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Sample records for euthyroid prepubertal children

  1. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    . DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound....... Longitudinal growth data from birth were available. RESULTS: TV increased significantly with age (r = 0.487; P TV +/- sd for different age groups were as follows: 4 yr, 2.2 +/- 1.4 ml; 5 yr, 2.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 6 yr, 2.8 +/- 1.3 ml; 7 yr, 3.2 +/- 1.3 ml; 8 yr, 3.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 9 yr, 3.7 +/- 1.3 ml....... We found a significant positive association between IGF-I and TV (P

  2. Personal Hygiene and Vulvovaginitis in Prepubertal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemek, Fatıma; Odabaş, Dursun; Şenel, Ünal; Kocaman, Ayşe Tuba

    2016-06-01

    To determine and compare clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls. Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecological problem of childhood. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study involved 45 girls from 2-12 (5.38 ± 2.9) years old; and 26 girls from 3-12 (5.72 ± 3.1) years old as a control group. Anamnesis and physical examination were followed by vaginal smear, urine culture, and stool analyses from both groups, and the personal hygiene status and education level of the mother were determined. The most common symptoms among the patients were vaginal discharge (44.4%, vulvar erythema (37.8%), and vaginal itch (24.4%). Microorganisms, isolated from vaginal smears, were detected in 48.9% of the patients. Escherichia coli was shown in the urine culture of 3 patients with vulvovaginitis (6.70%). In microscopic stool analysis parasites were detected (45.9%). We found some relevant personal hygiene factors, such as wiping back to front (42.9%), cleaning by herself after defecation (89.3%), using toilet paper (60.7%) and wet wipes (21.4%), and bathing standing (14.3%) and sitting (46.4%) among patients. The questionnaire also showed that the children wore tight clothing (35.7%). Our findings suggest that vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls is related not only to microorganisms but also poor personal hygiene, the educational status of mothers, and specific irritants. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: In prepubertal children, most testicular tumours are benign. If tumour markers were negative testis-preserving surgery can be proposed, complete excision of the tumour should be ascertained. In the case of testicular teratoma, the possibility of contralateral tumour should be considered in the follow-up.

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of torsed testicular appendages in prepubertal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Su Mi

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the sonographic findings of torsed testicular appendages and to evaluate the sonographic findings in making erroneous diagnosis of epididymitis or torsion of testis in prepubertal children. From June 2010 to November 2012, we retrospectively analyzed the duplex sonography of fifteen children with torsion of testicular appendages. The presence or absence of the extratesticular nodule and secondary inflammatory changes were evaluated. Six patients had follow-up sonography and two patients underwent surgery. Sonography demonstrated the extratesticular nodule in 13 (87%) children. Four of these 13 children were misdiagnosed as epididymitis due to imperceptions of the nodule. Out of remaining two (13%) children without the nodule, one mimicked epididymitis and the other was misdiagnosed as torsion of testis. Secondary inflammatory changes included enlarged epididymis in 14 children (93%), scrotal wall edema in 11 (73%), hydrocele in 10 (67%), and enlarged testis in 3 (20%). Ultrasonographic findings of secondary inflammatory changes in the absence or imperception of the nodules for epididymo-testicular groove or epididymal head may suggest an erroneous diagnosis of epididymitis or torsion of testis in children with torsed testicular appendages. Meticulous evaluation for the nodule is important when differentiating the torsed testicular appendages from the two entities of prepubertal children.

  5. Inflammatory Bio marker Levels in Obese Prepubertal Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, A.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has grown at an alarming rate, and is associated with metabolic disturbances that determine a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. These disturbances may arise at a very early age in obese children. These metabolic disturbances may be associated with insulin resistance (IR), a systemic low-grade inflammatory state and endothelial dysfunction. Thus it was aimed to determine the concentration levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in obese pre-pubertal children, and their possible relation with metabolic syndrome. For this reason weight (kg), height (m), body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, mm Hg), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), cholesterol fractions HDL-C and LDL-C, and triglycerides (TGs)], fasting insulin (FI), fasting glucose ,HOMA-IR =fasting insulin (μU/ml) blood glucose (mg/dl)/405, CRP, IL-6 and sICAM-1 were analyzed in 30 obese and 15 non obese children. The results obtained displayed significantly elevated values for insulin (ρ= 0.001), homeostasis model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR, ρ 0.001), CRP (ρ< 0.001), IL-6 (ρ= 0.001) and sICAM-1 levels (ρ0.001) in obese children. Nonsignificant differences were found in fasting glucose. Moreover, sICAM- 1 showed a positive correlation with insulin, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 (ρ= 0.042), (ρ= 0.0009), (ρ0.054) and (ρ= 0.026) respectively. It thus could be concluded that prepubertal obese children displayed alterations indicative of endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and inflammatory state which may foreshadow an increased burden of CVD and T2DM in the future. Thus, early identification of the inflammatory and endothelial bio markers in obese children may assist in early interference to prevent progression and complications of type 2 DM and CVD. Moreover, longitudinal

  6. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary outcome is to determine the frequency of the metabolic syndrome components. Subjects and methods: Twenty-three pre-pubertal obese children were ... oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and DXA scan for body composition.

  7. Levothyroxine Treatment of Euthyroid Children with Autoimmune Hashimoto Thyroiditis: Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Helmuth G; Bettendorf, Markus; Binder, Gerhard; Karges, Beate; Kneppo, Carolin; Schmidt, Heinrich; Voss, Egbert; Wabitsch, Martin; Dötsch, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (L-T4) treatment of euthyroid children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a controversial issue. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Out of 79 identified euthyroid patients, 59 started the study; 25 patients (21 female, 4 male; age: 11.8 ± 2.3 years) received L-T4 at a mean dose of 1.6 µg/kg (SD, 0.8) daily, and 34 (27 female, 7 male; age: 12.6 ± 1.2 years) were not treated. Patients developing subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up (n = 13) were treated with L-T4 and removed from the observation group. As the main outcome measures, thyroid gland volume (determined by ultrasound) as well as serum levels of TSH, free T4, and antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin were assessed every 6 months for 36 months. At the start, the mean thyroid volume (standard deviation score, SDS) was 2.5 in the treatment group and 1.6 in the observation group. There was a constant decline in mean thyroid volume (SDS) from 2.13 (month 12) to 1.12 (month 30) in the treated group, with a delta thyroid volume of -1.01 SDS. In the observation group, the mean delta thyroid volume increased to +0.27 SDS. The change of the delta thyroid volume was statistically significantly different between both groups during the 12- and 30-month time points (p thyroid function and serum thyroid antibodies. L-T4 treatment can decrease the thyroid volume in euthyroid children with HT, but the effect is limited to a definite time period. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  9. Cardiac autonomic regulation is disturbed in children with euthyroid Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ayhan; Gulgun, Mustafa; Tascilar, Mehmet Emre; Sari, Erkan; Yokusoglu, Mehmet

    2012-03-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (chronic autoimmune thyroiditis) is the most common form of thyroiditis in childhood. Previous studies have found autonomic dysfunction of varying magnitude in patients with autoimmune diseases, which is considered a cardiovascular risk factor. We aimed to evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of cardiac autonomic modulation, in children with euthyroid Hashimoto thyroiditis (eHT). The study included 32 patients with eHT (27 girls and 5 boys; mean age 11 ± 4.1 years, range 8-16; body mass index 0.47 ± 0.69 kg/m(2)), as judged by normal or minimally elevated serum TSH levels (normal range: 0.34-5.6 mIU/l) and normal levels of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3) and 38 euthyroid age-matched controls. Patients with eHT and control subjects underwent physical examination and 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. Time-domain parameters of HRV were evaluated for cardiac autonomic functions. Children with eHT displayed significantly lower values of time-domain parameters of SDANN (standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals), RMSSD (square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals), NN50 counts (number of pairs of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms) and PNN50 (NN50 count divided by the total number of all NN intervals) for each 5-min interval, compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05 for each), indicating the decreased beat-to-beat variation of heart rate. In conclusion, eHT is associated with disturbed autonomic regulation of heart rate. Hence, the children with eHT are at higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... of pre-pubertal obese children, and to investigate the relation- .... children P 10 years, HDL-Cholesterol <35 mg/dl) [18]. .... HDL: high density lipoprotein, TG: triglycerides, IFG: impaired fasting glucose, IGT: impaired glucose ...

  11. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  12. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children with constitutional delay of growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dyanne A; Hofman, Paul L; Miles, Harriet L; Sato, Tim A; Billett, Nathalie E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prepubertal children with presumed constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) have enhanced insulin sensitivity and, therefore, insulin sensitivity is associated with later onset of puberty. Twenty-one prepubertal children with presumed CDGD and 23 prepubertal control children, underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and other markers of insulin, glucose, and growth regulation. Children in the CDGD group were shorter and leaner than control subjects. Children with presumed CDGD were 40% more insulin sensitive (17.0 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L] versus 12.1 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L]; P = .0006) and had reduced acute insulin response, thus maintaining euglycemia (216 mU/L versus 330 mU/L; P = .02) compared with control subjects. In addition, the CDGD group had lower serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels (3333 ng/mL versus 3775 ng/mL; P = .0004) and a trend toward lower serum insulin-like growth factor-II levels (794 ng/mL versus 911 ng/mL; P = .06). Prepubertal children with presumed CDGD have enhanced insulin sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity is associated with timing of puberty. It may signify long-term biological advantages with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethics of fertility preservation for prepubertal children: should clinicians offer procedures where efficacy is largely unproven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind J; Gillam, Lynn; Delany, Clare; Jayasinghe, Yasmin

    2018-01-01

    Young children with cancer are treated with interventions that can have a high risk of compromising their reproductive potential. ‘Fertility preservation’ for children who have not yet reached puberty involves surgically removing and cryopreserving reproductive tissue prior to treatment in the expectation that strategies for the use of this tissue will be developed in the future. Fertility preservation for prepubertal children is ethically complex because the techniques largely lack proven efficacy for this age group. There is professional difference of opinion about whether it is ethical to offer such ‘experimental’ procedures. The question addressed in this paper is: when, if ever, is it ethically justifiable to offer fertility preservation surgery to prepubertal children? We present the ethical concerns about prepubertal fertility preservation, drawing both on existing literature and our experience discussing this issue with clinicians in clinical ethics case consultations. We argue that offering the procedure is ethically justifiable in certain circumstances. For many children, the balance of benefits and burdens is such that the procedure is ethically permissible but not ethically required; when the procedure is medically safe, it is the parents’ decision to make, with appropriate information and guidance from the treating clinicians. We suggest that clinical ethics support processes are necessary to assist clinicians to engage with the ethical complexity of prepubertal fertility preservation and describe the framework that has been integrated into the pathway of care for patients and families attending the Royal Children’s Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. PMID:29084865

  14. Testicular tissue cryopreservation in prepubertal male children: an analysis of parental decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Jill P; Li, Yimei; Carlson, Claire A; Gracia, Clarisa R; Hobbie, Wendy L; Miller, Victoria A; Mulhall, John; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Brinster, Ralph L; Kolon, Thomas F

    2014-09-01

    Infertility is an unfortunate treatment-related consequence for some pediatric malignancies as well as some non-malignant conditions treated with stem cell transplant. Unlike pubertal males, prepubertal males cannot produce semen for cryopreservation. This manuscript reports on the acceptability and safety of a multi-institutional protocol for offering testicular tissue cryopreservation to families of prepubertal male children at highest risk for infertility. Data on decision influences, decision-making control, and emotional state when considering this option are described. Prepubertal males facing gonadotoxic therapy were offered testicular cryopreservation. Post-biopsy, patients were followed for acute side effects. In addition, parents and patients were asked to complete questionnaires, whether or not they chose to cryopreserve tissue. Seventy-four prepubertal male children were approached. Fifty-seven families (77%) consented to the testicular biopsy; 48 of 57 underwent the procedure. There was one post-operative side effect. Parents who agreed to testicular cryopreservation and those that did not felt in control of this decision. Parents who consented to the biopsy and refusers were not deterred by the experimental nature of the protocol. An important decision-making influence was the risk of the biopsy. Biopsy and cryopreservation of testicular tissue from prepubertal male children was performed successfully and safely at three institutions. Parents faced with this option at diagnosis can make an informed decision and weigh carefully the risks and benefits. Although asked to make a decision soon after they were given a difficult diagnosis, parents uniformly felt in control of this decision. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fat mass index performs best in monitoring management of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (pchildren. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethics of fertility preservation for prepubertal children: should clinicians offer procedures where efficacy is largely unproven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind J; Gillam, Lynn; Delany, Clare; Jayasinghe, Yasmin

    2018-01-01

    Young children with cancer are treated with interventions that can have a high risk of compromising their reproductive potential. 'Fertility preservation' for children who have not yet reached puberty involves surgically removing and cryopreserving reproductive tissue prior to treatment in the expectation that strategies for the use of this tissue will be developed in the future. Fertility preservation for prepubertal children is ethically complex because the techniques largely lack proven efficacy for this age group. There is professional difference of opinion about whether it is ethical to offer such 'experimental' procedures. The question addressed in this paper is: when, if ever, is it ethically justifiable to offer fertility preservation surgery to prepubertal children? We present the ethical concerns about prepubertal fertility preservation, drawing both on existing literature and our experience discussing this issue with clinicians in clinical ethics case consultations. We argue that offering the procedure is ethically justifiable in certain circumstances. For many children, the balance of benefits and burdens is such that the procedure is ethically permissible but not ethically required; when the procedure is medically safe, it is the parents' decision to make, with appropriate information and guidance from the treating clinicians. We suggest that clinical ethics support processes are necessary to assist clinicians to engage with the ethical complexity of prepubertal fertility preservation and describe the framework that has been integrated into the pathway of care for patients and families attending the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Progressive Perineal Urethroplasty for Pelvic Fracture Urethral Distraction Defect in Prepubertal Children: The Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Bipin Chandra; Modi, Pranjal R; Qadri, Syed Javid Farooq; Modi, Jayesh; Kumar, Suresh; Nagarajan, Ramya; Safee, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Urethroplasty in pediatric patients is a challenging task. In this study, we have tried to assess the complexity and evaluate the outcome of progressive perineal anastomotic urethroplasty in prepubertal children. Retrospective data of all the prepubertal children who underwent progressive perineal urethroplasty between March 2009 and April 2014 were analyzed. Patients were evaluated with history, examination, essential laboratory investigations, retrograde urethrogram, and voiding cystourethrogram. Before subjecting the patients for definitive surgery, antegrade and retrograde endoscopic assessment was done. The surgery was performed by the transperineal route with the help of ×2.5 magnification. Patients were followed up with uroflowmetry for every 3 months in the 1 st year and for every 6 months in the subsequent years. Mean age of the patients was 7.3 (range 5-11) years. Mean urethral distraction defect was 1.7 (range 1-2.5) cm. All the patients were successfully managed by the perineal approach. Crural separation was performed in all the patients while additional inferior pubectomy was required in six patients. Mean operating time was 298 (range 180-400) min. Mean blood loss was 174 (range 100-500) ml. One patient had the left calf hematoma in the immediate postoperative period. Seven out of nine (77.7%) patients had successful urethroplasty. Two patients had failed urethroplasty who were successfully managed by redo-urethroplasty. Transient incontinence was observed in one patient. Erectile function could not be assessed in these patients. This study shows the feasibility of progressive perineal urethroplasty by the perineal route in prepubertal children. An endoscopic assessment should be performed before the definitive surgery. Use of loupe helps in performing better anastomosis and hence yielding a better result.

  18. Progressive perineal urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect in prepubertal children: The outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Chandra Pal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urethroplasty in pediatric patients is a challenging task. In this study, we have tried to assess the complexity and evaluate the outcome of progressive perineal anastomotic urethroplasty in prepubertal children. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data of all the prepubertal children who underwent progressive perineal urethroplasty between March 2009 and April 2014 were analyzed. Patients were evaluated with history, examination, essential laboratory investigations, retrograde urethrogram, and voiding cystourethrogram. Before subjecting the patients for definitive surgery, antegrade and retrograde endoscopic assessment was done. The surgery was performed by the transperineal route with the help of ×2.5 magnification. Patients were followed up with uroflowmetry for every 3 months in the 1 st year and for every 6 months in the subsequent years. Results: Mean age of the patients was 7.3 (range 5-11 years. Mean urethral distraction defect was 1.7 (range 1-2.5 cm. All the patients were successfully managed by the perineal approach. Crural separation was performed in all the patients while additional inferior pubectomy was required in six patients. Mean operating time was 298 (range 180-400 min. Mean blood loss was 174 (range 100-500 ml. One patient had the left calf hematoma in the immediate postoperative period. Seven out of nine (77.7% patients had successful urethroplasty. Two patients had failed urethroplasty who were successfully managed by redo-urethroplasty. Transient incontinence was observed in one patient. Erectile function could not be assessed in these patients. Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of progressive perineal urethroplasty by the perineal route in prepubertal children. An endoscopic assessment should be performed before the definitive surgery. Use of loupe helps in performing better anastomosis and hence yielding a better result.

  19. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives...

  20. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. AIM: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. METHODS: Patients were rando...... treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature.......BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. AIM: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. METHODS: Patients were...

  1. Association between cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness in prepubertal Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazolla, Fernanda Mussi; Neves Bordallo, Maria Alice; Madeira, Isabel Rey; de Miranda Carvalho, Cecilia Noronha; Vieira Monteiro, Alexandra Maria; Pinheiro Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina; Borges, Marcos Antonio; Collett-Solberg, Paulo Ferrez; Muniz, Bruna Moreira; de Oliveira, Cecilia Lacroix; Pinheiro, Suellen Martins; de Queiroz Ribeiro, Rebeca Mathias

    2015-05-01

    Early exposure to cardiovascular risk factors creates a chronic inflammatory state that could damage the endothelium followed by thickening of the carotid intima-media. To investigate the association of cardiovascular risk factors and thickening of the carotid intima. Media in prepubertal children. In this cross-sectional study, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 129 prepubertal children aged from 5 to 10 year. Association was assessed by simple and multivariate logistic regression analyses. In simple logistic regression analyses, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were positively associated with increased left, right, and average cIMT, whereas diastolic blood pressure was positively associated only with increased left and average cIMT (p<0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analyses increased left cIMT was positively associated to BMI z-score and SBP, and increased average cIMT was only positively associated to SBP (p<0.05). BMI z-score and SBP were the strongest risk factors for increased cIMT.

  2. Do attachment representations predict depression and anxiety in psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents.

  3. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L

    2015-01-01

    . In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180µg/L (range 0.10-0.69µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50µg/L (range 0.80-39.91µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation...... and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old......), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1µg/L for Cd, and 0.8µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level...

  4. Lactose intolerance: lack of evidence for short stature or vitamin D deficiency in prepubertal children.

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    Nithya Setty-Shah

    Full Text Available The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI are unclear.To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status.LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls.Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19 were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21.prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts, diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.There was no significant difference in 25(OHD between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29. Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85(th percentile vs. overweight/obese (BMI ≥85(th percentile, the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OHD level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025, and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004. Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53, while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049, and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28. MPTH z-score was similar between the groups.Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children.

  5. Comparison of inflammation and oxidative stress levels by the severity of obesity in prepubertal children

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    Ni Luh Putu Surya Candra Eka Pertiwi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Children with severe obesity are more likely to develop diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Inflammation and oxidative stress associated with childhood obesity may be important in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Objective To compare levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and malondialdehyde (MDA by the severity of obesity in prepubertal children aged 6 to 10 years. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Pediatric Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Clinic, Sanglah Hospital, Bali, from August to December 2015. Subjects were categorized into three body mass index (BMI groups, according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart: overweight (85th-94.9th percentile, obese (95th-98.9th percentile, or severely obese (≥ 99th percentile. Plasma MDA and serum hsCRP were analyzed in blood specimens obtained at enrollment. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test for post-hoc comparison between groups. Results Subjects were 20 overweight children, 29 obese children, and 28 severely obese children. Levels of MDA were significantly higher in the severely obese [median 0.25 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L] than in obese subjects [median 0.19 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L; P=0.001], and than in overweight subjects [median 0.16 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L; P<0.0001]. Also, the severely obese children had significantly higher hsCRP levels compared to obese [median 3.2 (IQR 2.0 mg/L vs. 1.3 (1.6 mg/L, respectively; P<0.0001] and compared to overweight children [median 0.7 (IQR 0.6 mg/L; P<0.0001].     Conclusion Prepubertal children at the ≥ 99th percentile for BMI (severely obese are more likely to have significantly higher hsCRP and MDA compared to those in the obese and overweight groups.

  6. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis for evaluating zinc supplementation in prepubertal and healthy children

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    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of abnormal nutritional status has increased in children and adolescents. Nutritional assessment is important for monitoring the health and nutritional status. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA combines changes in tissue hydration and structure and body composition that can be assessed. Objectives: The objective of this study was to use BIVA to evaluate nutritional status in 60 prepubertal children, aged between 8 and 9 years, supplemented with zinc, to detect possible changes in body composition. Design: We performed a randomized, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into the control group (CG; sorbitol 10%, n=29 or the experimental group (EG; 10 mg Zn/day, n=31, and the duration of the experiment was 3 months. Anthropometric assessments were performed for all of the children. Results: The body mass index-for-age increased after oral zinc supplementation in the EG (p=0.005. BIVA indicated that the CG demonstrated a tendency for dehydration and decreased soft tissue and the EG demonstrated a tendency for increased soft tissue, primarily the fat-free mass. After analyses of BIVA ellipses, we observed that this method could detect improvements in body composition in healthy children supplemented with zinc. Conclusions: These results suggest that BIVA could be an auxiliary method for studying a small population undergoing zinc intervention.

  7. Longer duration of obesity is associated with a reduction in urinary angiotensinogen in prepubertal children.

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    Morato, Manuela; Correia-Costa, Liane; Sousa, Teresa; Cosme, Dina; Schaefer, Franz; Areias, José Carlos; Guerra, António; Afonso, Alberto Caldas; Barros, Henrique; Azevedo, Ana; Albino-Teixeira, António

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to study the impact of obesity on urinary excretion of angiotensinogen (U-AGT) in prepubertal children, focusing on the duration of obesity and gender. Also, we aimed to evaluate whether plasma angiotensinogen (P-AGT) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) play a role in the putative association. Cross-sectional evaluation of 305 children aged 8-9 years (160 normal weight, 86 overweight, and 59 obese). Anthropometric measurements and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed. Angiotensinogen (AGT) was determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and H 2 O 2 by a microplate fluorometric assay. U-AGT and P-AGT levels were similar across body mass index (BMI) groups and between sexes. However, boys who were overweight/obese since the age of 4 years presented lower levels of U-AGT compared with those of normal weight at the same age. In children who were overweight/obese since the age of 4, urinary H 2 O 2 decreased with P-AGT. A higher duration of obesity was associated with decreased U-AGT in boys, thus reflecting decreased intrarenal activity of the renin-angiotensin system. Also, children with a longer duration of obesity showed an inverse association between urinary H 2 O 2 and P-AGT. Future studies should address whether these results reflect an early compensatory mechanism to limit obesity-triggered renal dysfunction.

  8. Can static plantar pressures of prepubertal children be predicted by inked footprints?

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    Dowling, Annaliese M; Steele, Julie R; Baur, Louise A

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether a pedograph could be used as a field-based screening tool to predict pressures generated on the plantar surfaces of the feet of prepubertal children during single-limb weightbearing stance. Plantar pressures were collected in 51 primary school-aged children using a pressure distribution measurement system. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between footprint angle and both peak force (r = -0.453) and peak area (r = -0.539), and statistically significant positive correlations were found between the Chippaux-Smirak Index and both peak force (rho= 0.285) and peak area (rho = 0.559). Although statistically significant, the weak relationships precluded foot structure variables from being used to predict the plantar pressures of children during static weightbearing. It is therefore recommended that an alternative field-based tool that directly measures plantar pressures be used to screen children in the public school system to identify those at risk of excessive plantar pressures.

  9. Predicting skeletal muscle mass from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Japanese prepubertal children.

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    Midorikawa, T; Ohta, M; Hikihara, Y; Torii, S; Sakamoto, S

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop regression-based prediction equations for estimating total and regional skeletal muscle mass (SMM) from measurements of lean soft tissue mass (LSTM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and investigate the validity of these equations. In total, 144 healthy Japanese prepubertal children aged 6-12 years were divided into 2 groups: the model development group (62 boys and 38 girls) and the validation group (26 boys and 18 girls). Contiguous MRI images with a 1-cm slice thickness were obtained from the first cervical vertebra to the ankle joints as reference data. The SMM was calculated from the summation of the digitized cross-sectional areas. Total and regional LSTM was measured using DXA. Strong significant correlations were observed between the site-matched SMM (total, arms, trunk and legs) measured by MRI and the LSTM obtained by DXA in the model development group for both boys and girls (R 2 adj =0.86-0.97, Pprediction equations were applied to the validation group, the measured total (boys 9.47±2.21 kg; girls 8.18±2.62 kg) and regional SMM were very similar to the predicted values for both boys (total SMM 9.40±2.39 kg) and girls (total SMM 8.17±2.57 kg). The results of the Bland-Altman analysis for the validation group did not indicate any bias for either boys or girls with the exception of the arm region for the girls. These results suggest that the DXA-derived prediction equations are precise and accurate for the estimation of total and regional SMM in Japanese prepubertal boys and girls.

  10. Breakfast skipping in prepubertal obese children: hormonal, metabolic and cognitive consequences.

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    Maffeis, C; Fornari, E; Surano, M G; Comencini, E; Corradi, M; Tommasi, M; Fasan, I; Cortese, S

    2012-03-01

    Skipping breakfast influences cognitive performance. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the variation of hormonal and metabolic postprandial parameters induced by breakfast consumption or fasting and cognitive performance in obese children. Cross-sectional study for repeated measures. Memory and attention assessment tests, hormones and nutrient oxidation were measured before and after consuming breakfast vs fasting in 10 prepubertal obese children. Fasting induced a significant (PContinuous Performance Test II (a global index of inattention) and the Test of Memory and Learning Word Selective Reminding (a test of verbal memory), whereas no changes were found after breakfast. Fasting was associated with a reduction of insulin and an increase in glucagon, with no changes in glucose. The increase in inattention was associated with a reduction of carbohydrate oxidation (ρ=-0.66, Pbreakfast or fasting, whereas Ghrelin was significantly lower. No association between postprandial hormone variation and cognitive performance was found. Attention and visual memory performance in the morning were reduced when the children skipped breakfast. No association was found with hormones or metabolic changes, but we did find an association with a reduction of carbohydrate oxidation. Nevertheless, these preliminary findings need confirmation in larger sample size.

  11. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

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    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  12. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

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    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity.

  13. Selected gene polymorphisms effect on skin and hair pigmentation in Polish children at the prepubertal age.

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    Sitek, Aneta; Rosset, Iwona; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Siewierska-Górska, Anna; Pietrowska, Edyta; Strapagiel, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    Background : Human pigmentation, similarly as many other biological features, changes in the course of post-natal ontogenesis, while in case of hair, pigmentation changes are more distinctive than in the skin or the iris. It is therefore extremely important to identify the genes, involved in the constitution of human pigmentation features at various stages of ontogenesis. Results of this type of analyses are of high practical significance in forensic study because they enable to create mathematical tools, allowing for prediction of the pigmentation phenotype, based on DNA studies. Aim : The objective of the investigation was finding out whether the genes, associated with pigmentation of adult subjects, differentiated in any way the newly forming pigmentation phenotype in Polish prepubertal children. Material and methods : The study encompassed Polish children, aged 7 to 10 years, without any abnormalities in skin or hair pigmentation. A total of 245 children were examined. Constitutive skin pigmentation according to skin melanin index (SMI) was evaluated, using a dermaspectrometer, and classified into three groups based on the reference values of 25 and 75 percentile for Polish children. Hair colors were evaluated by means of the descriptive Fischer-Saller scale and classified by a division of color variants (as accepted in that scale) (light blonde, blonde, dark blonde, brown and dark brown). In saliva samples, collected from the children, five (5) single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: SNPs : rs1800401 ( OCA2 -15q11.2-q12), rs35264875 ( TPCN2 -11q13.3), rs16891982 ( SLC45A2 -5p13.2), rs12913832 ( HERC2 -15q13) and rs1805007 ( MC1R -16q24.3). An association between each allele of verified genotype and skin and hair color phenotypes was assessed, using the z-statistic and associated p -value. The quality of classifiers was evaluated by 10-fold stratified cross-validation and was characterized by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve

  14. Site-specific differences of insulin action in adipose tissue derived from normal prepubertal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, Malcolm; Stewart, Claire; Welsh, Gavin; Hunt, Linda; Tavare, Jeremy; Holly, Jeff; Shield, Julian; Sabin, Matt; Crowne, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Body fat distribution determines obesity-related morbidity in adults but little is known of the aetiology or pathophysiology in children. This study investigates differences in insulin-mediated metabolism in primary cell cultures of subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes derived from prepubertal children. The impact of differentiation and responses to TNFα exposure was also investigated. Proliferation rates were greater in subcutaneous versus visceral preadipocytes (41 h(3) versus 69 h(4); P = 0.008). Insulin caused a dose-dependent increase in GSK-3 phosphorylation and an increase in MAPK phosphorylation over time, with increased sensitivity in subcutaneous preadipocytes. Post-differentiation, dose-dependent increases in GSK-3 phosphorylation were maintained, while MAPK phosphorylation was identical in both subtypes. No changes were observed in insulin receptor abundance pre-/post-differentiation. GLUT4 abundance was significantly increased in visceral versus subcutaneous adipocytes by 76(4)%; P = 0.03), coincidental with increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-glucose transport (+150(26)% versus +79(10)%; P = 0.014) and further elevated by acute exposure to TNFα (+230(52)%; P = 0.019 versus +123(24)%; P = 0.025, respectively). TNFα also significantly increased basal glucose transport rates (+44(14)%; P = 0.006 versus +34(11)%; P = 0.007) and GLUT1 localisation to the plasma membrane. These data establish site-specific differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat cells from children. Responses to insulin varied with differentiation and TNFα exposure in the two depots, consistent with parallel changes in GLUT1/4 abundance and localisation

  15. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children

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    Esposito M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Giuseppina Patriciello,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy Background: Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. Methods: The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years, and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years. The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC. Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725, gender (P = 0.886, z-body mass index (P = 0.149, or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient (P = 0.163. The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M

  16. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: HOMA-IR cut-off levels in the prepubertal and pubertal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz; Kendirici, Mustafa; Keskin, Mehmet; Kondolot, Meda

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism for the physiological increase in insulin levels in puberty is not clearly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese children and adolescents according to gender and pubertal status. Two hundred and eight obese children and adolescents (141 girls, 127 boys) aged between 5 and 18 years were included in the study. The children were divided into prepubertal and pubertal groups. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out in all children. A total insulin level exceeding 300 μU/mL in the blood samples, collected during the test period, was taken as the insulin resistance criterion. Cut-off values for HOMA-IR were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the prepubertal period, the rate of insulin resistance was found to be 37% in boys and 27.8% in girls,while in the pubertal period, this rate was 61.7% in boys and 66.7% in girls. HOMA-IR cut-off values for insulin resistance in the prepubertal period were calculated to be 2.67 (sensitivity 88.2%, specificity 65.5%) in boys and 2.22 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 42.3%) in girls, and in the pubertal period, they were 5.22 (sensitivity 56%, specificity 93.3%) in boys and 3.82 (sensitivity 77.1%, specificity 71.4%) in girls. Since gender, obesity and pubertal status are factors affecting insulin resistance, cut-off values which depend on gender and pubertal status, should be used in evaluation of insulin resistance.

  17. IGF-I generation test in prepubertal children with Noonan syndrome due to mutations in the PTPN11 gene.

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    Bertelloni, Silvano; Baroncelli, Giampiero I; Dati, Eleonora; Ghione, Silvia; Baldinotti, Fulvia; Toschi, Benedetta; Simi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Short stature represents one of the main features of children with Noonan syndrome. The reason for impaired growth remains largely unknown. To assess GH and IGF1 secretion in children with Noonan syndrome. 12 prepubertal children with Noonan syndrome due to mutations in the PTPN11 gene [7 males, 6 females; median age, years: 8.6 (range 5.1-13.4)] were studied; 12 prepubertal children with short stature (SS) [7 males, 5 females; median age, years: 8.1 (range 4.8-13.1)] served as the control group. GH secretion after arginine stimulation test; IGF1 generation test by measurement of IGF1 levels before and after recombinant GH (rGH) administration (0.05 mg/kg/day for 4 days). Baseline and stimulated peak values of GH were not significantly different between the two groups. At +120 minutes, GH levels remained significantly higher (p = 0.0121) in comparison with baseline values in children with Noonan syndrome. Baseline IGFI levels in patients and in SS controls were not significantly different, in contrast to values after the rGH generation test [205 ng/mL (interquartiles 138.2-252.5 ng/mL) and 284.5 ng/mL (interquartiles 172-476 ng/mL), respectively; p = 0.0248]. IGF1 values were significantly related to height (baseline: r = 773, p = 0.0320; peak: r = 0.591, p = 0.0428) in children with Noonan syndrome. Blunted increase of IGF1 after the rGH generation test was present in children with Noonan syndrome due to mutations in the PTPN11 gene in comparison with SS children. This finding may be due to partial GH resistance in the former likely related to altered Ras-MAPK signaling pathway.

  18. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D associated with indicators of body fat and insulin resistance in prepubertal chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, G; Corvalán, C; Aguirre, C; de Romaña, D L; Uauy, R

    2016-01-01

    Consistent data on the relation between vitamin D, body fat and insulin resistance (IR) in children are lacking. (1) To evaluate the association between serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and key indicators of: adiposity (total and central), IR, and (2) to estimate serum 25(OH)D cut-offs that best reflect IR and total and central adiposity in children. Prepubertal children (n=435, ~53% girls; ~age 7 years) from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study were evaluated for potential associations between serum 25(OH)D and indicators of: (1) total adiposity (body mass index by age (BAZ), body fat (including three-component model)), central adiposity (waist circumference and trunk fatness); (2) IR (homeostasis model assessment of IR) and insulin sensitive (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) using standardized multiple regression models with standardized coefficients and receiver operating characteristic curves. Overall, mean serum 25(OH)D was 32.1±9.2 ng ml(-1), while 19.4% of children were obese (BAZ⩾2 s.d.). Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with indicators of total and central adiposity and with IR indicators. Effect sizes were moderate in girls (~0.3 for adiposity and IR indicators), while, weaker values were found in boys. Serum 25(OH)D estimated cut-offs that best predicted total, central adiposity and IR were~30 ng ml(-1). Children with suboptimal serum 25(OH)D (risk (two to three times) of being obese (high BAZ, body fat percent and/or central adiposity); and three to four times greater risk for IR. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with adiposity (total and central) and IR indicators in prepubertal Chilean children. The conventional cut-off of vitamin D sufficiency (⩾30 ng ml(-1)) was adequate to assess obesity and IR risk in this age group.

  19. Physical activity reduces systemic blood pressure and improves early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Aggoun, Yacine; Marchand, Laetitia M; Martin, Xavier E; Herrmann, François R; Beghetti, Maurice

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of physical activity on systemic blood pressure (BP) and early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children. Hypertension and endothelial dysfunction are premature complications of obesity. We performed a 3-month randomized controlled trial with a modified crossover design: 44 pre-pubertal obese children (age 8.9 + or - 1.5 years) were randomly assigned (1:1) to an exercise (n = 22) or a control group (n = 22). We recruited 22 lean children (age 8.5 + or - 1.5 years) for baseline comparison. The exercise group trained 60 min 3 times/week during 3 months, whereas control subjects remained relatively inactive. Then, both groups trained twice/week during 3 months. We assessed changes at 3 and 6 months in office and 24-h BP, arterial intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness, endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), body mass index (BMI), body fat, cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [VO(2)max]), physical activity, and biological markers. Obese children had higher BP, arterial stiffness, body weight, BMI, abdominal fat, insulin resistance indexes, and C-reactive protein levels, and lower flow-mediated dilation, VO(2)max, physical activity, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than lean subjects. At 3 months, we observed significant changes in 24-h systolic BP (exercise -6.9 + or - 13.5 mm Hg vs. control 3.8 + or - 7.9 mm Hg, -0.8 + or - 1.5 standard deviation score [SDS] vs. 0.4 + or - 0.8 SDS), diastolic BP (-0.5 + or - 1.0 SDS vs. 0 + or - 1.4 SDS), hypertension rate (-12% vs. -1%), office BP, BMI z-score, abdominal fat, and VO(2)max. At 6 months, change differences in arterial stiffness and IMT were significant. A regular physical activity program reduces BP, arterial stiffness, and abdominal fat; increases cardiorespiratory fitness; and delays arterial wall remodeling in pre-pubertal obese children. (Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Arterial Function and

  20. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jeong Rye; Lee, Young Seok; Yu, Jee Suk

    2015-01-01

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  1. Relationship between body mass index and adiposity in prepubertal children: ethnic and geographic comparisons between New York City and Jinan City (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navder, Khursheed P.; He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Thornton, John; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is often used as a surrogate estimate of percent body fat in epidemiological studies. This study tested the hypothesis that BMI is representative of body fatness independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and geographic location in prepubertal children. The study sample included a total of 605 prepubertal children (275 girls and 330 boys) of which 247 were Chinese from Jinan, Shandong, Mainland China, and 358 children were from various ethnic backgrounds in New York City (NYC): 121 Caucasians, 94 African Americans, and 143 Asians (Chinese and Korean). In this cross-sectional study, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify total body fat (TBF) and percent body fat (PBF). Prepubertal status was assessed by the criteria of Tanner. Multiple regression models were developed with TBF and PBF as the dependent variables and BMI, age, sex, and ethnicity as independent variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI alone explained 85% and 69% of between-subject variance for TBF and PBF, respectively. Sex was a significant contributor to the models (P < 0.001) with girls having higher TBF and PBF than boys. Ethnicity and geographic location were significant contributors to the model (P < 0.0001) with Asians (Jinan and NYC Asians) having higher PBF than all non-Asian groups (P < 0.0001), and Jinan Asians having higher TBF and PBF than NYC-Asians. Among prepubertal children, for the same BMI, Asians have significantly higher PBF compared with African Americans and Caucasians. Caution is warranted when applying BMI across sex and ethnic prepubertal groups. PMID:19541740

  2. Gender differentiations of cognitive-motor functioning in prepubertal and pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav; Barović, Zdenka

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cognitive and motor status factors in female and male children aged 10-14, as well as developmental and/or integration functions according to gender. The study included 162 girls and 134 boys aged 10-14, divided into four groups: 84 girls aged 10-12 (mean age 11.26, SD 0.68), 84 boys aged 10-12 (mean age 11.41, SD 0.50), 78 girls aged 13-14 (mean age 13.52, SD 0.63) and 50 boys aged 13-14 (mean age 13.21, SD 0.53). The significance of quantitative differences between boys and girls in the overall system of variables was defined based on the results of canonic discriminant analysis of variance, and within each variable based on the results on univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). In the younger age group (10-12 years), girls were superior to boys in a test assessing flexibility (Seated straddle stretch), whereas, compared to girls, boys had greater strength of the trunk (Crossed-arm sit-ups), greater explosive strength ofjump and sprint type (Standing broad jump and 20 m dash), and coordination (Obstacle course backwards and Steps laterally). In the older age group (13-14 years) differences in flexibility were even more prominent in favor of girls, whereas the differences in explosive strength increased in favor of boys, especially of the throwing type with better agility (Steps laterally), balance (Board balance) and greater static strength of arms and shoulders (Bent-arm hang). In order to determine qualitative differences between pubertal and prepubertal girls and boys, the matrix of variable inter-correlations was factorized by the procedure of principal components procedure, that were then transformed to promax solution. The results showed that cognitive functioning had a significant role in the motor efficacy of girls and boys aged 10 to 14. In the age group of 10-12 years, in females, cognitive functioning is related to the motor system which integrates the regulation of muscle tone with agility/coordination, whereas

  3. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

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    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  4. Placebo-controlled study of montelukast and budesonide on short-term growth in prepubertal asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Agertoft, Lone; Williams-Herman, Debora

    2007-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids and anti-leukotriene agents are widely used in the treatment of pediatric asthma. Although data on the effect of corticosteroids on growth are available, there are few such data on anti-leukotriene agents. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of montelukast on...... on short-term lower leg growth rate (LLGR) in prepubertal children with asthma.......Inhaled corticosteroids and anti-leukotriene agents are widely used in the treatment of pediatric asthma. Although data on the effect of corticosteroids on growth are available, there are few such data on anti-leukotriene agents. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of montelukast...

  5. Association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome components in prepubertal obese children (Tanner Stage I) from Nuevo León, Mexico - a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Elizabeth Solis; Medina, Mario Alberto González; Lomeli, Manuel Lopez-Cabanillas; González, Verónica Tijerina; Pérez, Jesús Zacarías Villarreal; Lavalle González, Fernando J; Imrhan, Victorine; Juma, Shanil; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Boonme, Kittipong; Prasad, Chandan

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in obese children demonstrating a positive association between serum uric acid (sUA) and components of MetS are confounded by lack of uniformity in age and pubertal status of children. Therefore, we have examined the role of sUA in MetS and its components in pre-pubertal children (Tanner Stage I, age ≤ 9 years). Pre-pubertal obese children (32 boys, 27 girls, age 6-9 years) were recruited from Nuevo Leon, Mexico. For comparison, an equal number of children with normal body mass index (BMI) in the same age range (22 Boys, 39 girls, age 6-9 years) were also recruited from the same community. Presence of MetS and its components was defined according to the criteria of International Diabetes Federation. Fasting blood was analyzed for lipids, glucose, insulin, and uric acid. Among the obese children, sUA was positively associated with insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia and negatively associated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLc). Subjects were three times more likely to have a MetS diagnosis per one unit (md/dL) difference in sUA. Of the 59 obese pre-pubertal children, 20 were classified as having MetS defined by the presence of abdominal obesity and two or more of other components described under methods. Of these, 57.1% (20/61) had sUA between 5.1 and 7.1 mg/dl. The findings of this study clearly indicate a positive relationship between uric acid and MetS and its components in pre-pubertal obese children with Tanner stage I and ≤9 years of age.

  6. The influence of INS VNTR class III allele on auxological parameters, glucose, insulin, lipids, and adipocytokines secretion in prepubertal children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawerska, Renata; Szałapska, Małgorzata; Borowiec, Maciej; Antosik, Karolina; Młynarski, Wojciech; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats (INS VNTR) class III allele has been implicated in lower birth weight, obesity, and insulin resistance. We assessed its influence on birth weight in the Polish population and on the current body mass and metabolic profile in prepubertal children born small for gestational age (SGA). DNA for genotyping of INS VNTR was available for 123 subjects born SGA and 132 born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). We identified two alleles: class I and class III. Next, in 112 prepubertal (aged: 6.8 ± 1.38 years) SGA children, the auxological measurements, fasting serum C-peptide, triglycerides, cholesterol, ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) concentrations, as well as glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were assessed and insulin resistance indices were calculated. The results were analysed depending on INS VNTR variants. The occurrence of individual INS VNTR variants were similar in the SGA and AGA groups. In prepubertal SGA children, we did not observe any statistical differences as regards birth weight, body mass, lipids, or adipocytokine concentrations among I/I, I/III, and III/III class groups. The concentration of insulin in 120' of OGTT was significantly higher in class III homozygous than in class I homozygous individuals. Variant INS VNTR class III was shown not to be associated in any essential way with birth weight in the Polish population. Among prepubertal SGA children, the presence of INS VNTR class III is related to higher insulin secretion during OGTT. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (6): 585-591).

  7. Metabolic and hormonal consequences of two different meals after a moderate intensity exercise bout in obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Bonadonna, R; Maschio, M; Aiello, G; Tommasi, M; Marigliano, M; Fornari, E; Morandi, A

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between postprandial nutrient balance, satiety and hormone changes induced by two different meals taken after a moderate intensity exercise bout. Ten prepubertal obese children participated in the study. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study for repeated measures. Each test period lasted five consecutive hours during which the children were under medical supervision. The effects of two isocaloric meals were compared after a moderate intensity exercise (4 multiples of resting metabolic rate, 30 min, cycling): a low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal (meal A) and a high-fat/low-carbohydrate meal (meal B). Pre and postprandial (3 h) substrate oxidation, biochemical parameters, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and appetite were measured. The main results were: (i) higher fat balance (5.1±5.0 vs -5.0±6.6 g, P=0.001) and lower carbohydrate balance after meal B than A (-9.7±13.3 vs 11.3±18.3 g, Pvs -13.9±20.2 kcal, Pvs -169.5±1633.7 mg*180 min/dl, Pvs 478.8±638.3 pmol*180 min/l, Plow-carbohydrate ratio had a less favorable metabolic impact than an isoenergetic, isoproteic low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal.

  8. Diversity of activity participation determines bone mineral content in the lower limbs of pre-pubertal children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, S S M; Vackova, D; Choi, A W M; Cheng, Y T Y; Yam, T T T; Guo, X

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between activity participation and bone mineralization in children with developmental coordination disorder. Limited participation in physical, recreational, social, and skill-based and self-improvement activities contributed to lower bone mineral content. For improved bone health, these children should participate in a variety of activities, not only physical activities. Limited activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may have a negative impact on bone mineral accrual. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineralization and activity participation patterns of pre-pubertal children with DCD and those with typical development, and to determine the association between activity participation patterns and bone mineralization in children with DCD. Fifty-two children with DCD (mean age = 7.51 years) and 61 children with typical development (mean age = 7.22 years) participated in the study. Appendicular and total body (less head) bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated by a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Activity participation patterns were assessed using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) questionnaire. Children with DCD had lower appendicular and total body BMCs and BMDs than children with typical development overall (p accounting for the effects of age, sex, height, lean mass, and fat mass, the total activity diversity score remained independently associated with leg BMC in children with DCD, explaining 5.1% of the variance (p = 0.030). However, the physical activity diversity score was no longer associated with leg BMC (p = 0.090). Diversity of activity participation and bone mineralization were lower in pre-pubertal children with DCD. Decreased total activity participation diversity was a contributing factor to lower BMC in the legs of children with DCD.

  9. Relation of oxygen uptake to work rate in prepubertal healthy children - reference for VO2/W-slope and effect on cardiorespiratory fitness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-08-09

    Exercise testing by cycle ergometer allows to observe the interaction between oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) and workload (W), and VO 2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. Respectively, peak oxygen uptake (VO 2 PEAK ) can be estimated by maximal workload. We aim to determine reference for VO 2 /W-slope among prepubertal children and define agreement between estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK . A total of 38 prepubertal children (20 girls) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test with respiratory gas analysis. VO 2 /W-slopes were computed using linear regression. Agreement analysis by Bland and Altman for estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK was carried out including limits of agreement (LA). Determinants for VO 2 /W-slopes and estimation bias were defined. VO2/W-slope was in both girls and boys ≥9·4 and did not change with exercise level, but the oxygen cost of exercise was higher among physically more active children. Estimated VO 2 PEAK had 6·4% coefficient of variation, and LA varied from 13% underestimation to 13% overestimation. Bias had a trend towards underestimation along lean mass proportional VO 2 PEAK . The primary determinant for estimation bias was VO2/W-slope (β = -0·65; PW-slope among healthy prepubertal children were similar to those published for adults and among adolescents. Estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK should not be considered to be interchangeable because of the variation in the relationship between VO 2 and W. On other hand, variation in the relationship between VO 2 and W enables that VO 2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Galactocele in a Prepubertal Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, Veronica I; Jeudy, Myrlene; Pearlman, Mark; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2017-08-01

    Galactoceles have been previously described as an unusual cause of benign breast enlargement in male infants and children. A 3-year-old prepubertal girl presented with a right-sided breast mass and was found to have a 4.4-cm hypoechoic cyst on ultrasound imaging with otherwise normal endocrine studies including prolactin levels. She underwent cyst aspiration which revealed milky fluid. Fat globules were identified with microscopic examination, confirming the diagnosis of a galactocele. Aspiration resolved the mass. The etiology of galactoceles in nonlactating women is poorly understood. Traditionally, treatment of these benign cysts in male children has been surgical excision. In prepubertal girls, conservative management by surveillance or needle aspiration is warranted to prevent damage to developing breast tissue. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parents need to protect: influences, risks and tensions for parents of prepubertal children born with ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Caroline; Carter, Bernie; Goodacre, Lynne

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to explore parents' experiences of and the influences, risks and tensions associated with their child's genital ambiguity and the place reconstructive surgeries had in their lives. Research into the clinical management of disorders of sex development is a complex and growing field of study. A small number of studies have indicated that the decisions parents make with regard to their child's care during infancy are confounded by moral, social and emotional factors which can influence their choices. Narrative methods. In-depth interviews elicited stories from 10 mothers and five fathers of 11 prepubertal children. A key theme from the data focused on the parents' motivations to protect their child from the real or perceived threats arising from other people's attitudes and responses to their ambiguous genitalia. Several rationales for their protective behaviours were described, which encouraged the parents to actively manage their child's care. The dilemmas that parents face in the complex and challenging situation following the birth of a child with ambiguous genitalia require early support from insightful professionals such as nurses. This support could better prepare the parents to recognise and discuss their protective behaviours and the impact these may have on their child's future. These findings draw attention to the parents' need for nurses to be knowledgeable about the impact that disorders of sex development can have on family's emotional, psychosocial well-being and decision-making. Nurses' awareness of the debate surrounding genital surgeries is important if they are to understand the motivations that underpin parents' decision-making and how to support them sensitively. Nurses are the health professionals who have the most consistent direct contact with these families throughout the child's life and, therefore, can provide support in the ongoing decision-making process. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Adeno-tonsillectomy and rapid maxillary distraction in pre-pubertal children, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, Christian; Monteyrol, Pierre-Jean; Huynh, Nelly T; Pirelli, Paola; Quo, Stacey; Li, Kasey

    2011-05-01

    When both narrow maxilla and moderately enlarged tonsils are present in children with obstructive sleep apnea, the decision of which treatment to do first is unclear. A preliminary randomized study was done to perform a power analysis and determine the number of subjects necessary to have an appropriate response. Thirty-one children, 14 boys, diagnosed with OSA based on clinical symptoms and polysomnography (PSG) findings had presence of both narrow maxillary complex and enlarged tonsils. They were scheduled to have both adeno-tonsillectomy and RME for which the order of treatment was randomized: group 1 received surgery followed by orthodontics, while group 2 received orthodontics followed by surgery. Each child was seen by an ENT, an orthodontist, and a sleep medicine specialist. The validated pediatric sleep questionnaire and PSG were done at entry and after each treatment phase at time of PSG. Statistical analyses were ANOVA repeated measures and t tests. The mean age of the children at entry was 6.5 ± 0.2 years (mean ± SEM). Overall, even if children presented improvement of both clinical symptoms and PSG findings, none of the children presented normal results after treatment 1, at the exception of one case. There was no significant difference in the amount of improvement noted independently of the first treatment approach. Thirty children underwent treatment 2, with an overall significant improvement shown for PSG findings compared to baseline and compared to treatment 1, without any group differences. This preliminary study emphasizes the need to have more than subjective clinical scales for determination of sequence of treatments.

  13. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  14. Controlled Study of Encopresis and Enuresis in Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar-I Disorder Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Tricia; Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca; Bolhofner, Kristine; Zimerman, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of encopresis/enuresis, relationship between maternal hostility and encopresis, parent-child concordance of reporting encopresis/enuresis, and familial aggregation of enuresis in subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar-I disorder phenotype (PEA-BP), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  15. Impaired bone mineral accrual in prepubertal HIV-infected children: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Zanin Palchetti

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: HIV-infected children have compromised bone mass and the presence of puberty seems to provide suitability of these parameters. Adequate intake of calcium and fat appears to be protective for proper bone mass accumulation factor, as well as monitoring nutritional status and serum magnesium concentration.

  16. The influence of dental caries on body growth in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Schriks, M.C.M.; van Amerongen, E.W.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Wennink, J.M.B.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Dental decay and dental treatment are suggested to be related to body growth in children. The aim of this study was first to assess the relation between dental caries and body proportions cross-sectionally in a Suriname caries child population and secondly to investigate whether dental treatment had

  17. Baseline Body Composition in Prepubertal Short Stature Children with Severe and Moderate Growth Hormone Deficiency

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    Pawel Matusik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare body composition parameters in short children with severe versus moderate and no growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Design and Method. 61 children (40 boys were studied. Height SDS, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (W/HtR, and body composition parameters (BIA as fat tissue (FAT%, fat-free mass (FFM%, predicted muscle mass (PMM%, and total body water (TBW% were evaluated. GH secretion in the overnight profile and two stimulation tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 level were measured. Results. Overall, in 16 (26% moderate (7.0 > peak GH < 10 ng/mL and in 11 (18% severe (GH ≤ 7.0 ng/mL GHD was diagnosed. In children with sGHD BMI Z-score, W/HtR and FAT% were significantly higher, while FFM%, PMM%, and TBW% were significantly lower versus mGHD and versus noGHD subgroups. No significant differences between mGHD and noGHD were found. There were no differences in height SDS and IGF-1 SDS between evaluated subgroups. Night GH peak level correlated significantly with FAT%, FFM%, PMM%, and TBW%, (p<0.05 in the entire group. Conclusions. Only sGHD is associated with significant impairment of body composition. Body composition analysis may be a useful tool in distinguishing between its severe and moderate form of GHD.

  18. Estradiol levels in prepubertal boys and girls--analytical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2004-01-01

    Increasing evidence points at an important function of low concentrations of estradiol (E2) in prepubertal boys and girls. E2 serum levels in prepubertal children are, however, often immeasurable in conventional E2 assays. This strongly hampers further investigation of the physiological relevance...

  19. Shigella flexneri-induced vaginitis in a prepubertal children: description of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Restelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In prepuberal girls vulvo-vaginitis are caused by germs of intestinal origin,mycetes, Gardnerella vaginalis, protozoa. Shigella is an uncommon agent able to induce valvovaginitis in children. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with chronic vulvo-vaginitis caused by S. flexneri. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing revealed that S. flexnery was sensible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, but resistant to amikacin, cefazolin, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. A treatment with ciprofloxacin brought to a rapid resolution of all symptoms. At the follows up at 3 and 6 months the patient did not report symptoms of infection or articular cartilage abnormality; microbiological evaluations were also negative. Even if it is a single case report and other clinical trial may be performed in order to validate this hypothesis,we speculate that in patient with vulvo-vaginal infection living in environment with low hygiene care, a carefully microbiological evaluation of uncommon agents may be performed.

  20. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study

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    Esposito M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Francesco Lavano,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Domenico Bove,6 Michele Sorrentino,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy; 6Centro per la Diagnosi e Cura dei Disturbi dell’apprendimento e del Comportamento Associazione per la ricerca scientifica Fusis, Alvignano, Italy Introduction: Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic in Western and in developing countries and has been accompanied by many serious and severe comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome, depression, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis, steatohepatitis, and intracranial hypertension, as well as medical concerns unique to youth, such as accelerated pubertal and skeletal development and orthopedic disorders. To date, no specific studies about the psychological assessment in pediatric obesity are present. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the putative relationship between psychological troubles and obesity in a sample of school-aged children. Materials and methods: The study population consists of 148 obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] >95th percentile (69 males, mean age 8.9±1.23 years consecutively referred from clinical pediatricians to the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry department at the Second University of Naples. In all subjects, weight, height, and BMI z-score were evaluated. In order to assess the anxiety levels and the presence of

  1. Percentiles of fasting serum insulin, glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR in pre-pubertal normal weight European children from the IDEFICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, J; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Savva, S C; Buck, C; Günther, K; Fraterman, A; Russo, P; Iacoviello, L; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; De Henauw, S; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to present age- and sex-specific reference values of insulin, glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and the homeostasis model assessment to quantify insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for pre-pubertal children. The reference population consists of 7074 normal weight 3- to 10.9-year-old pre-pubertal children from eight European countries who participated in at least one wave of the IDEFICS ('identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants') surveys (2007-2010) and for whom standardised laboratory measurements were obtained. Percentile curves of insulin (measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were calculated as a function of age stratified by sex using the general additive model for location scale and shape (GAMLSS) method. Levels of insulin, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR continuously show an increasing trend with age, whereas HbA1c shows an upward trend only beyond the age of 8 years. Insulin and HOMA-IR values are higher in girls of all age groups, whereas glucose values are slightly higher in boys. Median serum levels of insulin range from 17.4 and 13.2 pmol l(-1) in 3-HOMA-IR, median values range from 0.5 and 0.4 in 3-<3.5-year-old girls and boys to 1.7 and 1.4 in 10.5-<11-year-old girls and boys, respectively. Our study provides the first standardised reference values for an international European children's population and provides the, up to now, largest data set of healthy pre-pubertal children to model reference percentiles for markers of insulin resistance. Our cohort shows higher values of Hb1Ac as compared with a single Swedish study while our percentiles for the other glucose metabolic markers are in good accordance with previous studies.

  2. Dental health between self-perception, clinical evaluation and body image dissatisfaction - a cross-sectional study in mixed dentition pre-pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Ancuta; Șerban, Costela; Pricop, Marius; Urechescu, Horatiu; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2018-05-03

    Self-perception of oral health status is a multidimensional construct that includes psychological, psychosocial and functional aspects of oral health. Contemporary concepts suggest that the evaluation of health needs should focus on clinical standards and socio-dental indicators that measure the impact of health/disease on the individual quality of life. Oral health cannot be dissociated from general health. This study evaluates a possible association between oral health status, body size, self-perception of oral health, self-perception of body size and dissatisfaction with body image in prepubertal children with mixed dentition, targeting the completion of children's health status assessment which will further allow the identification of individuals at risk and could be further used as an evaluation of the need for specific interventions. The present study is cross-sectional in design and uses data from 710 pre-pubertal children with mixed dentition. The outcome variables comprised one item self-perception of oral health: dmft/DMFT Index and Dental Aesthetic Index, body size, self-assessed body size and desired body size. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The level of significance was set at 5%. More than a half (53.1%) of the participants with mixed dentition reported that their oral health was excellent or very good. In the unadjusted model, untreated decayed teeth, dmft score and body dissatisfaction levels had a significant contribution to poor self-perception of oral health, but after adjustment for gender, BMI status, dmft score, DMFT score and DAI score, only untreated decayed teeth OR = 1.293, 95%CI (1.120-1.492) and higher body dissatisfaction levels had a significant contribution. It was concluded that the need for dental treatment influenced self-perception of oral health in prepubertal children with mixed dentition, especially with relation to untreated decayed teeth. Since only body dissatisfaction levels, but not BMI, were

  3. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia López-Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P<0.01. Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

  4. Thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, Mark F.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the formation of thyroid hormones and a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Titers of TPO antibodies also correlate with the degree of lymphocytic infiltration in euthyroid subjects, and they are frequently present in euthyroid subjects

  5. Evaluation of lipid and glucose metabolism and cortisol and thyroid hormone levels in obese appropriate for gestational age (AGA) born and non-obese small for gestational age (SGA) born prepubertal Slovak children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusková, Zuzana; Koštálová, Ludmila; Celec, Peter; Vitáriušová, Eva; Pribilincová, Zuzana; Maršálková, Marianna; Šemberová, Jana; Kyselová, Tatiana; Hlavatá, Anna; Kovács, László

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is the major determinant of metabolic syndrome. Being born small for gestational age (SGA) may be co-responsible. We aimed at evaluating the association between 1. obesity and 2. being born SGA and the presence of endocrine-metabolic abnormalities in prepubertal Slovak children. The study included 98 children, aged 3-10.9 years: 36 AGA-born obese children (OB), 31 SGA-born children (SGA) and 31 appropriate for gestational age born non-obese children (AGA). Fasting serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, fT4, TSH, cortisol and insulin were determined. HOMA-IR was calculated. Personal data about birth weight and length and family history were collected. Actual anthropometric measurement was done. In every group, high prevalence of positive family history of metabolic disorder was found. In comparison with AGA children, OB children were taller (plevels and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (pcortisol levels (p=0.069) was noted. SGA-born children were shorter (plevels (plevels (p=0.085) and increased fT4 levels (pobese children and twice more metabolic abnormalities were present in SGA-born children in comparison with AGA-born children. SGA-born children are more prone to developing endocrine-metabolic abnormalities than non-obese children born AGA, but they are at less risk than obese AGA-born children. We should provide specialized care for obese children already in prepubertal age and pay attention to SGA-born children.

  6. The increase in physical performance and gain in lean and fat mass occur in prepubertal children independent of mode of school transportation. One year data from the prospective controlled Pediatric Osteoporosis Prevention (POP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this 12-month study in pre-pubertal children was to evaluate the effect of school transportation on gain in lean and fat mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Methods Ninety-seven girls and 133 boys aged 7-9 years from the Malmö Pediatric Osteoporosis Prevention Study were included. Regional lean and fat mass were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, isokinetic peak torque of knee extensors and flexors by a computerised dynamometer and physical performance by vertical jump height. Level of physical activity was assessed by accelerometers. The 12-month changes in children who walked or cycled to school were compared with changes in those who travelled by bus or car. Results There were no differences in baseline or annual changes in lean or fat mass gain, muscle strength or physical performance between the two groups. All children reached the internationally recommended level of 60 minutes per day of moderate or high physical activity by accelerometers. Conclusion The choice of school transportation in pre-pubertal children seems not to influence the gain in lean and fat mass, muscle strength or functional ability, probably as the everyday physical activity is so high that the mode of school transportation contributes little to the total level of activity.

  7. The Presence and Duration of Overweight Are Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation in Prepubertal Chilean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Magel; Garmendia, María Luisa; Corvalán, Camila; Reyes, Marcela

    2016-11-01

    Overweight is associated with low-grade inflammation, but it is under debate whether the effect of fat mass accumulation is acute or chronic. We aimed to study the association of overweight duration with low-grade inflammation in children in whom overweight initiation can be established. Observational longitudinal study, including a subsample of 250 Chilean children from the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study followed-up yearly since preschool age (n = 1195). At 4 years, 324 children provided blood. From those, 272 participants were evaluated at 7 years. The current analysis includes 250 children with a blood sample at 4 and 7 years of age and C-reactive protein (CRP) overweight (BAZ ≥ 1) participants at 7 years, the duration of overweight (time since diagnosis) was computed and categorized according to tertiles: overweight (diagnosis and duration) and low-grade inflammation (CRP ≥ 1 mg/L) was studied (logistic regression models). Overweight was associated with CRP ≥ 1 mg/L at 7 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93 confidence interval (95% CI = 1.60-5.38)], but not at 4 years [OR = 1.26 (95% CI = 0.71-2.26)]. An overweight duration overweight durations (36-Overweight at 7 years of age was associated with low-grade inflammation only in the case of recent onset. Inflammatory disturbances may be associated with the early phases of excess weight.

  8. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758

  9. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  10. High Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Insulin Resistance in HIV-infected Prepubertal African Children on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Steve; Abdullah, Kameelah L; Haubrich, Richard; Cotton, Mark F; Browne, Sara H

    2016-01-01

    Data describing the true extent of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in perinatally infected children on ART in Africa are sparse. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, insulin and glucose were performed on the first 100 of 190 pediatric ART clinic attendees. Diet assessment was performed by a trained dietician. Lipoatrophy was formally graded by consensus between 2 expert HIV pediatricians. Durations of previous ART exposures, clinical stage, pre-ART viral load, nadir and current CD4 were recorded. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed on a subset of 42 patients selected semi-randomly. Prevalences of insulin resistance, abnormal total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride were 10%, 13%, 12%, 13% and 9%, respectively. Overall, 40% had at least 1 lipid abnormality or insulin resistance. Adjusted mean LDL cholesterol increased by 0.24 mmol/L for each additional year of cumulative lopinavir/r exposure (P = 0.03) after correcting for age, gender, body mass index, previous stavudine exposure, age at ART initiation, dietary fat and refined carbohydrate, whereas adjusted mean LDL cholesterol was 0.9 mmol/L higher in children exposed to efavirenz within the previous 6 months (P = 0.02). Adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed that greater trunk fat and lower peripheral subcutaneous fat were associated with elevated triglycerides but not with total cholesterol, LDL, HDL or homeostatic model assessment. Similarly, the presence of visually obvious lipoatrophy was associated with elevated triglycerides but not with total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, homeostatic model assessment or lactate. Prevalences of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia were high. Cumulative lopinavir is an independent risk factor for dyslipidemia, with efavirenz exposure having only transitory effect.

  11. Prepubertal growth in congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia)

    OpenAIRE

    Kjaergaard, S; Muller, J; Skovby, F

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To delineate the pattern of growth in prepubertal children with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia) in order to identify critical period(s) and possible cause(s) of growth failure.

  12. Thyroid antibody-negative euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshiya Tabasum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TSH receptor antibodies (TRAbs are the pathological hallmark of Graves’ disease, present in nearly all patients with the disease. Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy (EGO is a well-recognized clinical entity, but its occurrence in patients with negative TRAbs is a potential source of diagnostic confusion. A 66-year-old female presented to our endocrinology clinic with right eye pain and diplopia in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. TRAbs were negative, as measured with a highly sensitive third-generation thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII ELISA assay. CT and MRI scans of the orbit showed asymmetrical thickening of the inferior rectus muscles but no other inflammatory or malignant orbital pathology. Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical and radiological features, and she underwent surgical recession of the inferior rectus muscle with complete resolution of the diplopia and orbital pain. She remained euthyroid over the course of follow-up but ultimately developed overt clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism, 24 months after the initial presentation. By this time, she had developed positive TRAb as well as thyroid peroxidase antibodies. She responded to treatment with thionamides and remains euthyroid. This case highlights the potential for negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies in the presentation of EGO and underscores the variable temporal relationship between the clinical expression of thyroid dysfunction and orbital disease in the natural evolution of Graves’ disease.

  13. Weight changes in euthyroid patients undergoing thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala

    2011-12-01

    Thyroidectomized patients frequently report weight gain resistant to weight loss efforts, identifying their thyroidectomy as the event precipitating subsequent weight gain. We wished to determine whether recently thyroidectomized euthyroid patients gained more weight over 1 year than matched euthyroid patients with preexisting hypothyroidism. We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. One hundred twenty patients had their weight and thyroid status documented after thyroidectomy and achievement of euthyroidism on thyroid hormone replacement, and one year later. Three additional groups of 120 patients with preexisting hypothyroidism, no thyroid disease, and thyroid cancer were matched for age, gender, menopausal status, height, and weight. Anthropometric data were documented at two time points 1 year apart. We compared the weight changes and body mass index changes occurring over a 1-year period in the four groups. Patients with recent postsurgical hypothyroidism gained 3.1 kg during the year, whereas matched patients with preexisting hypothyroidism gained 2.2 kg. The patients without thyroid disease and those with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism gained 1.3 and 1.2 kg, respectively. The weight gain in the thyroidectomized group was significantly greater than that in the matched hypothyroid group (p-value 0.004), the group without thyroid disease (p-value 0.001), and the patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism (p-value 0.001). Within the thyroidectomized group, the weight gain in menopausal women was greater than in either premenopausal women (4.4 vs. 2.3 kg, p-value 0.007) or men (4.4 vs. 2.5 kg, p-value 0.013). Patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in the previous year did, in fact, gain more weight than their matched counterparts with preexisting hypothyroidism. In addition, all patients with hypothyroidism, even though treated to achieve euthyroidism, experienced more weight gain than both

  14. Prepubertal Gynecomastia Due to Indirect Exposure to Nonformulary Bioidentical Hormonal Replacement Therapy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pinho, Joao Correia; Aghajanova, Lusine; Herndon, Christopher N

    2016-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a disorder of the endocrine system characterized by an abnormal presence of a palpable unilateral or bilateral enlargement and proliferation of glandular ductal benign breast tissue in male individuals. This case discusses the medical implications of an unregulated, indirect exposure to nonformulary, bioidentical hormone replacement therapy in male children. An 8-year-old boy presented with prepubertal gynecomastia secondary to estrogen exposure from maternal use of bioidentical hormonal replacement therapy (the Wiley protocol). We review the literature on prepubertal gynecomastia secondary to exogenous estrogen exposure, evaluation, clinical surveillance of the pubertal development, and relevant short- and long-term implications. Indirect exposure to nonformulary hormonal replacement in our case report was an etiologic factor in the development of prepubertal gynecomastia. This novel estrogen exposure source has important implications in the differential diagnosis of prepubertal gynecomastia and potential adverse effects secondary to precocious hormonal exposure.

  15. ADHD and Aggression as Correlates of Suicidal Behavior in Assaultive Prepubertal Psychiatric Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Gerstadt, Cherie; Pfeffer, Cynthia R.; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2008-01-01

    Forty-three psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children were assessed regarding their assaultive and suicidal behaviors. These children were subsequently classified into two groups, assaultive/suicidal (AS) and assaultive-only (AO). AS children had higher aggression and suicidal-scale scores, but not higher depression scores, and were more…

  16. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  17. Ultrasonographic Findings of Prepubertal Testicular Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jang Han; Cho, Jae Ho

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of testicular teratoma arising in pre-pubertal children. We studied 6 cases in 5 patients with pathologically proven testicular teratoma. Ultrasonography was performed in all cases and MRI in 5 cases. The location, size, shape, margin and internal echo pattern of the lesion were evaluated on ultrasonography and the shape, signal intensity and presence or absence of contrast enhancement were evaluated on MRI. The shape of all cases was round or oval and the lesion size ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 cm (average, 1.7 cm). Four of 6 cases were seen as cystic lesions, Three of which were multilocular and one was unilocular. The cystic lesions were filled with echo-free fluid without any solid component. The inner wall and septa were minutely granulated. One of 6 cases was seen as a predominantly cystic lesion containing heterogeneous, high echoic portions. One case was seen as a heterogeneous mixed echoic lesion with dirty posterior sonic shadowing. Three of the 4 cases seen as a cyst on ultrasonography were also seen as a cyst on MRI. In one case seen as a predominantly cystic lesion on ultrasonography, the periphery of the lesion was hypointense and the center was hyperintense on T2-weighted image. The remaining case seen as a heterogeneous mixed echoic mass was markedly heterogeneous in signal intensity both on T2- and T1-weighted images and hyperintense fat components were noted. Contrast enhancement was not seen in any of the 4 cases. On ultrasonography, pre-pubertal testicular teratoma is commonly seen as a multilocular or unilocular cyst and a minutely granulated appearance is noted in the inner wall or septa of the cystic lesion

  18. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  19. Prepubertal gynecomastia and chronic lavender exposure: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alejandro; Luque, Laura; Badar, Zain; Kornic, Steve; Danon, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Prepubertal gynecomastia is a rare condition characterized by the growth of breast tissue in males as a consequence of early exposure to sexual hormones. When this condition is present, pathological sources of testosterone/estrogen production, such as adrenal or gonadal tumors must be searched for. A few reports have described an association between gynecomastia and substances that produce stimulation of the estrogen receptor, such as lavender and tea tree oil. Here we describe the cases of three boys who presented with prepubertal gynecomastia and were chronically exposed to lavender. Two of these boys were exposed to a cologne, named agua de violetas, used by Hispanic communities in the US, and in their countries of origin. We studied a sample of the cologne used by one of the patients. Analysis of the chemical composition of the agua de violetas cologne was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography as well as off-line mass spectrometric detection. All these, combined with the physical appearance and the smell, determined that the cologne had lavender as an ingredient. Exposure to estrogenic substances, such as lavender, should be explored in children presenting with prepubertal gynecomastia/thelarche.

  20. Prepubertal Unilateral Gynecomastia: Report of 2 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Bacak, Gökhan; Baran, Rıza Taner; Avcı, Yahya; Baran, Ahmet; Keleş, Ayşenur; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Alanay, Yasemin; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia is an extremely rare condition. At present, its etiology and management strategy are not well known. Two unrelated prepubertal boys of ages 8 and 9 who presented with complaints of unilateral enlargement of breast tissue are reported. Physical examination, biochemical, hormonal and oncologic work-up findings were normal. Both patients were treated with peripheral liposuction successfully. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations showed benign fibroglandular gynecomastia and intensive (3+) estrogen receptor expression in 100% of periductal epithelial cells. Although an extremely rare and generally benign condition, patients with prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia should have a full endocrine and oncologic work-up. PMID:25541897

  1. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia: report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Bacak, Gökhan; Baran, Rıza Taner; Avcı, Yahya; Baran, Ahmet; Keleş, Ayşenur; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Alanay, Yasemin; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia is an extremely rare condition. At present, its etiology and management strategy are not well known. Two unrelated prepubertal boys of ages 8 and 9 who presented with complaints of unilateral enlargement of breast tissue are reported. Physical examination, biochemical, hormonal and oncologic work-up findings were normal. Both patients were treated with peripheral liposuction successfully. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations showed benign fibroglandular gynecomastia and intensive (3+) estrogen receptor expression in 100% of periductal epithelial cells. Although an extremely rare and generally benign condition, patients with prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia should have a full endocrine and oncologic work-up.

  2. (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes .... kisspeptin-10 injection could restore the baseline levels of. LH changed by ..... Terasawa E (2005). Role of GABA in the mechanism of the onset of.

  3. Prepubertal Unilateral Gynecomastia: Report of 2 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Demirbilek, H?seyin; Bacak, G?khan; Baran, R?za Taner; Avc?, Yahya; Baran, Ahmet; Kele?, Ay?enur; ?zbek, Mehmet Nuri; Alanay, Yasemin; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia is an extremely rare condition. At present, its etiology and management strategy are not well known. Two unrelated prepubertal boys of ages 8 and 9 who presented with complaints of unilateral enlargement of breast tissue are reported. Physical examination, biochemical, hormonal and oncologic work-up findings were normal. Both patients were treated with peripheral liposuction successfully. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations showed benign ...

  4. Bone mineral density and effects of growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with Prader-Willi syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind van Wijngaarden, R.F. de; Festen, D.A.M.; Otten, B.J.; Mil, E.G. van; Rotteveel, J.J.; Odink, R.J.; Leeuwen, M. van; Haring, D.A.; Bocca, G.; Mieke Houdijk, E.C.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone mineral density (BMD) is unknown in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), but is decreased in adults with PWS. In patients with GH deficiency, BMD increases during GH treatment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate BMD in children with PWS and to study the effects

  5. Bone Mineral Density and Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment in Prepubertal Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijngaarden, Roderick F. A. de Lind; Festen, Dederieke A. M.; Otten, Barto J.; van Mil, Edgar G. A. H.; Rotteveel, Joost; Odink, Roelof J.; van Leeuwen, Mariette; Haring, Danny A. J. P.; Bocca, Gianni; Houdijk, E. C. A. Mieke; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral density (BMD) is unknown in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), but is decreased in adults with PWS. In patients with GH deficiency, BMD increases during GH treatment. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate BMD in children with PWS and to study the effects

  6. Metabolic outcomes in young children with type 1 diabetes differ between treatment centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Beaufort, Carine E; Lange, Karin; Swift, Peter Gf

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether center differences in glycemic control are present in prepubertal children......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether center differences in glycemic control are present in prepubertal children...

  7. The 10x5 metre shuttle run test may be a good predictor of aerobic performance in pre-pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christina; Petersen, Mette; Froberg, Karsten

    . Conclusion: The SSRT may provide scientists, teachers and health care professionals with an important tool to estimate physical fitness in children in an easy, non-expensive, fast and fun way in the future. References: 1. Andersen LB, et Al. Secular trends in physical fitness in Danish adol.. Scand J Med Sci...... to swimming performance of 8-12 year old children. In Shephard, R.J. and Lavallée, H. eds., Frontiers of activity and child health. Quebec: Pélican, 1977. 4. Andersen LB., et Al. An Intermittent running test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake: the Andersen test. J Sports Med Physical Fitness 2008....

  8. Euthyroid goitre with and without functional autonomy: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenhinrichs, H.; Emrich, D.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre. Methods: In an area of moderate iodine deficiency 163 goitrous patients without and 179 with functional autonomy all clinically euthyroid were compared by sex, age, signs and symptoms, sonographic results, qualitative and quantitative scintigraphy without and with suppression, TRH test, hormone concentrations and iodine excretion in the urine. Results: Age, signs and symptoms, thyroid volume and structure did not contribute sufficiently to diagnosis. To detect functional autonomy quantitative scintigraphy under suppression was superior to the TRH test. Increased hormone concentrations were observed in 15% of patients with functional autonomy. A global 99m Tc thyroid uptake of ≥3% under suppression indicates a higher risk of spontaneous hyperthyroidism. It was present in 20% of patients with functional autonomy. Conclusion: to diagnose and treat adequately functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre quantitative scintigraphy, determination of TSH and hormone concentrations are inevitable. (orig.) [de

  9. [Meningococcal vulvovaginitis in a prepubertal girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, M; Tisseron, B; de Pontual, L

    2005-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is an uncommon cause of vulvovaginitis in the prepubertal girl. The microorganism must not be mistaken for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, as the consequences of such an error may be serious. Colonization or infection by Neisseria meningitis is not uncommon in adolescents and adults. Vulvitis, even when it is recurrent, is not per se a good indicator of sexual abuse, but some microorganisms found by vaginal swab can make it possible, likely or certain. Sexual transmission of N. meningitidis has not been described in the prepubertal child.

  10. Persistent cellular metabolic changes after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie

    2014-01-01

    , 3, 6 and 12 months after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter. In the hemithyroidectomy group, flow cytometry was used to measure the MMP of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM)- and MitoTracker Green (MTG)-stained PBMCs, and V˙O2 was measured by an Oxycon Pro apparatus. RESULTS: One...

  11. Comparison of QT dispersion between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Kıskaç

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroid and QTc dispersionindicating local heterogeneity in repolarization of myocardium, which is well known as independent cardiac risk factor for sudden death and ventricular arrhythmia.Materials and Methods: We compared QTc dispersion of subclinical hypothyroid patients, after treatment and healthy control group. We included a total of 50 patients with 41 women and 9 men in the study group. Electrocardiographywith 12 derivations, thyroid hormones, serum electrolytes and basic biochemical parameters were measured.The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.QT distances were calculated by using Bazet formula. The difference between the longest QTc and the shortest QTc distance was accepted as QTc dispersion (QTcd.Results: Comparison of subclinical hypothyroid patients, their euthyroidic period after treatment and healthy controlgroup, gave no significant differences in age, body weight, body mass index and free thyroxin values. However,significant difference was found in durations of QTd and QTcd between the subclinical hypothyroid, the control and the euthyroidic groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our results suggested that subclinical hypothyroidpatients had longer QTc dispersion compared to euthyroidic period and healthy subjects. However there was no QTcd difference between the euthyroidic period and healthy control group.

  12. Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders. I. Interpersonal relationships during the depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Antich, J; Lukens, E; Davies, M; Goetz, D; Brennan-Quattrock, J; Todak, G

    1985-05-01

    Psychosocial environment and relationships with parents, peers, and siblings of 115 prepubertal children were measured by interview with their parent(s) for the three-month period preceding the assessment. The children had a current diagnosis of major depression (52 children) or nondepressed neurotic disorder (23) or were assessed to be normal (40). Most aspects of psychosocial relationships were found to be significantly impaired in the psychiatric groups. This impairment was generally worse in the depressives and significantly worse for aspects of verbal and affective communication with parents and siblings. Prepubertal children with major depressive disorder regularly present social relation deficits in which two components can be distinguished: one general to childhood psychiatric disorder and another specific to major depression.

  13. Prepubertal changes in the metabolism of caesium in girls?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of determinations from 1963 to 1967 of the 137 Cs/K ratio in three children (two girls and a younger boy). In the two girls the ratio was at a maximum in late 1963. The decline by a factor of more than four during 1965-1967 was consistent with the contemporaneous reduction in dietary contamination. When adjusted to allow for the decreasing intake, the ratio shows an increase from the age of about 9.5 in each girl. It is suggested that this is a reflection of an increase in the biological half-life of caesium in the girls, associated with prepubertal hormonal changes. 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Microbiological findings of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbulienė, Žana; Venclavičiūtė, Karolina; Ramašauskaite, Diana; Arlauskiene, Audrone; Bumbul, Elžbieta; Drąsutiene, Gražina

    2014-01-01

    To compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes. Prospective descriptive study. Outpatient clinic of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos during September 2011-December 2012. 115 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms and additionally 20 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Each girl had a vaginal smear carried out using a sterile swab from the introitus or lower third of the vagina. All samples were referred to the microbiology laboratory where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Positive microbiological findings were seen in all 115 (100%) symptomatic girls and in 12 (60%) control group girls (pvulvovaginitis and from 5 (25%) girls without vaginal inflammation (pvulvovaginitis. The main causative premenarchal vulvovaginitis agents are faecal in origin.

  15. Prepubertal Vulvovajinitlerine Yaklaşım

    OpenAIRE

    Kaygusuz, İkbal; Eser, Ayla; Gözdemir, Elif; Simavlı, Serap; Köşger, Hatice; Gündüz, Suzan

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the one of the most common gynecologic problem in prepubertal girls. During this period, the hypoestrogenic conditions causes to the genital epithelium to be thin and acid mantle weak. As a natural consequence of this condition genital area becomes more sensitive to those local irrtitants and more susceptible to infection. The most common cause of vulvovaginitis is nonspecific infection. With simple hygiene recommendations large number of these patients can be treated. How...

  16. A Rare Case of Foreign Body Causing Recurrent Vaginal Discharge in Prepubertal Child

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbur, Vijayalakshmi.R.; Gobbur, Raghavendra.H.; Patil, Ashwini.G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -...

  17. Hypothyroidism during neonatal and perinatal period induced by thyroidectomy of the mother causes depressive-like behavior in prepubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Pineda-Reynoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marisol Pineda-Reynoso, Edgar Cano-Europa, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Adelaida Hernandez-Garcia, Margarita Franco-Colin, Rocio Ortiz-ButronDepartamento de Fisiología ‘Mauricio Russek Berman,’ Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: The objective of this study was to see if neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: 1 thyroidectomy caused hypothyroidism, in which the thyroid gland had been removed and the parathyroid reimplanted; and 2 false thyroidectomy. The thyroidectomy was made on rats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. The rats were mated and one day after giving birth, eight pups were assigned to each group randomly and they were distributed into two groups: a hypothyroid group containing male pups of a hypothyroid mother with a hypothyroid wet nurse; and a euthyroid group of male pups of a euthyroid mother with a euthyroid wet nurse. We analyzed the behavioral test at a prepubertal age. The neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused by the mother’s thyroidectomy caused a decrease in body weight and length. We found that the neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism enhanced the total exploratory activity without affecting social contact and the time spent in the open and closed arms in an elevated plus-maze. The hypothyroidism caused immobility without altering the lower climbing duration in the swimming test. This study shows a novel model to cause neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism without using pharmacological drugs. We demonstrated that hypothyroid animals had a reduction in body weight and length, a retardation of neurodevelopment, and they had depressive-like behavior.Keywords: perinatal hypothyroidism, thyroidectomy, thyroid hormone, behavior, metabolism

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in euthyroid patients | Xu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of hepatic infections, viz, hepatitis B (HBV) virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV), in the euthyroid population of Southern Punjab Province of Pakistan. Methods: A total of 120 euthyroid patients (36 male and 84 female) with a mean age of 30.7 ± 0.09 years) were included in this study.

  19. Thyroid hormones in the elderly sick: "T4 euthyroidism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, A W; Shakespear, R A; Hesch, R D; Cooper, E; Aickin, C M; Burke, C W

    1975-11-22

    Thyroid function and serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were investigated in 79 euthyroid geriatric patients. Of the 59 inpatients and 20 outpatients 35 (59%) and 2, respectively, had low T3 levels. In contrast, 7 (12%) and 6 (30%), respectively, had raised T4 levels. Two further patients were excluded from the study because of raised levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroxine-binding globulin was greatly increased in both groups of patients, but low serum albumin levels were present in 31 (39%). Despite these changes free T3 and T4 indices closely followed total T3 and T4 levels. The difference between the two groups of patients did not correlate with body weight, diagnostic categories, age, drug treatment, or duration of stay in hospital.

  20. Fat and muscle mass in different groups of pre-pubertal and pubertal rural children. Cross-cultural comparisons between Sahelian (rural Senegal) and Amazonian (Beni River, Bolivia) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefice, Eric; Luna Monrroy, Selma J; Lopez Rodriguez, Ronald W; Ndiaye, Gnagna

    2011-07-01

    An increase in fat accretion is essential for triggering the puberty spurt. Hence, nutritional constraints may influence puberty timing. To measure changes in fat and muscle mass in children living in natural environments but with different nutritional exposures. Cross-comparisons of children from rural Senegal and lowland (Amazonian) Bolivia were carried out. Anthropometric measurements of stature, weight, four subcutaneous skin-folds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac) and arm circumference were made. Children were divided into two age groups (5-9.9-year-olds or 'pre pubescents' (n = 381) and 10-15-year-olds or 'pubescents' (n = 692)). Senegalese girls menstruated later than Bolivian girls and Senegalese boys also matured later than Bolivian boys. Bolivian children displayed more fat and muscle before puberty and during puberty than the Senegalese. They also had more fat deposited on the trunk. There were substantial differences in living conditions and nutritional patterns between both locations. In Senegal, nutritional stress is likely to appear early during in utero life and to persist throughout the growth period, including puberty. This leads to a deficit in fat accretion before and during puberty that is associated with a considerable delay in puberty occurrence. In Bolivia, such stress is far less severe. Variability in puberty should be analysed taking into account these differences.

  1. Microbiological aspects of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranđelović, Gordana; Mladenović, Vesna; Ristić, Ljiljana; Otašević, Suzana; Branković, Sofija; Mladenović-Antić, Snežana; Bogdanović, Milena; Bogdanović, Dragan

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the vaginal introitus microbial flora in girls with and without symptoms of vulvovaginitis, and to present the distribution of isolated microorganisms by age groups in girls with vulvovaginitis. We enrolled 500 girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms, aged 2-12 years, referred by their pediatricians for microbiological examination of the vaginal introitus swabs, and 30 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Similar microbial flora was isolated in both groups, but the symptomatic girls had significantly more common positive microbiological findings compared to controls (p vulvovaginitis symptoms. The microbial ecosystem in girls with clinical signs of vulvovaginitis is complex and variable, and the presence of a microorganism does not necessarily imply that it is the cause of infection. The diagnosis of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls requires a complex and comprehensive approach, and microbiological findings should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.

  2. Brain perfusion abnormalities in patients with euthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piga, M.; Serra, A.; Loi, G.L.; Satta, L. [University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine - Department of Medical Sciences ' ' M. Aresu' ' , Cagliari (Italy); Deiana, L.; Liberto, M. Di; Mariotti, S. [University of Cagliari, Endocrinology - Department of Medical Sciences ' ' M. Aresu' ' , Cagliari (Italy)

    2004-12-01

    Brain perfusion abnormalities have recently been demonstrated by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in rare cases of severe Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) encephalopathy; moreover, some degree of subtle central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been hypothesised in HT, but no direct evidence has been provided so far. The aim of this study was to assess cortical brain perfusion in patients with euthyroid HT without any clinical evidence of CNS involvement by means of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Sixteen adult patients with HT entered this study following informed consent. The diagnosis was based on the coexistence of high titres of anti-thyroid auto-antibodies and diffuse hypoechogenicity of the thyroid on ultrasound in association with normal circulating thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations. Nine consecutive adult patients with non-toxic nodular goitre (NTNG) and ten healthy subjects matched for age and sex were included as control groups. All patients underwent {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Image assessment was both qualitative and semiquantitative. Semiquantitative analysis was performed by generation of four regions of interest (ROI) for each cerebral hemisphere - frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital - and one for each cerebellar hemisphere in order to evaluate cortical perfusion asymmetry. The Asymmetry Index (AI) was calculated to provide a measurement of both magnitude and direction of perfusion asymmetry. As assessed by visual examination, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD cerebral distribution was irregular and patchy in HT patients, hypoperfusion being more frequently found in frontal lobes. AI revealed abnormalities in 12/16 HT patients, in three of the nine NTNG patients and in none of the normal controls. A significant difference in the mean AI was found between patients with HT and both patients with NTNG (p<0.003) and normal controls (p<0.001), when only frontal lobes were considered. These results show the high prevalence of brain perfusion

  3. Biocultural Predictors of Motor Coordination Among Prepubertal Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D D; Sousa-E-Silva, Paulo; Duarte, João P; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides; Seabra, André; Santos, Rute; Cumming, Sean P; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to predict motor coordination from a matrix of biocultural factors for 173 children (89 boys, 84 girls) aged 7-9 years who were assessed with the Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder test battery. Socioeconomic variables included built environment, area of residence, mother's educational level, and mother's physical activity level (using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [short version]). The behavioral domain was marked by participation in organized sports and habitual physical activity measured by accelerometers ( ActiGraph GT1M). Indicators of biological development included somatic maturation and body mass index. Among males, the best logistic regression model to explain motor coordination (Nagelkerke R 2   = 50.8; χ 2  = 41.166; p girls, the best logistic regression to explain motor coordination (Nagelkerke R 2   = 40.8; χ 2  = 29.933; p physical activity level (OR = 0.183). This sex-specific, ecological approach to motor coordination proficiency may help promote physical activity during prepubertal years through familiar determinants.

  4. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH DIFFUSIVE CLINICALLY EUTHYROID GOITER IN THE REGIONS WITH DIFFERENT IODINE OCCURENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Troshina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the evaluation results of the IQ indices demonstrated by the school students, who reside in the regions with different degrees of the iodine deficiency severity and iodine provided regions. The authors performed the comparative analysis of the IQ indices among children with clinically euthyroid diffusive goiter and among children with normal sizes of the thyroid gland. The research included 260 children aged from 8 to 10 from 13 regions of the Russian Federation: 130 patients with the goiter diagnosed subject to the data of the ultrasound investigation and 130 children, who have normal sizes of the thyroid gland (reference group. The comparison groups were homogenous according to the education conditions (as only children from the city comprehensive schools took part in the research. For the evaluation of the intellectual development, authors used R. Kettell's intellect test free from the cultural impact (Сulture-Fair Intelligence Test, CFIT — CF 2А form. Despite the fact that the average IQ indices in the group of children with goiter were slightly lower than among children with normal sizes of the thyroid gland, the researchers failed to identify statistically significant differences between the average IQ indices among children in the compared groups (р > 0,05. Both in the group of children with goiter and in the reference group, the average IQ indices fell within «the low normal» (80–89 points.Key words: iodine, hypothyroidism, IQ intellect index, children.

  5. A rare case of foreign body causing recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbur, Vijayalakshmi R; Gobbur, Raghavendra H; Patil, Ashwini G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic.

  6. A Rare Case of Foreign Body Causing Recurrent Vaginal Discharge in Prepubertal Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbur, Raghavendra.H.; Patil, Ashwini.G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic. PMID:25738041

  7. Assessment of ovarian reserve in euthyroid adolescents with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgon, Ozgur; Sivrice, Cigdem; Demirtas, Hakan; Dundar, Bumin

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the ovarian function and reserve in euthyroid adolescents (TSH Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). This case-control study included 30 adolescent girls (mean age 15.1 ± 1.4 years) newly diagnosed as HT with presence of high thyroid antibodies with gland heterogeneity in ultrasound and age-matched 30 healthy female subjects. Anti-ovarian antibody (AOAb), LH/FSH ratio, estradiol, anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B, total testosterone, antral follicle count, ovarian volumes and uterine length were measured. The clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound data of the HT and control groups were compared. There were no significant differences between the girls with HT and healthy controls in relation to LH/FSH ratio, estradiol and inhibin-B levels. AOAb (p = 0.02), AMH (p = 0.007) and total testosterone levels were higher in HT group than the control group (p = 0.03). AOAb level was found to be positively correlated with LH/FSH ratio (p = 0.03), AMH (p = 0.01) and inhibin-B (p thyroiditis had normal ovarian reserve based on measurements of AMH, inhibin B, FSH, LH/FSH ratio, estradiol and antral follicle counts.

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection as a Precipitant of Thyroid Storm in a Previously Undiagnosed Case of Graves' Disease in a Prepubertal Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton RWilliam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is less common in prepubertal than pubertal children, and initial presentation with thyroid storm is rare. We report an 11-year-old prepubertal Hispanic girl who presented with a one-day history of respiratory distress, fever, and dysphagia. She had exophthalmos, a diffuse bilateral goiter and was agitated, tachycardic, and hypertensive. Nasal swab was positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. She was diagnosed with thyroid storm and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. While infection is a known precipitant of thyroid storm and RSV is a common pediatric infection, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RSV infection apparently precipitating thyroid storm in a prepubertal child.

  9. Cognitive functioning and well-being in euthyroid patients on thyroxine replacement therapy for primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wekking, Ellie M.; Appelhof, Bente C.; Fliers, Eric; Schene, Aart H.; Huyser, Jochanan; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is associated with neurocognitive impairment. Sparse data suggest that treatment of hypothyroidism, resulting in a return to euthyroidism, may be associated with only partial recovery of overall neurocognitive functioning. The aim of this study was to assess neurocognitive

  10. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha is Inversely Related to Free Thyroxine in Euthyroid Subjects Without Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tienhoven-Wind, L. J. N.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    Lower thyroid functional status within the euthyroid range may confer increased atherosclerosis susceptibility, as evidenced by increased intima media thickness and coronary artery calcification. Associations of lower thyroid functional status with pro-atherogenic (inflammatory) biomarkers may also

  11. Efavirenz-induced gynecomastia in a prepubertal girl with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prepubertal gynecomastia is a rare condition and most frequently classified as idiopathic. In HIV-infected adults gynecomastia is a recognised but infrequent side-effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and mostly attributed to efavirenz use. Gynecomastia should be distinguished from pseudogynecomastia as part of the lipodystrophy syndrome caused by Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) to avoid incorrect substitution of drugs. In the medical literature only five cases of prepubertal gynecomastia in children taking ART are described and underlying pathogenesis was unknown. The occurrence of adverse effects of ART may interfere with therapy adherence and long-term prognosis and for that reason requires attention. We report the first case of prepubertal gynecomastia in a young girl attributed to efavirenz use. Case presentation A seven-year-old African girl presented with true gynecomastia four months after initiation on ART (abacavir, lamivudine, efavirenz). History, physical examination and laboratory tests excluded known causes of gynecomastia and efavirenz was considered as the most likely cause. Six weeks after withdrawal of efavirenz the breast enlargement had completely resolved. Conclusions Efavirenz-induced gynecomastia may occur in children as well as in adults. With the increasing access to ART, the possibility of efavirenz-exposure and the potential occurrence of its associated side-effects may be high. In resource-poor settings, empirical change from efavirenz to nevirapine may be considered, providing no other known or alarming cause is identified, as efavirenz-induced gynecomastia can resolve quickly after withdrawal of the drug. Timely recognition of gynecomastia as a side-effect of efavirenz is important in order to intervene while the condition may still be reversible, to sustain adherence to ART and to maintain the sociopsychological health of the child. PMID:23941256

  12. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Navarro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (−0.132, p < 0.05 with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  13. Effects of a contrast training programme on jumping, sprinting and agility performance of prepubertal basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Villar Macias, Francisco Javier; García Pinillos, Felipe

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 10 week contrast training (CT) programme (isometric + plyometric) on jumping, sprinting abilities and agility performance in prepubertal basketball players. Fifty-eight children from a basketball academy (age: 8.72 ± 0.97 years; body mass index: 17.22 ± 2.48 kg/m 2 ) successfully completed the study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental groups (EG, n = 30) and control groups (CG, n = 28). The CT programme was included in the experimental group's training sessions - twice a week - as part of their usual weekly training regime. This programme included 3 exercises: 1 isometric and 2 plyometric. Jumping, sprinting and agility performance were assessed before and after the training programme. Significant differences were found in posttest between EG and CG in sprint and T-test: EG showed better results than CG. Furthermore, there were significant differences in posttest-pretest between EG and CG in squat jump, countermovement jump, drop jump, sprint and T-test with the EG showing better results than CG. The CT programme led to increases in vertical jump, sprint and agility levels, so that the authors suggest that prepubertal children exhibit high muscular strength trainability.

  14. Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders. II. Interpersonal relationships after sustained recovery from affective episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Antich, J; Lukens, E; Davies, M; Goetz, D; Brennan-Quattrock, J; Todak, G

    1985-05-01

    Psychosocial relationships with parents, peers, and siblings, as well as school functioning, were measured at two points in time by parental interview in 21 prepubertal children: during an episode of major depression and after they had sustained an affective recovery from the index episode for at least four months. School functioning was completely normalized, but deficits in the child's intrafamilial and extra-familial relationships had improved only partially. The pattern of improvement was merely quantitative. Moderate deficits during the depressive episode reached, after affective recovery, the level of the normal control group. In contrast, severe deficits only improved to a moderate level of severity. It is suggested that treating the affective disorder is not sufficient in many children with major depression and that efficacy studies of psychotherapeutic interventions in affectively recovered children are needed.

  15. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is defined as the excessive development of breast tissue in males, which can occur as unilateral or bilateral. Although the overall prevalence of gynecomastia is 40%-65%, the prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities is unusual, with only a few case reports in literature. Idiopathic gynecomastia in prepuberty is benign but a diagnosis of exclusion. We here report two cases of healthy prepubertal boys aged 8.8 and 9.6 years old, respectively, presented with painful palpable mass in their unilateral breast. Breast tissue with glandular proliferation was confirmed on ultrasonography. Serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, and other laboratory findings were within normal range. They seem to have the prepubertal idiopathic gynecomastia but further follow-up to see their progression is needed.

  16. Euthyroid sick syndrome in patients with acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic Slobodan; Vlajkovic Marina; Rajic Milena; Bogicevic Momcilo

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum thyroid hormone profile in acute renal failure (ARF) patients according to the initial 131I-OIH clearance value as a predictor of ARF outcome. Patients and methods: Radioimmuno-assays of T4, T3, FT4, FT3, rT3 and TSH were performed in 32 ARF patients within 7 days and 6 months after ARF onset. The patients were divided into three groups according to the kidney function recovery potential measured by 131I-OIH clearance as follows: Group I: high probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance >250 ml/min), Group II: intermediate probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance 151-250 ml/min) and Group III: low probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance <150 ml/min). The results were compared with those obtained in 20 healthy patients. Results: Total thyroid hormone and TSH values are displayed in the table, Values of total T4 and TSH were slightly declined in the Group I but without reaching the statistical significance, while total T3 value was significantly decreased seven days after ARF onset. In the groups with intermediate and low probability for kidney recovery both T3 and T4 values were significantly dropped, being most prominent in the III group. After six months, the most severe fall of thyroid hormone levels without reaching the normalization was found only in the Group III while in the Group I and II normalization of total thyroid hormone levels was achieved. At the end of the observation period ARF patients with low probability for kidney recovery were found significantly lower values of TSH. Conclusion: Acute renal failure affects thyroid function leading to euthyroid sick syndrome characterized by declined serum T3 and T4 without TSH elevation. Thyroid hormone a disturbance is in accordance with the impairment of renal function being the most pronounced in patient with low probability for kidney recovery. This pattern of altered thyroid hormone levels could be a result of

  17. Balance and postural skills in normal-weight and overweight prepubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforche, Benedicte I; Hills, Andrew P; Worringham, Charles J; Davies, Peter S W; Murphy, Alexia J; Bouckaert, Jacques J; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated differences in balance and postural skills in normal-weight versus overweight prepubertal boys. Fifty-seven 8-10-year-old boys were categorized overweight (N = 25) or normal-weight (N = 32) according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-off points for overweight in children. The Balance Master, a computerized pressure plate system, was used to objectively measure six balance skills: sit-to-stand, walk, step up/over, tandem walk (walking on a line), unilateral stance and limits of stability. In addition, three standardized field tests were employed: standing on one leg on a balance beam, walking heel-to-toe along the beam and the multiple sit-to-stand test. Overweight boys showed poorer performances on several items assessed on the Balance Master. Overweight boys had slower weight transfer (p test, greater step width while walking (p walking on a line (p test, the unilateral stance and the limits of stability were comparable between both groups. On the balance beam, overweight boys could not hold their balance on one leg as long (p test (p < 0.001) than normal-weight boys. Finally, overweight boys were slower in standing up and sitting down five times in the multiple sit-to-stand task (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that when categorised by body mass index (BMI) level, overweight prepubertal boys displayed lower capacity on several static and dynamic balance and postural skills.

  18. Methylphenidate-induced erections in a prepubertal child.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2013-02-01

    Methylphenidate is a medication used routinely in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We report a case of a prepubertal child who developed unwanted erections after commencing a response-adjusted dosing regimen of sustained release methylphenidate. Despite priapism being a rare adverse reaction associated with methylphenidate, physicians and parents need to be aware as it can have significant long-term complications.

  19. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia: a report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaren, I.A.; Schott, D.A.; Otten, B.J.; Kroese-Deutman, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia is defined as the presence of excessive breast tissue in males, which can appear unilateral or bilateral. Bilateral gynecomastia is frequently found in the neonatal period, early in puberty, and with increasing age. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of

  20. Levothyroxine Improves Subjective Sleepiness in a Euthyroid Patient with Narcolepsy without Cataplexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Danielle L.; Spector, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We discuss the use of levothyroxine for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and prolonged nocturnal sleep time in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy. Methods: After failure of first-line narcolepsy treatments, a 48-year-old female began levothyroxine (25 mcg/day). After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient was evaluated for improvement in total sleep time and subjective daytime sleepiness assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results: At baseline, ESS score was 16 and total sleep time averaged 16 h/day. After 12 weeks, ESS was 13 and reported total sleep time was 13 h/day. Conclusions: Levothyroxine improved EDS and total sleep time in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy without cataplexy after 12 weeks without side effects. Citation: Sobol DL, Spector AR. Levothyroxine improves subjective sleepiness in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy without cataplexy. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1231-1232. PMID:25325591

  1. Relational Stability of Thyroid Hormones in Euthyroid Subjects and Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E.M.; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Operating far from its equilibrium resting point, the thyroid gland requires stimulation via feedback-controlled pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) secretion to maintain adequate hormone supply. We explored and defined variations in the expression of control mechanisms and physiological responses across the euthyroid reference range. Methods We analyzed the relational equilibria between thyroid parameters defining thyroid production and thyroid conversion in a group of 271 thyroid-healthy subjects and 86 untreated patients with thyroid autoimmune disease. Results In the euthyroid controls, the FT3-FT4 (free triiodothyronine-free thyroxine) ratio was strongly associated with the FT4-TSH ratio (tau = −0.22, p < 0.001, even after correcting for spurious correlation), linking T4 to T3 conversion with TSH-standardized T4 production. Using a homeostatic model, we estimated both global deiodinase activity and maximum thyroid capacity. Both parameters were nonlinearly and inversely associated, trending in opposite directions across the euthyroid reference range. Within the panel of controls, the subgroup with a relatively lower thyroid capacity (<2.5 pmol/s) displayed lower FT4 levels, but maintained FT3 at the same concentrations as patients with higher functional and anatomical capacity. The relationships were preserved when extended to the subclinical range in the diseased sample. Conclusion The euthyroid panel does not follow a homogeneous pattern to produce random variation among thyroid hormones and TSH, but forms a heterogeneous group that progressively displays distinctly different levels of homeostatic control across the euthyroid range. This suggests a concept of relational stability with implications for definition of euthyroidism and disease classification. PMID:27843807

  2. Physiological and Metabolic Changes During the Transition from Hyperthyroidism to Euthyroidism in Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Chiaw-Ling; Lim, Adoree Yi Ying; Tan, Hong Chang; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Tham, Kwang Wei; Bee, Yong Mong; Lim, Weiying; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Lai, Oi Fah; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Yen, Paul Michael

    2016-10-01

    The serum metabolomic profile and its relationship to physiological changes during hyperthyroidism and restoration to euthyroidism are not known. This study aimed to examine the physiological, adipokine, and metabolomic changes that occur when subjects with Graves' disease transition from hyperthyroidism to euthyroidism with medical treatment. Chinese women between 21 and 50 years of age and with newly diagnosed Graves' disease attending the endocrine outpatient clinics in a single institution were recruited between July 2012 and September 2014. All subjects were treated with thioamides to achieve euthyroidism. Clinical parameters (body weight, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient via indirect calorimetry, and reported total energy intake via 24 h food diary), biochemical parameters (thyroid hormones, lipid profile, fasting insulin and glucose levels), serum leptin, adiponectin, and metabolomics profiles were measured during hyperthyroidism and repeated in early euthyroidism. Twenty four Chinese women with an average age of 36.3 ± 8.6 years were included in the study. The average duration of treatment that was required to reach euthyroidism for these subjects was 38 ± 16.3 weeks. There was a significant increase in body weight (52.6 ± 9.0 kg to 55.3 ± 9.4 kg; p hyperthyroidism were noted. Serum metabolomics profile changes complemented the physiological changes observed during the transition from hyperthyroidism to euthyroidism. This study provides a comprehensive and integrated view of the changes in fuel metabolism and energy balance that occur following the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

  3. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F A; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Heemstra, Karen A; Smit, Johannes W A; Schoemaker, Rik C; Romijn, Johannes A; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the long-term effects of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on the autonomic nervous system and the potential effects of restoration of euthyroidism. This was a prospective single-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The study was performed at a university hospital. A total of 25 patients who were on more than 10-yr TSH suppressive therapy after thyroidectomy was examined. Patients were studied at baseline and subsequently randomized to a 6-month thyroid hormone substitution regimen to obtain either euthyroidism or maintenance of the subclinical hyperthyroid state. Urinary excretion of catecholamines and heart rate variability were measured. Baseline data of the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients were compared with data obtained in patients with hyperthyroidism and controls. Urinary excretion of norepinephrine and vanillylmandelic acid was higher in the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients compared with controls and lower compared with patients with overt hyperthyroidism. Heart rate variability was lower in patients with hyperthyroidism, intermediate in subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, and highest in the healthy controls. No differences were observed after restoration of euthyroidism. Long-term exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism has effects on the autonomic nervous system measured by heart rate variability and urinary catecholamine excretion. No differences were observed after restoration to euthyroidism. This may indicate the occurrence of irreversible changes or adaptation during long-term exposure to excess thyroid hormone that is not remedied by 6-month euthyroidism.

  4. Elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyreotidis

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    Keskin Havva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, determined from peripheral blood, is accepted as an available and practical indicator of the systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the NLR was higher in euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyreotidis (CAT patients compared to a healthy control group.

  5. Urinary Iodine Clearance following Iodinated Contrast Administration: A Comparison of Euthyroid and Postthyroidectomy Subjects

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    Janice D. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare iodine clearance following iodinated contrast administration in thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and euthyroid individuals. Methods. A convenience population (6 thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and 7 euthyroid controls was drawn from patients referred for iodinated contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT studies. Subjects had sequential urine samples collected up to 6 months (50 samples from the thyroidectomised and 63 samples from the euthyroid groups. t-tests and generalised estimating equations (GEE were used to test for group differences in urinary iodine creatinine ratios. Results. Groups had similar urinary iodine creatinine ratios at baseline, with a large increase 2 weeks following iodinated contrast (P=0.005. Both groups had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline by 4 weeks, with no significant group differences overall or at any time point. Conclusions. Thyroidectomised patients did not have a significantly different urinary iodine clearance than euthyroid individuals following administration of iodinated contrast. Both had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline within 4 weeks.

  6. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F. A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Heemstra, Karen A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Schoemaker, Rik C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the

  7. Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction in Euthyroid Nodular Goiter Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelius, Edy; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lo, Shih-Chang; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Lai, Yung-Rung; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2016-08-01

    The risks of thyroid dysfunction after iodinated contrast media exposure in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter are largely unknown. This observational, retrospective cohort study included a random selection of one million people in Taiwan. All patients with iodinated contrast media exposure during this study period were selected. Patients with euthyroid nodular goiter were identified as cases, while patients without thyroid nodule were selected as controls. We followed these patients until the first event of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure. A total of 334 cases and 2672 matched controls were selected in this study. The mean age of cases and controls were 58.6 and 58.4 years old, and mean follow-up durations were 2.1 and 2 years respectively. After adjustment, patients with euthyroid nodular goiter had a higher risk of thyroid dysfunction (hazard ratio 5.43, [confidence interval (CI) 3.01-9.80]) compared with controls after iodinated contrast media exposure. In the subgroup analysis, the risks of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in cases compared with controls were 5.77 [CI 2.64-12.62] and 4.95 [CI 2.15-11.40] respectively. Half of the euthyroid nodular goiter cases developed thyroid dysfunction within one year after iodinated contrast media exposure. Interestingly, all thyroid-related comorbidities and drug prescriptions did not increase the risk of thyroid dysfunction. Presence of euthyroid nodular goiter was associated with higher risk of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure.

  8. The effect of phototherapies on bone repair of euthyroid and hypothyroid rats: Raman spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Amanda P.; Rodriguez, Tania T.; Soares, Luiz G. P.; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Silveira, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.

    2018-04-01

    The repair of bone tissue is complex and can be influenced by several local and systemic factors that can delay the repair. Laser and LED phototherapies have shown positive results in the repair of bone tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate, through Raman spectroscopy, the influence of laser (λ780 nm) and LED (λ850 nm) phototherapies in the repair of surgical defects in femurs of euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. Thirty Albinus Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. The animals of the hypothyroid groups were submitted to surgical removal of the thyroid gland. After general anesthesia, a surgical bone defect was created in the femur of each animal and filled with blood clot in all groups. In group I (Euthyroid) the defect was created in euthyroid animals; In Group II (Hypo) the defect was created in hypothyroid animals; In Group III (Euthyroid Laser) the defect was irradiated with Laser; on Group IV (Hypo Laser) the defect was made in a hypothyroid animal and irradiated with Laser; on Group V (Euthyroid LED) the defect was irradiated with LED and on Group VI (Hypo LED) the defect was created in hypothyroid animals and LED irradiated. Irradiation was carried out at every 48-h for 15 days. Specimens were taken and stored in liquid nitrogen. Intensity of peaks of phosphate HA ( 960 cm-1), carbonated HA ( 1,070 cm-1) and collagen ( 1,414 cm-1) were measured by Raman Spectroscopy. The results showed that the health status had significant influence all peaks. Irradiation influenced only the peak of 1454 cm-1. It is concluded that phototherapies influences bone repair in cases of thyroid diseases.

  9. Comparison of clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and pubertal girls

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    Ayse E. Yilmaz

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: The etiopathogenesis and culture results differ between prepubertal and adolescent girls with vulvovaginitis, which should be taken into consideration in the treatment approach of this disorder.

  10. A Rare Cause of Prepubertal Gynecomastia: Sertoli Cell Tumor

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    Fatma Dursun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prepubertal gynecomastia due to testis tumors is a very rare condition. Nearly 5% of the patients with testicular mass present with gynecomastia. Sertoli cell tumors are sporadic in 60% of the reported cases, while the remaining is a component of multiple neoplasia syndromes such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and Carney complex. We present a 4-year-old boy with gynecomastia due to Sertoli cell tumor with no evidence of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome or Carney complex.

  11. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia: a report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hoevenaren, Inge A.; Schott, Dina Antina; Otten, Barto J.; Kroese-Deutman, Henriette C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Gynecomastia is defined as the presence of excessive breast tissue in males, which can appear unilateral or bilateral. Bilateral gynecomastia is frequently found in the neonatal period, early in puberty, and with increasing age. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities is extremely rare, with only a few cases in literature. Methods We report the cases of two otherwise healthy boys of 8 and 11?years old with unilateral breast masses. No abnormali...

  12. Testicular function following irradiation of the human prepubertal testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.G.; Jacobs, H.S.; Pearson, D.

    1978-01-01

    Testicular function was studied in ten men, aged between 17 and 36 years, who had received irradiation for a nephroblastoma during childhood. The dose of scattered irradiation to the testes ranged from 268 to 983 rad. Eight subjects had either oligo-or azoosperma (0 to 5.6 million/ml), seven of whom had an elevated serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level. One subject showed evidence of Leydig cell dysfunction with a raised serum luteinizing hormone level (LH) and a low plasma testosterone concentration. A second group of eight prepubertal males, aged between 8 and 14 years, were studied. These had also been irradiated for abdominal malignancies during childhood and received a similar dose of irradiation to the testis as the first group studied. The plasma testosterone levels were within the normal range in all eight. The mean gonadotropin levels were not significantly different from normal. Thus irradiation-induced damage to the germinal epithelium in prepubertal boys raised FSH levels after puberty but not before it. The conclusion is that inhibin has a minor role in the control of the pre-pubertal hypothalmic-pituitary testicular axis and its contribution to gonadal control of gonadotrophin secretion changes with sexual maturation. (author)

  13. Clinical course of thyroid function and thyroid associated-ophthalmopathy in patients with euthyroid Graves’ disease

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    Suzuki N

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nami Suzuki,1 Jaeduk Yoshimura Noh,1 Toshiaki Kameda,1 Ai Yoshihara,1 Hidemi Ohye,1 Miho Suzuki,1 Masako Matsumoto,1 Yo Kunii,1 Kenji Iwaku,1 Natsuko Watanabe,1 Koji Mukasa,1 Ai Kozaki,2 Toshu Inoue,2 Kiminori Sugino,1 Koichi Ito1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Ito Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Olympia Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Background: Euthyroid Graves’ disease (EGD is a rare condition defined as the presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO in patients with normal thyroid function. Due to the rarity of this disease, only a limited number of studies and case reports are available for further evaluation of the characteristics of the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the thyroid function, thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb and eye symptoms, and then determine whether TRAb is related to TAO in EGD patients. TRAb in this study was defined as including both thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSAb. Patients and methods: Medical records of patients diagnosed with EGD were reviewed. Ophthalmologists specializing in TAO examined the eyes of all subjects. Results: Of the 58 patients diagnosed with EGD, 24.1% developed hyperthyroidism, while 3.4% developed hypothyroidism. A total of 72.4% of the 58 patients remained euthyroid throughout the entire follow-up period. At the initial presentation, TBII and TSAb were positive in 74.5% and 70.5%, respectively. Ophthalmic treatments were administered to 30 (51.7% out of the 58 patients. A significant spontaneous improvement of the eye symptoms was found in 28 of the EGD patients who did not require eye treatments. EGD patients exhibited positive rates for both TBII and TSAb, with the number of the TRAb-positive patients gradually decreasing while the eye symptoms spontaneously improved over time. There were no correlations found between TRAb at initial presentation and the eye symptoms

  14. Association between Free Triiodothyronine Levels and Peripheral Arterial Disease in Euthyroid Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po; DU, Rui; Lin, Lin; Ding, Lin; Peng, Kui; Xu, Yu; Xu, Min; Bi, Yu Fang; Wang, Wei Qing; Ning, Guang; Lu, Jie Li

    2017-02-01

    This current cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between thyroid hormones and peripheral artery disease (PAD) among euthyroid Chinese population aged 40 years and above. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid antibodies were measured. PAD was defined as ankle-brachial index (ABI) triiodothyronine-to-free-thyroxin (FT3/FT4 ratio) had a decreased risk of prevalent PAD (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.15-0.62, P for trend = 0.01 and 0.31, 0.13-0.66, P for trend = 0.004, respectively) compared to those in the lowest quartile. To conclude, FT3 levels and the FT3/FT4 ratio was inversely associated with prevalent PAD in euthyroid Chinese population aged 40 years and above. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in euthyroid subjects and in patients with thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, J.; Tarjan, G.; Varga, F.; Mohari, K.; Janoki, G.

    1992-01-01

    An episodic pattern of fluctuation in serum TRH level was demonstrated in euthyroid males. It is suggested that these rises in serum TRH-IR are due to its pulsatile hypothalamic release, however, it must be remembered that a high proportion of circulating TRH is derived from extrahypothalamic sources. The conception that the TSH surge during late evening is secondary to an increased TRH release could not be proved in the present study. In the euthyroid and primary hypothyroid groups the mean values of serum TRH-IR did not differ, while its level was slightly, but not significantly lower in hyperthyroid patients. The evaluation of a single TRH determination is impeded by the short half-life, low serum level and its production in extrahypothalamic sites, too. (authors)

  16. Autonomy in euthyroid goitre: Precursor of non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism in an area of iodine deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Schicha, H.

    1984-01-01

    There is evidence that in an area of iodine deficiency NIM-HY exists to a considerable percentage, probably originating from euthyroid goitre with autonomy, especially if iodine intake is suddenly increased. Separation of IM-HY and NIM-HY is possible with a probability of 90% by clinical criteria and available laboratory investigations. This might be important not only from a pathophysiological point of view but also for diagnosis and selection of the kind of therapy. (orig.)

  17. Paradoxical euthyroid hormone profile in a case of Graves' disease with cardiac failure

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    Kapoor Aditya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac failure is an uncommon complication of juvenile hyperthyroidism. We describe an adolescent boy with Graves' disease who developed manifestations of heart failure while on antithyroid medications. There was no evidence of any underlying cardiac disease. He had paradoxical euthyroid hormone profile which rose to hyperthyroid range when the manifestations of the cardiac failure subsided. The case highlights several unusual features of Graves' disease.

  18. Blood spotting on underpants: Case report of urethral prolapse in a pre-pubertal Chinese girl

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    Hei Yi Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urethral prolapse is a rare urological condition with non-specific clinical manifestations which is mostly seen in pre-pubertal black girls and postmenopausal woman. The exact etiology still remains unknown. We herein present a case report of urethral mucosa prolapse in a 5 year-old Chinese pre-pubertal girl.

  19. Effects of Habitual Physical Activity and Fitness on Tibial Cortical Bone Mass, Structure and Mass Distribution in Pre-pubertal Boys and Girls: The Look Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckham, Rachel L; Rantalainen, Timo; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Richard D; Telford, Rohan M; Daly, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    Targeted weight-bearing activities during the pre-pubertal years can improve cortical bone mass, structure and distribution, but less is known about the influence of habitual physical activity (PA) and fitness. This study examined the effects of contrasting habitual PA and fitness levels on cortical bone density, geometry and mass distribution in pre-pubertal children. Boys (n = 241) and girls (n = 245) aged 7-9 years had a pQCT scan to measure tibial mid-shaft total, cortical and medullary area, cortical thickness, density, polar strength strain index (SSIpolar) and the mass/density distribution through the bone cortex (radial distribution divided into endo-, mid- and pericortical regions) and around the centre of mass (polar distribution). Four contrasting PA and fitness groups (inactive-unfit, inactive-fit, active-unfit, active-fit) were generated based on daily step counts (pedometer, 7-days) and fitness levels (20-m shuttle test and vertical jump) for boys and girls separately. Active-fit boys had 7.3-7.7 % greater cortical area and thickness compared to inactive-unfit boys (P girls, but active-fit girls had 6.1 % (P girls, which was likely due to their 6.7 % (P active-fit girls. Higher levels of habitual PA-fitness were associated with small regional-specific gains in 66 % tibial cortical bone mass in pre-pubertal children, particularly boys.

  20. Prevalence of upper airway obstruction in patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid multi nodular goitre

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    Sunil K Menon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the prevalence of upper airway obstruction (UAO in "apparently asymptomatic" patients with euthyroid multinodular goitre (MNG and find correlation between clinical features, UAO on pulmonary function test (PFT and tracheal narrowing on computerised tomography (CT. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid MNG attending thyroid clinic in a tertiary centre underwent clinical examination to elicit features of UAO, PFT, and CT of neck and chest. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 11.5 using paired t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher′s exact test. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Fifty-six patients (52 females and four males were studied. The prevalence of UAO (PFT and significant tracheal narrowing (CT was 14.3%. and 9.3%, respectively. Clinical features failed to predict UAO or significant tracheal narrowing. Tracheal narrowing (CT did not correlate with UAO (PFT. Volume of goitre significantly correlated with degree of tracheal narrowing. Conclusions: Clinical features do not predict UAO on PFT or tracheal narrowing on CT in apparently asymptomatic patients with euthyroid MNG.

  1. Prevalence of upper airway obstruction in patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid multi nodular goitre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sunil K.; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Sarathi, Vijaya; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar R.; Menon, Padmavathy S; Shah, Nalini S.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in “apparently asymptomatic” patients with euthyroid multinodular goitre (MNG) and find correlation between clinical features, UAO on pulmonary function test (PFT) and tracheal narrowing on computerised tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid MNG attending thyroid clinic in a tertiary centre underwent clinical examination to elicit features of UAO, PFT, and CT of neck and chest. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 11.5 using paired t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher's exact test. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Fifty-six patients (52 females and four males) were studied. The prevalence of UAO (PFT) and significant tracheal narrowing (CT) was 14.3%. and 9.3%, respectively. Clinical features failed to predict UAO or significant tracheal narrowing. Tracheal narrowing (CT) did not correlate with UAO (PFT). Volume of goitre significantly correlated with degree of tracheal narrowing. Conclusions: Clinical features do not predict UAO on PFT or tracheal narrowing on CT in apparently asymptomatic patients with euthyroid MNG. PMID:21966649

  2. Vitamin D status in Egyptian euthyroid multinodular non-toxic goiter patients and its correlation with TSH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelnaga, Mohamed M; Elshafei, Maha M; Elsayed, Eman

    2016-10-01

    Although the prevalence of MNG is widespread throughout the world, its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the complex interactions of both genetic predisposition and the individuals' environment are likely. However, to the best of our knowledge, it remains unknown whether there is a relationship between vitamin D status and prevalence or pathogenesis of euthyroid MNG. Therefore, the goal of the present study was determination of vitamin D status in euthyroid MNG as well as exploration of the correlation between vitamin D status & TSH levels. A total of 77 patients diagnosed with euthyroid MNG and 50 subjects without goiter were matched according to age, weight and BMI as control group in this case control study. We found that patients with euthyroid MNG had statistically significant lower mean of [25(OH)D] (24.21±8.68ng/mL) in comparison with its mean in control subjects (28.37±10.91ng/mL, P value=0.019). The 28 sufficient vitamin D MNG patients had statistically significant lower level of TSH than 49 insufficient vitamin D MNG patients. Vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in MNG patients in Pearson correlation. Also 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients in regression analysis. Patients with euthyroid MNG have lower levels of vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in euthyroid MNG patients. In addition, 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients. We recommend hypovitaminosis D evaluation and correction in patients with MNG. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Prepubertal vaginal discharge: Vaginoscopy to rule out foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Saniye; Karnak, İbrahim; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Çiftçi, Arbay Özden

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of all prepubertal patients who underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated by pediatricians prior to surgical consultation. Vaginoscopy is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. During the study period, 20 girls with persistent vaginal discharge with a mean age of 6.8 years (1-13 years) underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body. Six patients had bloody vaginal discharge and 4 had recurrent vaginal bleeding lasting for more than one month. Ten patients had purulent vaginal discharge lasting for 1-7 months. None of vaginal cultures revealed pathological bacteria or candida species. Preoperative imaging techniques revealed vaginal foreign body in one patient only. Vaginoscopy demonstrated vaginal foreign bodies in four patients. Foreign bodies were grass inflorescence, safety pin and undefined brownish particles (n=2), which may be pieces of toilet paper or feces. There was no complication related to vaginoscopy and removal of foreign body. Hymen integrity was preserved in all patients. Persistent or recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal girls should raise the suspect of vaginal foreign body. Continuous flow vaginoscopy is mandatory to detect and remove any vaginal foreign body. Early diagnosis would prevent complications secondary to long-standing foreign bodies.

  4. Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Aryeh D; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-07-01

    Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty. We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. We analyzed data from the Birth to Twenty Plus study (females, n = 823; males, n = 765). Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair (females and males), breasts (females), and genitalia (males) development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Among females, higher latent class (earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty) was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57, 7.44)] and inconsistent associations with height. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2.43 cm (95% CI: 0.88, 4.00)] and increased risk of overweight/obesity [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: OR, 3.44 (95% CI: 1.44, 8.20)]. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, -1.31 cm (95% CI: -2.32, -0.31)]; in males, the association with height was attenuated with this adjustment [-0.56 cm (95% CI: -1.63, 0.52)]. Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults.

  5. Euthyroid goiter with autonomy: Results of treatment with radioiodine (131I) and by surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Reinhardt, M.

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy of, and the risk associated with, the definite treatment of euthyroid goiter with autonomy, the data of 88 patients treated between 1982 and 1986 (50 by subtotal thyroidectomy; 38 by 131 I-treatment, mean radiation dose 200 Gy without protection by thyroxine) were analyzed in a retrospective study. The following criteria were used before and after treatment: the results of scintigraphy under suppression qualitatively (in focal autonomy) and quantitatively (global thyroid uptake) (TcU s ), the means of FT 4 I, FT 3 I and ΔTSH after TRH, the improvement of mechanical signs and symptoms and the decrease of thyroid volume. Measured by TcU s and ΔTSH, autonomy could be removed completely in 85-90% of all patients. Surgery was slightly more successful (100%) compared to treatment by 131 I (75-80%). This was also true for removal of mechanical symptoms and reduction of the goiter. The incidence of manifest hypothyroidism was greater after surgery (16%) than after 131 I treatment (3%). At a higher grade of autonomy (TcU s > 3.2%) surgery was more effective (95-100%) than treatment with 131 I (60-70%) but at a higher risk of hypothyroidism (24 vs 0%). It is imperative to improve the methods of estimating the amount of 131 I to be administered in euthyroid goiter with autonomy. Selection of patients with autonomy in euthyroid goiter for definite treatment is difficult, since until now their risk to become hyperthyroid cannot be predicted properly. (orig.) [de

  6. Euthyroid goiter with autonomy: Results of treatment with radioiodine (/sup 131/I) and by surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emrich, D.; Reinhardt, M.

    1989-02-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy of, and the risk associated with, the definite treatment of euthyroid goiter with autonomy, the data of 88 patients treated between 1982 and 1986 (50 by subtotal thyroidectomy; 38 by /sup 131/I-treatment, mean radiation dose 200 Gy without protection by thyroxine) were analyzed in a retrospective study. The following criteria were used before and after treatment: the results of scintigraphy under suppression qualitatively (in focal autonomy) and quantitatively (global thyroid uptake) (TcU/sub s/), the means of FT/sub 4/I, FT/sub 3/I and ..delta..TSH after TRH, the improvement of mechanical signs and symptoms and the decrease of thyroid volume. Measured by TcU/sub s/ and ..delta..TSH, autonomy could be removed completely in 85-90% of all patients. Surgery was slightly more successful (100%) compared to treatment by /sup 131/I (75-80%). This was also true for removal of mechanical symptoms and reduction of the goiter. The incidence of manifest hypothyroidism was greater after surgery (16%) than after /sup 131/I treatment (3%). At a higher grade of autonomy (TcU/sub s/ > 3.2%) surgery was more effective (95-100%) than treatment with /sup 131/I (60-70%) but at a higher risk of hypothyroidism (24 vs 0%). It is imperative to improve the methods of estimating the amount of /sup 131/I to be administered in euthyroid goiter with autonomy. Selection of patients with autonomy in euthyroid goiter for definite treatment is difficult, since until now their risk to become hyperthyroid cannot be predicted properly.

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of thyroid in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: overt hypothyroid and euthyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Tezcan; Varım, Ceyhun; Nalbant, Ahmet; Gündüz, Yasemin; Tamer, Ali

    2013-08-01

    To compare the frequency, size, and sonographic features of thyroid nodules in overt hypothyroid and euthyroid patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. The study included 135 overt hypothyroid (group 1) and 74 euthyroid patients (group 2) with Hashimoto thyroiditis. The two groups were compared for presence of nodule(s), nodule numbers, and nodule sizes obtained by ultrasonography. Nodules were found in 48 (35.5%) patients in group 1 and in 24 (36.9%) in group 2 (p more than 0.05). The numbers of nodules in the group 1 and group 2, respectively, were as follows: single nodule in 12 (25%) and in 9 (33.3%) patients; 2-4 nodules in 20 (41.6%) and in 13 (48.1%) patients; and > 4 nodules in 16 (33.3%) and in 5 (18.5%) patients (p more than 0.05 for all of the results). Nodule sizes of the solitary or dominant nodule in group 1 and group 2, respectively, were as follows: less than 1 cm nodules in 27 (56.2%) and in 14 (51.8%) patients; 1-2 cm nodules in 18 (37.5%) and in 7 (25.9) patients; 2-4 cm nodules in 2 (4.1%) and in 5 (18.5%) patients and > 4 cm nodules in 1 (2%) and in 1 (3.7%) patient (p more than 0.05 for all of the results). Thyroid ultrasound examination of overt hypothyroid and euthyroid patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis reveals similarities in terms of frequency, number, size, and ultrasound features of the thyroid nodules.

  8. Gender’s Effect on a School-Based Intervention in the Prepubertal Growth Spurt

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    Marta Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Children aged 10-11 years pass through a dynamic developmental period marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of gender on a school-based intervention in the prepubertal growth spurt. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls, fifth and sixth grade students from an urban public elementary school in Portugal (10.8 ± 0.4 years, were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: a strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls, and an endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls; and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls; no training program. Training program for the two experimental groups was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. Compared with the values at the beginning of the protocol, both strength and endurance training programs produced significant improvements (p 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.16, Power= 0.29 and aerobic (p> 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.05, Power= 0.28 capacity. The results of the present study should be taken into consideration in order to optimize strength training school-based programs.

  9. Radioiodine therapy increases the risk of cerebrovascular events in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Jensen, Lars Thorbjoern; Vej-Hansen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    to radiation and is capable of inducing atherosclerosis. The objective of the study was to elucidate whether ionizing radiation from radioiodine might contribute to cerebrovascular morbidity. METHODS: In a retrospective register cohort study, 4000 hyperthyroid and 1022 euthyroid goitre patients treated...... with radioiodine between 1975 and 2008 were matched 1:4 on age and sex with random controls. The cohort was followed from the date of treatment until hospitalization due to cerebrovascular event, death, 20 years of follow-up or March 2013. Data were analyzed in competing risk models adjusting for age, sex...

  10. Thyroidectomy improves quality of life in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter – a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Watt, Torquil; Cramon, Per

    compared to a historic group from the general population (n=739). ThyPRO data before, three, and six months after surgery were compared with normative scores from the general population using a linear mixed model and non-paired t-tests. The effect size (ES) was estimated as mean change by standard...... scales either experienced no change or small changes (ES:0.00-0.50). Post-surgery, with exception a reduced level of Anxiety, all scales returned to values similar to the general population.Conclusion: Thyroid surgery leads to significant benefit among patients with euthyroid goiter, and restores Qo...

  11. Thyroid hormones and mortality risk in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, both overt and subclinical, are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The association between thyroid hormones and mortality in euthyroid individuals, however, is unclear. To examine the prospective association between thyroid hormones levels within normal ranges and mortality endpoints. A prospective cohort study of 212 456 middle-aged South Korean men and women who had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease at baseline from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2009. Free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), and TSH levels were measured by RIA. Vital status and cause of death ascertainment were based on linkage to the National Death Index death certificate records. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 730 participants died (335 deaths from cancer and 112 cardiovascular-related deaths). FT4 was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.95, comparing the highest vs lowest quartile of FT4; P for linear trend = .01), and FT3 was inversely associated cancer mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.85; P for linear trend = .001). TSH was not associated with mortality endpoints. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, FT4 and FT3 levels within the normal range were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality, particularly liver cancer mortality.

  12. Euthyroid sick syndrome in head injury patients compared with Glasgow Coma and Outcome Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palugniok, R.; Kochanska-Dziurowicz, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of the role of euthyroid sick syndrome and pituitary gland hormonal changes and the prognosis of patient mortality after severe brain injury. METHODS: The research was conducted on 65 patients with isolated severe brain injury. Blood samples were obtained as soon as possible after the injury and on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th day after the injury. Blood concentrations of T3, rT3, T4, FT4, TSH, and PRL were estimated. The patients' state of health was evaluated in the sixth hour after the injury, using Glasgow Coma Scale, and after 180 days, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Multidirectional correlation was sought between the concentrations of the estimated hormones and the score obtained in the Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS: Cluster analysis showed that concentrations of the hormones in the patients who died are grouped in different clusters from those in the patients who survived. This proves that hormonal patterns are different in these groups. Statistically significant lower T3 concentrations were observed on the 3rd day in comparison with the 0 day. Cumulative proportion surviving was lower for the OP group in comparison with the NOP group and amounted to 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: In all patients covered by the research euthyroid sick syndrome was diagnosed. T3 concentration on the 3rd day after the injury together with the evaluation in Glasgow Coma Scale allows for more precise prognosis. (author)

  13. Free Triiodothyronine Levels Are Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy in Euthyroid Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Jingcheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association of thyroid function and diabetic nephropathy (DN in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 421 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. The following parameters were assessed: anthropometric measurements, fast plasma glucose, serum creatinine, lipid profile, HbA1c, free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR. Patients with UACR of ≥30 mg/g were defined as those suffering from DN. Results. Of the 421 patients, 203 (48.2% suffered from DN, and no difference was found between males and females. The patients with DN yielded significantly lower FT3 levels than those without DN (P<0.01. The prevalence of DN showed a significantly decreasing trend across the three tertiles based on FT3 levels (59.6%, 46.4%, and 38.6%, P<0.01. After adjustment for gender and age, FT3 levels were found to correlate positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.03 and negatively with UACR (P<0.01. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that FT3 level was independently associated with UACR (β=-0.18, t=-3.70, and P<0.01. Conclusion. Serum FT3 levels are inversely associated with DN in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors.

  14. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

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    Kumar Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery.

  15. Use of Flexible Hysteroscopy in Prepubertal Aged Girls with Genital Complaints

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    Fu-Tsai Kung

    2005-12-01

    Conclusion: The advantages of safety, convenience, and effectiveness suggest that flexible hysteroscopy under anesthesia is a good substitute for traditional vaginoscopy and may help in the diagnosis of genital complaints in selected prepubertal patients in the pediatric gynecology clinic.

  16. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E

    2015-01-01

    . The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012). Here......BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine...... administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. METHODS: /Design We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20...

  17. Inflammatory adipokines, high molecular weight adiponectin, and insulin resistance: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

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    Giuseppe Murdolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR measures in prepubertal childhood. METHODOLOGY: We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr, included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46, 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28 and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70. Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW-, increased progressively (p<0.0001 from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001 HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05 IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1 than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively, leptin or inflammatory markers (positively correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R(2 0.378; p<0.01. Adjustment for age, BMI(z-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R(2 0.513; p<0.01. Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were

  18. Can dosimetry help to predict euthyroidism after 131I radioiodine treatment of solitary thyroid nodule?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanjeti, A.; Pia, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: recent SNM guidelines suggest to administer 3-8 MBq for each gram of thyroid tissue in order to reach a non hyperthyroid status, while EANM guidelines suggest to reach a dose of 100-400 Gy depending on type of disease. This second point of view is based on the principle that dosimetry, i.e. the metabolism of radioiodine within the thyroid can determine the outcome of radiation in the gland. However, although reasonable, it has not been shown unequivocally that dosimetry allows better outcome. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether dosimetry and parameters that consent a dose evaluation can be useful in order to predict outcome in hyperthyroid patients with solitary nodule and successfully treated with radioiodine. Material and methods. Thirty-one consecutive patients with solitary nodule and successfully treated with 131 I radioiodine were included. In 27 patients euthyroidism was durably reached during the follow up, while in 4 hypothyroid state was the final outcome. All of them underwent Radioiodine Uptake Test (RUT) with 5 measurements (6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h), thyroid scintigraphy to estimate gland mass and radioiodine administration. Bi-compartmental model was used to estimate residence time and dose was estimated according to EANM guidelines based on administered activities of radioiodine. Uptake at 6 h, uptake at 24 h, mass gland, dose, age, residence time, activity and activity/mass were compared in patients with stable euthyroidism versus patients with hypothyroidism in the follow up. Results: only uptake at 6 h was different in these groups of patients (p=0.05 at Welch t-test), the logistic regression seemed to confirm the significant correlation (p=0.08) between uptake at 6 h and outcome of the treatment. The other parameters were not significantly correlated with the treatment effect. Conclusion: this pilot study, performed in a very small population, did not show any significant

  19. Thyroid hormone levels and incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  20. Plasma concentrations of free triiodothyronine predict weight change in euthyroid persons2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Emilio; Pannacciulli, Nicola; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Background Factors that influence energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, such as thyroid hormones (THs), may be important regulators of body weight. Objective We investigated associations of THs cross-sectionally with obesity, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation and prospectively with weight change. Design Euthyroid, nondiabetic, healthy, adult Pima Indians (n = 89; 47 M, 42 F) were studied. Percentage body fat (%BF) was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; sleeping metabolic rate (SMR), respiratory quotient, and substrate oxidation rates were measured in a respiratory chamber. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (T3), and leptin concentrations were measured in fasting plasma samples. Results TSH, but neither free T3 nor free T4, was associated with %BF and leptin concentrations (r = 0.27 and 0.29, respectively; both: P ≤ 0.01). In multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, fat mass, and fat-free mass, free T3 was a positive predictor of SMR (P = 0.02). After adjustment for age, sex, %BF, and energy balance, free T3 was a negative predictor of 24-h respiratory quotient (P < 0.05) and a positive predictor of 24-h lipid oxidation rate (P = 0.006). Prospectively, after an average follow-up of 4 ± 2 y, the mean increase in weight was 3 ± 9 kg. Baseline T3 concentrations were associated with absolute and annual percentage of changes in weight (r = −0.27, P = 0.02, and r = −0.28, P = 0.009, for the age-and sex-adjusted associations, respectively). Conclusions In euthyroid Pima Indians, lower free T3 but not free T4 concentrations were an independent predictor of SMR and lipid oxidation and a predictor of weight gain. This finding indicates that control of T4-to-T3 conversion may play a role in body weight regulation. PMID:17284741

  1. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects : The Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Eline H.; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J. N.; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C.M.A.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objective. Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a

  2. Association of thyroid function with arterial pressure in normotensive and hypertensive euthyroid individuals: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltiki Katerina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt hypothyroidism has been associated with arterial hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. Results in euthyroid individuals have been conflicting. We investigated associations of thyroid function with systolic (SAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressure in euthyroid subjects. Methods 311 euthyroid individuals (185 women, mean age 43.9 ± 9 without a history of diabetes attending a preventive medicine program were examined. Subjects receiving thyroxine (10.6% were excluded; 19.3% had hypertension, 43% had a family history for hypertension. TSH, fT4, thyroid autoantibodies, insulin, glucose were measured. The "fT4.TSH product", which has been suggested as a T4 resistance-index, was calculated. Results TSH range was 0.1–8, median 1.4 mU/L, fT4 range was 11.5–25.2 pmol/L, median 17.4. TSH and the "fT4.TSH product" were positively associated with DAP (p 2 mU/L (35.3% vs 21.3%, p = 0.045. Conclusion In euthyroid individuals the association of thyroid function with diastolic arterial pressure remains significant even when a stricter "normal range" for TSH levels is considered. The "freeT4.TSH" product appears to be an even stronger predictor of DAP, independently of HOMA insulin resistance index and obesity.

  3. Characteristics of recovery from the euthyroid sick syndrome induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feelders, R. A.; Swaak, A. J.; Romijn, J. A.; Eggermont, A. M.; Tielens, E. T.; Vreugdenhil, G.; Endert, E.; van Eijk, H. G.; Berghout, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the euthyroid sick syndrome. Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF) and melphalan in patients with melanoma or sarcoma is accompanied by high systemic TNF levels. We examined the prolonged effects

  4. PH- Mapping Of Prepubertal Skin Of Indian Subjects

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    Gupta A B

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available PH- mapping of skin was made by measuring the skin surface pH in 61 normal Indian subjects (35M, 26F in the prepubertal age group at 21 different sites from scalp to sole at an ambient temperature 25-32C and a relative humidity 60-65%. The pH values at axilla, umbilicus, palm, fingerfolds, foot, sole, and cheek were found to be consistently higher than those at scalp, forehead, retroauricular folds, antecubital and popliteal fossae, anterior arm, anterior the mean pH of male skin appeared to be lower than that of female. The highest pH recorded was in axilla (5.98 for male, 6.00 for female, irrespective of sex. The lowest value however was in anterior neck (4.59 for male and in antecubital fossa (4.83 for female. While the origin of the skin pH is yet to be definitely known, it was observed that a high density of both sweat gland and bacteria flora leads to a high pH, and high concentration of sebaceous gland and of bacterial flora to a lower pH.

  5. Adult psychosocial outcome of prepubertal major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, B; Zimerman, B; Williams, M; Bolhofner, K; Craney, J L

    2001-06-01

    To compare adult psychosocial functioning (PSF) of subjects with prepubertal major depressive disorder (PMDD) to a normal comparison (NC) group. PSF of subjects with PMDD (n = 72) and of NC subjects (n = 28) was compared after prospective follow-up to adulthood. These 100 subjects were 90.9% of the baseline 110 subjects who participated in the "Nortriptyline in Childhood Depression: Follow-up Study." Research nurses who were blind to group status conducted telephone interviews using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE) to obtain PSF data. At follow-up, the PMDD group was 20.7+/-2.0 and the NC subjects were 20.9+/-2.2 years old. The PMDD subjects were 10.3+/-1.5 years old at baseline. Time between baseline and follow-up was 9.9+/-1.5 years. In the PMDD group, subjects with MDD, bipolar disorder, or substance use disorders during the previous 5 years had significantly worse PSF than NC subjects. These PSF impairments included significantly worse relationships with parents, siblings, and friends; significantly worse functioning in household, school, and work settings; and worse overall quality of life and global social adjustment. Although combined treatments for PMDD have little scientific basis, multimodality regimens seem prudent until definitive treatment data become available.

  6. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal schoolchildren in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amílcar B; Capingana, Daniel P; Magalhães, Pedro; Gonçalves, Mauer A; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Rodrigues, Sërgio L; Baldo, Marcelo P; Mateus, Miguel S; Mill, Josë Geraldo

    The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, especially in countries with accelerated economic growth. We determined the prevalence of and associations between overweight/obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal (seven- to 11-year-old) schoolchildren (both genders, n = 198) in Luanda, Angola. Biochemical (fasting blood) and clinical examinations were obtained in a single visit. Data are reported as prevalence (95% confidence intervals) and association (r, Pearson). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 17.7% (12.4- 23.0%), high blood pressure (BP > 90% percentile) was 14.6% (9.7-19.5%), elevated glucose level was 16.7% (11.5-21.9%) and total cholesterol level > 170 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l) was 69.2% (62.8-75.6%). Significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic BP (r = 0.46 and 0.40, respectively; p Angola and fat accumulation was directly associated with blood pressure increase but not with other cardiovascular risk factors.

  8. Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngeal colonization resulting in recurrent, prepubertal vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Megan T; Sanchez, Veronica T; Eyster, Kathleen; Hansen, Keith A

    2007-10-01

    Recurrent, prepubertal, vaginal infections are an uncommon, troublesome problem for the patient and her family. Failure of initial therapy to alleviate vulvovaginitis may be related to vulvar skin disease, foreign body, sexual abuse, pinworms, reactions to medications, anatomic anomalies, or allergies. This report describes a case of recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis secondary to presumed vaginal re-inoculation from pharyngeal colonization. A 4-yr-old presented with one year of culture proven, recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis. Her symptoms repeatedly resolved with penicillin therapy, but continued to recur following cessation of antibiotic therapy. Evaluation included physical examination, trans-abdominal pelvic ultrasound, and vaginoscopy which all revealed normal upper and lower genital tract anatomy. Both the patient and her mother demonstrated culture proven, Group A Streptococcus pharyngeal colonization. Because of the possibility of repeated inoculations of the vaginal area from the colonized pharynx, they were both treated for decolonization with a regimen of amoxicillin and rifampin for ten days. Following this therapy there was resolution of vaginal symptoms with no further recurrence. Follow-up pharyngeal culture done on both mother and child on their last visit were negative for Group A Streptococcus. This case demonstrated an unusual specific cause of recurrent vaginitis resulting from presumed self or maternal re-inoculation with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus from pharyngeal colonization. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus are consistently sensitive to penicillin, but up to 25% of acute pharyngitis cases treated with penicillin having continued asymptomatic, bacterial carriage within the nasopharynx. Thus initial alleviation of symptoms in a patient with Group A beta-hemolytic vulvovaginitis treated with penicillin, can have continued asymptomatic pharyngeal colonization which can result in recurrence of the

  9. Objective Identification of Prepubertal Female Singers and Non-singers by Singing Power Ratio Using Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M; Geetha, Y V; Darshan, Y S

    2017-03-01

    The field of music is increasingly gaining scope and attracting researchers from varied fields in terms of improvising the art of voice modulation in singing. There has been a lot of competition, and young budding singers are emerging with more talent. This study is aimed to develop software to differentiate a prepubertal voice as that of a singer or a non-singer using an objective tool-singing power ratio (SPR)-as an objective measure to quantify the resonant voice quality. Recordings of singing and phonation were obtained from 30 singers and 30 non-singer girls (8-10 years). Three professional singers perceptually evaluated all samples using a rating scale and categorized them as singers or non-singers. Using Matlab, a program was developed to automatically calculate the SPR of a particular sample and classify it into either of two groups based on the normative values of SPR developed manually. Positive correlation for SPR of phonation or singing was found between perceptual and manual ratings, and objective values of SPR. Software could automatically give the SPR values for samples that are fed and could further differentiate them as singer or non-singer. Researchers need not depend on professional singers or musicians for the judgment of voice for research purposes. This software uses an objective tool, which serves as an instrument to judge singing talent using singing and phonation samples of children. Also, it can be used as a first line of judgment in any singing audition process, which could ease the work of professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    van Eyk, Gregory Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs Abstract A pig model of childhood obesity was used to study the effects of dietary energy on body adiposity, and blood parameters associated with impaired glucose clearance. Prepubertal female pigs weaned at 21 d of age were fed control (CON), refined sugar (SUG), fat (FAT), and sugar-fat (SUGFAT) diets in a completely randomized arrangement for 16 wk. Calories from fat were 8.9% for CON, 5.6% for SU...

  11. Elevated serum free thyroxine by thyroxine analog radioimmunoassays in euthyroid patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajatanavin, R.; Fournier, L.; DeCosimo, D.; Abreau, C.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    A study was done to ascertain whether the serum free T4 measured by free T4 radioimmunoassay kits would, like equilibrium dialysis, be normal in patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia. Five free T4 radioimmunoassay kits were used to measure free T4 in serum samples from 19 patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia and 20 healthy volunteers. Values (mean +/- SE) for T4, free T4 index, and free T4 (equilibrium dialysis) in these normal subjects and patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia, respectively, were as follows: T4, 8.1 +/- 0.2 and 18.3 +/- 0.7 μg/dL; free T4 index, 3.1 +/- 0.1 and 7.3 +/- 0.3 μg/dL; free T4, 1.4 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng/dL. The following free T4 radioimmunoassay methods were used: antibody coated microfine silica, microencapsulated antibody, two-step antibody-coated tube, and one-step 125 I-T4 analog (2 kits). The present findings in patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia and previous observations in ill euthyroid patients suggest that serum free T4 measured by some radioimmunoassay methods must be interpreted with caution in these two clinical situations

  12. Effectiveness and Mechanism of Preoperative Lugol Solution for Reducing Thyroid Blood Flow in Patients with Euthyroid Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Ming; Liao, Wei-Ting; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Sun, H Sunny; Chow, Nan-Haw

    2016-03-01

    To reduce intraoperative and postoperative complications, using Lugol solution to preoperatively prepare patients with Graves' disease has (1) rapidly reduced the severity of thyrotoxicosis and (2) reduced the vascularity of the thyroid gland. The vascularity reduction normally accompanies reducing the severity of thyrotoxicosis. However, the effects and mechanism of Lugol solution for reducing blood flow have not been well investigated in the patients with euthyroid (normally functioning thyroid) Graves' disease. Twenty-five patients with euthyroid Graves' disease being preoperatively treated with Lugol solution for 10 days were measured, at baseline and on the operative day, for (1) superior thyroid artery blood flow; (2) systemic angiogenic factor (VEGF); and (3) systemic inflammatory factor [interleukin (IL)-16]. All three parameters were significantly (p Graves' disease. We recommend routine preoperative Lugol solution treatment for all patients with Graves' disease.

  13. Management of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Euthyroid Women in Pregnancy: Comparison of the American Thyroid Association and the Endocrine Society Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of thyroid autoantibodies is relatively high in women of childbearing age. There is evidence that positive thyroperoxidase antibody even in euthyroid women may increase the risk of spontaneous and recurrent pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. However, the evidence is not enough to justify recommendation on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid autoantibodies or LT4 supplementation for reducing maternal or fetal complications. In this paper we reviewed the related evidence and compared the new guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and Endocrine Society with respect to the screening and management of positive thyroperoxidase antibody in euthyroid pregnant women. As there was no major contradiction or disagreement between the two guidelines, either one of two guidelines may be used by clinicians for the appropriate management of thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy.

  14. Osteoporotic cytokines and bone metabolism on rats with induced hyperthyroidism; changes as a result of reversal to euthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Gönül; Karter, Yesari; Aydin, Seval; Uzun, Hafize

    2003-12-31

    Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased bone turnover and resorptive activity. Raised levels of serum osteoporotic cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) -1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha have been demonstrated previously in hyperthyroidism. These elevations are controversial and it is difficult to differentiate the contribution of thyroid hormones to the elevation of cytokines from that of the autoimmune inflammation in Graves' disease (GD) and follicular cell damage in thyroiditis. Therefore, we investigated the effect of thyroid hormones on serum IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha levels and bone metabolism on L-thyroxine induced hyperthyroid rats and changes in cytokine levels and bone metabolism on the same rats after reversal to euthyroidism. Rats were treated with L-thyroxine for 5 weeks (0.4 mg/ 100 g food). Plasma T3, T4, TSH and serum IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, Calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), parathyroid hormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) levels were measured and differential leucocyte counts were made initially, at the 5th week of the experiment (hyperthyroid state) and 5 weeks after quitting the administration of L-thyroxine (euthyroid state). Significant rises in serum IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNFalpha were noted in hyperthyroidism (P hyperthyroid state while there was no correlation in euthyroid states. Ca and P levels did not differ significantly while PTH levels declined significantly in the hyperthyroid state (P hyperthyroidism (P hyperthyroid state (P metabolism in hyperthyroidism might be mediated by cytokines and the increased bone turnover in hyperthyroidism failed to decrease despite euthyroidism.

  15. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients

  16. The effect of chronic hyperthyroidism and restored euthyroid state by methimazole therapy in rat small mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi-Behzadi, Mahdi; Alimoradi, Houman; Haghjoo-Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Reza Sharifi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Nastaran; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2013-02-15

    Not much has been reported about the effects of hyperthyroidism and its correction on resistance vessels, and just two inconsistent studies have investigated the impacts of restored euthyroidism on vascular reactivity. In this regard, we designed the current study to evaluate the vascular reactivity of the mesenteric arteries of hyperthyroid and restore euthyroid rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by administration of triiodothyronine (T3; 300μg/kg, i.p., for 12 weeks in T3 group). Euthyroidism was restored by administration of T3 for 8 weeks and then T3+Methimazole (0.003% in drinking water) for 4 weeks (T3+MMI group). According to the McGregor method, vascular relaxation and contractility response were measured in response to acetylcholine or phenylephrine respectively. We found that maximal contractility response (Emax) to phenylephrine in the T3 group was significantly decreased (P0.05). In conclusion, synthesis of both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in mesenteric arteries significantly increased as a consequence of hyperthyroidism, and this abnormal vascular reactivity is corrected by methimazole therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  18. The Evolution of Thyroid Function after Presenting with Hashimoto Thyroiditis Is Different between Initially Euthyroid Girls with and Those without Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Corrias, Andrea; Mazzanti, Laura; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Corica, Domenico; Aversa, Tommaso; Messina, Maria Francesca; De Luca, Filippo; Valenzise, Mariella

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively investigate, during a 5-year follow-up, whether the prognosis of thyroid function with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is different in euthyroid girls with Turner syndrome (TS) than in euthyroid girls without TS. In 66 TS girls and 132 non-TS girls with euthyroid HT and similar thyroid functional test results at HT diagnosis, we followed up the evolution of thyroid status over time. At the end of follow-up, the TS girls exhibited higher TSH levels, lower fT4 levels, and lower prevalence rates of both euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism, but higher prevalence rates of both overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, irrespective of the karyotype. An association with TS is able to impair the long-term prognosis of thyroid function in girls with HT. Such an effect occurs irrespective of thyroid functional test results at HT diagnosis and is not necessarily linked with a specific karyotype. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The Effect of Wallow on Growth Performance of Pre-Pubertal Pigs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the influence of wallow on the growth performance of growing pigs. Sixteen (16) pre-pubertal pigs (8 males and 8 females) of large white breed, aged three months were randomly assigned to two treatments. There were eight animals per group designated as treatment A = with wallow ...

  20. Adult Immunohistochemical Markers Fail to Detect Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Prepubertal Boys with Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. It is characterized by large germ cells with large nuclei with a hyperchromatic, coarse chromatin pattern, large prominent nucleoli and abundant pale cytoplasm. In prepubertal boys these cells are located both...

  1. The oral rehabilitation and 5 years follow up of a patient with prepubertal periodontitis- one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelal Seyfioglu Polat

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiologic, pathogenetic and host factors definition and classifications ofperiodontal diseases are done in many studies till nowadays. To regard these studiesprepubertal periodontitis is defined as early onset periodontitis.In our study it is aimed to present the treatment results of of apatient who isdiagnosed with prepubertal periodontitis, treated and followed up for five years.

  2. Clomipramine ameliorates adventitious movements and compulsions in prepubertal boys with autistic disorder and severe mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasic, J R; Barnett, J Y; Kaplan, D; Sheitman, B B; Aisemberg, P; Lafargue, R T; Kowalik, S; Clark, A; Tsaltas, M O; Young, J G

    1994-07-01

    In an open, nonblind clinical trial, clomipramine reduced adventitious movements and compulsions in five previously medicated prepubertal boys with autistic disorder and severe mental retardation. Poorly adapted rating scales, interrater variability, subject heterogeneity, different treatment histories, and environmental stresses confounded the assessment of treatment effects.

  3. Comparison of clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ayse E; Celik, Nurullah; Soylu, Gul; Donmez, Ahsen; Yuksel, Cigdem

    2012-07-01

    Vulvovaginitisis the most common gynecological problem of childhood. The aim of the study was to determine and compare clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and adolescent girls. In this retrospective study, the records of patients who were diagnosed with vulvovaginitis between January 2005 and December 2010 in the pediatric outpatient clinic at Fatih University Hospital were retrieved. Information regarding age, symptoms, history of antibiotic use within 1 month prior to presentation, findings on urinalysis, serum antistreptolysin-O levels, and results of urine/vaginal cultures was collected. The records of 112 patients were evaluated, 72 of which were prepubertal (64.2%) and 40 were pubertal (35.7%) at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-eight prepubertal patients (52.7%) had a positive result on vaginal culture, the most commonly encountered microorganism being group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (15.2%). Culture positivity rate in the pubertal group was 47.5% (19 patients), with Candida albicans being the most frequently isolated microorganism (27.5%). The etiopathogenesis and culture results differ between prepubertal and adolescent girls with vulvovaginitis, which should be taken into consideration in the treatment approach of this disorder. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  5. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects: the Lifelines Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Eline H; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C M A; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-02-01

    Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a number of health issues, including atherosclerosis development and biochemical markers of increased cardiovascular risk. However, the association of thyroid hormones with NAFLD in euthyroid subjects has not been unequivocally established. We therefore determined associations of thyroid hormone parameters with NAFLD among euthyroid subjects. The study was conducted in the Lifelines Cohort Study, a population-based cohort study of participants living in the North of the Netherlands. Only euthyroid subjects (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.5-4.0mU/L, free thyroxine (FT4) 11-19.5pmol/L and free triiodothyronine (FT3) 4.4-6.7pmol/L) older than 18years were included. Exclusion criteria were participants with excessive alcohol use, known hepatitis or cirrhosis, liver functions ≥ three times the upper limit, current cancer, non-white ancestry, previous or current use of thyroid medication and current use of lipid or glucose lowering medication. A priori defined liver biochemistry, thyroid function parameters and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied. NAFLD was defined by using the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI); FLI≥60 was categorized as NAFLD. A P<0.01 was considered significant. FLI≥60 was found in 4274 (21.1%) of 20,289 individuals (62.1% male, median age 46years) with increased prevalence of MetS (P<0.0001). In age- and sex-adjusted analysis FLI≥60 was independently associated with a higher FT3 (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29-1.39, per SD increment, P<0.0001) and a lower FT4 (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, P<0.0001) but not by TSH. The strongest association was found for the FT3/FT4 ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.39-1.49, P<0.0001). These associations remained similar after additional

  6. Effects of age and health on the euthyroid reference ranges for serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, J.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Age-related trends in serum free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) concentrations were measured in 7248 euthyroid subjects (age-range 3 months to 106 years). 5700 were patients referred to hospitals for investigation of suspected thyroid dysfunction, but who were diagnosed euthyroid. 1548 were healthy blood donors (age-range 18-63 years) with no indication of thyroid dysfunction. FT 4 concentrations were little affected by the age, the sex or the state of health of the subjects in either group. Serum FT 3 concentrations were significantly affected by both age and health factors. The upper limit of the euthyroid reference range for young subjects up to 15 years was about 20% higher (10.4 pmol/l) than for adult subjects older than 25 years (8.8 pmol/l). The change in the upper limits typical of young subjects to that typical of adults occurred steadily over the decade 15-25 years. After this age, little further change occurred, especially in healthy subjects. Additionally, the lower limit of the euthyroid range for FT 3 was extended by the inclusion in the reference group of patients referred to hospitals. Compared with the lower limit of the FT 3 range for healthy subjects (5 pmol/l), the corresponding limit for referred subjects (young or adult) was 3.5-3.8 pmol/l. Broadening of the FT 3 reference range was probably brought about by a significant number of patients in the hospital-referred group with the 'low-T 3 syndrome' of mild non-thyroidal illness. Accordingly, FT 3 was inferior to FT 4 in the discrimination of hypothyroidism, as FT 4 was unaffected by this phenomenon. Effects of age and non-thyroidal illness on serum FT 3 concentrations require great care when selecting subjects for a laboratory euthyroid reference range typical of the routine workload. Constraints on the choice of subjects for FT 4 reference ranges are less stringent. (orig.) [de

  7. Visual evoked potentials in overt hypothyroid patients before and after achievement of euthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual evoked potential (VEP measures the time taken for visual stimulus to travel from the eye to the occipital cortex. Hypothyroidism affects the central nervous system (CNS through its role in gene expression, myelin production, axonal transportation, and neurotransmitters. Delay in the conduction of impulses results in abnormal VEP. Objective: Correlate the electrophysiological findings of VEP in newly diagnosed treatment-naive hypothyroid patients before and after 3 months of treatment and to find the correlation with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Materials and Methods: VEP was measured using Recorders and Medicare Systems Electromyograph Evoked Potential Mark II machine in 30 patients (serum TSH ≥10 mIU/L between 18 and 50 years of age who were followed up after 3 months of treatment. Results: The mean age (±standard deviation of the patients was 31.8 (±8.3 years. There was prolongation of VEP latencies which tends to decrease following hormone replacement therapy. It was found to be most significant for P100 (ms waveform (P < 0.001. The amplitude (P100-N75 mV which was decreased in hypothyroid patients showed improvement following achievement of euthyroidism. Significant positive correlation was found between P100, N75 latency and pretreatment serum TSH levels. Conclusion: Hypothyroid patients may have changes in the latencies and the amplitude of VEP which are reversible to a great extent with thyroxine replacement therapy. VEP thus acts as a dependable marker for CNS affection in thyroid diseases to detect subtle early changes and to assess the response to treatment in correlation with the clinical improvement.

  8. Results of radioiodine therapy of manifest hyperthyroidism and autonomous euthyroid goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berding, G.; Schicha, H.

    1990-01-01

    In 200 patients follow-up examinations were performed up to one year after radioiodine therapy (RITh) with individual dose calculation. The mean applied dose was significantly lower in patients with immunogenic hyperhyroidism (Graves' disease) as compared to patients with non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism (disseminated/multifocal autonomy, HYDA). In Graves' disease the rate of recurrent hyperthyroidism was significantly higher and that of posttreatment hypothyroidism lower. Considering the high recurrence rate in Graves' disease a higher dose, e.g. 150 Gy, seems to be appropriate. In patients with HYDA who received antithyroid drugs during RITh, recurrence of hyperthyroidism appeared slightly more, and posttreatment hypothyroidism slightly less, frequent. The efficiency of RITh was not significantly reduced by additional treatment with antithyroid drugs. Posttreatment hypothyroidism in patients with euthyroid goiter and disseminated/multifocal autonomy (EUDA) occurred significnatly more frequent if the basal TSH level was ≥ 0.5 μIE/ml before therapy. The goiter size was reduced independent of the basal TSH level. In HYDA patients after thyroid surgery recurrence appeared less, and in those with EUDA posttreatment hypothyroidism significantly more, frequent. A lower dose seems to be suitable in patients who underwent thyroid surgery before. In patients with focal autonomy after RITh no recurrence of hyperthyroidism was observed. In 9% a suppressed basal TSH level indicating persistent autonomy was seen. Posttreatment hypothyroidism in focal autonomy appeared only in patients without manifest hyperthyroidism before RITh and was significantly more frequent in this group. In patients with focal autonomy who developed hypothyroidism the dose calculation was based on a significantly higher volume of the adenoma. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Preoperative Serum Thyrotropin to Thyroglobulin Ratio Is Effective for Thyroid Nodule Evaluation in Euthyroid Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Li, Hao; Yang, Zhongyuan; Guo, Zhuming; Zhang, Quan

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the efficiency of the serum thyrotropin to thyroglobulin ratio for thyroid nodule evaluation in euthyroid patients. Cross-sectional study. Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China. Retrospective analysis was performed for 400 previously untreated cases presenting with thyroid nodules. Thyroid function was tested with commercially available radioimmunoassays. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine cutoff values. The efficacy of the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio and thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyroid nodule evaluation was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and odds ratio. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve was 0.746 for the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio and 0.659 for thyroid-stimulating hormone. With a cutoff point value of 24.97 IU/g for the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 78.9%, 60.8%, 75.5%, 2.01, and 0.35, respectively. The odds ratio for the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio indicating malignancy was 5.80. With a cutoff point value of 1.525 µIU/mL for thyroid-stimulating hormone, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 74.0%, 53.2%, 70.8%, 1.58, and 0.49, respectively. The odds ratio indicating malignancy for thyroid-stimulating hormone was 3.23. Increasing preoperative serum thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio is a risk factor for thyroid carcinoma, and the correlation of the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio to malignancy is higher than that for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  10. Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.S.; Khan, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

  11. Prepubertal vulval fibroma with a coincidental ectopic breast fibroadenoma: report of an unusual case with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Kana; Xi, Mingrong; Yang, Kaixuan; Liu, Hui

    2011-11-01

    Prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma of the vulva are two rare tumors, and they are very difficult to distinguish from other vulval masses, both clinically and pathologically. The complication of the two diseases is extremely rare. We report the case of an extremely large and progressively enlarging mass in the vulva of an 18-year-old Chinese girl. The mass was excised completely and pathologically diagnosed as a prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma. The patient was followed up for 10 months and no evidence of recurrence was observed. Prepubertal vulval fibroma and vulval ectopic breast fibroadenoma should be considered in their preoperative differential diagnosis of a vulval mass, especially in prepubertal girls. Pathologically, immunohistochemical staining for vimentin and CD34 is valuable for diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is effective and long-term follow up is necessary. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  13. [The euthyroid sick syndrome. Its incidence and clinical significance in an internal medicine department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, M; Reda, G; Zannoni, G; Russo, S; Morace, G; Vasselli, C

    1994-04-01

    In this paper the authors have evaluated the incidence and the clinical implications of sick euthyroid syndrome (SES) in a group of 144 patients in a department of internal medicine. SES is an alteration of thyroid hormone values in the absence of a thyroid disease, which is seen in patients suffering from serious diseases. Having classified SES into 3 subgroups according to the different alterations seen in the values of T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH, rT3 and TBG, they show the hypotheses that explain the biochemical mechanisms which are at the basis of these hormonal alterations. Fourteen of the 144 patients under observation were excluded as they were suffering from ascertained or subclinical thyroid disease. Thirty (23% of cases) of the remaining 130 patients had alterations of the thyroid hormones in accordance with SES diagnosis. Of these 30 patients, 19 had hormone values found in SES type I (63%), 2 in SES type II (6.5%) and 9 in SES type III (30.5%). In SES type I the diseases seen, in order of frequency, were: obstructive chronic bronchopneumopathy with acute respiratory failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, neoplasms, ischemic heart disease, cardiac failure, chronic renal failure, liver diseases, acute cerebral vasculopathies, sepsis and collagenopathies. The disease seen in the 2 cases of SES type II was obstructive chronic bronchopneumopathy with acute respiratory failure. In SES type III the diseases seen were, in order of frequency: diabetic ketoacidosis, lung diseases, ischemic heart disease, cardiac failure, peripheral arteriopathies, acute cerebral vasculopathies, neoplasms, liver diseases, acute renal failure. The incidence of SES in 23% of the admitted to hospital patients was found to be slightly higher than in other studies; this could be explained by a stricter selection of inpatients: in fact self-sufficient patients or those not needing urgent admission, were sent to an efficient out patient clinic where necessary examinations were quickly carried out

  14. Free triiodothyronine levels are positively associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoli; Zheng, Xiao; Guan, Liying; Jiang, Zhi; Lin, Haiyan; Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Yikun; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Chunxiao; Guan, Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between thyroid function and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among euthyroid subjects have produced conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thyroid function and the presence of NAFLD in a large-sample middle-aged euthyroid subjects. A total of 2576 euthyroid subjects who underwent health check-up were included. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasonography. Conventional risk factors for NAFLD were assessed as well as serum levels of TSH, FT3 and FT4. Levels of FT3 were significantly higher in NAFLD group (5.12 ± 0.58 versus 4.84 ± 0.58 pmol/L, adjusted p = 0.000) than non-NAFLD group, while levels of TSH and FT4 were comparable between NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups (TSH: 2.13 ± 0.90 versus 2.20 ± 0.93 mIU/L, adjusted p = 0.190; FT4: 16.41 ± 2.04 versus 16.18 ± 2.06 pmol/L, adjusted p = 0.146, respectively). Levels of FT3 were positively correlated with components of metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high level of FT3 was an independent predictor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 1.253, p = 0.040). The relationship between FT4 and NAFLD in women was different according to menopausal status, with negative association in pre-menopausal women (OR: 0.777, 95% CI: 0.617-0.979, p = 0.032) and null association in post-menopausal women (OR: 1.037, 95% CI: 0.841-1.277, p = 0.736). Our findings suggested that high levels of FT3 were significantly associated with NAFLD among middle-aged euthyroid subjects independently of known metabolic risk factors. A negative correlation of serum FT4 level with NAFLD was only observed in pre-menopausal women.

  15. Fertility of the Small East African goat following pre-pubertal infection with Trypanosoma congolense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, H.B.; Gombe, S.

    1991-01-01

    Pre-pubertal male and female Small East African goats were infected with Trypanosoma congolense at 4-5 months of age. Changes in body weight and haemogram were monitored weekly. Progesterone and testosterone measurements were made three times weekly until the goats either reached puberty or 18 months of age. Onset of puberty was determined from observation of oestrus behaviour, mating or increase in libidio; this was confirmed by elevation in plasma progesterone or testosterone levels. Trypanosomiasis affected pre-pubertal goats by reducing body weight gain and delaying onset of puberty. Histological examination of the gonads showed pronounced pathological changes. These effects were reversed by treatment with isometamidium chloride (Samorin, May and Baker). It was concluded that early treatment of infected goats before serious gonadal damage could occur allowed full restoration of reproductive function. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile fibroadenoma comprises about 4% of the total fibroadenomas. The incidence of giant juvenile fibroadenomas is merely 0.5% of all the fibroadenomas. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas are extremely rare. We are presenting a case of giant juvenile fibroadenomas in an 11-year-old pre-pubertal girl. The diagnosis was made on fine-needle aspiration cytology which was confirmed on histopathology. As these tumors are mostly benign, breast-conserving surgery is done so that patient can lead a normal life without psychological trauma.-----------------------------------Cite this article as: Goyal S, Garg G, Narang S. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:020113.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.13

  17. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V.; Braemswig, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients 15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  18. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4. At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively associated with serum fT4 levels in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism. PMID:26844494

  19. Energy Homeostasis and Body Weight before and after Cessation of Block and Replacement Therapy in Euthyroid Patients with Graves' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars P. Klieverik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH treated with a combination of thyrostatic drugs and T4, that is, block and replacement therapy (BRT, often report body weight (BW gain. We aimed to determine changes in BW and energy metabolism upon cessation of BRT in these patients, and to identify possible endocrine determinants. We analysed 22 patients with GH (i during BRT, and (ii 12 weeks after BRT cessation. Patients were euthyroid at both visits. There were no differences in BW or resting energy expenditure (REE between visits. At visit 1, after 13.5 (9.5–48.0 months of BRT, serum free (FT4 correlated positively with REE (=0.433, =0.044 and negatively with body fat % (=−0.450, =0.035. Plasma FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio showed an increase 12 w after cessation of BRT (20%, <0.0001 and 16%, =0.007, resp.. Moreover, the relative change in FT3/FT4 ratio showed a significant, positive correlation with the relative change in REE between the 2 visits (=0.465, =0.029. In conclusion, serum FT4 determines REE in euthyroid patients with GH treated with BRT. Twelve weeks after BRT cessation, BW and energy homeostasis are unaltered. However, as serum FT3/FT4 ratio increases after cessation of BRT, which is a positive determinant of changes in REE, a longer term BW decrease is likely to occur.

  20. Electrodermal Activity of Undersocialized Aggressive Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katalin; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the electrodermal activity (EDA) of a small group of prepubertal children suffering from a severe form of undersocialized aggressive conduct disorder (CD). The EDA profile of the CD children resembled that of the adult sociopath on phasic measures only. (RH)

  1. Prepubertal Exposure to Genistein Alleviates Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate Induced Testicular Oxidative Stress in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Dong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most widely used plastizer in the world and can suppress testosterone production via activation of oxidative stress. Genistein (GEN is one of the isoflavones ingredients exhibiting weak estrogenic and potentially antioxidative effects. However, study on reproductive effects following prepubertal multiple endocrine disrupters exposure has been lacking. In this study, DEHP and GEN were administrated to prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage from postnatal day 22 (PND22 to PND35 with vehicle control, GEN at 50 mg/kg body weight (bw/day (G, DEHP at 50, 150, 450 mg/kg bw/day (D50, D150, D450 and their mixture (G + D50, G + D150, G + D450. On PND90, general morphometry (body weight, AGD, organ weight, and organ coefficient, testicular redox state, and testicular histology were studied. Our results indicated that DEHP could significantly decrease sex organs weight, organ coefficient, and testicular antioxidative ability, which largely depended on the dose of DEHP. However, coadministration of GEN could partially alleviate DEHP-induced reproductive injuries via enhancement of testicular antioxidative enzymes activities, which indicates that GEN has protective effects on DEHP-induced male reproductive system damage after prepubertal exposure and GEN may have promising future in its curative antioxidative role for reproductive disorders caused by other environmental endocrine disruptors.

  2. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neera; Dutta, Deep; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened 791 children, hormonal data from 602 children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. Seventy-one (11.79%) of these had ScH, and 33 (5.48%) had OPH. Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group (51.51%), followed by ScH (30.98%) and euthyroid children (4.41%) (p<0.001). Median (25 th -75 th percentiles) levels for prolactin in euthyroid, ScH, and OPH children were 13.3 (9.4-17.95), 19.15 (15.97-30.12), and 28.86 (17.05-51.9) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). In children, prolactin levels were comparable in males and females. An age-related increase in serum prolactin was noted in euthyroid children, which was statistically significant in post-pubertal (16-18 years) children. Area under the curve for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children was 0.758 (95% confidence interval: 0.673-0.829; p<0.001). TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L had a sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of 77.6% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is common in children with ScH and OPH. TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L has a good sensitivity and specificity in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children. More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should be an indication for treating ScH in children.

  3. A 3-year physical activity intervention program increases the gain in bone mineral and bone width in prepubertal girls but not boys: the prospective copenhagen school child interventions study (CoSCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselstrøm, H A; Karlsson, M K; Hansen, S E; Grønfeldt, V; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the amount of time spent in physical education classes on bone mineral accrual and gain in bone size in prepubertal Danish children. A total of 135 boys and 108 girls, aged 6-8 years, were included in a school-based curriculum intervention program where the usual time spent in physical education classes was doubled to four classes (180 min) per week. The control group comprised age-matched children (62 boys and 76 girls) recruited from a separate community who completed the usual Danish school curriculum of physical activity (90 min/week). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC; g), bone mineral density (g/cm(2)), and bone width at the calcaneus and distal forearm before and after 3 years of intervention. Anthropometrics and Tanner stages were evaluated on the same occasions. General physical activity was measured with an accelerometer worn for 4 days. In girls, the intervention group had a 12.5% increase (P = 0.04) in distal forearm BMC and a 13.2% increase (P = 0.005) in distal forearm scanned area compared with girls in the control group. No differences were found between the intervention and control groups in boys. Increasing the frequency of physical education classes for prepubertal children is associated with a higher accrual of bone mineral and higher gain in bone size after 3 years in girls but not in boys.

  4. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative correlation between bone mineral density and TSH receptor antibodies in long-term euthyroid postmenopausal women with treated Graves’ disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ercolano, Monica A; Drnovsek, Monica L; Croome, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a cause of secondary osteoporosis. High concentrations of triiodotironine (T3) in Graves' disease stimulate bone turnover, but it is unclear if euthyroidism will always normalize bone metabolism. Thyrotropin (TSH) is known to affect directly the bone metabolism through the TSH...... receptor and TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) may have an important role in bone turn-over.The aim of our study was to determine, in pre and postmenopausal euthyroidism patients with previous overt hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as factors that could affect BMD...

  6. Free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine ratio rather than thyrotropin is more associated with metabolic parameters in healthy euthyroid adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Park, Se Eun; Jung, Sang Won; Jin, Hyun Seok; Park, Ie Byung; Ahn, Song Vogue; Lee, Sihoon

    2017-07-01

    The interrelation between TSH, thyroid hormones and metabolic parameters is complex and has not been confirmed. This study aimed to determine the association of TSH and thyroid hormones in euthyroid subjects and the relationship between thyroid function and metabolic risk factors. Furthermore, this study examined whether thyroid function has predictive power for metabolic syndrome. This is a cross-sectional study that included subjects in a medical health check-up programme at a single institution. The study included 132 346 participants (66 991 men and 65 355 women) aged over 18 years who had TSH, free T4 (FT4) and free T3 (FT3) levels within the institutional reference ranges. Thyrotropin, FT4, FT3 and metabolic parameters including height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin and glucose were measured. There was a positive association between FT3/FT4 ratio and TSH in both men and women after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status and menopausal status (in women). The FT3/FT4 ratio and TSH were positively associated with risk of metabolic syndrome parameters including insulin resistance. The FT3/FT4 ratio had a greater predictive power than TSH for metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Thyrotropin levels were positively associated with FT3/FT4 ratio within the euthyroid range. The higher FT3/FT4 ratio is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome parameters and insulin resistance. FT3/FT4 ratio has a better predictive power for metabolic syndrome than TSH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Leptin and ghrelin concentration in hyperthyroid cats before and after radioactive iodine therapy compared to euthyroid control cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsilio, Sina; Glanemann, Barbara; Martin, Lucile; Szladovits, Balazs; Neiger, Reto

    2017-04-19

    Leptin and ghrelin, two peptide hormones with antagonistic effects on satiety and energy balance, could be involved in the pathogenesis of weight loss and polyphagia in cats with hyperthyroidism. Leptin generally decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure, while ghrelin exerts the opposite effects. Leptin and ghrelin were measured in 42 client owned hyperthyroid cats with a body condition score (BCS) ≤ 5/9 before (T0) and 4 weeks after radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) (T1). Dependent on the serum total thyroxine concentration concentration at T1, cats were sub-classified as still hyperthyroid (ht-ht) (n = 4), euthyroid (ht-eu) (n = 10) or hypothyroid (ht-hypo) (n = 28). Results were compared to those of 22 healthy, euthyroid control cats with a comparable BCS (≤ 5/9) and age (≥ 8 years) to hyperthyroid cats. At T0, there were no significant differences between hyperthyroid and control cats for leptin (p = 0.06) or ghrelin concentrations (p = 0.27). At T1, leptin significantly decreased in ht-hypo cats compared to T0 (p = 0.0008) despite a significantly increased body weight in this group (p = 0.0001). Serum ghrelin concentrations did not differ between hyperthyroid cats with a history of polyphagia compared to non-polyphagic cats (p = 0.42). After RAIT, ghrelin concentration significantly increased in all hyperthyroid cats (p weight in different states of thyroid dysfunction; increasing ghrelin concentrations after RAIT suggest a ghrelin-independent mechanism for polyphagia in hyperthyroid cats.

  8. Glomerular filtration rate is associated with free triiodothyronine in euthyroid subjects : Comparison between various equations to estimate renal function and creatinine clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Josephine L C; Gruppen, Eke G; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda; Eisenga, Michele F; de Vries, Hanne; Gansevoort, Ron T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Dullaart, Robin P F

    BACKGROUND: Effects of variations in thyroid function within the euthyroid range on renal function are unclear. Cystatin C-based equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are currently advocated for mortality and renal risk prediction. However, the applicability of cystatin C-based

  9. A Case of Distal Vaginal Agenesis Presenting with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Pyuria in a Prepubertal Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Ozlem; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Yasa, Cenk; Bastu, Ercan; Eren, Hulya; Yuksel, Bahar; Celik, Serdal; Akhan, Suleyman Engin

    2017-02-01

    Isolated distal vaginal agenesis is a rare anomaly and mostly becomes symptomatic after menarche. We describe an unusual presentation of this anomaly in a prepubertal girl. An 11-year-old prepubertal girl presented with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyuria, and right-sided renal agenesis. The findings of perineal inspection, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a distal vaginal agenesis with pyometrocolpos. Discharging pyometrocolpos with dissection of the atretic portion and a pull-through vaginoplasty were performed. A cystoscopy showed no sign of a vesicovaginal or uterine fistula. This rare presentation of distal vaginal agenesis reminds us that congenital malformations of the female genital tract should be considered in patients with congenital anomalies of the urinary system and/or recurrent urinary tract infection, even during the prepubertal period. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of Features of Pregnancy in Women with Onset of Diabetes Type 1 in Prepubertal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Rakhimdjanova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied course of pregnancy in 22 patients with onset of diabetes type 1 in the prepubertal period. It is found that the need for insulin, depending on the duration of pregnancy, varied: decreased in the first trimester, maximized in the II–III trimester, after childbirth returned to the level before pregnancy, tendency to hypoglycemia was observed in the first half of pregnancy. The mode of delivery in 88.8 % was Caesarean section. Delivery of car in specialized centers reduced the risk of complications of pregnancy and childbirth.

  11. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  12. Genital Involvement In Pre-Pubertal Pediatric Population: A Rare Aspect of Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurratul Ann Warsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that causes the loss of immune tolerance leading to bizarre inflammatory signals and disruption of mucosal barriers. Environmental triggers and interaction of genetic determinants also play an indispensible role. In this case report, we present a pre-pubertal girl with intermittent and refractory genital swelling. We emphasize that Crohn’s disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent, non-tender, erythematous and edematous lesions of the genital area. We conclude with future directions for diagnosing and managing vulvar Crohn’s disease in pediatric population.

  13. Hypothalamic response to the chemo-signal androstadienone in gender dysphoric children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Burke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The odorous steroid androstadienone, a putative male chemo-signal, was previously reported to evoke sex differences in hypothalamic activation in adult heterosexual men and women. In order to investigate whether puberty modulated this sex difference in response to androstadienone we measured the hypothalamic responsiveness to this chemo-signal in 39 prepubertal and 41 adolescent boys and girls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. We then investigated whether 36 prepubertal children and 38 adolescents diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria (GD; DSM-5 exhibited sex-atypical (in accordance with their experienced gender, rather than sex-typical (in accordance with their natal sex hypothalamic activations during olfactory stimulation with androstadienone. We found that the sex difference in responsiveness to androstadienone was already present in prepubertal control children and thus likely developed during early perinatal development instead of during sexual maturation. Adolescent girls and boys with GD both responded remarkably like their experienced gender, thus sex-atypical. In contrast, prepubertal girls with GD showed neither a typically male nor female hypothalamic activation pattern and prepubertal boys with GD had hypothalamic activations in response to androstadienone that were similar to control boys, thus sex-typical. We present here a unique data set of boys and girls diagnosed with GD at two different developmental stages, showing that these children possess certain sex-atypical functional brain characteristics and may have undergone atypical sexual differentiation of the brain.

  14. Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children with Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sverd, Jeffrey; Nolan, Edith E.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%). Method: Two cohorts of prepubertal children (N = 71) received placebo and three doses of…

  15. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis Functioning in Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) reactivity and proactive and reactive aggression in pre-pubertal children. After a 30-min controlled base line period, 73 7-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental tasks designed to…

  16. Quality of life and self-esteem in children treated for idiopathic short stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Kamp, G.A.; Koopman, H.M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Vogels, T.; Wit, J.-M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-esteem were studied in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) participating in a study on the effect of growth hormone treatment. Study design: Prepubertal children (n = 36) with ISS were randomly assigned to a treatment or

  17. Effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on the development and proliferation of testicular cells in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlalla, Mohamed Babo; Wei, Quanwei; Fedail, Jaafar Sulieman; Mehfooz, Asif; Mao, Dagan; Shi, Fangxiong

    2017-12-01

    Thyroid hormones are important in the development and regulation of testes. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on testicular development in prepubertal rats aged 20-70 days. Weaning male rats (20 days old) until day 70 age were randomly divided into four groups: control, hyperthyroid (hyper-T), hypothyroid (hypo-T) and hypothyroid treated with thyroxine (T4) (hypo-T+T4). The results indicated that thyroid hormones caused a significant effect in body and testis weights, and food and water consumption. In addition there were changes in serum concentrations of tri-iodothyronine, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and testosterone. Histomorphology showed a significant decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter in hyper-T compared to the other groups. Leydig cell numbers showed a significant elevation in hyper-T but not in hypo-T groups. Immunostaining indicated that TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptors α/β (TRαβ) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) have the roles in testicular development. Our findings suggest that hyper- and hypo-thyroidism regulate testicular cell proliferation and spermatogenesis in prepubertal rats, indicating that expression of TSHR, TRαβ and PCNA may be regulated by thyroid hormones that are involved in testicular development; and that the administration of T4 to the hypo-T+T4 group leads to an improvement in the testicular condition. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. The oligosaccharidic content of the glycoconjugates of the prepubertal descended and undescended testis: lectin histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, Gherardo; Sgambati, Eleonora; Thyrion, Giorgia D Zappoli; Vichi, Debora; Orlandini, Giovanni E

    2004-01-01

    The saccharidic content of the glycoconjugates has been studied in the descended the undescended testes of a 8 years old boy. For this purpose, a battery of seven HRP-conjugated lectins (SBA, DBA,PNA,WGA,UEAI, LTA and ConA) was used. D-galactose-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and alpha-L-fucose sugar residues, which were present in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells of the normally positioned prepubertal testis, were not detected in the same cells of the undescended testis. The Leydig's cells of the descended testis appeared characterized by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine which was absent in the rare and atrophic Leydig's cells of the cryptorchid testis. Differences in sugar residues distribution between the descended and the undescended testis were also detected in the lamina propria of the seminiferous tubules. Peritubular myoid cells in the undescended testis only reacted with PNA, after neuraminidase digestion, thus revealing the presence of D-galactose (beta1-->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and sialic acid. In this study a complete distributional map of the sugar residues of the glycoconjugates in the descended and undescended prepubertal testis is reported.

  19. Ganglionic adrenergic action modulates ovarian steroids and nitric oxide in prepubertal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2006-08-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary system of prepubertal rats. The coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system was incubated in Krebs Ringer-bicarbonate buffer in presence of adrenergic agents in the ganglionic compartment. The accumulation of progesterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. Norepinephrine in coeliac ganglion inhibited the liberation of progesterone and increased androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in ovary. The addition of alpha and beta adrenergic antagonists also showed different responses in the liberation of the substances mentioned before, which, from a physiological point of view, reveals the presence of adrenergic receptors in coeliac ganglion. In relation to propranolol, it does not revert the effect of noradrenaline on the liberation of progesterone, which leads us to think that it might also have a "per se" effect on the ganglion, responsible for the ovarian response observed for progesterone. Finally, we can conclude that the ganglionic adrenergic action via SON participates on the regulation of the prepubertal ovary in one of two ways: either increasing the NO, a gaseous neurotransmitter with cytostatic characteristics, to favour the immature follicles to remain dormant or increasing the liberation of androstenedione and oestradiol, the steroids necessary for the beginning of the near first estral cycle.

  20. {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi thyroid uptake in euthyroid individuals and in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Allan O. [Campinas State University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas (Brazil); Avenida Independencia, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zantut-Wittmann, D.E.; Tambascia, M.A. [Campinas State University, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas (Brazil); Nogueira, R.O.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Lima, M.C.L.; Camargo, E.E.; Ramos, C.D. [Campinas State University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas (Brazil)

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the biokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in the thyroid of euthyroid volunteers (EVs) and in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases and determined the best time interval between {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injection and calculation of uptake. Forty EVs, 30 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 15 patients with atrophic Hashimoto's thyroiditis (AHT) and 15 patients with hypertrophic Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HHT) underwent {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi thyroid scintigraphy. Dynamic images were acquired for 20 min, and static images were obtained 20 min, 60 min and 120 min post injection. Five-, 20-, 60- and 120-min uptake, time to maximal uptake (T{sub max}) and T{sub 1/2} of tracer clearance were calculated. Thyroid hormones and antibodies were measured. {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake was investigated in GD patients. T{sub max} was approximately 5 min in all four groups. The mean T{sub 1/2} value for EVs was similar to the GD value and lower than the HHT and AHT values. The mean ({+-}SD) 5-min uptake was 0.13% ({+-}0.05%) for EVs. The 5-min uptake in GD was higher than that in EVs(P<0.001) and correlated with free thyroxine (r=0.54) and with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake (r=0.68). Uptake in HHT was higher than that in AHT (P=0.0003) and EVs (P=0.002). Uptake in AHT was lower than uptake in EVs (P=0.0001). Five minutes is the optimal time interval between {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injection and calculation of thyroid uptake. Five-minute uptake differentiates euthyroid individuals from GD patients. There is a high correlation between {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in GD. The reduced {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi uptake in AHT patients is probably due to glandular destruction and fibrosis. Inflammatory infiltrate and high mitochondrial density in thyrocytes possibly explain the increased uptake in GD and HHT. (orig.)

  1. Effect of hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development, granulosa cell proliferation and peripheral hormone levels in the prepubertal rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, G.; de rooij, D. G.; de Jong, F. H.; van den Hurk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prepubertal hypothyroidism on ovarian development in rats. Therefore, from birth up to day 40 postpartum, rats were given 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) via the drinking water of mothers and pups. At ages ranging from 12 to 40 days, ovarian weights

  2. Different Short-Term Mild Exercise Modalities Lead to Differential Effects on Body Composition in Healthy Prepubertal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Sontam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON, bipedal stance (BPS, or wheel exercise (WEX groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.

  3. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on intake, performance, and mammary gland development in prepubertal and pubertal dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Detmann, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Pedroso, A.M.; Silva, L.H.P.; Machado, A.F.; Sousa, F.C.; Santos, dos G.B.; Marcondes, M.I.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE)

  4. Findings of quantitative fluorescence scintiscanning in the case of euthyroid struma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisner, B.; Kantlehner, R.; Igl, W.; Fink, U.; Scriba, P.C.; Lissner, J.; Muenchen Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The fluorescence scintiscanning is a new method with minimal radiation exposure to show the distribution and quantification of stable iodine in the thyroid. In regions with high nutritional iodine supply (USA), the concentration of iodine-127 is, on an average, appr. 0.6 mg/g thyroid tissue. In normal persons in iodine-lacking regions it amounts to 0.38 mg/g and is even more reduced if there is an enthyreotic goiter (0.22 mg/g). A single administration of a high quantity of iodine by means of water-soluble contrast substances to adults with a healthy thyroid and to persons with an enthyreotic goiter does generally not cause an increase in the intrathyroidal iodine concentration; if a hyperthyreosis is indicated, however, high values are found and this might be useful for a differential diagnosis. Chronic iodine intake (non-water soluble contrast substances) leads to a slow increase in the intrathyreoidal iodine concentration. Fluorescence scintiscanning is here the method chosen to present the thyroid morphologically. Iodine substitution in low doses does not cause a significant increase in the iodine contents of the thyroid of adults. In children and juveniles, however, normal iodine concentrations in the thyroid tissue could be found substituting with 100 μg potassium iodide. Taking into consideration kinetic data of the iodine metabolism an iodine-'escape' of the false adapted 'older' goiter tissue must be assumed. (orig.) [de

  5. Thyroidal radioisotope uptake in euthyroid cats : a comparison between 131I and 99MTcO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lambrechts

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thyroidal evaluation systems in euthyroid cats (n = 12 were compared. A single, confirmed hyperthyroid cat was included for interest. Firstly, thyroidal uptake of an intravenous bolus of approximately 111 MBq (3 mCi 99MTcO4- was estimated by using a scintillation camera and calculating the ratio of thyroid to salivary activities at 20 min and 4 h. Thyroid to salivary activity ratios were 1:1 at 20 min and 2:1 at 4 h. Two discrete areas of salivary uptake were identified, namely a parotid/mandibular complex and a more rostral buccal/sublingual complex. These results were compared to radioiodine uptake of an oral dose of approximately 0.925 MBq (25 mCi 131I using a standard thyroid uptake system, measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. Mean radioiodine thyroidal uptake started at 33 % at 1 h, stabilised at 21 % between 4 and 24 h, and dropped to 18 % at 48 h. There was a significant correlation between the early thyroid:salivary ratio of the parotid/mandibular complex and the radioiodine uptake at 12 h.

  6. Prepubertal Ovariectomy Exaggerates Adult Affective Behaviors and Alters the Hippocampal Transcriptome in a Genetic Rat Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha S. Raghavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a debilitating illness that affects twice as many women than men postpuberty. This female bias is thought to be caused by greater heritability of MDD in women and increased vulnerability induced by female sex hormones. We tested this hypothesis by removing the ovaries from prepubertal Wistar Kyoto (WKY more immobile (WMI females, a genetic animal model of depression, and its genetically close control, the WKY less immobile (WLI. In adulthood, prepubertally ovariectomized (PrePubOVX animals and their Sham-operated controls were tested for depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, using the routinely employed forced swim and open field tests, respectively, and RNA-sequencing was performed on their hippocampal RNA. Our results confirmed that the behavioral and hippocampal expression changes that occur after prepubertal ovariectomy are the consequences of an interaction between genetic predisposition to depressive behavior and ovarian hormone-regulated processes. Lack of ovarian hormones during and after puberty in the WLIs led to increased depression-like behavior. In WMIs, both depression- and anxiety-like behaviors worsened by prepubertal ovariectomy. The unbiased exploration of the hippocampal transcriptome identified sets of differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the strains and treatment groups. The relatively small number of hippocampal DEGs resulting from the genetic differences between the strains confirmed the genetic relatedness of these strains. Nevertheless, the differences in DEGs between the strains in response to prepubertal ovariectomy identified different molecular processes, including the importance of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanisms, that may be causative of the increased depression-like behavior in the presence or absence of genetic predisposition. This study contributes to the understanding of hormonal maturation-induced changes in affective behaviors and the hippocampal

  7. [Study on the pathogens correlated to sexually transmitted diseases in 285 pre-pubertal girls with vulvovaginitis in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Hong-Mei; Feng, Yan-Ling; Hu, Jin; Zhao, Han-Qing; Zhang, Li-Ya

    2007-08-01

    To study the relationship between vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls and pathogens as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), N. gonorrhoeae (Ng), Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu), Mycoplasma hominis (Mh), M. genitalium (Mg), M. fermentans (Mf) and M. penetrans (Mpe), as well as to find out the proportion of mycoplasma which is correlated to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS. METHODS Vulvae swab specimens from 285 pre-pubertal girls with vulvovaginitis (case group) and 128 healthy girls (control group) were collected and detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) to identify the existence of pathogens as Ct, Ng, Uu, Mh, Mg, Mf and Mpe. nPCR with both high specificity and sensitivity, would not be influenced by the amount of pathogens in specimens or inactivated during the process of storage or transportation. The rate of detection on pathogens was 59.65% in the 285 specimens from case group including 'one kind of pathogen in one specimen' as 37.54% and 'two kinds' as 16.84% and 'three kinds' as 5.26%. However, in the 128 specimens from control group, the detectable rate of pathogen was 6.25%. Relationships were found between Ng (P vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls. In control group the pathogens were detected from 7 specimens including 5 Uu and 2 Mh. Some of the pathogens were correlated to STD and were important in causing vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls. Vulvovaginitis might have been caused by more than one kind of pathogen in pre-pubertal girls. The locations of Mg, Mf and Ng in outer genital tracts were correlated to seasonal change. Macrolide seemed to be quite effective clinically in treating urogenital tract infection caused by mycoplasma and Ct.

  8. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Expression of T Cell FOXP3 and T-Bet Is Upregulated in Severe but Not Euthyroid Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

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    Stana Tokić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive thyroid failure. Th1 and Treg subset of CD4+ cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis; however, less is known about their respective roles across the spectrum of HT clinical presentations. To shed more light on CD4+ subsets role in HT, we investigated the mRNA expression levels of several Th1/Treg-associated transcription factors (T-bet/ETS1, HIF1α/BLIMP1/FOXP3 in peripheral blood T cells of 10 hypothyroid, untreated HT patients, 10 hypothyroid patients undergoing hormone replacement therapy, 12 euthyroid HT subjects, and 11 healthy controls by the qRT-PCR. Compared to euthyroid HT patients and controls, both hypothyroid (2.34-fold difference versus controls, P<0.01 and thyroxine-supplemented patients (2.5-fold, P<0.001 showed an increased FOXP3 mRNA expression in T cells. Similarly, mRNA expression levels of T-bet were upregulated in severely affected but not in euthyroid HT subjects (2.37-fold and 3.2-fold, hypothyroid and thyroxine-supplemented HT patients versus controls, resp., P<0.01. By contrast, no differences in mRNA expression levels of ETS1, BLIMP1, and HIF1α were observed across the study groups. In summary, severe but not euthyroid HT was associated with robust upregulation of T-bet and FOXP3 mRNA in peripheral T cells, independent of the thyroid hormone status but proportional to disease activity.

  10. Colchicum autumnale in Patients with Goitre with Euthyroidism or Mild Hyperthyroidism: Indications for a Therapeutic Regulative Effect?Results of an Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scheffer, Christian; Debus, Marion; Heckmann, Christian; Cysarz, Dirk; Girke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Goitre with euthyroid function or with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy is common. In anthroposophic medicine various thyroid disorders are treated with Colchicum autumnale (CAU). We examined the effects of CAU in patients with goitre of both functional states. Patients and methods. In an observational study, 24 patients with goitre having suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with normal or slightly elevated free thyroxine (fT4) and free...

  11. Long-Term Results of Fixed High-Dose I-131 Treatment for Toxic Nodular Goiter: Higher Euthyroidism Rates in Geriatric Patients

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    Gül Ege Aktaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Geriatric patient population has special importance due to particular challenges. In addition to the increase in incidence of toxic nodular goiter (TNG with age, it has a high incidence in the regions of low-medium iodine intake such as in our country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall outcome of high fixed dose radioiodine (RAI therapy, and investigate the particular differences in the geriatric patient population. Methods: One hundred and three TNG patients treated with high dose I-131 (370-740 MBq were retrospectively reviewed. The baseline characteristics; age, gender, scintigraphic patterns and thyroid function tests before and after treatment, as well as follow-up, duration of antithyroid drug (ATD medication and achievement of euthyroid or hypothyroid state were evaluated. The patient population was divided into two groups as those=>65 years and those who were younger, in order to assess the effect of age. Results: Treatment success was 90% with single dose RAI therapy. Hyperthyroidism was treated in 7±7, 2 months after RAI administration. At the end of the first year, overall hypothyroidism rate was 30% and euthyroid state was achieved in 70% of patients. Age was found to be the only statistically significant variable effecting outcome. A higher ratio of euthyroidism was achieved in the geriatric patient population. Conclusion: High fixed dose I-131 treatment should be preferred in geriatric TNG patients in order to treat persistent hyperthyroidism rapidly. The result of this study suggests that high fixed dose RAI therapy is a successful modality in treating TNG, and high rates of euthyroidism can be achieved in geriatric patients.

  12. Results of preventive radioiodine therapy in euthyroid patients with history of hyperthyroidism prior to administration of amiodarone with permanent atrial fibrillation--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata; Woliński, Kosma; Płazińska, Maria Teresa; Miechowicz, Izabela; Kwiecińska, Barbara; Czepczyński, Rafał; Królicki, Leszek; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Radioiodine (RAI) therapy is a standard procedure in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. However, the use of RAI in euthyroid patients requiring chronic administration of amiodarone (AM) where other antiarrhythmic drugs may lack efficacy is still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of an AM therapy prior to treatment with radioiodine therapy in euthyroid patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (PAF), who had been treated for hyperthyroidism in the past. This was a retrospective observational study. Patients were assessed at baseline and two, six, eight, and 12 months after RAI therapy. 17 euthyroid patients with PAF were qualified to the RAI (female/male 3/14; age range 65 to 87, median 71). The patients required chronic administration of AM as a prophylaxis against sudden death. Each patient received an ablative dose of 800 MBq (22 mCi) of 131I. At baseline and during follow-up, no side effects of the therapy and no signs of drug intolerance were observed. Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurred in two (11.8%) cases after two months of RAI and five weeks of AM administration. In this situation, RAI therapy was repeated. Three patients (17.6%) after six months, and another two (11.8%) after eight months, required an additional dose of 131I due to amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT). Twelve patients (70.6%) returned to spontaneous sinus rhythm within two months. Fourteen patients (82.4%) had sinus rhythm during follow-up after six and 12 months of treatment. Preventive RAI in euthyroid (but previously hyperthyroid) patients with PAF before administration of AM may be the method of choice. This is particularly important for patients who will require permanent AM administration as a life-saving drug.

  13. [Evaluation of autonomic nervous system function with heart rate variability analysis in patients with hyperthyroidism and during euthyroidism after pharmacologic and surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyński, M; Tabor, S; Thor, P

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was both to estimate autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in patients with hyperthyroidism by the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and to evaluate the impact of pharmacological and surgical treatment on the ANS function. Analysis of the HRV underwent 10 female patients in course of thyreotoxicosis and after reaching full clinical and biochemical euthyroidism, after pharmacological therapy and in month after surgical treatment. The 10 minutes records at rest, in horizontal position were evaluated. The HRV parameters like mean of the heart rate, mean of RR intervals, standard deviation of all normal RR intervals (SDNN), range of the heart rate variability, low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) components of the heart rate power spectral density and LF/HF ratio were assessed. The results were compared to those obtained from 10 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched control subjects. The statistical significance (p hyperthyroidism in comparison to the control group (151.6/346.8 ms; 2.4/0.74; 24.4/57.2 ms2). In course of pharmacological euthyroidism there were statistically significant (p hyperthyroidism (270/151.6 ms; 0.995/2.4; 39/24.4 ms2). In euthyroidism after surgical treatment all the above parameters kept the similar levels as in pharmacological euthyroidism (no statistical significance for p hyperthyroid patients there is advantage of sympathetic part of ANS over parasympathetic one which is due to sharp reduction of parasympathetic system activity. Pharmacological therapy with thyreostatics normalises balance of ANS to the level of the control group and after surgical treatment the balance keeps the same. Moreover, in the estimation of ANS as important as LF/HF ratio is the mean range of RR intervals.

  14. High-protein intake enhances the positive impact of physical activity on BMC in prepubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalley, Thierry; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Ferrari, Serge; Rizzoli, René

    2008-01-01

    In 232 healthy prepubertal boys, increased physical activity was associated with greater BMC at both axial and appendicular sites under high-protein intake. Physical activity is an important lifestyle determinant of bone mineral mass acquisition. Its impact during childhood can be modulated by nutrition, particularly by protein and calcium intakes. We analyzed the relationship between physical activity levels and protein compared with calcium intake on BMC. In 232 healthy prepubertal boys (age: 7.4 +/- 0.4 [SD] yr; standing height: 125.7 +/- 5.9 cm; body weight: 25.3 +/- 4.6 kg), physical activity and protein and calcium intakes were recorded. BMC was measured by DXA at the radial metaphysis, radial diaphysis, total radius, femoral neck, total hip, femoral diaphysis, and L(2)-L(4) vertebrae. In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients r with BMC of the various skeletal sites were as follows: physical activity, from 0.26 (p = 0.0001) to 0.40 (p = 0.0001); protein intake, from 0.18 (p = 0.005) to 0.27 (p = 0.0001); calcium intake, from 0.09 (p = 0.181) to 0.17 (p = 0.007). By multiple regression analysis, the beta-adjusted values remained correlated with BMC, ranging as follows: physical activity, from 0.219 (p = 0.0007) to 0.340 (p BMC Z-score (+0.6, p = 0.0005). In contrast with protein intake (mean = 1.5 g/kg body weight/d) below the median, increased physical activity from 167 to 312 kcal/d was not associated with a significantly greater mean BMC Z-score (+0.2, p = 0.371). The interaction between physical activity and protein intake was close to statistical significance for mean BMC Z-score (p = 0.055) and significant for femoral neck BMC (p = 0.012). In keeping with the results derived from multiple regression analysis, the increased physical activity on mean BMC Z-score was not influenced by difference in calcium intake above (mean = 945 mg/d) and below (mean = 555 mg/d) the median. In healthy prepubertal boys, the impact in increased physical activity

  15. Long-Term Results after Treatment of Very Low-, Low-, and High-Risk Thyroid Cancers in a Combined Setting of Thyroidectomy and Radio Ablation Therapy in Euthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Emmanouilidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Differentiated thyroid cancer treatment usually consists of thyroidectomy and radio ablation in hypothyroidism 4-6 weeks after surgery. Replacing hypothyroidism by recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone can facilitate radio ablation in euthyroidism within one week after surgery. The outcome of this approach was investigated. Methods. This is a prospective randomized trial to compare thyroidectomy and radio ablation within a few days after preconditioning with recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone versus thyroidectomy and radio ablation separated by four weeks of L-T4 withdrawal. Tumors were graded into very low-, low- , or high-risk tumors. Recurrence-free survival was confirmed at follow-up controls by neck ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin. Suspected tumor recurrence was treated by additional radio ablation or surgery. Quality-of-life questionnaires with additional evaluation of job performance and sick-leave time were used in all patients. Results. Radio ablation in euthyroidism in quick succession after thyroidectomy did not lead to higher tumor recurrence rates of differentiated thyroid cancers in any risk category and was significantly advantageous with respect to quality-of-life (P<0.001, sick-leave time (P<0.001, and job performance (P=0.002. Conclusion. Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone can be used safely and with good efficacy to allow radio ablation under sustained euthyroidism within one week after thyroidectomy.

  16. Remote and chronic access to the third cerebral ventricle of the unrestrained prepubertal rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, V L; Mikuma, N; Plant, T M

    1993-03-01

    One channel of a commercially available standard-size three-channel fluid swivel was modified to permit continuous access to the brain of unrestrained prepubertal rhesus monkeys via a continuous length of small-bore Teflon tube originating from a swivel device on top of the animal's cage and terminating in the third cerebral ventricle. This system was employed to achieve continuous access to the third cerebroventricle in four monkeys for periods of up to 12 mo. The value of the system for studies of the neurochemical control of hypothalamic-releasing factor secretion was established by monitoring adenohypophysial responses to neurotransmitter receptor agonists infused into the third ventricle. Specifically, repetitive infusions of morphine (30 micrograms/infusion) elicited a robust train of prolactin discharges, and third ventricular administration of N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMA; 20 micrograms) resulted in striking discharges of LH.

  17. Generalized aggressive periodontitis in prepubertal age: description and comparison of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piergallini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is a rare form of periodontal disease and it can involve both the deciduous dentition and the permanent one. It causes a rapid loss of periodontal attachment. The paper aims to describe two cases of severe generalized prepubertal periodontitis: the first child doesn’t suffer from neither systemic diseases nor alteration of functionality of polymorphonuclear and periodontal disease involved both his deciduous dentition and the first permanent molars. The second child had a deficiency of functionality of polymorphonuclear but periodontal disease involved only primary dentition thanks to his immediate improvement of home dental hygiene. This comparison shows the importance of early diagnosis and especially of optimal dental oral hygiene. Infant healthcare professionals, as pediatric dentists and pediatricians, should have the necessary knowledge for early and correct diagnosis and clinical management of disease.

  18. Prepubertal exposure to cow's milk reduces susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Khan, Galam; Davis, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk contains high levels of estrogens, progesterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), all of which are associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether prepubertal milk exposure affects mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either...... whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on PND 50. Milk exposure increased circulating E2 levels on PND 25 by 10-fold (p ... opening, which marks puberty onset, by 2.5 days (p milk before puberty exhibited reduced carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis; that is, their tumor latency was longer (p

  19. Haemophilus influenzae vulvovaginitis associated with rhinitis caused by the same clone in a prepubertal girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Chen, Lifeng; Zeng, Wenjie; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2017-06-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by upper respiratory flora is generally considered to be the most common gynecological problem in prepubertal girls. To date, however, no direct evidence has been obtained for the underlying mechanism of transmission. This report describes a case of non-capsulate Haemophilus influenzae vulvovaginitis in a 6-year-old girl with a history of foreign bodies (cotton wool) in her vagina. Moreover, this girl had recurrent rhinitis for approximately 3 years. On Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis the H. influenzae strain isolated from vaginal secretions and the H. influenzae strain isolated from nasal secretions were derived from the same clone. The patient was successfully treated with appropriate antibiotics. The present case might provide the first direct evidence of the nose-hand-vagina method of transmission. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  1. The Effect of Plyometric Training Volume on Athletic Performance in Prepubertal Male Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Negra, Yassine

    2017-10-01

    To assess and compare the effects of 8 wk of in-season (2 sessions/wk) low- and high-volume plyometric training (PT) on measures of physical fitness in prepubertal male soccer players. A total of 25 soccer players were randomly assigned to a low-volume PT group (LPT; n = 13, age 12.68 ± 0.23 y, age at peak height velocity [APHV] 14.25 ± 0.29 y, maturity offset -1.57 ± 0.29 y) or a high-volume PT group (HPT; n = 12, age 12.72 ± 0.27 y, APHV 14.33 ± 0.77 y, maturity offset -1.61 ± 0.76 y). A linear-sprint test (5-m, 10-m, 20-m, and 30-m), change-of-direction (CoD) test, and vertical- (squat-jump [SJ]), countermovement- (CMJ), and horizontal-jump (standing long jump [SLJ]) test were carried out before and after 8 wk of PT. There was a significant main effect of time for sprint outcomes (5-m, P = .005, ES = 0.86; 10-m, P = .006, ES = 0.85; 20-m, P = .03, ES = 0.64, and 30-m, P = .05, ES = 0.57), CoD (P = .002, ES = 0.96), SJ (P = .008, ES = 0.81; CMJ, P = .01, ES = 0.73), and SLJ ability (P = .007, ES = 0.83). There were no significant training group × time interactions in any measured outcomes. After 8 wk of training, results showed similar performance improvement on measures of sprint time, CoD, and jumping ability between LPT and HPT groups. From a time-efficiency perspective, it is recommended to use LPT in prepubertal male soccer players to improve their proxies of athletic performance.

  2. Changes in soft tissue nasal widths associated with rapid maxillary expansion in prepubertal and postpubertal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bret M; McNamara, James A; Bandeen, Roger L; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate changes in the soft tissue width of the nose induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Data on greater alar cartilage (GAC) and alar base (AB) widths were compared with a normative sample within the same age range. This prospective study consisted of an RME sample of 79 patients treated with an RME protocol. Mean age at the start of RME treatment was 13.5 years; average duration of treatment was 6.7 months. Patients were grouped into prepubertal and postpubertal groups based on their cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stage. AB and GAC widths were determined at three separate time points. The normative sample consisted of 437 orthodontically untreated whites, aged 10-16 years. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine group differences. In addition, independent sample t-tests were used to compare posttreatment nasal width values vs the untreated normative sample. Increases in AB and GAC widths of the nose in the RME sample were less than 1.5 mm. No significant differences were noted in width changes between the prepubertal and postpubertal subgroups. Comparisons of T3 values showed that on average nasal width increases were greater in the RME group than in untreated norms by 1.7 mm for the GAC measure (statistically significant), and by less than 1 mm for the AB measure. RME has no significant clinical effects on the widths of the apical base and the greater alar cartilage of the nose; no differences were observed between the two maturational subgroups.

  3. Early ovarian follicular development in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, L; Velez, L M; Santos, B R; Tusset, C; Lecke, S B; Motta, A B; Spritzer, P M

    2016-08-01

    Androgens may directly modulate early ovarian follicular development in preantral stages and androgen excess before puberty may disrupt this physiological process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of follicular morphology and circulating androgen and estradiol levels in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens. Prepubertal female Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) intervention and eCG plus dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) intervention (eCG+DHEA). Serum DHEA, testosterone and estradiol levels were determined, and ovarian morphology and morphometry were assessed. The eCG+DHEA group presented increased serum estradiol and testosterone levels as compared with the control group (P<0.01), and higher serum DHEA concentration v. the eCG-only and control groups (P<0.01). In addition, the eCG+DHEA group had a higher number of, and larger-sized, primary and secondary follicles as compared with the control group (P<0.05). The eCG group presented intermediate values for number and size of primary and secondary follicles, without significant differences as compared with the other two groups. The number of antral follicles was higher in the eCG+DHEA and eCG groups v. controls (P<0.05). The number of primordial, atretic and cystic follicles were similar in all groups. In conclusion, the present experimental model using an acute eCG+DHEA intervention was useful to investigate events involved in initial follicular development under hyperandrogenic conditions, and could provide a reliable tool to study defective follicular development with possible deleterious reproductive consequences later in life.

  4. Poor nutrition in prepubertal Japanese children at the end of World War II suppressed bone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Tohya, Toshimitsu; Onoda, Chikashi; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-09-16

    To assess the extent to which malnutrition in childhood affects bone mineral density (BMD) decades later. BMDs were compared in healthy women (35-59 years old) who visited our hospital for annual examinations between 1992 and 1993 (group 1) and between 1999 and 2002 (group 2). The BMDs of 50- to 54-year-old women in group 1 averaged 0.86+/-0.15 g/cm2, which was significantly (pWar II (1945) undernutrition was rampant throughout Japan, and there were unprecedented numbers of cases of malnutrition. BMD was lower in women who experienced those conditions while they were 5 years old in average, a time when rapid skeletal growth was beginning. Thus, nutrition in childhood is a particularly crucial determinant of lifelong bone health.

  5. Aerobic fitness in prepubertal children according to level of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    ) by allometric scaling (mL/min/kg(0.71) ), whereas no relationships were detected for VO(2PEAK) scaled to fat-free mass (FFM) (mL/min/FFM). Person correlation coefficients for boys were 0.26, -0.38, -0.19 and -0.01 NS and for girls 0.33, -0.42, -0.21 and -0.03 NS, respectively. Significant differences in VO(2......PEAK) existed between different quartiles of BF%, with the exception when VO(2PEAK) was scaled to FFM. CONCLUSION: Our findings document the coexistence of two known risk factors for disease at a young age on a population-base and confirms that VO(2PEAK) was scaled to FFM represents a body fat...

  6. Folie à deux dissociative in prepubertal children: report of two cases with EEGs

    OpenAIRE

    CHAPMAN,A.H.; SILVA,DJALMA VIEIRA E

    1998-01-01

    A case of folie à deux dissociative (dissociative hysteria) disorder in an 8 and 12 year-old sister and brother is presented. Illnesses of this type are very rare and there is little medical literature on this subject. Our patients, almost simultaneously, abruptly had complete loss of memory, disorientation, loss of awareness about who they were, and much anxiety, which lasted about 15 hours. Both patients were physically well and no abnormalities were found on physical examination, routines ...

  7. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Hypoglycemia-Associated EEG Changes in Prepubertal Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Grith Lærkholm; Foli-Andersen, Pia; Fredheim, Siri

    2016-01-01

    were calculated. A within-patient analysis was conducted comparing hypoglycemia versus euglycemia changes in the qEEG. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed. A real-time analyzing algorithm developed for adults was applied. RESULTS: The qEEG showed significant differences...

  9. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  10. The Potential Association of Later Initiation of Oral/Enteral Nutrition on Euthyroid Sick Syndrome in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pérez-Guisado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS, and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS. Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd–5th day and second sample collection (9th–12th day after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: 48 h after the injury (Group 3. Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days was, respectively, in each group, 16.77±4.56, 21.98±4.86, and 26.06±5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61±0.92 days in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89±1.01 days. Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients.

  11. The potential association of later initiation of oral/enteral nutrition on euthyroid sick syndrome in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M; Rioja, Luis F; Derosier, Leo C; de la Torre, Jorge I

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS). Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd-5th day) and second sample collection (9th-12th day) after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: 48 h after the injury (Group 3). Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days) was, respectively, in each group, 16.77 ± 4.56, 21.98 ± 4.86, and 26.06 ± 5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61 ± 0.92 days) in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89 ± 1.01 days). Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients.

  12. The evaluation of small-sided games as a talent identification tool in highly trained prepubertal soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Jonathan S J; Iga, John; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological and technical attributes of prepubertal soccer players during multiple small-sided games (SSGs), and determine if SSGs can act as a talent identification tool. Sixteen highly trained U10 soccer players participated and separated into two groups of eight. Each group played six small-sided (4 vs. 4) matches of 5-min duration. Each player was awarded total points for the match result and goals scored. A game technical scoring chart was used to rate each player's performance during each game. Time-motion characteristics were measured using micromechanical devices. Total points had a very large significant relationship with game technical scoring chart (r = 0.758, P talented prepubertal soccer players.

  13. Beneficial Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment on Cognition in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome : A Randomized Controlled Trial and Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemensma, Elbrich P. C.; van Wijngaarden, Roderick F. A. Tummers-de Lind; Festen, Dederieke A. M.; Troeman, Zyrhea C. E.; van Alfen-van der Velden, A. A. E. M. (Janielle); Otten, Barto J.; Rotteveel, Joost; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bindels-de Heus, G. C. B. (Karen); van Leeuwen, Mariette; Haring, Danny A. J. P.; Oostdijk, Wilma; Bocca, Gianni; Houdijk, E. C. A. Mieke; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Hoorweg-Nijman, J. J. Gera; van Wieringen, Hester; Vreuls, Rene C. F. M.; Jira, Petr E.; Schroor, Eelco J.; van Pinxteren-Nagler, Evelyn; Pilon, Jan Willem; Lunshof, L. (Bert); Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    Background: Knowledge about the effects of GH treatment on cognitive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited. Methods: Fifty prepubertal children aged 3.5 to 14 yr were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial during 2 yr, followed by a longitudinal study during 4 yr

  14. Beneficial effects of growth hormone treatment on cognition in children with Prader-Willi syndrome: a randomized controlled trial and longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemensma, E.P.C.; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, R.F.; Festen, D.A.M.; Troeman, Z.C.; Alfen-van der Velden, A.A.E.M. van; Otten, B.J.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Odink, R.J.; Bindels-de Heus, G.C.; Leeuwen, M. van; Haring, D.A.; Oostdijk, W.; Bocca, G.; Mieke Houdijk, E.C.; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Hoorweg-Nijman, J.J.G.; Wieringen, H. van; Vreuls, R.C.; Jira, P.E.; Schroor, E.J.; Pinxteren-Nagler, E. van; Willem Pilon, J.; Lunshof, L.B.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the effects of GH treatment on cognitive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited. METHODS: Fifty prepubertal children aged 3.5 to 14 yr were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial during 2 yr, followed by a longitudinal study during 4 yr

  15. Beneficial Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment on Cognition in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemensma, Elbrich P. C.; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F. A.; Festen, Dederieke A. M.; Troeman, Zyrhea C. E.; van Alfen-van der Velden, A. A. E. M. Janielle; Otten, Barto J.; Rotteveel, Joost; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bindels-de Heus, G. C. B. Karen; van Leeuwen, Mariette; Haring, Danny A. J. P.; Oostdijk, Wilma; Bocca, Gianni; Mieke Houdijk, E. C. A.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Hoorweg-Nijman, J. J. Gera; van Wieringen, Hester; Vreuls, René C. F. M.; Jira, Petr E.; Schroor, Eelco J.; van Pinxteren-Nagler, Evelyn; Willem Pilon, Jan; Lunshof, L. Bert; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the effects of GH treatment on cognitive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited. Methods: Fifty prepubertal children aged 3.5 to 14 yr were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial during 2 yr, followed by a longitudinal study during 4 yr

  16. Beneficial effects of growth hormone treatment on cognition in children with prader-willi syndrome: A randomized controlled trial and longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P.C. Siemensma (Elbrich); R.F.A. Tummers-de Lind Van Wijngaarden (Roderick F.); D.A.M. Festen (Dederieke); Z.C.E. Troeman (Zyrhea C.); A.A.E.M. van der Alfen-van Der Velden; B.J. Otten (Barto); J. Rotteveel (Joost); R.J.H. Odink (Roelof); G.C.B. Bindels-de Heus (Karen); M. van Leeuwen (Mariëtte); D.A.J.P. Haring (Danny); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); G. Bocca (Gianni); E.C.A.M. Houdijk (Mieke); A.S.P. van Trotsenburg (Paul); J.J.G. Hoorweg-Nijman (Gera); H. van Wieringen (Hester); R.C.F.M. Vreuls (René); P.E. Jira (Petr); E.J. Schroor (Eelco); E. van Pinxteren-Nagler (Evelyn); J.W. Pilon; S. Lunshof (Simone); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Knowledge about the effects of GH treatment on cognitive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited. Methods: Fifty prepubertal children aged 3.5 to 14 yr were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial during 2 yr, followed by a longitudinal study

  17. Testicular Biopsy for Fertility Preservation in Prepubertal Boys with Cancer: Identifying Preferences for Procedure and Reactions to Disclosure Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abha A; Donen, Rachel M; Sung, Lillian; Boydell, Katherine M; Lo, Kirk C; Stephens, Derek; Pritchard, Sheila; Portwine, Carol; Maloney, Anne Marie; Lorenzo, Armando J

    2016-07-01

    Fertility preservation options are limited in prepubertal boys with cancer. Worldwide there has been growing interest in testicular tissue cryopreservation as a promising experimental strategy to address future infertility. We measured and compared parent, male cancer survivor and provider willingness to accept the risk of testicular biopsy among prepubertal boys with cancer, and identified reactions to disclosure practices. We conducted a multicenter study that included 153 parents of prepubertal boys with cancer, 77 male survivors of childhood cancer and 30 oncology providers. The threshold technique was used to measure subject relative willingness to accept risk of testicular biopsy under 4 different aspects of care, ie chance of infertility, complications from biopsy, development of technology to use tissue and tissue storage cost. A total of 47 in-depth interviews were conducted to identify reactions to disclosure practices. A total of 52 survivors (67%), 22 providers (73%) and 110 parents (72%) selected to have testicular biopsy (vs no biopsy). Median minimum infertility risk to make biopsy worthwhile varied from 25% to 30% among the 3 respondent groups. Interviews revealed that some providers would not offer biopsy in cases of greater perceived risk than benefit, that parents preferred having information regardless of risk of infertility and that nondisclosure elicited adverse feelings from some parents. Parents, survivors and providers were willing to accept risk of prepubertal testicular biopsy. Parental/survivor desire for information and provider decision not to disclose suggest that barriers to information delivery need to be addressed. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of pre-pubertal sex differences in wheel running and social behavior in three mouse strains

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Elizabeth A.; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in social behaviors exist in mammals during adulthood, and further evidence suggests that sex differences in behavior are present before sexual maturity. In order to model behavioral disorders in animals, it is important to assess baseline sex-related behavioral differences, especially when studying disorders for which sex-related behavioral effects are expected. We investigated the effect of sex on behavior in 3 strains of pre-pubertal mice (C57BL/6, CFW, and CF1) using a whe...

  19. Prepubertal Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Activity Is Altered by Sex, Age, and Prenatal Androgen Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Eden A; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate reproduction though pulsatile hormone release. Disruption of GnRH release as measured via luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses occurs in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in young hyperandrogenemic girls. In adult prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice, which exhibit many aspects of PCOS, increased LH is associated with increased GnRH neuron action potential firing. How GnRH neuron activity develops over the prepubertal period and whether this is altered by sex or prenatal androgen treatment are unknown. We hypothesized GnRH neurons are active before puberty and that this activity is sexually differentiated and altered by PNA. Dams were injected with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on days 16 to 18 post copulation to generate PNA mice. Action potential firing of GFP-identified GnRH neurons in brain slices from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-week-old and adult mice was monitored. GnRH neurons were active at all ages tested. In control females, activity increased with age through 3 weeks, then decreased to adult levels. In contrast, activity did not change in PNA females and was reduced at 3 weeks. Activity was higher in control females than males from 2 to 3 weeks. PNA did not affect GnRH neuron firing rate in males at any age. Short-term action potential patterns were also affected by age and PNA treatment. GnRH neurons are thus typically more active during the prepubertal period than adulthood, and PNA reduces prepubertal activity in females. Prepubertal activity may play a role in establishing sexually differentiated neuronal networks upstream of GnRH neurons; androgen-induced changes during this time may contribute to the adult PNA, and possibly PCOS, phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  20. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  1. Effect of oocyte selection, estradiol and antioxidant treatment on in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal Boer goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of improved procedures for in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal goats has applications for in vitro embryo production and accompanying strategies for genetic improvement. The objective of described studies was to determine the effects of oocyte grade, in vitro maturation time, antioxidant supplementation and concentrations of estradiol in the maturation medium on in vitro maturation of oocytes harvested from 1-6 mm follicles present on the ovaries (obtained from an abattoir of 1-6 month-old prepubertal Boer goats. Rates of progression to metaphase II were greater for grade 1 oocytes (>3 compact layers of cumulus cells and evenly granulated cytoplasm than grade 2 oocytes (in vitro maturation in the presence of high concentrations of estradiol (10 and 100 mg/mL on progression to metaphase II was observed, and no effect was observed in response to 1 mg/mL estradiol treatment as compared with control. Results suggest that oocyte selection and beta-mercaptoethanol supplementation can positively influence progression to metaphase II of oocytes harvested from ovaries of prepubertal goats, whereas high concentrations of estradiol are inhibitory to in vitro maturation.

  2. Management of prepubertal gynecomastia in two monozygotic twins with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: from aromatase inhibitors to subcutaneous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Giuseppe Andrea; Romano, Tiziana; De Francesco, Francesco; Grandone, Anna; D'Andrea, Francesco; del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Cataldo, Chiara; Gatta, Gianluca; Di Grezia, Graziella; Perrone, Laura; Nicoletti, Gianfranco

    2013-10-01

    Prepubertal gynecomastia is characterized by the presence of palpable uni- or bilateral breast tissue in boys without other signs of sexual maturation. It may be the endocrine expression of rare syndromes such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of anastrozole and to describe an innovative surgical approach. This report presents twins with PJS, bilateral prepubertal gynecomastia, and testicular multifocal calcifications. Both twins were treated with anastrozole for 2 years. After finishing treatment, both were followed before subcutaneous mastectomy was performed by the "modified" Webster technique. Growth velocity decreased and gynecomastia diminished during anastrozole treatment. After discontinuation of therapy due to a sharp reduction in growth velocity, both twins showed regrowth of gynecomastia, with painful and strained breasts. A significant reduction in breast volume with glandular removal was achieved. The findings of this study showed a multidisciplinary approach to prepubertal gynecomastia due to the synergy of pediatricians, radiologists, and plastic surgeons. The follow-up evaluation after the anastrozole treatment showed it to be an efficacious medical treatment, as an alternative to orchidectomy, to control the effects of circulating estrogens. Moreover, the results observed in the patients confirmed the validity and feasibility of the "modified" Webster technique in terms of aesthetic and functional results, patient satisfaction, and absence of complications.

  3. Biochemical and Ultrastructural Cardiac Changes Induced by High-Fat Diet in Female and Male Prepubertal Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Sibouakaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Early weight gain induced by high-fat diet has been identified as a predictor for cardiac disease, one of the most serious public health problems. Our goal is to study the influence of a HFD on biochemical, oxidant stress parameters, and the cardiac ultrastructure in both male and female prepubertal models. Experiments were carried on 24 prepubertal New Zealand white rabbits, randomly assigned to male and female control (MC and FC, resp. or HFD (MHFD and FHFD, resp. groups (n=6 for 3 months. Body and heart weights and some biochemical and oxidative stress parameters such as lipids, calcium, CKMB, MDA, uric acid, ascorbic acid, and AOA are evaluated in plasma and the left ventricle. Under HFD effect, plasma parameters, such as lipids (TL, PL, and LDL-C, MDA, and CK-MB, increase more significantly in male than in female groups, when AA decreases. Some cardiac parameters such as TG and UA increase, when AA and AOA decrease; these variations are more significant in FHFD. In both male and female rabbits, HFD caused changes in heart ultrastructure, junctional complexes, mitochondria size and form, and so on. Early HFD feeding induced overweight, oxidative stress, and metabolic alterations in plasma and the heart of prepubertal rabbits, whereas lipotoxicity has especially a negative impact on male plasma but affects more the female heart ultrastructure.

  4. A Low-Normal Free Triiodothyronine Level Is Associated with Adverse Prognosis in Euthyroid Patients with Heart Failure Receiving Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Rong; Su, Zi-Zhuo; Lin, Rong-Jie; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Yuan, Wo-Liang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Xie, Shuang-Lun

    2017-12-12

    Thyroid dysfunction is prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF) and hypothyroidism is related to the adverse prognosis of HF subjects receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We aim to investigate whether low-normal free triiodothyronine (fT3) level is related to CRT response and the prognosis of euthyroid patients with HF after CRT implantation.One hundred and thirteen euthyroid patients who received CRT therapy without previous thyroid disease and any treatment affecting thyroid hormones were enrolled. All of patients were evaluated for cardiac function and thyroid hormones (serum levels of fT3, free thyroxine [fT4] and thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]). The end points were overall mortality and hospitalization for HF worsening. During a follow-up period of 39 ± 3 weeks, 36 patients (31.9%) died and 45 patients (39.8%) had hospitalization for HF exacerbation. A higher rate of NYHA III/IV class and a lower fT3 level were both observed in death group and HF event group. Multivariate Cox regression analyses disclosed that a lower-normal fT3 level (HR = 0.648, P = 0.009) and CRT response (HR = 0.441, P = 0.001) were both independent predictors of overall mortality. In addition, they were also both related to HF re-hospitalization event (P < 0.01 for both). Patients with fT3 < 3.00 pmol/L had a significantly higher overall mortality than those with fT3 ≥ 3.00 pmol/L (P = 0.027). Meanwhile, a higher HF hospitalization event rate was also found in patients with fT3 < 3.00 pmol/L (P < 0.001).A lower-normal fT3 level is correlated with a worse cardiac function an adverse prognosis in euthyroid patients with HF after CRT implantation.

  5. Association of triiodothyronine levels with future development of metabolic syndrome in euthyroid middle-aged subjects: a 6-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Bae, Ji Cheol; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Jae Hwan, Jee; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-04-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have reported that thyroid hormone levels are associated with cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) even in euthyroid subjects. However, the prognostic role of serum thyroid hormone levels in the risk of incident MetS has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the associations of baseline serum thyroid hormone levels with the development of MetS in healthy subjects. This 6-year, cross-sectional, longitudinal and follow-up study was conducted in 12 037 euthyroid middle-aged subjects without MetS subjected to comprehensive health examinations. Subjects were grouped according to total triiodothyronine (T3) quartiles. The hazard ratio (HR) for the development of MetS according to T3 quartiles was estimated using Cox proportional hazards model. During the 6-year period, 3544 incident cases of MetS (29%) were identified. The proportion of subjects with incident MetS increased across the T3 quartiles ( P for trend <0.001). The HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the development of MetS were significantly higher in the highest T3 quartile compared with the lowest T3 quartile even after adjusting for confounding variables including gender, age and smoking (HR: 1.238, 95% CI: 1.128-1.358, P  < 0.001). In euthyroid middle-aged subjects, serum T3 levels are associated with increased risk for future development of MetS. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Euthyroid goitre with and without functional autonomy: A comparison; Jodmangelstruma mit und ohne funktionelle Autonomie in der euthyreoten Phase: Ein Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillenhinrichs, H.; Emrich, D. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1998-05-01

    Analysis of functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre. Methods: In an area of moderate iodine deficiency 163 goitrous patients without and 179 with functional autonomy all clinically euthyroid were compared by sex, age, signs and symptoms, sonographic results, qualitative and quantitative scintigraphy without and with suppression, TRH test, hormone concentrations and iodine excretion in the urine. Results: Age, signs and symptoms, thyroid volume and structure did not contribute sufficiently to diagnosis. To detect functional autonomy quantitative scintigraphy under suppression was superior to the TRH test. Increased hormone concentrations were observed in 15% of patients with functional autonomy. A global {sup 99m}Tc thyroid uptake of {>=}3% under suppression indicates a higher risk of spontaneous hyperthyroidism. It was present in 20% of patients with functional autonomy. Conclusion: to diagnose and treat adequately functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre quantitative scintigraphy, determination of TSH and hormone concentrations are inevitable. (orig.) [Deutsch] Analyse der funktionellen Autonomie in der euthyreoten Phase. Methoden: Es wurden 163 klinisch euthyreote Patienten mit Jodmangelstruma ohne und 179 mit funktioneller Autonomie anhand von Geschlechtsverhaeltnis, Lebensalter, Beschwerden, Symptomen, sonographischem Befund, qualitativer und quantitativer Szintigraphie ohne und mit Suppression, TRH-Test, Hormonkonzentrationen und Jodausscheidung im Urin verglichen. Ergebnisse: Lebensalter, Beschwerden und Symptome, Schilddruesenvolumen und Echomuster lieferten keinen ausreichend sicheren Beitrag zur Diagnose. Die quantitative Szintigraphie war dem TRH-Test ueberlegen. Erhoehte Hormonkonzentrationen ergaben sich bei 15% der Patienten mit funktioneller Autonomie. Als Grenzwert fuer ein erhoehtes spontanes Hyperthyreoserisiko wurde eine globale thyreoidale {sup 99m}Tc-Aufnahme unter Suppression von {>=}3% ermittelt, die in 20% der Patienten mit funktioneller

  7. Early treatment with GH alone in Turner syndrome: prepubertal catch-up growth and waning effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewska, Malgorzata; De Luca, Filippo; Bergamaschi, Rosalba; Guarneri, Maria Pia; Mazzanti, Laura; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Petri, Antonella; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Salzano, Giuseppina; Lombardo, Fortunato

    2004-11-01

    In order to ascertain the advantages of early GH treatment in Turner syndrome (TS), we started a prospective study aimed at evaluating prepubertal height gain in a cohort of 29 girls who were treated with the same pro-kilo GH dose (1.0 IU/kg per week) since they were less than 6 years old and for at least 5 years before entering puberty. Following a minimum of 6 months of baseline observations, 29 girls with TS were enrolled for this prospective study provided that they (a) were less than 6 years old, (b) were below -1.0 standard deviation score (SDS) for height, (c) had a projected adult height (PAH) lower than the respective target height (TH) and (d) had a height velocity (HV) lower than -1.0 SDS. All the selected girls underwent a 5-year treatment with biosynthetic GH at a stable dose of 1.0 IU/kg per week and were periodically measured during the treatment period in order to evaluate height, HV and PAH. After a dramatic acceleration during the 1st year, HV was attenuated during the subsequent years, reaching its nadir at the 5th year. Height deficiency under therapy progressively decreased from entry onwards, shifting from -2.4+/-0.7 to -1.0+/-1.2 SDS. In the same period, mean PAH progressively increased, although after 5 years it remained lower than the average TH. (a) An effective growth-promoting strategy in TS should be based on early GH treatment, as suggested by our results. (b) This strategy could result in a prepubertal normalization of height, thus allowing the appropriate timing for the induction of puberty. (c) An initial GH dose of 1.0 IU/kg per week may be suitable during the first years of therapy, as shown by our data documenting an important waning effect of GH therapy only after the 4th year of treatment. (d) No acceleration of bone maturation was observed under this treatment regimen.

  8. Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels and Body Mass Index Percentiles in Children with Primary Hypothyroidism on Levothyroxine Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoba, Asma; Basu, Sanjib; Mantis, Stelios; Minutti, Carla

    2017-12-15

    To determine the association, if any, between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and body mass index (BMI) percentiles in children with primary hypothyroidism who are chemically euthyroid and on treatment with levothyroxine. This retrospective cross-sectional study consisted of a review of medical records from RUSH Medical Center and Stroger Hospital, Chicago, USA of children with primary hypothyroidism who were seen in the clinic from 2008 to 2014 and who were chemically euthyroid and on treatment with levothyroxine for at least 6 months. The patients were divided into two groups based on their TSH levels (0.34-hypothyroidism who are chemically euthyroid on treatment with levothyroxine, there is a positive association between higher TSH levels and higher BMI percentiles. However, it is difficult to establish if the higher TSH levels are a direct cause or a consequence of the obesity. Further studies are needed to establish causation beyond significant association.

  9. Biological sex influences learning strategy preference and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Hodges, Kelly S; Fawcett-Patel, Jessica M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-04-01

    According to the theory of multiple memory systems, specific brain regions interact to determine how the locations of goals are learned when rodents navigate a spatial environment. A number of factors influence the type of strategy used by rodents to remember the location of a given goal in space, including the biological sex of the learner. We recently found that prior to puberty male rats preferred a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy over a hippocampus-dependent place strategy when solving a dual-solution task, while age-matched females showed no strategy preference. Because the cholinergic system has been implicated in learning strategy and is known to be sexually dimorphic prior to puberty, we explored the relationship between learning strategy and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal males and female rats. We confirmed our previous finding that at 28 days of age a significantly higher proportion of prepubertal males preferred a stimulus-response learning strategy than a place strategy to solve a dual-solution visible platform water maze task. Equal proportions of prepubertal females preferred stimulus-response or place strategies. Profiles of muscarinic receptor binding as assessed by autoradiography varied according to strategy preference. Regardless of biological sex, prepubertal rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy exhibited lower ratios of muscarinic receptor binding in the hippocampus relative to the dorsolateral striatum compared to rats that preferred place strategy. Importantly, much of the variance in this ratio was related to differences in the ventral hippocampus to a greater extent than the dorsal hippocampus. The ratios of muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus relative to the basolateral amygdala also were lower in rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy over place strategy. Results confirm that learning strategy preference varies with biological sex in prepubertal rats with males

  10. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    intake was estimated from a 3-d weighed food record. sIGF-I and its binding protein-3 were assessed (immunoassay) in a subgroup of 56 boys. All statistical models included effects of age, BMI, and energy intake. Dairy protein was negatively associated with sOC (P ¼ 0.05) but not significantly associated......We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total.......04) but not significantly associated with sOC and sCTX. Free sIGF-I was positively associated with total (P , 0.01) and dairy (P ¼ 0.06) protein but not with meat protein. Our results indicate that dairy and meat protein may exhibit a distinct regulatory effect on different markers for bone turnover. Future studies should...

  11. Prepubertal gonadectomy in cats: different surgical techniques and comparison with gonadectomy at traditional age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porters, N; Polis, I; Moons, C; Duchateau, L; Goethals, K; Huyghe, S; de Rooster, H

    2014-09-06

    Feasibility, surgical time and complications of different surgical techniques for prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG; 8-12 weeks of age) in cats were studied and compared to gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG; 6-8 months of age). Kittens were randomly assigned to PPG or TAG. Ovarian pedicle haemostasis for PPG was achieved by ligatures (n=47), vascular clips (n=50), bipolar electrocoagulation (n=50), or pedicle tie (n=50); for TAG (n=34) ligatures were used. In male cats, PPG consisted of closed castration by spermatic cord knot (n=92) or ligature (n=91) while TAG (n=34) was an open castration by spermatic cord knot. A linear (surgical time) and a logistic regression (complications) model were designed. Significance was set at 0.05. For female PPG, clips and coagulation were the fastest procedures; placement of ligatures was most time-consuming. In male PPG, knot placement was significantly faster than ligation. In both sexes, very few intraoperative or wound complications were observed, irrespective of the surgical technique used. Surgical times in females (ligatures) as well as in males (knot) were significantly shorter for PPG than for TAG. PPG was as safe as TAG, yet took less time to perform and did not result in a greater rate of postoperative complications. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Neuropsychological assessment in prepubertal patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somajni, F; Sovera, V; Albizzati, A; Russo, G; Peroni, P; Seragni, G; Lenti, C

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) provide a test population for the theory that elevated testosterone levels alter pre-/perinatal brain development. Seven prepuberal girls with CAH and seven matched controls has been submitted to a neuropsychological evaluation. We measured abilities where gender differences repeatedly has been observed or that had earlier shown differences between CAH subjects and controls. The following cognitive functions were tested: general intelligence, attention, verbal and non-verbal abilities, cerebral dominance for verbal and non-verbal material, frontal functions, peripheral dominance and motor fluency. Since several animal studies shown hippocampal morphological changes induced by prolonged hydrocortisone exposure, we also investigated memory functions. No differences were recorded between two groups on those abilities that are not sexually dimorphic. The mean general intelligence level of the patients was significantly lower than the controls', in agreement with previous studies. The verbal and non-verbal tasks revealed an age-related male-like pattern (i.e., verbal disadvantage) and an inversion of the hemispheric dominances. The latter observation was supported by a right-to-left shift of the peripheral dominances. The patients memory performances were all inferior to the controls'. The results are discussed in the light of possible hormonal influences. Our main findings support the hypothesis that elevated pre-/perinatal androgen exposure can influence some cognitive pattern of specific sexual dimorphic abilities in prepubertal subjects.

  13. Prepubertal exposure to arsenic(III) suppresses circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) delaying sexual maturation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Michael P; Saca, James C; Hamilton, Alina; Solano, Rene F; Rivera, Jesse R; Whitehouse-Innis, Wendy; Parsons, Jason G; Dearth, Robert K

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a prevalent environmental toxin readily accessible for human consumption and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor. However, it is not known what impact As has on female sexual maturation. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of prepubertal exposure on mammary gland development and pubertal onset in female rats. Results showed that prepubertal exposure to 10 mg/kg of arsenite (As(III)) delayed vaginal opening (VO) and prepubertal mammary gland maturation. We determined that As accumulates in the liver, disrupts hepatocyte function and suppresses serum levels of the puberty related hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in prepubertal animals. Overall, this is the first study to show that prepubertal exposure to As(III) acts peripherally to suppress circulating levels of IGF-1 resulting in delayed sexual maturation. Furthermore, this study identifies a critical window of increased susceptibility to As(III) that may have a lasting impact on female reproductive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sonographic evaluation of children with congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise de Almeida Sedassari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:To establish benchmarks and study some sonographic characteristics of the thyroid gland in a group of euthyroid children aged up to 5 years as compared with age-matched children with congenital hypothyroidism.Materials and Methods:Thirty-six children (17 female and 19 male aged between 2 months and 5 years were divided into two groups – 23 euthyroid children and 13 children with congenital hypothyroidism – and were called to undergo ultrasonography.Results:In the group of euthyroid children (n = 23, mean total volume of the thyroid gland was 1.12 mL (minimum, 0.39 mL; maximum, 2.72 mL; a homogeneous gland was found in 17 children (73.91% and 6 children (26.08% had a heterogeneous gland. In the group of children with congenital hypothyroidism (n = 13, mean total volume of the thyroid gland was 2.73 mL (minimum, 0.20 mL; maximum, 11.00 mL. As regards thyroid location, 3 patients (23.07% had ectopic thyroid, and 10 (69.23% had topic thyroid, and out of the latter, 5 had a homogeneous gland (50% and 5, a heterogeneous gland (50%. In the group with congenital hypothyroidism, 6 (46.15% children had etiological diagnosis of dyshormoniogenesis, 3 (23.07%, of ectopic thyroid, and 4 (30.76%, of thyroid hypoplasia.Conclusion:Thyroid ultrasonography is a noninvasive imaging method, widely available, easy to perform and for these reasons could, and should, be performed at any time, including at birth, with no preparation or treatment discontinuation, to aid in the early etiological definition of congenital hypothyroidism.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of iodine metabolism state in euthyroid and nodular goiter under conditions of moderately increased intake of fluorine with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidora, V.D.; Mazurik, M.F.; Shlyakhta, A.I.; Kuznetsov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A reliable decrease of triiodotyronine in blood cerum in the region with moderately increased intake of fluorine with drinking water (1.2-3.1 mg/l) is detected. This results in increase of euthyroid goiter among population by 14-16 times, of nodular - by 6 times. In the studied area there is indirect dependence between function of thyroid gland and degree of its hyperplasia, i.e., the larger is the gland, the weaker is its ability to produce hormones. The practical significance of detected dependence lies in the fact, that in surgical removal of the nodes (malignant cases are excluded) not only morphological but functional criteria as well of the gland increase should be taken account of. Such approach to nodular goiter therapy promotes sufficient reduction of postoperative hypothyrosis. These peculiarities of the ratio between the thyroid gland hyperplasia degree and its function under conditions of studied area must be taken account of when selecting methods of conservative treatment of patients with euthyroid goiter

  16. Colchicum autumnale in Patients with Goitre with Euthyroidism or Mild Hyperthyroidism: Indications for a Therapeutic Regulative Effect-Results of an Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christian; Debus, Marion; Heckmann, Christian; Cysarz, Dirk; Girke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Goitre with euthyroid function or with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy is common. In anthroposophic medicine various thyroid disorders are treated with Colchicum autumnale (CAU). We examined the effects of CAU in patients with goitre of both functional states. Patients and methods. In an observational study, 24 patients with goitre having suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with normal or slightly elevated free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) (group 1, n = 12) or normal TSH, fT3, and fT4 (group 2, n = 12) were included. After 3 months and after 6 to 12 months of CAU treatment, we investigated clinical pathology using the Hyperthyroid Symptom Scale (HSS), hormone status (TSH, fT4, and fT3), and thyroidal volume (tV). Results. After treatment with CAU, in group 1 the median HSS decreased from 4.5 (2.3-11.8) to 2 (1.3-3) (p hyperthyroidism and thyroidal volume in patients with euthyroid goitre by normalization of the regulation of thyroidal hormones.

  17. Colchicum autumnale in Patients with Goitre with Euthyroidism or Mild Hyperthyroidism: Indications for a Therapeutic Regulative Effect—Results of an Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christian; Debus, Marion; Heckmann, Christian; Cysarz, Dirk; Girke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Goitre with euthyroid function or with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy is common. In anthroposophic medicine various thyroid disorders are treated with Colchicum autumnale (CAU). We examined the effects of CAU in patients with goitre of both functional states. Patients and methods. In an observational study, 24 patients with goitre having suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with normal or slightly elevated free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) (group 1, n = 12) or normal TSH, fT3, and fT4 (group 2, n = 12) were included. After 3 months and after 6 to 12 months of CAU treatment, we investigated clinical pathology using the Hyperthyroid Symptom Scale (HSS), hormone status (TSH, fT4, and fT3), and thyroidal volume (tV). Results. After treatment with CAU, in group 1 the median HSS decreased from 4.5 (2.3–11.8) to 2 (1.3–3) (p hyperthyroidism and thyroidal volume in patients with euthyroid goitre by normalization of the regulation of thyroidal hormones. PMID:26955394

  18. Global 99mTc-uptake in the differentiation between normal thyroid, goitre with euthyroidism, and thyroid autonomy in an area of iodine deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreisig, T.; Vaitl, C.; Kirsch, C.M.; Knesewitsch, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Horn, K.; Bechtner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Global TcTU was determined in 568 patients without any specific thyroid drug intake - 54 with normal thyroid, 274 with goitre and euthyroidism and 240 with thyroid autonomy. 57 patients with autonomy and overt hyperthyroidism were the only group with TcTU values significantly higher than normals. Common to all groups was a large scatter of the TcTU values. In 332, the effects of individual iodine supply were studied by measuring the iodine concentration in spot urine samples. There was a significant inverse correlation between the TcTU values and the urinary iodine excretion in the groups of normal thyroids and of goitres with euthyroidism. In the group with autonomy an effect of iodine supply could only be seen in cases of greatly increased urinary iodine excretion, resulting in very low TcTU values. Out of 20 patients with autonomy and iodine contamination, only 4 showed overt hyperthyroidism. The large scatter of TcTU values in all groups may be explained by the persistent iodine deficiency as well as by the frequent exposure to unknown amounts of iodine in patients with thyroid disease. Therefore, the spontaneous TcTU alone cannot identify a small group of patients with autonomy and high risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, from a very large group of patients with goitre. (orig.) [de

  19. Relationship Between Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Free Thyroxine, and Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations and 9-Year Mortality in Euthyroid Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresini, Graziano; Marina, Michela; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceda, Gian P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    To determine the association between plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) levels and all-cause mortality in older adults who had levels of all three hormones in the normal range. Longitudinal. Community-based. Euthyroid Invecchiare in Chianti study participants aged 65 and older (N = 815). Plasma TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels were predictors, and 9-year all-cause mortality was the outcome. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used to examine the relationship between TSH, FT3, and FT4 quartiles and all-cause mortality over 9 years of follow-up. During follow-up (mean person-years 8,643.7, range 35.4-16,985.0), 181 deaths occurred (22.2%). Participants with TSH in the lowest quartile had higher mortality than the rest of the population. After adjusting for multiple confounders, participants with TSH in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 2.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-4.22) had significantly higher all-cause mortality than those with TSH in the highest quartile. Neither FT3 nor FT4 was associated with mortality. In elderly euthyroid subjects, normal-low TSH is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioimpedance analysis and anthropometrics in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lakka, Timo A; Hakulinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    We compared InBody720 segmental multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (SMF-BIA) with Lunar Prodigy Advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessment of body composition among 178 predominantly prepubertal children. Segmental agreement analysis of body compartments was carried out...

  1. Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafotiou, Chrysanthe; Christaki, Eirini; van den Akker, Erica L T; Wester, Vincent L; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Pervanidou, Panagiota

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, a key mediator of the stress response, has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations as early as in childhood. Scalp hair cortisol has been proposed as a reliable index of long-term circulating cortisol. We aimed to investigate whether obese prepubertal girls have higher scalp hair cortisol than normal-weight controls and whether hair cortisol levels are correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations in these groups. In this cross-sectional study, 25 obese girls and 25 normal-weighted, age-matched girls were enrolled. Anthropometric evaluation, blood chemistry and salivary cortisol measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and areas under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were calculated. Hair cortisol determination was performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hair cortisol concentrations and salivary cortisol AUCs were higher in the obese than the normal-weight girls (p cortisol and BMI Z-score was found (rho = .327, p = .025), while hair cortisol correlated positively with salivary cortisol AUCg (rho = .3, p = .048). We conclude that obese prepubertal girls have higher hair and salivary cortisol concentrations than their age-matched lean counterparts. Hair cortisol assessment seems to be a sensitive method of evaluating systemic cortisol exposure, which is supported by our finding that hair cortisol is associated with salivary concentrations of the hormone. Lay Summary: Cortisol is the key hormone of the stress response. Childhood obesity has been associated with cortisol production dysregulation. Our findings suggest a positive association between obesity in prepubertal girls and elevated cortisol concentrations, measured in saliva and hair.

  2. Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube in a menopausal woman and a pre-pubertal girl: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoshima, Masafumi; Mori, Hikaru; Kudo, Kei; Yodogawa, Yuki; Sato, Kazuyo; Kudo, Takako; Igeta, Saori; Makino, Hiromitsu; Shima, Takashi; Matsuura, Rui; Ishigaki, Nobuko; Akagi, Kozo; Takeyama, Yoichi; Iwahashi, Hideki; Yoshinaga, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube without an ovarian abnormality is an uncommon event, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 1,500,000 females. Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube occurs mostly in reproductive-aged women, and is thus extremely rare in menopausal women and pre-pubertal girls. Case presentations In case 1, 63-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2-day history of acute lower abdominal pain. Menopause occurred at 53?years of age. Pelvic ultrasonography ...

  3. Estrogen hormone level of prepubertal female rat treated with Calliandra calothyrsus ethanolic leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, I.; Wiratmini, N. I.; Narayani, I.

    2018-03-01

    This research examined the phytoestrogen potential of Calliandra calothyrsus leaf extract in prepubertal female rat (Rattus norvegicus). Sixty weaned female rats (21 days old) were divided into five groups i.e. control (K), negative control which was given 0.5% Na CMC suspension (KN) and treatment groups which were given with C. calothyrsus ethanolic leaf extract doses 25 mg/kg bw (P1), 50 mg/kg bw (P2) and 75 mg/kg bw (P3). The treatment suspension was administered 0.5 mL/rat/day by gavage for 28 days, started at the age of 21st days old. The rats were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected from 4 rats / group at the age of 28th, 42nd and 56th days old, each. The concentration of estrogen hormone levels were measured from blood serum by ELISA kit and were read at 450 nm wavelength with an ELISA Spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed statistically by General Linear Model with 95% of confidence. The result showed that rat’s body weight decreased significantly with the higher doses and the longer the treatment of C. calothyrsus leaf extract due to the anti-nutritive activity of calliandra tannins. The estrogen hormone level was significantly increased at the highest dose. The highest estrogen levels were found in the group of female rats which were given the exctract of 75 mg/kg bw until the age of 42nd days. This results showed that there was a phytoestrogen potential in the C. calothyrsus leaf extract.

  4. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Braemswig, J.H. [University Hospital Muenster (DE). Dept. of Pediatrics] [and others

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients <30 years of age at diagnosis were included who had been irradiated between 1979 and 1998. The main tumor types were Hodgkin's disease (38%), Erwing's sarcoma (20%) and nephroblastoma (11%). Patients were classified into three groups according to the position of the ovary in relation to the radiation portals. Group 1 was defined by direct irradiation of both ovaries. Group 2 patients were included with both ovaries potentially located in the radiation portals. In group 3, at least one ovary was not directly irradiated. The median follow-up was 128 months. Results: 16 of 55 analyzed patients were categorized in group 1. In ten of these patients, hormone status was evaluable. The ovarian doses were {>=}15 Gy. Except for one patient treated with 15 Gy all developed hormone failure. Eight of 14 patients of group 2 were evaluable. Seven of these patients developed ovarian failure. 19 of 24 patients in group 3 were evaluable. Nine of these patients developed ovarian failure. The observed difference in the rate of ovarian failure between the groups is statistifcally significant (p=0.045). Conclusion: All patients receiving >15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  5. Effect of zinc and/or iron supplementations on ICF-level in prepubertal anaemic girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, S.K.; Noure Eldin, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of iron and zinc supplementations separated or combined on levels of iron, zinc and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-) in prepuberal girls suffering from iron deficiency anaemia. Hematological and biochemical changes of thirty two anaemic prepubertal girls (mean age 10.5 ± 2.01 year) were compared with normal fifteen girls have the same age. The anaemic girls were divided into three groups according to treatment; groupA (iron, group B(zinc) and group C (iron+zinc)and received supplementations for 8 weeks. Significant decreases in erythrocytic counts (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit % (Hct%) and reticulocytes%(Rt%) were recorded in blood samples of the three groups before supplementations while non-significant differences were detected in the values of other blood indices. Significant decreases were detected in iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels while non-significant decrease in ferritin was detected in group (A). Erythropoietin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) showed significant increases in the same group. Total iron binding capacity, iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels showed significant decreases while there were significant increases in erythropoetin and ferritin in group (B). The results revealed that ferritin,iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels were significantly decreased while erythropoietin and TIBC were significantly increased in group (C). After treatment, group (B) showed sligh significant increases in the concentration of Hb, Hct% and Rt%. with non-significant increase in RBCs count but in group (C) the results revealed significant increases in RBCs count, Hb, Hct% and Rt%. Non- significant differences were detected in RBCs count, Hb and Hct% in group (A) while significant increase was detected in Rt% in the same group

  6. Subgingival microflora and treatment in prepubertal periodontitis associated with chronic idiopathic neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamma, J J; Lygidakis, N A; Nakou, M

    1998-09-01

    Prepubertal periodontitis affects both primary and permanent dentition. The purpose of this study was to examine the composition of subgingival microflora of the permanent dentition in an 11-year-old Caucasian female, who had premature exfoliation of her deciduous teeth on her 5th year of age, and the response of this condition to the antibiotic therapy and supportive periodontal care. Gingival tissues were highly inflamed and alveolar bone loss was detected radiographically. The girl had experienced frequent upper respiratory tract infections, tonsilitis and recurrent otitis media. Her mother had history of early onset periodontitis associated with chronic idiopathic neutropenia. Blood chemistry tests and immunological examinations were also performed. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the proximal sites of permanent molars, incisors, canines and maxillary premolars. 27 different microbial species were isolated from the subgingival microflora. Among the predominant species were Porphyromonas gingivalis (17.6%-7.3%), Prevotella intermedia (12.4%-4.7%), Capnocytophaga sputigena (14.4%-10.4%), Capnocytophaga ochracea (13.2%-6.9%) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (9.3%-5.5%). Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling, root planing in conjunction with antibiotic administration of Augmentin 312.5 mg and Flagyl 200 mg, each t.i.d. for 10 days. 3 weeks after the antibiotic therapy, bacterial samples were collected from the same sites. All the periodontal pathogens were recovered in lower levels and A.actinomycetemcomitans was almost eliminated in the 3-week period. The evaluation of clinical indices at 3, 6 and 12 months showed that periodontal treatment in conjunction with antibiotics was effective and rapidly followed by marked clinical improvement. The microbiological monitoring at 3, 6 and 12 months after antibiotic treatment and each time prior to supportive periodontal care, revealed that the periodontal pathogens fluctuated in low levels even

  7. {gamma}-Radiation-induced follicular degeneration in the prepubertal mouse ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Joo [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong-Dal [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ydyoon@hanyang.ac.kr

    2005-10-15

    Prepubertal mice were whole-body irradiated with a mean lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of {gamma}-radiation using a {sup 60}Co source with a total dose of 7.2 Gy and a dose rate of 12.0 cGy/min. At day 0 before the irradiation and at day 1, 2, and 3 after the irradiation, the ovaries were collected and the morphological changes were assessed. The ratios (%) of atretic or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophil)-infiltrated follicles in the largest cross sections were calculated. In the early atretic follicle of the control mouse ovary, both apoptotic and mitotic cells were observed and occasionally neutrophils were infiltrated into the follicle cavity. However, in the atretic follicles 2 days post-irradiation, numerous cell fragments, apoptotic cells and bodies, and especially, a number of neutrophils were observed. In the non-irradiated control, the ratios of atretic follicles were 58.0 {+-} 8.6 and 27.3 {+-} 11.2 (mean {+-} S.E.M.) in antral and preantral follicles, respectively. The ratios of the number of antral and preantral follicles with one or more neutrophils to the total number of atretic follicles were 29.3 {+-} 12.0. At 2 days post-irradiation, the ratios of atretic follicles were increased to 94.0 {+-} 3.4 and 86.9 {+-} 7.6 in antral and preantral follicles, respectively. The ratios of neutrophil-containing follicles among the atretic one were increased to 65.9 {+-} 11.5 and 57.8 {+-} 15.4 at 2 and 3 days after the irradiation, respectively. Taken together, the present results show that {gamma}-radiation induces apoptotic and inflammatory degeneration of mouse ovarian follicles. Besides, neutrophils may be involved in the acute atretic degeneration in {gamma}-irradiated mouse ovarian follicles.

  8. Triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels are differentially associated with metabolic profile and adiposity-related cardiovascular risk markers in euthyroid middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roef, Greet L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Van Daele, Caroline M; Taes, Youri E; De Buyzere, Marc L; Gillebert, Thierry C; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2014-02-01

    We have previously shown that in healthy young men, a less favorable body composition is associated with higher free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels within the euthyroid range. Besides, a higher free-triiodothyronine-to-free-thyroxin (fT3-to-fT4) ratio has been related to a less favorable metabolic phenotype and more placental growth in pregnant women. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether serum thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormone levels, and the fT3-to-fT4 ratio are associated with metabolic and adiposity-related cardiovascular risk markers in a healthy population of middle-aged euthyroid men and women. Thyroid parameters were measured in 2524 generally healthy subjects from the Asklepios Study (35-55 years, mean age 46 years). Analyses were restricted to 2315 subjects (1138 women and 1177 men), not using thyroid medication, not having anti-TPO levels above clinical cutoff values or TSH levels outside the reference range (0.27-4.2 mU/L). Twenty-seven percent of the women and 47.5% of the men were overweight, while 13% of women and 17% of men were obese. Twenty percent of the subjects were active smokers. Serum thyroid function parameters were determined by electrochemiluminescence. fT3 and the fT3-to-fT4 ratio were positively related to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and components of metabolic syndrome, that is, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, and negatively with HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas fT4 was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference, and triglycerides (p<0.001). TSH related positively with total cholesterol levels (p<0.01), triglycerides, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001). The fT3-to-fT4 ratio was further positively associated with the adiposity-related inflammation markers interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and to pulse wave velocity. All associations were adjusted for sex, age, height, and smoking, and most associations

  9. Colchicum autumnale in Patients with Goitre with Euthyroidism or Mild Hyperthyroidism: Indications for a Therapeutic Regulative Effect—Results of an Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scheffer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Goitre with euthyroid function or with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy is common. In anthroposophic medicine various thyroid disorders are treated with Colchicum autumnale (CAU. We examined the effects of CAU in patients with goitre of both functional states. Patients and methods. In an observational study, 24 patients with goitre having suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels with normal or slightly elevated free thyroxine (fT4 and free triiodothyronine (fT3 (group 1, n=12 or normal TSH, fT3, and fT4 (group 2, n=12 were included. After 3 months and after 6 to 12 months of CAU treatment, we investigated clinical pathology using the Hyperthyroid Symptom Scale (HSS, hormone status (TSH, fT4, and fT3, and thyroidal volume (tV. Results. After treatment with CAU, in group 1 the median HSS decreased from 4.5 (2.3–11.8 to 2 (1.3–3 (p<0.01 and fT3 decreased from 3.85 (3.5–4.78 to 3.45 (3.3–3.78 pg/mL (p<0.05. In group 2 tV (13.9% (18.5%–6.1% and TSH (p<0.01 were reduced. Linear regression for TSH and fT3 in both groups indicated a regulative therapeutic effect of CAU. Conclusions. CAU positively changed the clinical pathology of subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyroidal volume in patients with euthyroid goitre by normalization of the regulation of thyroidal hormones.

  10. Acute and chronic hypothyroidism are associated with similar left ventricular diastolic dysfunction relative to the euthyroid state: results of doppler echocardiographic comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauna, A; Messuti, H; Papadopulos, G; Benchuga, G; Viale, F; Marlowe, R J; Silva Croome, M C

    2011-10-01

    How the duration of hypothyroidism affects left ventricular diastolic function is not well-characterized. We sought to compare left ventricular diastolic function in acutely vs chronically hypothyroid patients vs euthyroid controls, and within individuals while on vs off T4. We prospectively performed such comparisons measuring pulsed-wave and color M-mode Doppler echocardiographic variables: early or late mitral peak velocities (E wave or A wave, respectively), E wave/A wave ratio, E wave deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), mitral flow propagation velocity (Vp), E wave/Vp ratio. Subjects comprised the acute HYPO group, 10 patients undergoing T4 withdrawal ≥ 6 months post-primary treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC); the chronic HYPO group, 23 treatment-naïve Hashimoto thyroiditis patients; and 21 healthy euthyroid controls. Subjects were adults aged ≤ 60 yr, predominantly female, with sinus rhythm; exclusion criteria were cardiovascular or thyroid disorder besides DTC (Hashimoto thyroiditis) in acute (chronic) HYPO patients or medication (besides thyroid hormone) affecting cardiac or thyroid function. Mean IVRT was significantly delayed and mean Vp, significantly slowed in both HYPO groups vs controls (p<0.0005), but did not differ between HYPO groups. These variables also were significantly impaired (p<0.05) within individuals when off vs on T4 (no.=8 acute, 10 chronic HYPO patients). Both HYPO groups had elevated mean E wave/Vp ratios vs controls, but the elevation reached significance (p<0.05) only in the larger chronic HYPO group. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is largely similar in acutely or chronically hypothyroid patients off T4 vs healthy controls or the same patients on T4.

  11. Reference intervals for free t/sub 3/ and free t/sub 4/ in pakistani euthyroid patients: effect of age and gender on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, R.; Abbas, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    To establish reference intervals for Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) and Free Thyroxine (FT4) in euthyroid subjects and to assess the effect of age and gender on FT3 and FT4. Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), Lahore, from January 2009 to April 2011. Methodology: FT3 and FT4 were measured in 852 euthyroid patients. Those with previous thyroid surgery, on thyroid related medication and severe non-thyroid illness were excluded. Results: There were 215 males and 637 females with mean age of 46 years. The reference intervals, revealed by this study, for FT3 and FT4 were 2.80 - 5.39 pmol/L and 11.9 - 22.2 pmol/L respectively. The mean difference between gender groups and age groups was found statistically significant for FT3 (gender: p = 0.001; age: p = 0.001) but statistically insignificant for FT4 (gender: p=0.147; age: p=0.201). Conclusion: There was no effect of gender and age on FT3 and FT4. The age with serum FT3 and FT4 significantly negatively correlated but this correlation was stronger for FT3 as compared to FT4 levels. Reference intervals of FT3 and FT4 for male (2.99 - 5.63 pmol/L, 12.3 - 22.6 pmol/L) and female (2.77 - 5.29 pmol/L, 11.7 - 22.1 pmol/L) respectively are suggested. (author)

  12. Factors Influencing the One- and Two-Year Growth Response in Children Treated with Growth Hormone: Analysis from an Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gut Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess gender-, pubertal-, age-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation score (, data from 5,797 growth hormone (GH naïve pediatric patients ( at year 1 was significantly greater for males versus females (, but no other gender differences were observed. For patients with GHD, was greater in prepubertal than in pubertal patients. Younger patients for both genders ( ( for GHD, MPHD, and ISS. Overall, positive were observed in all patients, with greater growth responses in younger prepubertal children, emphasizing the importance of starting GH treatment early.

  13. Investigation of pre-pubertal sex differences in wheel running and social behavior in three mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elizabeth A; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    Sex differences in social behaviors exist in mammals during adulthood, and further evidence suggests that sex differences in behavior are present before sexual maturity. In order to model behavioral disorders in animals, it is important to assess baseline sex-related behavioral differences, especially when studying disorders for which sex-related behavioral effects are expected. We investigated the effect of sex on behavior in 3 strains of pre-pubertal mice (C57BL/6, CFW, and CF1) using a wheel-running assay. We found no significant sex differences in latency to run on the wheel or total duration of wheel running within each strain. During the social interaction test, there were no differences between sexes in latency or total duration of contact or following between a subject and novel mouse. We also evaluated behavioral patterns of wheel running and stereotypical behaviors, such as burrowing and grooming. Both sexes showed characteristic wheel running behavior, spending the majority of each trial interacting with the wheel when it was free and more time performing other activities ( e.g. , stereotypical behaviors, general locomotion) when it was jammed. These results provide evidence that, among various strains of pre-pubertal mice, baseline sex-related behavioral differences are not strong enough to influence the measured behaviors.

  14. Transcriptome analyses identify five transcription factors differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of post- versus prepubertal Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Nguyen, L T; Weller, M M D C A; Cánovas, A; Islas-Trejo, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Thomas, M G; Medrano, J F; Moore, S S

    2016-09-01

    Puberty onset is a developmental process influenced by genetic determinants, environment, and nutrition. Mutations and regulatory gene networks constitute the molecular basis for the genetic determinants of puberty onset. The emerging knowledge of these genetic determinants presents opportunities for innovation in the breeding of early pubertal cattle. This paper presents new data on hypothalamic gene expression related to puberty in (Brahman) in age- and weight-matched heifers. Six postpubertal heifers were compared with 6 prepubertal heifers using whole-genome RNA sequencing methodology for quantification of global gene expression in the hypothalamus. Five transcription factors (TF) with potential regulatory roles in the hypothalamus were identified in this experiment: , , , , and . These TF genes were significantly differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of postpubertal versus prepubertal heifers and were also identified as significant according to the applied regulatory impact factor metric ( cancer and developmental processes. Mutations in were associated with puberty in humans. Mutations in these TF, together with other genetic determinants previously discovered, could be used in genomic selection to predict the genetic merit of cattle (i.e., the likelihood of the offspring presenting earlier than average puberty for Brahman). Knowledge of key mutations involved in genetic traits is an advantage for genomic prediction because it can increase its accuracy.

  15. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole; Grossi, Anette Blak; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Erneholm, Karin; Skytte, Christina; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2015-10-28

    Although the pig has been introduced as an advanced animal model of genital tract infections in women, almost no knowledge exists on the porcine vaginal microbiota, especially in barrier-raised Göttingen Minipigs. In women, the vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role for a healthy vaginal environment and the fate of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Therefore, knowledge on the vaginal microbiota is urgently needed for the minipig model. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of the anterior vagina by 16 s rRNA gene sequencing in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridiales Family XI Incertae Sedis, Paenibacillaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Syntrophaceae. We found a higher abundance of Lactobacillaceae in the prepubertal Göttingen Minipigs compared to sexually mature non-pregnant Göttingen Minipigs. However, correlation tests and diversity parameters revealed a very stable vaginal microbiota in the Göttingen Minipigs, both before and after sexual maturity and on different days throughout an estrous cycle. The vaginal microbiota in Göttingen Minipigs was not dominated by lactobacilli, as it is in women and according to our results the minipig vaginal microbiota is very stable, in opposite to women. These differences should be considered when using the minipig as a model of the genital tract in women.

  16. Prepubertal gonadectomy in cats: different injectable anaesthetic combinations and comparison with gonadectomy at traditional age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porters, Nathalie; de Rooster, Hilde; Moons, Christel P H; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Bosmans, Tim; Polis, Ingeborgh

    2015-06-01

    Anaesthetic and analgesic effects of three different injectable anaesthetic combinations for prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) in cats were studied. One anaesthetic protocol was compared with a similar one for gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). Kittens were randomly assigned to PPG or TAG. For PPG, three different protocols were compared: (1) intramuscular (IM) administration of 60 μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus 20 μg/kg buprenorphine followed by an IM injection of the anaesthetic agent (20 mg/kg ketamine) (DB-IM protocol); (2) oral transmucosal (OTM) administration of 80 μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus 20 μg/kg buprenorphine followed by an IM injection of 20 mg/kg ketamine combined with 20 µg/kg dexmedetomidine (DB-OTM protocol); (3) IM injection of a 40 μg/kg medetomidine-20 μg/kg buprenorphine-20 mg/kg ketamine combination (MBK-IM protocol). For TAG, a DB-IM protocol was used, but with different doses for dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg). All cats (PPG and TAG) received a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory before surgery. Anaesthetic and analgesic effects were assessed pre- and postoperatively (until 6 h). Cumulative logit, linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Compared with the DB-OTM protocol, the DB-IM and MBK-IM protocols provided better anaesthesia with fewer adverse effects in PPG cats. Postoperative pain was not significantly different between anaesthetic protocols. PPG and TAG cats anaesthetised with the two DB-IM protocols differed significantly only for sedation and pain scores, but sedation and pain scores were generally low. Although there were no anaesthesia-related mortalities in the present study and all anaesthetic protocols for PPG in cats provided a surgical plane of anaesthesia and analgesia up to 6 h postoperatively, our findings were in favour of the intramuscular (DB-IM and MBK-IM) protocols. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  17. Veterinary attitudes towards pre-pubertal gonadectomy of cats: a comparison of samples from New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, M J; Adams, N J; Seksel, K; Waran, N K; Beausoleil, N J; Stafford, K J

    2013-07-01

    To compare the attitudes and practices of a sample of veterinarians in New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom (UK) towards pre-pubertal gonadectomy of cats. Respondents' demographics were gathered using an electronic questionnaire distributed via professional veterinary associations in the target countries, as were minimum age at gonadectomy and typical age of puberty. Desirability of prepubertal gonadectomy was gauged using three response categories ('yes', 'no' or 'sometimes'), respondents were then able to justify the response given. Two-way Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc Tukey HSD tests were used to test whether there were differences in minimum ages for gonadectomy within and between countries and between providers and non-providers of services to pounds (or animal welfare centres). Views on the desirability of prepubertal gonadectomy relative to demographics were explored using a Likelihood Ratio Test. The survey received 717 responses. Most respondents believed pre-pubertal gonadectomy was either entirely or 'sometimes' desirable (556/621), few thought it was undesirable (65/621). Minimum age at gonadectomy was significantly affected by country surveyed and provision or non-provision of services for pounds. Post hoc Tukey HSD analysis indicated the mean age of both spaying and castration (4.3 months) in the UK was significantly different from both Australia (spaying: 3.4 months, castration: 3.2 months) and New Zealand (spaying: 3.4 months, castration: 3.2 months) (all ppre- pubertal gonadectomy. Respondents from the UK were more likely to answer 'no' (p = 0.004) or 'sometimes' (p = 0.050) as compared to those from New Zealand or Australia. Females were more likely to respond with 'sometimes' as opposed to 'yes' than males. Reasons for considering pre-pubertal gonadectomy desirable or sometimes desirable focussed on reducing unwanted pregnancies and improving population control, as well as improving rates of adoption, owner

  18. Hipogonadismo e função tireoidiana em ratas hipertireóideas e eutireóideas Hypogonadism and thyroid function in hyper and euthyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serakides

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A influência do hipogonadismo sobre a função tireoidiana de ratas hipertireóideas e eutireóideas foi medida com base no perfil sérico dos hormônios tireoidianos, dos esteróides ovarianos e do TSH e na histomorfometria da tireóide. Ratas Wistar, com cinco meses de idade, castradas, foram mantidas em estado eutireóideo ou hipertireóideo por períodos de 30, 60 e 90 dias. Um grupo não castrado foi mantido nas mesmas condições e serviu como controle. O hipertireoidismo foi induzido mediante a administração diária 50µg de L-tiroxina, por sonda gástrica. Ao final de cada período, nove ratas por grupo tiveram suas tireóides inspecionadas, pesadas e processadas para avaliação histomorfométrica e o plasma sangüíneo colhido para dosagem de estradiol, progesterona, T4 total, T4 livre, T3 total e TSH. O hipogonadismo não alterou os valores de T3 total e de TSH, mas aumentou significativamente as concentrações de T4 livre, independente do estado hipertireóideo ou eutireóideo. As concentrações de T4 total sofreram influência da castração apenas no grupo hipertireóideo. O peso das tireóides não sofreu influência do hipogonadismo, mas a altura do epitélio folicular nos animais eutireóideos variou ao longo do experimento, apresentando-se maior aos 30 e 90 dias e menor aos 60 dias. Não se observou correlação entre os níveis de estrógeno e as variáveis estudadas, mas os níveis de progesterona foram inversamente proporcionais à elevação dos níveis de T4 total e T4 livre. Concluiu-se que o hipogonadismo altera a histomorfometria da tireoide em indivíduos eutireóideos, aumenta os valores plasmáticos de T4 livre independentemente do estado funcional da tireóide e potencializa a elevação de T4 total no hipertireoidismo, provavelmente sob influência do hipoprogesteronismo e não do hipoestrogenismo.The effects of hypogonadism on thyroid function of hyper and euthyroid rats were measured based on plasmatic

  19. The triglyceride and glucose index is useful for recognising insulin resistance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morán, M; Simental-Mendía, L E; Guerrero-Romero, F

    2017-06-01

    Although recognising insulin resistance (IR) in children is particularly important, the gold standard test used to diagnose it, the euglyceamic glucose clamp, is costly, invasive and is not routinely available in our clinical settings in Mexico. This study evaluated whether the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index would provide a useful alternative. A total of 2779 school children aged seven to 17 years, from Durango, Mexico, were enrolled during 2015-2016. The gold standard euglyceamic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test was performed in a randomly selected subsample of 125 children, and diagnostic concordance between the TyG index and the homoeostasis model assessment of IR was evaluated in all of the 2779 enrolled children. The best cut-off values for recognising IR using the TyG index were 4.65 for prepubertal girls and boys, 4.75 for pubertal girls and 4.70 for pubertal boys. Concordance between the TyG index and the homoeostasis model assessment of IR was 0.910 and 0.902 for the prepubertal girls and boys, 0.932 for the pubertal girls and 0.925 for the pubertal boys. The TyG index was useful for recognising IR in both prepubertal and pubertal children and could provide a feasible alternative to the costly and invasive gold standard test for IR in resource-limited settings. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Genetic regulation of pre-pubertal development of body mass index: a longitudinal study of Japanese twin boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2011-03-01

    We analyzed the genetic architecture of prepubertal development of relative weight to height in 216 monozygotic and 159 dizygotic complete Japanese twin pairs (52% girls). Ponderal index at birth (kg/m(3)) and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) from 1 to 11 years of age were used. Additive genetic factors explained the major proportion (52-74%) of the variation of BMI from 1 to 11 years of age. Environmental factors common to both co-twins also showed some effect (7-28%), but at most ages this was not statistically significant. Strong genetic tracking was found for BMI from 1 to 11 years of age, but there was also evidence for a persistent effect of common environmental factors. Our results suggest that the genetic architecture of BMI development in the Japanese population is generally similar to that found in previous twin studies in Caucasian populations.

  1. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Although the pig has been introduced as an advanced animal model of genital tract infections in women, almost no knowledge exists on the porcine vaginal microbiota, especially in barrier-raised Göttingen Minipigs. In women, the vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role for a healthy vaginal...... environment and the fate of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Therefore, knowledge on the vaginal microbiota is urgently needed for the minipig model. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of the anterior vagina by 16 s rRNA gene sequencing...... in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  2. Influence of the informal primary caretaker on glycemic control among prepubertal pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Jessie Nallely Zurita-Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1, the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. Patients, materials, and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire, family functionality (family APGAR, support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale, and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The patients' median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06-151.9, p = 0.001. While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (β 0.991, 95% CI 0.238-1.743, p = 0.011 and stress (β 1.918, 95% CI 1.10-2.736, p = 0.001 in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (β 1.256, 95% CI 0.336-2.177, p = 0.008 were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. Conclusions: Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients.

  3. Effects of protein restriction, melatonin administration, and short daylength on brain benzodiazepine receptors in prepubertal male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennaway, D.J.; Royles, P.; Webb, H.; Carbone, F.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility that there are changes in brain benzodiazepine binding sites controlled by photoperiod was investigated in two strains of male rats. The hypothesis was tested by 3H-diazepam binding studies in various brain regions of prepubertal rats maintained in 14 or 10 h of light or treated with late-afternoon injections of melatonin (50 micrograms/day). Protein restriction was applied during the experiment to sensitize the animals to the treatments. Under the conditions employed, rats kept in short daylength throughout or kept on long photoperiod and given late-afternoon melatonin injections showed evidence of delayed puberty (seminal vesicle, ventral prostate, and testis weight decreased by 45%, 55%, and 60% respectively, compared to control rats). Binding measurements were made 1 h before and 2 and 5 h after the onset of darkness in the pubertal (42-day-old) or experimentally prepubertal rats. In the rats of the Porton strain (for which protein restriction was obligatory for the gonadal response) there was no consistent treatment or time effects on specific binding of 3H-diazepam to washed membranes of the hypothalamus, midbrain, or striatum. Similarly, there were no differences in the stimulation of 3H-diazepam binding by 100 microM GABA or the inhibition of binding by 50 microM N-acetyl 5 methoxy kynurenamine. By contrast, in Wistar rats, specific binding to midbrain membranes was reduced 5 h after dark compared to 2 h (37% saline; 20% melatonin) and the extent of stimulation by GABA in the hypothalamus was increased 5 h after darkness (35.6% to 46.7% saline; 37.4% to 50% melatonin). Melatonin treatment resulted in significantly higher specific binding in the hypothalamus 2 h after dark (10%, control fed; 20%, protein restricted) but reduced the GABA induced stimulation of binding in the midbrain (35.5% to 25%, control fed; 33.7% to 23.5%, protein restricted)

  4. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal mouse testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debarshi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2017-09-15

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are important for growth and development of many tissues, and altered thyroid status affects various organs and systems. Testis also is considered as a thyroid hormone responsive organ. Though THs play an important role in regulation of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, the exact mechanism of this regulation remains poorly understood. The present study, therefore, is designed to examine the effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal Parkes (P) strain mice testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1). Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in mother's drinking water from birth to day 28; on postnatal day (PND) 21 only pups, and on PND 28, both pups and lactating dams were euthanized. Serum T 3 and T 4 were markedly reduced in pups at PND 28 and in lactating mothers, while serum and intra-testicular testosterone levels were considerably decreased in pups of both age groups. Further, serum and intra-testicular levels of estrogen were significantly increased in hypothyroid mice at PND 28 with concomitant increase in CYP19 expression. Histologically, marked changes were noticed in testes of PTU-treated mice; immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of testes in treated mice also revealed marked decrease in the expression of THRα1 at both age groups. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses also showed reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of SF-1, StAR, CYP11A1 and 3β-HSD in these mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that neonatal hypothyroidism alters localization and expression of THRα1 and impairs testicular steroidogenesis by down-regulating the expression SF-1, thereby affecting spermatogenesis in prepubertal mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A high frequency of peripheral blood NKG2D+NK and NKT cells in euthyroid patients with new onset hashimoto's thyroiditis--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Xu, Bingchuan; Yang, Xige; Wang, Ye; Liu, Xiaobo; Cui, Chengri; Jiang, Yanfang

    2014-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. However, little is known about the role of different subsets of natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells at the early stage of the HT process. A total of 45 euthyroid patients with new onset HT and 40 age/gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were examined for the frequency of different subsets of NK and NKT cells and their function by flow cytometry. In comparison with that in HC, significantly higher percentages of peripheral blood CD3-CD56+ NK, NKG2D+, NKp30+ NK and NKT cells, but significantly lower percentages of NKG2A+, KIR2DL3+ inhibitory NK and NKT cells were detected in the HT patients. Furthermore, the percentages of NKG2D+ NK cells were correlated positively with the concentrations of serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) in the HT patients. Moreover, the percentages of inducible IFN-γ and CD107a+ NK cells in the HT patients were significantly higher than those in HC. Our data suggest that activated NK cells may participate in the early pathogenic process of HT.

  6. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of thyroid stimulating activities measured by cyclic AMP production, those by radioiodine uptake in FRTL-5 cells and TSH-binding inhibitory activities in patients with hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Tokuda, Yasutaka; Arai, Keisuke; Iida, Yasuhiro; Konishi, Junji

    1988-01-01

    By using an assay measuring cAMP production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSab) were detected in all of 15 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease (EG) and of 26 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease (HG). There was no signicant difference between TSab activities in Eg and in HG. In an effort to elucidate why EG patients remain euthyroid in spite of having TSab, we investigated the effect of the patient's crude immunoglobulin fractions 125 I uptake in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, one of the indices of stimulation subsequent to cAMP production. The 125 Iuptake stimulation (IUS) activity was positive in 46,7% (7/15) of EG patients and 88.5% (23/26) of HG patients, being significantly lower in the former than in the latter (P 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 0.401, P 99m Tc thyroid uptake in comparison to 19 HG patients with a similar range of IUS activities. There was a good correlation between thyroid weight and 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 8.827, P 99m Tc and presumably radioiodine in vivo, might be a factor responsible for keeping EG patients euthyroid despite the presence of TSab. (author)

  8. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON modulate progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing (LH hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion.

  9. Association of low baseline free thyroxin levels with progression of coronary artery calcification over 4 years in euthyroid subjects: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear whether thyroid hormone levels within the normal range are also associated with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between normal variations in thyroid function and changes in CAC. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study of 2173 apparently healthy men and women with normal thyroid hormone levels. Their free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multidetector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years > 0. The mean CACS changes over 4 years by quartiles of baseline FT4 level (lowest to highest) were 12·9, 8·43, 7·82 and 7·81 (P = 0·028). CAC progression was not significantly associated with either the baseline FT3 or TSH levels. The odds ratios (OR) for CAC progression over 4 years (highest vs lowest quartile for baseline FT4) were 0·647 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·472-0·886) after adjustment for confounding factor, which were attenuated with further adjustment for lipid profiles, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hypertension [0·747 (95% CI 0·537-1·038)]. Quartiles of baseline FT3 or TSH level did not show any increased OR for CAC progression after adjustment for confounding factors. In this cohort of euthyroid men and women, a low baseline FT4 level was associated with a high risk of CACS progression over 4 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Social dominance in prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in continuous competitive dyads: Effects on body growth, metabolic status, and reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, C; Carriquiry, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the body weight (BW) and size, metabolic status, and reproductive development of dominant and subordinate prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in competitive dyads. Sixteen Holstein and Jersey × Holstein prepubertal heifers (means ± SEM; 250.8 ± 9.8 d; 208.5 ± 13.9 kg of BW) were assigned to 8 homogeneous dyads according to breed, age, and BW. Dyads were housed in pens separated 1 m from each other during 120 d, receiving a total mixed ration on a 5% restriction of their potential dry matter intake, and had access to the same feeder (60 cm) throughout the experiment. Dominant and subordinate heifers were defined based on the winning agonistic interactions in each dyad. Body development was recorded every 20 d in all heifers, and blood samples were collected on the same days to determine endocrine and metabolic status. The maximum follicle diameter, number of follicles >6 mm, and the presence of corpus luteum were observed weekly by ultrasound. Heifer BW (269.3 vs. 265.3 ± 1.5 kg) and average daily gains (0.858 vs. 0.770 ± 0.02 kg/d) were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers. On d 30, 37, and 53, dominant heifers had more follicles than subordinate heifers, and maximum follicle diameter was greater in dominant than in subordinate heifers (10.0 vs. 9.0 ± 0.3 mm). Dominant heifers achieved puberty earlier than subordinate heifers (313.9 ± 4.9 vs. 329.6 ± 5.7 d) with similar BW (279.4 ± 2.6 vs. 277.4 ± 5.8 kg). Glucose concentrations were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers (89.2 vs. 86.8 ± 1.2 mg/dL), but cholesterol concentrations were greater in subordinate than dominant heifers (86.1 vs. 90.2 ± 2.6 mg/dL). We concluded that, under continuous competitive situations, dominant heifers were more precocious than subordinate ones, achieving an earlier puberty. Dominant heifers had greater body growth and glucose concentrations than subordinate heifers, which may be responsible, at least in part, for

  11. Amifostine reduces the seminiferous epithelium damage in doxorubicin-treated prepubertal rats without improving the fertility status

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    Miraglia Sandra M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amifostine is an efficient cytoprotector against toxicity caused by some chemotherapeutic drugs. Doxorubicin, a potent anticancer anthracycline, is known to produce spermatogenic damage even in low doses. Although some studies have suggested that amifostine does not confer protection to doxorubicin-induced testicular damage, schedules and age of treatment have different approach depending on the protocol. Thus, we proposed to investigate the potential cytoprotective action of amifostine against the damage provoked by doxorubicin to prepubertal rat testes (30-day-old by assessing some macro and microscopic morphometric parameters 15, 30 and 60 days after the treatment; for fertility evaluation, quantitative analyses of sperm parameters and reproductive competence in the adult phase were also carried out. Methods Thirty-day-old male rats were distributed into four groups: Doxorubicin (5 mg/kg, Amifostine (400 mg/kg, Amifostine/Doxorubicin (amifostine 15 minutes before doxorubicin and Sham Control (0.9% saline solution. "Standard One Way Anova" parametric and "Anova on Ranks" non-parametric tests were applied according to the behavior of the obtained data; significant differences were considered when p Results The rats killed 30 and 60 days after doxorubicin treatment showed diminution of seminiferous epithelium height and reduction on the frequency of tubular sections containing at least one type of differentiated spermatogonia; reduction of sperm concentration and motility and an increase of sperm anomalous forms where observed in doxorubicin-treated animals. All these parameters were improved in the Amifostine/Doxorubicin group only when compared to Doxorubicin group. Such reduction, however, still remained below the values obtained from the Sham Control group. Nevertheless, the reproductive competence of doxorubicin-treated rats was not improved by amifostine pre-administration. Conclusions These results suggest that

  12. Morphological and morphometric evaluation of prepubertal gilt ovaries, uterine tubes and uterus at different oestrus cycle stages

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    Guilherme Oberlender

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies are performed in developing techniques/procedures that provide greater reproductive performance in farm animals, including pigs. In this sense, the study of gilts reproductive organs at different oestrus cycle stages for assessing the presence of abnormalities and/or other parameters that may affect the future animal fertility is important. In order to evaluate the morphological, morphometric and histomorphometric features of ovaries, uterus and uterine tubes (UTs characteristics of prepubertal gilts at different oestrus cycle stages, reproductive tracts from 48 animals immediately after slaughter were obtained. After, the structures were dissected and removed, and the ovaries were used for classification of oestrus cycle stage of each gilt in follicular phase (FP and luteal phase (FL. Then, morphometric evaluations of ovaries, UTs, uterine horns and uterine body were performed. Besides that, medial segments of UTs and uterus were fixed in Bouin solution, processed and included in paraffin, when histological sections of 5.0 micrometers (µm were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Histomorphometric analyzes using image capture system and specific software were performed. Afterwards, data were submitted to Student's t test for assessment the statistical differences (P0.05 between morphometric parameters of ovaries, UTs and uterus of gilts in FP and LP. Likewise, in respect to the placement of reproductive structures, both in the oestrus cycle stages, as in the general average, there was no difference (P>0.05. Regarding the histomorphometric variables, gilts classified in FP presented a higher (P<0.05 height of glandular and UT epithelium compared to animals in LP. On the other hand, the diameter of endometrial glands was higher (P<0.05 in gilts at LP compared to FP. Furthermore, gilts in LP presented a higher (P<0.05 proportion of endometrium occupied by glands, whereas animals in FP had a higher (P<0.05 proportion of

  13. The effect of L-thyroxine treatment on hypothyroid symptom scores and lipid profile in children with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatlı, Gönül; Anık, Ahmet; Ünver Tuhan, Hale; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate i) the frequency of typical hypothyroidism symptoms in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), ii) to evaluate the association of SH with lipoproteins and iii) to investigate possible improving effects of L-thyroxine (LT4) treatment on these findings. Twenty-seven children with SH who had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH: >4.94 µIU/L) but normal free T4 levels and healthy euthyroid children of similar age and sex were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric and laboratory (lipid profile and thyroid function tests) measurements were performed at diagnosis and six months after euthyroidism was achieved. All children were also subjected to a questionnaire on hypothyroid symptoms at diagnosis. The SH patients were subjected to the questionnaire also following treatment. Pre-treatment data were compared with those of controls and post-treatment measurements. Anthropometric and laboratory parameters of the groups were not statistically different except for higher TSH levels in the SH group. Serum lipoprotein levels and dyslipidemia frequency were similar between the groups. Compared to the controls, hypothyroidism symptom score was significantly higher in the SH group. Six months after euthyroidism was achieved, a significant reduction in the hypothyroid symptom score was obtained in the SH group. Except for significantly higher serum TSH values, no significant differences regarding demographic characteristics, symptom scores and lipid parameters were present between patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and the remaining SH patients. The results of this study showed that in children with SH i) the hypothyroidism symptom score was significantly higher than in euthyroid children, ii) LT4 treatment improved the hypothyroidism symptom score and iii) SH does not seem to be associated with dyslipidemia.

  14. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves protect the pre-pubertal spermatogonial cells from cyclophosphamide-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Guruprasad; Honguntikar, Sachin D; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Mutalik, Srinivas; Setty, Manjunath M; Kalyankumar, Raksha; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-04-22

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is widely cultivated in Asian and African countries for its medicinal and dietary significance. The leaves are highly nutritious and are known to possess various biological activities. Pre-pubertal Swiss albino male mice were injected with single dose of cyclophosphamide (CP, 200mg/kg body weight) or ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOE, 100mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. In combination group, MOE was administered 24h prior to CP injection. CP induced a significant decrease in testicular weight (p<0.01) and depletion of germ cells (p<0.001) and higher level of DNA damage (p<0.001) compared to control. The expression of P53, Bax, Cytochrome C (Cyt C) was increased while there was a decrease in the expression of Bcl2, c-Kit and Oct4. Administration of MOE 24h prior to CP treatment ameliorated the depletion (p<0.001), DNA damage (p<0.001) and apoptosis (p<0.01) of germ cells induced by CP. The mitigating effect of MOE appears to be mediated by up-regulating the expression of c-Kit and Oct4 transcripts in P53-independent manner. MOE protects the spermatogonial cells from CP-induced damage by modulating the apoptotic response elicited by CP and therefore can be considered as an efficient method of male fertility preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamartiniere Coral A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20 to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days. Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days, becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland.

  17. Gonadectomia pré-puberal em cães e gatos Prepubertal gonadectomy in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Azevedo Voorwald

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A população de cães e gatos errantes é um problema grave de saúde pública e bem estar animal e a gonadectomia pré-puberal a partir de seis semanas de idade é a base para controle populacional efetivo. Os efeitos benéficos e maléficos são discutidos nesta revisão, auxiliando o médico veterinário a obter conhecimento e fundamentação científica para análise crítica do tema, propagação dessa prática e conscientização de proprietários.Stray dogs and cats is a serious problem to public health and animal welfare. Prepubertal gonadectomy from six weeks of age is a solution to effective pet overpopulation control. The benefits and adverse effects of this procedure are discussed in this paper, allowing the veterinarians to obtain knowledge and scientific basis to critical analysis to the topic, practice spread and owner awareness.

  18. A prepubertal giant juvenile fibroadenoma in a 12-year-old girl: Case report and brief literature review

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    Aris Giannos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Giant juvenile fibroadenomas represent only the 0.5% of all fibroadenomas, constituting a rare condition in adolescence. In prepuberty, the presence of this condition is extremely rare. Presentation of case: We describe a rare case of a 12- year-old Caucasian girl who presented to our Hospital complaining of a palpable mass with rapid enlargement in her right breast that she had first noticed 3 months ago. Her menarche hadn’t occurred yet. Discussion: Physical examination showed a giant mass of 15 × 13 cm in the right breast. The patient was further evaluated via ultrasonography showing a sole large lesion of 13 × 12 cm in the right breast. A surgical procedure under general anesthesia was performed. Histopathological findings after the surgical excision were suggestive of giant juvenile fibroadenoma. The patient has a normal breast development over a period of 9 month follow up. Conclusion: Giant juvenile fibroadenomas should be included in differential diagnosis of a breast mass in prepubertal girls despite the fact that they are very rare in prepuberty, tend to appear later during adolescence and their prevalence is lower in Caucasians. The remarkable size and the rapid growth of the lesion should not be ruled out in the diagnostic process of an adolescent breast. Keywords: Fibroadenoma, Giant juvenile fibroadenoma, Adolescence, Breast, Prepuberty

  19. The influence of puberty on vitamin D status in obese children and the possible relation between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Medina, Sonsoles; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Domínguez-Garrido, María Nieves; Gutiérrez-Moreno, Elisa; Rovira, Adela; Garcés, Carmen; Soriano-Guillén, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Puberty can affect vitamin D levels. The goal of this study was to analyze the relation between vitamin D deficiency and puberty in obese Spanish children, along with the possible interrelation between vitamin D status and degree of insulin resistance. A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which clinical and biochemical data were gathered from 120 obese and 50 normal weight children between January 2011 and January 2013. Mean vitamin D levels were 19.5 and 31.6 ng/mL in obese pubertal and obese prepubertal children, respectively. About 75% of the obese pubertal subjects and 46% of the obese prepubertal subjects had vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in pubescent subjects compared with pre-pubescent subjects in summer, fall, and winter. There was no apparent relation between vitamin D levels and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistence (expressed in standard deviation score for sex and Tanner stage) in either puberty or pre-puberty. Puberty may be a risk factor for the vitamin D deficiency commonly found in the obese child population. This deficiency is not associated with higher insulin resistance in obese pubertal children compared with obese prepubertal children.

  20. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys.

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    M Loredana Marcovecchio

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI. Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV, have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1 gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children.744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD: 8.4±1.4years underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR.A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033, but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04 and waist circumference (p = 0.01 when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers.In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain.

  1. The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterballe, Lene; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina; Engholm, Gerda; Hertzum-Larsen, Rasmus; Reinhardt, Susanne; Thorup, Jorgen

    2017-04-01

    Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer in adult life. It remains unclear how prepubertal surgery for cryptorchidism impacts later development of adult testicular cancer. The aim of study was to investigate tools to identify the cryptorchid boys who later develop testicular cancer. The study cohort consisted of 1403 men operated prepubertally/pubertally for undescended testis between 1971 and 2003. At surgery testicular biopsies were taken from the cryptorchid testes. The boys were followed for occurrence of testicular cancer. The testicular cancer risk was compared to the risk in the Danish Population. Testicular biopsies from the boys who developed testicular cancer during follow-up underwent histological examination with specific diagnostic immunohistochemical markers for germ cell neoplasia. The cohort was followed for 33,627 person years at risk. We identified 16 cases with testicular cancer in adulthood. The standardized incidence ratio was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.52-4.32). At time of primary surgery in prepubertal/pubertal age Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (ITGCN) was diagnosed in 5 cases and the boys were unilaterally orchiectomized. At follow-up new immunohistochemical staining indicated ITGCN in two of the 16 cancer cases at reevaluation of the original biopsies from time of prepubertal/pubertal surgery. One had syndromic cryptorchid and developed seminoma, and another showed nonsyndromic cryptorchidism and developed embryonic teratocarcinoma. Totally, ITGCN was diagnosed in 0.5% (7/1403) of prepubertal cryptorchid boys, whereof 57% (4/7) in syndromic-cryptorchidism. ITGCN is predominantly observed prepubertally in boys with syndromic-cryptorchidism. In nonsyndromic cryptorchidism testicular cancer develops postpubertally, generally not based on dormant germ cells of ITGCN caused by an early fetal maldevelopment. LEVEL I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fertility preservation in pre-pubertal girls with cancer: the role of ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

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    Wallace, W Hamish B; Kelsey, Thomas W; Anderson, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing numbers of survivors of cancer in young people, future fertility and ovarian function are important considerations that should be discussed before treatment commences. Some young people, by nature of the treatment they will receive, are at high risk of premature ovarian insufficiency and infertility. For them, ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) is one approach to fertility preservation that remains both invasive and for young patients experimental. There are important ethical and consent issues that need to be explored and accepted before OTC can be considered established in children with cancer. In this review we have discussed a framework for patient selection which has been shown to be effective in identifying those patients at high risk of premature ovarian insufficiency and who can be offered OTC safely. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of Kisspeptin Synthesis and Release in the Preoptic/Anterior Hypothalamic Region of Prepubertal Female Rats: Actions of IGF-1 and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiney, Jill K; Srivastava, Vinod K; Vaden Anderson, Danielle N; Hartzoge, Nicole L; Dees, William L

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol (ALC) causes suppressed secretion of prepubertal luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and kisspeptin (Kp) are major regulators of LHRH and are critical for puberty. IGF-1 may be an upstream mediator of Kp in the preoptic area and rostral hypothalamic area (POA/RHA) of the rat brain, a region containing both Kp and LHRH neurons. We investigated the ability of IGF-1 to stimulate prepubertal Kp synthesis and release in POA/RHA, and the potential inhibitory effects of ALC. Immature female rats were administered either ALC (3 g/kg) or water via gastric gavage at 0730 hours. At 0900 hours, both groups were subdivided where half received either saline or IGF-1 into the brain third ventricle. A second dose of ALC (2 g/kg) or water was administered at 1130 hours. Rats were killed 6 hours after injection and POA/RHA region collected. IGF-1 stimulated Kp, an action blocked by ALC. Upstream to Kp, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) activation, as demonstrated by the increase in insulin receptor substrate 1, resulted in activation of Akt, tuberous sclerosis 2, ras homologue enriched in brain, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). ALC blocked the central action of IGF-1 to induce their respective phosphorylation. IGF-1 specificity and ALC specificity for the Akt-activated mTOR pathway were demonstrated by the absence of effects on PRAS40. Furthermore, IGF-1 stimulated Kp release from POA/RHA incubated in vitro. IGF-1 stimulates prepubertal Kp synthesis and release following activation of a mTOR signaling pathway, and ALC blocks this pathway at the level of IGF-1R. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Association of insulin-like growth factor-1 and IGF binding protein-3 with 25-hydroxy vitamin D in pre-pubertal and adolescent Indian girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Ramank K; Garg, M K; Gupta, Sushil; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Gupta, Nandita; Narang, Archna; Shukla, Manoj; Arora, Preeti; Singh, Annie; Chadha, Aditi; Mithal, Ambrish

    2018-03-28

    There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in India. Molecular mechanisms suggest a strong relationship between vitamin D and growth factors. However, there is a paucity of literature with regard to a relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and vitamin D particularly in subjects with VDD. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between growth factors and serum vitamin D-parathormone (PTH) status in school girls and study the impact of vitamin D supplementation on growth factors in pre-pubertal girls with VDD. Our study subjects were apparently healthy school girls aged 6-18 years. The baseline height, weight, body mass index (BMI), pubertal status, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), PTH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were assessed in 847 girls aged 6-18 years and in 190 pre-pubertal girls with VDD following supplementation. The mean age, BMI and serum 25OHD of girls were 11.5±3.2 years, 18.7±4.8 kg/m2 and 9.9±5.6 ng/mL, respectively. VDD was observed in 94.6% of girls. Unadjusted serum IGF-1 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were significantly higher in girls with severe VDD as compared to girls with mild-to-moderate VDD. However, these differences disappeared when adjusted for age, height or sexual maturation. The serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels increased significantly post supplementation with vitamin D. There were no differences in serum IGF-1 levels and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio among VDD categories when adjusted for age, height and sexual maturation in girls. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 levels in VDD pre-pubertal girls.

  5. A feasibility study of prepubertal and over mature aged local goat in relation to results of In Vitro growth culture to obtain additional M-II oocyte resources

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    Ciptadi, Gatot; Ihsan, M. Nur; Rahayu, Sri; Widjaja, D. H. K.; Mudawamah, Mudawamah

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this research are to study the potential source of mature (M-II) oocytes of domestic animals using follicles isolated from prepubertal and over mature aged Indonesian local goats, resulting from an in vitro growth (IVG) method. This method of IVG could provide a new source of M-II oocytes for embryo production. In Indonesia, a very limited number of a good quality oocytes are available for research purposes, as there is a limited number of reproductive females slaughtered, which is dominated by prepubertal and old mature aged animals. IVG culture systems could be improved as an alternative method to provide a new source of a good quality oocytes for in vitro maturation of M-II oocytes. From a number of prepubertal and mature aged goats slaughtered in a local abattoir, the small oocytes in the preantral follicles were cultured in vitro to normal oocyte growth. The methods used in this research are experimental. Follicles were isolated, cultured in vitro for 14 days individually using a sticky medium containing 4% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone in TCM 199 10% Fetal Bovine Serum supplemented with Follicle Stimulating Hormone, which was then evaluated for their follicle development and oocyte quality. The research results showed that a minimum follicle size and oocyte diameter is needed (>100 um) for early evaluation of maturation to be achieved, meanwhile oocytes recovered from IVG after being cultured in vitro for maturation resulted in a very low rate of maturation. However, in the future, IVG of the preantral follicles of Indonesian local goat could be considered as an alternative source of oocytes for both research purposes and embryo production in vitro.

  6. Modulation of mammary gland development in pre-pubertal mice as affected by soya and milk protein supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston-Mills, Brenda; Lepri, J J; Martin, C A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of soya and whey milk protein, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), on mammary gland morphology and the structural support of the gland, in pre-pubertal mice after 7 d of treatment. In Expt 1, weaned (day 21) CD1 mice were given one of the four treatments, three included dietary supplements: (1) control diet, casein, (2) soya, (3) α-LA and (4) subcutaneous injection of 2·5 μg oestradiol benzoate in 20 μl maize oil and fed the control diet. All diets were isoenergetic with equal protein concentrations. All groups that were not treated with oestradiol received the vehicle. Whole-mount analyses were performed to determine longitudinal ductal growth and terminal end bud development. DNA was extracted from the gland and assessed by spectrophotometry (260/280 nm). Tissue extracts for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP(2)), tissue inhibitor of MMP(2) (TIMP(2)), and serum oestradiol and mammary tissue epidermal growth factors (EGF) were measured by immunoassays. Expt 2 utilised the Her2/neu transgenic strain, with the same protocols. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA. From Expt 1 and 2, soya and α-LA significantly increased ductal elongation when compared with the oestrogen and control groups. These results were corroborated by data on total DNA and the ratio of MMP(2):TIMP(2). The ratio of MMP(2):TIMP(2) was affected by α-LA. Serum oestradiol was decreased only in the oestradiol-treated groups in both experiments. Soya is known to be oestrogenic and can act on epithelia directly. The mechanism by which α-LA affects glandular development is by modulating the ECM or by promoting the synthesis/activity of EGF.

  7. Effects of prenatal stress on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors are sex-specific in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturra-Mena, Ann Mary; Arriagada-Solimano, Marcia; Luttecke-Anders, Ariane; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2018-05-17

    The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction. We also assessed maternal behaviors and two stress markers: basal vs. acute-evoked stress levels of serum corticosterone and body weight gain. Prenatal stress did not affect the maternal behavior, while both female and male offspring had higher body weight gain. On the other hand, lower levels of corticosterone after acute stress stimulation as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were only evident in stressed males compared to control males. These results suggest that prenatal stress induced sex-specific effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and on behavior during prepuberty. The HPA axis of prenatally stressed male rats was less active compared to control males, as well as they were more anxious and experienced depressive-like behaviors. Our results can be useful to study the neurobiological basis of childhood depression at a pre-clinical level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Kolaviron and vitamin E ameliorate hematotoxicity and oxidative stress in brains of prepubertal rats treated with an anticonvulsant phenytoin.

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    Owoeye, Olatunde; Adedara, Isaac A; Bakare, Oluwafemi S; Adeyemo, Oluwatobi A; Egun, Christa; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2014-06-01

    Phenytoin (PHT), an anticonvulsant agent, widely used for the treatment of epilepsy has been reported to exhibit toxic side effects. The present study investigated the protective effects of kolaviron and vitamin E on hematotoxicity and neurotoxicity induced by phenytoin, in prepubertal male rats. The animals were treated with PHT (75 mg/kg) separately or in combination with either kolaviron (200 mg/kg) or vitamin E (500 mg/kg) for 14 days. Phenytoin treatment significantly decreased the hemoglobin, white blood cells, lymphocytes and mean corpuscular volume levels without affecting red blood cell, packed cell volume, neutrophils, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration when compared with the control rats. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide levels with marked depletion in antioxidant status in brains of PHT-treated rats when compared with the control. Although PHT treatment had no effect on the granular layer, widest diameter of Purkinje cells and Purkinje layer of the cerebellum, it significantly reduced its molecular layer and the density of Purkinje cell. Administration of PHT significantly reduced the densities of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal neurons of the cornu ammonis of hippocampus proper. Co-treatment with kolaviron and vitamin E effectively reversed the PHT-mediated alterations in the hematology, brain antioxidant status and histomorphometry when compared to PHT only. Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of kolaviron and vitamin E to ameliorate phenytoin-induced hematotoxicity and oxidative stress in brains of rats.

  9. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009-2014: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-03-01

    To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens.

  10. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Results Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Conclusion Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens. PMID:27004204

  11. Di(n-butyl phthalate has no effect on the rat prepubertal testis despite its estrogenic activity in vitro

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    Jerzy Długoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP on the rat’s prepubertal testis. Male Wistar rats were given daily subcutaneous injections with DBP (20 or 200 μg or a vehicle from the 5th to the 15th postnatal day (pd. On the 16th pd, the rats were euthanized, and the testes were dissected, weighed, and paraffin embedded. The blood was collected to determine the serum levels of testosterone (T, estradiol (E and FSH. The following parameters were assessed in the testis sections: diameter and length of seminiferous tubules (st, numbers of spermatogonia A + intermediate + B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene + zygotene + pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. An estrogenicity in vitro test was performed by means of a transgenic yeast strain expressing human estrogen receptor alpha. At both doses, DBP had no influence on testis and seminal vesicle weight, st diameter and length, number of germ and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. DBP did not change E, T or FSH serum levels. The in vitro yeast screen showed that DBP was a weak estrogenic compound, approximately six to seven orders of magnitude less potent than 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, exposure of a rat to DBP in doses 100 or 1,000-fold higher than a Tolerable Daily Intake for humans had no effect on its testicular development. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 685–689

  12. Sports benefits and the importance of muscle strength treinability in prepubertal volleyball athletes

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    Flávia Meyer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to investigate the main benefits of sports and the importance and treinability muscle strenght in prepubescent volleyball athletes. Brazilian children are participating in competitive sports due to the increase of volleyball popularity. According to the literature reviewed, it seems that physical training is beneficial to bone tissue and tends to estimulate growth in height to the genetic limits. The main goal of children volleyball trainig is to improve basic technique and tatics and also to discover new talents. Young athletes need to be strong, fast, flexible and agile to achieve success. Strength training is indicated as an important complement to specific sports training of young athletes, due to improvement of muscle coordination and motor skills in competitive and recreational activities and to a decrease of joint overload and risk of injury. RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão foi investigar os principais benefícios do esporte e a importância e treinabilidade da força muscular de crianças pré-púberes atletas de voleibol. Com o aumento da popularidade do voleibol no Brasil, as crianças estão participando mais de competições esportivas. Conforme a literatura revisada, parece que o treinamento físico moderado é benéfico para o tecido ósseo e estimula o crescimento em estatura, até atingir a estatura geneticamente determinada. O principal objetivo do treinamento de voleibol para crianças é desenvolver as técnicas e as táticas básicas e detectar talentos esportivos. Para os jovens atletas obterem sucesso esportivo são necessárias qualidades físicas como força, velocidade, flexibilidade e agilidade. O treinamento de força muscular é indicado como auxiliar do treinamento esportivo para crianças atletas, melhorando a coordenação muscular e o desempenho motor nas atividades esportivas competitivas e recreacionais e diminuindo as sobrecargas articulares e o risco de lesões.

  13. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

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    Stefano Stagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7±3.8 years KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS and the bone transmission time (BTT. Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p<0.005 and BTT (p<0.0005 z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p<0.0001 and significantly lower 25(OHD (p<0.0001, osteocalcin (p<0.05, and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.005. Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages.

  14. Association of TSH With Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Overweight and Obese Children During Lifestyle Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, Jesse M; Plat, Jogchum; Dorenbos, Elke; Penders, Bas; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; Vreugdenhil, Anita C E

    2017-06-01

    Overweight and obese children have an increased risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in which thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been suggested as an intermediary factor. However, results of cross-sectional studies are inconclusive, and intervention studies investigating changes in TSH concentrations in association with changes in cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children are scarce. To gain insight in associations of circulating TSH concentrations and cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children. Nonrandomized lifestyle intervention. Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare. Three hundred thirty euthyroid overweight and obese children. Long-term lifestyle intervention. TSH concentrations, pituitary TSH release in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and cardiovascular risk parameters. At baseline, serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 concentrations were significantly associated with serum TSH concentrations. TSH release by the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH was not associated with cardiovascular risk parameters. During lifestyle intervention, several cardiovascular risk parameters significantly improved. In children whose body mass index z score improved, changes in TSH concentrations were significantly associated with changes in TC, LDL-C, and TAG concentrations. In euthyroid overweight and obese children, circulating TSH concentrations are positively associated with markers representing increased CVD risk. Changes in TSH concentrations are also associated with changes in lipid concentrations in children with successful weight loss, which is consistent with TSH being an intermediary factor in modulating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  15. Spatial learning impairment in prepubertal guinea pigs prenatally exposed to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos: Toxicological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamczarz, Jacek; Pescrille, Joseph D.; Gavrushenko, Lisa; Burke, Richard D.; Fawcett, William P.; DeTolla, Louis J.; Chen, Hegang; Pereira, Edna F.R.; Albuquerque, Edson X.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of the developing brain to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide used extensively in agriculture worldwide, has been associated with increased prevalence of cognitive deficits in children, particularly boys. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that cognitive deficits induced by prenatal exposure to sub-acute doses of CPF can be reproduced in precocial small species. To address this hypothesis, pregnant guinea pigs were injected daily with CPF (25 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (peanut oil) for 10 days starting on presumed gestation day (GD) 53–55. Offspring were born around GD 65, weaned on postnatal day (PND) 20, and subjected to behavioral tests starting around PND 30. On the day of birth, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), an OP bioscavenger used as a biomarker of OP exposures, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a major molecular target of OP compounds, were significantly inhibited in the blood of CPF-exposed offspring. In their brains, BuChE, but not AChE, was significantly inhibited. Prenatal CPF exposure had no significant effect on locomotor activity or on locomotor habituation, a form of non-associative memory assessed in open fields. Spatial navigation in the Morris water maze (MWM) was found to be sexually dimorphic among guinea pigs, with males outperforming females. Prenatal CPF exposure impaired spatial learning more significantly among male than female guinea pigs and, consequently, reduced the sexual dimorphism of the task. The results presented here, which strongly support the test hypothesis, reveal that the guinea pig is a valuable animal model for preclinical assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity of OP pesticides. These findings are far reaching as they lay the groundwork for future studies aimed at identifying therapeutic interventions to treat and/or prevent the neurotoxic effects of CPF in the developing brain. PMID:27296654

  16. Mandibular transformations in prepubertal patients following treatment for craniofacial microsomia: thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, A D; Singh, G D

    2000-01-01

    To analyze correction of mandibular deformity using an inverted L osteotomy and autogenous bone graft in patients exhibiting unilateral craniofacial microsomia (CFM), thin-plate spline analysis was undertaken. Preoperative, early postoperative, and approximately 3.5-year postoperative posteroanterior cephalographs of 15 children (age 10+/-3 years) with CFM were scanned, and eight homologous mandibular landmarks digitized. Average mandibular geometries, scaled to an equivalent size, were generated using Procrustes superimposition. Results indicated that the mean pre- and postoperative mandibular configurations differed statistically (PThin-plate spline analysis indicated that the total spline (Cartesian transformation grid) of the pre- to early postoperative configuration showed mandibular body elongation on the treated side and inferior symphyseal displacement. The affine component of the total spline revealed a clockwise rotation of the preoperative configuration, whereas the nonaffine component was responsible for ramus, body, and symphyseal displacements. The transformation grid for the early and late postoperative comparison showed bilateral ramus elongation. A superior symphyseal displacement contrasted with its earlier inferior displacement, the affine component had translocated the symphyseal landmarks towards the midline. The nonaffine component demonstrated bilateral ramus lengthening, and partial warps suggested that these elongations were slightly greater on the nontreated side. The affine component of the pre- and late postoperative comparison also demonstrated a clockwise rotation. The nonaffine component produced the bilateral ramus elongations-the nontreated side ramus lengthening slightly more than the treated side. It is concluded that an inverted L osteotomy improves mandibular morphology significantly in CFM patients and permits continued bilateral ramus growth. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. GnRH-agonist implantation of prepubertal male cats affects their reproductive performance and testicular LH receptor and FSH receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Khalid, M; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2016-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GnRH-agonist implantation in prepubertal tomcats on sexual behavior, reproductive performance, and expression of testicular LH receptor (LHR) and FSH receptor (FSHR) and also to compare the testicular characteristics, LHR and FSHR expression between prepubertal and adult tomcats. In experiment 1, 3-month-old tomcats (n = 6/group) were either treated with or left without 4.7 mg deslorelin implants. Semen collection and evaluation were performed just before castration at 48 weeks after treatment; removed testes were analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. We were able to collect semen from six non-treated cats, whereas in treated cats, semen was uncollectable. The results revealed that sexual behavior was absent in the implanted cats throughout the study period. Testicular volume was found to decrease from 30 weeks after treatment onward in the implanted cats compared to the controls (P score, seminiferous tubule diameter, and LHR protein expression were found lower in the implanted cats (P reproductive function without any adverse effects for at least 48 weeks in male cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone in children determined by TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Fruekilde, Palle

    2013-01-01

    for quantification of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone in serum from pre-pubertal children. Run time was 10.75min. Limits of quantification were as follows: DHEA, 0.88nM; DHEAS, 48nM; 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 0.19nM; Δ4-androstenedione, 0.18nM and testosterone, 0.10nM. Intra-day...

  19. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak

    2016-01-01

    The pig is increasingly used as an advanced animal model of the genital tract in women and knowledge on the genital immune system is therefore needed.In this study, evaluation of vaginal smears revealed that almost no neutrophils or other leukocytes were present in the vaginal mucosa of prepubert...

  20. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTER SCREENING AND TESTING ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid function in the male rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations. Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee.Stoker TE, Parks LG, Gray LE, Cooper RL.

  1. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  2. Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube in a menopausal woman and a pre-pubertal girl: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Masafumi; Mori, Hikaru; Kudo, Kei; Yodogawa, Yuki; Sato, Kazuyo; Kudo, Takako; Igeta, Saori; Makino, Hiromitsu; Shima, Takashi; Matsuura, Rui; Ishigaki, Nobuko; Akagi, Kozo; Takeyama, Yoichi; Iwahashi, Hideki; Yoshinaga, Kosuke

    2015-11-17

    Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube without an ovarian abnormality is an uncommon event, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 1,500,000 females. Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube occurs mostly in reproductive-aged women, and is thus extremely rare in menopausal women and pre-pubertal girls. In case 1, 63-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2-day history of acute lower abdominal pain. Menopause occurred at 53 years of age. Pelvic ultrasonography showed an enlarged mass (73 × 47 mm) on the right side of her uterus. An urgent laparoscopy was performed based on a presumptive diagnosis of right ovarian tumor torsion. During the laparoscopy, we noted a black, necrotic, solid tumor arising from the distal end of her right fimbria. Her right fallopian tube was twisted with the tumor, but her right ovary was normal and not involved. A laparoscopic tumorectomy with a right salpingectomy was performed. Her post-operative course was uneventful. In case 2, a 10-year-old Japanese girl presented with a 1-day history of lower abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. Menarche had occurred 2 months earlier. A computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a dilated tubal cystic mass with a normal uterus and bilateral ovaries. An urgent laparoscopy was performed based on a presumptive diagnosis of right fallopian tube torsion. During laparoscopy, her right fallopian tube was noted to be dark red, dilated, and twisted several times. Her right fimbria was necrotic-appearing and could not be preserved. Therefore, a laparoscopic right salpingectomy was performed. A histologic examination revealed ischemic changes with congestion of her right fallopian tube, which was consistent with tubal torsion. She had an uncomplicated post-operative course. We have presented two very rare cases of isolated fallopian tubal torsion. Radiologic interventions, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in addition to

  3. THERMOREGULATION IN CHILDREN: EXERCISE, HEAT STRESS & FLUID BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawnda A. Morrison

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the specific physiological strategies of thermoregulation in children, a brief literary update relating exercise to heat stress in girls and boys as well as a discussion on fluid balance strategies for children who are performing exercise in the heat. Both sport performance and thermoregulation can be affected by the body’s water and electrolyte content. The recommendations for pre-pubertal fluid intake have been generalized from adult literature, including a limited concession for the physiological differences between adults and children. Considering these body fluid shifts, carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks are thought to be an essential tool in combating dehydration as a result of active hyperthermia (i.e. exercise, thus we examine current hydration practices in exercising children. Finally, this review summarizes research which examines the relationship between cognition and hypohydration on young athletes’ performance.

  4. Influence of the informal primary caretaker on glycemic control among prepubertal pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Nallely Zurita-Cruz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1, the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. Patients, materials, and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire, family functionality (family APGAR, support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale, and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The patients’ median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06–151.9, p = 0.001. While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (β 0.991, 95% CI 0.238–1.743, p = 0.011 and stress (β 1.918, 95% CI 1.10–2.736, p = 0.001 in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (β 1.256, 95% CI 0.336–2.177, p = 0.008 were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. Conclusions: Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients. Resumo: Objetivos: Em pacientes pré-púberes com diabetes tipo 1 (DM1, a disponibilidade de um cuidador familiar principal (CFP é fundamental para tomar decisões de administração; neste estudo, foram identificados os fatores de risco relacionados a CFPs associados ao controle glicêmico. Pacientes

  5. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, F; Chaussain, J L; Job, J C

    1986-01-01

    Eight children and adolescents, seven female and one male, aged 7.1 to 15.0 years, referred over a 12-year period for a solitary mass in an otherwise normal thyroid gland, exhibited a hyperfunctioning nodule on thyroid scintiscan. Tracer uptake in the surrounding thyroid tissue was reduced or completely suppressed, but could be restored after TSH stimulation. Only one patient had mild clinical hyperthyroidism with normal T4 but increased T3 serum levels and blunted TSH responsiveness to TRH. A similar hormonal pattern suggestive of subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in three other subjects who were clinically euthyroid. One patient initially euthyroid progressed to subclinical hyperthyroidism two years later. In the whole group a significant negative relationship was found between serum T3 level and TRH-stimulated TSH peak (r = -0.829, p less than 0.02). All the patients underwent selective surgery after a 3-month to 2-year period of follow-up. Microscopic examination was consistent with adenoma in seven patients, while in one case a well-encapsulated papillary adenocarcinoma was found. Though hyperfunctioning nodules are seldom malignant, their surgical removal must be recommended when they become thyrotoxic, exceed 3 cm or show progressive enlargement.

  6. Evaluation of apoptotic- and autophagic-related protein expressions before and after IVM of fresh, slow-frozen and vitrified pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, L; Chalmel, F; Oblette, A; Berby, B; Rives, A; Duchesne, V; Rondanino, C; Rives, N

    2017-11-01

    Do freezing and in vitro culture procedures enhance the expression of proteins involved in apoptotic or autophagic pathways in murine pre-pubertal testicular tissue? IVM strongly modified apoptosis- and autophagy-related relative protein levels in mice testicular tissue whereas the impact of cryopreservation procedures was minimal at the end of the culture. In vitro spermatogenesis remains a challenging technical issue as it imposes to find a very close balance between survival and death of germ cell natural precursors (i.e. gonocytes and spermatogonia), which will eventually undergo a complete spermatogenesis close to in vivo conditions. The establishment of efficient culture conditions coupled with suitable cryopreservation procedures (e.g. controlled slow freezing [CSF] and solid surface vitrification [SSV]) of pre-pubertal testicular tissue is a crucial step in the fields of fertility preservation and restoration to improve the spermatic yield obtained in vitro. Here, we study cryopreservation procedures (i.e. CSF or SSV) and the impact of culture media compositions. A first set of 66 mouse pre-pubertal testes were directly cultured during 30, 36, 38 and 60 days (D) from 2.5 to 6.5-day-old CD-1 mice to evaluate the impact of time-aspect of culture and to endorse the reverse phase protein microarrays (RPPM) technique as an adapted experimental tool for the field of in vitro spermatogenesis. Ninety others fresh, slow-frozen and vitrified pre-pubertal testes were cultured during 30 days for the principal study to evaluate the impact of cryopreservation procedures before and after culture. Thirty-four testes dissected from 2.5, 6.5, 36.5, 40.5, 42.5 and 62.5 days postpartum (dpp) mice, corresponding to the time frames of spermatogenesis orchestrated in vitro, were used as in vivo controls. After in vitro culture, testicular tissue samples originated from 2.5 or 6.5-day-old CD-1 male mice were analyzed using RPPM. This targeted proteomic technique allowed us to

  7. Surgical Repair of an Impalement Genital Injury from an Inline Skating Accident in a 7-Year-Old Prepubertal Girl: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Roland; Engel, Joerg B; Wieg, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In girls who present with vaginal trauma, sexual abuse is often the primary diagnosis. The differential diagnosis must include patterns and the mechanism of injury that differentiate accidental injuries from inflicted trauma. A 7-year-old prepubertal girl presented to the emergency department with genital bleeding after a serious accidental impaling injury from inline skating. After rapid abduction of the legs and a fall onto the blade of an inline skate this child incurred an impaling genital injury consistent with an accidental mechanism. The dramatic genital injuries when repaired healed with almost imperceptible residual evidence of previous trauma. To our knowledge, this case report represents the first in the medical literature of an impaling vaginal trauma from an inline skate and describes its clinical and surgical management. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on intake, performance, and mammary gland development in prepubertal and pubertal dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Detmann, E; Dijkstra, J; Pedroso, A M; Silva, L H P; Machado, A F; Sousa, F C; Dos Santos, G B; Marcondes, M I

    2018-04-04

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE) heifers (initial BW = 106 ± 7.6 kg; age = 4.3 ± 0.46 mo) and 16 pubertal (PUB) heifers (initial BW = 224 ± 7.9 kg; age = 12.6 ± 0.45 mo) were used in an experiment over a period of 84 d. Four diets with increasing RUP contents (38, 44, 51, and 57% of dietary crude protein) and heifers at 2 PS (PRE or PUB) were used in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design. Throughout the experiment, 2 digestibility trials were performed over 5 consecutive days (starting at d 36 and 78) involving feed and ort sampling and spot collections of feces and urine. At d 0 and 83, body ultrasound images were obtained for real-time carcass trait evaluation. The mammary gland was ultrasonically scanned at d 0 and every 3 wk during the experiment. Blood samples were taken at d 0 and 84 to determine serum concentrations of progesterone, estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and insulin. No interaction between PS and the level of RUP was found for any trait. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein was not affected by RUP level but was lower for PRE compared with PUB heifers. Sorting against neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (tendency only) and for crude protein was greater for PUB than PRE heifers. Pubertal heifers had greater average daily gain (905 vs. 505 g/d) and N retention (25.9 vs. 12.5 g/d) than PRE heifers. In addition, average daily gain and N retention were greatest at 51% RUP of dietary protein. Mammary ultrasonography indicated no effects of RUP amounts on mammary gland composition, whereas PRE heifers had greater pixel values than PUB

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R Busby

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  10. Chronic caffeine treatment during prepubertal period confers long-term cognitive benefits in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Vanessa A; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Pandolfo, Pablo; Prediger, Rui D S; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2010-12-20

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is frequently used as an experimental model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since it displays behavioural and neurochemical features of ADHD. Increasing evidence suggests that caffeine might represent an important therapeutic tool for the treatment of ADHD and we recently demonstrated that the acute administration of caffeine improves several learning and memory impairments in adult SHR rats. Here we further evaluated the potential of caffeine in ADHD therapy. Female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats were treated with caffeine (3mg/kg, i.p.) or methylphenidate (MPD, 2mg/kg, i.p.) for 14 consecutive days during the prepubertal period (post-natal days 25-38) and they were tested later in adulthood in the object-recognition task. WIS rats discriminated all the objects used, whereas SHR were not able to discriminate pairs of objects with subtle structural differences. Chronic treatment with caffeine or MPD improved the object-recognition deficits in SHR rats. Surprisingly, these treatments impaired the short-term object-recognition ability in adult WIS rats. The present drug effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity, arterial blood pressure and body weight in both rat strains. These findings suggest that chronic caffeine treatment during prepubertal period confers long-term cognitive benefits in discriminative learning impairments of SHR, suggesting caffeine as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the early management of ADHD symptoms. Nevertheless, our results also emphasize the importance of a correct diagnosis and the caution in the use of stimulant drugs such as caffeine and MPD during neurodevelopment since they can disrupt discriminative learning in non-ADHD phenotypes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  12. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M.; Schoeneman, Samantha E.; Zhang, Huiyuan; Kwon, Soyang; Josefson, Jami L.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  13. Associations of Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Body Fat Content With Pain Conditions in Children: The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierola, Anu; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Lindi, Virpi; Viitasalo, Anna; Ikävalko, Tiina; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Kellokoski, Jari; Närhi, Matti; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the cross-sectional associations of sedentary behavior, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat content with pain conditions in prepubertal children. The participants were a population sample of 439 children aged 6 to 8 years. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and pain conditions were assessed using questionnaires, cardiorespiratory fitness using maximal cycle ergometer test, and body fat percentage using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The associations of sedentary behavior, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat percentage with the risk of pain conditions were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Children in the highest sex-specific third of sedentary behavior had 1.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.17; P = .007 for trend across thirds) times higher odds of any pain than children in the lowest third. Children in the highest sex-specific third of cardiorespiratory fitness had 46% (odds ratio [OR] = .54; 95% CI, .32-.91; P = .019) lower odds of any pain and 50% (OR = .50; 95% CI, .28-.87; P = .015) lower odds of headache than children in the lowest third. Children in the highest sex-specific third of body fat percentage had 44% (OR = .56; 95% CI, .34-.93; P = .023) lower odds of any pain, 49% (OR = .51; 95% CI, .30-.86; P = .011) lower risk of multiple pain, and 48% (OR = .52; 95% CI, .31-.86; P = .010) lower odds of lower limb pain than children in the lowest third. Physical activity was not associated with pain conditions. These findings suggest that prepubertal children with high levels of sedentary behavior, low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, and low body fat content have increased likelihood of various pain conditions. This information could be used to develop strategies to prevent chronic pain in childhood. Our findings suggest that low cardiorespiratory fitness, high levels of sedentary behavior, and low body fat content are associated with increased

  14. The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, Lene; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer in adult life. It remains unclear how prepubertal surgery for cryptorchidism impacts later development of adult testicular cancer. The aim of study was to investigate tools to identify the cryptorchid boys who later develop...... testicular cancer. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 1403 men operated prepubertally/pubertally for undescended testis between 1971 and 2003. At surgery testicular biopsies were taken from the cryptorchid testes. The boys were followed for occurrence of testicular cancer. The testicular cancer risk...... was compared to the risk in the Danish Population. Testicular biopsies from the boys who developed testicular cancer during follow-up underwent histological examination with specific diagnostic immunohistochemical markers for germ cell neoplasia. RESULTS: The cohort was followed for 33,627 person years at risk...

  15. Distributional map of the terminal and sub-terminal sugar residues of the glycoconjugates in the prepubertal and postpubertal testis of a subject affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (Morris's syndrome): lectin histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, G; Vannelli, G B; Marini, M; Zappoli Thyrion, G D; Gheri, R G; Sgambati, E

    2004-01-01

    In the present research we have investigated the distribution of the sugar residues of the glycoconjugates in the prepubertal and postpubertal testes of a subject with Morris's syndrome (CAIS, Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome). For this purpose a battery of six horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins was used (SBA, PNA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEAI). We have obtained a complete distributional map of the terminal and sub-terminal oligosaccharides in the tunica albuginea, interstitial tissue, lamina propria of the seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, mastocytes and endothelial cells. Furthermore the present study has shown that a large amount of sugar residues were detectable in the prepubertal and postpubertal testes but that some differences exist with particular regard to the Sertoli cells. The Sertoli cells and the Leydig cells of the retained prepubertal testis of the patient affected by Morris's syndrome were characterized by the presence of alpha-L-fucose, which was absent in the retained prepubertal testis of the normal subjects. Comparing the results on the postpubertal testis with those obtained on the same aged testis of healthy subjects we have demonstrated that alpha-L-fucose in the Sertoli and Leydig cells and D-galactose-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine in the Leydig cells are a unique feature of the subject affected by Morris's syndrome. D-galactose (ss1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and sialic acid, which are present in the Leydig cells of the normal testis were never observed in the same cells of the postpubertal testis of the CAIS patient.

  16. Cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: relation to puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobisch, B; Blatniczky, L; Barkai, L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity with concomitant increasing risk for having cardiometabolic diseases is rising in the childhood population. Insulin resistance has a key role in metabolic changes in these children. Insulin levels elevate as puberty commences in every individual. Children with increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases show significant differences in insulin levels even before the onset of puberty compared with those without risks. The pattern of appearance of dyslipidaemia also varies in children with risk factors even in the pre-pubertal group from those without risk. Children with metabolic syndrome display considerably pronounced changes in their metabolic parameters before the onset of puberty, which become more pronounced as puberty passes. Insulin resistance (IR) has a key role in the metabolic changes in obese children. In commencing puberty, the insulin levels elevate. It is not clear, however, how insulin levels develop if the metabolic syndrome appears. Metabolic changes were assessed in obese children before, during and after puberty to analyse the relationship between IR and puberty in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. Three hundred thirty-four obese children (5-19 years) attended the study. The criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were used to assess the presence of cardiometabolic risks (CMRs). Subjects with increased CMR were compared with those without risk (nCMR). Pubertal staging, lipid levels, plasma glucose and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test were determined in each participant. IR was expressed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and the ratio of glucose and insulin areas under the curve (AUC-IR). Significantly higher AUC-IR were found in pre-pubertal CMR children compared with nCMR subjects (11.84 ± 1.03 vs. 8.00 ± 0.69; P puberty. HOMA-IR differs between CMR and nCMR only in post-puberty (6.03 ± 1.26 vs. 2.54 ± 0.23; P puberty. CMR is associated with increased

  17. Reference values of bone stiffness index and C-terminal telopeptide in healthy European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, D; Intemann, T; Lauria, F; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Sioen, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative ultrasound measurements and bone metabolic markers can help to monitor bone health and to detect impaired skeletal development. Population-based reference values for children may serve as a basis for preventive measures to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in later life. This is the first paper providing age-, sex- and height-specific reference values for bone stiffness index (SI) and serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in healthy, apparently prepubertal children. In the population-based IDEFICS baseline survey (2007-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010), 18,745 children from eight European countries were newly recruited. A total of 10,791 2-10.9-year-old and 1646 3-8.9-year-old healthy children provided data on SI of the right and left calcaneus and serum CTX, respectively. Furthermore, height and weight were measured. Percentile curves were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to model the distribution of SI and CTX depending on multiple covariates while accounting for dispersion, skewness, and the kurtosis of this distribution. SI was negatively associated with age and height in children aged 2-5 years, whereas a positive association was observed in children aged 6-10 years. The dip in SI occurred at older age for higher SI percentiles and was observed earlier in taller children than in smaller children. The CTX reference curves showed a linear-positive association with age and height. No major sex differences were observed for the SI and CTX reference values. These reference data lay the ground to evaluate bone growth and metabolism in prepubertal children in epidemiological and clinical settings. They may also inform clinical practice to monitor skeletal development and to assess adverse drug reactions during medical treatments.

  18. Prepubertal ultra-low-dose estrogen therapy is associated with healthier lipid profile than conventional estrogen replacement for pubertal induction in adolescent girls with Turner syndrome: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszala, Anna; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Zygmunt-Gorska, Agata; Janus, Dominika; Wojtys, Joanna; Starzyk, Jerzy B

    2017-08-01

    The metabolic effects of prepubertal low-dose estrogen replacement (LE) therapy in Turner syndrome (TS) have not been fully investigated to date. The present study aimed to compare glucose and lipids metabolism in adolescents with TS on LE and conventional estrogen replacement (CE). In 14 TS (mean age 13.8), LE (17β-estradiol, 62.5 μg daily) was introduced before age 12 (mean age 10.5), and followed by a pubertal induction regimen after age 12, and in 14 CE was started after age 12 (mean 14, SD 1.96). Before, and 3 years after starting 17β-estradiol growth velocity, bone age, BMI, and selected parameters of glucose and lipids metabolism were assessed. There were no significant differences between LE and CE in the mean levels of any parameter before introduction of 17β-estradiol [total cholesterol (TC): 4.1 vs 4.3 mmol/L, LDL cholesterol (LDLc): 2.2 vs 2.4 mmol/L, HDL cholesterol (HDLc): 1.6 vs 1.4 mmol/L, triglycerides: 0.9 vs 1.0 mmol/L, fasting glucose: 4.2 vs 4.4 mmol/L, post-load glucose: 4.8 vs 5.5 mmol/L; fasting insulin: 6.8 vs 8.0 post-load insulin: 21.3 vs 67.0 μIU/mL, HOMA-IR 1.3 vs 1.6]. After three years of treatment, TC and LDLc levels were significantly lower in LE group (3.8 vs 4.4 mmol/L, p = 0.004; 1.9 vs 2.4 mmol/L, p = 0.03). The other parameters did not differ significantly. There was no negative impact on growth course and bone age advancement nor on BMI in LE group. Prepubertal LE is associated with healthier lipid profile than CE in girls with TS.

  19. EFFICIENCY ON GROUP PROPHYLAXIS OF IODINE DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN LIVING IN IODINE DEFICIENCY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Kuchma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex examination detected that kalium iodide dosage 100 mkg daily promote a rapid normalization of median of ioduria in children aged 8 to 12 years. Even in a case of normal initial level of ioduria iod active at the same dosage doesn't promote an increase of median of ioduria over than optimum level. It wasn't detected any decrease of goiter frequency during 6 months of prophylaxis, while the level of some cognitive indexes (an attention and the frequency of absence from school by the reason of acute respiratory deseases significantly increased. It could be concluded, that iodine prophylaxis using iod active is more effective in mild goiter endemia combine to decrease of attention in prepubertal children. In the case of combination of moderate endemic goiter and normal cognitive function kalium iodide is more preferable in prophylaxis in children.Key words: children, iod deficiency, prophylaxis.

  20. Overweight and Underweight Prevalence Trends in Children from Romania - Pooled Analysis of Cross-Sectional Studies between 2006 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Cinteza, Elena Eliza; Chesaru, Bianca Ioana; Gafencu, Mihai; Mocanu, Veronica; Pascanu, Ionela M; Tatar, Simona Alexandra; Balgradean, Mihaela; Dobre, Michaela; Fica, Simona Vasilica; Ichim, Gabriela Edita; Pop, Raluca; Puiu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    High-quality national representative data on obesity in Romanian children are needed to shape public health policies. To provide a unified data landscape on national prevalence, trends and other factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in Romanian children aged 6-19 years, across the last decade (2006-2015). Using a common protocol, we selected published and unpublished studies that measured Romanian children in schools between 2006 and 2015. Children's BMI was classified using the current WHO, IOTF, and CDC references. 25,060 children from 8 Romanian counties were included in the analysis. The prevalence of underweight children was 5%/4.5%/8.5% (WHO/IOTF/CDC), while the prevalence of overweight (including obese) children was 28.3%/23%/23.2% (WHO/IOTF/CDC). The prevalence of overweight children did not change significantly over the last decade (chi-square test p = 0.6). Male gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.37; 95% CI 1.29-1.45, compared to female); prepubertal age (OR = 3.86; 95% CI 3.41-4.36,compared to postpubertal age), and urban environment (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.26, compared to rural environment) had higher risk for overweight. While the prevalence of underweight children was low, almost one in four children in Romania was overweight or obese (according to WHO criteria) between 2006 and 2015. This prevalence remained relatively stable over the last decade. Male gender, prepubertal age, and urban environment, were the most relevant risk factors associated with overweight status in Romanian children. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  2. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end...... (M3) of the school year. Data from individual heart rate curves of the Yo-Yo IE1 were analysed in order to detect the inflection point between an initial phase of fast rise in heart rate values and a second phase in which the rise of the heart rate values is much smaller. The distance covered...

  3. The relationship between motor skills and cognitive skills in 4-16 year old typically developing children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels, Irene M J; Te Wierike, Sanne C M; Hartman, Esther; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2015-11-01

    This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. A systematic review. PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21 articles were included in this study. Methodological quality was independently assessed by two reviewers. Motor and cognitive skills were divided into six categories. There was either no correlation in the literature, or insufficient evidence for or against many correlations between motor skills and cognitive skills. However, weak-to-strong evidence was found for some correlations between underlying categories of motor and cognitive skills, including complex motor skills and higher order cognitive skills. Furthermore, a stronger relationship between underlying categories of motor and cognitive skills was found in pre-pubertal children compared to pubertal children (older than 13 years). Weak-to-strong relations were found between some motor and cognitive skills. The results suggest that complex motor intervention programs can be used to stimulate both motor and higher order cognitive skills in pre-pubertal children. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Low Monotonic Doses of Zearalenone on Selected Reproductive Tissues in Pre-Pubertal Female Dogs—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gajęcka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in toxic substances combined with advancements in biological sciences has shed a new light on the problem of mycotoxins contaminating feeds and foods. An interdisciplinary approach was developed by identifying dose-response relationships in key research concepts, including the low dose theory of estrogen-like compounds, hormesis, NOAEL dose, compensatory response and/or food tolerance, and effects of exposure to undesirable substances. The above considerations increased the researchers’ interest in risk evaluation, namely: (i clinical symptoms associated with long-term, daily exposure to low doses of a toxic compound; and (ii dysfunctions at cellular or tissue level that do not produce clinical symptoms. Research advancements facilitate the extrapolation of results and promote the use of novel tools for evaluating the risk of exposure, for example exposure to zearalenone in pre-pubertal female dogs. The arguments presented in this paper suggest that low doses of zearalenone in commercial feeds stimulate metabolic processes and increase weight gains. Those processes are accompanied by lower proliferation rates in the ovaries, neoangiogenesis and vasodilation in the ovaries and the uterus, changes in the steroid hormone profile, and changes in the activity of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. All of the above changes result from exogenous hyperestrogenizm.

  5. Associations of beta-endorphin with HVA and MHPG in the plasma of prepubertal boys: effects of familial drug abuse and antisocial personality disorder liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, H B; Yao, J K

    1996-06-01

    It is well-established that the secretion of the opioid neuropeptide beta-endorphin is perturbed by the administration of various drugs of abuse. Several investigators have speculated that variations in beta-endorphin secretory regulation may precede the development of a substance use disorder, and thus be a component of the liability for substance abuse. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined fasting, morning plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin and two catecholamine metabolites in prepubertal boys naive to drugs of abuse and at elevated familial risk for a substance use disorder (SA+), and in controls (SA-). Specifically, the dopaminergic metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA), and the noradrenergic metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (pMHPG) were measured. Between-group differences were not found for beta-endorphin, pHVA, or pMHPG. Similarly, such differences did not differentiate sons of fathers with Antisocial Personality Disorder and controls. However, regression analysis revealed that although both pHVA and pMHPG predicted beta-endorphin concentrations to similar degrees, the directions of influence were the opposite. pHVA was found to be positively associated with beta-endorphin while pMHPG was found to be negatively associated with beta-endorphin. No between-group differences in these relationships were found. The results suggest an opponent process in catecholaminergic regulation of beta-endorphin in humans, and are consistent with observations in the central nervous system of animal models.

  6. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  7. Increased Risk for Vitamin D Deficiency in Obese Children with Both Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Setty-Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unknown whether the coexistence of type 1 diabetes (T1D and celiac disease (CD increases the risk for vitamin D deficiency. Aims. To determine the vitamin D status and the risk for vitamin D deficiency in prepubertal children with both T1D and CD compared to controls, TID, and CD. Subjects and Methods. Characteristics of 62 prepubertal children of age 2–13 y with either CD + T1D (n=22, 9.9 ± 3.1 y, CD only (n=18, 8.9 ± 3.3 y, or T1D only (n=22, 10.1 ± 2.8 y were compared to 49 controls of the age of 8.0 ± 2.6 years. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OHD 85th but 95th percentile. Results. The 4 groups had no difference in 25(OHD (ANOVA P=0.123 before stratification into normal-weight versus overweight/obese subtypes. Following stratification, 25(OHD differed significantly between the subgroups (F(3,98=10.109, ANOVA P<0.001. Post-hoc analysis showed a significantly lower 25(OHD in the overweight/obese CD + T1D compared to the overweight/obese controls (P=0.039 and the overweight/obese CD (P=0.003. Subjects with CD + T1D were 3 times more likely to be vitamin D deficient (OR = 3.1 [0.8–11.9], P=0.098, compared to controls. Conclusions. The coexistence of T1D and CD in overweight/obese prepubertal children may be associated with lower vitamin D concentration.

  8. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G.; Haras, G.; Mann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  9. The insulin-like growth factor axis and collagen turnover in asthmatic children treated with inhaled budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolthers, O D; Juul, A; Hansen, M

    1995-01-01

    ) and the amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were studied in 14 prepubertal children with asthma (mean age 9.7 years) during treatment with inhaled budesonide. The study design was a randomized, crossover trial with two double-blind treatment periods (200 and 800 micrograms) and one open......, non-randomized treatment period (400 micrograms). All periods were 18 days' duration. Budesonide treatment was associated with a dose-related suppressive trend in serum concentrations of PIIINP when the 400 micrograms period was included (p

  10. The insulin-like growth factor axis and collagen turnover in asthmatic children treated with inhaled budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolthers, O D; Juul, A; Hansen, M

    1995-01-01

    Serum concentrations of growth hormone-dependent insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), the carboxy terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the carboxy terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP......) and the amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were studied in 14 prepubertal children with asthma (mean age 9.7 years) during treatment with inhaled budesonide. The study design was a randomized, crossover trial with two double-blind treatment periods (200 and 800 micrograms) and one open...

  11. Triglycerides/High density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as a cardiometabolic risk marker in children and adolescents from Mérida city, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Miguel; Briceño, Yajaira; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Zerpa, Yajaira; Camacho, Nolis; Paoli, Mariela

    2018-02-01

    To determine the behavior of the triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL) as a cardiometabolic risk marker in children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela. A total of 1292 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years who attended educational institutions in the Libertador Municipality were enrolled into this study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure values were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels were measured. The TG/HDL ratio, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI indexes were calculated. Subjects were categorized as with and without cardiometabolic risk based on the presence or absence of 2or more risk factors. Cut-off points for the TG/HDL ratio were determined by constructing ROC curves. Significantly higher mean TG/HDL ratios were found in pubertal (2.2 ± 1.7) as compared to prepubertal subjects (1.8 ± 1.5; P=.001), with no sex differences. Two or more risk factors were found in 14.7% (n=192) of the participants, in whom TG/HDL ratios were significantly higher as compared to those with no risk (3.5±2.9 versus 1.6±0.8 in prepubertal and 4.1 ± 3.5 versus 1.8 ± 0.9 in pubertal subjects; P=.0001). According to cardiometabolic risk, cut-off points for the TG/HDL ratio of 1.8 and 2.5 were found for prepubertal and pubertal children respectively. These cut-off points showed risks (odds ratio) higher than 2.5 for conditions such as metabolic syndrome, elevated non-HDL-C, abdominal obesity, and elevated HOMA-IR. In this sample of children and adolescents, an elevated TG/HDLc ratio was found to be a good marker for predicting cardiometabolic risk. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Perirenal fat is related to carotid intima-media thickness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J-M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Xargay-Torrent, S; Lizarraga-Mollinedo, E; Feliu-Alsina, M; Riera-Pérez, E; Osiniri, I; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2018-04-01

    It is well known that increased abdominal fat is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk. Perirenal fat has been recently associated with CV risk in adults. However, studies with children are lacking. We investigated the relationship of perirenal fat and other abdominal fat depots (including preperitoneal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat) with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT-a surrogate marker of CV risk) in prepubertal children, so as to identify novel markers that can be easily assessed and used in the early prevention of cardiovascular disease. Subjects were 702 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children (418 lean, 142 overweight and 142 obese) who were recruited in a primary care setting. Ultrasound measurements (perirenal, preperitoneal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat and cIMT), clinical (body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure) and metabolic parameters (insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and serum lipids) were assessed. Perirenal fat was associated with diverse metabolic and CV risk factors in all the studied subjects. However, in overweight and obese children, perirenal fat was mostly associated with cIMT (Pfat depot that showed independent associations with cIMT in multivariate analyses (overweight chidren: β=0.250, P=0.003, r 2 =12.8%; obese children: β=0.254, P=0.002, r 2 =15.5%) after adjusting for BMI, gender, age and metabolic parameters. Perirenal fat was also the only fat depot that showed independent associations with HMW-adiponectin in obese children (β=-0.263, P=0.006, r 2 =22.8%). Perirenal fat is the main abdominal fat depot associated with cIMT, especially in overweight and obese children, and may thus represent a helpful parameter for assessing CV risk in the pediatric population.

  13. Physical fitness as an indicator of health status and its relationship to academic performance during the prepubertal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Del Pozo, Francisco Javier; Alonso, Joaquín Valle; Álvarez, Manuel Vaquero; Orr, Siobhan; Cantarero, Francisco Jesús Llorente

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is considered one of the most important determinants of the health status in children, and predictor of morbidity/mortality in adults. The aim is to examine the relationship between physical fitness (PF), PA, obesity and academic performance (AP) in primary school children. Methods: Cross-sectional studies including 91 primary school students, aged 9 to 12 years, from the province of Córdoba. Data was collected from April to June 2014. We measured PF using part of the EUROFIT fitness testing battery. The level of PA was measured as low or high PF and the level of obesity was measured using body mass index, waist circumference, percentage of fat mass, lean body mass, percentage of lean mass and basal metabolism. AP by scores on the second quarter was based on the total average of scores of basic subjects and other subjects, including physical education. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Spanish overall and factorial intelligence test. Results: The results of AP were positively related to levels of PF. Students who achieve better PF score better in Maths, (P=0.019), Natural Sciences (P=0.024), Religion (P=0.018) and Physical Education (Plevels of fitness. Therefore, the education system should consider implementing curriculum strategies favouring the improvement of the PF, and therefore the health and AP of students.

  14. Sleep disturbance as detected by actigraphy in pre-pubertal juvenile monkeys receiving therapeutic doses of fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Mari S; Hogrefe, Casey E

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a reported side effect of antidepressant drugs in children. Using a nonhuman primate model of childhood selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy, sleep was studied quantitatively with actigraphy. Two 48-h sessions were recorded in the home cage environment of juvenile male rhesus monkeys at two and three years of age, after one and two years of treatment with a therapeutic dose of the SSRI fluoxetine, and compared to vehicle treated controls. A third session was conducted one year after discontinuation of treatment at four years of age. During treatment, the fluoxetine group demonstrated sleep fragmentation as indexed by a greater number of rest-activity transitions compared to controls. In addition fluoxetine led to more inactivity during the day as indexed by longer duration of rest periods and the reduced activity during these periods. The fluoxetine effect on sleep fragmentation, but not on daytime rest, was modified by the monkey's genotype for polymorphisms of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), an enzyme that metabolizes serotonin. After treatment, the fluoxetine effect on nighttime rest-activity transitions persisted, but daytime activity was not affected. The demonstration in this nonhuman primate model of sleep disturbance in connection with fluoxetine treatment and specific genetic polymorphisms, and in the absence of diagnosed psychopathology, can help inform use of this drug in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in Parent- and Teacher-Rated Emotional, Conduct and ADHD Problems and Their Impact in Prepubertal Children in Great Britain: 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Ruth; Maughan, Barbara; Pickles, Andrew; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence from Western countries indicates marked increases in diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders in recent years. These could reflect changes in prevalence of mental health problems, changes in their impact or increased clinical recognition and help-seeking. Epidemiological cross-cohort comparisons are required…

  16. Clinical Relevance of Transforming Growth Factor-β1, Interleukin-6 and Haptoglobin for Prediction of Obesity Complications in Prepubertal Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas R. El-Alameey

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. High levels of interleukin-6 and haptoglobin are considered to be early biomarkers of inflammation associated with severe obesity with subsequent cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk.

  17. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born...

  18. Physical fitness as an indicator of health status and its relationship to academic performance during the prepubertal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Fonseca del Pozo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA is considered one of the most important determinants of the health status in children, and predictor of morbidity/mortality in adults. The aim is to examine the relationship between physical fitness (PF, PA, obesity and academic performance (AP in primary school children Methods: Cross-sectional studies including 91 primary school students, aged 9 to 12 years, from the province of Córdoba. Data was collected from April to June 2014. We measured PF using part of the EUROFIT fitness testing battery. The level of PA was measured as low or high PF and the level of obesity was measured using body mass index, waist circumference, percentage offal mass, lean body mass, percentage of lean mass and basal metabolism. AP by scores on the second quarter was based on the total average of scores of basic subjects and other subjects, including physical education. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Spanish overall and factorial intelligence test.Results: The results of AP were positively related to levels of PF. Students who achieve better PF score better in Maths, (P=0.019, Natural Sciences (P=0.024, Religion (P=0.018 and Physical Education (P<0.001. A direct association between maximal aerobic capacity with Mathematics (r=0.325, P=0.02, AP (r=0.349, P=0.001 and cognitive performance (CP(r=0.312, P=0.003 was observed. There was also a direct association of better jump tests with higher AP (r=0.328, P=0.002.Conclusion: The AP is associated with higher levels of fitness. Therefore, the education system should consider implementing curriculum strategies favouring the improvement of the PF, and therefore the health and AP of students.

  19. Genetic evidence that thyroid hormone is indispensable for prepubertal insulin-like growth factor-I expression and bone acquisition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Weirong; Govoni, Kristen E; Donahue, Leah Rae; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Wergedal, Jon; Long, Carlin; Bassett, J H Duncan; Gogakos, Apostolos; Wojcicka, Anna; Williams, Graham R; Mohan, Subburaman

    2012-05-01

    Understanding how bone growth is regulated by hormonal and mechanical factors during early growth periods is important for optimizing the attainment of peak bone mass to prevent or postpone the occurrence of fragility fractures later in life. Using genetic mouse models that are deficient in thyroid hormone (TH) (Tshr(-/-) and Duox2(-/-)), growth hormone (GH) (Ghrhr(lit/lit)), or both (Tshr(-/-); Ghrhr(lit/lit)), we demonstrate that there is an important period prior to puberty when the effects of GH are surprisingly small and TH plays a critical role in the regulation of skeletal growth. Daily administration of T3/T4 during days 5 to 14, the time when serum levels of T3 increase rapidly in mice, rescued the skeletal deficit in TH-deficient mice but not in mice lacking both TH and GH. However, treatment of double-mutant mice with both GH and T3/T4 rescued the bone density deficit. Increased body fat in the TH-deficient as well as TH/GH double-mutant mice was rescued by T3/T4 treatment during days 5 to 14. In vitro studies in osteoblasts revealed that T3 in the presence of TH receptor (TR) α1 bound to a TH response element in intron 1 of the IGF-I gene to stimulate transcription. In vivo studies using TRα and TRβ knockout mice revealed evidence for differential regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I expression by the two receptors. Furthermore, blockade of IGF-I action partially inhibited the biological effects of TH, thus suggesting that both IGF-I-dependent and IGF-I-independent mechanisms contribute to TH effects on prepubertal bone acquisition. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  20. Neonatal hypothyroidism affects testicular glucose homeostasis through increased oxidative stress in prepubertal mice: effects on GLUT3, GLUT8 and Cx43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, D; Singh, S K

    2017-07-01

    homeostasis via increased oxidative stress in prepubertal mice, thereby affecting germ cell survival and proliferation. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  2. INTERMITTENT HYPOBARIC HYPOXIC STIMULATION IN TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA AT THE PERIOD OF REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Alemanova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is one of the widespread chronic diseases of lungs. Immune mechanisms of disorder are one of the causes which lead to pathologic changes in lungs. The aim: to determine the clinical and immunologic effectiveness of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation of treatment of children with bronchial asthma of prepubertal and pubertal periods. In the present work there were observed the clinical and immunologic parameters of 129 children with the verified atopic bronchial asthma of different degree at the remission period before and after the course of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation in conditions of the medical hypobaric pressure chamber with many seats «Ural'1». Clinic effectiveness of hypobaric hypoxic stimulation revealed in continuation of remissions and diminishing of total numerical score of asthma degree. The positive dynamic indexes of cytokine profile was observed. It revealed in reduction of IL 1_, IL 4, IL 5, IL 18 levels and stimulated production of IFN - in blood serum. The course of hypobaric hypoxic stimulation has the positive impact on the named indexes of the patients with bronchial asthma and its intensity depends on the degree of disease and of the age of the child' patient. Thus the use of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation in treatment of children's with bronchial asthma led to the immunologic positive dynamics, especially of the children of prepubertal period. Determination of the immunologic indexes and the level of the cytokines can be used as the additional tests for the evaluation of the effectiveness of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation of children.Key words: bronchial asthma, periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation, cytokines, children.

  3. Copeptin in obese children and adolescents: relationships to body mass index, cortisol and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Juliane; Kulle, Alexandra; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Toschke, Christina; Lass, Nina; Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Copeptin has been reported to be associated with stress, obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, data in childhood are scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationships between copeptin, cortisol, puberty and parameters of the MetS in children. Cross-sectional study. A total of 51 obese children (10·8 ± 3·2 years, 39% male, 45% prepubertal, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) 2·77 ± 0·56) and 24 lean children of similar age, gender and pubertal stage. Copeptin, serum cortisol, 24-h urinary free cortisol, BMI-SDS and, as parameters of the MetS, insulin resistance index (HOMA), HbA1c, uric acids, blood pressure and lipids. Copeptin levels were significantly (P = 0·047) higher in obese children (5·8 ± 2·8pmol/l) compared to lean children (4·6 ± 2·2pmol/l). BMI-SDS (β-coefficient 0·38 ± 0·35, P =0·033), but not any parameter of the MetS, was significantly related to copeptin in multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender and pubertal stage. A 24-h urinary free cortisol (β-coefficient 0·13 ± 0·06, P cortisol, was significantly related to copeptin in multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, pubertal stage and BMI-SDS. Pubertal boys (6·6 ± 2·8pmol/l) demonstrated significantly (P = 0·042) higher copeptin levels compared to pubertal girls (4·8 ± 2·6pmol/l), while copeptin concentrations did not differ between prepubertal girls and boys. Copeptin levels are related to 24-h urinary free cortisol in obese children. Pubertal boys, but not prepubertal boys, demonstrated higher copeptin levels than girls, suggesting that sex hormones are involved in the regulation of copeptin levels. Further studies are necessary to understand the relationship between obesity, cortisol, gender, pubertal stage and copeptin levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Maintaining Euthyroidism: Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological ..... The active catalytic center of D1, D2, and D3 contains the amino acid ..... educed appetite; impaired protein metabolism; reduced glucose deposition ..... insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  6. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass; Trabekulaere Knochendichte der Lendenwirbelsaeule bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in der quantitativen CT: Referenzwerte und Peak Bone Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G. [Kinderradiologie, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany); Haras, G. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Mann, M. [AG Medizinische Statistik, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  7. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) in prepubertal girls and young women: an analysis of parents' and patients' decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Pyke, Chantae S; Carlson, Claire A; Prewitt, Maureen; Gracia, Clarisa R; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the decision-making influences, perceived level of control over decision-making, and mood states of parents and patients who were offered OTC prior to gonadotoxic therapy. Parents and patients, at least 12 years old, who required gonadotoxic therapy and were offered OTC prior to therapy, were asked to complete questionnaires. Two validated instruments were also used: the Decision-Making Control Instrument (DMCI) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The factors that influenced decision-making were compared using Student's t test, and the scores of DMCI and POMS were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Thirty-six parents and 16 patients who elected ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) completed questionnaires. Five parents who declined OTC also completed questionnaires. Accepters thought OTC was a good idea and that, in the future, science would enable cryopreserved ovarian tissue to be used to restore fertility (100% parents, 93.8% patients). Among accepters, the desire for genetically related children and prevention of the stress of infertility drove parents' and patients' decisions (90.9 and 100%, respectively). The desire to prevent the stress of infertility was important to parents, but patients were less likely to report that a desire to prevent the stress of infertility factored into their decision-making (66.7 vs. 50.0%; p decision and displayed low levels of mood disturbance. Though the decision to undergo experimental OTC is difficult and often urgent, this study suggests that families feel in control of their decision-making and report little emotional disturbance.

  8. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aquila, M. E.; Bogliolo, L.; Russo, R.; Martino, N. A.; Filioli Uranio, M.; Ariu, F.; Amati, F.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Linsalata, V.; Ferruzzi, M. G.; Cardinali, A.; Minervini, F.

    2014-01-01

    Verbascoside (VB) is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS) fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs. PMID:24719893

  9. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dell'Aquila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs.

  10. Growth in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with and without prophylactic cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moell, C.; Garwicz, S.; Marky, L.; Melander, L.; Karlberg, J.

    1988-01-01

    Growth and weight gain were studied longitudinally over a period of four years in thirty-nine children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The children were divided into two groups according to treatment. Twenty-eight children were given prophylactic cranial irradiation and eleven children were treated without such irradiation. The duration of cytostatic treatment was three years in all cases. Average growth during the first two years was similar in the two groups, and the standard deviation scores (SDS) were below average. The rate of growth during the fourth year was significantly higher among those children who had not received cranial irradiation. After four years the average attained height had declined 0.5 SD for children treated with cranial irradiation and 0.2 SD for children without such treatment. Attained weight after four years had increased 0.4 SD more among those children who had not received irradiation. The results suggest that prophylactic cranial irradiation is responsible for the greater part of the prepubertal growth inhibition in these children. (authors)

  11. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  12. The effects of oxcarbazepine and valproate therapies on growth in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansu, Ali; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Serdaroglu, Ayse; Camurdan, Orhun; Hirfanoglu, Tugba Luleci; Karaoglu, Abdulbaki; Bideci, Aysun; Cinaz, Peyami

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of monotherapy with valproate or oxcarbazepine on the linear growth of children with idiopathic epilepsy. Antiepileptic treatment with valproate or oxcarbazepine was initiated in 76 patients. These were evaluated at baseline and at 6 and 18 months after commencement of therapy to determine height standard deviations (height z-scores). Serum ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels were measured. In prepubertal patients receiving oxcarbazepine, height z-scores were elevated after 6 and 18 months of therapy (p = 0.008 and p = 0.001, respectively); in pubertal patients, a significant increase was noted at the 18th month of therapy (p = 0.004). In prepubertal patients receiving oxcarbazepine, serum standardized insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels were significantly higher at the 18th month of therapy compared with baseline (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively). In puber-tal patients receiving valproate, serum ghrelin levels were significantly decreased at the 18th month of therapy compared with baseline (p = 0.006). Exposure to oxcarbazepine stimulated linear growth in epileptic patients through mechanisms involving the release of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3. In contrast, expo-sure to valproate did not affect linear growth, but did lead to a decrease in serum ghrelin levels.

  13. The effects of growht hormone therapy in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Whitehead, E.; Chapman, A.J.; Beardwell, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy were studied in 6 children, previously treated for brain tumours which did not directly involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and who had received cranial irradiation between 2.1 and 10 years earlier. All 6 were short with a standing height standard deviation score (SDS) from -1.7 to -3.3. Impaired growth hormone responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) were observed in all 6 and a Bovril stimulation test in 5 children. The remainder of pituitary function was essentially normal. All 6 were prepubertal and 5 had a retarded bone age. Subsequently all received human GH in a dose of 5 units 3 times weekly for 1 year. The growth rate in each was at least 2 cm greater during the treatment year than the pre-treatment year.(author)

  14. High density lipoproteins as indicators of endothelial dysfunction in children with diadetes type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanova S.M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the level of blood high density lipoproteins (HDL in the groups of children with different course of diadetes type I in order to find out the dependence of course and complications of diabetes on that level. Materials and methods: Blood high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were investigated in children and adolescents with diadetes type I, depending on the duration of diadetes type I, age, stage of sexual development, the stage of diabetic nephropathy and levels of plasma endothelin-1 (E-1. Results: Decrease in HDL level with increasing duration of diadetes type I in prepubertate patients, higher indices of HDL cholesterol were determined in girls, especially with impaired puberty. HDL cholesterol was higher in diabetic nephropathy at the stage of proteinuria and high level of blood endothelin-1. Conclusion: The revealed changes were considered to cause deregulation of vascular endothelium as a manifestation of the initial stages of endothelial dysfunction

  15. Relationship between HOMA-IR and serum vitamin D in Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingli; Wang, Huiyan; Wen, Huaikai; Tao, Hongqun; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level in Chinese children and adolescents. Anthropometric indices, lipid metabolic profile, and serum levels of glucose, insulin and 25-OHD were determined among 278 healthy prepubertal and pubertal, normal and overweight/obese children and adolescents aged 8-18 years between March 2014 and February 2015. HOMA-IR was significantly different across vitamin D statuses (pHOMA-IR negatively correlated with serum 25-OHD level for all subjects (R2=0.148, pHOMA-IR and BMI and serum 25-OHD level (R2=0.654, pHOMA-IR. Our findings supported that lower vitamin D status is strongly associated with worse HOMA-IR.

  16. Adaptations in movement performance after plyometric training on mini-trampoline in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabatzi, Fotini

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in postural control and skill performance are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of trampoline plyometrics on postural control, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Twenty-two school children were assigned to either a trampoline group (TPLG, N.=12, 7 girls and 5 boys, age =9.30±0.55 years) or a control group (CG, N.=12, 8 girls and 4 boys, age =9.30±0.55 years). The TPLG participated in 4 weeks plyometric training on a mini-trampoline (3 times per week) integrated in their physical education lessons while the CG attended the standard physical education curriculum at school. Pre- and postintervention included the measurements of postural sway and maximum height in countermovement and drop jump. Postural sway decreased significantly (Ptrampoline training, close supervision by experienced personnel is recommended.

  17. Impact of Gender, Age at Onset, and Lifetime Tic Disorders on the Clinical Presentation and Comorbidity Pattern of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanidir, Canan; Adaletli, Hilal; Gunes, Hatice; Kilicoglu, Ali Guven; Mutlu, Caner; Bahali, Mustafa Kayhan; Aytemiz, Tugce; Uneri, Ozden Sukran

    2015-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous disorder; therefore, there is a need for identifying more homogeneous subtypes. This study aimed to examine the clinical characteristics and comorbidity pattern of a large sample of pediatric OCD subjects, and to examine the impact of gender, age at onset, and lifetime tic disorders on the clinical presentation and comorbidity pattern. A total of 110 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD were assessed using the Kiddle Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) for psychiatric comorbidity, and a clinical data form was filled out. The cutoff for differentiating prepubertal from adolescent onset was 11 years of age. A total of 83.6% of the subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder and contamination/somatic obsessions were significantly higher in males (p=0.036 and p=0.03, respectively) than in females. Depressive disorders and religious obsessions were significantly higher in the adolescent-onset group (p=0.02, p=0.05, respectively) whereas disruptive behavior disorders were higher in the prepubertal-onset group (p=0.037). Disruptive behavior disorders were significantly more frequent in the tic (+) group than in tic (-) group (p=0.021). There were differences in the comorbidity pattern and clinical expression between genders and between prepubertal and adolescent-onset cases. Findings of this study supported the introduction of tic-related OCD as a specifier in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5), and the necessity of a detailed assessment of other psychiatric disorders in youth with OCD.

  18. Effect of growth hormone therapy and puberty on bone and body composition in children with idiopathic short stature and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högler, Wolfgang; Briody, Julie; Moore, Bin; Lu, Pei Wen; Cowell, Christopher T

    2005-11-01

    The state of bone health and the effect of growth hormone (GH) therapy on bone and body composition in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) are largely unknown. A direct role of GH deficiency (GHD) on bone density is controversial. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, this study measured total body bone mineral content (TB BMC), body composition, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) in 77 children (aged 3-17 years) with ISS (n = 57) and GHD (n = 20). Fifty-five children (GHD = 13) receiving GH were followed over 24 months including measurement of bone turnover. At diagnosis, size-corrected TB BMC SDS was greater (P bone relation, as assessed by the BMC/lean mass (LTM) ratio SDS was not different between groups. During GH therapy, prepubertal GHD children gained more height (1.58 [0.9] SDS) and LTM (0.87 [0.63] SDS) compared to prepubertal ISS children (0.75 [0.27] and 0.17 [0.25] SDS, respectively). Percent body fat decreased in GHD (-5.94% [4.29]) but not in ISS children. Total body BMC accrual was less than predicted in all groups accompanied by an increase in bone turnover. Puberty led to the greatest absolute, but not relative, increments in weight, LTM, BMI, bone mass, and LSvBMD. Our results show that children with ISS and GHD differ in their response to GH therapy in anthropometry, body composition, and bone measures. Despite low vBMD values at diagnosis in both prepubertal groups, size-corrected regional or TB bone data were generally within the normal range and did not increase during GH therapy in GHD or ISS children. Growth hormone had great effects on the growth plate and body composition with subsequent gains in height, LTM, bone turnover, and bone mass accrual, but no benefit for volumetric bone density over 2 years.

  19. Serum concentration of thyroxin and thyroid stimulating hormone in children suspected of thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S.; Syed, Z.; Rasheed, H.; Aman, Z.; Yasmeen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate serum concentration of free thyroxin (FT/sub 4/) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as thyroid dysfunctions in children attending CENUM, Mayo Hospital Lahore. A total of 227 children (131 female and 96 male) were selected for this study. Their age range was 1 to 12 years (mean 7.6 +- 3.4 years). 45 (19.8%) children had goiter with significantly more frequency in female as compared to male children (28.2% V s 8.3%; p<0.05). More than 70% of the children had F/sub 4/ and TSH within their respective normal ranges (euthyroid). Thyroid dysfunctions were detected in 11.0% children (7.5% hypothyroidism; 3.5% hyperthyroidism). Only the incidence of hyperthyroidism was significantly more in goiterous children. There was no significant difference in the incidence of hyperthyroidism but hypothyroidism was significant (p<0.05) more common in female children. (author)

  20. O efeito do destreinamento de força muscular em meninos pré-púberes El efecto del desentrenamiento muscular en niños pre-puberes Effect of the muscular strength detraining in prepubertal boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Silveira da Fontoura

    2004-08-01

    ó significativamente (p The strength trainability in children has been widely explored, however, there is still a questioning with regard to how strength decreases when they stop training. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of muscular strength detraining of boys trained for 12 weeks. Seven prepubertal boys (EX 9.4 ± 1.6 years of age trained three series of 15 repetitions, three times a week for 12 weeks. The training, supervised and developed in equipments, consisted of eight exercises including knee extension (KE and elbow flexion (EF. The 1-RM test of NE and EF was performed before and after training and 12 weeks after detraining. A similar group of boys (n = 7, 9.7 ± 1.7 years, who did not train served as control (CO. After training, the group EX increased (p 0,05. When corrected by the body weight and by the lean body mass (LBM, the 1-RM of NE decreased significantly (p > 0,05 from 0.64 ± 0.1 to 0.45 ± 0.1 and from 0.83 ± 0.2 to 0.61 ± 0.2 of the body weight and LBM, respectively. The EF strength did not decrease significantly when corrected by the body weight and LBM. The strength levels did not change in the first 12 weeks for group CO, however, after 24 weeks, it presented an increase of 41% in the 1-RM of KE and 53% in EF. One concludes that, after detraining, the muscular strength presented no significant reduction in absolute values; the results are significant only when corrected by weight and LBM and it is only evidenced for the lower limbs.

  1. Knemometry is more sensitive to systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma than 24-hour urine cortisol excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo; Nilsson, Erik; Nørgaard, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pharmacodynamic assessment of the systemic effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) is often done by measuring 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) excretion. Knemometry assessing short-term lower-leg growth rate (LLGR) is a more rarely used alternative. Objective: The primary aim...... of this study was to compare the sensitivity of LLGR and 24-hour UFC excretion for evaluating systemic exposure to ICSs in prepubertal children with asthma. The secondary aim was to evaluate factors influencing the precision of LLGR calculated by the traditional 1 leg nonparametric method versus a new 2 leg...... parametric method. Methods: The study evaluated 60 children with mild asthma aged 5 to 12 years participating in a randomized controlled trial of ICSs with longitudinal concomitant assessments of LLGR and 24-hour UFC excretion. The sensitivity of the safety assessments was analyzed by comparing LLGR and 24...

  2. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation on endocrine function in children with brain tumors. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Voorhess, M.L.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Brecher, M.L.; Panahon, A.; Gilani, B.B.

    1985-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the endocrine function of 11 children treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) for brain tumors. All tumors were remote from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Children were studied before treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of CRT. T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, plasma cortisol, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone values were normal before and after treatment in all patients. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency was identified in 0 of 7 patients before treatment, in 2 of 7 patients 3 months post-CRT, in 9 of 11 patients 6 months post-CRT, and in 7 of 8 patients 12 months post-CRT. Growth deceleration was identified in five of seven prepubertal patients. GH deficiency is an extremely common sequelae of CRT, beginning as early as 3 months after the completion of CRT. The deficit is progressive over time

  3. Short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude in children compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriemler, S; Radtke, T; Bürgi, F; Lambrecht, J; Zehnder, M; Brunner-La Rocca, H P

    2016-02-01

    As short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude (HA) exposure has not yet been studied in children, we assessed acute mountain sickness (AMS), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at rest and maximal exercise capacity (CPET) at low altitude (LA) and HA in pre-pubertal children and their fathers. Twenty father-child pairs (11 ± 1 years and 44 ± 4 years) were tested at LA (450 m) and HA (3450 m) at days 1, 2, and 3 after fast ascent (HA1/2/3). HVR was measured at rest and CPET was performed on a cycle ergometer. AMS severity was mild to moderate with no differences between generations. HVR was higher in children than adults at LA and increased at HA similarly in both groups. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) relative to body weight was similar in children and adults at LA and decreased significantly by 20% in both groups at HA; maximal heart rate did not change at HA in children while it decreased by 16% in adults (P < 0.001). Changes in HVR and VO2 peak from LA to HA were correlated among the biological child-father pairs. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory adaptation to altitude seems to be at least partly hereditary. Even though children and their fathers lose similar fractions of aerobic capacity going to high altitude, the mechanisms might be different. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Physical fitness reference standards in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Gracia-Marco, L; Ortega, F B; Intemann, T; Foraita, R; Lissner, L; Oja, L; Barba, G; Michels, N; Tornaritis, M; Molnár, D; Pitsiladis, Y; Ahrens, W; Moreno, L A

    2014-09-01

    A low fitness status during childhood and adolescence is associated with important health-related outcomes, such as increased future risk for obesity and cardiovascular diseases, impaired skeletal health, reduced quality of life and poor mental health. Fitness reference values for adolescents from different countries have been published, but there is a scarcity of reference values for pre-pubertal children in Europe, using harmonised measures of fitness in the literature. The IDEFICS study offers a good opportunity to establish normative values of a large set of fitness components from eight European countries using common and well-standardised methods in a large sample of children. Therefore, the aim of this study is to report sex- and age-specific fitness reference standards in European children. Children (10,302) aged 6-10.9 years (50.7% girls) were examined. The test battery included: the flamingo balance test, back-saver sit-and-reach test (flexibility), handgrip strength test, standing long jump test (lower-limb explosive strength) and 40-m sprint test (speed). Moreover, cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a 20-m shuttle run test. Percentile curves for the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentiles were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Our results show that boys performed better than girls in speed, lower- and upper-limb strength and cardiorespiratory fitness, and girls performed better in balance and flexibility. Older children performed better than younger children, except for cardiorespiratory fitness in boys and flexibility in girls. Our results provide for the first time sex- and age-specific physical fitness reference standards in European children aged 6-10.9 years.

  5. Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slavica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT is a common cause of goitre and hypothyroidism in children and adolescents. Spontaneous remission may occur in up to 50% patients, but the development of hypothyroidism is possible. OBJECTIVE We investigated the clinical manifestations, course and long-term outcome of HT. METHOD We reviewed charts of 43 children (36 females with HT, mean age at presentation 12.3 years, and mean follow-up duration 4.6 years. RESULTS HT is five times more common in females. The common complaints leading to referral were goitre in 19 children (44.3%, diffuse in 17 children (89.5%. As to the prevalence of goitre, it accounted for significantly more referrals in females (14 girls, and 5 boys; 73.7% vs 26.3%, t-test; p<0.005. Goitre was either isolated in 15 (34.4% or associated with other complaints in 4 children: anemia in 7 (16.2%, fatigue in 5 (11.8%, increased appetite in 4 (9.7%, weight gain in 3 (7.0%, growth retardation in 2 children (4.7%, at irregular menses in 3 pubertal girls. Hypothyroidism was present in 18 patients (41.1%, 7 (38.8% on initial admission, and 11 (61.8% had the mean follow-up duration of 4.6 years. There were 25 euthyroid HT patients (59.9%. The family history of the thyroid disease was positive in 16 children (37.1% and 12 of them (71.4% had hypothyroidism. There were 6 patients (13.9% in whom the disease was associated with some other autoimmune disease. CONCLUSION HT is five times more common in females. The usual complaints leading to referral were diffuse goitre, which accounted for significantly more referrals in females. A positive family history of autoimmune thyroid disease is associated with a higher risk of hypothyroidism in children with HT. Hypothyroid patients may appear in higher percentage of children and adolescents than previously reported.

  6. In-vitro formation of the blood-testis barrier during long-term organotypic culture of human prepubertal tissue: comparison with a large cohort of pre/peripubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Michele, F; Poels, J; Giudice, M G; De Smedt, F; Ambroise, J; Vermeulen, M; Gruson, D; Wyns, C

    2018-03-12

    How does the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), as reflected by the expression of connexin 43 and claudin 11 proteins during the pubertal transition period, take place in vitro compared to samples from a large cohort of pre/peripubertal boys? The BTB connexin 43 and claudin 11 expression patterns appeared to be partially achieved in organotypic culture when compared to that in samples from 71 pre/peripubertal patients. Although alterations in the protein expression patterns of the BTB, whose main components are connexin 43 and claudin 11, are known to be associated with impaired spermatogenesis in mice and adult men, there is a lack of knowledge on its formation in pre-peripubertal human tissue both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, despite Sertoli cell (SC) maturation during long-term organotypic culture of immature testicular tissue (ITT), initiation of spermatogenesis has not yet been achieved. Histological sections from 71 pre-peripubertal patients were evaluated for the formation of the BTB acting as in-vivo controls according to age, SC maturation, clinical signs of puberty and germ cell differentiation. Testicular tissue fragments retrieved from three prepubertal boys were cultured in a long term organotypic system to analyze the BTB formation and expression pattern in correlation with SC maturation. Testicular histological sections from 71 patients aged 0-16 years who underwent a biopsy between 2005 and 2014 to preserve their fertility before gonadotoxic treatment were examined. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results for connexin 43 and claudin 11 as BTB markers, using a semi-quantitative score for their expression, and for Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), as SC maturation marker, were analyzed. Germ cell differentiation was evaluated on Hematoxylin-Eosin sections. Tanner stages at the time of biopsy were recorded from medical files. A longitudinal analysis of connexin 43, claudin 11 and AMH expressions on immunohistological sections of organotypic

  7. Serum Hepcidin and Soluble Transferrin Receptor in the Assessment of Iron Metabolism in Children on a Vegetarian Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Mazur, Joanna; Gajewska, Joanna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Chełchowska, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diet on iron metabolism parameters paying special attention to serum hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in 43 prepubertal children (age range 4.5-9.0 years) on vegetarian and in 46 children on omnivorous diets. There were no significant differences according to age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) between vegetarian and omnivorous children. Vegetarians had similar intake of iron and vitamin B 12 and a significantly higher intake of vitamin C (p vegetarians. Hematologic parameters and serum iron concentrations were within the reference range in both groups of children. Serum transferrin levels were similar in all subjects; however, ferritin concentrations were significantly (p vegetarians than in omnivores. In children on a vegetarian diet, median hepcidin levels were lower (p vegetarians. We did not find significant associations with concentration of sTfR and selected biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary parameters in any of the studied groups of children. As hematologic parameters and iron concentrations in vegetarians and omnivores were comparable and ferritin level was lower in vegetarians, we suggest that inclusion of novel markers, in particular sTfR (not cofounded by inflammation) and hepcidin, can better detect subclinical iron deficiency in children following vegetarian diets.

  8. Evaluation of the Markers Affecting Obesity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Metin Donma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased prevalence of obese children has been observed in developed and to a lesser degree in developing countries. Childhood obesity is important because it provides a basis for the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. As a result of the increased obesity prevalence, the number of children with metabolic syndrome (MetS is also increased. The aim of this study is to evaluate markers that differ between morbid obese (MO and MO + MetS children. A total of eighty prepubertal children, thirty with normal body mass index (NW, twentyfive MO and twenty five MO + MetS, were included into the study. Groups were constituted using age- and sex-dependent BMI percentile tables created by WHO. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Body mass index values were calculated. Routine biochemical parameters were performed. Leptin, adiponectin, resistin, vaspin, chemerin, progranulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein, high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were determined by ELISA. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Values of p < 0.05 were statistically significant. Chemerin, hsCRP, leptin and adiponectin levels were higher (p ≤ 0.01 in MO and lower (p ≤ 0.01 in MO + MetS groups than those of NW group, respectively. Progranulin was the only parameter showing severe statistical significance between all groups (p ≤ 0.001. Higher values for vaspin were obtained in children with MO + MetS than those of NW group (p ≤ 0.05. Upon evaluation of markers affecting obesity, progranulin was reported as the unique parameter, which differs between MO and MO + MetS children. The evaluation of this parameter will be more informative than the other diagnostic parameters of MetS.

  9. A systematic review: plyometric training programs for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara A; Salzberg, Charles L; Stevenson, David A

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of plyometric training for improving motor performance in young children; to determine if this type of training could be used to improve the strength, running speed, agility, and jumping ability of children with low motor competence; and to examine the extent and quality of the current research literature. Primary research articles were selected if they (a) described the outcomes of a plyometric exercise intervention; (b) included measures of strength, balance, running speed, jumping ability, or agility; (c) included prepubertal children 5-14 years of age; and (d) used a randomized control trial or quasiexperimental design. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for the final review. The 7 studies were judged to be of low quality (values of 4-6). Plyometric training had a large effect on improving the ability to run and jump. Preliminary evidence suggests plyometric training also had a large effect on increasing kicking distance, balance, and agility. The current evidence suggests that a twice a week program for 8-10 weeks beginning at 50-60 jumps a session and increasing exercise load weekly results in the largest changes in running and jumping performance. An alternative program for children who do not have the capability or tolerance for a twice a week program would be a low-intensity program for a longer duration. The research suggests that plyometric training is safe for children when parents provide consent, children agree to participate, and safety guidelines are built into the intervention.

  10. Adrenergic system participation on LH secretion in pre-pubertal Nelore heifers Participação do sistema adrenérgico na secreção de LH, em novilhas nelores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Paula Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of clonidine administration (alfa-adrenoceptor agonist, 10g/kg body weight, i.v. and blood collected every 15 min for 4 h thereafter on luteinizing hormone (LH secretion in B. indicus pre-pubertal heifers at 8, 12 e 15 months of age. LH was quantified by RIA, sensitivity (0.05 ng/mL and coefficient of variation (20.39%. Alfa-adrenoceptor action (clonidine reduced (P<0,05 basal LH and time to greatest peak occurrence at 15 months-old and increased (P>0,05 peak total area and area of highest peak of LH secretion to 8 months-old. The results suggest reduced hypothalamic sensibility by gonadal steroid in pre-pubertal Nelore heifer maturation sexual and clonidine neurotransmitter participation, either stimulating or inhibiting LH secretion.Objetivou-se com este trabalho investigar a variação na secreção do hormônio luteinizante (LH em resposta ao tratamento com clonidina (agonista alfa-adrenérgico, 10µg/kg, i.v., amostras 15 min por 4h, em novilhas da raça Nelore pré-púberes aos 8, 12 e 15 meses de idade. A concentração de LH foi quantificada por radioimunoensaio, sensibilidade de 0,05 ng/mL e coeficiente de variação de 20,39%. A ativação de receptores alfa-adrenérgicos por intermédio da clonidina diminuiu (P<0,05 a concentração de LH e o tempo necessário para o aparecimento do maior pico de LH aos 15 meses de idade e aumentou (P>0,05 a área total e área do maior pico de secreção de LH aos 8 meses de idade. Os resultados indicam diminuição da sensibilidade do hipotálamo aos esteróides gonadais durante o processo de maturação sexual nas novilhas da raça Nelore e a participação da clonidina como neurotransmissora.

  11. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  12. El Pediatra, el Abuso Sexual y Las Verrugas Anogenitales en Edad Prepuberal (The Pediatrician, Sexual Abuse, and Anogenital Warts in the Prepubertal Stage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Roig, A.; Sanchez, X.

    1996-01-01

    This article notes that the increase of incidence in human papillomavirus infection has resulted in more frequent anogenital warts in children. Pediatricians are urged to exclude sexual abuse as a source of infection in all cases since sexual transmission is commonly, but not always, the cause. (Author/DB)

  13. High fat diet-induced obesity reduces bone formation through activation of ppar gamma to suppress wnt/beta-catenin signaling in prepubertal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a high fat diet (HFD) and of obesity on skeletal development, maturation and remodeling remain largely unclear particularly in children. In this report, we utilized a total enteral nutrition (TEN) model to examine the direct effect of HFD feeding on bone prior to puberty. We chronical...

  14. Caffeine effects on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, G A; Carroll, M E; Crosby, R D; Perwien, A R; Go, F S; Benowitz, N L

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the acute effects of caffeine on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal prepubertal children. Twenty-one children were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Subjects were studied during four sessions, 1 week apart, under the following conditions: baseline, placebo, 2.5 mg/kg caffeine, and 5.0 mg/kg caffeine. Subjects were randomized to order of placebo and the two dosages of caffeine. Dependent measures included tests of attention, manual dexterity, short-term memory, and processing speed. Anxiety rating scales were also administered. Saliva samples were analyzed for caffeine levels. Caffeine improved performance on two of four measures of the Test of Variables of Attention and on a test of manual dexterity in the dominant hand. There was a trend toward increased current level of self-reported anxiety after caffeine on a visual analogue measure of anxiety. Children reported feeling significantly less "sluggish" after caffeine ingestion than after placebo ingestion. In a small sample size, there was indication that caffeine enhanced performance on a test of attention and on a motor task. Children also reported feeling less "sluggish" but somewhat more anxious. Because caffeine is so widely available and frequently consumed by children, these results are important and need replication.

  15. PREVIEW (Prevention of Diabetes Through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and Around the World) study in children aged 10 to 17 years: Design, methods and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenbos, Elke; Drummen, Mathijs; Rijks, Jesse; Adam, Tanja; Stouthart, Pauline; Alfredo Martínez, J; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Stratton, Gareth; Swindell, Nils; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) in adolescence is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]. The PREVIEW (Prevention of Diabetes Through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and Around the World) study assessed the effectiveness of a high-protein, low-glycaemic-index diet and a moderate-protein, moderate-glycaemic-index diet to decrease IR in insulin-resistant children who were overweight or obese. Inclusion criteria were age 10 to 17 years, homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) ≥2.0 and overweight/obesity. In 126 children (mean ± SD age 13.6 ± 2.2 years, body mass index [BMI] z-score 3.04 ± 0.66, HOMA-IR 3.48 ± 2.28) anthropometrics, fat mass percentage (FM%), metabolic characteristics, physical activity, food intake and sleep were measured. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups. IR was higher in pubertal children with morbid obesity than in prepubertal children with morbid obesity (5.41 ± 1.86 vs 3.23 ± 1.86; P = .007) and prepubertal and pubertal children with overweight/obesity (vs 3.61 ± 1.60, P = .004, and vs 3.40 ± 1.50, P < .001, respectively). IR was associated with sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. Fasting glucose concentrations were negatively associated with Baecke sport score (r = -0.223, P = .025) and positively with daytime sleepiness (r = 0.280, P = .016) independent of sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. In conclusion, IR was most severe in pubertal children with morbid obesity. The associations between fasting glucose concentration and Baecke sport score and sleepiness suggest these might be possible targets for diabetes prevention. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Serum Levels Of Free And Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 And IGF Binding Protein-3 In Normal And Growth Hormone Deficient Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 pre-pubertal GH deficient (GHD) children to study the correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97-1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the pre-pubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD were decreased significantly with increasing the degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  17. Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  18. Explosive sport training and torque kinetics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Raffy; Mitchell, Cameron J; Cohen, Rotem; Gabriel, David; Klentrou, Panagiota; Falk, Bareket

    2013-07-01

    A high rate of force development (RFD) is often more important than maximal force in daily and sports activities. In children, resistance training has been shown to increase maximal force. It is unclear whether, or to what extent, can children improve RFD and force kinetics. For this study, we compared strength and force kinetics of boy gymnasts with those of untrained boys and untrained men. Eight boy gymnasts (age, 9.5 ± 1.2 y), 20 untrained boys (age, 10.1 ± 1.3 y), and 20 untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.4 y) performed maximal, explosive, isometric elbow flexions (EF) and knee flexions (KF). Peak torque (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)), elapsed times to 10%-100% MVC, peak rate of torque development (RTDpk), and other kinetics parameters were determined. When gymnasts were compared with untrained boys, size-normalized EF MVC was 11%-20% higher, RTDpk was 32% higher, and times to 30% and 80% MVC were 16% and 55% shorter, respectively (p kinetics parameters were similar. These findings highlight the specificity of gymnastics training, which markedly elevated the torque kinetics of young, prepubertal boys to adult levels, but only moderately affected peak torque. It is suggested that neurologic adaptations, such as enhanced firing and activation rates or increased type II motor-unit recruitment, as well as changes in musculotendinous stiffness, could explain these findings.

  19. The Triglyceride to HDL Ratio and Its Relationship to Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postpubertal Children: Observation from the Wausau SCHOOL Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Olson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and diabetes and raises the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein (TG/HDL ratio in adults, but is not well defined in children. Purpose. To investigate the TG/HDL ratios in children as an IR marker. Methods. Wausau SCHOOL Project assessed 99 prepubertal and 118 postpubertal children. The TG/HDL ratio was correlated with numerous risk factors. Results. TG/HDL ratio was significantly correlated with QUICKI, HOMA-IR, zBMI, waist-to hip ratio, systolic and diastolic BP, LDL size and LDL number. A group of 32 IR children (HOMA-IR > 1 SD from the mean, i.e., >2.45 had significantly higher TG/HDL (3.11 ± 1.77 compared to non-IR children (1.86 ± 0.75. A TG/HDL ratio of ≥2.0 identified 32 of the 40 children deemed IR by HOMA-IR (>2.45 with a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.66. Children with TG/HDL ratio ≥3 were heavier and had higher BP, glucose, HOMA-IR, LDL number, and lower HDL level, QUICKI, and LDL size, regardless of pubertal status. Conclusion. The TG/HDL ratio is strongly associated with IR in children, and with higher BMI, waist hip ratio, BP, and more athrogenic lipid profile.

  20. Anxiety and depression symptoms and response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E; Sverd, Jeffrey; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schwartz, Joseph

    2002-06-01

    This study examined response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic multiple tic disorder. The primary goal was to determine if children with anxiety or depression symptoms showed a less favorable response to treatment. Subjects were 38 prepubertal children who participated in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, methylphenidate crossover evaluation. Treatment effects were assessed with direct observations of child behavior in public school and clinic settings; rating scales completed by parents, teachers, and clinicians; and laboratory analogue tasks. There was little evidence (group data) that children with anxiety or depression symptoms responded in a clinically different manner to methylphenidate than youngsters who did not exhibit these symptoms, particularly in school observations of the core features of ADHD. Seeming differences between children with and without comorbid anxiety or depression symptoms and drug response are likely explained by differences in pretreatment levels of negativistic behaviors (i.e., symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder). Methylphenidate appears to be effective for the management of ADHD behaviors in children with mild to moderate anxiety or depression symptoms; nevertheless, much research remains to be performed in this area.

  1. Peculiarities of hormonal regulation of physical development and bone tissue in children born after accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipkin, Y.G.; Arabskaya, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation of three groups of children being from 5 to 12 years old born after ChNPP accident was conducted. The 1 group consisted of 128 children lived in radionuclide contaminated territories. The 2 group consisted from 128 children born in families of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators (ACL). The 3 group consisted of 96 children lived in 'relatively clean' territories. Revealed age and gender differences in height growth activation periods, i.e. the second and third 'spurts' of height rise kids from the radiation study groups occur later than in children from 'conditionally clean' territories. Body height growth in children of both gender residing in radiation-contaminated territories occurs within the same age periods. Body height growth in kids born in families of the ChNPP accident liquidators occurred more fluently with neither pre-pubertal, nor pubertal 'spurt' of height in boys and no pubertal one - in girls, that is stipulated by low basal GH level (and low testosterone in boys)

  2. Insulin resistance determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and associations with metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinhua; Li, Ming; Xu, Lu; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Hong; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents. Moreover, to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at MS risk. 3203 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was identified by a modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definition. HOMA-IR index was calculated and the normal reference ranges were defined from the healthy participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR for diagnosis of MS. With the increase of insulin resistance (quintile of HOMA-IR value), the ORs of suffering MS or its related components were significantly increased. Participants in the highest quintile of HOMA-IR were about 60 times more likely to be classified with metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest quintile group. Similarly, the mean values of insulin and HOMA-IR increased with the number of MS components. The present HOMA-IR cutoff point corresponding to the 95th percentile of our healthy reference children was 3.0 for whole participants, 2.6 for children in prepubertal stage and 3.2 in pubertal period, respectively. The optimal point for diagnosis of MS was 2.3 in total participants, 1.7 in prepubertal children and 2.6 in pubertal adolescents, respectively, by ROC curve, which yielded high sensitivity and moderate specificity for a screening test. According to HOMA-IR > 3.0, the prevalence of insulin resistance in obese or MS children were 44.3% and 61.6% respectively. Our data indicates insulin resistance is common among Chinese obese children and adolescents, and is strongly related to MS risk, therefore requiring consideration early in life. As a reliable measure of insulin resistance and assessment of MS risk, the optimal HOMA-IR cut

  3. Thyrotropin Receptor Autoantibodies in differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in children

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    A V Kiyaev

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available There was investigation carried out in group of 54 children (42 females and 12 males aged between 10.3 and 17.2 years (median - 13. years for the purpose of the estimation of the clinical significance determination of the general autoantibodies to the TSH recepetor (TBII in differential diagnostics hyperthyroidism. In 45 from 54 cases (83.3 % there was Graves’ disease (GD diagnosis set, while high level of TBII was detected amongst 44 from those children (97.8%. Amongst patients with subacute thyroiditis and uninodal toxic goiter together with 7 children, initially estimated by us as “AIT, hyperthyroidism” the values TBII were in limit of reference interval. But for all of that unexpectedly there was detected normal level of Ab-TPO amongst all patients in this group, and - normal echogenic in 6 from 7 cases. From the one hand, high level of Ab-TG and heterogeneous structure may be estimated as particular qualities of hyperthyroidism clinical course during AIT by amongst children. However, absence of the row of diagnostic signs with long-lasting euthyroid condition do not allow us to estimate that cases as hyperthyroidism phase of AIT. From the other hand, we can suppose that we observe the diagnostic of natural clinical course of GD cases in phase of immunological remission. The detection of normal level of TBII in absence of typical clinical signs of GD amongst children with manifestation of hyperthyroidism let us retreat from active therapeutic intervention and choose the method of dynamic observation.

  4. Growth, development, reproduction, physiological and behavioural studies on living organisms, human adults and children exposed to radiation from video displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverdure, A.M.; Surbeck, J.; North, M.O.; Tritto, J.

    2001-01-01

    Various living organisms, human workers and children were tested for any biological action resulting from exposure to radiation from video display terminals (VDTs). VDTs were powered by a 50-Hz alternating voltage of 220 V. Measured electric and magnetic fields were 13 V/M and 50 nT, respectively. Living organisms were maintained under their normal breeding conditions and control values were obtained before switching on the VDT. Various effects related to the irradiation time were demonstrated, i.e. growth delay in algae and Drosophila, a body weight deficiency in rats, abnormal peaks of mortality in Daphnia and Drosophila, teratological effects in chick embryos and behavioural disturbances in rats. The embryonic and neonatal periods showed a high sensitivity to the VDT radiation. In humans, after 4 h of working in front of a VDT screen, an increase in tiredness and a decrease in the resistance of the immune system were observed in workers. In prepubertal children, 20 min of exposure were sufficient to induce neuropsychological disturbances; pre-pubertal young people appear to be particularly sensitive to the effect of the radiation. In human testicular biopsies cultured in vitro for 24 h in front of a VDT screen, mitotic and meiotic disturbances, the appearance of degeneration in some aspects of the cells and significant disorganisation of the seminiferous tubules were demonstrated and related to modification of the metabolism of the sample. An experimental apparatus has been developed and tested that aims to prevent the harm from VDT radiation. Known commercially as the 'emf-Bioshield', it ensures effective protection against harmful biological effects of VDT radiation. (author)

  5. Soft tissue thin-plate spline analysis of pre-pubertal Korean and European-Americans with untreated Angle's Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess soft tissue facial matrices in subjects of diverse ethnic origins with underlying dentoskeletal malocclusions. Pre-treatment lateral cephalographs of 71 Korean and 70 European-American children aged between 5 and 11 years with Angle's Class III malocclusions were traced, and 12 homologous, soft tissue landmarks digitized. Comparing mean Korean and European-American Class III soft tissue profiles, Procrustes analysis established statistical difference (P thin-plate spline analysis indicated that both affine and non-affine transformations contribute towards the total spline (deformation) of the averaged Class III soft tissue configurations. For non-affine transformations, partial warp (PW) 8 had the highest magnitude, indicating large-scale deformations visualized as labio-mental protrusion, predominantly. In addition, PW9, PW4, and PW5 also had high magnitudes, demonstrating labio-mental vertical compression and antero-posterior compression of the lower labio-mental soft tissues. Thus, Korean children with Class III malocclusions demonstrate antero-posterior and vertical deformations of the labio-mental soft tissue complex with respect to their European-American counterparts. Morphological heterogeneity of the soft tissue integument in subjects of diverse ethnic origin may obscure the underlying skeletal morphology, but the soft tissue integument appears to have minimal ontogenetic association with Class III malocclusions.

  6. Spectrum of thyroid function in children among the patients attending to examine thyroidal illness at CNMU, Dhaka - A retrospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taslima Begum, D.A.; Afroz, S.

    2004-01-01

    Establishment of a standard range of thyroid hormones for Bangladesh younger population is very essential. Trials were conducted to standardize the normal range of thyroid hormones i.e. T 3 , T 4 and TSH level, at 95% confidence limit (2sd) of age ranging from 1 day to 12 yrs of Bangladesh children group, which were differ by sex. The ranges of different thyroid status were evaluated in the In vitro Laboratory of Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Dhaka. Comparing three stages (Table 2,3, and 4) observed hormone ranges at euthyroid stage marked off for overlapping the higher level of hypo thyroidal stage by lower side and the lower level of hyper thyroidal stage by higher side. Present work calculated the mean values of thyroid hormones of both sexes, which were found not affected by the sex. (author)

  7. Thyroid dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children and its correlation with CD4 + T lymphocyte count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakumar Thongam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Thyroid dysfunction has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals including children. Some studies have reported that thyroid dysfunction may be a marker of severity or progression of HIV. Aims: The aim was to study thyroid function in HIV-infected children with and without highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study carried out at a teaching hospital with Anti-Retroviral Therapy Centre (Centre of Excellence of National AIDS Control Organization. Subjects and Methods: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxine (T4, and total tri-iodothyronine (T3 were analyzed in 60 pediatric HIV cases: 30 on HAART and 30 HAART naive. Correlation of T3, T4, and TSH with CD4 count was assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: Data reported as mean ± standard deviation and as the number of cases and percentages. Comparison between groups was done by independent sample t-test and χ2 -test. Spearman′s correlation coefficient is used to assess the association between thyroid dysfunction and CD4 count. Results: Thyroid function abnormality was seen in five out of 30 patients in both patients on HAART or without HAART therapy. Among patients on HAART, three had hypothyroidism, and two had biochemical feature of sick euthyroid syndrome. Among the HAART naive group, sub-clinical hypothyroisim was seen in four, and one had biochemical feature of sick euthyroid syndrome. None of the patients had clinical features of thyroid dysfunction. There is a highly significant correlation (P = 0.01 between TSH and CD4 count. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction is quite common among pediatric HIV cases. An inverse correlation is seen between TSH and CD4 count indicating trend for hypothyroidism as HIV disease progress.

  8. Similar effects of long-term exogenous growth hormone (GH) on bone and muscle parameters: a pQCT study of GH-deficient and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Roland; Martin, David D; Haase, Martin; Roth, Johannes; Trebar, Branko; Binder, Gerhard; Schwarze, C Philipp; Ranke, Michael B

    2007-11-01

    Treatment with GH in short children has focused on height development. Little is known about the concomitant changes in muscle mass, bone structure and bone strength. Muscle area as well as parameters of bone architecture (bone mineral content, BMC; volumetric cortical density, total bone area, TBA; cortical area, cortical thickness, CT; and marrow area) were measured by means of pQCT (Stratec) at 65% of the proximal length of the forearm. The strength-strain index (SSI) was calculated as an indicator of bone strength. Prepubertal children with GHD (mean values: age; 7.2 years; height SDS=-2.9 SDS; GH dose: 30 microg/kg/d) were followed at 0, 6, 12 (n=74) and 24 (n=55) months. Prepubertal children with SGA (mean values: age: 7.1 years; height SDS=-3.4 SDS; GH dose: 55 mug/kg/d) were followed at 0, 6, 12 (n=47) and 24 (n=35) months. Both groups showed a similar increase in height. At GH start, muscle mass and bone characteristics were lower than normal but similar in SGA vs. GHD. Muscle area (mean values, SDS) increased from -3.0 to -1.5 in SGA and from -2.4 to -1.0 in GHD. Bone geometry changed in a biphasic mode, with an increase in total bone area and lowering of bone mineral content (BMC) during the first 12 months, followed by an increase of BMC and CT thereafter. SSI (mean values, mm(3)) improved from 78 to 114 in GHD and from 62 to 101 in SGA after 24 months on GH. The increment in terms of SDS did not reach significance in SGA. SSI correlated positively with muscle area before and during GH treatment. Bone strength and muscle mass are impaired in prepubertal children with GHD and SGA. Exogenous GH can indirectly improve bone structure and strength by inducing an increase in muscle mass. Our findings support the assumption that, in SGA, there is impaired tissue responsiveness to GH.

  9. ADHD characteristics: I. Concurrent co-morbidity patterns in children & adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Paul

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective 342 Caucasian subjects with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were recruited from pediatric and behavioral health clinics for a genetic study. Concurrent comorbidity was assessed to characterize the clinical profile of this cohort. Methods Subjects 6 to 18 years were diagnosed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders & Schizophrenia for School aged Children (K-SADS-P IVR. Results The most prevalent diagnoses co-occurring with ADHD were Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD (40.6%, Minor Depression/Dysthymia (MDDD (21.6%, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD (15.2%. In Inattentive ADHD (n = 106, 20.8% had MDDD, 20.8% ODD, and 18.6% GAD; in Hyperactive ADHD (n = 31 41.9% had ODD, 22.2% GAD, and 19.4% MDDD. In Combined ADHD, (n = 203, 50.7% had ODD, 22.7% MDDD and 12.4% GAD. MDDD and GAD were equally prevalent in the ADHD subtypes but, ODD was significantly more common among Combined and Hyperactive ADHD compared to Inattentive ADHD. The data suggested a subsample of Irritable prepubertal children exhibiting a diagnostic triad of ODD, Combined ADHD, and MDDD may account for the over diagnosing of Bipolar Disorder. Conclusion Almost 2/3rd of ADHD children have impairing comorbid diagnoses; Hyperactive ADHD represents less than 10% of an ADHD sample; ODD is primarily associated with Hyperactive and Combined ADHD; and, MDDD may be a significant morbidity for ADHD youths from clinical samples.

  10. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

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    Marcia Teske

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2. Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL, lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides, oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62% and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57% subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10% and 36/61 (59%, respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents.

  11. Urinary fructose: a potential biomarker for dietary fructose intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, S A; Libuda, L; Shi, L; Retzlaff, A; Joslowski, G; Remer, T

    2010-11-01

    Recently, urinary fructose and sucrose excretion in 24-h urine have been established experimentally as new biomarkers for dietary sugar intake in adults. Our objective was to investigate 1) whether the fructose biomarker is also applicable in free-living children and 2) for what kind of sugar it is standing for. Intakes of added and total sugar (including additional sugar from fruit and fruit juices) were assessed by 3-day weighed dietary records in 114 healthy prepubertal children; corresponding 24-h urinary fructose excretion was measured photometrically. The associations between dietary sugar intakes and urinary fructose excretion were examined using linear regression models. To determine whether one of the two sugar variables may be better associated with the urinary biomarker, the statistical Pitman's test was used. Added and total sugar correlated significantly with urinary fructose, but the linear regression indicated a weak association between intake of added sugar and urinary log-fructose excretion (β=0.0026, R(2)=0.055, P=0.01). The association between total sugar intake and log-urinary fructose (β=0.0040, R(2)=0.181, Pestimation of total sugar intake than for the estimation of added dietary sugar intake in children. However, as excreted fructose stems almost exclusively from the diet (both from food-intrinsic and added intakes), it can be assumed that urinary fructose represents a potential biomarker for total dietary fructose intake, irrespective of its source.

  12. Growth in children following irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushhouse, S.; Ramsay, N.K.; Pescovitz, O.H.; Kim, T.; Robison, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Longitudinal height data from 46 pediatric bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients, including 18 with aplastic anemia (AA), 19 with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), and 9 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), were analyzed to assess growth posttransplantation. Patients were prepared for BMT with high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by 7.5 Gy single-dose irradiation; AA patients received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), and leukemia patients received total body irradiation (TBI). AA patients demonstrated reduced height posttransplant as reflected in a negative mean standard deviation score. The observed reduction was statistically significant only at 3 years following transplant. In contrast, leukemia patients showed a significant loss in relative height that was first visible at 1 year post-BMT and continued until at least 4 years post-BMT. Mean growth velocities in the leukemia patients were significantly below median for the 3 years following transplant. With a median follow-up of 4 years, antithymocyte globulin plus steroids in combination with methotrexate as graft vs. host prophylaxis was associated with less severe growth suppression than methotrexate alone, while there were no significant associations between growth during the first 2 years following transplant and prepubertal status at transplant (as defined by age), graft vs. host disease, thyroid or gonadal function, or previous therapies received by the leukemia patients. Children undergoing marrow transplantation, particularly those receiving TBI, are at significant risk of subsequent growth suppression

  13. Pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in children with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, Jesse; Penders, Bas; Dorenbos, Elke; Straetemans, Saartje; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-08-03

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in the high normal range are common in children with overweight and obesity, and associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Prior studies aiming at unravelling the mechanisms underlying these high TSH concentrations mainly focused on factors promoting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) production as a cause for high TSH concentrations. However, it is unknown whether TSH release of the pituitary in response to TRH is affected in children with overweight and obesity. Here we describe TSH release of the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH in 73 euthyroid children (39% males) with overweight or (morbid) obesity. Baseline TSH concentrations (0.9-5.5 mU/L) were not associated with BMI z score, whereas these concentrations were positively associated with TSH concentrations 20 minutes after TRH administration (r(2) = 0.484, p obesity. The clinical significance and the intermediate factors contributing to pituitary TSH release need to be elucidated in future studies.

  14. The natural history and prognostic factors of Graves' disease in Korean children and adolescents

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    Seung Min Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents. In this study, we investigated the natural course and the prognostic factors of Graves' disease in Korean children and adolescents. Methods : One-hundred thirteen (88 girls and 25 boys patients were included in this study. A retrospective analysis was made of all patients who were diagnosed with Graves' disease. The following parameters were recorded and analyzed: patient's sex, age at diagnosis, duration of disease, laboratory findings, symptoms and signs, and family history of autoimmune thyroid disease. Results : All patients were initially treated with antithyroid drugs, either methimazole (93.8% or propylthiouracil (6.2%. Antithyroid drugs had been discontinued in 75 (66.4% of 113 patients. Of these 75 patients, 23 (20.4% relapsed after 25.5¡?#?3.7; months. Thirteen (11.5% of 23 patients, who experienced the first relapse, showed a second remission. However, 2 (1.8% of 13 patients relapsed again. Euthyroid state could not be achieved by antithyroid drugs in 1 patient, and radioactive iodine therapy was performed. The older the patient at diagnosis, the greater the likelihood of remission (P =0.034. Conclusion : Age at diagnosis seems to be a prognostic factor in Korean children and adolescents with Graves' disease, and should be taken into account in treatment plan determination.

  15. Management of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamburger, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Between 1961 and 1984, 262 patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves disease between the ages of 3 and 18 yr were treated in the author's clinic. This paper compares the results of different treatment methods. Initial treatment was surgery for 7 patients, radioiodine for 73, and an antithyroid drug for 182. Seven drug-treated patients subsequently had surgery. Of 14 surgically treated patients, 5 relapsed and received radioiodine, 5 became hypothyroid, 3 were lost to follow-up, and 1 remained euthyroid. Sixteen drug-treated patients were lost to follow-up; 7 are still taking drugs. Of the remaining 99 drug-treated patients not achieving remission, 92 received radioiodine, and 7 had surgery (1 later relapsed and received radioiodine). The principal reasons for abandoning drugs were toxicity, noncompliance, poor control, and failure to achieve sustained remissions. Of 61 drug-treated patients who achieved remission, 22 relapsed (21 were treated with radioiodine and 1 with drug). Remissions after antithyroid drug therapy persist in 39 patients, 2 of whom are now hypothyroid and 10 of whom have been in remission less than 2 yr. Of the 239 subjects whose treatment is complete, 191 (80%) ultimately had radioiodine. One radioiodine treatment eliminated hyperthyroidism in 163 patients, 2 treatments were effective in 17, and 3 treatments were effective in 1. The remaining 5 patients were lost to follow-up after radioiodine before the outcome of therapy could be determined. No increase in congenital abnormalities was found in 63 children of these patients, regardless of treatment

  16. Weight-bearing exercise and bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents: a review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, K; Burrows, M

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious skeletal disease and as there is currently no cure, there is a large emphasis on its prevention, including the optimisation of peak bone mass. There is increasing evidence that regular weight-bearing exercise is an effective strategy for enhancing bone status during growth. This systematic review evaluates randomised and non-randomised controlled trials to date, on the effects of exercise on bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents. An online search of Medline and the Cochrane database enabled the identification of studies. Those that met the inclusion criteria were included in the review and graded according to risk for bias. Twenty-two trials were reviewed. Nine were conducted in prepubertal children (Tanner I), 8 in early pubertal (Tanner II-III) and 5 in pubertal (Tanner IV-V). Sample sizes ranged from n=10 to 65 per group. Exercise interventions included games, dance, resistance training and jumping exercises, ranging in duration from 3 to 48 months. Approximately half of the trials (n=10) included ground reaction force (GRF) data (2 to 9 times body weight). All trials in early pubertal children, 6 in pre pubertal and 2 in pubertal children, reported positive effects of exercise on bone (P<0.05). Mean increases in bone parameters over 6 months were 0.9-4.9% in prepubertal, 1.1-5.5% in early pubertal and 0.3-1.9% in pubertal exercisers compared to controls (P<0.05). Although weight-bearing exercise appears to enhance bone mineral accrual in children, particularly during early puberty; it remains unclear as to what constitutes the optimal exercise programme. Many studies to date have a high risk for bias and only a few have a low risk. Major limitations concerned selection procedures, compliance rates and control of variables. More well designed and controlled investigations are needed. Furthermore, the specific exercise intervention that will provide the optimal stimulus for peak bone mineral accretion is unclear. Future

  17. Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of children's learning is emerging. This new field differs from the old in recognizing that children's learning includes active as well as passive mechanisms and qualitative as well as quantitative changes. Children's learning involves substantial variability of representations and strategies within individual children as well as…

  18. Children's Places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Using a cross-cultural approach the book investigates children's places in different societies. "Children's Places" examines the ways in which children and adults, from their different vantage-points in society, negotiate proper places of children in both social and spatial terms. It looks at some...

  19. Prediction of the outcome of growth hormone provocative testing in short children by measurement of serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the secretion of endogenous growth hormone (GH) in healthy children and exhibit little diurnal variation, which makes them potential candidates for screening of GH deficiency (GHD......). We evaluated serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in relation to the outcome of GH provocative testing in 203 children and adolescents (111 boys and 92 girls) in whom GHD was suspected. A total of 1030 children served as control subjects. In children less than 10 years of age, IGF-I levels were below...... with a normal GH response (specificity 97.9%). Consequently the predictive value of a positive test result in prepubertal children was 88.8% for IGF-I and 90% for IGFBP-3. In children and adolescents between 10 and 20 years of age, IGF-I levels were below the cutoff limit in 34 of 46 children with GHD...

  20. Folie à deux dissociative in prepubertal children: report of two cases with EEGs Folie à deux desordem dissociativa em crianças antes da puberdade: relato de dois casos com EEGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. CHAPMAN

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of folie à deux dissociative (dissociative hysteria disorder in an 8 and 12 year-old sister and brother is presented. Illnesses of this type are very rare and there is little medical literature on this subject. Our patients, almost simultaneously, abruptly had complete loss of memory, disorientation, loss of awareness about who they were, and much anxiety, which lasted about 15 hours. Both patients were physically well and no abnormalities were found on physical examination, routines laboratory tests and EEG studies. Speculations about the emotional and interpersonal causes of this illness in these two patients are given.É apresentado um caso da desordem dissociativa folie à deux (histeria dissociativa em um casal de irmãos, sendo que o menino tem 12 anos e a menina 8. Doenças desse tipo são raras e existem poucas referências sobre o assunto na literatura médica. Os pacientes por nós atendidos, de repente e quase simultaneamente, apresentaram distúrbios acentuados da memória, desorientação, perda de auto-identidade e muita ansiedade; esse estado confusional durou aproximadamente 15 horas. Os dois tinham boa saúde física e não apresentavam anormalidades no exame clínico. Os exames laboratoriais de rotina estavam normais. Foram avaliados por meio de EEGs que estavam dentro dos limites da normalidade. Na discussão, são apresentadas considerações especulativas sobre as causas emocionais e interpessoais que possam ter propiciado o aparecimento dessa desordem nos dois pacientes.

  1. Beneficial effects of growth hormone treatment on cognition in children with Prader-Willi syndrome: a randomized controlled trial and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemensma, Elbrich P C; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F A; Festen, Dederieke A M; Troeman, Zyrhea C E; van Alfen-van der Velden, A A E M Janielle; Otten, Barto J; Rotteveel, Joost; Odink, Roelof J H; Bindels-de Heus, G C B Karen; van Leeuwen, Mariette; Haring, Danny A J P; Oostdijk, Wilma; Bocca, Gianni; Mieke Houdijk, E C A; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Hoorweg-Nijman, J J Gera; van Wieringen, Hester; Vreuls, René C F M; Jira, Petr E; Schroor, Eelco J; van Pinxteren-Nagler, Evelyn; Willem Pilon, Jan; Lunshof, L Bert; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge about the effects of GH treatment on cognitive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited. Fifty prepubertal children aged 3.5 to 14 yr were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial during 2 yr, followed by a longitudinal study during 4 yr of GH treatment. Cognitive functioning was measured biennially by short forms of the WPPSI-R or WISC-R, depending on age. Total IQ (TIQ) score was estimated based on two subtest scores. During the randomized controlled trial, mean sd scores of all subtests and mean TIQ score remained similar compared to baseline in GH-treated children with PWS, whereas in untreated controls mean subtest sd scores and mean TIQ score decreased and became lower compared to baseline. This decline was significant for the Similarities (P = 0.04) and Vocabulary (P = 0.03) subtests. After 4 yr of GH treatment, mean sd scores on the Similarities and Block design subtests were significantly higher than at baseline (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively), and scores on Vocabulary and TIQ remained similar compared to baseline. At baseline, children with a maternal uniparental disomy had a significantly lower score on the Block design subtest (P = 0.01) but a larger increment on this subtest during 4 yr of GH treatment than children with a deletion. Lower baseline scores correlated significantly with higher increases in Similarities (P = 0.04) and Block design (P deficit had more benefit from GH treatment.

  2. Racial and ethnic differences among children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, K; Tosur, M; Schaub, R; Haymond, M W; Redondo, M J

    2017-10-01

    To compare demographic and clinical characteristics among children from ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic white children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes. We analysed a single-centre series of 712 children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes between January 2008 and March 2011. The median (range) age was 9.7 (0.3-18.1) years, the mean (sd) BMI percentile was 69.7 (25.4) and 48.3% of the cohort were girls. The cohort comprised 57.3% non-Hispanic white, 20.5% Hispanic and 14.8% African-American children, and 7.4% were of other, mixed or unknown race. The Hispanic subgroup, compared with non-Hispanic white subgroup, had a higher mean (sd) C-peptide level [0.82 (1.62) vs 0.55 (0.47) ng/ml; P=0.004), and a greater proportion of children with elevated BMI (overweight or obesity; 49.6% vs 32.5%; P1) and diabetic ketoacidosis (51.8% vs 38.2%; P=0.006). The African-American group had a higher mean (sd) glucose level [24.4 (12.8) vs 21.4 (10.7) mmol/l; P=0.017], a greater proportion of children with ketoacidosis (56.7% vs 38.2%; P=0.001), a greater proportion with elevated BMI (52.9% vs 32.5%; P1), and a lower proportion of children at pre-pubertal stage (49.0% vs 61.6%; P=0.01), and tended to have higher C-peptide levels [0.65 (0.59) vs 0.55 [0.47] ng/ml; P=0.079) compared with the non-Hispanic white children. The differences in C-peptide levels compared with non-Hispanic white children persisted for Hispanic (P=0.01) but not African-American children (P=0.29) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, ketoacidosis, glucose, Tanner stage and autoantibody number. At the onset of paediatric autoimmune Type 1 diabetes, Hispanic, but not African-American children had higher C-peptide levels, after adjustment for potential confounders, compared with non-Hispanic white children. These findings suggest that ethnicity may contribute to the heterogeneity of Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis, with possible implications for intervention. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  3. A contribution to radioactive iodine therapy of the euthyroid goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbruch, K.; Rische, D.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that radioactive iodine therapy is an alternative method in the treatment even of large goitres provided this method of treatment is confined to patients beyond the age of 40. If the patient is generally inoperable, this is in fact the method of choice. The success rate can be compared with that of other methods of treatment. In this connection, special attention is drawn to the high rate of alleviation of complaints. No significant sinde effects are seen; in a few cases only, treatment will have to be repeated. (orig.) [de

  4. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Virus in Euthyroid Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which is normally apparent after numerous years. It is approximated that approximately 3 % of the ... is transmitted via body fluids such as blood, semen, saliva and vaginal secretions. In Pakistan, where a majority of the .... Ph.D thesis, Department of Biological. Sci., Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan,. 1997. 8.

  5. Growth and growth hormone secretion in children following treatment of brain tumours with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darendeliler, F.; Livesey, E.A.; Hindmarsh, P.C.; Brook, C.G.D. (Endocrine Unit, The Middlesex Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the growth of 144 children after treatment of brain tumours distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. All had cranial irradiation and 87 spinal irradiation. In 56 patients observed without intervention for 3 years, height SDS in the cranial (CR) group (n=20) declined from 0.02 to -0.44 and in the craniospinal (CS) group (n=36) from -0.28 to -1.11. Failure of spinal growth had a marked effect in the CS group. The onset of puberty was slightly but not significantly advanced; median ages at onset of puberty were 10.3 years in girls and 12.1 years in boys. Of the total group 86.4% had clinical and biochemical evidence of growth hormone insufficiency. Fifty-two children, 33 (28 CS; 5 CR) of whome were prepubertal, received biosynthetic human growth hormone, in a dose of 15 mU/m{sup 2}/week by daily injection for a period of one year. Height velocity SDS increased significantly in both groups from -2.74 to +1.90 (CS) and from -1.0 to +4.26 (CR). Spinal response to GH treatment was restricted in the craniospinal group. (authors).

  6. Growth and growth hormone secretion in children following treatment of brain tumours with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darendeliler, F.; Livesey, E.A.; Hindmarsh, P.C.; Brook, C.G.D.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the growth of 144 children after treatment of brain tumours distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. All had cranial irradiation and 87 spinal irradiation. In 56 patients observed without intervention for 3 years, height SDS in the cranial (CR) group (n=20) declined from 0.02 to -0.44 and in the craniospinal (CS) group (n=36) from -0.28 to -1.11. Failure of spinal growth had a marked effect in the CS group. The onset of puberty was slightly but not significantly advanced; median ages at onset of puberty were 10.3 years in girls and 12.1 years in boys. Of the total group 86.4% had clinical and biochemical evidence of growth hormone insufficiency. Fifty-two children, 33 (28 CS; 5 CR) of whome were prepubertal, received biosynthetic human growth hormone, in a dose of 15 mU/m 2 /week by daily injection for a period of one year. Height velocity SDS increased significantly in both groups from -2.74 to +1.90 (CS) and from -1.0 to +4.26 (CR). Spinal response to GH treatment was restricted in the craniospinal group. (authors)

  7. Evolution of GH secretion in urine during an in-patient slimming course in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehingue, Y; Locard, E; Vivant, J F; Mounier, A; Serban, A; Remontet, L; Porquet, D; Joly, M O; Mamelle, N

    2000-03-01

    To estimate the change in GH excretion in urine (GH-U) during a slimming course, and if increased, to assess the components of the course related to the increase in obese children. Observational follow-up study of patients admitted for primary obesity to an in-patient slimming course lasting at least 10 weeks. 48 complete observations out of 54 consecutive pre-pubertal patients admitted to a paediatric centre for treatment of primary obesity (BMI greater than the 90th percentile of the national reference curves). GH excretion in urine by immunoradiometric assay, at entry and after 10 weeks, various anthropometric measurements, nutritional intake and departure from the prescribed diet, time spent in physical activity, sleep duration. A mean decrease of 0.90 standard deviations for BMI was accompanied by a 34% increase of GH-U. Time spent in physical activity was the only component of the course found to be related to the magnitude of GH-U increase. The results of this observational study confirm that GH-U is increased after a slimming course in children, and suggest that physical activity is a major contributor to the restoration of normal GH-U levels.

  8. Reliability of Heart Rate Variability in Children: Influence of Sex and Body Position During Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Cristiane; Bertollo, Maurizio; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2017-05-01

    To examine which body position and indices present better reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) measures in children and to compare the HRV analyzed in different body positions between sexes. Twenty eutrophic prepubertal children of each sex participated in the study. The RR intervals were recorded using a portable heart rate monitor twice a day for 7 min in the supine, sitting, and standing positions. The reproducibility was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; two way mixed) and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV).Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare the sexes. High levels of reproducibility were indicated by higher ICC in the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (RMSSD: 0.93 and 0.94) and Poincaré plot of the short-term RR interval variability (SD1: 0.92 and 0.94) parameters for boys and girls, respectively, in the supine position. The ICCs were lower in the sitting and standing positions for all HRV indices. In addition, the girls presented significantly higher values than the boys for SDNN and absolute high frequency (HF; p position. The supine position is the most reproducible for the HRV indices in both sexes, especially the vagal related indices.

  9. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools, wit...... a child’s personal religiosity, whereas not participating conjures up images of really religious families....

  10. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Monica; Heitkemper, Margaret; Czyzewski, Danita; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Shulman, Robert J

    2012-05-01

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal pain (FAP) or IBS to healthy children (HC) and explored the relationship of vagal activity and sympathovagal balance to psychological distress and stool type. Children completed questionnaires, kept a 2-week pain/stool diary, and wore a 24-hour Holter monitor to assess vagal activity. Group comparisons on vagal activity were controlled for age and body mass index. Indicators of vagal activity and sympathovagal balance did not differ between FAP/IBS children (70 girls, 30 boys) and HC (44 girls, 18 boys). Psychological distress measures were generally higher in FAP/IBS than HC, primarily in girls. Exploratory analyses suggest a potential negative correlation between vagal activity and psychological distress in FAP/IBS girls but not boys. In contrast to reports in women, no differences were found in vagal activity between FAP/IBS and HC. Preliminary findings suggest that in girls with FAP/IBS there is an inverse relationship between vagal activity and psychological distress. The results from this study suggest a possible relationship between emotional state and vagal activity in prepubertal girls (but not boys) with FAP/IBS. Age and/or duration of symptoms may explain our contrasting findings versus adults with IBS. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodati, Annalisa; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2011-03-11

    To systematically determine the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature. Systematic review. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and the bibliographic references from retrieved articles of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials from 1985 to April 2010. Height in adulthood (standard deviation score) and overall gain in height (SD score) from baseline measurement in childhood. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials with height measurements for adults. Inclusion criteria were initial short stature (defined as height >2 SD score below the mean), peak growth hormone responses >10 μg/L, prepubertal stage, no previous growth hormone therapy, and no comorbid conditions that would impair growth. Adult height was considered achieved when growth rate was growth hormone treated children exceeded that of the controls by 0.65 SD score (about 4 cm). The mean height gain in treated children was 1.2 SD score compared with 0.34 SD score in untreated children. A slight difference of about 1.2 cm in adult height was observed between the two growth hormone dose regimens. In the seven non-randomised controlled trials the adult height of the growth hormone treated group exceeded that of the controls by 0.45 SD score (about 3 cm). Growth hormone therapy in children with idiopathic short stature seems to be effective in partially reducing the deficit in height as adults, although the magnitude of effectiveness is on average less than that achieved in other conditions for which growth hormone is licensed. The individual response to therapy is highly variable, and additional studies are needed to identify the responders.

  12. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  13. Epilepsy - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the one before it. Some children have a strange sensation before a seizure. Sensations may be tingling, ... Prognosis) Most children with epilepsy live a normal life. Certain types of childhood epilepsy go away or ...

  14. Effect of growth hormone treatment on the adult height of children with chronic renal failure. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D; Schaefer, F; Nissel, R; Wühl, E; Tönshoff, B; Mehls, O

    2000-09-28

    Growth hormone treatment stimulates growth in short children with chronic renal failure. However, the extent to which this therapy increases final adult height is not known. We followed 38 initially prepubertal children with chronic renal failure treated with growth hormone for a mean of 5.3 years until they reached their final adult height. The mean (+/-SD) age at the start of treatment was 10.4+/-2.2 years, the mean bone age was 7.1+/-2.3 years, and the mean height was 3.1+/-1.2 SD below normal. Fifty matched children with chronic renal failure who were not treated with growth hormone served as controls. The children treated with growth hormone had sustained catch-up growth, whereas the control children had progressive growth failure. The mean final height of the growth hormone-treated children was 165 cm for boys and 156 cm for girls. The mean final adult height of the growth hormone-treated children was 1.6+/-1.2 SD below normal, which was 1.4 SD above their standardized height at base line (Pgrowth hormone-treated children, treatment was not associated with a shortening of the pubertal growth spurt. The total height gain was positively associated with the initial target-height deficit and the duration of growth hormone therapy and was negatively associated with the percentage of the observation period spent receiving dialysis treatment. Long-term growth hormone treatment of children with chronic renal failure induces persistent catch-up growth, and the majority of patients achieve normal adult height.

  15. Follow-up studies on children and adolescents with Graves' disease after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Danyun; Chen Tanghua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe relative long-term radioactive therapy effects, clinical follow-up after 131 I treatment was conducted in children and adolescent patients with Graves' disease (GD). Methods: In 161 GD patients, aged from 8 to 17 years, m I was given at a dosage of 1.85 to 3.70 MBq per gram of thyroid tissue and a maximum dose ranging from 74 to 1221 MBq per patient. The patients were then followed up for 24 to 104 months [averagely (62±22) months]. Results: After 131 I treatment, ninety-eight (60.87%) patients were found to be euthyroid. Nine (5.59%) patients remained hyperthyroid and another three (1.86%) had recurrence of hyperthyroidism. Thirty-seven (22.98%) patients turned to be hypothyroid. Fourteen patients lost in follow-up. During the follow-up period, no thyroid cancer or genetic abnormalities were ever found in the group of patients, neither in their offsprings. Conclusion: 131 I may well be considered as an effective and safe method for treating children and adolescents with GD. . (authors)

  16. 131I-iodine treatment of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deshan

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of 131 I-iodine treatment of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents. Methods: Twenty-nine, patients aged 11-18 years (mean 15.9±2.32 years old), with hyperthyroidism received 131 I-iodine treatment in a dose of 25-90μCi/g (median 50μCi/g) of thyroid. Of the 29 patients, 3 patient required 2 doses, 14 received ATD therapy before 131 I, 11 patients suffered from TAO(thyroid associated ophthalmopathy). The total maximum and minimum doses were 15 and 1.6 mCi respectively. Results: All patients treated with 131 I-iodine, follow-up after the most recent treatment (median 14, range 4 to 60 months), 15 patients were euthyroid, 5 suffered from late-onset hypothyroidism, 9 were still hyperthyroidism, but their symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism were improved or markedly. Of the 16 patients with TAO, TAO in 11 patients disappeared or were improved, TAO in 5 patients didn't or mildly change. The size of thyroid in all patients had largely been reduced. Conclusions: 131 I-iodine is effective for initial treatment of hyperthyroidism, the treatment of medical treatment failures and the patients with TAO in children and adolescents. (authors)

  17. Does adenotonsillectomy alter IGF-1 and ghrelin serum levels in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and failure to thrive? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari Moghaddam, Yalda; Golzari, Samad E J; Saboktakin, Lida; Seyedashrafi, Mir Hojjat; Sabermarouf, Babak; Gavgani, Heidar Ali Esmaeili; Haghjo, Amir Ghorbani; Lotfi, Alireza; Ghabili, Kamyar

    2013-09-01

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) contributes to upper airway obstruction and recurrent tonsillitis in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on serum IGF-1 and ghrelin levels in children with ATH failure to thrive. Forty pre-pubertal children with more than 5 years of age (6.57 ± 1.284 years) suffering from ATH, sleep disorder breathing, snoring, open mouth breathing and growth retardation were studied. Blood samples were taken eight hours after fasting and weight and height were measured by SECA instrument. Blood samples were centrifuged immediately and the extracted sera were stored at -70 °C in Eppendorf vials. IGF-1 and ghrelin were measured by ELISA kit. Patients with adenotonsillectomy indication underwent adenotonsillectomy and serum levels of IGF-1 and ghrelin were measured 12 months after operation. Weight, height and BMI were increased significantly after operation (P failure to thrive increases IGF-1 and Ghrelin serum levels which might contribute to the improvement in the growth pattern of the children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fertility preservation in the male pediatric population: factors influencing the decision of parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyns, C; Collienne, C; Shenfield, F; Robert, A; Laurent, P; Roegiers, L; Brichard, B

    2015-09-01

    How can the decision process for fertility preservation (FP) in adolescents and prepubertal boys be improved based on patient and parent feelings about FP counseling? The content of information given to patients and parents and hope for future parenthood appeared to positively impact on the decision to preserve fertility in the pediatric population and, therefore, deserves special attention to improve FP care. A vast body of literature on adult cancer patients shows that reproductive capacity is a major quality-of-life issue. Patients also have a strong desire to be informed of available FP options with a view to future parenthood of their own genetic child, considering that parents were able to make an informed and voluntary decision for their prepubertal sons despite the heavy emotional burden at the time of diagnosis, there is so far very limited information on patient expectations regarding FP. A lack of awareness often equates to suboptimal care by oncologists and FP specialists, and poor access to FP, therefore improving knowledge and identifying the expectations of pediatric patients and their parents are crucial for optimizing multidisciplinary collaborative care pathways (MCCPs), including counseling and access to FP methods, in the youngest population. A questionnaire survey was posted to an eligible population between May 2005 and May 2013. A total of 348 prepubertal boys and adolescents aged 0-18 years, diagnosed with cancer in a university hospital setting, were eligible. Three different questionnaires for two age groups of children (parents were established based on information from focus groups. Questions were subsequently reviewed by the institutional ethics board before being sent. Of the 348 eligible patients, 44 died and 14 were lost to follow-up. Thus, 290 patients (77 aged 12-18 years and 213 aged questionnaire. In total, 120 questionnaires were recovered, 45.5% (n = 35/77) from adolescents and 39.9% (n = 85/213) from children. FP acceptance

  19. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux disease - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic esophagitis - children; Reflux esophagitis - children; GERD - children; Heartburn - chronic - children; Dyspepsia - GERD - children ... GERD. Certain factors can lead to GERD in children, including: Birth defects, such as hiatal hernia , a ...

  1. Measures of Muscular Strength in U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for tests of neuromuscular performance and DXA-derived lean body mass and fat mass in pre-pubertal ... Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Certificates Government Printing Office Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical ...

  2. Bereaved children.

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the unique aspects of childhood grief. To provide a framework for family physicians to use in assisting children to grieve. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1999 using the key words children, childhood, grief, mourning, and bereavement revealed mainly expert opinion articles, some non-randomized observational studies, and retrospective case-control studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Although children are influenced by similar factors and need to work through the s...

  3. IGF-1R mRNA expression is increased in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Rafaela Cristina; Ricco, Rubens Garcia; Queluz, Mariangela Carletti; de Paula, Mariana Teresa Sarti; Atique, Patricia Volpon; Custódio, Rodrigo José; Tourinho Filho, Hugo; Del Roio Liberatori, Raphael; Martinelli, Carlos Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    Obese children are often taller than age-matched subjects. Reports on GH and IGF-I levels in obese individuals are controversial, with normal and reduced GH-IGF-I levels having been reported in this group of patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA expression in obese children. Forty-seven pre-pubertal children were included in this study: 29 were obese and taller than their target height, and 18 were normal eutrophic controls. Fasting blood samples were collected for IGF-IR mRNA expression in isolated lymphocytes and serum IGF-I, ALS, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-1 concentration analysis. Relative IGF-IR gene expression (2 -ΔΔCT ) was significantly (P=0.025) higher in obese children (median 1.87) than in controls (1.15). Fourteen of the 29 obese subjects showed 2 -ΔΔCT values greater than or equal to 2, while only 2 individuals in the control group showed values above 2 (P=0.01). Obese children showed significantly (P=0.01) higher IGF-I concentrations than the control group (237ng/ml and 144ng/ml, respectively). Among obese patients, 65.5% had IGF-I values above the 75 percentile of the control group (P=0.02). ALS concentration was significantly (P=0.04) higher in the obese group, while IGFBP-3 levels were similar in obese and control children. IGFBP-1 concentration was lower in obese children, while insulin levels and HOMA-IR index were higher than in controls. The higher IGF-IR mRNA expression observed in obese children, associated with the higher IGF-I and ALS and the lower IGFBP-1 levels, suggest that the higher stature observed in these children may be due to increased IGF-I bioactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreased prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and stabilisation of obesity trends in 5-year-old children: possible effects of changed public health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedej, Katarina; Kotnik, Primož; Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Grošelj, Urh; Širca Čampa, Andreja; Lusa, Lara; Battelino, Tadej; Bratina, Nataša

    2014-02-01

    Overweight/obesity in children is a worldwide public health problem. Together with hypercholesterolaemia they are associated with early atherosclerotic complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anthropometric characteristics and total cholesterol (TC) levels in a population of 5-year-old children, to determine trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypercholesterolaemia in 5-year-old children over a period of 8 years (2001-2009) and to assess the impact of modified national nutritional guidelines for kindergartens implemented in 2005. Cross-sectional studies of overweight/obesity prevalence in the years 2001, 2003-2005 and 2009, and hypercholesterolaemia in years 2001 and 2009, in 5-year-old children. Altogether, 12 832 (6308 girls/6524 boys) children were included. Overweight/obesity was defined by IOTF criteria. Hypercholesterolaemia was defined by TC level >5 mmol/l. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN BMI VALUES AND TC LEVELS WAS FOUND. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY PREVALENCE WERE STABILISED FROM 2001 TO 2009 (ODDS RATIO (OR) (95% CI): 1.13 (0.99-1.3) and 1.13 (0.89-1.42) respectively). Girls were more frequently overweight/obese than boys (OR (95% CI): 0.71 (0.65-0.79) and 0.75 (0.64-0.89) respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.41-0.55)). It was less frequent in boys than in girls (OR (95% CI): O.7 (0.61-0.8)). This is the first study to describe a negative trend in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in pre-pubertal children. In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in these children has been stabilised. Nationwide changes in public health policies could have influenced these observations.

  5. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-02-07

    Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers-bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)-were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP ( p = 0.002) and CTX-I ( p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC ( p = 0.067) and BMD ( p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  6. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  7. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  8. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( Pyogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( Pyogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( Pfermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children. PMID:26925221

  9. Timing of puberty and physical growth in obese children: a longitudinal study in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, C; Marcovecchio, M L; Chiavaroli, V; de Giorgis, T; Chiarelli, F; Mohn, A

    2014-08-01

    To assess whether puberty and physical growth vary in obese when compared to normal-weight children. One hundred obese pre-pubertal children (44 boys; mean age (±SD): 9.01 ± 0.62 years; 56 girls; 8.70 ± 0.57 years) were compared to 55 normal-weight controls (27 boys; 9.17 ± 0.26 years; 28 girls; 8.71 ± 0.62 years). All study participants were followed prospectively with 6-monthly follow-up visits. At each study visit, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and pubertal stage were assessed. Obese children entered puberty and achieved later stages of puberty earlier than controls (onset of puberty: boys: 11.66 ± 1.00 vs. 12.12 ± 0.91 years, P = 0.049; girls: 9.90 ± 0.78 vs. 10.32 ± 1.70, P = 0.016; late puberty: boys: 13.33 ± 0.71 vs. 14.47 ± 1.00 years, P puberty (β = -0.506, P puberty (β = -0.514, P puberty and completion of puberty and an impaired height gain during puberty. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. Celiac disease in children and adolescents with Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhan, Hale; Işık, Sakine; Abacı, Ayhan; Şimşek, Erdem; Anık, Ahmet; Anal, Özden; Böber, Ece

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings and determine the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). The data of a total of 80 patients with positive anti-thyroid antibodies who were aged between 6 and 17.9 years were retrospectively studied. Age, gender, complaints at the time of presentation, family history of thyroid disorders, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded. The levels of thyrotropin, free thyroxin, thyroid autoantibodies (thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies), immunoglobulin A (IgA), anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG), and thyroid ultrasonography findings were enrolled. Eighty patients (65 females (81.2%) and 15 males (18,8%)) were included in the study. Family history of thyroid disease was present in 38 (47.5%) patients. The most common complaints at the time of presentation were goiter (%30) and weight gain (%25). Forty three (53.8%), 23 (28.7%), and 14 (17.5%) patients presented with euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and obvious hypothyroidism. Thirty seven (46.2%) patients had goiter. IgA-tTG was found to be positive after a diagnosis of HT was made in only one patient (1.25%) and the diagnosis of CD was confirmed when intestinal biopsy of this patient revealed villus atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and increase in the intraepithelial lymphocyte count. In our study, it was found that the most common complaints at presentation in patients with a diagnosis of hashimoto thyroiditis included goiter, weakness and weight gain and the prevalence of celiac diseases was found to be 1.25% (1/80). This study shows that the prevalence of CD in patients with a diagnosis of HT is higher compared to the prevalence in the healthy pediatric population.

  11. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  12. Bone status and adipokine levels in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-03-23

    Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) reflect bone status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Biochemical markers, which show global skeletal activity, were validated for the assessment of bone formation and resorption processes. Adipokines also play a significant role in the regulation of bone metabolism. To assess body composition, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and adipokine levels in relation to vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 53 vegetarian and 53 omnivorous prepubertal healthy children matched for age and sex (median age 7.0 years). Body composition and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathormone levels were measured by chemiluminescence method. Serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (CICP), total osteocalcin (OC) and its forms carboxylated (c-OC) and undercarboxylated (uc-OC), C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX), leptin and adiponectin levels were determined using immunoenzymatic assays. Both groups of children were comparable in terms of body composition, except for the percentage of fat mass, which was lower (19.24 vs. 21.77%, p = 0.018) in vegetarians. Mean values of total BMD z-score and lumbar spine BMD z-score were lower (-0.583 vs. -0.194, p = 0.009 and -0.877 vs. -0.496, p = 0.019, respectively) in vegetarians compared with omnivores. Serum leptin level was about 2-fold lower (1.39 vs. 2.94 ng/mL, p vegetarians, however, adiponectin concentration was similar in both groups. Vegetarians had similar concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but higher parathormone (40.8 vs. 32.1 pg/mL, p = 0.015) and CTX (1.94 vs. 1.76 ng/mL, p = 0.077) levels than omnivores. Total osteocalcin and CICP concentrations were comparable in both groups, however, c-OC/uc-OC ratio was higher (1.43 vs. 1.04 ng/mL, p vegetarians. We found positive correlation between c-OC and nutritional parameters adjusted for total energy intake (plant

  13. Children's Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of adoptions, and strengthen foster care. Watch the Centennial Video News Views and Experiences of Low-Income ... Welfare Capacity Building Collaborative CB Express Children's Bureau Centennial Home About What We Do Our Organization History ...

  14. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese children, suggesting that excess body fat might modulate these relationships. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Recombinant human growth hormone treatment in short children with renal disease: Our first experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Dimitrijeva Brankica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Growth retardation is a hallmark of chronic illnesses such as chronic kidney disease in children, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The growth hormone (GH resistance observed in uraemia can be overcome by supraphysiological doses of exogenous GH. Objective. We would like to present our first results of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH treatment, mainly in children on haemodialysis. Methods. Sixteen children, aged 4.5-17.1 years (mean age 11.25±3.57 with height below -2.0 standard deviation score (SDS for age or height velocity below -2.0 SDS for age, were selected to receive rhGH therapy at our Nephrology and Haemodialysis Department. Most of them were on haemodialysis (14 children with mean spent time 2.88±2.68 years (0-9 years before the initiation of rhGH therapy. One half of patients were prepubertal (8 children and the second half were in early puberty (testicular volume between 4 and 8 ml for boys and breast development B2 or B3 in girls. All patients received 28-30IU/m² rhGH per week by daily subcutaneous injection. The year before rhGH therapy served as a control period. Results. During the first year of treatment, mean height velocity in haemodialysis patients increased from 2.25 cm/year to 6.59 cm/year (p<0.0001 and in the second year it was 5.25 cm/ year (p=0.004. The mean height SDS in haemodialysis children did not improve significantly during the first year of rhGH treatment (from -3.01 SDS to -2.77 SDS, p=0.063. Neither weight nor the body mass index varied compared with the pretreatment period. Two patients developed worsened secondary hyperparathyroidism and were excluded from the study, but the relationship with rhGH remains uncertain. Conclusion. Mean height velocity significantly improved during rhGH therapy in haemodialysis patients. No significant side-effects were observed in children during three-year treatment with GH.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of urethral prolapse in children: 16 years’ experience with 89 Chinese girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wei

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: UP is a rare condition occurring in prepubertal girls, evidenced by a urethral mass and bleeding. Increased physician awareness and early recognition of UP avoids unnecessary examinations and patient anxiety.

  17. Assessment of quality of life, anxiety, socio-economic factors and caries experience in Brazilian children with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, D S; Marquezin, McS; Barbosa, T S; Fonseca, Fla; Fegadolli, C; Castelo, P M

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the association between excess weight and quality of life (QoL), symptoms of anxiety, caries experience and socio-economic factors in a representative sample of 8- to 10-year-old children from three public schools of Piracicaba (SP, Brazil). The Autoquestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Image was applied to explore family and social relations, activities, health, body functions and separation domains, and, by means of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, symptoms of anxiety were screened. Clinical examination was performed using DMFT/dmft indexes to assess oral health and caries experience. Medical and nutritional history, parents' schooling, monthly income and ownership of household goods and services were also evaluated. Of the 313 subjects included, four subjects were underweight, 188 normal weight, 67 overweight and 54 presented obesity (38.7% with excess weight). Measures of QoL, anxiety scores and caries experience did not differ between groups. The regression model showed a significant association between excess weight and the ownership of household goods and services (OR = 5.4/CI = 1.6-18.3). High prevalence of excess weight was observed among prepubertal children, emphasizing the need for continued health programmes to limit risk factors for obesity. QoL, anxiety scores and caries experience did not differ between subjects with different body weights, although children from public schools with higher ownership of goods and services were more likely to present excess weight. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Endothelial dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea is associated with epigenetic changes in the eNOS gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Gozal, David; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Wang, Yang

    2013-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder that has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity, even in children. However, not all children with OSA manifest alterations in endothelial postocclusive hyperemia, an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-dependent response. Since expression of the eNOS gene is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms and OSA may cause epigenetic modifications such as DNA hypermethylation, we hypothesized that epigenetic modifications in the eNOS gene may underlie the differential vascular phenotypes in pediatric OSA. Age-, sex-, ethnicity-, and BMI-matched prepubertal children with polysomnographically confirmed OSA and either normal (OSAn) or abnormal (OSAab) postocclusive hyperemic responses, assessed as the time to attain peak reperfusion flow (Tmax) by laser Doppler flowmetry, were recruited. Blood genomic DNA was assessed for epigenetic modifications in the eNOS gene using pyrosequencing. Children with no evidence of OSA or endothelial dysfunction served as a control group. The study comprised 36 children with OSA (11 with OSAab and 25 with OSAn) and 35 children in the control group. Overall, the mean age was 7.5 ± 2.4 years, 65% were boys, and 30% were obese; mean apnea-hypopnea index was 18 ± 8.6/h of sleep for the children with OSA. Tmax was 66.7 ± 8.8 s in the OSAab group and 30.1 ± 8.3 s in the OSAn group (P < .001). Pyrosequencing of the proximal promoter region of the eNOS gene revealed no significant differences in six of the seven CpG sites. However, a CpG site located at position -171 (relative to transcription start site), approximating important transcriptional elements, displayed significantly higher methylation levels in the OSAab group as compared with the OSAn or control groups (81.5% ± 3.5%, 74.8% ± 1.4%, and 74.5% ± 1.7%, respectively; P < .001). eNOS mRNA expression levels were assessed in a separate group of children and were significantly reduced in the OSAab

  19. Growth hormone response to GRF 1-44 in children following cranial irradiation for central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberfield, S.E.; Kirkland, J.L.; Frantz, A.; Allen, J.C.; Levine, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) responses to (A) GRF 1-44, 1 microgram/kg i.v., (B) L-dopa and either arginine, insulin, or glucagon, and (C) exercise were evaluated in 10 children (3 girls, 7 boys; ages 10 years to 15 years, 8 months), 2-10.75 years following cranial irradiation for medulloblastoma (8 patients), pineoblastoma (1 patient), and a fourth ventricular ependymoma (1 patient). Nine of the 10 children had abnormal growth rates. All children were euthyroid at the time of the study. The mean 0-60-min peak GH response to GRF (10.06 +/- 2.6 ng/ml) in the patients was less than the mean peak GH response (29 +/- 2.3 ng/ml) in the control children (n = 7). In 6 patients (5 with poor growth rates), a decreased GH response was noted to GRF and all other tests. Of the remaining patients, all with poor growth rates, two patients demonstrated an adequate response to GRF and pharmacologic testing; one patient had a normal GH response to GRF with a low GH response to pharmacologic testing; and one patient had a low response to GRF, despite a normal response to both exercise and pharmacologic testing. The decrease in mean peak GH response to GRF in the patient population confirms that radiation to the hypothalamic-pituitary region produces abnormalities in growth hormone release. Furthermore, in these patients, discordant GH responses to GRF and pharmacologic or physiologic tests can be observed. The abnormality in growth hormone release may result from a hypothalamic dysfunction in GRF release and/or damage to GH secretory pituicytes

  20. A randomised controlled trial evaluating IGF1 titration in contrast to current GH dosing strategies in children born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with a GH dose based on body size, but treatment may lead to high levels of IGF1. The objective was to evaluate IGF1 titration of GH dose in contrast to current dosing strategies. METHODS: In the North European Small......-for-Gestational-Age Study (NESGAS), 92 short pre-pubertal children born SGA were randomised after 1 year of high-dose GH treatment (67 μg/kg per day) to three different regimens: high dose (67 μg/kg per day), low dose (35 μg/kg per day) or IGF1 titration. RESULTS: The average dose during the second year of the randomised...... trial did not differ between the IGF1 titration group (38 μg/kg per day, s.d. 0.019) and the low-dose group (35 μg/kg per day, s.d. 0.002; P=0.46), but there was a wide variation in the IGF1 titration group (range 10-80 μg/kg per day). The IGF1 titration group had significantly lower height gain (0...

  1. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  2. Megavitamin treatment of mental retardation in children: a review of effects on behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, B W

    1992-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many forms of vitamin supplementation have been proposed for the treatment of behavioral and cognitive disorders in children with mental retardation. Except for nutrient deficiencies and selected inborn errors of metabolism, the efficacy of these treatments has not been established. Therapeutic supplementation with vitamin B(6) in Down syndrome and folie acid in fragile X syndrome was attempted following the identification of apparent biochemical aberrations involving the nutrients. Double-blind controlled trials have revealed no evidence that B(6) treatment was effective in Down syndrome. Very limited evidence, only among prepubertal subjects, suggested that behaviors improved with folie acid treatment in fragile X syndrome. There is less clarity of the scientific rationales for various combinations of vitamins (or vitamins and minerals) that have been promoted according to the concept of orthomolecular medicine. Well-designed controlled studies, with data presented in conformity with generally accepted scientific standards, have not supported the efficacy of megadose supplementation with 1) multivitamins in cognitive disabilities or attention deficit disorders, or 2) multivitamins and minerals in Down syndrome or other forms of mental retardation. Insufficient data are available to support claims made for vitamin B(6) and magnesium supplementation in autism. Research in the larger field of nutrient-behavior research has reinforced the need for studies to be more rigorously designed and to draw on the expertise of multiple disciplines. Evidence of toxic effects of nutrients continues to accrue, reinforcing the fact that megadoses should not be used indiscriminately or without physician monitoring. For children with mental retardation generally, assuring that established nutritional needs are met warrants primary consideration.

  3. Melatonin improves sleep in children with epilepsy: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sejal V; Horn, Paul S; Simakajornboon, Narong; Beebe, Dean W; Holland, Katherine; Byars, Anna W; Glauser, Tracy A

    2015-05-01

    Insomnia, especially maintenance insomnia, is widely prevalent in epilepsy. Although melatonin is commonly used, limited data address its efficacy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to identify the effects of melatonin on sleep and seizure control in children with epilepsy. Eleven prepubertal, developmentally normal children aged 6-11 years with epilepsy were randomized by a software algorithm to receive placebo or a 9-mg sustained release (SR) melatonin formulation for four weeks, followed by a one-week washout and a four-week crossover condition. The pharmacy performed blinding; patients, parents, and study staff other than a statistician were blinded. The primary outcomes were sleep onset latency and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) measured on polysomnography. The secondary outcomes included seizure frequency, epileptiform spike density per hour of sleep on electroencephalogram (EEG), and reaction time (RT) measures on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Statistical tests appropriate for crossover designs were used for the analysis. Data were analyzed from 10 subjects who completed the study. Melatonin decreased sleep latency (mean difference, MD, of 11.4 min and p = 0.02) and WASO (MD of 22 min and p = 0.04) as compared to placebo. No worsening of spike density or seizure frequency was seen. Additionally, slow-wave sleep duration and rapid eye movement (REM) latency were increased with melatonin and REM sleep duration was decreased. These changes were statistically significant. Worsening of headache was noted in one subject with migraine on melatonin. SR melatonin resulted in statistically significant decreases in sleep latency and WASO. No clear effects on seizures were observed, but the study was too small to allow any conclusions to be drawn in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved