female rats is dependent upon kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling, but not on Dyn signaling.

  2. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esposito, Maria; Gallai, Beatrice; Roccella, Michele; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Francesco; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Bove, Domenico; Sorrentino, Michele; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic in Western and in developing countries and has been accompanied by many serious and severe comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea...

  3. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito M.; Gallai B; Roccella M; Marotta R; Lavano F; Lavano SM; Mazzotta G; Bove D; Sorrentino M; Precenzano F; Carotenuto M

    2014-01-01

    Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Francesco Lavano,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Domenico Bove,6 Michele Sorrentino,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psych...

  4. The evaluation of small-sided games as a talent identification tool in highly trained prepubertal soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Jonathan S J; Iga, John; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological and technical attributes of prepubertal soccer players during multiple small-sided games (SSGs), and determine if SSGs can act as a talent identification tool. Sixteen highly trained U10 soccer players participated and separated into two groups of eight. Each group played six small-sided (4 vs. 4) matches of 5-min duration. Each player was awarded total points for the match result and goals scored. A game technical scoring chart was used to rate each player's performance during each game. Time-motion characteristics were measured using micromechanical devices. Total points had a very large significant relationship with game technical scoring chart (r = 0.758, P SSG could be used to identify the more talented prepubertal soccer players.

  5. Hipogonadismo e função tireoidiana em ratas hipertireóideas e eutireóideas Hypogonadism and thyroid function in hyper and euthyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serakides

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A influência do hipogonadismo sobre a função tireoidiana de ratas hipertireóideas e eutireóideas foi medida com base no perfil sérico dos hormônios tireoidianos, dos esteróides ovarianos e do TSH e na histomorfometria da tireóide. Ratas Wistar, com cinco meses de idade, castradas, foram mantidas em estado eutireóideo ou hipertireóideo por períodos de 30, 60 e 90 dias. Um grupo não castrado foi mantido nas mesmas condições e serviu como controle. O hipertireoidismo foi induzido mediante a administração diária 50µg de L-tiroxina, por sonda gástrica. Ao final de cada período, nove ratas por grupo tiveram suas tireóides inspecionadas, pesadas e processadas para avaliação histomorfométrica e o plasma sangüíneo colhido para dosagem de estradiol, progesterona, T4 total, T4 livre, T3 total e TSH. O hipogonadismo não alterou os valores de T3 total e de TSH, mas aumentou significativamente as concentrações de T4 livre, independente do estado hipertireóideo ou eutireóideo. As concentrações de T4 total sofreram influência da castração apenas no grupo hipertireóideo. O peso das tireóides não sofreu influência do hipogonadismo, mas a altura do epitélio folicular nos animais eutireóideos variou ao longo do experimento, apresentando-se maior aos 30 e 90 dias e menor aos 60 dias. Não se observou correlação entre os níveis de estrógeno e as variáveis estudadas, mas os níveis de progesterona foram inversamente proporcionais à elevação dos níveis de T4 total e T4 livre. Concluiu-se que o hipogonadismo altera a histomorfometria da tireoide em indivíduos eutireóideos, aumenta os valores plasmáticos de T4 livre independentemente do estado funcional da tireóide e potencializa a elevação de T4 total no hipertireoidismo, provavelmente sob influência do hipoprogesteronismo e não do hipoestrogenismo.The effects of hypogonadism on thyroid function of hyper and euthyroid rats were measured based on plasmatic

  6. Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on the physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undertaking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8 and 9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (S; n = 11). Both groups performed an identical soccer-training program, whereas the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer-specific training. The 15-m sprint time (seconds), countermovement jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IE), and Sit and Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3), and 26 weeks (posttest) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks, significant improvements were found in the CMJ (6.72%; effect size [ES] = 0.37), Yo-Yo IE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in the C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15-m sprint time and CMJ (r = -0.77) and Yo-Yo IE (r = -0.77) in the S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  7. Beneficial effects of growth hormone treatment on cognition in children with prader-willi syndrome: A randomized controlled trial and longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P.C. Siemensma (Elbrich); R.F.A. Tummers-de Lind Van Wijngaarden (Roderick F.); D.A.M. Festen (Dederieke); Z.C.E. Troeman (Zyrhea C.); A.A.E.M. van der Alfen-van Der Velden; B.J. Otten (Barto); J. Rotteveel (Joost); R.J.H. Odink (Roelof); G.C.B. Bindels-de Heus (Karen); M. van Leeuwen (Mariëtte); D.A.J.P. Haring (Danny); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); G. Bocca (Gianni); E.C.A.M. Houdijk (Mieke); A.S.P. van Trotsenburg (Paul); J.J.G. Hoorweg-Nijman (Gera); H. van Wieringen (Hester); R.C.F.M. Vreuls (René); P.E. Jira (Petr); E.J. Schroor (Eelco); E. van Pinxteren-Nagler (Evelyn); J.W. Pilon; S. Lunshof (Simone); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Knowledge about the effects of GH treatment on cognitive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited. Methods: Fifty prepubertal children aged 3.5 to 14 yr were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial during 2 yr, followed by a longitudinal study

  8. Beneficial Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment on Cognition in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome : A Randomized Controlled Trial and Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemensma, Elbrich P. C.; van Wijngaarden, Roderick F. A. Tummers-de Lind; Festen, Dederieke A. M.; Troeman, Zyrhea C. E.; van Alfen-van der Velden, A. A. E. M. (Janielle); Otten, Barto J.; Rotteveel, Joost; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bindels-de Heus, G. C. B. (Karen); van Leeuwen, Mariette; Haring, Danny A. J. P.; Oostdijk, Wilma; Bocca, Gianni; Houdijk, E. C. A. Mieke; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Hoorweg-Nijman, J. J. Gera; van Wieringen, Hester; Vreuls, Rene C. F. M.; Jira, Petr E.; Schroor, Eelco J.; van Pinxteren-Nagler, Evelyn; Pilon, Jan Willem; Lunshof, L. (Bert); Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    Background: Knowledge about the effects of GH treatment on cognitive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited. Methods: Fifty prepubertal children aged 3.5 to 14 yr were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial during 2 yr, followed by a longitudinal study during 4 yr

  9. Beneficial Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment on Cognition in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemensma, Elbrich P. C.; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F. A.; Festen, Dederieke A. M.; Troeman, Zyrhea C. E.; van Alfen-van der Velden, A. A. E. M. Janielle; Otten, Barto J.; Rotteveel, Joost; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bindels-de Heus, G. C. B. Karen; van Leeuwen, Mariette; Haring, Danny A. J. P.; Oostdijk, Wilma; Bocca, Gianni; Mieke Houdijk, E. C. A.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Hoorweg-Nijman, J. J. Gera; van Wieringen, Hester; Vreuls, René C. F. M.; Jira, Petr E.; Schroor, Eelco J.; van Pinxteren-Nagler, Evelyn; Willem Pilon, Jan; Lunshof, L. Bert; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the effects of GH treatment on cognitive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited. Methods: Fifty prepubertal children aged 3.5 to 14 yr were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial during 2 yr, followed by a longitudinal study during 4 yr

  10. Beneficial effects of growth hormone treatment on cognition in children with Prader-Willi syndrome: a randomized controlled trial and longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemensma, E.P.C.; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, R.F.; Festen, D.A.M.; Troeman, Z.C.; Alfen-van der Velden, A.A.E.M. van; Otten, B.J.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Odink, R.J.; Bindels-de Heus, G.C.; Leeuwen, M. van; Haring, D.A.; Oostdijk, W.; Bocca, G.; Mieke Houdijk, E.C.; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Hoorweg-Nijman, J.J.G.; Wieringen, H. van; Vreuls, R.C.; Jira, P.E.; Schroor, E.J.; Pinxteren-Nagler, E. van; Willem Pilon, J.; Lunshof, L.B.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the effects of GH treatment on cognitive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited. METHODS: Fifty prepubertal children aged 3.5 to 14 yr were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial during 2 yr, followed by a longitudinal study during 4 yr

  11. Effect of oocyte selection, estradiol and antioxidant treatment on in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal Boer goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of improved procedures for in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal goats has applications for in vitro embryo production and accompanying strategies for genetic improvement. The objective of described studies was to determine the effects of oocyte grade, in vitro maturation time, antioxidant supplementation and concentrations of estradiol in the maturation medium on in vitro maturation of oocytes harvested from 1-6 mm follicles present on the ovaries (obtained from an abattoir of 1-6 month-old prepubertal Boer goats. Rates of progression to metaphase II were greater for grade 1 oocytes (>3 compact layers of cumulus cells and evenly granulated cytoplasm than grade 2 oocytes (in vitro maturation in the presence of high concentrations of estradiol (10 and 100 mg/mL on progression to metaphase II was observed, and no effect was observed in response to 1 mg/mL estradiol treatment as compared with control. Results suggest that oocyte selection and beta-mercaptoethanol supplementation can positively influence progression to metaphase II of oocytes harvested from ovaries of prepubertal goats, whereas high concentrations of estradiol are inhibitory to in vitro maturation.

  12. The role of flaxseed and vitamin E on oxidative stress in prepubertal rats with experimental varicocele: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Sohrabipour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prepubertal varicocele has the most devastating effects on the testes. Oxidative stress is the major cause leading to infertility in varicocele. The antioxidant properties of Flaxseed (FS treatment in some oxidative diseases have been reported. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of FS in prepubertal rats with experimental varicocele. Materials and Methods: Forty two male prepubertal rats were divided into 6 groups: the varicocele group were either fed with 10% FS, or with regular diet, or with Vit E, the group with sham operation fed with 10% FS, or had regular diet, and control rats who had not been operated but received regular diet. Varicocele was created by Koksal method. After 6 weeks sperm superoxide anion and H2O2 were evaluated by flowcytometery. Semen total antioxidant capacity (TAC by Koracevic method and testes malondialdehyde (MDA by thiobarbituric acid with spectrophotometry was measured. Results: While superoxide anion and H2O2 were significantly higher in varicocele grop with regular diet (p=0.0001, FS significantly decreased the previously-mentioned parameters (p=0.0001. There were no significant differences for seminal TAC between 6 groups (p=0.07. Left testicular MDA concentration were lower in varicocele or group that were fed with 10% FS compared with other groups (p=0.001. Conclusion: Reactive oxygen species (ROS may cause sperm oxidative damage. FS as a fat soluble antioxidant can scavenge intracellular ROS production in varicocele.

  13. Ovarian modulation of the oestradiol-induced LH surge in prepubertal and sexually mature gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, F; Parvizi, N; Foxcroft, G

    1998-05-01

    The role of ovarian secretions in modulating positive oestrogen feedback on LH release in late prepubertal and sexually mature gilts was studied. Gilts were either ovariectomized (OVX) at 230 days of age (sexually mature, OVX 230, control), ovariectomized at 160 days of age (pre-pubertal, OVX 160) or ovariectomized at 160 days of age and given either low, high or very high oestradiol substitution therapy (two or three Silastic implants, 5 or 8 cm in length) from 160 days to 230 days (OVX 160 + 2E5, OVX 160 + 2E8 and OVX 160 + 3E8, respectively). The LH surge responses to three i.m. injections of oestradiol benzoate given at intervals of 12 h (in total 10 micrograms oestradiol benzoate kg-1 bodyweight) were compared at 260 days. An additional group of sexually mature gilts was ovariectomized at 260 days (OVX 260) and challenged with oestradiol benzoate at 360 days. LH surges with peak LH concentrations below pretreatment values (resembling LH responses to oestradiol benzoate in immature gilts) were classified as immature, and those with peak LH concentrations above pretreatment values as mature. LH concentrations before treatment with oestradiol benzoate were reduced (P gilts compared with OVX 230 (control). When compared with the control group, the time to LH surge peak was longer in OVX 260 gilts, LH peak amplitude was reduced in the OVX 160 group and the area under the curve of the LH surge (ng LH ml-1 plasma (48 h)-1) was less in all other groups (P gilts (6/1) and a low ratio in OVX 160 (1/7) and OVX 260 (1/6) gilts. The long-term effect of ovariectomy was partially overcome in the OVX 160 + 2E5 group (mature:immature = 3/3). However, previous exposure to supraphysiological concentrations of oestradiol (as in groups OVX 160 + 2E8 and OVX 160 + 3E8) resulted in a high percentage of animals (66% and 100%, respectively) that did not respond to the oestradiol benzoate challenge with an LH surge. Immediately before oestradiol benzoate administration (30 days after

  14. Clinical Management of Gender Dysphoria in Children and Adolescents: The Dutch Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.L.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch approach on clinical management of both prepubertal children under the age of 12 and adolescents starting at age 12 with gender dysphoria, starts with a thorough assessment of any vulnerable aspects of the youth's functioning or circumstances and, when necessary, appropriate intervention.

  15. Technical note: Mammary gland ultrasonography to evaluate mammary parenchymal composition in prepubertal heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, R L; Guimarães, S E F; Daniels, K M; Fontes, M M S; Machado, A F; Dos Santos, G B; Marcondes, M I

    2017-02-01

    Bovine mammary gland development studies are often terminal or involve invasive biopsy procedures. Therefore, noninvasive means of assessing mammary development should be considered as alternative methods in live animals. The objective was to test if mammary ultrasonography can be used as a noninvasive way to estimate mammary parenchyma (PAR) composition in prepubertal dairy heifers with different average daily body weight gains. In the 84 d preceding, the ultrasound exam heifers were maintained in 1 of 3 treatment groups. Individual heifers were fed a high gain (1 kg/d; n = 6), low gain (0.5 kg/d, n = 6), or maintenance (n = 6) treatment diet. To achieve desired body weight gains, heifers were fed differing amounts of the same silage-based diet. Mammary glands of 18 crossbred heifers Holstein:Gyr underwent a single mammary ultrasound exam immediately before heifer slaughter, which took place when heifers weighed 142.0 ± 8.0 kg and were 200 d old. The 4 mammary glands of each heifer were evaluated using a real-time B-mode ultrasound machine equipped with a 6.5-MHz micro-convex transducer. Digital images (8-bit) of glands were obtained and PAR was identified within gland. Average pixel values per unit of PAR area were determined for each gland and analyzed at the level of heifer. Pixel results were interpreted on the basis that lower average pixel values reflect PAR with relatively high amounts of protein as opposed to fat. To help validate that the pixel value within PAR is associated with composition of PAR, pixel findings were compared with histological [number of adipocytes in PAR (Nad) and epithelial area in PAR (Ep)] and biochemical [percent crude protein in PAR (%CP), percent ether extract in PAR (%EE), PAR weight (WPAR), and mammary fat pad weight (WFAT)] composition of PAR in these same heifers. Within PAR, %EE and WFAT were positively correlated with pixel values, whereas %CP, Ep, and Nad were negatively correlated. Parenchyma weight did not correlate

  16. Biological sex influences learning strategy preference and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Hodges, Kelly S; Fawcett-Patel, Jessica M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-04-01

    According to the theory of multiple memory systems, specific brain regions interact to determine how the locations of goals are learned when rodents navigate a spatial environment. A number of factors influence the type of strategy used by rodents to remember the location of a given goal in space, including the biological sex of the learner. We recently found that prior to puberty male rats preferred a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy over a hippocampus-dependent place strategy when solving a dual-solution task, while age-matched females showed no strategy preference. Because the cholinergic system has been implicated in learning strategy and is known to be sexually dimorphic prior to puberty, we explored the relationship between learning strategy and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal males and female rats. We confirmed our previous finding that at 28 days of age a significantly higher proportion of prepubertal males preferred a stimulus-response learning strategy than a place strategy to solve a dual-solution visible platform water maze task. Equal proportions of prepubertal females preferred stimulus-response or place strategies. Profiles of muscarinic receptor binding as assessed by autoradiography varied according to strategy preference. Regardless of biological sex, prepubertal rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy exhibited lower ratios of muscarinic receptor binding in the hippocampus relative to the dorsolateral striatum compared to rats that preferred place strategy. Importantly, much of the variance in this ratio was related to differences in the ventral hippocampus to a greater extent than the dorsal hippocampus. The ratios of muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus relative to the basolateral amygdala also were lower in rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy over place strategy. Results confirm that learning strategy preference varies with biological sex in prepubertal rats with males

  17. Quantitative ultrasound of the tibia and radius in prepubertal and early-pubertal female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Bareket; Bronshtein, Zohar; Zigel, Levana; Constantini, Naama W; Eliakim, Alon

    2003-02-01

    Physical exercise during childhood has been shown to enhance bone mineral density, thus reducing the risk of osteoporosis. To examine bone properties, as measured by quantitative ultrasound, in prepubertal and early-pubertal female athletes engaged in impact and nonimpact sports. Survey. General community. Twenty-five acrobatic gymnasts, 21 swimmers, and 21 control subjects. Athletes had been training for at least 1(1/2) years. Bone speed of sound (bilateral) at the distal radius and the midtibia. Gymnasts were significantly shorter and lighter than swimmers and control girls (Pgymnasts (3764 +/- 104 m/s; P =.045) than in swimmers and control girls (3732 +/- 99 and 3721 +/- 83 m/s, respectively). Mean +/- SD tibial speed of sound values (nondominant side) were similar in gymnasts and swimmers (3629 +/- 87 and 3619 +/- 78 m/s, respectively) and higher in the athletic groups than in the control group (3516 +/- 127 m/s; P<.001). In all 3 groups, no differences were observed between dominant and nondominant sides in the radii or tibias. Physical exercise, impact and nonimpact, is related to enhanced bone properties, as measured by quantitative ultrasound. Longitudinal studies using various modes of bone evaluation are necessary to determine the long-term effect of various types of exercise on bone properties.

  18. Metabolic and reproductive parameters in prepubertal gilts after omega-3 supplementation in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F; Cheuiche, Z M G; Rizzoto, G; Santos, M Q; Schuch, M S; Flach, M J; Gasperin, B G; Bianchi, I; Lucia, T

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids may benefit reproductive performance of female swine. This study evaluated metabolic and reproductive parameters of prepubertal finishing gilts fed with fish oil as a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids (6.88g/d) (n=12) over a period of 45 d. Gilts in the control group were fed soybean oil (n=13). Body weight and backfat were determined at 15-d intervals. Serum levels of leptin, IGF-1, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at the beginning (D0) and at the end of the period (D45). Immunolabeling intensity for leptin and its receptor (ObRb) was assessed in oocytes of preantral follicles. Gilts fed omega-3 presented slightly heavier uteri (P=0.09) than control gilts, but there was no effect on body weight and backfat (P>0.05). Cholesterol serum levels tended to be lower at D45 for omega-3 supplemented gilts than for controls (P=0.06). Triglycerides and IGF-1 serum levels were lower at D45 than at D0 for control gilts (Pgilts. Insulin levels were unaffected by supplementation (P>0.05), but were greater at D45 than at D0 in both treatments (Pgilts than for control gilts (Pgilts, which suggests some involvement on triggering puberty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Luteinizing hormone secretion as influenced by age and estradiol in the prepubertal gilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb, C R; Hausman, G J; Kraeling, R R

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if there is an age related reduction in the sensitivity of the negative feedback action of 17β-estradiol (estradiol) on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in the prepubertal gilt. Ovariectomized gilts at 90 (n=12), 150 (n=11) or 210 (n=12) days of age received estradiol benzoate (EB) osmotic pump implants 6/group and the remaining animals received vehicle control (C) implants except for 150-day C (n=5) on Day 0. On Day 10 blood samples were collected every 15 min for 8h and serum LH and estradiol concentrations were measured. Serum estradiol concentrations averaged 5 ± 1, 5 ± 1 and 7 ± 2 pg/ml for the 90-, 150- and 210-day-old gilts implanted with estradiol, respectively, whereas, serum estradiol concentrations was undetectable in C gilts. Mean serum LH concentrations, basal LH concentrations and serum LH pulse amplitude were less in EB-treated gilts at all ages compared to control animals. In contrast, LH pulse frequency initially was less in EB-treated gilts but subsequently increased (Pgilts. These results demonstrate an age related reduction in the sensitivity to the negative feedback action of estradiol on LH secretion and support the idea that the gilt conforms to the gonadostat hypothesis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Prepubertal presentation of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Yogendra; Shastri, Pankaj; Mane, S B; Dhende, Nitin P

    2011-06-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome represents a complex female genital malformation with uterus didelphys, unilateral low vaginal obstruction, and ipsilateral renal agenesis, all 3 being secondary to mesonephric duct-induced müllerian anomalies. Clinically, this usually presents in postpubertal adolescent or adult women where hematometrocolpos produces a more pronounced mass effect and pain on the side of the obstructed hemivagina. It is extremely rare for this to present in infancy and early childhood because imaging may not show the small prepubertal uteri and vaginas clearly. We describe a 4-year-old girl with all of the features of this syndrome. Ipsilateral renal agenesis with a pelvic mass should raise the level of suspicion for this syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging will confirm the diagnosis, so that early endoscopic resection of the obstructing vaginal septum can be carried out as definitive treatment. Long-term outcome is quite good with expectation of normal fertility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Prepubertal Acute Immobilization Stress on Serum Kisspeptin Level and Testis Histology in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Yusefi, Alireza; Razeghi, Ali; Zabetiyan, Hassan; Karami, Mohammad Yasin; Madani, Abdol Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Stress has inhibitory effect on HPG axis through increasing cortisol serum level. In this study, the effect of acute prepubertal stress on kisspeptin, which plays essential role in puberty achievement is assessed. To do this experimental study thirty immature healthy male wistar rats of 4 weeks old and without any symptoms of puberty were selected randomly. These rats were divided into three groups, randomly. Two groups were chosen as control and pretest and one as stress (test) group. Immobilization stress was applied for 10 days and serum level of cortisol, testosterone and kisspeptin were measured. Primary and secondary spermatocyte and sertoli cell evaluated and compared among groups. Mean serum level of kisspeptin in pretest group, control group and stress (test) group were 0.0381 ± 0.0079, 91.0500 ± 4.87430 and 15.2156 ± 3.88135 pg mL(-1) respectively. Serum level of kisspeptin had significant differences between three groups (p stress led to decrease in serum level of kisspeptin and testosterone in stress (test) group compared to control groups. Also stress caused a significant decrease in the numbers of secondary spermatocytes of the test group.

  2. Prepubertal exposure to arsenic(III) suppresses circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) delaying sexual maturation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Michael P; Saca, James C; Hamilton, Alina; Solano, Rene F; Rivera, Jesse R; Whitehouse-Innis, Wendy; Parsons, Jason G; Dearth, Robert K

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a prevalent environmental toxin readily accessible for human consumption and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor. However, it is not known what impact As has on female sexual maturation. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of prepubertal exposure on mammary gland development and pubertal onset in female rats. Results showed that prepubertal exposure to 10 mg/kg of arsenite (As(III)) delayed vaginal opening (VO) and prepubertal mammary gland maturation. We determined that As accumulates in the liver, disrupts hepatocyte function and suppresses serum levels of the puberty related hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in prepubertal animals. Overall, this is the first study to show that prepubertal exposure to As(III) acts peripherally to suppress circulating levels of IGF-1 resulting in delayed sexual maturation. Furthermore, this study identifies a critical window of increased susceptibility to As(III) that may have a lasting impact on female reproductive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The insulin-like growth factor axis and collagen turnover in asthmatic children treated with inhaled budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolthers, O D; Juul, A; Hansen, M

    1995-01-01

    ) and the amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were studied in 14 prepubertal children with asthma (mean age 9.7 years) during treatment with inhaled budesonide. The study design was a randomized, crossover trial with two double-blind treatment periods (200 and 800 micrograms) and one open...

  4. The role of cathepsin C in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, prepubertal periodontitis, and aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Chelsee; McCormick, Derek; Linden, Gerry; Turk, Dusan; Stern, Igor; Wallace, Ian; Southern, Louise; Zhang, Liqun; Howard, Rebecca; Bullon, Pedro; Wong, Melanie; Widmer, Richard; Gaffar, Khaled Abdul; Awawdeh, Lama; Briggs, Jim; Yaghmai, Reza; Jabs, Ethlin W; Hoeger, Peter; Bleck, Oliver; Rüdiger, Stefan G; Petersilka, Gregor; Battino, Maurizio; Brett, Peter; Hattab, Faiez; Al-Hamed, Mohamed; Sloan, Philip; Toomes, Carmel; Dixon, Mike; James, Jacqueline; Read, Andrew P; Thakker, Nalin

    2004-03-01

    We have previously reported that loss-of-function mutations in the cathepsin C gene (CTSC) result in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, an autosomal recessive condition characterized by palmoplantar keratosis and early-onset, severe periodontitis. Others have also reported CTSC mutations in patients with severe prepubertal periodontitis, but without any skin manifestations. The possible role of CTSC variants in more common types of non-mendelian, early-onset, severe periodontitis ("aggressive periodontitis") has not been investigated. In this study, we have investigated the role of CTSC in all three conditions. We demonstrate that PLS is genetically homogeneous and the mutation spectrum that includes three novel mutations (c.386T>A/p.V129E, c.935A>G/p.Q312R, and c.1235A>G/p.Y412C) in 21 PLS families (including eight from our previous study) provides an insight into structure-function relationships of CTSC. Our data also suggest that a complete loss-of-function appears to be necessary for the manifestation of the phenotype, making it unlikely that weak CTSC mutations are a cause of aggressive periodontitis. This was confirmed by analyses of the CTSC activity in 30 subjects with aggressive periodontitis and age-sex matched controls, which demonstrated that there was no significant difference between these two groups (1,728.7 +/- SD 576.8 micro moles/mg/min vs. 1,678.7 +/- SD 527.2 micro moles/mg/min, respectively, p = 0.73). CTSC mutations were detected in only one of two families with prepubertal periodontitis; these did not form a separate functional class with respect to those observed in classical PLS. The affected individuals in the other prepubertal periodontitis family not only lacked CTSC mutations, but in addition did not share the haplotypes at the CTSC locus. These data suggest that prepubertal periodontitis is a genetically heterogeneous disease that, in some families, just represents a partially penetrant PLS. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Age at voice break in Danish boys: effects of pre-pubertal body mass index and secular trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Scheike, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    significant downwards trend in age at voice break in the 10-year period (1994-2003) (log-rank test p = 0.0146). There was a statistically significant difference in age at voice break between boys in the different BMI quartiles in pre-puberty (p = 0.00822) with a tendency towards early voice break...... however not exclusively be explained by a general increase in BMI in that period. Our findings indicate that puberty, as assessed by age at voice break in boys, may be starting earlier in Denmark as it has been observed in the USA, and suggest a relationship between pre-pubertal BMI and the timing...

  6. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia and the presence of 47,XXY mosaicism in breast epithelial cells: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter Stemann; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Juul, Anders; Andersen, Mikael

    2013-02-01

    Breast enlargement in prepubertal boys is a rare condition. This case report describes an otherwise healthy 3-year old non-obese boy who developed a large unilateral cystic breast mass measuring approximately 9 × 6 × 4 cm. The mass was initially treated as a lymphatic malformation, and sclerotherapy with Picibanil (OK-432) was attempted without any detectable effect on size. The mass was later excised. The pathological examination revealed mammary gland tissue suggestive of idiopathic gynecomastia. FISH revealed 47, XXY mosaicism in the abnormal breast epithelial cells, but not in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression and localization of P-, K-, and OB-cadherin in the prepubertal rat ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machell, Naomi H; Blaschuk, Orest W; Farookhi, Riaz

    2002-02-01

    Classical and atypical cadherins mediate calcium-dependent cell adhesion and play an important role in morphogenetic processes. We have shown, previously, N- and E-cadherin expression in the rat ovary. This expression, however, was not associated with specific follicle-restructuring events such as antrum formation and segregation of mural from cumulus granulosa cells suggesting that other cadherins may serve this function. In this study, RT-PCR and immunostaining techniques showed that three other cadherins are expressed throughout prepubertal ovarian development in the rat: one classical (P-) cadherin, and two atypical (K- and OB-) cadherins. RT-PCR analysis of isolated ovarian tissue compartments (granulosa cells and the residual ovarian tissue) agreed with the immunostaining results. Immunostaining showed P- and K-cadherin expression by granulosa, as well as thecal/interstitial cells, and also in oocytes of primordial follicles. P-cadherin expression was absent in oocytes of follicles in later stages of development compared to K-cadherin, which was found in oocytes at all stages of folliculogenesis. P-, K-, and OB-cadherin were expressed by the ovarian surface epithelial cells of neonatal animals but only P- and OB-cadherin expression were maintained in these cells in 25 day-old animals. Cellular OB-cadherin staining was absent in follicles at all stages of development and its expression was restricted to the ovarian hilar region and portions of the stroma. In summary, cadherin expression and distribution profiles changed during ovarian growth and folliculogenesis suggesting a role for cadherins in organizational and morphogenetic processes within the developing rat ovary. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Subgingival microflora and treatment in prepubertal periodontitis associated with chronic idiopathic neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamma, J J; Lygidakis, N A; Nakou, M

    1998-09-01

    Prepubertal periodontitis affects both primary and permanent dentition. The purpose of this study was to examine the composition of subgingival microflora of the permanent dentition in an 11-year-old Caucasian female, who had premature exfoliation of her deciduous teeth on her 5th year of age, and the response of this condition to the antibiotic therapy and supportive periodontal care. Gingival tissues were highly inflamed and alveolar bone loss was detected radiographically. The girl had experienced frequent upper respiratory tract infections, tonsilitis and recurrent otitis media. Her mother had history of early onset periodontitis associated with chronic idiopathic neutropenia. Blood chemistry tests and immunological examinations were also performed. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the proximal sites of permanent molars, incisors, canines and maxillary premolars. 27 different microbial species were isolated from the subgingival microflora. Among the predominant species were Porphyromonas gingivalis (17.6%-7.3%), Prevotella intermedia (12.4%-4.7%), Capnocytophaga sputigena (14.4%-10.4%), Capnocytophaga ochracea (13.2%-6.9%) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (9.3%-5.5%). Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling, root planing in conjunction with antibiotic administration of Augmentin 312.5 mg and Flagyl 200 mg, each t.i.d. for 10 days. 3 weeks after the antibiotic therapy, bacterial samples were collected from the same sites. All the periodontal pathogens were recovered in lower levels and A.actinomycetemcomitans was almost eliminated in the 3-week period. The evaluation of clinical indices at 3, 6 and 12 months showed that periodontal treatment in conjunction with antibiotics was effective and rapidly followed by marked clinical improvement. The microbiological monitoring at 3, 6 and 12 months after antibiotic treatment and each time prior to supportive periodontal care, revealed that the periodontal pathogens fluctuated in low levels even

  9. Single administration of butylparaben induces spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Shah; Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kurohmaru, Masamichi

    2014-04-01

    Parabens are p-hydroxybenzoic acid ester compounds widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, toiletries and pharmaceuticals. Some parabens, including butylparaben, exert an estrogenic activity as determined by in vitro estrogen receptor assay and in vivo uterotrophic assay, and adversely affect endocrine secretion and male reproductive function. We conducted a research study to evaluate the acute effects of butylparaben on testicular tissues of prepubertal rats. Three-week-old male rats (n=8) were given a single dose of 1000mg/kg butylparaben. The rats were sacrificed under anesthesia at 3, 6 and 24h after administration, and their testes were collected for histopathological examination. The study revealed progressive detachment and sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules at 3h, and this effect was enhanced at 6h after administration. Thin seminiferous epithelia and wide tubular lumina were seen at 24h in the butylparaben-treated group, compared to the control. In order to clarify whether sloughed spermatogenic cells underwent apoptosis, TUNEL assay was carried out. We found a significant increase in the number of apoptotic spermatogenic cells in all the treated groups, compared to the controls and a maximal number of apoptotic cells were detected at 6h after administration. In semithin sections, apoptotic cells were easily detected by their prominent basophilia and condensed chromatin, mainly found in spermatocytes. Ultrastructurally, the condensed chromatin and shrunken cytoplasm and nucleus, hallmarks of apoptotic cell death, were observed in butylparaben-treated groups. These observations lead us to postulate that butylparaben, similar to other estrogenic compounds, also induces spermatogenic cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Sex-dependent consequences of pre-pubertal gonadectomy: Social behavior, stress and ethanol responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption can be enhanced or moderated by sensitivity to its aversive and appetitive properties, including positive social outcomes. These differences emerge post-pubertally, suggesting a potential role of gonadal hormones. To determine the role of gonadal hormones in sensitivity to the social impairing and social context-related attenuations in the aversive effects of ethanol, prepubertal male and female rats were gonadectomized (GX) or sham (SH) operated on postnatal day (P) 25, or left non-manipulated (NM). In adulthood (P70), rats were restrained for 90 min prior to challenge with 0.0 or 1.0 g/kg ethanol and social interaction (SI) testing. At P77, groups of 4 same-sex littermates from the same surgical condition were given access to a supersaccharin (SS) solution (3% sucrose, 0.125% saccharin), followed by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.0, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Intakes of SS were examined 24h later for expression of conditioned taste aversions. Acute stress prior to SI testing increased frequency of play fighting in both sexes, whereas there were no GX effects on this measure, social investigation nor contact. GX, however, decreased baseline social preference (a social anxiety-like effect) in males, while inducing anxiolytic-like increases in baseline social preference in females. The social drinking test revealed that females developed ethanol conditioned taste aversions at a lower dose relative to males, regardless of surgical condition. These findings suggest a potential role for gonadal hormones in moderating social-anxiety like behaviors but not sensitivity to the social impairing effects of ethanol or ethanol's aversive consequences in a social context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Braemswig, J.H. [University Hospital Muenster (DE). Dept. of Pediatrics] [and others

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients <30 years of age at diagnosis were included who had been irradiated between 1979 and 1998. The main tumor types were Hodgkin's disease (38%), Erwing's sarcoma (20%) and nephroblastoma (11%). Patients were classified into three groups according to the position of the ovary in relation to the radiation portals. Group 1 was defined by direct irradiation of both ovaries. Group 2 patients were included with both ovaries potentially located in the radiation portals. In group 3, at least one ovary was not directly irradiated. The median follow-up was 128 months. Results: 16 of 55 analyzed patients were categorized in group 1. In ten of these patients, hormone status was evaluable. The ovarian doses were {>=}15 Gy. Except for one patient treated with 15 Gy all developed hormone failure. Eight of 14 patients of group 2 were evaluable. Seven of these patients developed ovarian failure. 19 of 24 patients in group 3 were evaluable. Nine of these patients developed ovarian failure. The observed difference in the rate of ovarian failure between the groups is statistifcally significant (p=0.045). Conclusion: All patients receiving >15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  12. Fatty acid binding proteins 4 and 5 in overweight prepubertal boys: effect of nutritional counselling and supplementation with an encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Jose A; Damaso, L; Hossain, J; Balagopal, P Babu

    2015-01-01

    Elevated fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) may play a role in obesity and co-morbidities. The role of nutritional interventions in modulating these levels remains unclear. The aim of this post hoc study was to determine the effect of overweight (OW) on FABP4 and FABP5 in boys in relation to indices of adiposity, insulin resistance and inflammation, and to investigate the effects of a 6-month supplementation with an encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate (FVJC) plus nutritional counselling (NC) on FABP levels. A post hoc analysis of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of children recruited from the general paediatric population was performed. A total of thirty age-matched prepubertal boys (nine lean and twenty-one OW; aged 6-10 years) were studied. Patients received NC by a registered dietitian and were randomised to FVJC or placebo capsules for 6 months. FABP4, FABP5, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose-induced acute insulin response (AIR), lipid-corrected β-carotene (LCβC), adiponectin, leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6 and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were determined before and after the intervention. FABP were higher (P < 0·01) in the OW v. lean boys and correlated directly with HOMA-IR, abdominal fat mass (AFM), hs-CRP, IL-6, and LCβC (P < 0·05 for all). FABP4 was associated with adiponectin and AIR (P < 0·05). FVJC plus NC reduced FABP4, HOMA-IR and AFM (P < 0·05 for all) but not FABP5. OW boys showed elevated FABP4 and FABP5, but only FABP4 was lowered by the FVJC supplement.

  13. Comparison of Thyroid Blood Flow and Uptake Indices Using Technetium-99m Pertechnetate in Patients with Graves’ Disease and Euthyroid Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Javadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate parameters of early blood flow (EBF including duration of EBF, perfusion index (PI, uptake indexes 1 and 2 (UI1 and UI2 derived from dynamic thyroid scintigraphy in patients with Graves’ disease (GD, and euthyroid (EI. Maximum instant uptake and maximum uptake of the thyroid gland were also assessed. Methods: A total of 50 patients with GD and EI were included in this study. Each patient underwent two dynamic scans of 1-minute (20 images at 3 seconds and 20-minute (20 images at 1 minute with 99mTcO4. The time-activity curve of a 1-minute scan was employed to derive EBF parameters; likewise, the time-activity curve of a 20-minute scan was used to determine maximum instant uptake, and the gradient of the curve from the 10th to 20th minute was used to assess maximum uptake. Results: Values of EBF duration, PI, UI1, UI2, and maximum instant uptake were significantly lower in patients with GD than in those with EI (p<0.05. The calculated gradient of the second half of the curves for all of the patients ranged from 0 to 0.88 and was significantly higher in patients with GD than in those with EI. Conclusion: Lower values of PI, UI1, UI2 and durations of EBF, along with faster maximum instant uptake in patients with GD in comparison to EI are indicators of a heightened desire for hyper-functioning thyroid glands of patients with GD to absorb 99mTcO4. Additionally, because of the uprising gradient at the end of the 20-minute time-activity curve, a maximum thyroid uptake of 99mTcO4 was achieved at more than 20 minutes after the radiopharmaceutical injection

  14. Association of low baseline free thyroxin levels with progression of coronary artery calcification over 4 years in euthyroid subjects: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear whether thyroid hormone levels within the normal range are also associated with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between normal variations in thyroid function and changes in CAC. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study of 2173 apparently healthy men and women with normal thyroid hormone levels. Their free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multidetector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years > 0. The mean CACS changes over 4 years by quartiles of baseline FT4 level (lowest to highest) were 12·9, 8·43, 7·82 and 7·81 (P = 0·028). CAC progression was not significantly associated with either the baseline FT3 or TSH levels. The odds ratios (OR) for CAC progression over 4 years (highest vs lowest quartile for baseline FT4) were 0·647 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·472-0·886) after adjustment for confounding factor, which were attenuated with further adjustment for lipid profiles, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hypertension [0·747 (95% CI 0·537-1·038)]. Quartiles of baseline FT3 or TSH level did not show any increased OR for CAC progression after adjustment for confounding factors. In this cohort of euthyroid men and women, a low baseline FT4 level was associated with a high risk of CACS progression over 4 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Characteristics of Sleep Slow Waves in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Salomé; Jenni, Oskar G.; Riedner, Brady A.; Tononi, Giulio; Carskadon, Mary A.; Huber, Reto

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow waves, a major electrophysiological characteristic of non-rapid eye movement sleep, undergo prominent changes across puberty. This study provides a detailed description of sleep slow waves of prepubertal children and mature adolescents to better understand the mechanisms underlying the decrease of activity in the slow-wave frequency range across puberty. Design: All-night sleep electroencephalographic recordings were performed for baseline and after sleep deprivation. Setting: N/A. Participants: Eight prepubertal children (Tanner 1/2, 11.9 ± 0.8 years, 3 boys) and 6 mature adolescents (Tanner 4/5, 14.3 ± 1.4 years, 3 boys). Interventions: Thirty-six hours of sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Both during baseline and after sleep deprivation, a steeper slope of slow waves was observed in prepubertal children (351.0 ± 49.5 μV/s), compared with mature adolescents (215.0 ± 27.2 μV/s, P sleep episodes from baseline), even accounting for overall amplitude differences. Conclusions: Based on a recent thalamocortical computer model, these findings may indicate a greater synaptic strength of neurons involved in the generation of sleep slow waves in prepubertal children, compared with mature adolescents. Such increased synaptic strength may be due to greater density or greater efficacy of cortical synapses or both. Citation: Kurth S; Jenni OG; Riedner BA; Tononi G; Carskadon MA; Huber R. Characteristics of sleep slow waves in children and adolescents. SLEEP 2010;33(4):475-480. PMID:20394316

  16. Factors Influencing the One- and Two-Year Growth Response in Children Treated with Growth Hormone: Analysis from an Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gut Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess gender-, pubertal-, age-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation score (, data from 5,797 growth hormone (GH naïve pediatric patients ( at year 1 was significantly greater for males versus females (, but no other gender differences were observed. For patients with GHD, was greater in prepubertal than in pubertal patients. Younger patients for both genders ( ( for GHD, MPHD, and ISS. Overall, positive were observed in all patients, with greater growth responses in younger prepubertal children, emphasizing the importance of starting GH treatment early.

  17. Active immunization against GnRH in ovine (Ovis aries: testicular morphometry, histopathology and endocrine responses in prepubertal ram lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez-Reinoso MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research was to assess the effects of an active immunization against GnRH on male reproductive function as an alternative to surgical sterilization evaluating testicular morphometry, histopathological alterations and plasma gonadotropin levels in prepubertal ram lambs. Dorper ram lambs (age= 2 months; control group, n= 5; treatment group, n=15 were immunised by using an anti-GnRH vaccine (two administrations spaced 15d developed by linking a GnRH homologous molecule to tetanus toxoid (clostridial toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as coadjuvant. To determine the effectiveness of the vaccination protocol, testicular morphometry was evaluated (length, width, mean volume and total volume together with histopathological alterations in testicular tissue samples (seminiferous tubule diameters, spermatogonia per testis and sperm presence and endocrine responses (ELISA from blood samples (FSH, LH, testosterone and cortisol plasma levels. Morphometric parameters (testicular length, width and volume were significantly reduced in vaccinated animals with respect to the control group (p0.05. In conclusion, prepubertal active immunization against GnRH led to marked differences on testes morphometry and activity in ovine species, however, it did not affect endocrine levels nor spermatogenesis in all individuals studied showing a partial vaccination effect in some of them. Thus, taking into account the heterogeneous dysfunctional responses obtained, different vaccination assays and strategies should be tested before active immunization against GnRH is considered as a viable alternative to conventional surgical sterilization.

  18. Rib overgrowth may be a contributing factor for pectus excavatum: Evaluation of prepubertal patients younger than 10years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Hwan; Kim, Tae Hoon; Haam, Seok Jin; Lee, Sungsoo

    2015-11-01

    We compared the costal cartilage and rib length between prepubertal patients with symmetric pectus excavatum and age- and sex-matched controls without anterior chest wall depression to evaluate if rib overgrowth is a contributing factor for pectus excavatum The sample included 18 prepubertal patients pectus excavatum and 18 age-and sex-matched controls without chest wall deformity. The full lengths of the fourth to sixth ribs and costal cartilage were measured using three-dimensional volume-rendered computed tomography and curved multiplanar reformatting techniques. The rib and costal cartilage lengths, total combined rib and costal cartilage length, and costal index ([length of cartilage/length of rib]×100 [%]) at the fourth to sixth levels were compared between the groups. The rib lengths in the patient group were significantly longer than in the control group for the 6th right rib and 4th, 5th, and 6th left ribs. The costal cartilage lengths and costal indices were not different between two groups. In patients with symmetric pectus excavatum aged pectus excavatum rather than cartilage overgrowth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of dose of FSH (Folltropin) containing LH (Lutropin) on follicular development, estrus and ovulation responses in prepubertal gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Shawn M; Knox, Robert V

    2012-06-01

    FSH is favored over chorionic gonadotropins for induction of estrus in various species, yet little data are available for its effects on follicle development and fertility for use in pigs. For Experiment 1, prepubertal gilts (n = 36) received saline, 100 mg FSH, or FSH with 0.5 mg LH. Treatments were divided into six injections given every 8 h on Days 0 and 1. Proportions of gilts developing medium follicles were increased for FSH and FSH-LH (P gilts developed large follicles (P gilts expressed estrus and few ovulated. Experiment 2 tested FSH preparations with greater LH content. Prepubertal gilts (n = 56) received saline, FSH-hCG (100 mg FSH with 200 IU hCG), FSH-LH5 (FSH with 5 mg LH), FSH-LH10 (FSH with 10 mg LH), or FSH-LH20 (FSH with 20 mg LH). FSH-LH was administered as previously described, while 100 IU of hCG was given at 0 h and 24 h. Hormone treated gilts showed increased (P 70%), ovulation (100%), and ovulation rate (>30 CL) compared to saline. There was an increase (P gilts with follicular cysts at Day 5, but these did not persist to Day 22. These gilts also showed an increase in poorly formed CL (P gilts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Sertoli cell hormones inhibin-B and anti Müllerian hormone have different patterns of secretion in prepubertal cryptorchid boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Hutson, John M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESES: The Sertoli-cells produce inhibin-B and Anti-Müllerian-Hormone (AMH). Much is still unknown about these hormones in prepubertal cryptorchids. The Sertoli-cells are mandatory for germ cell development. The aim of the study was to investigate if there are differences in s...

  1. Steroidogenesis in fetal male rats is reduced by DEHP and DINP, but endocrine effects of DEHP are not modulated by DEHA in fetal, prepubertal and adult male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Ladefoged, Ole; Hass, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    -exposed prepubertal male offspring, and in a few adult males. No modulating effects of DEHA on the endocrine effects of DEHP were detected, but a tendency towards an accumulating effect of DEHP and DINP in combination on suppression of testosterone synthesis was seen. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  2. Adult immunohistochemical markers fail to detect intratubular germ cell neoplasia in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Thorup, Jorgen

    2014-04-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. The condition is characterized by large germ cells with large nuclei with a hyperchromatic, coarse chromatin pattern, large prominent nucleoli and abundant pale cytoplasm. In prepubertal boys these cells are located centrally and peripherally mixed with normal cells in the seminiferous tubules. We evaluated the impact of adult intratubular germ cell neoplasia marking immunohistochemistry in screening for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in boys with cryptorchidism. Histology sections of 236 testicular biopsies were retrieved from 170 boys 1 month to 15 years old operated on for cryptorchidism (excluding disorders of sex development). Specimens were incubated with primary antibodies, including anti-placental-like alkaline phosphatase, anti-Oct3/4, anti-C-kit and anti-D2-40 receptor. A 1-year, 1-month-old boy had intratubular germ cell neoplasia and all positive markers. The prevalence of placental-like alkaline phosphatase positive staining of germ cells in testicular biopsies was 98% in boys younger than 1 year, 82% in those 1 to less than 2 years old, 74% in those 2 to less than 3 years old and 60% in those 3 to 15 years. Similarly the prevalence of C-kit positive staining was 71% in boys younger than 1 year, 49% in those 1 to less than 2 years, 16% in those 2 to less than 3 years and 34% in those 3 to 15 years. Placental-like alkaline phosphatase negative germ cells did not express any of the other described antigens. In none of the 116 testes from boys older than 1 year and 7 months were any Oct3/4 or D2-40 positive germ cells identified. Up to that age 33% and 8% of biopsies were Oct3/4 and D2-40 positive, respectively. Adult intratubular germ cell neoplasia/cancer immunohistochemical markers cannot be used alone for intratubular germ cell neoplasia screening in male infants with cryptorchidism because positive immunohistochemistry is commonly seen within this age group, when most

  3. Amelioration of iodine supply is notably associated with thyroid function in healthy subjects and in patients with euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Novak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our aim was to establish how healthy subjects (HS and patients with euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (EuHT faced the increase in mandatory salt iodization in Slovenia in 1999 from previous 10 mg of potassium iodide to 25 mg per kg since data about thyroid function with respect to iodine supply are scant.Methods: In this retrospective study we reviewed records of 24,899 patients referred for the first time between 1995 and 2002 to our tertiary referral centre with a stable catchment area for more than 20 years. HS were negative and patients with EuHT positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies and/or thyroglobulin antibodies. Thyrotropin (TSH, free thyroxine (fT4, and free triiodothyronine (fT3 levels were obtained. The fT4/fT3 ratio was calculated.Results: In the period 1995-1998, 917 HS had significantly lower fT4/fT3 ratio than 644 HS in the period 1999-2002 (2.6±0.6 and 2.9±0.9, respectively, p<0.001 on account of significantly higher fT3 (median 5.7 and 5.2 pmol/L, p<0.001. Similarly, in 1995-1998, 482 patients with EuHT had a lower fT4/fT3 ratio than 846 EuHT in 1999-2002 (2.4±0.6 and 2.8±0.7, respectively, p<0.001 on account of significantly higher fT3 (median 5.8 and 4.9, respectively, p=0.018. HS had a higher fT4/fT3 ratio than patients with EuHT in 1995-1998 but not in 1999-2002 (p<0.001 and p=0.206, respectively.Conclusions: Amelioration of iodine supply is associated with an increase in the fT4/fT3 ratio on account of lower fT3, and with a similar thyroid function in HS and in patients with EuHT.

  4. Retinol improves in vitro differentiation of pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonial stem cells into sperm during the first wave of spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Arkoun

    Full Text Available Testicular tissue freezing has been proposed for fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys. Thawed frozen testicular tissue must undergo a maturation process to restore sperm production. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the ability of retinol to improve the in vitro differentiation of pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonial stem cells into sperm. Testes from pre-pubertal mice, aged 2.5 and 6.5 days post-partum, were cultured on agarose gel at a gas-liquid interphase for 34, 38 and 60 days (D and for 16, 30 and 36 D respectively. Assessment of basal medium (BM supplemented with retinol (RE alone, FSH/LH alone or a combination of both, was performed. Stereological analyses and tissue lesion scoring were performed at the culture time points indicated above. Sperm production was quantified at D30 and D34 after mechanical dissection of the testicular tissues. FSH/LH significantly increased the percentage of round spermatids at D30 and D38, when compared to BM alone. However, RE significantly increased the percentages of round but also elongated spermatids at D30 and D34. Moreover, RE significantly increased the number of spermatozoa per milligram of tissue at D30 and D34 when compared to BM. Therefore, RE improved the in vitro production of spermatids and spermatozoa from pre-pubertal SSCs during the first wave of spermatogenesis. The use of RE could be a useful tool for in vitro spermatogenesis from pre-pubertal human testicular tissue.

  5. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Central adiposity is negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Baym, Carol L; Monti, Jim M; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Moore, R Davis; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2015-02-01

    To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Prepubertal children (age 7-9 years; n = 126), classified as non-overweight (memory tasks. Performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (ie, percent whole-body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Backward regression identified significant (P memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status (SES), IQ, oxygen consumption, and BMI z-score. Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with SES jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of SES and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Regional, but not whole-body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of growth hormone on short normal children.

    OpenAIRE

    Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G

    1987-01-01

    The growth of 26 short normal prepubertal children (mean age 8.4, height velocity standard deviation score for chronological age between +0.4 and -0.8) was studied for two years. Sixteen children were treated with somatrem (methionyl growth hormone) during the second year, and the remaining 10 children served as controls. During one year of treatment the height velocity standard deviation score for chronological age increased from the pretreatment mean of -0.44 (SD 0.33) to +2.20 (1.03). Thes...

  8. Radiologic and histological observations in experimental T1-T12 dorsal arthrodesis: A qualitative description of T1-T12 segment and other body parts involved, between prepubertal age and skeletal maturityxs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Federico Canavese; Alain Dimeglio; Davide Barbetta; Marco Galeotti; Bartolomeo Canavese; Fabio Cavalli

    2016-01-01

      Background: This experimental study provides a qualitative description and the morpho-structural features of the fusions taking place in the thoracic spine between prepubertal age and skeletal maturity...

  9. Establishing abdominal height cut-offs and their association with conventional indices of obesity among Arab children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed; Al-Attas, Omar; Sabico, Shaun; Kumar, Sudhesh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity, particularly childhood obesity is common in the Middle East, but no studies have examined the relationship of sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) or abdominal height to conventional markers of obesity in this region. This is the first study to document the association of SAD with measures of obesity among Arab children and adolescents. METHODS: Nine hundred sixty-four Saudi children aged 5-17 years (365 prepubertal, including 146 boys and 219 girls; 249 puber...

  10. Influence of the informal primary caretaker on glycemic control among prepubertal pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Nallely Zurita-Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1, the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. Patients, materials, and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire, family functionality (family APGAR, support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale, and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The patients' median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06-151.9, p = 0.001. While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (β 0.991, 95% CI 0.238-1.743, p = 0.011 and stress (β 1.918, 95% CI 1.10-2.736, p = 0.001 in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (β 1.256, 95% CI 0.336-2.177, p = 0.008 were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. Conclusions: Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients.

  11. High-fat diet exposure from pre-pubertal age induces polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshni; Shah, Gaurang

    2018-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, polycystic ovaries and metabolic syndrome. Many researchers reported that PCOS often starts with menarche in adolescents. Presently available animal model focuses on ovarian but not metabolic features of PCOS. Therefore, we hypothesized that high-fat diet feeding to pre-pubertal female rats results in both reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. Pre-pubertal female rats were divided into two groups: group I received normal pellet diet and group II received high-fat diet (HFD). In the letrozole study, adult female rats were divided into two groups: group I received 1% carboxy methyl cellulose and group II received 1 mg/kg letrozole orally. Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile, fasting glucose, insulin, estrus cycle, hormonal profile, ovary weight, luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor expression were measured. Polycystic ovarian morphology was assessed through histopathological changes of ovary. Feeding of HFD gradually increase glucose intolerance and fasting insulin levels. Triglyceride level was higher in HFD study while total cholesterol level was higher in the letrozole study. Alteration in testosterone and estrogen levels was observed in both studies. LH receptor expression was upregulated only in HFD study. Histopathological changes like increase cystic follicle, diminished granulosa cell layer and thickened theca cell layer were observed in letrozole as well as HFD study. High-fat diet initiated at pre-puberty age in rats produces both metabolic disturbances and ovarian changes similar to that observed clinically in PCOS patients. Letrozole on the other hand induces change in ovarian structure and function. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  12. Prepubertal OVX increases IGF-I expression and bone accretion in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Kristen E; Wergedal, Jon E; Chadwick, Robert B; Srivastava, Apurva K; Mohan, Subburaman

    2008-11-01

    It is generally well accepted that the pubertal surge in estrogen is responsible for the rapid bone accretion that occurs during puberty and that this effect is mediated by an estrogen-induced increase in growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action. To test the cause and effect relationship between estrogen and GH/IGF, we evaluated the consequence of ovariectomy (OVX) in prepubertal mice (C57BL/6J mice at 3 wk of age) on skeletal changes and the GH/IGF axis during puberty. Contrary to our expectations, OVX increased body weight (12-18%), bone mineral content (11%), bone length (4%), bone size (3%), and serum, liver, and bone IGF-I (30-50%) and decreased total body fat (18%) at 3 wk postsurgery. To determine whether estrogen is the key ovarian factor responsible for these changes, we performed a second experiment in which OVX mice were treated with placebo or estrogen implants. In addition to observing similar results compared with our first experiment, estrogen treatment partially rescued the increased body weight and bone size and completely rescued body fat and IGF-I levels. The increased bone accretion in OVX mice was due to increased bone formation rate (as determined by bone histomorphometry) and increased serum procollagen peptide. In conclusion, contrary to the known estrogen effect as an initiator of GH/IGF surge and thereby pubertal growth spurt, our findings demonstrate that loss of estrogen and/or other hormones during the prepubertal growth period effect leads to an increase in IGF-I production and bone accretion in mice.

  13. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal mouse testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debarshi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2017-09-15

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are important for growth and development of many tissues, and altered thyroid status affects various organs and systems. Testis also is considered as a thyroid hormone responsive organ. Though THs play an important role in regulation of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, the exact mechanism of this regulation remains poorly understood. The present study, therefore, is designed to examine the effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal Parkes (P) strain mice testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1). Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in mother's drinking water from birth to day 28; on postnatal day (PND) 21 only pups, and on PND 28, both pups and lactating dams were euthanized. Serum T 3 and T 4 were markedly reduced in pups at PND 28 and in lactating mothers, while serum and intra-testicular testosterone levels were considerably decreased in pups of both age groups. Further, serum and intra-testicular levels of estrogen were significantly increased in hypothyroid mice at PND 28 with concomitant increase in CYP19 expression. Histologically, marked changes were noticed in testes of PTU-treated mice; immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of testes in treated mice also revealed marked decrease in the expression of THRα1 at both age groups. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses also showed reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of SF-1, StAR, CYP11A1 and 3β-HSD in these mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that neonatal hypothyroidism alters localization and expression of THRα1 and impairs testicular steroidogenesis by down-regulating the expression SF-1, thereby affecting spermatogenesis in prepubertal mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Adipokines, body composition and bone mineral density in underweight children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Rowicka, Grazna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Gajewska, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    One of the important factors affecting bone health is body weight. Underweight children are predisposed to disturbances in bone metabolism, which may result in osteopenia and osteoporosis in later life. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between adipokines, bone metabolism, and anthropometric parameters in underweight prepubertal children. The study included 60 children aged 5-10 years. Among them, there were: 30 underweight children (BMI z-score ≤-1) and 30 normal-weight children (BMI z-score ). Body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, bone mass) and bone mineral density examination were performed by densitometry. Serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers and adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic methods. In underweight children we observed significantly lower fat mass (pbone mineral content (pbone mineral density both the total body (pbone resorption marker (CTX) was significantly higher than in normal-weight children (2.006±0.649 vs. 1.624±0.492 ng/ml, pbone turnover markers (OC, CTX) and between adiponectin and CTX. However, there was no correlation between fat mass and leptin concentration in this group of children. Low body weight in prepubertal period is related with an alteration in the adipokines profile and bone metabolism markers, resulting in a decrease in bone mineral density. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  15. Prevalence of acne in primary school children and the relationship of acne with pubertal maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although acne vulgaris is generally regarded as a disease of adolescence period, it can occur in infancy, early childhood and prepubertal period. Acne may emerge as the first sign of pubertal maturation. In our study, we aimed to determine the acne prevalence in primary school children, then, evaluate the pubertal signs in those children; examine the correlation of the presence and severity of acne with pubertal signs, and finally, revise the concept of prepubertal acne. Materials and Methods: A thousand students from 2 schools in Istanbul were included in the study. Age, gender, and the presence, localization and severity of acne were recorded. Acne severity was evaluated using the Orfanos-Gollnick Acne Grading System while a validated self evaluation form which had been developed by Morris and Udry was used to evaluate pubertal stage. Data were evaluated statistically. Results: Five hundred and thirty-four male and 466 female primary school children, with an age range of 7 to 11, were included in the study. Acne was determined in 11.5% of the students. 20% of girls and 4% of boys had acne. Comparing acne presence and age, the average age was higher in group with acne than those with no acne. The mean age of children with grade 1 acne was lower than those with grade 2 acne. All the students with acne had mid-facial acne. Comparing acne presence and pubertal symptoms, the rate of the presence of acne was higher in pubertal girls. No acne was observed in prepubertal boys. Evaluating acne severity and pubertal signs, the difference between prepubertal and pubertal girls was not significant. Comparing acne and telarche stages, the group without acne had lower telarche rates. Comparing acne and pubertal stages, children with acne had advanced puberty. Conclusion: Our study denotes that acne prevalence is related to pubertal maturation and age; while it does not support the hypothesis that acne is the first sign of pubertal

  16. A method to determine the likelihood of transition to puberty in a heterogeneous prepubertal age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, James; Bright, George M; Lee, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    A model based on pubertal status and age in normal healthy children that can be used to estimate the probability that a given child will enter or progress through puberty in a given period is presented. This model could also be used to estimate the proportion of children who would be expected to have changes in their pubertal status over a given period, for example, in an interventional trial of growth promoting agents.

  17. UPF2, a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factor, is required for prepubertal Sertoli cell development and male fertility by ensuring fidelity of the transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jianqiang; Tang, Chong; Yuan, Shuiqiao

    2015-01-01

    of the NMD pathway; however, evidence supporting its physiological necessity has only just started to emerge. Here, we report that ablation of Upf2, which encodes a core NMD factor, in murine embryonic Sertoli cells (SCs) leads to severe testicular atrophy and male sterility owing to rapid depletion of both...... splicing factors and key proteins essential for SC fate control. Our data demonstrate an essential role of UPF2-mediated NMD in prepubertal SC development and male fertility....

  18. Abnormalities of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy affect neuropsychological development of their children at 25-30 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanbin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Yu, Xiaohui; Li, Yushu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Xiaochun; Guo, Rui; Wang, Hong; Li, Jia; Chen, Yanyan; Wang, Weiwei; Chawinga, Masauso; Zhang, Li; Yang, Liu; Zhao, Yaru; Hua, Tianyi

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between specific thyroid abnormalities (subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinaemia or elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titres) in women during pregnancy and the subsequent neuropsychological development of their offspring. Serum was collected from 1268 women at 16-20 weeks of gestation and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (tT(4)), free thyroxine (fT(4)), and Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) levels were measured. Thyroid function reference ranges specific for pregnancy were used to screen for thyroid abnormalities. Patients with isolated subclinical hypothyroidism (18 cases), hypothyroxinaemia (19 cases), and those who were euthyroid patients with elevated titres of TPOAb (34 cases) were identified. One hundred and forty-two euthyroid and TPOAb-negative women matched for gestational age from the same cohort were selected as controls. Intellectual and motor development score evaluations were performed on the children from the pregnancies at 25-30 months of age. Children of women with subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia and elevated TPOAb titres had mean intelligence scores 8.88, 9.30 and 10.56 points lower than those of the control group (P = 0.008, P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively); mean motor scores were 9.98, 7.57 and 9.03 points lower than those of the controls [P hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinaemia or euthyroidism with elevated TPOAb titres were all statistically significant predictors of lower motor and intellectual development at 25-30 months.

  19. Morphological and morphometric evaluation of prepubertal gilt ovaries, uterine tubes and uterus at different oestrus cycle stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oberlender

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies are performed in developing techniques/procedures that provide greater reproductive performance in farm animals, including pigs. In this sense, the study of gilts reproductive organs at different oestrus cycle stages for assessing the presence of abnormalities and/or other parameters that may affect the future animal fertility is important. In order to evaluate the morphological, morphometric and histomorphometric features of ovaries, uterus and uterine tubes (UTs characteristics of prepubertal gilts at different oestrus cycle stages, reproductive tracts from 48 animals immediately after slaughter were obtained. After, the structures were dissected and removed, and the ovaries were used for classification of oestrus cycle stage of each gilt in follicular phase (FP and luteal phase (FL. Then, morphometric evaluations of ovaries, UTs, uterine horns and uterine body were performed. Besides that, medial segments of UTs and uterus were fixed in Bouin solution, processed and included in paraffin, when histological sections of 5.0 micrometers (µm were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Histomorphometric analyzes using image capture system and specific software were performed. Afterwards, data were submitted to Student's t test for assessment the statistical differences (P0.05 between morphometric parameters of ovaries, UTs and uterus of gilts in FP and LP. Likewise, in respect to the placement of reproductive structures, both in the oestrus cycle stages, as in the general average, there was no difference (P>0.05. Regarding the histomorphometric variables, gilts classified in FP presented a higher (P<0.05 height of glandular and UT epithelium compared to animals in LP. On the other hand, the diameter of endometrial glands was higher (P<0.05 in gilts at LP compared to FP. Furthermore, gilts in LP presented a higher (P<0.05 proportion of endometrium occupied by glands, whereas animals in FP had a higher (P<0.05 proportion of

  20. Social dominance in prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in continuous competitive dyads: Effects on body growth, metabolic status, and reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, C; Carriquiry, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the body weight (BW) and size, metabolic status, and reproductive development of dominant and subordinate prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in competitive dyads. Sixteen Holstein and Jersey × Holstein prepubertal heifers (means ± SEM; 250.8 ± 9.8 d; 208.5 ± 13.9 kg of BW) were assigned to 8 homogeneous dyads according to breed, age, and BW. Dyads were housed in pens separated 1 m from each other during 120 d, receiving a total mixed ration on a 5% restriction of their potential dry matter intake, and had access to the same feeder (60 cm) throughout the experiment. Dominant and subordinate heifers were defined based on the winning agonistic interactions in each dyad. Body development was recorded every 20 d in all heifers, and blood samples were collected on the same days to determine endocrine and metabolic status. The maximum follicle diameter, number of follicles >6 mm, and the presence of corpus luteum were observed weekly by ultrasound. Heifer BW (269.3 vs. 265.3 ± 1.5 kg) and average daily gains (0.858 vs. 0.770 ± 0.02 kg/d) were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers. On d 30, 37, and 53, dominant heifers had more follicles than subordinate heifers, and maximum follicle diameter was greater in dominant than in subordinate heifers (10.0 vs. 9.0 ± 0.3 mm). Dominant heifers achieved puberty earlier than subordinate heifers (313.9 ± 4.9 vs. 329.6 ± 5.7 d) with similar BW (279.4 ± 2.6 vs. 277.4 ± 5.8 kg). Glucose concentrations were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers (89.2 vs. 86.8 ± 1.2 mg/dL), but cholesterol concentrations were greater in subordinate than dominant heifers (86.1 vs. 90.2 ± 2.6 mg/dL). We concluded that, under continuous competitive situations, dominant heifers were more precocious than subordinate ones, achieving an earlier puberty. Dominant heifers had greater body growth and glucose concentrations than subordinate heifers, which may be responsible, at least in part, for

  1. Assessment of sperm nuclear quality after in vitro maturation of fresh or frozen/thawed mouse pre-pubertal testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblette, A; Rives, N; Dumont, L; Rives, A; Verhaeghe, F; Jumeau, F; Rondanino, C

    2017-10-01

    Is nuclear quality of in vitro generated spermatozoa from fresh or frozen/thawed pre-pubertal mouse testes similar to that of their in vivo counterparts? The production of spermatozoa with aneuploidy, DNA fragmentation or chromatin condensation defects was not significantly increased in organotypic cultures compared to in vivo controls. Although murine spermatozoa have been produced in vitro from pre-pubertal testes, their nuclear DNA integrity has never been investigated. Fresh and frozen/thawed testicular fragments from 6 to 7 days postpartum (dpp) mice were cultured for 30 days. Testicular tissues were frozen by controlled slow freezing (CSF) or solid surface vitrification (SSV). In total, 30 fresh, 30 CSF, 30 SSV testes were used for in vitro maturation and 6 testes from 36 to 37 dpp mice were used as in vivo controls. Murine spermatozoa were extracted from pooled in vitro cultured testicular fragments and from in vivo controls. Sperm aneuploidy was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling, chromatin condensation by aniline blue staining, telomere length and number by quantitative FISH, DNA oxidation by immunocytochemical detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Because of the low spermatogenic yield in cultures, a hundred spermatozoa extracted from pooled tissues were examined and compared to their in vivo counterparts. Most of spermatozoa generated in vitro and in vivo were haploid, contained unfragmented DNA and normally condensed chromatin. A similar proportion of spermatozoa with aneuploidy, DNA fragmentation or chromatin condensation defects was found in cultures and in vivo. No significant difference in telomere length was found within the nuclei of in vitro and in vivo generated spermatozoa. However, the number of telomere spots was lower in gametes obtained from cultures of fresh, CSF and SSV testes than in their natural counterparts (P

  2. Relationship between pre-pubertal nutrition plane with reproduction performance and milk quality in Kurdish female kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Menatian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the reproductive performance and milk quality to nutrition pre-pubertal plane in Kurdish female kids. Methods: Forty Kurdish female kids [aged (28.0±6.6 d and weighted (7.56±1.10 kg] were assigned randomly in pre-weaning period to one of two practical diets: low quality diet (LQD [87 g CP/kg dray matter (DM and 2.02 Mcal ME/kg DM], and high quality diet (HQD, (148 g CP/kg DM and 2.50 Mcal ME/kg DM. At weaning, from each group, one half of kids was separated randomly and allocated to LQD or HQD. Consequently, in post weaning period, there were four treatment groups including: LQD pre and post-weaning (L-L, control group and LQD pre-weaning and HQD post-weaning (L-H; HQD pre-weaning and LQD post weaning (H-L, HQD pre- and post-weanin (H-H. From 30 to 180 d of age, body weight and DM intake were determined every 2 wk. Results: Results showed that the HQD treatment enhanced body weight and DM intake during pre-weaning period, in comparison with the LQD treatment (P<0.01. During post-weaning, kids of H H treatment had higher DM intake compared with other kid’s treatments. Kids fed the HQD treatment had greater withers height compared to kids on the LQD treatment at 90 d of age (P<0.01. Kids in the L-H and H-H groups weighed more and were younger at puberty. In the period of pre-pubertal, diet plan was not significantly affected milk yield and reproductive performance at the first lactation. Conclusions: Overall, management strategies that have been used to availability of nutrition could increase growth and feed intake in Kurdish female kids. In addition, these strategic programs should be enhancing economic characteristics at the start of puberty of kid in goat husbandry.

  3. Ameliorative effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G on zearalenone toxicosis in pre-pubertal female gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihong; Lei, Yuanpei; Bao, Yinghui; Jia, Ru; Ma, Qiugang; Zhang, Jianyun; Chen, Jun; Ji, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the toxicity of zearalenone (ZEA) on the growing performance, genital organs, serum hormones and histopathological changes of pre-pubertal female gilts, and to evaluate the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G in alleviating ZEA toxicosis in gilts. Eighteen pre-pubertal female gilts were randomly allocated to three treatments with one replicate per treatment. The gilts were fed following three diets for 24 days: the Control group was given a basic diet with normal corn; Treatment 1 (T1) was prepared by substituting corn naturally contaminated with ZEA for all normal corn in the basic diet (with a final concentrations of 238.57 μg kg(-1) of ZEA); and Treatment 2 (T2) was prepared by mixing the T1 diet with 2 kg T(-1) of fermented-dried culture of ANSB01G. The results showed that the presence of ZEA in diets significantly increased the vulva size and reproductive organ weight of the T1 gilts as compared with the Control group, and the addition of ANSB01G to diet naturally contaminated with ZEA obviously ameliorated these symptoms, as was observed in the T2 group. The presence of low doses of ZEA in the T1 diet had no significant effect on the level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteotrophic hormone (LH) or serum oestradiol (E2) in the serum of gilts, but the prolactin (PRL) level in group T1 increased significantly. The gilts of the T1 group exhibited conspicuous cell enlargement and fatty degeneration of the corpus uteri, swelling, inflammation and lymphocyte infiltration of liver cells as compared with the Control group. The presence of ANSB01G can alleviate these hyperoestrogenic effects caused by ZEA, maintaining the body of gilt in a normal and healthy status. It is suggested that reproductive organs of gilts are seriously affected even if they are fed a low dose of ZEA in less time, and the addition of B. subtilis ANSB01G can effectively alleviate ZEA toxicosis in gilts.

  4. Expression and localization of cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) in the prepubertal and postpubertal male horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorka, C E; Scoggin, K E; Squires, E L; Ball, B A; Troedsson, M H T

    2017-01-01

    The seminal plasma protein, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3), has been correlated with increased fertility and first-cycle conception rates, and has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and phagocytosis of spermatozoa during the inflammatory response to breeding in the horse. Previous research demonstrated that equine CRISP-3 is located in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. However, this was done with nonquantitative laboratory techniques. In humans and rodents, CRISP-3 has been described as an androgen-dependent protein, but the effect of androgens on the expression of CRISP-3 has not been investigated in the horse. The objectives of this study were to (a) confirm and quantify the expression of CRISP-3 in the male equine reproductive tract, (b) describe the localization of CRISP-3 within the specific tissues which express it, and (c) determine if expression of CRISP-3 increases after puberty. We hypothesized that expression of CRISP-3 would be expressed in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles, and expression would increase after puberty. Tissues were collected postmortem from three prepubertal colts (3 years). Tissue samples were collected from the ampulla of vas deferens, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral gland, prostate gland, testis, as well as the cauda, corpus, and caput aspects of the epididymis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed using an equine-specific CRISP-3 designed primer and monocolonal antibody. A mixed linear additive model was used to compare mRNA expression between age groups, and significance was set to P CRISP-3 mRNA was found primarily in the ampulla of vas deferens with lesser expression in the seminal vesicles. Expression of CRISP-3 was higher in the postpubertal stallion when compared with the prepubertal colt for the ampulla (P CRISP-3 is primarily located in the glandular

  5. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-6 levels are elevated in serum of children with chronic renal failure: a report of the Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D R; Liu, F; Baker, B K; Hintz, R L; Durham, S K; Brewer, E D; Frane, J W; Tonshoff, B; Mehls, O; Wingen, A M; Watkins, S L; Hogg, R J; Lee, P D

    1997-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that growth retardation in children with chronic renal failure (CRF) results in part from inhibition of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action by excess serum IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Excess IGFBPs in CRF serum include IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 and a diffuse approximately 24- to 28-kDa IGFBP band identified by [125I]IGF ligand blot. The present studies characterized this diffuse approximately 24- to 28-kDa band. Initial studies identified this band as IGFBP-6, because it was immunoprecipitated by antiserum raised against a synthetic peptide of human IGFBP-6 (hIGFBP-6). Additional [125I]IGF ligand blots found that the immunoprecipitated band was 1) recognized by [125I]IGF-II but not [125I]IGF-1, 2) more abundant in CRF than in normal serum, and 3) more abundant in serum from dialyzed than nondialyzed prepubertal CRF children. Using the hIGFBP-6 antiserum in a specific and sensitive RIA, we found that serum IGFBP-6 levels were 4.7 +/- 1.7 nmol/L in 10 normal prepubertal children, 21.4 +/- 6.1 nmol/L in 44 nondialyzed prepubertal CRF children, 73.5 +/- 14.4 nmol/L in 7 dialyzed prepubertal CRF children, and 94.6 +/- 26.2 nmol/L in 14 dialyzed pubertal CRF children. IGFBP-6 levels were also elevated in 71 nondialyzed European children with CRF. In nondialyzed CRF children, serum IGFBP-6 levels 1) correlated inversely with the glomerular filtration rate, 2) did not correlate with height SD score, and 3) were not altered by 12 months of daily recombinant hGH treatment. In summary, a specific antiserum and RIA were used to demonstrate elevated levels of intact IGF-II-binding IGFBP-6 in serum of CRF children. We postulate that the excess IGFBP-6 may modulate the action of IGF-II on target tissues.

  7. Comparison of lingual mucosa and buccal mucosa grafts used in inlay urethroplasty in failed hypospadias of pre-pubertal boys in a Chinese group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hongyong

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of the buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa used in children who received multiple failed hypospadias surgeries.We conducted a retrospective study of 62 children who received buccal or lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in our hospital between 2012 and 2015. The ages ranged from 3.5-11 y. All cases included multiple failed hypospadias procedures, and the subjects received previous operations 2-3 times. All patients underwent one-stage operations. Thirty-three cases were treated with lingual mucosa grafts. The patient ages ranged from 3.5 to 11 y (median 7.5 y, and they had previous operations 2-3 times (mean 2.8±0.7. Grafts ranged from lengths of 2-6 cm (mean 5.1±0.46 cm and widths of 0.5-1.5 cm (mean 1.2± 0.16 cm. Our follow-up was 5 to 12 m (mean 8.3±1.2 m. Twenty-nine cases were treated with buccal mucosa grafts. The patient ages ranged from 4 to 9.2 y (median 7.0 y, and they had previous operations 2-3 times (mean 2.5±0.2. Grafts ranged from lengths of 2-5.3 cm (mean 4.9± 0.28 cm and widths of 0.5-1.5 cm (mean 1.0±0.11 cm. Our follow-up was 5 to 12 m (mean 7.9±0.5 m. The results were tested with SPSS 18.0. The rates of complications were compared by a chi-square test, and pre-operative conditions were compared by t test.For the outcomes of the two groups, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, preoperative surgery time, and the length and width of the grafts (p>0.05. For the lingual mucosa graft group, fistula: 2/33 (6.0%, stricture: 1/33(3.0%, ventral curvature: 2/33(6.0%, complications: 5/33(15.0%, success rate: 28/33(84.8%, Hose score: 14.34±0.95, peak flow: 6.5 ml/s-12.0 ml/s, and mean peak flow: 9.3±0.4 ml/s. For the buccal mucosa graft group, fistula: 2/29(6.8%, stricture: 2/29(6.8%, ventral curvature: 1/29 (3.4%, complication rate: 5/29(17.0%, success rate: 24/29 (83.0%, Hose score: 14.28±1.03, peak flow: 6.5 ml/s-12.0 ml/s, and mean peak

  8. Gonadectomia pré-puberal em cães e gatos Prepubertal gonadectomy in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Azevedo Voorwald

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A população de cães e gatos errantes é um problema grave de saúde pública e bem estar animal e a gonadectomia pré-puberal a partir de seis semanas de idade é a base para controle populacional efetivo. Os efeitos benéficos e maléficos são discutidos nesta revisão, auxiliando o médico veterinário a obter conhecimento e fundamentação científica para análise crítica do tema, propagação dessa prática e conscientização de proprietários.Stray dogs and cats is a serious problem to public health and animal welfare. Prepubertal gonadectomy from six weeks of age is a solution to effective pet overpopulation control. The benefits and adverse effects of this procedure are discussed in this paper, allowing the veterinarians to obtain knowledge and scientific basis to critical analysis to the topic, practice spread and owner awareness.

  9. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamartiniere Coral A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20 to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days. Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days, becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland.

  10. Assessing impulsivity in prepubertal male rats: a novel device and method to assess motor and cognitive impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Jorge; Muñoz-Villegas, Patricia; Guerrero-Álvarez, Ángeles; Flores-Ocampo, Paola

    2013-08-01

    The use of animal models in studies of impulsivity has made valuable contributions to our understanding of this behavioral trait as it relates to disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The objective of this work was to develop a paradigm that would make it possible to evaluate both motor and cognitive impulsivity using the same device after a short training period. The operant behavior demanded in this device consists in having rats cross a bridge after receiving a signal to obtain a reward that is available on a goal platform in a Wait-to-Go-signal task, or in crossing a bridge after the animals make a choice between two alternatives in a Delay-discounting task. To test this device and method, a study was conducted using an animal model of dopaminergic dysfunction produced by prenatal alcohol treatment (which has been shown to cause attention deficits and alterations of impulsivity in adult rats). Compared with controls, prepubertal male rats treated prenatally with alcohol showed both higher cognitive and higher motor impulsivity as assessed by the parameters used. Although attention changes proved not to be dependent on prenatal treatment, they were sensitive to the task performed. The device and methods introduced herein thus constitute useful instruments for evaluating impulsivity. Their significant advantages include a short investment in training time, and the ability to assess different types of impulsivity from the vantage point of distinct theoretical perspectives. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Ovarian oestrogen-dependent maturation of the LH/FSH surge mechanism during prepubertal development in the gilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, G R; Elsaesser, F; Stickney, K; Haynes, N B; Back, H L

    1984-06-01

    An involvement of ovarian secretions and in particular oestradiol-17 beta in the maturation of the positive feedback mechanism controlling gonadotrophin surge secretion was studied in prepubertal gilts. The LH/FSH responses to an intramuscular injection of age- and body weight-related doses of oestradiol benzoate (OB) were compared in intact gilts at 60 days of age with or without oestradiol-17 beta pretreatment from 30 to 52 days of age. Four further groups of gilts were challenged with OB at 160 days and were intact, ovariectomized at 60 days, ovariectomized at 60 days and given oestrogen therapy from days 60 to 130 or ovariectomized at 130 days. A significant increase in the magnitude of LH surge responses to OB and a decrease in the time to the first consistent period of surge secretion in intact gilts at 160 compared to 60 days of age confirmed earlier studies and is considered to represent a real maturational change in positive feedback activity. A longer response interval was also present in the majority of ovariectomized gilts. Furthermore a significant reduction in the magnitude of OB-induced LH responses at day 160 occurred in gilts ovariectomized at day 60 compared to those ovariectomized at day 130 and with intact control animals. Oestrogen therapy after ovariectomy at day 60 effectively restored the magnitude of the LH response however. It is concluded that maturation of the positive feedback mechanism is ovarian, and probably oestrogen, dependent.

  12. Testicular biopsy and cryopreservation for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome: a pro/con debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Inge; Oates, Robert; De Schepper, Jean; Tournaye, Herman

    2016-02-01

    In about one-half of adult Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients, spermatozoa can be retrieved by means of testicular biopsy (TESE). Given the expected increase in the number of diagnosed KS patients owing to the use of noninvasive prenatal testing, the probable questions of young KS patients and their parents regarding future fertility, and the fact that widespread apoptosis of spermatogonia occurs at onset of puberty, an attempt to increase the retrieval rates at TESE above those found in adult KS men by undertaking preservation techniques peripubertally has been initiated. To date, however, only a limited number of KS adolescents have been examined, demonstrating no increases in the chances of finding sperm. Furthermore, spermatogonial stem cell and testicular tissue freezing techniques, as well as in vitro maturation strategies, require further validation. Given these controversies, banking testicular tissue from prepubertal KS boys should be performed only in a research framework. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves protect the pre-pubertal spermatogonial cells from cyclophosphamide-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Guruprasad; Honguntikar, Sachin D; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Mutalik, Srinivas; Setty, Manjunath M; Kalyankumar, Raksha; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-04-22

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is widely cultivated in Asian and African countries for its medicinal and dietary significance. The leaves are highly nutritious and are known to possess various biological activities. Pre-pubertal Swiss albino male mice were injected with single dose of cyclophosphamide (CP, 200mg/kg body weight) or ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOE, 100mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. In combination group, MOE was administered 24h prior to CP injection. CP induced a significant decrease in testicular weight (p<0.01) and depletion of germ cells (p<0.001) and higher level of DNA damage (p<0.001) compared to control. The expression of P53, Bax, Cytochrome C (Cyt C) was increased while there was a decrease in the expression of Bcl2, c-Kit and Oct4. Administration of MOE 24h prior to CP treatment ameliorated the depletion (p<0.001), DNA damage (p<0.001) and apoptosis (p<0.01) of germ cells induced by CP. The mitigating effect of MOE appears to be mediated by up-regulating the expression of c-Kit and Oct4 transcripts in P53-independent manner. MOE protects the spermatogonial cells from CP-induced damage by modulating the apoptotic response elicited by CP and therefore can be considered as an efficient method of male fertility preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of puberty on vitamin D status in obese children and the possible relation between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Medina, Sonsoles; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Domínguez-Garrido, María Nieves; Gutiérrez-Moreno, Elisa; Rovira, Adela; Garcés, Carmen; Soriano-Guillén, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Puberty can affect vitamin D levels. The goal of this study was to analyze the relation between vitamin D deficiency and puberty in obese Spanish children, along with the possible interrelation between vitamin D status and degree of insulin resistance. A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which clinical and biochemical data were gathered from 120 obese and 50 normal weight children between January 2011 and January 2013. Mean vitamin D levels were 19.5 and 31.6 ng/mL in obese pubertal and obese prepubertal children, respectively. About 75% of the obese pubertal subjects and 46% of the obese prepubertal subjects had vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in pubescent subjects compared with pre-pubescent subjects in summer, fall, and winter. There was no apparent relation between vitamin D levels and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistence (expressed in standard deviation score for sex and Tanner stage) in either puberty or pre-puberty. Puberty may be a risk factor for the vitamin D deficiency commonly found in the obese child population. This deficiency is not associated with higher insulin resistance in obese pubertal children compared with obese prepubertal children.

  15. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Loredana Marcovecchio

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI. Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV, have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1 gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children.744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD: 8.4±1.4years underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR.A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033, but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04 and waist circumference (p = 0.01 when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers.In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain.

  16. Assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioimpedance analysis and anthropometrics in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lakka, Timo A; Hakulinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    We compared InBody720 segmental multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (SMF-BIA) with Lunar Prodigy Advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessment of body composition among 178 predominantly prepubertal children. Segmental agreement analysis of body compartments was carried out......, and inter-relationships of anthropometric and other measures of body composition were defined. Moreover, the relations of different reference criteria for excess body fat were evaluated....

  17. Genomic imprinting effects on cognitive and social abilities in prepubertal girls with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Jean-François; Hong, David S; Hallmayer, Joachim; Reiss, Allan L

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the cognitive and social manifestations associated with Turner syndrome (TS) might be influenced by epigenetic factors in the form of genomic imprinting. However, due to small and heterogeneous samples, inconsistent results have emerged from these studies. The objective of this prospective study was to establish the impact of genomic imprinting on neurocognitive abilities and social functioning in young girls with TS. An extensive battery of neuropsychological assessments was administered to 65 children with TS who had never been exposed to estrogen treatment, 24 of whom had an X-chromosome from paternal origin (Xpat) and 41 from maternal origin (Xmat). The Wechsler scales of intelligence, the Motor-Free Visual Spatial test-3, the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Ability, and the attention/executive domain of the NEPSY were used to assess cognitive abilities. Social functioning was assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2. Results showed that although individuals with Xpat obtained lower scores than their counterparts with Xmat on most cognitive and social measures, only the Perceptual Reasoning Index of the intelligence scale yielded significant differences after correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, these results suggest that although some aspects of the neuropsychological profile of TS may be influenced by epigenetic factors, the sociocognitive phenotype associated with the disorder is not modulated by genomic imprinting.

  18. Growth and sexual maturation in children after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diemen-Steenvoorde, R; Donckerwolcke, R A; Brackel, H; Wolff, E D; de Jong, M C

    1987-03-01

    Linear growth and sexual maturation were assessed in 68 long-term pediatric renal allograft recipients (43 boys) receiving daily or alternate-day prednisone therapy. Growth was analyzed both during the prepubertal period and during puberty. Height at transplantation was greater than 2 SD below the mean in 34.2% of prepubertal children. After the first posttransplant year, 59.2% of the prepubertal children had a normal height increment (greater than 4.8 cm/yr). Onset of puberty was recorded at a chronologic age of 14.6 +/- 1.9 years in boys and 13.3 +/- 1.9 years in girls. Height at onset of puberty related to chronologic age was -2.4 +/- 1.3 SD. Height velocity during puberty was within normal limits in 62.5% of the children. No significant difference in pubertal growth was detected in patients who had received transplants before and after the onset of puberty. Duration of pubertal development was within normal limits. In girls, menarche was achieved at a mean chronologic age of 15.9 years and bone age 12.9 years. Adult height was attained at an average age of 20.3 years in boys and 18.7 years in girls. Overall, one third of the children attained an adult height greater than 2 SD below the mean. Our data indicate that although poor growth before kidney transplantation has a great influence on adult height, the loss of growth potential during pubertal development seems even more important.

  19. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Skytte, Christina; Erneholm, Karin; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-06-01

    The pig is increasingly used as an advanced animal model of the genital tract in women and knowledge on the genital immune system is therefore needed. In this study, evaluation of vaginal smears revealed that almost no neutrophils or other leukocytes were present in the vaginal mucosa of prepubertal minipigs (n = 10). In sexually mature minipigs (n = 10), evaluated through an estrous cycle, there was an increase in number of mucosal neutrophils and other leukocytes during estrus. The level of total IgA on the vaginal mucosa increased during diestrus. The level of total IgG showed no significant changes through the cycle. The vaginal IgA level in the prepubertal minipigs was similar to the low estrus level in sexually mature minipigs, and the IgG level in prepubertal was similar to the stable level in the sexually mature minipigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, Lene; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer in adult life. It remains unclear how prepubertal surgery for cryptorchidism impacts later development of adult testicular cancer. The aim of study was to investigate tools to identify the cryptorchid boys who later develop...... testicular cancer. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 1403 men operated prepubertally/pubertally for undescended testis between 1971 and 2003. At surgery testicular biopsies were taken from the cryptorchid testes. The boys were followed for occurrence of testicular cancer. The testicular cancer risk....... We identified 16 cases with testicular cancer in adulthood. The standardized incidence ratio was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.52-4.32). At time of primary surgery in prepubertal/pubertal age Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (ITGCN) was diagnosed in 5 cases and the boys were unilaterally orchiectomized. At follow...

  1. EFFECTS OF GROWTH HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ON THYROID FUNCTION TESTS IN GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENT CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Moayeri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nThere are numerous, often contradictory reports on the effect of growth hormone (GH therapy on thyroid function. These reports prompted us to evaluate the impact of GH therapy on thyroid function in previously euthyroid children with GH deficiency. Twenty five clinically and biochemically euthyroid children with GH deficiency were studied. A thyroid profile (T4, Free T4, T3 and TSH was performed at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months after GH therapy in 21 children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (group A and 4 children with organic GH deficiency (group B. We observed a significant reduction in serum T4 and free T4 concentrations during GH therapy in both groups (P < 0.01. No patient in group A had free T4 levels fell into the hypothyroid range, while in one of four patients in group B, free T4 value fell into the hypothyroid range during GH therapy. In both groups, no significant variation in serum TSH and T3 was recorded at any time. Our data suggest that GH therapy can introduce changes in thyroid function and so confirm the need of a careful monitoring of thyroid function in particular in children with organic GH deficiency during long-term GH therapy.

  2. Fertility preservation in pre-pubertal girls with cancer: the role of ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W Hamish B; Kelsey, Thomas W; Anderson, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing numbers of survivors of cancer in young people, future fertility and ovarian function are important considerations that should be discussed before treatment commences. Some young people, by nature of the treatment they will receive, are at high risk of premature ovarian insufficiency and infertility. For them, ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) is one approach to fertility preservation that remains both invasive and for young patients experimental. There are important ethical and consent issues that need to be explored and accepted before OTC can be considered established in children with cancer. In this review we have discussed a framework for patient selection which has been shown to be effective in identifying those patients at high risk of premature ovarian insufficiency and who can be offered OTC safely. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of physical training on bone mineral density in prepubertal girls: a comparative study between impact-loading and non-impact-loading sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, D; Lespessailles, E; Peres, S L; Obert, P; Germain, P; Benhamou, C L

    1998-01-01

    Physical activity is known to have an anabolic effect on bone tissue. It has been shown to increase the bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults, as well as in teenagers. But there is little information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of an early intensive physical training on BMD, we have studied a group of elite prepubertal girls, at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. Subjects were engaged either in sport requiring significant impact loading on the skeleton, or in sport without impact loading. Forty-one healthy prepubertal girls took part in this study. The sport group consisted of 10 swimmers (10.5 +/- 1.4 years old) and 18 gymnasts (10.4 +/- 1.3 years old), who had performed 3 years of high-level sport training (8-12 h per week for swimmers, 10-15 h per week for gymnasts). Thirteen girls (10.7 +/- 1 years old) doing less than 3 h per week of physical activity served as a control group. BMD measurements were done using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistical significant difference between groups as regards age, body height and weight, and body composition. There was no statistical significant difference between swimmers and controls for all the BMD measurements. Mean BMD in gymnasts was statistically higher than in the control group for mid-radius (+15.5%, p sport can induce bone strains during a long-term program: gymnastics has such characteristics, unlike swimming. Such acquisition could provide protection against risks of osteoporosis in later life, but this remains debatable.

  4. A feasibility study of prepubertal and over mature aged local goat in relation to results of In Vitro growth culture to obtain additional M-II oocyte resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptadi, Gatot; Ihsan, M. Nur; Rahayu, Sri; Widjaja, D. H. K.; Mudawamah, Mudawamah

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this research are to study the potential source of mature (M-II) oocytes of domestic animals using follicles isolated from prepubertal and over mature aged Indonesian local goats, resulting from an in vitro growth (IVG) method. This method of IVG could provide a new source of M-II oocytes for embryo production. In Indonesia, a very limited number of a good quality oocytes are available for research purposes, as there is a limited number of reproductive females slaughtered, which is dominated by prepubertal and old mature aged animals. IVG culture systems could be improved as an alternative method to provide a new source of a good quality oocytes for in vitro maturation of M-II oocytes. From a number of prepubertal and mature aged goats slaughtered in a local abattoir, the small oocytes in the preantral follicles were cultured in vitro to normal oocyte growth. The methods used in this research are experimental. Follicles were isolated, cultured in vitro for 14 days individually using a sticky medium containing 4% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone in TCM 199 10% Fetal Bovine Serum supplemented with Follicle Stimulating Hormone, which was then evaluated for their follicle development and oocyte quality. The research results showed that a minimum follicle size and oocyte diameter is needed (>100 um) for early evaluation of maturation to be achieved, meanwhile oocytes recovered from IVG after being cultured in vitro for maturation resulted in a very low rate of maturation. However, in the future, IVG of the preantral follicles of Indonesian local goat could be considered as an alternative source of oocytes for both research purposes and embryo production in vitro.

  5. Effects of single-leg drop-landing exercise from different heights on skeletal adaptations in prepubertal girls: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Peter N; Blimkie, Cameron J R; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Briody, Julie; Marsh, Damian; Kemp, Allan; Cowell, Chris; Howman-Giles, Roberts

    2008-05-01

    Few studies have explored osteogenic potential of prepubertal populations. We conducted a 28-week school-based exercise trial of single-leg drop-landing exercise with 42 prepubertal girls (6 to 10 years) randomly assigned to control (C), low-drop (LD) or high-drop (HD) exercise groups. The latter two groups performed single-leg drop-landings (3 sessions/week-1 and 50 landings/session-1) from 14 cm(LD) and 28 cm(HD) using the nondominant leg. Osteogenic responses were assessed using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Single-leg peak ground-reaction impact forces (PGRIF) in a subsample ranged from 2.5 to 4.4 x body-weight (BW). No differences (p > .05) were observed among groups at baseline for age, stature, lean tissue mass (LTM), leisure time physical activity, or average daily calcium intake. After adjusting for covariates of body mass, fat mass and LTM, no differences were found in bone mineral measures or site-specific bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and lower leg among exercise or control groups. Combining data from both exercise groups failed to produce differences in bone properties when compared with the control group. No changes were apparent for between-leg differences from baseline to posttraining. In contrast to some reports, our findings suggest that strictly controlled unimodal, unidirectional single-leg drop-landing exercises involving low-moderate peak ground-reaction impact forces are not osteogenic in the developing prepubertal female skeleton.

  6. Prepubertal chrysin exposure upregulates either AR in male ventral prostate or AR and ERα in Skene's paraurethral gland of pubertal and adult gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Naiara C S; Campos, Mônica S; Santos, Mariana B; Ayusso, Gabriela M; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Regasini, Luis O; Taboga, Sebastião R; Biancardi, Manoel F; Perez, Ana P S; Santos, Fernanda C A

    2018-01-01

    Chrysin is a plant-derived polyphenol that has the potential to increase endogenous testosterone levels both by inhibiting the aromatase enzyme and by stimulating testicular steroidogenesis. The effects of chrysin on the prostate are unknown, especially during its development and functional maturation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chrysin prepubertal exposure on the male and female prostates of both pubertal and adult gerbils. To evaluate the possible androgenic responses of chrysin, gerbils were also exposed to testosterone. Male and female gerbils were exposed to chrysin or to testosterone cypionate from postnatal day 15 to 42. Male and female gerbils were euthanized at either 43days or 90days age. The prostates were collected for biometrical, morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that prepubertal exposure to chrysin had differential effects on the prostate of both pubertal and adult animals. The prostates of male and female pubertal gerbils showed no histological alterations, although there was increased frequency of androgen receptor (AR) in males and females, and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in females. Adult males and females presented developed prostate glands, with higher cell proliferative rate. In addition, AR and ERα frequency remained high in the prostate of adult animals. These results demonstrated that prepubertal exposure to chrysin disrupts steroid receptors regulation in the prostate, potentiating the response of this gland to the biological effects of endogenous steroids. In this context, excessive consumption of phytoestrogens during the critical stages of development should be considered with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased sclerostin and preadipocyte factor-1 levels in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts: associations with bone mineral density, body composition, and adipocytokine values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, J; Tillmann, V; Cicchella, A; Stefanelli, C; Võsoberg, K; Tamm, A L; Jürimäe, T

    2016-03-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics as high-impact bone loading sport has positive effects on bone mineralization in prepubertal years. Sclerostin and preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) are hormones that inhibit bone formation. The present study demonstrates that these hormones are higher in gymnasts, and gymnasts present higher bone mineral density (BMD) as compared to controls. Rhythmic gymnasts (RG) start their heavy trainings already in prepuberty and despite of low body fat mass (FM) and hypoleptinemia, their BMD is higher than in non-trained normal girls. The specific role of sclerostin and Pref-1, which are the inhibitors of bone formation, in bone development is not well understood. The impact of sclerostin and Pref-1 levels on BMD, body composition, and adipocytokine values was studied in prepubertal RG and untrained controls (UC). Sixty-four 9-10-year-old girls were divided into RG (n = 32) and UC (n = 32) groups. Bone mineral and body composition values were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bone age by X-ray. Sclerostin, Pref-1, leptin, and adiponectin levels were measured from fasting blood samples. Sclerostin (RG 19.8 ± 6.3 pmol/l; UC 15.8 ± 5.4 pmol/l) and Pref-1 (RG 1.6 ± 1.0 ng/ml; UC 1.1 ± 0.5 ng/ml) were higher (p < 0.05) in RG compared with UC. Sclerostin was related to adiponectin (r = 0.41; p < 0.05) in UC. No relationship was found between sclerostin and Pref-1 with BMD values in prepubertal RG and age-matched UC groups. Sclerostin and Pref-1 levels are higher in RG compared to UC girls. Specific physical activity pattern seen in prepubertal RG has a beneficial effect on bone mineralization despite increased levels of hormones that inhibit bone formation.

  8. Jejunal adaptation in a pre-pubertal boy after total ileal resection and jejunostomy placement: a 4 year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sam X.; Gathungu, Grace; Pashankar, Dinesh; Jain, Dhanpat; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal adaptation is the process that attempts to restore total gut absorption after intestinal resection. In humans, the ileum as well as the colon can undergo adaptation without the jejunum. However, there is little evidence for the jejunum to undergo adaptation in the absence of the ileum. Here, we report the unusual case of a pre-pubertal boy who underwent total ileal resection, right hemicolectomy and jejunostomy after a motor vehicle accident. Despite ileal resection, he demonstrated evidence of successful structural and functional jejunal adaptation. PMID:21552141

  9. Sertoli-cell-specific knockout of connexin 43 leads to multiple alterations in testicular gene expression in prepubertal mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Giese

    2012-11-01

    A significant decline in human male reproductive function has been reported for the past 20 years but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. However, recent studies showed that the gap junction protein connexin-43 (CX43; also known as GJA1 might be involved. CX43 is the predominant testicular connexin (CX in most species, including in humans. Alterations of its expression are associated with different forms of spermatogenic disorders and infertility. Men with impaired spermatogenesis often exhibit a reduction or loss of CX43 expression in germ cells (GCs and Sertoli cells (SCs. Adult male transgenic mice with a conditional knockout (KO of the Gja1 gene [referred to here as connexin-43 (Cx43] in SCs (SCCx43KO show a comparable testicular phenotype to humans and are infertile. To detect possible signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms leading to the testicular phenotype in adult SCCx43KO mice and to their failure to initiate spermatogenesis, the testicular gene expression of 8-day-old SCCx43KO and wild-type (WT mice was compared. Microarray analysis revealed that 658 genes were significantly regulated in testes of SCCx43KO mice. Of these genes, 135 were upregulated, whereas 523 genes were downregulated. For selected genes the results of the microarray analysis were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunostaining. The majority of the downregulated genes are GC-specific and are essential for mitotic and meiotic progression of spermatogenesis, including Stra8, Dazl and members of the DM (dsx and map-3 gene family. Other altered genes can be associated with transcription, metabolism, cell migration and cytoskeleton organization. Our data show that deletion of Cx43 in SCs leads to multiple alterations of gene expression in prepubertal mice and primarily affects GCs. The candidate genes could represent helpful markers for investigators exploring human testicular biopsies from patients showing corresponding spermatogenic deficiencies and for

  10. Association Between Chlorinated Pesticides in the Serum of Prepubertal Russian Boys and Longitudinal Biomarkers of Metabolic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Hauser, Russ; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Lam, Thuy; Lee, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been linked to adult metabolic disorders; however, few studies have examined these associations in childhood. We prospectively evaluated the associations of baseline serum OCPs (hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) in Russian boys with subsequent repeated measurements of serum glucose, insulin, lipids, leptin, and calculated homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (IR). During 2003–2005, we enrolled 499 boys aged 8–9 years in a prospective cohort; 318 had baseline serum OCPs and serum biomarkers measured at ages 10–13 years. Multivariable generalized estimating equation and mediation regression models were used to examine associations and direct and indirect (via body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2)) effects of prepubertal OCP tertiles and quintiles with biomarkers. In multivariable models, higher p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1) was associated with lower leptin, with relative mean decreases of 61.8% (95% confidence interval: 48.4%, 71.7%) in models unadjusted for BMI and 22.2% (95% confidence interval: 7.1%, 34.9%) in models adjusted for BMI; the direct effect of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene on leptin accounted for 27% of the total effect. IR prevalence was 6.6% at ages 12–13 years. Higher hexachlorobenzene (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1) was associated with higher odds of IR in models adjusted for BMI (odds ratio = 4.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.44, 13.28). These results suggest that childhood OCPs may be associated with IR and lower leptin. PMID:25255811

  11. Nitric oxide in prepubertal rat ovary contribution of the ganglionic nitric oxide synthase system via superior ovarian nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Marilina; Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Vallcaneras, Sandra; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2007-02-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. Considering the existence of the nitric oxide/ nitric oxide synthase system in the peripheral neural system and in the ovary, the aim of this work was to analyze if the liberation of NO in the ovarian compartment of prepubertal rats is of ovarian and/or ganglionic origin. The analysis is carried out from a physiological point of view using the experimental coeliac ganglion--Superior Ovarian Nerve--ovary model with and without ganglionic cholinergic stimulus Acetylcholine (Ach) 10(-6) M. Non selective and selective inhibitors of the synthase nitric oxide enzyme were added to the ovarian and ganglionic compartment, and the liberation of nitrites (soluble metabolite of the nitric oxide) in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. We found that the non-selective inhibitor L-nitro-arginina methyl ester (L-NAME) in the ovarian compartment decreased the liberation of nitrites, and that Aminoguanidine (AG) in two concentrations in a non-dose dependent form provoked the same effect. The addition of Ach in ganglion magnified the effect of the inhibitors of the NOS enzyme. The most relevant results after the addition of inhibitors in ganglion were obtained with AG 400 and 800 microM. The inhibition was made evident with and without the joint action of Ach in ganglion. These data suggest that the greatest production of NO in the ovarian compartment comes from the ovary, mainly the iNOS isoform, though the coeliac ganglion also contributes through the superior ovarian nerve but with less quantity.

  12. [Glicemic control in prepubertal and pubertal patients with diabetes type 1 - a one year ambulatory follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M B; Castro, S H; Garfinkel, T; Fernandes, L M; Cunha, E F; Lobão, V I

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients followed in 1998. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 38 patients [22 males; age = 10.4 -/+ 4.1 years; 12 (31.6%) prepubertal, 26 (68.4%) pubertal], with diabetes duration of 3.7-/+3.4 years and age of diagnosis of 7.2 -/+ 4.7 years. HbA1c was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (L-9100 Merck Hitachi, reference value =2.6 to 6.2%). RESULTS: HbA1c was 8.04 -/+ 2.4%, without association with gender and puberty. In the 27 patients with at least two HbA1c determinations, the level of glycemic control changed in 8 (29.6%) and remained the same in 19 (70.4%). From these, glycemic control was poor in 3 (11.1%) and good in 16 (59.3%). Among the patients with good glycemic control, HbA1c was always within reference values in 4 (25%); 7 (43.75%) had at least one HbA1c measurement within these limits; and in 5 (31.25%), all HbA1c measurements were above the upper limit of the reference range. There was no association between the last glycemic control evaluation and the number of HbA1c determinations. The intraindividual coefficient of variation of HbA1c in the group that had at least three HbA1c determinations (n = 19) was 11.2 -/+ 5.6% (P = 0.0000). CONCLUSION: In our study, although most patients presented satisfactory glycemic control during the follow-up period, only 4 patients (14.8%) maintained normal values of HbA1c. The variability of HbA1c must be evaluated when considering the interrelation between glycemic control and evolution to microvascular complications in diabetis.

  13. Disruption of the ovarian follicle reservoir of prepubertal rats following prenatal exposure to a continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türedi, Sibel; Hancı, Hatice; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Kaya, Haydar; Odacı, Ersan

    2016-06-01

    The effects on human health of electromagnetic field (EMF) have begun to be seriously questioned with the entry into daily life of devices establishing EMF, such as cell phones, wireless fidelity, and masts. Recent studies have reported that exposure to EMF, particularly during pregnancy, affects the developing embryo/fetus. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of exposure to continuous 900-Megahertz (MHz) EMF applied in the prenatal period on ovarian follicle development and oocyte differentiation. Six pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into a non-exposed control group (CNGr) and a group (EMFGr) exposed to continuous 900-MHz EMF for 1 h daily, at the same time every day, on days 13-21 of pregnancy. New groups were established from pups obtained from both groups after birth. One group consisting of female pups from CNGr rats was adopted as newborn CNGr (New-CNGr, n = 6), and another group consisting of female pups from EMFGr rats was adopted as newborn EMFGr (New-EMFGr, n = 6). No procedure was performed on New-CNGr or New-EMFGr rats. All rat pups were sacrificed on the postnatal 34th day, and their ovarian tissues were removed. Follicle count, histological injury scoring and morphological assessment with apoptotic index criteria were performed with sections obtained following routine histological tissue preparation. Follicle count results revealed a statistically significant decrease in primordial and tertiary follicle numbers in New-EMFGr compared to New-CNGr (p EMF for 1 h each day from days 13-21 led to a decrease in ovarian follicle reservoirs in female rat pups at the beginning of the prepubertal period.

  14. Phospholipase D Family Member 6 Is a Surface Marker for Enrichment of Undifferentiated Spermatogonia in Prepubertal Boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Qin, Yuwei; Zheng, Yi; Zeng, Wenxian

    2018-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have a functional ability to maintain self-renewal and sustain production of spermatozoa throughout the reproductive lifespan of a male. Studies on SSCs can thus better the understandings of spermatogenesis and unravel the mechanisms for self-renewal and differentiation of male germline stem cells. However, the rarity of SSCs in the testis and the lack of reliable surface markers obstruct the related study and further application of SSCs. This is especially the case in livestock animals. In this study, we identified that phospholipase D family member 6 (PLD6) is a surface marker for undifferentiated spermatogonia in boar testes. By magnetic-activated cell sorting, PLD6+ cell fraction comprises 84.45% ± 0.35% of undifferentiated spermatogonia (marked by PLZF). Xenotransplantation of PLD6+ cells into the recipient mouse testis revealed a ninefold increase of donor cell-derived colony formation compared with that in the unselected cell group, indicating the significant enrichment of SSCs. Furthermore, based on the sorted PLD6+ cells with a high SSC content, we established a feeder-free culture system that could maintain porcine undifferentiated spermatogonia for 4 weeks in vitro with the expression of typical markers throughout the culture period. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PLD6 is a surface marker of undifferentiated spermatogonia in testes of prepubertal boars and could be utilized to unprecedentedly enrich porcine undifferentiated spermatogonia. These data provide the basis for future studies on the refinement of germ cell culture and manipulation of porcine undifferentiated spermatogonia.

  15. Stirred suspension bioreactors as a novel method to enrich germ cells from pre-pubertal pig testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Camila; Rancourt, Derrick; Dobrinski, Ina

    2015-01-01

    To study spermatogonial stem cells the heterogeneous testicular cell population first needs to be enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia, which contain the stem cell population. When working with non-rodent models, this step requires working with large numbers of cells. Available cell separation methods rely on differential properties of testicular cell types such as expression of specific cell surface proteins, size, density or differential adhesion to substrates to separate germ cells from somatic cells. The objective of this study was to develop an approach that allowed germ cell enrichment while providing efficiency of handling large cell numbers. Here we report the use of stirred suspension bioreactors to exploit the adhesion properties of Sertoli cells to enrich cells obtained from pre-pubertal porcine testes for undifferentiated spermatogonia. We also compared the bioreactor approach with an established differential plating method and the combination of both: stirred suspension bioreactor followed by differential plating. After 66 hours of culture, germ cell enrichment in stirred suspension bioreactors provided 7.3±1.0 fold (n=9), differential plating 9.8±2.4 fold (n=6) and combination of both methods resulted in 9.1±0.3 fold enrichment of germ cells from the initial germ cell population (n=3). To document functionality of cells recovered from the bioreactor, we demonstrated that cells retained their functional ability to reassemble seminiferous tubules de novo after grafting to mouse hosts and to support spermatogenesis. These results demonstrate that the stirred suspension bioreactor allows enrichment of germ cells in a controlled and scalable environment providing an efficient method when handling large cell numbers while reducing variability due to handling. PMID:25877677

  16. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Results Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Conclusion Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens. PMID:27004204

  17. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009-2014: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-03-01

    To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens.

  18. A high normal thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with arterial stiffness, central systolic blood pressure, and 24-hour systolic blood pressure in males with treatment-naïve hypertension and euthyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Beom-June; Roh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Su-Hyun; Lim, Sung-Min; Park, Chan-Seok; Kim, Dong-Bin; Jang, Sung-Won; Chang, Kiyuk; Kim, Hee-Yeol; Ihm, Sang-Hyun

    2014-12-20

    We compared the results of laboratory examinations, echocardiography, arterial stiffness, central blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) between treatment-naïve patients with low normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and those with high normal TSH levels. A total of 285 consecutively-eligible patients with both treatment-naïve hypertension and euthyroid were divided into two groups: those with low-normal TSH (0.40-1.99 μIU/mL, group 1) and high-normal TSH (2.00-4.50 μIU/mL, group 2) and compared according to group and gender. Males were divided into group 1 (n = 113, 68.9%) and group 2 (n = 51, 31.1%) and females were divided into group 1 (n = 71, 58.7%) and group 2 (n = 50, 41.3%). Multivariate analyses revealed that the augmentation index (71.0 [adjusted mean] ± 1.7 [standard error] vs. 78.8 ± 2.5%, P = 0.045), central systolic BP (SBP) (143.3 ± 2.1 vs. 153.0 ± 3.2 mmHg, P = 0.013), systemic vascular resistance (SVR, 21.4 ± 0.6 vs. 23.9 ± 0.9 mmHg/L/min, P = 0.027), SBP during daytime (144.1 ± 1.4 vs. 151.6 ± 2.1 mmHg, P=0.004) and nighttime (130.4 ± 1.6 vs. 138.5 ± 2.5 mmHg, P=0.008), and nighttime pulse pressure (PP, 47.2 ± 0.9 vs. 51.7 ± 1.4 mmHg, P = 0.010) were significantly higher while cardiac output (5.4 ± 0.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.2L/min, P = 0.043) and PP amplification (1.02 ± 0.02 vs. 0.94 ± 0.03, P = 0.039) were significantly lower in the male group 2 than in the male group 1. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in females. Treatment-naïve hypertensive males with high normal TSH and euthyroid showed higher arterial stiffness, central SBP, SVR, and SBP in ABPM and lower cardiac output and PP amplification as compared to the the low normal TSH group, but not females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sports benefits and the importance of muscle strength treinability in prepubertal volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Meyer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to investigate the main benefits of sports and the importance and treinability muscle strenght in prepubescent volleyball athletes. Brazilian children are participating in competitive sports due to the increase of volleyball popularity. According to the literature reviewed, it seems that physical training is beneficial to bone tissue and tends to estimulate growth in height to the genetic limits. The main goal of children volleyball trainig is to improve basic technique and tatics and also to discover new talents. Young athletes need to be strong, fast, flexible and agile to achieve success. Strength training is indicated as an important complement to specific sports training of young athletes, due to improvement of muscle coordination and motor skills in competitive and recreational activities and to a decrease of joint overload and risk of injury. RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão foi investigar os principais benefícios do esporte e a importância e treinabilidade da força muscular de crianças pré-púberes atletas de voleibol. Com o aumento da popularidade do voleibol no Brasil, as crianças estão participando mais de competições esportivas. Conforme a literatura revisada, parece que o treinamento físico moderado é benéfico para o tecido ósseo e estimula o crescimento em estatura, até atingir a estatura geneticamente determinada. O principal objetivo do treinamento de voleibol para crianças é desenvolver as técnicas e as táticas básicas e detectar talentos esportivos. Para os jovens atletas obterem sucesso esportivo são necessárias qualidades físicas como força, velocidade, flexibilidade e agilidade. O treinamento de força muscular é indicado como auxiliar do treinamento esportivo para crianças atletas, melhorando a coordenação muscular e o desempenho motor nas atividades esportivas competitivas e recreacionais e diminuindo as sobrecargas articulares e o risco de lesões.

  20. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

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    Stefano Stagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7±3.8 years KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS and the bone transmission time (BTT. Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p<0.005 and BTT (p<0.0005 z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p<0.0001 and significantly lower 25(OHD (p<0.0001, osteocalcin (p<0.05, and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.005. Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages.

  1. Spatial learning impairment in prepubertal guinea pigs prenatally exposed to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos: Toxicological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamczarz, Jacek; Pescrille, Joseph D; Gavrushenko, Lisa; Burke, Richard D; Fawcett, William P; DeTolla, Louis J; Chen, Hegang; Pereira, Edna F R; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2016-09-01

    Exposure of the developing brain to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide used extensively in agriculture worldwide, has been associated with increased prevalence of cognitive deficits in children, particularly boys. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that cognitive deficits induced by prenatal exposure to sub-acute doses of CPF can be reproduced in precocial small species. To address this hypothesis, pregnant guinea pigs were injected daily with CPF (25mg/kg,s.c.) or vehicle (peanut oil) for 10days starting on presumed gestation day (GD) 53-55. Offspring were born around GD 65, weaned on postnatal day (PND) 20, and subjected to behavioral tests starting around PND 30. On the day of birth, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), an OP bioscavenger used as a biomarker of OP exposures, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a major molecular target of OP compounds, were significantly inhibited in the blood of CPF-exposed offspring. In their brains, BuChE, but not AChE, was significantly inhibited. Prenatal CPF exposure had no significant effect on locomotor activity or on locomotor habituation, a form of non-associative memory assessed in open fields. Spatial navigation in the Morris water maze (MWM) was found to be sexually dimorphic among guinea pigs, with males outperforming females. Prenatal CPF exposure impaired spatial learning more significantly among male than female guinea pigs and, consequently, reduced the sexual dimorphism of the task. The results presented here, which strongly support the test hypothesis, reveal that the guinea pig is a valuable animal model for preclinical assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity of OP pesticides. These findings are far reaching as they lay the groundwork for future studies aimed at identifying therapeutic interventions to treat and/or prevent the neurotoxic effects of CPF in the developing brain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Active immunization against GnRH in pre-pubertal domestic mammals: testicular morphometry, histopathology and endocrine responses in rabbits, guinea pigs and ram lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, P M; Gutierrez-Reinoso, M A; Sanchez-Cepeda, E G; Garcia-Herreros, M

    2017-08-24

    Effective tools for male contraception are important in the control of reproduction in animal populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of active immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on male reproductive function assessing testicular morphological changes and serum-gonadotropin levels in pre-pubertal rabbits, guinea pigs and ram lambs. An anti-GnRH vaccine was developed by linking a GnRH-homologous molecule to a tetanus clostridial toxoid (Al(OH)3 coadjuvant). After vaccination protocols testicular morphometry, histopathological alterations and endocrine responses (FSH, LH, testosterone and cortisol serum levels) were evaluated. Testicular volume was significantly reduced in vaccinated animals with respect to the control group in rabbits, guinea pigs and ram lambs (Pguinea pigs and ram lambs (Pguinea pigs (80%) and ram lambs (60%). No significant differences were observed between vaccinated and control groups regarding FSH and LH during the experiments in the three experimental species/models used. Testosterone, however, was only significantly lower (~22-fold, P<0.01) in vaccinated rabbits. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that pre-pubertal active immunization against GnRH leads to endocrine disruption and marked differences on testicular morphometry, development and activity among lagomorphs, hystricomorphs and ovine species with species-specific sensitivity regarding the anti-GnRH immune response.

  3. Tissue Engineering to Improve Immature Testicular Tissue and Cell Transplantation Outcomes: One Step Closer to Fertility Restoration for Prepubertal Boys Exposed to Gonadotoxic Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vento, Federico; Vermeulen, Maxime; de Michele, Francesca; Giudice, Maria Grazia; Poels, Jonathan; des Rieux, Anne; Wyns, Christine

    2018-01-18

    Despite their important contribution to the cure of both oncological and benign diseases, gonadotoxic therapies present the risk of a severe impairment of fertility. Sperm cryopreservation is not an option to preserve prepubertal boys' reproductive potential, as their seminiferous tubules only contain spermatogonial stem cells (as diploid precursors of spermatozoa). Cryobanking of human immature testicular tissue (ITT) prior to gonadotoxic therapies is an accepted practice. Evaluation of cryopreserved ITT using xenotransplantation in nude mice showed the survival of a limited proportion of spermatogonia and their ability to proliferate and initiate differentiation. However, complete spermatogenesis could not be achieved in the mouse model. Loss of germ cells after ITT grafting points to the need to optimize the transplantation technique. Tissue engineering, a new branch of science that aims at improving cellular environment using scaffolds and molecules administration, might be an approach for further progress. In this review, after summarizing the lessons learned from human prepubertal testicular germ cells or tissue xenotransplantation experiments, we will focus on the benefits that might be gathered using bioengineering techniques to enhance transplantation outcomes by optimizing early tissue graft revascularization, protecting cells from toxic insults linked to ischemic injury and exploring strategies to promote cellular differentiation.

  4. Impact of overweight on effectiveness of treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficient children: analysis of German KIGS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, T; Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, S; Bettendorf, M; Doerr, H-G; Gohlke, B; Hauffa, B P; Kaspers, S; Land, C; Mehls, O; Schwab, K-O; Stahnke, N; Ranke, M B

    2011-10-01

    We hypothesized that overweight children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) demonstrate a lower response to growth hormone (GH) as a result of a misclassification since obesity is associated with lower GH peaks in stimulation tests. Anthropometric data, response, and responsiveness to GH in the first year of treatment were compared in 1.712 prepubertal children with GHD from the German KIGS database according to BMI (underweight=group A, normal weight=group B, overweight=group C) (median age: group A, B, C: 7.3, 7.28, and 8.4 years). Maximum GH levels to tests (median: group A, B, C: 5.8, 5.8, and 4.0 µg/ml) were significantly lower in group C. IGF-I SDS levels were not different between the groups. Growth velocity in the first year of GH treatment was significantly lower in the underweight cohort (median: group A, B, C: 8.2, 8.8, and 9.0 cm/yr), while the gain in height was not different between groups. The difference between observed and predicted growth velocity expressed as Studentized residuals was not significantly different between groups. Separating the 164 overweight children into obese children (BMI>97th centile; n=71) and moderate overweight children (BMI>90th to 97th centile, n=93) demonstrated no significant difference in any parameter. Overweight prepubertal children with idiopathic GHD demonstrated similar levels of responsiveness to GH treatment compared to normal weight children. Furthermore, the IGF-I levels were low in overweight children. Therefore, a misclassification of GHD in overweight prepubertal children within the KIGS database seems unlikely. The first year growth prediction models can be applied to overweight and obese GHD children. © J. A. Barth Verlag in George Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTER SCREENING AND TESTING ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid function in the male rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations. Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee.Stoker TE, Parks LG, Gray LE, Cooper RL.

  6. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak

    2016-01-01

    The pig is increasingly used as an advanced animal model of the genital tract in women and knowledge on the genital immune system is therefore needed.In this study, evaluation of vaginal smears revealed that almost no neutrophils or other leukocytes were present in the vaginal mucosa of prepubert...

  7. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  8. Resistin levels are related to fat mass, but not to body mass index in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lorena; Riestra, Pía; Navarro, Pilar; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Soriano-Guillén, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The relationship of resistin levels with obesity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents and evaluate their association with anthropometric parameters and body composition. The study population included 420 randomly selected 6-8-year-old children and 712 children aged 12-16 years. Anthropometric data were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios were calculated. Body composition was assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. Serum resistin levels were determined using a multiplexed bead immunoassay. Resistin levels were not significantly different between sexes. No significant differences in serum resistin concentrations were found between obese, overweight, and normal weight children at any age, and no significant correlations were observed between resistin concentrations and weight or BMI. However, resistin levels showed a significant positive correlation with fat mass in 12-16-year-old children, particularly in girls. In addition to describing serum resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents, our study suggests that resistin is related to body fat rather than to BMI in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. THERMOREGULATION IN CHILDREN: EXERCISE, HEAT STRESS & FLUID BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawnda A. Morrison

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the specific physiological strategies of thermoregulation in children, a brief literary update relating exercise to heat stress in girls and boys as well as a discussion on fluid balance strategies for children who are performing exercise in the heat. Both sport performance and thermoregulation can be affected by the body’s water and electrolyte content. The recommendations for pre-pubertal fluid intake have been generalized from adult literature, including a limited concession for the physiological differences between adults and children. Considering these body fluid shifts, carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks are thought to be an essential tool in combating dehydration as a result of active hyperthermia (i.e. exercise, thus we examine current hydration practices in exercising children. Finally, this review summarizes research which examines the relationship between cognition and hypohydration on young athletes’ performance.

  10. Long-term clinical significance of thyroid autoimmunity in children with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassio, Alessandra; Ricci, Giampaolo; Baronio, Federico; Miniaci, Angela; Bal, Milva; Bigucci, Barbara; Conti, Veronica; Cicognani, Alessandro

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcome of thyroid function and autoimmunity in a large series of children with celiac disease. This longitudinal, retrospective study (duration of follow-up, 8.9 +/- 4.0 years) was conducted at the Pediatric Department, University of Bologna, Italy. One hundred thirty-five consecutive patients diagnosed between June 1990 and December 2004 and followed on a gluten-free diet were examined. Inclusion criteria were good dietary compliance and duration of follow-up for at least 3 years. Of 101 patients who never showed positive antithyroid titers during the follow-up, 86 remained euthyroid; 15 showed high thyroid-stimulating hormone values at diagnosis that normalized in 11 cases after 12 to 18 months of gluten withdrawal. Of 31 patients with persistently positive antibody titers, 23 (74%) remained consistently euthyroid during the follow-up and 8 (26%) had a subclinical hypothyroidism. The prevalence of cases with positive antibodies was similar in children with growth retardation or gastroenterological symptoms at diagnosis and different durations of gluten exposure. The presence of antithyroid antibodies in children with celiac disease has a low predictive value for the development of thyroid hypofunction during the indicated surveillance period. Longer follow-up is needed. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adiposity in Children Born Small for Gestational Age Is Associated With β-Cell Function, Genetic Variants for Insulin Resistance, and Response to Growth Hormone Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thankamony, Ajay; Jensen, Rikke Beck; O'Connell, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    secretion, and response to GH treatment in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: In 89 short prepubertal SGA children (age, 6.2 ± 1.6 y; 55 boys) treated with GH for 1 year in a multicenter study, body fat percentage was estimated at baseline and 1 year using dual-energy x......). CONCLUSIONS: Adiposity in SGA children has favorable effects on GH sensitivity and glucose metabolism. The associations with multiallele scores support a causal role of insulin resistance in linking lesser body fat to reduced sensitivity to exogenous GH....

  12. Evaluation of the proliferative activity of immunocompetent cells in the jejunal and iliac lymph nodes of prepubertal female wild boars diagnosed with mixed mycotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielonka Łukasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the proliferative activity of immunocompetent cells in the jejunal and iliac lymph nodes of prepubertal female wild boars exposed to deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in naturally contaminated feed. The evaluation was performed with the use of the MTT assay and 2 mitogens: lipopolysaccharide (LPS and concanavalin A. Intensified proliferative processes in T and B lymphocytes were revealed. The mitogenic activity of LPS was more expressed in the lymphocytes of both iliac and jejunal lymph nodes in comparison with the control group. Proliferative activity was higher in iliac lymph nodes than in jejunal lymph nodes. A reverse trend was observed in the percentage of live cells, which was higher in jejunal lymph nodes during the evaluation of lymphocyte proliferation.

  13. Improving iodine nutritional status and increasing prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Palaniappan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the link between excess iodine intake as evidenced by increased urinary iodine excretion (UIE and autoimmune thyroiditis in children and to assess the correlation between UIE and thyroid microsomal antibody (thyroid peroxidase [TPO] titers in children. Materials and Methods: All children with goiter between age group 6 and 12 years, were subjected to blood tests for free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and TPO antibody, fine needle aspiration was advised for all children with goiter. Forty-three children with confirmed autoimmune thyroiditis served as cases, and 43 children with euthyroid goiter with workup negative for autoimmune thyroiditis and iodine deficiency were enrolled as controls. UIE was estimated in spot urine sample for both cases and controls. The levels of urinary iodine were compared between cases and controls. Results: The levels of urinary iodine were significantly higher in children with autoimmune thyroiditis as compared with control. There was a positive correlation between UIE and antimicrosomal antibody titers among cases. Among cases 65% children had subclinical hypothyroidism, 27.9% had overt hypothyroidism and 7% of cases, and 100% of controls had euthyroid functional status. Excessive (≥300 μg/L UIE was strongly associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. If the UIE level is ≥ 300 μg/L, then there is 17.94 times higher chance of having amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis than those who have UIE level < 300 μg/L (P < 0.001. Conclusions: A possible association between increased iodine intake and autoimmune thyroiditis was found in this study. Excessive iodine intake may trigger thyroid autoimmunity and eventually thyroid hypofunction.

  14. Chronic morphine and tramadol re-exposure induced an anti-anxiety effect in prepubertal rats exposed neonatally to the same drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Morteza; Saboory, Ehsan; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders. Drugs that are often administered to manage medical problems cause rebound anxiety. The use of morphine and tramadol has increased in recent decades. In the present study, the effects of morphine and tramadol exposure during the neonatal and prepubertal periods on anxiety-like behaviours in prepubertal rats were investigated. Male neonate rats were injected subcutaneously with saline, morphine or tramadol (3-21 mg/kg) on a daily basis from postnatal Day (P) 8 to P14. On P22, rats were divided into seven groups (saline/saline, saline/tramadol, saline/morphine, tramadol/saline, tramadol/tramadol, morphine/saline and morphine/morphine) and were injected with saline, tramadol or morphine for seven consecutive days. All rats were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) on P24 (acute effects), P27 (chronic effects) and P29. Locomotor activity was increased by the second and third exposure to the EPM. Re-exposure to chronic morphine and tramadol resulted in increased locomotor activity, whereas acute and chronic administration of these drugs induced no notable difference. Anxiety decreased markedly after re-exposure to tramadol and this anxiolytic-like behaviour was more dominant in EPM re-exposure in rats that had received higher doses of tramadol. Re-exposure to tramadol elicited a stronger anxiolytic-like behaviour than re-exposure to morphine. It can be concluded that repeated morphine and tramadol administration during the neonatal period followed by re-exposure to these drugs at an immature stage produces considerable anxiolytic-like behaviour. Exposure to chronic morphine and tramadol during the neonatal period may affect the developing brain, which may induce long-term changes in the opioid response. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R Busby

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  16. Chronic caffeine treatment during prepubertal period confers long-term cognitive benefits in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Vanessa A; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Pandolfo, Pablo; Prediger, Rui D S; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2010-12-20

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is frequently used as an experimental model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since it displays behavioural and neurochemical features of ADHD. Increasing evidence suggests that caffeine might represent an important therapeutic tool for the treatment of ADHD and we recently demonstrated that the acute administration of caffeine improves several learning and memory impairments in adult SHR rats. Here we further evaluated the potential of caffeine in ADHD therapy. Female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats were treated with caffeine (3mg/kg, i.p.) or methylphenidate (MPD, 2mg/kg, i.p.) for 14 consecutive days during the prepubertal period (post-natal days 25-38) and they were tested later in adulthood in the object-recognition task. WIS rats discriminated all the objects used, whereas SHR were not able to discriminate pairs of objects with subtle structural differences. Chronic treatment with caffeine or MPD improved the object-recognition deficits in SHR rats. Surprisingly, these treatments impaired the short-term object-recognition ability in adult WIS rats. The present drug effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity, arterial blood pressure and body weight in both rat strains. These findings suggest that chronic caffeine treatment during prepubertal period confers long-term cognitive benefits in discriminative learning impairments of SHR, suggesting caffeine as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the early management of ADHD symptoms. Nevertheless, our results also emphasize the importance of a correct diagnosis and the caution in the use of stimulant drugs such as caffeine and MPD during neurodevelopment since they can disrupt discriminative learning in non-ADHD phenotypes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-lasting effects of fluoxetine and/or exercise augmentation on bio-behavioural markers of depression in pre-pubertal stress sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Jacobus C; Steyn, Stephanus F; Harvey, Brian H; Brink, Christiaan B

    2017-04-14

    Juvenile depression is of great concern with only limited treatment currently approved. Delayed onset of action, low remission and high relapse rates, and potential long-lasting consequences further complicates treatment and highlights the need for new treatment options. Studies reporting on long-lasting effects of early-life treatment have reported conflicting results, with the pre-adolescent period mostly overlooked. The anti-depressive effect of exercise, as a possible treatment option or augmentation strategy, is dependent on age and exercise intensity. We investigated the immediate (i.e. postnatal day 35 (PND35)) and lasting (PND60 to PND61) effects of pre-pubertal (PND21 to PND34) fluoxetine and/or exercise on bio-behavioural markers of depression and oxidative stress in stress sensitive Flinders Sensitive Line rats. Low, but not moderate, intensity exercise or 5, but not 10, mg/kg/day fluoxetine displayed anti-depressant-like properties at PND35. Pre-pubertal treatment with 5mg/kg/day fluoxetine or low intensity exercise exerted lasting anti-depressive-like effects into adulthood, whereas the combination of these two treatments did not. Furthermore, the combination of fluoxetine plus exercise reduced hippocampal BDNF levels as compared to exercise alone, which may explain the latter findings. In all treatment groups hippocampal SOD activity was significantly increased at PND61, suggesting an increased anti-oxidant capacity in adulthood. In conclusion, the data confirm the anti-depressant-like properties of both early-life fluoxetine and exercise in a genetic animal model of depression. However, optimal lasting effects of early-life interventions may require adjustment of antidepressant dose and/or exercise intensity to developmental age, and that a combination of antidepressant and exercise may not necessarily be augmentative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatially Selective, Testosterone-Independent Remodeling of Dendrites in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons Prepubertally in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Natividad; Hemond, Peter J.; O'Boyle, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Adult GnRH neurons exhibit a stereotypic morphology with a small soma, single axon, and single dendrite arising from the soma with little branching. The adult morphology of GnRH neurons in mice reflects an anatomical consolidation of dendrites over postnatal development. We examined this issue in rat GnRH neurons with biocytin filling in live hypothalamic slices from infant males, as adult littermates and in gonad-intact males, castrated males, and in males with one of three levels of testosterone (T) treatment. Somatic area and total dendritic length were significantly greater in infant males than in adults. Moreover, total numbers of dendrite branches were greater in infant males as compared with adults. The number of higher order branches and the lengths of higher order branches were also greater in infant males than in adults. Most interestingly, in adults a single dendrite arose from the somata, consistently at 180° from the axon. In contrast, prepubertal animals had an average of 2.2 ± 0.2 primary dendrites arising from somata (range, one to seven primary dendrites). Angles relative to the axon at which dendrites in prepubertal males emanated from GnRH somata were highly variable. Castration at 25 d of age and castration at 25 d of age with one of three levels of T treatment did not influence morphological parameters when GnRH neurons were examined between 40 d and 48 d of age. Thus, a spatially selective remodeling of primary dendrites and consolidation of distal GnRH dendritic arbors occurs during postnatal development and is largely independent of T. PMID:21343259

  19. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end...

  20. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sacchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P<0.001. Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P=0.007 and P=0.028, resp. and SHBG (P=0.01 and P=0.002, resp. when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P=0.007. Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC.

  1. Sex hormones in allergic conjunctivitis: altered levels of circulating androgens and estrogens in children and adolescents with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Moretti, Costanzo; Mantelli, Flavio; Bonini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P = 0.01 and P = 0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P = 0.007). VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC.

  2. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  3. The association with Turner syndrome significantly affects the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children, irrespective of karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Tommaso; Messina, Maria Francesca; Mazzanti, Laura; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Mussa, Alessandro; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Scarano, Emanuela; De Luca, Filippo; Wasniewska, Malgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Only few studies have investigated to now whether the association with Turner syndrome (TS) may affect the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in children. Aim of this study was to ascertain whether the presentation and long-term course of HT in TS children may be characterized by a peculiar and atypical pattern. The clinical and biochemical findings at HT diagnosis in 90 TS children (group A) were compared with those recorded in 449 girls with HT but without TS (group B); in group A patients, thyroid function tests were re-evaluated after a median time interval of 4.9 years. At HT diagnosis median TSH levels and the rate of cases presenting with a thyroid dysfunction picture were significantly lower in group A, irrespective of karyotype abnormalities. In group A only 34.8 % of the girls who had initially presented with euthyroidism remained euthyroid even at re-evaluation, whilst 67.7 % of those who had presented with subclinical hypothyroidism became overtly hypothyroid over time; also such evolutive pattern was irrespective of karyotype abnormalities. (1) In TS girls, HT presents with a milder hormonal pattern, which often deteriorates over time; (2) these biochemical features are not necessarily linked with a specific karyotype.

  4. Frailty of Obese Children: Evaluation of Plasma Antioxidant Capacity in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, F; Rossodivita, A N; Segni, C D; Raimondo, S; Canichella, S; Silvestrini, A; Miggiano, G A D; Meucci, E; Mancini, A

    2016-09-01

    Background: Obese children are subject to the same chronic oxidative and inflammatory stress, responsible for the onset of all the complications typical of adult age, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Objectives: Since few studies are reported in prepubertal obese children, we investigated the relationship between oxidative stress, body composition and metabolic pattern in childhood obesity in comparison with adult obese patients. Methods: We enrolled 25 prepubertal children (12 males and 13 females) aged 5-12 years with a mean value of standard deviation of BMI (SDS-BMI)±SEM of 1.96±0.09. We performed oral glucose tolerance test, hormonal and metabolic evaluation, bioimpedentiometry, evaluation of total antioxidant capacity using spectroscopical method using a radical cation, 2,2(I)- azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulphonate) (ABTS), as indicator of radical formation, with a latency time (LAG) proportional to antioxidant in the sample. Results: LAG values significantly correlate with % fat mass, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio. However mean LAG values were significantly lower than in obese adults. Conclusions: We suggest that children are more susceptible to oxidative stress than adults, possibly to incomplete development of antioxidant system. Prognostic and therapeutical implications need to be further investigated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  6. Cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: relation to puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobisch, B; Blatniczky, L; Barkai, L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity with concomitant increasing risk for having cardiometabolic diseases is rising in the childhood population. Insulin resistance has a key role in metabolic changes in these children. Insulin levels elevate as puberty commences in every individual. Children with increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases show significant differences in insulin levels even before the onset of puberty compared with those without risks. The pattern of appearance of dyslipidaemia also varies in children with risk factors even in the pre-pubertal group from those without risk. Children with metabolic syndrome display considerably pronounced changes in their metabolic parameters before the onset of puberty, which become more pronounced as puberty passes. Insulin resistance (IR) has a key role in the metabolic changes in obese children. In commencing puberty, the insulin levels elevate. It is not clear, however, how insulin levels develop if the metabolic syndrome appears. Metabolic changes were assessed in obese children before, during and after puberty to analyse the relationship between IR and puberty in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. Three hundred thirty-four obese children (5-19 years) attended the study. The criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were used to assess the presence of cardiometabolic risks (CMRs). Subjects with increased CMR were compared with those without risk (nCMR). Pubertal staging, lipid levels, plasma glucose and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test were determined in each participant. IR was expressed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and the ratio of glucose and insulin areas under the curve (AUC-IR). Significantly higher AUC-IR were found in pre-pubertal CMR children compared with nCMR subjects (11.84 ± 1.03 vs. 8.00 ± 0.69; P children have dyslipidaemia before the onset of puberty. CMR is associated with increased postprandial IR in pre-pubertal and increased fasting IR in

  7. Clinical and demographic factors associated with sexual behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurike Fourie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sexual behaviour and development of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have been mostly overlooked in research and practice. This study aimed to determine the association between certain clinical and demographic factors found in a sample of children with ASDs, and their reported sexual behaviour (RSB. Methods: The study was conducted at a school in Gauteng, South Africa, for learners with ASDs. Two questionnaires completed by caregivers/parents enquired about family stability, clinical profile and RSB (if any in their child. RSB was analysed via three domains: self-care, socio-sexual skills and actual RSB, with additional information from school records. Results: Of the 107 questionnaires distributed, only 31 parents responded and 24 agreed to participate. The 24 (100% children included 10 pubertal and 14 pre-pubertal children, of which 18 (n = 18 had more stable primary caregiver statuses as well as more stable socioeconomic and family environments. Two of the 14 pre-pubertal children had abnormal self-care, whereas none of the 10 pubertal children had any abnormal self-care. Eight of the 18 children from more stable environments displayed abnormal sexual behaviours. Of the 6 children from less stable environments, two displayed more abnormal socio-sexual skills, whereas 9 of the 18 children from more stable environments displayed more abnormal sexual behaviour. In contrast with the postulated hypothesis that children from less stable socioeconomic and family environments would exhibit more abnormal sexual behaviours, this study did not find any evidence of such a relationship or association. Conclusion: ASDs are characterised by deficits in communication and social skills. These may lead to an affected individual struggling to develop appropriate sexual behaviour. If specific risk factors that contribute to the development of abnormal sexual behaviour can be identified, one can try to modify/prevent these where

  8. SGA Children in Pediatric Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Patrizia; Cioffi, Luigi; Limauro, Raffaele; Farris, Evelina; Bianco, Vincenzo; Sassi, Roberto; De Giovanni, Maria; Gallo, Valeria; D’Onofrio, Antonietta; Di Maio, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidences suggest a strong association between low birth weight and some diseases in adult life ( hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases).Aim of this study was to evaluate the obesity/overweight prevalence in a population of children born small for gestation age, SGA children 400, 208 males and 192 females compared to a population of children born appropriate for gestational age 6818 AGA children, 3502 males and 3316 females, during childhood. Our intention was also to build the natural history of weight gain during prepubertal age in children born SGA and AGA. Design and Methods: Observational prospective longitudinal study. We followed our patients from January2001 up to December 2010; weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated in all the SGA and AGA children. BMI z-score range for defining overweight and obesity was, respectively, 1.13 to 1.7 and >1.7 according to CDC growth charts. Results: In transversal evaluation, we prove that 10-year-old SGA females are twice obese and more overweight compared to equal age AGA females. In longitudinal evaluation, we highlight different observations: SGA children obese at 2 years are still obese at 10 years; the number of obese SGA children increases gradually until the age of 10; AGA children, appear to be less obese than SGA children at 10 years. Conclusion: SGA males and females are more obese at 5 and 10 years compared to the AGA population. Primary care pediatricians, through early detection of the children at risk, can carry out an effective obesity prevention project in SGA children. PMID:27583297

  9. SGA Children in Pediatric Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gallo MD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic evidences suggest a strong association between low birth weight and some diseases in adult life ( hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases.Aim of this study was to evaluate the obesity/overweight prevalence in a population of children born small for gestation age, SGA children 400, 208 males and 192 females compared to a population of children born appropriate for gestational age 6818 AGA children, 3502 males and 3316 females, during childhood. Our intention was also to build the natural history of weight gain during prepubertal age in children born SGA and AGA. Design and Methods: Observational prospective longitudinal study. We followed our patients from January2001 up to December 2010; weight, height and body mass index (BMI were evaluated in all the SGA and AGA children. BMI z-score range for defining overweight and obesity was, respectively, 1.13 to 1.7 and >1.7 according to CDC growth charts. Results: In transversal evaluation, we prove that 10-year-old SGA females are twice obese and more overweight compared to equal age AGA females. In longitudinal evaluation, we highlight different observations: SGA children obese at 2 years are still obese at 10 years; the number of obese SGA children increases gradually until the age of 10; AGA children, appear to be less obese than SGA children at 10 years. Conclusion: SGA males and females are more obese at 5 and 10 years compared to the AGA population. Primary care pediatricians, through early detection of the children at risk, can carry out an effective obesity prevention project in SGA children.

  10. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome: a longitudinal study during puberty and 9 years of growth hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, N E; Kuppens, R J; Siemensma, E P C; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, R F A; Festen, D A M; Bindels-de Heus, G C B; Bocca, G; Haring, D A J P; Hoorweg-Nijman, J J G; Houdijk, E C A M; Jira, P E; Lunshof, L; Odink, R J; Oostdijk, W; Rotteveel, J; Van Alfen, A A E M; Van Leeuwen, M; Van Wieringen, H; Wegdam-den Boer, M E J; Zwaveling-Soonawala, N; Hokken-Koelega, A C S

    2015-04-01

    Longitudinal data on bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) during long-term GH treatment are not available. This study aimed to determine effects of long-term GH treatment and puberty on BMD of total body (BMDTB), lumbar spine (BMDLS), and bone mineral apparent density of the lumbar spine (BMADLS) in children with PWS. This was a prospective longitudinal study of a Dutch PWS cohort. Seventy-seven children with PWS who remained prepubertal during GH treatment for 4 years and 64 children with PWS who received GH treatment for 9 years participated in the study. The children received GH treatment, 1 mg/m(2)/day (≅ 0.035 mg/kg/d). BMDTB, BMDLS, and BMADLS was measured by using the same dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry machine for all annual measurements. In the prepubertal group, BMDTB standard deviation score (SDS) and BMDLSSDS significantly increased during 4 years of GH treatment whereas BMADLSSDS remained stable. During adolescence, BMDTBSDS and BMADLSSDS decreased significantly, in girls from the age of 11 years and in boys from the ages of 14 and 16 years, respectively, but all BMD parameters remained within the normal range. Higher Tanner stages tended to be associated with lower BMDTBSDS (P = .083) and a significantly lower BMADLSSDS (P = .016). After 9 years of GH treatment, lean body mass SDS was the most powerful predictor of BMDTBSDS and BMDLSSDS in adolescents with PWS. This long-term GH study demonstrates that BMDTB, BMDLS, and BMADLS remain stable in prepubertal children with PWS but decreases during adolescence, parallel to incomplete pubertal development. Based on our findings, clinicians should start sex hormone therapy from the age of 11 years in girls and 14 years in boys unless there is a normal progression of puberty.

  11. Establishment, maintenance and functional integrity of the blood-testis barrier in organotypic cultures of fresh and frozen/thawed prepubertal mouse testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanino, C; Maouche, A; Dumont, L; Oblette, A; Rives, N

    2017-05-01

    Can the spatio-temporal formation of an intact blood-testis barrier (BTB), which is essential for the progression of spermatogenesis, be reproduced in cultures of fresh or frozen/thawed prepubertal mouse testes? Organotypic cultures allow the establishment and maintenance of major BTB components and the formation of a functional BTB in mouse testicular tissues. In vitro maturation of prepubertal testicular tissues is a promising approach to restore fertility in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Although gametes can be successfully obtained from prepubertal mouse testes in organotypic cultures, the spermatogenic yield remains low compared to in vivo controls. Mouse testicular tissues were frozen using controlled slow freezing (CSF) or solid surface vitrification (SSV) procedures. A total of 158 testes (fresh n = 58, CSF n = 58 or SSV n = 42) from 6 to 7 days postpartum (dpp) mice were cultured at 34°C in basal medium (α-MEM, 10% KnockOut Serum Replacement, 5 μg/ml gentamicin) at a gas-liquid interphase (under 20% O2), with or without 10-6 M retinol, for 9, 16 and 30 days. In addition, 32 testes from 6-7, 15-16, 22-23 and 36-37 dpp mice were used as in vivo controls. The mRNA levels of BTB genes (Claudin 3, Claudin 11, Zonula occludens 1 and Connexin-43), germ cell-specific genes (Sal-like protein 4, Kit oncogene, Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8, Synaptonemal complex protein 3, Transition protein 1 and Protamine 2), markers of Sertoli cell immaturity/maturity (anti-Mullerian hormone, androgen receptor, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1b) and the androgen-regulated gene Reproductive homeobox 5 (Rhox5) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The localization of BTB proteins in seminiferous tubules was studied by immunohistochemistry and spermatogenic progression was evaluated histologically. The integrity of the BTB was assessed using a biotin tracer. Modest differences in Claudin 11 (Cldn11), Zonula occludens 1 (Zo-1), Connexin-43 (Cx43

  12. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Activates KiSS-1 Gene Expression in the Brain of the Prepubertal Female Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiney, Jill K.; Srivastava, Vinod K.; Pine, Michelle D.; Dees, W. Les

    2009-01-01

    KiSS-1 gene expression has been shown to increase as puberty approaches, and its peptide products, kisspeptins, are involved in LHRH secretion at puberty. Factors contributing to increased KiSS-1 expression, however, have not been identified; thus, the purpose of this study was to assess whether IGF-I could induce transcription of this gene in prepubertal female rats. IGF-I or saline was centrally administered to immature rats that were killed 2, 4, and 6 h later. Real-time PCR revealed that IGF-I induced (P < 0.01) KiSS-1 gene expression at 6 h in a tissue fragment that contained both the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei. Subsequently, the AVPV and ARC nuclei were separated to assess whether region-specific effects could be identified. IGF-I stimulated (P < 0.01) KiSS-1 gene expression in the AVPV nucleus at 6 h after injection, with no change observed in the ARC nucleus. Serum estradiol (E2) levels were not altered at any time point after IGF-I, demonstrating that the increased KiSS-1 expression observed was not caused by an elevation in E2. Additionally, the IGF-I action to induce KiSS-1 gene expression in the AVPV nucleus was further demonstrated when the IGF-I was administered systemically. E2 appears to play an important permissive role because 1-d ovariectomized rats responded to IGF-I with increased (P < 0.01) KiSS-1 expression, whereas, 20 d after ovariectomy, when the E2 levels had fallen below assay sensitivity, the IGF-I was unable to induce KiSS-1 expression. The IGF-I effect was further demonstrated by showing that the IGF-I receptor antagonist, JB-1, blocked the IGF-I-induced increase in KiSS-1 expression. Collectively, these data indicate that IGF-I is an activator of the KiSS-1 gene in the prepubertal female rat. PMID:18703622

  13. Changes in the metabolic profile and body weight of pre-pubertal gilts during prolonged monotonic exposure to low doses of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajęcka, Magdalena; Tarasiuk, Michał; Zielonka, Łukasz; Dąbrowski, Michał; Nicpoń, Jakub; Baranowski, Mirosław; Gajęcki, Maciej Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to low doses of ZEN + DON induces changes in serum biochemical and hematological parameters in pre-pubertal gilts. In the evaluated groups, minor but statistically significant changes were noted in selected serum biochemical parameters, including glucose, total cholesterol, ALT, AST, AP, total bilirubin, P in , Fe, K and Cl, and in hematological parameters, including WBC, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, Ht, Hb, MCHC, HDW and PLT. A statistical analysis of the results revealed significant differences between groups in the values of WBC, eosinophils, basophils, Hb, Ht, PLT, glucose, ALT, AP, total bilirubin, Fe and K. Change trends were noted mainly in weeks II and V-VI. An analysis of the metabolic profile of pre-pubertal gilts exposed to ZEN + DON indicates that homeostasis and biotransformation of ZEN + DON can be toned down at the expense of the animals' energy reserves. Body weight gains were lower in group E, and BW gains were not observed in weeks II and VI. The activity levels of gilts decreased in the first weeks of exposure (I and II), but the drop was minimized by a compensatory effect, or in the last two weeks of exposure due to nutrient deficiency or insufficient supply of protein and energy with feed and feed additives, which decreased BW gains. Low doses of mycotoxins induce completely different changes in the metabolic test than higher doses. The above can probably be attributed to: (i) a negative compensatory effect, (ii) initiation of adaptive mechanisms and stimulation of the immune system, probably due to the allergizing properties of mycotoxins, (iii) excessive loss of energy and protein due to more effective feed utilization, or (iv) involvement in detoxification processes which leads to fatigue. Depending on the body's energy stores, the above processes tend to tone down the biotransformation of low doses of the examined mycotoxins but in the present study, the BW of gilts did not

  14. Agreement Analysis among Measures of Thinness and Obesity Assessment in Iranian School Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed-Mohammad-Taghi; Bagheri, Zahra; Heydari, Seyyed-Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the agreement of four anthropometric-based measurements including weight-for-height (WH), body mass index-for-age (BMI), mid-upper arm circumference-for-age (MUAC) and triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (TST) to identify underweight and overweight children and adolescents. Methods Two data sets were used in this research. The first one was a multistage random sample of 2397 healthy school children in pre-pubertal stage in Shiraz. The second data set consisted of 487 healthy students in pubertal stage and 558 students in post-pubertal stage. The parametric LMS method was used to construct reference centiles curves for each measure. The Kappa statistic was applied to examine the pairwise agreement of the four indices for detecting thinness and obesity. Results Generally, the pairwise agreement of adiposity measures was higher for identifying obesity than thinness. There was an excellent agreement between WH and BMI for detecting both thin and obese children in almost all subgroups (Palternative to BMI for obesity assessment among pre-pubertal groups. PMID:24800002

  15. Health care for gender variant or gender non-conforming children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcier, Michelle M; Haddad, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Most children explore various aspects of gender and sexuality as children. Youth with consistent, persistent, and insistent gender non-conformity or gender dysphoria are important to identify in the pre- and early-pubertal years as early intervention and support may be lifesaving. Those whose gender non-conformity persists into puberty and adolescence are most likely to identify as transgender. Blocking pubertal development at Tanner stage 2 for pre-pubertal, gender non-conforming children is a relatively new but reversible and highly beneficial strategy to delay puberty, giving patients and families time to come up with a transition plan. Early identification, collaborative support from healthcare providers and mental health clinicians, and supportive interventions for both children and families grappling with gender variance may improve social and mental health outcomes for what has traditionally been considered a high-risk, vulnerable population.

  16. EFFICIENCY ON GROUP PROPHYLAXIS OF IODINE DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN LIVING IN IODINE DEFICIENCY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Kuchma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex examination detected that kalium iodide dosage 100 mkg daily promote a rapid normalization of median of ioduria in children aged 8 to 12 years. Even in a case of normal initial level of ioduria iod active at the same dosage doesn't promote an increase of median of ioduria over than optimum level. It wasn't detected any decrease of goiter frequency during 6 months of prophylaxis, while the level of some cognitive indexes (an attention and the frequency of absence from school by the reason of acute respiratory deseases significantly increased. It could be concluded, that iodine prophylaxis using iod active is more effective in mild goiter endemia combine to decrease of attention in prepubertal children. In the case of combination of moderate endemic goiter and normal cognitive function kalium iodide is more preferable in prophylaxis in children.Key words: children, iod deficiency, prophylaxis.

  17. Influence of catch-up growth on IGFBP-2 levels and association between IGFBP-2 and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean children born SGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jung Min; Park, Hong Kyu; Yang, Seung; Hwang, Il Tae

    2012-01-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and postnatal growth pattern may have an impact on insulin resistance and body composition in their later life. Emerging evidence has indicated that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) may be related to insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate insulin resistance and IGFBP-2 levels in SGA children, and to identify the effect of catch-up growth on IGFBP-2 concentration. Serum IGFBP-2 levels were measured in 103 Korean SGA children including 49 prepubertal and 54 pubertal subjects. Anthropometric values, fasting serum levels of metabolic parameters and insulin sensitivity indices were determined. Each prepubertal or pubertal group was subgrouped based on height or weight catch-up growth. The subgroups with weight catch-up showed higher values of BMI, body fat mass, percent body fat, and total cholesterol. Particularly in pubertal children, IGFBP-2 concentration was lower in the subgroup with weight catch-up. Catch-up growth in height did not affect insulin resistance and metabolic parameters. IGFBP-2 levels were inversely correlated with BMI, body fat mass, percent body fat, insulin and leptin levels in both prepubertal and pubertal groups. Additionally in the pubertal group, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol levels were related to IGFBP-2. A strong relationship between IGFBP-2, the insulin sensitivity index, and some cardiovascular risk factors was observed in children born SGA, suggesting that IGFBP-2 might be a promising marker for early recognition of insulin resistance, particularly in children with weight catch-up.

  18. Prediction models for short children born small for gestational age (SGA) covering the total growth phase. Analyses based on data from KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, Michael B; Lindberg, Anders

    2011-06-01

    Mathematical models can be developed to predict growth in short children treated with growth hormone (GH). These models can serve to optimize and individualize treatment in terms of height outcomes and costs. The aims of this study were to compile existing prediction models for short children born SGA (SGA), to develop new models and to validate the algorithms. Existing models to predict height velocity (HV) for the first two and the fourth prepubertal years and during total pubertal growth (TPG) on GH were applied to SGA children from the KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database)--1st year: N = 2340; 2nd year: N = 1358; 4th year: N = 182; TPG: N = 59. A new prediction model was developed for the 3rd prepubertal year based upon 317 children by means of the all-possible regression approach, using Mallow's C(p) criterion. The comparison between the observed and predicted height velocity showed no significant difference when the existing prediction models were applied to new cohorts. A model for predicting HV during the 3rd year explained 33% of the variability with an error SD of 1.0 cm/year. The predictors were (in order of importance): HV previous year; chronological age; weight SDS; mid-parent height SDS and GH dose. Models to predict growth to GH from prepubertal years to adult height are available for short children born SGA. The models utilize easily accessible predictors and are accurate. The overall explained variability in SGA is relatively low, due to the heterogeneity of the disorder. The models can be used to provide patients with a realistic expectation of treatment, and may help to identify compliance problems or other underlying causes of treatment failure.

  19. Prediction models for short children born small for gestational age (SGA covering the total growth phase. Analyses based on data from KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Anders

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models can be developed to predict growth in short children treated with growth hormone (GH. These models can serve to optimize and individualize treatment in terms of height outcomes and costs. The aims of this study were to compile existing prediction models for short children born SGA (SGA, to develop new models and to validate the algorithms. Methods Existing models to predict height velocity (HV for the first two and the fourth prepubertal years and during total pubertal growth (TPG on GH were applied to SGA children from the KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database - 1st year: N = 2340; 2nd year: N = 1358; 4th year: N = 182; TPG: N = 59. A new prediction model was developed for the 3rd prepubertal year based upon 317 children by means of the all-possible regression approach, using Mallow's C(p criterion. Results The comparison between the observed and predicted height velocity showed no significant difference when the existing prediction models were applied to new cohorts. A model for predicting HV during the 3rd year explained 33% of the variability with an error SD of 1.0 cm/year. The predictors were (in order of importance: HV previous year; chronological age; weight SDS; mid-parent height SDS and GH dose. Conclusions Models to predict growth to GH from prepubertal years to adult height are available for short children born SGA. The models utilize easily accessible predictors and are accurate. The overall explained variability in SGA is relatively low, due to the heterogeneity of the disorder. The models can be used to provide patients with a realistic expectation of treatment, and may help to identify compliance problems or other underlying causes of treatment failure.

  20. Update on statural growth and pubertal development in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Leonibus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, it has also been suggested that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during pre-pubertal years, obese patients present higher growth velocity and that this pre-pubertal advantage tends to gradually decrease during puberty, leading to similar final heights between obese and non-obese children. Excess body weight might also influence pubertal onset, leading to earlier timing of puberty in girls. In addition, obese girls are at increased risk of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome. In boys, a clear evidence does not exist: some studies suggesting an earlier puberty associated with the obesity status, whereas other have found a delayed pubertal onset. Overall, the existing evidence of an association between obesity and modification of growth and pubertal patterns underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity.

  1. The Effect of Low Monotonic Doses of Zearalenone on Selected Reproductive Tissues in Pre-Pubertal Female Dogs—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gajęcka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in toxic substances combined with advancements in biological sciences has shed a new light on the problem of mycotoxins contaminating feeds and foods. An interdisciplinary approach was developed by identifying dose-response relationships in key research concepts, including the low dose theory of estrogen-like compounds, hormesis, NOAEL dose, compensatory response and/or food tolerance, and effects of exposure to undesirable substances. The above considerations increased the researchers’ interest in risk evaluation, namely: (i clinical symptoms associated with long-term, daily exposure to low doses of a toxic compound; and (ii dysfunctions at cellular or tissue level that do not produce clinical symptoms. Research advancements facilitate the extrapolation of results and promote the use of novel tools for evaluating the risk of exposure, for example exposure to zearalenone in pre-pubertal female dogs. The arguments presented in this paper suggest that low doses of zearalenone in commercial feeds stimulate metabolic processes and increase weight gains. Those processes are accompanied by lower proliferation rates in the ovaries, neoangiogenesis and vasodilation in the ovaries and the uterus, changes in the steroid hormone profile, and changes in the activity of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. All of the above changes result from exogenous hyperestrogenizm.

  2. Steroidogenesis in fetal male rats is reduced by DEHP and DINP, but endocrine effects of DEHP are not modulated by DEHA in fetal, prepubertal and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Julie; Ladefoged, Ole; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) exhibits antiandrogenic effects in perinatally exposed male rats. Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) are currently being evaluated as potential substitutes for DEHP, but similarities in structure and metabolism of DEHP with DEHA and DINP have led to the hypothesis that similarities in action may also exist. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with vehicle, DEHP (300 or 750 mg/kg bodyweight per day), DINP (750 mg/kg bodyweight per day), DEHP (750 mg/kg bodyweight per day) in combination with DEHA (400 mg/kg bodyweight per day), or DEHP (300 mg/kg bodyweight per day) in combination with DINP (750 mg/kg bodyweight per day). DINP and DEHP were both shown to reduce testicular testosterone production ex vivo and testosterone levels in testes and plasma of male fetuses at gestation day 21, indicating a similar mechanism of action for DINP and DEHP. Additionally, plasma LH levels in male fetuses were elevated. Neonatal anogenital distance was reduced and the number of nipples at postnatal day 13 increased in DEHP-exposed male offspring. Serum inhibin B levels were significantly reduced in DEHP-exposed prepubertal male offspring, and in a few adult males. No modulating effects of DEHA on the endocrine effects of DEHP were detected, but a tendency towards an accumulating effect of DEHP and DINP in combination on suppression of testosterone synthesis was seen.

  3. Immunohistochemical evaluation of apoptosis and proliferation in the mucous membrane of selected uterine regions in pre-pubertal bitches exposed to low doses of zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, E; Babińska, I; Zielonka, Ł; Gajęcki, M; Gajęcka, M

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. Those biologically active compounds occur naturally and they include zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin that contaminates plant material, including the ingredients used in the production of commercial dog food. The influence of monotonic, low-dose and long-term exposure to ZEN on pre-pubertal bitches has not been fully explored to date. This paper describes a 42-day experiment performed on clinically healthy female dogs aged approximately 70 days, with estimated body weight of 8 kg. The animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups (EI and EII) and a control group (C) of 10 animals each. Group EI received 50 μg ZEN/kg (of body weight) per os, group EII received 75 μg ZEN/kg BW per os, and the control group was administered placebo. The bitches were ovariohysterectomized at the end of the experiment (at around 112 days of age), and selected sections of the uterine wall were subjected to immunohistochemical analyses (TUNEL and PCNA). A shift towards higher apoptotic (AI) and proliferative index (PI) was observed, in particular in group EI. Higher AI and PI values were noted in the epithelium of all uterine regions analysed and in the uterine glands in the uterine horn proximal to the body of the uterus.

  4. The Effect of Low Monotonic Doses of Zearalenone on Selected Reproductive Tissues in Pre-Pubertal Female Dogs--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajęcka, Magdalena; Zielonka, Łukasz; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2015-11-19

    The growing interest in toxic substances combined with advancements in biological sciences has shed a new light on the problem of mycotoxins contaminating feeds and foods. An interdisciplinary approach was developed by identifying dose-response relationships in key research concepts, including the low dose theory of estrogen-like compounds, hormesis, NOAEL dose, compensatory response and/or food tolerance, and effects of exposure to undesirable substances. The above considerations increased the researchers' interest in risk evaluation, namely: (i) clinical symptoms associated with long-term, daily exposure to low doses of a toxic compound; and (ii) dysfunctions at cellular or tissue level that do not produce clinical symptoms. Research advancements facilitate the extrapolation of results and promote the use of novel tools for evaluating the risk of exposure, for example exposure to zearalenone in pre-pubertal female dogs. The arguments presented in this paper suggest that low doses of zearalenone in commercial feeds stimulate metabolic processes and increase weight gains. Those processes are accompanied by lower proliferation rates in the ovaries, neoangiogenesis and vasodilation in the ovaries and the uterus, changes in the steroid hormone profile, and changes in the activity of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. All of the above changes result from exogenous hyperestrogenizm.

  5. Survey of some heavy metals in sediments from vehicular service stations in Jordan and their effects on social aggression in prepubertal male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homady, Merza; Hussein, Helmi; Jiries, Anwar; Mahasneh, Ali; Al-Nasir, Farah; Khleifat, Khaled

    2002-05-01

    Vehicle services create the potential for heavy metal accumulation in the working environment. This study assessed five vehicle services, namely body repair, oil exchange, mechanical repair, tire repair, electrical repair, and washing services for three types of vehicles: airplanes, buses, and cars. The results show that there are significant increases in the total contents of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, and Cr in ambient dust, with Fe being the highest and Cr the lowest. The main cause of the presence of these elements is due to the metals' corrosion from vehicle sources and petroleum residue. Variations in the concentrations with the type of service and within the same service at different locations were observed. In this study, the exposure of prepubertal male mice to industrial metal salts in drinking water at a concentration of 1000 ppm for 90 days was investigated. Exposure of male mice to lead acetate significantly reduced the social aggression of the resident untreated subjects. Additionally, this treatment resulted in decreasing weights of body, testes, preputial glands, and seminal vesicles. In comparison, no such effects were seen in mice given copper chloride or manganese chloride. The results show that only lead acetate produced a pattern of responses clearly indicative of altered gonadal function. 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  6. Lack of enhancement of susceptibility to mammary and thyroid carcinogenesis in rats exposed to DMBA and DHPN following prepubertal iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Man; Imai, Toshio; Hasumura, Mai; Hirose, Masao

    2006-10-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that iodine deficiency increases the risk of mammary as well as thyroid cancers, but susceptibility to tumor development when this occurs during the prepubertal stage is not completely understood. In the present study, we therefore evaluated this question in F344 rats. Dams during the lactation period and their weaned offspring until postnatal week 7 were fed an iodine-free diet. Female offspring were then given 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight) by gavage for mammary tumor induction in week 7. Both the male and female rats were given free access to drinking water containing N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine (DHPN), (0.1 and 0.2% for male and female rats, respectively) for wide spectrum tumor induction in organs, including the thyroid gland, from weeks 7-11. All offspring were killed at week 50 for histopathological examination. The iodine deficiency had no significant influence on incidences and/or multiplicities of mammary and thyroid tumors. Furthermore, tumor induction in the liver, kidney, lung, esophagus and urinary bladder was not affected in either sex. The present results thus indicate a lack of influence of iodine deficiency condition early in life on subsequent carcinogenic susceptibility.

  7. First-year response to rhGH therapy in children with CKD: a National Cooperative Growth Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John D; Warady, Bradley A; Frane, James; Rosenfeld, Ron G; Swinford, Rita D; Lippe, Barbara; Davis, D Aaron

    2010-06-01

    A clear definition of the appropriate growth response during recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment has never been established in the pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. We present here data from Genentech's National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS) on the first-year growth response in prepubertal children with CKD. Using NCGS data, we constructed response curves for the first year of rhGH therapy in 270 (186 males, 84 females) naïve-to-treatment, prepubertal children with CKD prior to transplant or dialysis. Data from both genders were combined because gender was not significantly related to height velocity (p = 0.51). Response to rhGH was expressed as height velocity (HV) in cm/year. Mean, mean + or - 1SD, and mean - 2SD for HV during the first year of rhGH treatment as well as pretreatment HV were plotted versus age. Age-specific HV plots for rhGH-treated children with CKD are presented. At all ages, the first-year mean HV was greater than the mean pretreatment HV. The mean - 2SD for HV in children on rhGH treatment was similar to the mean pretreatment HV. These growth plots will be useful to clinicians for assessing a patient's first-year growth response. We propose that a HV below the mean - 1SD is an inadequate response. These curves may help identify patients with a suboptimal growth response due to confounding medical factors and/or non-compliance.

  8. Influence of the Mediterranean diet on carotid intima-media thickness in hypercholesterolaemic children: a 12-month intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, C; Diesse, L; D'Adamo, E; Chiavaroli, V; de Giorgis, T; Di Iorio, C; Chiarelli, F; Mohn, A

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been recognised as having a protective role on the cardiovascular system due to its low lipid and high antioxidant content. Lipid profile and oxidant status represent two important risk factors related to endothelial dysfunction, even at early stages of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a 12-month Mediterranean diet on the variation of lipid profile and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in pre-pubertal hypercholesterolaemic children. We performed a cross-sectional study comparing lipid profile and cIMT in a group of 68 pre-pubertal children (36 with hypercholesterolaemia and 32 controls). In addition, in the hypercholesterolaemic children a 12-month intervention programme with a Mediterranean diet was started to evaluate the variation of lipid profile and cIMT. At baseline, hypercholesterolaemic children showed a significantly higher cIMT (both right and left carotid artery) compared to controls (both p body mass index-Standard Deviation score and delta LDL-cholesterol were significantly and independently related to the changes of cIMT (both p < 0.05). The Mediterranean diet represents a valid approach in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia even during childhood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  10. Oxygen uptake kinetics in children and adolescents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2009-05-01

    The pulmonary oxygen uptake (pVO2) kinetic response at the onset of exercise provides a noninvasive window into the metabolic activity of the muscle and a valuable means of increasing our understanding of developmental muscle metabolism. However, to date only limited research has been devoted to investigating the pVO2 kinetic response during exercise in children and adolescents. From the rigorous studies that have been conducted, both age- and sex-related differences have been identified. Specifically, children display a faster exponential rise in the phase II pVO2 kinetics, which are purported to reflect the rise in muscle O2 consumption, during moderate, heavy and very heavy intensity exercise compared with adults. Furthermore, for heavy and very heavy exercise, the O2 cost of exercise is higher for the exponential phase and the magnitude of the pVO2 slow component is smaller in young children. Sex-related differences have been identified during heavy, but not moderate exercise, with prepubertal boys displaying a faster exponential phase II pVO2 kinetic response and a smaller pVO2 slow component compared with prepubertal girls. The mechanisms underlying these differences are currently poorly understood, and form the basis for future research in this area. However, it is hypothesized that an age-related modulation of the muscle phosphate feedback controllers to signal an increased rate of oxidative phosphorylation and/or altered muscle fiber type recruitment strategies have the potential to play an important role. Overall, the data support the view that at the onset of exercise children have an enhanced potential for oxidative metabolism in the myocyte compared with adults.

  11. Triglycerides/High density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as a cardiometabolic risk marker in children and adolescents from Mérida city, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Miguel; Briceño, Yajaira; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Zerpa, Yajaira; Camacho, Nolis; Paoli, Mariela

    2018-02-01

    To determine the behavior of the triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL) as a cardiometabolic risk marker in children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela. A total of 1292 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years who attended educational institutions in the Libertador Municipality were enrolled into this study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure values were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels were measured. The TG/HDL ratio, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI indexes were calculated. Subjects were categorized as with and without cardiometabolic risk based on the presence or absence of 2or more risk factors. Cut-off points for the TG/HDL ratio were determined by constructing ROC curves. Significantly higher mean TG/HDL ratios were found in pubertal (2.2 ± 1.7) as compared to prepubertal subjects (1.8 ± 1.5; P=.001), with no sex differences. Two or more risk factors were found in 14.7% (n=192) of the participants, in whom TG/HDL ratios were significantly higher as compared to those with no risk (3.5±2.9 versus 1.6±0.8 in prepubertal and 4.1 ± 3.5 versus 1.8 ± 0.9 in pubertal subjects; P=.0001). According to cardiometabolic risk, cut-off points for the TG/HDL ratio of 1.8 and 2.5 were found for prepubertal and pubertal children respectively. These cut-off points showed risks (odds ratio) higher than 2.5 for conditions such as metabolic syndrome, elevated non-HDL-C, abdominal obesity, and elevated HOMA-IR. In this sample of children and adolescents, an elevated TG/HDLc ratio was found to be a good marker for predicting cardiometabolic risk. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Health-related quality of life in short children born small for gestational age: effects of growth hormone treatment and postponement of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Annemieke J; Jobse, Inge; van der Kaay, Danielle C M; de Ridder, Maria A J; Raat, Hein; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2012-01-01

    To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in short children born small for gestational age (SGA) during growth hormone (GH) treatment and additional postponement of puberty by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa). HRQoL was studied longitudinally during 2 years of treatment in 97 short SGA children (mean age 11.6 years at start). The children were divided into three groups: prepubertal GH-treated (prep-GH) children, pubertal GH-treated (pub-GH) children, and pubertal GH-treated children with additional GnRHa treatment (pub-GH/GnRHa). HRQoL was measured by generic (TACQOL) and short stature-specific (TACQOL-S) questionnaires. The TACQOL-S showed that prep-GH children experienced significant HRQoL improvement on the subscales 'contact with adults', 'body image' and 'vitality', and pub-GH/GnRHa children on the subscales 'contact with adults', 'contact with peers' and 'physical abilities'. Parents of prep-GH and pub-GH/GnRHa children reported significant HRQoL improvement on most TACQOL-S scales, whereas HRQoL improvement in pub-GH children reached significance for 'future prospects' only. The HRQoL gain was similar in the three groups, also after correction for confounders. The generic questionnaire TACQOL did not reveal any changes. HRQoL improved in prepubertal and pubertal short SGA children during GH treatment. Additional GnRHa treatment had no adverse effect on the HRQoL gain. Disorder-specific questionnaires were particularly appropriate to evaluate HRQoL in children treated for short stature. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  14. Physical fitness as an indicator of health status and its relationship to academic performance during the prepubertal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Del Pozo, Francisco Javier; Alonso, Joaquín Valle; Álvarez, Manuel Vaquero; Orr, Siobhan; Cantarero, Francisco Jesús Llorente

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is considered one of the most important determinants of the health status in children, and predictor of morbidity/mortality in adults. The aim is to examine the relationship between physical fitness (PF), PA, obesity and academic performance (AP) in primary school children. Methods: Cross-sectional studies including 91 primary school students, aged 9 to 12 years, from the province of Córdoba. Data was collected from April to June 2014. We measured PF using part of the EUROFIT fitness testing battery. The level of PA was measured as low or high PF and the level of obesity was measured using body mass index, waist circumference, percentage of fat mass, lean body mass, percentage of lean mass and basal metabolism. AP by scores on the second quarter was based on the total average of scores of basic subjects and other subjects, including physical education. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Spanish overall and factorial intelligence test. Results: The results of AP were positively related to levels of PF. Students who achieve better PF score better in Maths, (P=0.019), Natural Sciences (P=0.024), Religion (P=0.018) and Physical Education (Plevels of fitness. Therefore, the education system should consider implementing curriculum strategies favouring the improvement of the PF, and therefore the health and AP of students.

  15. Clinical Relevance of Transforming Growth Factor-β1, Interleukin-6 and Haptoglobin for Prediction of Obesity Complications in Prepubertal Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas R. El-Alameey

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. High levels of interleukin-6 and haptoglobin are considered to be early biomarkers of inflammation associated with severe obesity with subsequent cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk.

  16. Physical fitness as an indicator of health status and its relationship to academic performance during the prepubertal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Fonseca del Pozo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA is considered one of the most important determinants of the health status in children, and predictor of morbidity/mortality in adults. The aim is to examine the relationship between physical fitness (PF, PA, obesity and academic performance (AP in primary school children Methods: Cross-sectional studies including 91 primary school students, aged 9 to 12 years, from the province of Córdoba. Data was collected from April to June 2014. We measured PF using part of the EUROFIT fitness testing battery. The level of PA was measured as low or high PF and the level of obesity was measured using body mass index, waist circumference, percentage offal mass, lean body mass, percentage of lean mass and basal metabolism. AP by scores on the second quarter was based on the total average of scores of basic subjects and other subjects, including physical education. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Spanish overall and factorial intelligence test.Results: The results of AP were positively related to levels of PF. Students who achieve better PF score better in Maths, (P=0.019, Natural Sciences (P=0.024, Religion (P=0.018 and Physical Education (P<0.001. A direct association between maximal aerobic capacity with Mathematics (r=0.325, P=0.02, AP (r=0.349, P=0.001 and cognitive performance (CP(r=0.312, P=0.003 was observed. There was also a direct association of better jump tests with higher AP (r=0.328, P=0.002.Conclusion: The AP is associated with higher levels of fitness. Therefore, the education system should consider implementing curriculum strategies favouring the improvement of the PF, and therefore the health and AP of students.

  17. Preserved seminiferous tubule integrity with spermatogonial survival and induction of Sertoli and Leydig cell maturation after long-term organotypic culture of prepubertal human testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Michele, F; Poels, J; Weerens, L; Petit, C; Evrard, Z; Ambroise, J; Gruson, D; Wyns, C

    2017-01-01

    Is an organotypic culture system able to provide the appropriate testicular microenvironment for in-vitro maturation of human immature testicular tissue (ITT)? Our organotypic culture system provided a microenvironment capable of preserving seminiferous tubule (ST) integrity and Leydig cell (LC) functionality and inducing Sertoli cell (SC) maturation. Cryopreservation of human ITT is a well-established strategy to preserve fertility in prepubertal boys affected by cancer, with a view for obtaining sperm. While spermatogenesis in mice has been replicated in organotypic culture, yielding reproductively efficient spermatozoa, this process has not yet been achieved in humans. The aim of this study was to in vitro mature frozen-thawed ITT. To this end, 1 mm(3) tissue fragments from three prepubertal patients aged 2 (P1), 11 (P2) and 12 (P3) years were placed in organotypic culture for 139 days. Culture media, supplemented with either testosterone or hCG, were compared. ST integrity and tissue viability were assessed by histological score and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in supernatants. Spermatogonia (SG), proliferating cells and proliferating SG were identified by the use of MAGE-A4 and Ki67 immunohistochemical markers. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was used as a marker of SC functionality, while SC maturation was evaluated by androgen receptor (AR), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) immunohistochemistry (IHC) and AMH immunoenzymatic assay. LC functionality was determined by testosterone levels in supernatants and by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) IHC. Apoptosis was studied by IHC with active caspases 3 and 8 and by TUNEL (terminal deoxynubocleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) analysis. Tissue viability was preserved, as demonstrated by the decrease in and stabilization of LDH release, and evolution of ST scoring, with the percentage of well-preserved STs showing no statistical differences during culture in either

  18. THE RELEVANT USE OF A TRADITIONAL TUNISIAN GAME ‘‘RAQUASSA’’ FOR CARDIOVASCULAR SOLICITATION IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Padulo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether a lesson of physical activity based on a traditional Tunisian game could be a useful tool for soliciting the cardiovascular system in children. Methods: nineteen pre-pubertal were randomly performed in different days, two types of lessons (intermittent running mode vs. traditional Tunisian game “Raquassa” lasting 12-min each. Heart Rate was continuously recorded during both lessons, while ratings of perceived exertion and Feeling values were recorded. Results: the mean Heart Rate value during traditional game was significantly higher than during intermittent exercise (p<0.05. Conversely, the perceived exertion score was significantly higher after intermittent exercise than traditional exercise game (p<0.05 showing that the higher cardiovascular strain of the game was perceived ‘’lighter’’ than the run. Simultaneously, the Feeling was significantly higher after traditional game than intermittent exercise (p<0.001 showing a higher satisfaction from playing with respect to running. Conclusions: exercise based on the ‘’Raquassa’’ traditional game could be used in pre-pubertal children as an alternative or as an additional method for suitable cardiovascular solicitation during physical education lessons in children with lower perceived exertion and better feeling than intermittent running.

  19. Risk assessment for changes in the metabolic profile and body weights of pre-pubertal gilts during long-term monotonic exposure to low doses of zearalenone (ZEN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajęcka, Magdalena; Tarasiuk, Michał; Zielonka, Łukasz; Dąbrowski, Michał; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether the process of exposure to low doses of ZEN generates changes in the hematological and biochemical image of blood serum. During the experiment, pre-pubertal gilts (up to 25kg) were administered per os ZEN at a dose of 40μg/kg BW (Group E, n=18) or placebo (Group C, n=21) on a daily basis for 42days. Blood samples for investigation were collected seven times at intervals of one week. In the experimental groups, slight but statistically significant changes in the values of selected biochemical blood indices such as glucose, ALT, Pin, total protein and Fe, or in hematological indices such as RBC, MCV, PLT, WBC, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes were observed. Based on statistical analysis between the groups, differences in the values of WBC, basophils, peroxidase negative cells, Hb, Ht, MCV, HDW, glucose, ALT, AP, total protein, iron or potassium were found. In Group E, decreasing trends in the values of PLT and glucose, and increasing trends in the values of total protein, Pin, Na and Cl were found. The described situations occurred during the last three weeks of exposure. Low levels of exposure to ZEN lead to completely different changes in the metabolic profile than those resulting from higher doses of the toxin. The stimulatory effect of mycotoxins, observed in initial stages of exposure, is eliminated when the compensatory response and adaptive mechanisms are triggered, and due to excessive loss of energy, which may point to more efficient feed utilization and/or detoxification processes. The values of body weight gain obtained in Group E were monotonically higher in four out of the six investigated weeks of exposure. The above changes were accompanied by a decrease in glucose concentrations and higher total protein levels (a rising tendency), which could have affected the rate of body weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neonatal hypothyroidism affects testicular glucose homeostasis through increased oxidative stress in prepubertal mice: effects on GLUT3, GLUT8 and Cx43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, D; Singh, S K

    2017-07-01

    homeostasis via increased oxidative stress in prepubertal mice, thereby affecting germ cell survival and proliferation. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. Bovine somatotropin and rumen-undegradable protein effects in prepubertal dairy heifers: effects on body composition and organ and tissue weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, U; Dahl, G E; Duffey, E K; Capuco, A V; Wood, D L; McLeod, K R; Baldwin, R L; Erdman, R A

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) and added dietary rumen undegradable protein (RUP) on organ and tissue weights and body composition in growing dairy heifers. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were in the experiment, 8 killed initially at 3 mo of age, with the remaining 24 Holstein heifers randomly assigned to treatments (n = 6) consisting of 0.1 mg/kg of body weight per day of bST and 2% added dietary RUP (dry matter basis) applied in a 2 x2 factorial design. A total of 6 heifers per treatment group (3 each at 5 and 10 mo of age), were slaughtered to determine body composition and organ masses. Feed intake measured from group intakes were increased by 0.25 and 0.35 kg/d with bST and RUP, respectively. Administration of bST tended to increase the weights of visceral organs including heart, kidney, and spleen by 16, 16, and 38%, respectively. At 10 mo of age, there was a trend for increased empty body weights (EBW) and non-carcass components for heifers treated with bST, but there were no effects of RUP. Body components and organ weights, expressed as a percentage of BW were not affected by RUP or bST. Somatotropin increased ash weight at 10 mo without affecting amounts of protein, fat, and energy. Rates of ash deposition between 3 and 10 mo of age were increased 7 and 4 g/d by bST and RUP, respectively. There were no treatment effects on rates of body fat, protein, and energy deposition. Bovine somatotropin and RUP altered the metabolism of growing heifers in a manner that was consistent with increased rates of skeletal growth. This suggests that nutritional and endocrine manipulations could increase growth rates of skeletal tissues without increasing fat deposition in prepubertal dairy heifers.

  2. Copeptin in obese children and adolescents: relationships to body mass index, cortisol and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Juliane; Kulle, Alexandra; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Toschke, Christina; Lass, Nina; Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Copeptin has been reported to be associated with stress, obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, data in childhood are scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationships between copeptin, cortisol, puberty and parameters of the MetS in children. Cross-sectional study. A total of 51 obese children (10·8 ± 3·2 years, 39% male, 45% prepubertal, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) 2·77 ± 0·56) and 24 lean children of similar age, gender and pubertal stage. Copeptin, serum cortisol, 24-h urinary free cortisol, BMI-SDS and, as parameters of the MetS, insulin resistance index (HOMA), HbA1c, uric acids, blood pressure and lipids. Copeptin levels were significantly (P = 0·047) higher in obese children (5·8 ± 2·8pmol/l) compared to lean children (4·6 ± 2·2pmol/l). BMI-SDS (β-coefficient 0·38 ± 0·35, P =0·033), but not any parameter of the MetS, was significantly related to copeptin in multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender and pubertal stage. A 24-h urinary free cortisol (β-coefficient 0·13 ± 0·06, P copeptin in multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, pubertal stage and BMI-SDS. Pubertal boys (6·6 ± 2·8pmol/l) demonstrated significantly (P = 0·042) higher copeptin levels compared to pubertal girls (4·8 ± 2·6pmol/l), while copeptin concentrations did not differ between prepubertal girls and boys. Copeptin levels are related to 24-h urinary free cortisol in obese children. Pubertal boys, but not prepubertal boys, demonstrated higher copeptin levels than girls, suggesting that sex hormones are involved in the regulation of copeptin levels. Further studies are necessary to understand the relationship between obesity, cortisol, gender, pubertal stage and copeptin levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Enhanced effect of zinc and calcium supplementation on bone status in growth hormone-deficient children treated with growth hormone: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbote, Veena; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Mughal, Zulf; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2013-06-01

    Reduced bone mineral content in growth hormone-deficient children (GHD) has been reported. Calcium, zinc, and vitamin D play an important role in bone formation. Hence, the aim of this pilot randomized controlled study was to evaluate the effect of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation in prepubertal GHD children treated with GH on bone health parameters. After 1 year of treatment with GH (20 mg/m(2)/week), 31 GHD (mean age 8.7 ± 2.8 years, 18 boys) prepubertal children were randomised to receive calcium (500 mg/day) and vitamin D (60,000 IU/3 months) [Group A] or a similar supplement of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc (as per Indian Recommended Allowance) [Group B] along with GH therapy for the next 12 months. The two groups were similar in anthropometric and body composition parameters at baseline (p > 0.1). After 1 year of GH therapy, height-adjusted % gain was similar in both groups, 48 % in bone mineral content (BMC) and 45 % in bone area (BA). Height-adjusted % increase in BMC was significantly (p children has the potential for enhancing bone mass accrual; this effect was further enhanced through the addition of zinc supplement.

  4. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass; Trabekulaere Knochendichte der Lendenwirbelsaeule bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in der quantitativen CT: Referenzwerte und Peak Bone Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G. [Kinderradiologie, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany); Haras, G. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Mann, M. [AG Medizinische Statistik, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  5. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dell'Aquila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs.

  6. Prepubertal exposure to an oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone induces central precocious puberty in immature female rats through the mechanism of premature activation of hypothalamic kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zeng-Ming; Zhao, Jun; Peng, Shuang-Qing

    2016-12-05

    Level (LOAEL) was 1 mg/kg bw per day. In conclusion, prepubertal exposure to dietary relevant levels of ZEA induced central precocious puberty in female rats by premature activation of hypothalamic kisspeptin-GPR54-GnRH signaling pathway, followed by the stimulation of gonadotropins release at an earlier age, resulting in the advancement of vaginal opening and enlargement of uterus at periphery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  8. Muscle cross-sectional area is associated with specific site of bone in prepubertal girls: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, A; McKay, H A; Whittall, K P; Forster, B B; Khan, K M

    2001-10-01

    It is well established that forces applied to bone are the result of muscle contraction. However, data regarding the contribution of muscle cross-sectional area (because muscle area is proportional to muscle strength) to cortical bone area before puberty are controversial. We tested the hypothesis that muscle cross-sectional area is associated with total cortical bone area, and whether there is a region-specific relationship between these parameters in prepubertal and early pubertal girls. Seventeen healthy (9-11 years, Tanner stages I-II) white girls participated in the study. We measured bone loading characteristics (maximal ground reaction forces; GRFs) for a drop jump (50 cm) and side-to-side jump (over a 20-cm-high fence) on a multicomponent force platform. Muscle cross-sectional area and bone cortical area (square centimeters) of the proximal third of the left and right lower leg was measured with a 1.5 T magnetic resonance system using a quadrature head coil. The sequence was T(1) weighted, with spin-echo in transverse (tibial) planes and 3 mm sections with no gap (ten slices). The tibial cross-sectional areas were subdivided into three anatomical sectors (SI-SIII), with the tibial centroid as origin. SI extended from the medial tibial border to the most anterior edge, SII extended from the anterior edge laterally to the interosseous border, and SIII extended posteromedially from the interosseous border to the medial tibial border. The nonparametric bone and muscle volume correlations demonstrated that the total muscle cross-sectional area correlated significantly with the total cortical area in both legs (left leg: r(s) = 0.59, p = 0.020; right leg: r(s) = 0.57, p = 0.016). Significant correlations were also found between left and right muscle area and cortical area in SII (r(s) = 0.68, p = 0.003, 0.67, and 0.003, respectively). There was no significant association between the muscle area and cortical area in SI or SIII. In addition, there was a significant

  9. Effects of a 12-Month Complex Proprioceptive-Coordinative Training Program on Soccer Performance in Prepubertal Boys Aged 10-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraczyński, Michał; Sozański, Henryk; Boraczyński, Tomasz

    2017-03-31

    The aim was to examine the effects of a series of on-field proprioceptive-coordinative (P-C) exercises on motor performance (MP) in prepubertal soccer players. Fifty-three male soccer players aged 10.1-11.8 years were randomized among two experimental programs receiving P-C training (P-CT; n = 26) or regular training (RT; n = 27). A control group (C; n = 22) consisted of age-matched (10.3-11.9 years) cohorts not involved in any regular physical activity. Both experimental groups completed an identical 12-month comprehensive soccer program except training in P-CT was modified to substitute small-sided conditioning games with 24 multi-mode P-C exercises with modulated exercise intensity (every 8-9 weeks based on predicted HRmax). Pre-, peri-, and post-training measures included anthropometry and five tests assessing soccer-specific MP: movement rhythm (turning the ball backwards - T1), motor adaptation (running with the ball around poles - T2), spatial orientation (running to sequentially numbered balls - T3), balance (single-leg static balance - T4), and kinesthetic differentiation of movement (landing the ball on a 2 × 2 m sector - T5). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant between-group differences for age, anthropometry and BF% at baseline. Significant main effects for group (P-CT vs. RT) were found in all tests (T1-T5) and main effects for time (group P-CT) in T3-T5, while a significant group × time interaction was observed only in T4 (F = 2.98, p = 0.0204). Post-hoc tests indicated that P-CT attained significantly better results than RT at peri-training (by 26.4%; p soccer performance (T1-T3, T5). Based on the results, it is recommended that the training of young soccer players be supplemented with the bilateral balance exercises and games employed in the study. Furthermore, the suitability of monitoring HR in P-C exercises targeting the analyzed MP skills is questionable.

  10. Long-acting Insulin Analogs Effect on gh/igf Axis of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: a Randomized, Open-label, Two-period, Cross-over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, V; Pintaudi, B; Iannilli, A; Pambianchi, M; Ferrito, L; Nicolucci, A

    2016-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is increased in pre-pubertal children with type 1 diabetes and GH excess produces insulin resistance. Early-morning insulinopenia contributes to lower insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) levels and to GH hypersecretion. To evaluate differences in GH/IGF-I axis of pre-pubertal children with type 1 diabetes treated with glargine or detemir as long-acting insulin analogues, which was the main outcome measure, and to compare insulin effects in obtaining good metabolic control. Children with type 1 diabetes. This was a 32-week, randomized, open-label, two-period, cross-over comparison between bedtime glargine and twice-daily detemir insulin, involving pre-pubertal children in care at a diabetes pediatric centre. After a 8-week-run-in period subjects were randomized to bedtime glargine or twice-daily detemir insulin administration. After a 12-week period treatments were inverted and continued for additional 12 weeks. Overall, 15 pre-pubertal children (53.3% males, mean age 8.6±1.5 years, duration of diabetes 4.2±1.5 years) completed the study. Groups did not differ for GH/IGF axis and HbA1c levels. Treatment with glargine was associated with lower fasting glucose values than treatment with detemir (8.1±1.5 vs. 8.2±1.7 mmol/L, p=0.01). Incidence rate of hypoglycemia was not different between insulin treatments (IRR=1.18, 95%CI 1.00-1.38; p=0.07). Detemir treatment was associated with a higher increase in body weight (p=0.008) and height (p=0.02) when compared with glargine. Detemir and glargine not show significant differential effects on the GH/IGFI axis. The greater weight gain and height associated with detemir treatment, apparently not related to the level of pubertal growth, deserve further investigation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. [Serum leptin concentration and some lipid parameters in vegetarian children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska-Klita, Teresa; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold

    2004-04-01

    Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue, regulates feeding behavior, satiation rate, energy expenditure and also plays an important role in maturation and reproduction. Recent studies support the concept that several factors such as a diet may influence on leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentration of leptin and lipids status in prepubertal children aged from 2 to 10 years with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian (n = 24) and omnivorous diet (n = 20). Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzymeassay (ELISA). Serum lipids (cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride) were measured by enzymatic and apolipoproteins by immunoturbidimetric methods. We noticed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber (nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet) and polyunsaturated acids (35% as much). In our study vegetarian children had lower total cholesterol and cholesterol in fractions HDL and LDL than meat eaters did. Also the apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of nonvegetarians. There is no differences in triglyceride concentration between the two groups of children. The mean serum leptin level in vegetarian children was significantly lower (3.1 +/- 1.2 ng/mL) as compared with the omnivores (5.6 +/- 2.1 ng/mL) (p < 0.0001).

  12. Impact of Gender, Age at Onset, and Lifetime Tic Disorders on the Clinical Presentation and Comorbidity Pattern of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanidir, Canan; Adaletli, Hilal; Gunes, Hatice; Kilicoglu, Ali Guven; Mutlu, Caner; Bahali, Mustafa Kayhan; Aytemiz, Tugce; Uneri, Ozden Sukran

    2015-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous disorder; therefore, there is a need for identifying more homogeneous subtypes. This study aimed to examine the clinical characteristics and comorbidity pattern of a large sample of pediatric OCD subjects, and to examine the impact of gender, age at onset, and lifetime tic disorders on the clinical presentation and comorbidity pattern. A total of 110 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD were assessed using the Kiddle Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) for psychiatric comorbidity, and a clinical data form was filled out. The cutoff for differentiating prepubertal from adolescent onset was 11 years of age. A total of 83.6% of the subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder and contamination/somatic obsessions were significantly higher in males (p=0.036 and p=0.03, respectively) than in females. Depressive disorders and religious obsessions were significantly higher in the adolescent-onset group (p=0.02, p=0.05, respectively) whereas disruptive behavior disorders were higher in the prepubertal-onset group (p=0.037). Disruptive behavior disorders were significantly more frequent in the tic (+) group than in tic (-) group (p=0.021). There were differences in the comorbidity pattern and clinical expression between genders and between prepubertal and adolescent-onset cases. Findings of this study supported the introduction of tic-related OCD as a specifier in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5), and the necessity of a detailed assessment of other psychiatric disorders in youth with OCD.

  13. Heart rate recording method validated by whole body indirect calorimetry in 10-yr-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, A; Vermorel, M; Fellmann, N; Bedu, M; Chamoux, A; Coudert, J

    1996-09-01

    The aim of the study was to validate the heart rate (HR) recording method against whole body indirect calorimetry in prepubertal children. Nineteen 10.5-yr-old healthy children (10 boys, 9 girls) participated in this study. HR and energy expenditure (EE) were recorded through laboratory tests. Individual relationships between HR and EE were computed (equation established in laboratory). Several models were tested and validated from 24-h measurements of EE and HR by whole body indirect calorimetry. The best fit was obtained with individual polynomial relationships. Mean differences between predicted (equation established in laboratory) and measured total daily EE averaged 7.6 +/- 20.1%. The causes of the differences and the means of improving the accuracy of the prediction equation are discussed.

  14. Adaptations in movement performance after plyometric training on mini-trampoline in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabatzi, Fotini

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in postural control and skill performance are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of trampoline plyometrics on postural control, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Twenty-two school children were assigned to either a trampoline group (TPLG, N.=12, 7 girls and 5 boys, age =9.30±0.55 years) or a control group (CG, N.=12, 8 girls and 4 boys, age =9.30±0.55 years). The TPLG participated in 4 weeks plyometric training on a mini-trampoline (3 times per week) integrated in their physical education lessons while the CG attended the standard physical education curriculum at school. Pre- and postintervention included the measurements of postural sway and maximum height in countermovement and drop jump. Postural sway decreased significantly (Ptrampoline training, close supervision by experienced personnel is recommended.

  15. High density lipoproteins as indicators of endothelial dysfunction in children with diadetes type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanova S.M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the level of blood high density lipoproteins (HDL in the groups of children with different course of diadetes type I in order to find out the dependence of course and complications of diabetes on that level. Materials and methods: Blood high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were investigated in children and adolescents with diadetes type I, depending on the duration of diadetes type I, age, stage of sexual development, the stage of diabetic nephropathy and levels of plasma endothelin-1 (E-1. Results: Decrease in HDL level with increasing duration of diadetes type I in prepubertate patients, higher indices of HDL cholesterol were determined in girls, especially with impaired puberty. HDL cholesterol was higher in diabetic nephropathy at the stage of proteinuria and high level of blood endothelin-1. Conclusion: The revealed changes were considered to cause deregulation of vascular endothelium as a manifestation of the initial stages of endothelial dysfunction

  16. Recombinant human GH replacement therapy in children with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia: first study on the effect on growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Ferrante, Emanuele; Giavoli, Claudia; Linglart, Agnes; Cappa, Marco; Cisternino, Mariangela; Maghnie, Mohamad; Ghizzoni, Lucia; de Sanctis, Luisa; Lania, Andrea G; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Since the identification of GH deficiency due to resistance to GHRH in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia), no study investigated the effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy on height velocity (HV) in these patients. To address this question, eight prepubertal PHP-Ia children with GH deficiency (seven girls and one boy, aged 5.8-12 yr) underwent a 3- to 8-yr treatment with rhGH. Height and HV were measured before and at 6-month intervals during therapy. Nine sex- and age-matched children with idiopathic GH deficiency were monitored during rhGH therapy for comparison. In PHP-Ia children, height sd scores increased from -2.4 ± 0.58 to -1.8 ± 0.47 (P = 0.04) after 12 months, this increase being maintained after the second (-1.6 ± 0.6) and third (-1.15 ± 0.6) year of therapy, similarly to what recorded in children with idiopathic GH deficiency. The HV and HV sd scores after 3 yr maintained a significant increase from 3.5 ± 0.6 to 7.0 ± 0.9 cm/yr (P pubertal spurt and did not improve their near-adult height, with the only exception of one patient in whom estrogen production was blocked by GnRH analogs. We report the first study on the efficacy of rhGH replacement therapy in prepubertal children with PHP-Ia and provide indication that treatment of GH deficiency should be started soon due to the rather limited time window for a potentially effective therapy.

  17. Alimentação de leitoas pré-púberes com dietas contendo zearalenona Feeding of pre-pubertal gilts with diets containing zearalenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andretta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho, o peso de alguns órgãos e a morfologia vulvar de leitoas pré-púberes, alimentadas por 28 dias com dietas contendo zearalenona, foram avaliados. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com dois tratamentos, dieta controle (DC e dieta controle + 2mg kg-1 de zearalenona (DZ, e seis repetições cada. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos para consumo médio diário de ração (1,24 x 1,19kg, ganho médio diário de peso (0,68 x 0,71kg, conversão alimentar (1,86 x 1,71 e peso vivo (PV; (30,9 x 30,4kg. A zearalenona não alterou (P>0,05 os pesos absoluto e relativo do coração (137 x 141g e 0,45 x 0,45% PV, fígado (699 x 699g e 2,31 x 2,26%PV, rins (47 x 49g e 0,15 x 0,16%PV e baço (166 x 171g e 0,55 x 0,55%PV. Houve aumento (PThe performance, the weights of some organs, and the vulvae morphology in pre-pubertal gilts fed diets containing zearalenone were evaluated during 28 days. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (control diet, ZD - control diet + 2mg kg-1 of zearalenone and six replications of each were done. No differences (P>0.05 between treatments for daily feed intake (1.24 x 1.19kg, average daily gain (0.68 x 0.71kg, feed conversion ratio (1.86 x 1.71, and live weight (30.9 x 30.4kg were observed. Zearalenone did not change (P>0.05 the absolute and relative weights of heart (137 x 141g and 0.45 x 0.45%BW, liver (699 x 699g and 2.31 x 2.26%BW, kidneys (47 x 49g and 0.15 x 0.16%BW, and spleen (166 x 171g and 0.55 x 0.55% BW. However, zearalenone increased (P<0.05 the length (17 x 27cm and weight (23 x 157g and 0.07 x 0.51%BW of the reproductive tract. The final vulvae volume was 820% larger (P<0.05 in gilts fed diets containing zearalenone than those fed control diet (941 x 8658mm³/kgBW0.6. Results suggested that zearalenone and its metabolites have an estrogenic activity in pigs without changing the animal performance.

  18. Does growth hormone treatment influence pubertal development in short children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Anna-Karin; Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina; Tuvemo, Torsten; Jonsson, Björn; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Ritzén, E Martin

    2011-01-01

    To study the influence of growth hormone (GH) treatment on the initiation and progression of puberty in short children. This prospective, randomized, controlled study included 124 short children (33 girls) who received GH treatment (Genotropin®; Pfizer Inc.) from a mean age of 11 years until near adult height [intent-to-treat (ITT) population]. Children were randomized into three groups: controls (n = 33), GH 33 μg/kg/day (n = 34) or GH 67 μg/kg/day (n = 57). Prepubertal children at study start constituted the per-protocol (PP) population (n = 101). Auxological measurements were made and puberty was staged every 3 months. Serum sex-steroid concentrations were assessed every 6 months. No significant differences were found between the groups, of both PP and ITT populations, in time elapsed from start of treatment until either onset of puberty, age at start of puberty or age at final pubertal maturation in either sex. In the ITT population, pubertal duration was significantly longer in GH-treated girls, and maximum mean testicular volume was significantly greater in GH-treated boys than controls, but there were no differences in testosterone levels between the groups. GH treatment did not influence age at onset of puberty and did not accelerate pubertal development. In boys, GH treatment appeared to increase testicular volume. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Strong effect of pubertal status on metabolic health in obese children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas; Wolters, Barbara; Knop, Caroline; Lass, Nina; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-01-01

    The concept of metabolic healthy obese (MHO) status has been proposed also for children. However, it is unclear whether this is a stable status in childhood. The aim was to analyze the changes of MHO status over time. This is 1-year longitudinal analysis of our obesity cohort. All obese children of our outpatient obesity clinic with 1-year follow-up were included. Standard care intervention was used. We examined body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, pubertal stage, blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose, and insulin resistance index homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). MHO status was defined by absence of cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 2017 obese children (mean age, 11.6 ± 2.8 y; 45% male; BMI, 28.5 ± 5.3 kg/m(2); BMI-z score, 2.4 ±0.5) were enrolled onto the study, and 49.3% of the children were MHO at baseline. After 1 year, the majority of the MHO remained MHO (68.0%). MHO children were significantly younger, more frequently prepubertal, and less overweight compared with metabolic unhealthy obese (MUO) children (all P obesity as long as pubertal status remains stable. Due to the strong association between puberty and MUO status, the concept of MHO is questionable, at least in pubertal children.

  20. O efeito do destreinamento de força muscular em meninos pré-púberes El efecto del desentrenamiento muscular en niños pre-puberes Effect of the muscular strength detraining in prepubertal boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Silveira da Fontoura

    2004-08-01

    ó significativamente (p The strength trainability in children has been widely explored, however, there is still a questioning with regard to how strength decreases when they stop training. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of muscular strength detraining of boys trained for 12 weeks. Seven prepubertal boys (EX 9.4 ± 1.6 years of age trained three series of 15 repetitions, three times a week for 12 weeks. The training, supervised and developed in equipments, consisted of eight exercises including knee extension (KE and elbow flexion (EF. The 1-RM test of NE and EF was performed before and after training and 12 weeks after detraining. A similar group of boys (n = 7, 9.7 ± 1.7 years, who did not train served as control (CO. After training, the group EX increased (p 0,05. When corrected by the body weight and by the lean body mass (LBM, the 1-RM of NE decreased significantly (p > 0,05 from 0.64 ± 0.1 to 0.45 ± 0.1 and from 0.83 ± 0.2 to 0.61 ± 0.2 of the body weight and LBM, respectively. The EF strength did not decrease significantly when corrected by the body weight and LBM. The strength levels did not change in the first 12 weeks for group CO, however, after 24 weeks, it presented an increase of 41% in the 1-RM of KE and 53% in EF. One concludes that, after detraining, the muscular strength presented no significant reduction in absolute values; the results are significant only when corrected by weight and LBM and it is only evidenced for the lower limbs.

  1. Serum concentration of biochemical bone turnover markers in vegetarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Klemarczyk, W; Gajewska, J; Chełchowska, M; Laskowska-Klita, T

    2007-01-01

    In general, most children on well-planed vegetarian diets can achieve normal growth and development. However, elimination of animal products from the diet decreases the intake of some essential nutrients, such as calcium and vitamin D, and may influence bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentrations of biochemical bone turnover markers in prepubertal vegetarian children. We examined 50 children on vegetarian and 50 on omnivorous diets aged 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional program. Serum bone formation (OC, BALP) and resorption (CTX) markers were determined by specific enzyme immunoassays (ELISA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method (CLIA). The average daily energetic value and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets were similar in both groups of children and were within the recommended range. The vegetarian children showed about a two-fold lower daily intake of calcium and vitamin D than their omnivorous counterparts. The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the serum of vegetarian children was also nearly 2-fold lower compared with omnivores. In vegetarians, as compared to non-vegetarians, mean serum concentrations of OC, BALP and CTX were lower by about 20%, 10% and 15%, respectively. Our preliminary results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair bone turnover rate in vegetarian children. The parameters of bone metabolism should be monitored in these children in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  2. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for prepubertal boys? Is ovarian suppression an appropriate fertility preservation option for girls under 18? Why is bone marrow transplantation associated with a high risk of infertility? What is dose fractionation? What is the difference ...

  3. Combined impairment of nutritional parameters and thyroid homeostasis in mildly iodine-deficient children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, M; Maiani, G; Vermiglio, F; Canettieri, G; Sanna, A L; Moretti, F; Trimarchi, F; Andreoli, M

    1998-02-01

    The relation between thyroid homeostasis and the biochemical parameters of subclinical protein malnutrition has been analyzed in schoolchildren in a rural area in the south of Italy, known to be moderately iodine-deficient. The sera of 32 children (15 males and 17 females aged 6 to 11 years) have been analyzed. These children were divided into two groups, according to thyroid function: (1) 16 euthyroid children (mean thyrotropin [TSH] 2.38 +/- .35 mU/L; 6 with goiter) and (2) 16 subclinical hypothyroid children (mean TSH 7.32 +/- 1.68 mU/L; 6 with goiter). Retinol circulating complex (RCC) components were determined in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and radial immunodiffusion and the essential and nonessential amino acid levels by ion exchange chromatography. Reduced retinol binding protein (RBP) and transthyretin (TTR) levels were recorded in the sera of 11 of 32 (34%) and in 5 of 32 (16%) patients, respectively. The linear regression analysis revealed that RBP and TSH levels were inversely correlated (r = -0.514; p malnutrition. These results provide evidence that even mild protein-energy malnutrition may have detrimental effects on thyroid homeostasis in iodine-deficient areas.

  4. Prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in children with celiac disease and effect of gluten withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Antonella; Mandas, Chiara; Jores, Rita Désirée; Congia, Mauro

    2009-07-01

    To study the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) in Sardinian children with celiac disease (CD) and the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on thyroid function. Children with biopsy-proven CD (n = 324; female:male 2:1; mean age, 6.6 years) followed from 1 to 15 years, were retrospectively evaluated for AT at onset of CD and during GFD. Serum thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies (AbTPO, AbTG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid ultrasonography were considered. Age-matched Sardinian schoolchildren (n = 8040), previously evaluated for antithyroid antibodies and thyroid function, were used as controls. Thirty-four patients with CD (10.5%) developed AT (female:male 4,5:1; mean age, 10.5 years), 11 at onset of CD and 23 during GFD, with a higher prevalence than controls (P = 2.9(-13)). Twenty-eight patients were euthyroid and 6 hypothyroid. AbTPO and/or AbTG persisted elevated for 2 to 9 years despite the GFD in 9 of 11 patients with AT at onset of CD. AT is strongly associated with CD in Sardinian children, has an age of onset of 10.5 years, and appears to be gluten-independent. In children with CD with AT, the female:male bias reported in adult AT is present before puberty.

  5. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods.

  6. Nocturnal Dexamethasone versus Hydrocortisone for the Treatment of Children with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

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    Feldman HenryA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia affects approximately 1 in 15,000 children. Current treatment strategies using multiple daily doses of hydrocortisone lead to suboptimal outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that nocturnal administration of dexamethasone will suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis more effectively than standard hydrocortisone treatment by blocking the inherent diurnal secretion of ACTH. We performed a pilot study of five prepubertal patients comparing CAH control during two 24-hour hospitalizations, one on hydrocortisone and the other on dexamethasone. The patterns of adrenal suppression differed markedly between hydrocortisone and nocturnal dexamethasone, with significant suppression of the morning rise in ACTH, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione while on dexamethasone. On hydrocortisone therapy, there is a marked variation in ACTH and adrenal hormones depending on time of day and timing of hydrocortisone administration. Longer-term studies are needed to investigate the lowest effective dose and potential toxicity of nocturnal dexamethasone to determine its utility as a therapy for CAH.

  7. Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects of Childhood Narcolepsy-Cataplexy: A Retrospective Study of 51 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Adi; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Plazzi, Guiseppe; Nishino, Seiji; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective: To report on symptoms and therapies used in childhood narcolepsy-cataplexy. Design, Patients, and Setting: Retrospective series of 51 children who completed the Stanford Sleep Inventory. HLA-DQB1*0602 typing (all tested, and 100% positive), polysomnography or Multiple Sleep Latency Test (76%), and cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 measurements (26%, all with low levels) were also conducted. Prospective data on medication response was collected in 78% using a specially designed questionnaire. Measurements and Results: Patients were separated into children with onset of narcolepsy prior to (53%), around (29%), and after (18%) puberty. None of the children had secondary narcolepsy. Clinical features were similar across puberty groups, except for sleep paralysis, which increased in frequency with age. Common features included excessive weight gain (84% ≥ 4 kg within 6 months of onset of narcolepsy) and earlier puberty (when compared with family members), notably in subjects who gained the most weight. Streptococcus-positive throat infections were reported in 20% of cases within 6 months of onset of narcolepsy. Polysomnographic features were similar across groups, but 3 prepubertal children did not meet Multiple Sleep Latency Test diagnostic criteria. Regarding treatment, the most used and continued medications were modafinil (84% continued), sodium oxybate (79%), and venlafaxine (68%). Drugs such as methylphenidate, tricyclic antidepressants, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were often tried but rarely continued. Modafinil was reported to be effective for treating sleepiness, venlafaxine for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for all symptoms, across all puberty groups. At the conclusion of the study, half of children with prepubertal onset of narcolepsy were treated “off label” with sodium oxybate alone or with the addition of one other compound. In older children, however, most patients needed more than 2 drugs. Conclusion: This study

  8. Imbalance in the blood antioxidant system in growth hormone-deficient children before and after 1 year of recombinant growth hormone therapy

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    Maria S. Pankratova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the effects of 12-month therapy with recombinant growth hormone (rGH on the blood antioxidant system in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of plasma was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power or ferric reducing ability of plasma; activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in erythrocytes were assessed; non-protein thiols (NT and ceruloplasmin (CP levels were also measured. These parameters were determined before and after 12 month of rGH treatment. Eleven treatment-naive prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency were included in the study. Another 11 prepu