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Sample records for euterpe edulis species

  1. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  2. Allometry of a neotropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart. Alometria de uma palmeira Neotropical, Euterpe edulis Mart

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    Luciana F. Alves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The stem allometry (stem diameter vs. tree height of a Neotropical palm (Euterpe edulis found in rain and seasonal forest of Southeastern Brazil was examined. Observed height-diameter relationships along the stem (diameter at ground level, (dgl, and diameter at breast height (dbh were compared to three theoretical stability mechanical models: elastic similarity, stress similarity and geometric similarity. Slopes of log-transformed height-diameter relationships did not lie near those predicted by any stability mechanical models. Significant differences in stem allometry were found when comparing dgl to dbh, suggesting greater increase in dbh with height. The relationship between stability safety factor (SSF and palm height showed that both dgl and dbh were found to be above McMahon's theoretical buckling limit for dicotyledonous trees, but some individuals approached this limit in relation to dbh. Despite displaying a similar decreasing pattern of SSF with height, differences found in SSF along the stem - greater SSF for dgl when compared to dbh - indicate that the risk of mechanism failure in palms depends upon the size and varies along the stem. Distinct allometric relationships along the stem obtained for Euterpe edulis may be reflecting possible differences in stem design and growth strategies.Neste trabalho foram analisadas as relações entre o diâmetro e a altura de uma palmeira Neotropical (Euterpe edulis comum na Floresta Atlântica do SE do Brasil. As relações observadas entre a altura e o diâmetro ao longo do estipe (diâmetro ao nível do solo (DAS, e diâmetro ao nível do peito (DAP foram comparadas a três modelos teóricos de estabilidade mecânica: similaridade elástica, similaridade de estresse e similaridade geométrica. As inclinações das regressões altura-diâmetro não se ajustaram a nenhum dos modelos de estabilidade mecânica. Diferenças significativas na alometria do estipe foram encontradas comparando-se as rela

  3. Híbridos interespecíficos de palmiteiro (Euterpe oleracea x Euterpe edulis Interespecific hybrids of heart of palm plants (Euterpe oleracea x Euterpe edulis

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    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo e a produção de híbridos de palmiteiro (Euterpe oleracea x E. edulis com seus genitores, em duas condições diferentes de cultivo, na região de Ubatuba, SP. Em ambas as situações, os híbridos apresentaram vigor e precocidade aliados à capacidade de regeneração, mostrando-se superiores à população parental em crescimento vegetativo e produção de palmito. Embora o material ainda não seja homogêneo, os híbridos interespecíficos revelaram grande potencialidade para serem usados no cultivo racional do palmiteiro.The vegetative growth and yield of the Euterpe oleracea x E. edulis hybrid palms were compared to the parental population under two different shading conditions. In both conditions hybrid palms were superior to the parents in growth and yield. The hybrids were vigorous, precocious and had tillering capacity. In spite of the hybrid heterogeneity, they appeared to offer a great potential for upgrading heart of palm planting material in São Paulo State, Brazil.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of Euterpe edulis: a potential superfruit to be considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzenszwalb, Israel; da Costa Marques, Monica Regina; Mazzei, José L; Aiub, Claudia A F

    2013-08-01

    Superfruits have a high nutritional value due to their richness in nutrients, antioxidants, proven or potential health benefits and taste appeal. However, there are no scientific criteria for defining which fruits are superfruits. In Brazil, several palms have an edible palm heart, the best known and most widely appreciated of which is called Acai (Euterpe oleracea). Euterpe edulis Mart., commonly called jussara, is an evergreen species that grows in the rainforest. Having initially been consumed in the form of juice and pulp, they have since been incorporated as an ingredient in many foods. A risk assessment to identify adverse health effects is a prerequisite for taking forward the development of new drugs, cosmetics and foods. To make a toxicological evaluation of E. edulis, in the present work this prerequisite was met by an interdisciplinary network that performed mass spectroscopy analyses, blood biochemistry, genotoxicity, bacterial reverse mutation and cytotoxicity assays. Positive mutagenicity results were detected for Salmonella typhimurium TA97 at low doses, and positive results were also obtained for the mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus assay, indicating that the pulp of E. edulis contains compounds with the capacity to induce mutagenicity and clastogenic/aneugenic effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth and nutrients uptake in Euterpe edulis Martius inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

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    Sandro Lucio Silva Moreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe edulis Martius is one of the endangered species of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest which presents low germination rate and slow seedling growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are known by their symbiosis with plants, promoting an increase of water and nutrientes uptake. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of AMF inoculation on the initial growth (6 months and nutrients uptake in E. edulis seedlings. Treatments consisted of the inoculation of pre-germinated seeds with AMF spores collected from three sites (forest, Juçara and crop, as well as a control with no inoculation. Seedlings growth, number of AMF spores in the substrate and uptake of the N, P, K, Ca and Mg macronutrients in plant tissues were analyzed. Inoculation with AMF improved the initial growth of seedlings, regardless of the source of inoculum used in the experiment, and the inoculation with material collected from rhizosphere increased the shoot and root dry biomass of seedlings by 43 % and 61 %, respectively. Inoculation with AMF provided a greater accumulation of all nutrients assessed in the shoot and root of seedlings, especially when spores were collected at the Juçara site. Inoculation with AMF is a promising strategy to improve the spread of this species.

  6. Making species distribution models available on the Web for reuse in biodiversity experiments: Euterpe edulis species case study / Modelos de distribuição de espécies disponíveis na Web para reutilização em experimentos de biodiversidade: Estudo de caso com a espécie Euterpe edulis

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    Karla Donato Fook

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, biodiversity conservation is one of the most urgent and important themes. Biodiversityresearchers use species distribution models to make inferences about species occurrences and locations.These models are fundamental for fauna and flora preservation, as well as for decision making processesfor urban and regional planning and development. Species distribution modelling tools use largebiodiversity datasets which are globally distributed, can be in different computational platforms, and are hard to access and manipulate. The scientific community needs infrastructures in which biodiversityresearchers can collaborate and share knowledge. In this context, we present a computationalenvironment that supports the collaboration in species distribution modelling network on the Web. Thisenvironment is based on a modelling experiment catalogue and on a set of geoweb services, the WebBiodiversity Collaborative Modelling Services – WBCMS.

  7. Efeito de diferentes substratos e condições ambientais na germinação de sementes de Euterpe edulis Mart. e Geonoma schottiana Mart Effects of different substrates and environmental conditions upon the germination of seeds of Euterpe edulis Mart, and Geonoma schottiana Mart

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas espécies da família Palmae: Euterpe edulis Mart. (palmiteiro e Geonoma schottiana Mart. (guaricanga, ambas com potencial ornamental e em vias de extinção, estão sendo estudadas no Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo, quanto à germinação de suas sementes. Testes de germinação foram realizados em diferentes condições ambientais (casa de vegetação e laboratório e substratos (terra vegetal, areia, esfagno natural, esfagno seco moído e vermiculita. O efeito dos substratos e dos ambientes na germinação das sementes, foi avaliado através da porcentagem de germinação e velocidade de germinação (V.G.. Considerando-se os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que o melhor substrato para germinação de Euterpe edulis Mart. em casa de vegetação foi o esfagno natural. Já em condições controlada (25ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, o melhor substrato para germinação das duas espécies investigadas foi a vermiculita.Two species of the family Palmae: Euterpe edulis Mart, (palmiteiro and Geonoma schottiana Mart, (guaricanga, both potentially ornamental and threatened by extinction, are being studied for seed germination. Tests were undertaken in different environmental conditions (greenhouse and laboratory and substrates (organic soil, sand, green sphagnum moss, dry, ground spahgnum and vermiculite. The effect of environmental conditions and substrates upon the germination of seeds was evaluated by the percentage germination and rate of germination (V.G. percentages. The best substrate for the germination of Euterpe edulis Mart., in greenhouse was green sphagnum moss. Under controlled conditions (25ºC and 12 hours photoperiod, the best substrate for germination of both species investigated was vermiculite.

  8. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

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    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.

  9. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to

  10. Conteúdo polifenólico e atividade antioxidante dos frutos da palmeira Juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius Polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fruits of Juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius palm tree

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    C.P Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O conteúdo polifenólico e a atividade antioxidante do extrato do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius foram avaliados. Esta espécie é uma palmeira conhecida como Juçara, nativa da Mata Atlântica e utilizada para a extração de palmito. O processo de extração do palmito acarreta a morte da planta, uma vez que esta apresenta estipe único. A elevada demanda ocasionou a escassez deste recurso natural. Muitas espécies da Mata Atlântica podem ser utilizadas pelo manejo sustentável para a preservação e exploração econômica pelas comunidades locais. O fruto da palmeira Juçara pode ser uma das alternativas de manejo sustentável dos recursos naturais da Mata Atlântica. A capacidade antioxidante do fruto pode ser utilizada como justificativa para a aplicação como alimento nutricional. O conteúdo polifenólico do fruto foi determinado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau e os resultados obtidos foram: 10,31 ± 0,25%, 12,42 ± 0,89%, 12,75 ± 0,94%, para o extrato bruto, fração acetato de etila e fração remanescente, respectivamente. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelos métodos de redução do complexo fosfomolibdênico e DPPH. O extrato bruto e as frações acetato de etila e remanescente apresentaram atividade antioxidante, sendo que as duas últimas demonstraram maior atividade indicando que o conteúdo polifenólico pode ser responsável por esta atividade.The polyphenolic content and the antioxidant activity of Euterpe edulis Martius fruit extract were assessed. This species is a Palm tree known as Juçara, native to Atlantic Forest and used for palm heart extraction. The process of palm heart extraction leads to the death of the plant since the latter has one single stem. The high demand has resulted in the depletion of this natural resource. Many species from Atlantic Forest can be used by means of sustainable management for the preservation and economic exploration by local communities. The fruit of Juçara palm can be

  11. Efeito alelopático e toxicidade frente à Artemia salina Leach dos extatos do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius Allelopathic effects and toxicity against Artemia salina Leach of extracts of the fruit of Euterpe edulis Martius

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    Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é um processo envolvendo metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas que infl uenciam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas. Devido à toxicidade dos herbicidas sintéticos para o meio ambiente e para a saúde humana tem-se aumentado o interesse na exploração da alelopatia como uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho avaliou efeito dos extratos dos frutos de Euterpe edulis Martius sobre o desenvolvimento de cipselas e plântulas de Lactuca sativa Linné, foram determinados o índice de velocidade de germinação, o crescimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. Para a avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi realizado o ensaio de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach determinando-se a CL50 e percentual de mortalidade. A fração remanescente demonstrou efeito alelopático, pois todas as concentrações alteraram os valores do índice de velocidade de germinação e as concentrações de 0,2 e 0,4 mg inibiram tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto o crescimento do hipocótilo. No ensaio de toxicidade todos os extratos apresentaram CL50 superior a 1000 ppm e 0% de mortalidade das artemias, indicando a não toxicidade dos extratos.Allelopathy is a process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants that influence growth and development of agricultural systems. Because of the toxicity of synthetic herbicides to the environment and human health, there has been increased interest in exploiting allelopathy as an alternative for weed control. This study evaluated the eff ect of extracts of Euterpe edulis Martius fruits on the development of cypselae and seedlings of Lactuca sativa Linné; the germination speed index, radicle and hypocotyl growth were determined. To evaluate the toxicity of the extracts the toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach was used, where the LC50 and mortality rate were determined. Th e remaining fraction showed allelopathic effect

  12. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying; Conservacao de polpa de jucara (Euterpe edulis) submetida a radiacao gama, pasteurizacao, liofilizacao e atomizacao

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    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-08-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to

  13. Avaliação da Composição Centesimal, Mineral e Teor de Antocianinas da Polpa de Juçaí (Euterpe edulis Martius

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    Leilson de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A polpa de juçaí, fruto da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius encontrada nas áreas da Mata Atlântica e a polpa de açaí, fruto da palmeira juçara (Euterpe oleracea Martius cultivado na Floresta Amazônica, foram caracterizadas obtendo assim sua composição centesimal, mineral e também seu teor de antocianinas. Com os resultados obtidos foi possível fazer um estudo comparativo da concentração de antocianinas das duas polpas congeladas e verificar a importância do consumo destes alimentos, classificados como funcionais, devido às propriedades antioxidantes de suas antocianinas no combate dos radicais livres no organismo humano.

  14. QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE Euterpe edulis Mart. SUBMETIDAS A TÉCNICAS CASEIRAS DE DESPOLPAMENTO

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    Lorena Abdalla de Oliveira Prata Guimarães

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A germinação de sementes da Euterpe edulis (juçara ocorre de forma lenta e desuniforme, mas a remoção do pericarpo e/ou a escarificação podem facilitar a germinação. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de métodos caseiros de despolpamento sobre a emergência e o vigor de plântulas de juçara. Foram aplicados quatro métodos de despolpamento: imersão dos frutos em água a 65 °C por 3 h e extração da polpa com peneira (T1 e liquidificador (T2; imersão dos frutos em água fria (temperatura ambiente por 24 h e extração da polpa com peneira (T3 e liquidificador (T4. As sementes despolpadas foram distribuídas em bandejas contendo areia e irrigadas diariamente. Após 102 dias foram avaliadas a emergência e o vigor das plântulas. Apenas a emergência apresentou respostas significativas aos tratamentos. O vigor das plântulas de juçara não é influenciado pelos métodos de despolpamento testados. Entretanto, a imersão em água fria por 24 horas e a extração da polpa com liquidificador são mais favoráveis à emergência das plântulas.

  15. Secagem e armazenamento de sementes de juçara Drying and storage of euterpe edulis seeds

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    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da secagem parcial e do armazenamento sobre a germinação e vigor de sementes de Euterpe edulis obtidas em três épocas de produção, o lote 1 foi colhido em 10 plantasmatriz (PM, em 02/99; o lote 2 em 15 PM, em 04/00; e o lote 3 em 11 PM, em 08/00. Os frutos foram despolpados e as sementes, colocadas para secar por zero, 20 e 40 h (três sublotes, em câmara seca (temperatura de 27 ºC e umidade relativa de 35%. Os três sublotes foram armazenados a 10 ºC, em sacos plásticos (20 mm de espessura fechados. Durante o armazenamento, a qualidade das sementes foi avaliada a cada seis semanas, por 30 semanas, por meio das seguintes determinações: teor de água (105±3 ºC/24 h, porcentagem de germinação e vigor (primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação. O aumento do tempo de secagem resultou em sementes com teor de água decrescente, em torno de 14 a 21% dos valores iniciais, que se mantiveram praticamente inalterados durante o armazenamento. A germinação e vigor das sementes foram prejudicados pela secagem parcial e pelo aumento do tempo de armazenamento, de forma diferenciada entre as épocas de produção, e ambas as características dependem das condições climáticas vigentes durante o desenvolvimento e maturação das sementes.The objective of this research was to verify the effects of partial drying and storage duration on the germination and vigor of three E. edulis seed lots developed under different weather conditions. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection from the Instituto Agronômico, located in Ubatuba, SP., forming three seed lots. Seeds from ten plants were harvested on 02/99 and constituted the Seed lot 1; seed lot 2 was composed of seeds of fifteen plants collected in 04/00, whereas seeds from eleven plants harvested on 08/00 composed seed lot 3. The fruits were depulped and the seeds were dried for 0, 20 and 40 hours, using a drying chamber regulated at

  16. Probiotic and Synbiotic Sorbets Produced with Jussara (Euterpe edulis) Pulp: Evaluation Throughout the Storage Period and Effect of the Matrix on Probiotics Exposed to Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluids.

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    Marinho, Júlia Fernanda Urbano; da Silva, Marluci Palazzolli; Mazzocato, Marcella Chalella; Tulini, Fabrício Luiz; Favaro-Trindade, Carmen Sílvia

    2017-11-08

    The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate different formulations of probiotic and synbiotic sorbets produced with jussara (Euterpe edulis) pulp, polydextrose, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA3, and Lactobacillus paracasei BGP1. The pasteurized jussara pulp presented high content of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, which were not inhibitory to the probiotics used in this study. The levels of polyphenols and anthocyanins present in the sorbets were also high and kept stable for 120 days, as well as the populations of both probiotics. On the other hand, probiotic populations reduced ca. 4 log CFU/g when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Altogether, the sorbets produced in this study showed interesting results, indicating the viability on producing functional foods with probiotics, prebiotics, and other components that are rich in polyphenols, such as jussara pulp. The combination of these elements can improve the health beneficial effects of these compounds and provide important advantages to the intestinal microbiota of consumers.

  17. Desenvolvimento de um Iogurte Sabor Juçaí (Euterpe edulis Martius: Avaliação Físico-química e Sensorial

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    Gislaine Natiele dos Santos Costa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A busca constante por melhorias na qualidade de vida, saúde e bemestar dos consumidores tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos produtos. Devido a esta influência o leite e seus derivados considerados como alimentos funcionais vêm apresentando um aumento significativo no consumo. Este trabalho apresenta o processo de desenvolvimento de um iogurte sabor juçaí, fruto da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius. Rico em nutrientes como ferro e potássio. Este fruto é similar ao açaí fruto da palmeira Euterpe oleracea Martius, porém apresenta, segundo a literatura, maior teor de antocianinas. As antocianinas possuem alto poder antioxidante e inibem a ação de radicais livres nas células diminuindo seus efeitos ao organismo humano. No desenvolvimento do produto foram preparadas formulações contendo, respectivamente, 3%, 5% e 7% da polpa da fruta visando adquirir além de funcionalidade, melhor consistência e sabor para o produto. A aceitabilidade do produto foi avaliada por meio de análise sensorial.

  18. Efeitos da fragmentação florestal sobre a imigração de sementes e a estrutura genética temporal de populações de Euterpe edulis Mart. Effects of forest fragmentation on seed immigration and temporal genetic structure of Euterpe edulis Mart.

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    Carlos Eduardo Sícole SEOANE

    2005-06-01

    the gene flowprocesses when a population becomes isolated;5 - the higher levels of genetic divergence foundfor the continuous populations are due to the largenumber of genes coming from outside the sampledsubpopulations; 6 - the smaller number of seedlingsper adult found in the isolated population suggestsdisturbances to the maintenance of the seedlingbank when a population becomes isolated, and7 - frugivory was proportional to the fruit availabilitybut in absolute numbers was three times smaller inthe isolated population, which suggests that when apopulation becomes isolated there will be negativeeffects on the gene flow dynamics of the speciesand in the local survival of the associatedfrugivorous species, on the log run.Key words: forest fragmentation; Euterpe edulis;seed dispersion; gene flow; seedlingbank; temporal genetic structure;microssatelite; genetic conservation;Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  19. Anthocyanins, phenolic acids and antioxidant properties of Juçara fruits (Euterpe edulis M.) along the on-tree ripening process.

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    Bicudo, Milene Oliveira Pereira; Ribani, Rosemary Hoffmann; Beta, Trust

    2014-06-01

    Juçara (Euterpe edulis M.) fruits are an interesting source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins, making them valuable to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Juçara fruits were harvested along the on-tree ripening process between March and June as practiced in Paraná state, Brazil and examined for their total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), total phenolic acid (TPA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAA). Overall, TAC increased (91.52-236.19 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/100 g dm) whereas TPC (81.69-49.09 mg GAE/g dm) and TPA (44.27-30.95 mg/100 g dm) decreased during ripening of juçara fruits. Use of tandem mass spectrometry allowed the identification of cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside for the first time in juçara fruits. The analysis of the phenolic acids by HPLC-MS/MS indicated the presence of gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, sinapinic and ferulic acids. The high antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging capacity (655.89-745.32 μmol TE/g dm) and ORAC assays (1088.10-2071.55 μmol TE/g dm) showed that juçara fruits have potential as a source of novel natural antioxidants for disease prevention and health promotion, and also as natural food additives for developing new functional food products.

  20. Microsatellite Primers in the Foundation Tree Species Pinus edulis and P. monophylla (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Krohn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the foundational tree species Pinus edulis to investigate population differentiation of P. edulis and hybridization among closely related species. Methods and Results: Using a hybridization protocol, primer sets for 11 microsatellite loci were developed using megagametophyte tissue from P. edulis and scored for polymorphism in three populations of P. edulis and a single P. monophylla population. The primers amplified simple and compound di-, tri-, and pentanucleotide repeats with two to 18 alleles per locus. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the utility of the described primers for studies of population differentiation within and among P. edulis populations as well as across putative hybrid zones where P. edulis may coexist with sister species.

  1. Allometric Equations for Estimating Biomass of Euterpe precatoria, the Most Abundant Palm Species in the Amazon

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    Fernando Da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models to estimate biomass components such as stem mass Ms, foliage mass Ml, root mass Mr and aboveground mass Ma, were developed for the palm species Euterpe precatoria Mart., which is the most abundant tree species in the Amazon. We harvested twenty palms including above- and below-ground parts in an old growth Amazonian forest in Brazil. The diameter at breast height D ranged from 3.9–12.7 cm, and the stem height H ranged from 2.3–16.4 m. The D, diameter at ground basis D0, crown diameter CD, H, stem specific gravity ρ, and number of fronds Nf were considered as independent variables and incorporated into a power function model. The best predictors were D2Hρ for Ms and Ma, D2HNf for Ml, and D for Mr. Slender index (H/D ranged from 0.56–1.46 m·cm−1, and the D-H relationship suggested that the stem shape becomes more slender with increasing D. On the other hand, ρ increased with D implying a stiffening of stem tissue. The average root/shoot ratio was estimated as 0.29 which was higher than that reported for the non-palm tree species in the Amazon. Comparisons of several models to estimate Ma of different palm species, suggested that the variations of the D-H relationship and ρ should be considered to develop allometric models for estimating biomass in palm species. In particular the ρ largely varied depending on individual size, which should be important to consider, when developing the allometric models for palms.

  2. Efeito de borda ou da exploração? Demografia e estado de conservação de Euterpe edulis Martius em área protegida de floresta atlântica de terras baixas (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Guerra Domingos Nogueira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsecamente, a palmeira-juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius desperta grande interesse por sua beleza e papel-chave em comunidades de fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica, porque é explorada como recurso alimentício por uma vasta assembleia de vertebrados. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar o estado de conservação de Euterpe edulis na Reserva Biológica União (Rio das Ostras, RJ através do estudo de sua demografia, bem como responder às seguintes questões: A população sofre efeito de borda? A escala de observação influencia sua detecção? Variáveis da estrutura da vegetação (cobertura herbácea, do dossel e sub-bosque foram mensuradas para caracterização dos ambientes e a fim de relacioná-las com a abundância e diâmetro dos indivíduos. Os resultados indicaram que a população de palmeira-juçara estudada não sofre efeito de borda. As variáveis da estrutura da vegetação não apresentaram relação com a abundância e diâmetro dos indivíduos nos distintos estágios de vida. Todavia, a estrutura da população estudada não indica potencial para regeneração natural (localmente da espécie (distribuição em J invertido, porque não há banco de plântulas formado. A baixa densidade e agregação, além da ausência de um banco de plântulas, junto ao diâmetro médio observado para adultos (14 cm, sugerem que a população foi drasticamente suprimida no passado.

  3. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Catha edulis: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Features with Related Species

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    Cuihua Gu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas. The size of the small single-copy and the large single-copy regions were 18,491 bp and 86,315 bp, respectively. The C. edulis cp genome consists of 129 coding genes including 37 transfer RNA (tRNA genes, 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes, and 84 protein coding genes. For those genes, 112 are single copy genes and 17 genes are duplicated in two inverted regions with seven tRNAs, four rRNAs, and six protein coding genes. The phylogenetic relationships resolved from the cp genome of qat and 32 other species confirms the monophyly of Celastraceae. The cp genomes of C. edulis, Euonymus japonicus and seven Celastraceae species lack the rps16 intron, which indicates an intron loss took place among an ancestor of this family. The cp genome of C. edulis provides a highly valuable genetic resource for further phylogenomic research, barcoding and cp transformation in Celastraceae.

  4. Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial, produção e germinação de conídios de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolados de frutos de palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathianne Pastana de Sousa Poltronieri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis é uma das espécies mais importantes da Mata Atlântica. E. edulis faz parte da lista das espécies florestais ameaçadas de extinção. A antracnose, causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, é a principal doença do fruto da juçara. O patógeno prejudica a germinação das sementes e pode causar perda total da produção da polpa do fruto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da temperatura no desenvolvimento de quatro isolados de C. gloeosporioides obtidos de frutos de juçara. Os isolados foram obtidos de frutos doentes da região de Paraty-RJ e Ubatuba-SP. Dos isolamentos monospóricos de C. gloeosporioides, discos de micélio com 7 mm de diâmetro foram transferidos para placas de Petri contendo meio BDA e submetidos às temperaturas de 20º, 25º, 28º, 32º e 35ºC durante sete dias sob fotoperíodo de 12 horas em câmara tipo BOD. Foram avaliados as variáveis: crescimento micelial diariamente por meio de medições ortogonais na placa, produção e germinação de conídios aos sete dias de idade (inoculação. A maior taxa de crescimento micelial de C. gloeosporioides ocorreu aos 28ºC, seguida pela temperatura de 25ºC. A produção de conídios foi maior a 28ºC, seguida na temperatura de 30ºC. A germinação de conídios foi maior a 28ºC atingindo 84% a 87%. Concluiu-se que o crescimento micelial, a produção e germinação dos conídios dos isolados de C. gloeosporioides é maior na temperatura de 28ºC.

  5. Contrasting phenotypic plasticity in the photoprotective strategies of the invasive species Carpobrotus edulis and the coexisting native species Crithmum maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollosa, Erola; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta

    2017-06-01

    Photoprotective strategies vary greatly within the plant kingdom and reflect a plant's physiological status and capacity to cope with environment variations. The plasticity and intensity of these responses may determine plant success. Invasive species are reported to show increased vigor to displace native species. Describing the mechanisms that confer such vigor is essential to understanding the success of invasive species. We performed an experiment whereby two species were monitored: Carpobrotus edulis, an aggressive invasive species in the Mediterranean basin, and Crithmum maritimum, a coexisting native species in the Cap de Creus Natural Park (NE Spain). We analyzed their photoprotective responses to seasonal environmental dynamics by comparing the capacity of the invader to respond to the local environmental stresses throughout the year. Our study analyses ecophysiological markers and photoprotective strategies to gain an insight into the success of invaders. We found that both species showed completely different but effective photoprotective strategies: in summer, C. edulis took special advantage of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the success of C. maritimum in summer stemmed from morphological changes and alterations on β-carotene content. Winter also presented differences between the species, as the native showed reduced F v /F m ratios. Our experimental design allowed us to introduce a new approach to compare phenotypic plasticity: the integrated phenotypic plasticity index (PP int ), defined as the maximum Euclidian distance between phenotypes, using a combination of different variables to describe them. This index revealed significantly greater phenotypic plasticity in the invasive species compared to the native species. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Distribution of mercury in the fruit-bodies of Boletus edulis and Agaricus species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, R.

    1976-01-01

    The mercury content of various parts of single fruit-bodies of the Yellow Bolete Boletus edulis (n=26), the Field-Mushroom Agaricus campester (n=23) and of Agaricus silvicola (n=17) was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. In each species the lowest mercury content was found in the stem (anti x = 1,96-3,21 mg/kg dry wt.), whereas the caps contained significantly more mercury (anti x = 4,19-6,97 mg/kg dry wt.). The highest mercury content was found in the gills and tubes (anti x = 4,85-8,77 mg/kg dry wt.), which contained significantly more mercury than the flesh of the caps (anti x = 3,11-5,60 mg/kg dry wt.). Young mushrooms seemed to contain more mercury than older ones.

  7. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  8. Avaliação da densidade populacional e regeneração natural do palmito juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart. no município de São João Evangelista-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo do Nascimento

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma população de E. edulis (palmito juçara em uma área de 4.5 hectares da fazenda Nova Granja de 363 hectares, em São João Evangelista, MG. Objetivou-se analisar a estrutura populacional dessa espécie em Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, compreender sua dinâmica e contribuir com informações  sobre o manejo sustentado de E. edulis nesse tipo de ambiente. Os dados da população foram coletados em 10 parcelas de 10 x 15 m, alocadas em três transectos dispostos em nordeste-sudoeste, com 175 m de distância entre si. Coletaram-se dados referentes a cinco estádios de desenvolvimento (Jovem I, Jovem II, Imaturo I, Imaturo II e Adulto e avaliaram-se a densidade e a regeneração dessa população. Foi encontrado grande percentual de Jovem I. Adultos com altura de inserção foliar entre 14,3 e 18,3 m foram a classe mais frequente nessa população. A densidade populacional apresentou-se relativamente alta (0,74/m2; a população possui distribuição em “J” invertido, sendo uma população em estado natural de conservação. Palavras-chave: Palmeira juçara. “J” invertido. Arecaceae.

  9. [Effect of excretion-secretion products of some fouling species on the biochemical parameters of blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the White Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidchenko, V S; Vysotskaia, R U; Krupnova, M Iu; Khalaman, V V

    2011-01-01

    The effect of excretion-secretion products (ESP) of five abundant fouling invertebrate species (bivalve mollusks Hiatella arctica and Mytilus edulis, solitary ascidia Styela rustica, sponge Halichondria panicea, and sea starAsterias rubens, inhabiting the White Sea) on the biochemical status of blue mussel M. edulis was assessed by the dynamics of lysosomal enzymes activity (nucleases, glycoside hydrolases, and cathepsins). ESP of conspecific species had no effect on the metabolism of the mollusks of this species. ESP of A. rubens, S. rustica, and H. panicea activated the same enzymes. First, acid RNase and glycoside hydrolases activity increased, but in different ways. The metabolites of H. arctica affected the activity of proteometabolism enzymes.

  10. Development of a Medium Density Combined-Species SNP Array for Pacific and European Oysters (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro P. Gutierrez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available SNP arrays are enabling tools for high-resolution studies of the genetic basis of complex traits in farmed and wild animals. Oysters are of critical importance in many regions from both an ecological and economic perspective, and oyster aquaculture forms a key component of global food security. The aim of our study was to design a combined-species, medium density SNP array for Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas and European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis, and to test the performance of this array on farmed and wild populations from multiple locations, with a focus on European populations. SNP discovery was carried out by whole-genome sequencing (WGS of pooled genomic DNA samples from eight C. gigas populations, and restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq of 11 geographically diverse O. edulis populations. Nearly 12 million candidate SNPs were discovered and filtered based on several criteria, including preference for SNPs segregating in multiple populations and SNPs with monomorphic flanking regions. An Affymetrix Axiom Custom Array was created and tested on a diverse set of samples (n = 219 showing ∼27 K high quality SNPs for C. gigas and ∼11 K high quality SNPs for O. edulis segregating in these populations. A high proportion of SNPs were segregating in each of the populations, and the array was used to detect population structure and levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD. Further testing of the array on three C. gigas nuclear families (n = 165 revealed that the array can be used to clearly distinguish between both families based on identity-by-state (IBS clustering parental assignment software. This medium density, combined-species array will be publicly available through Affymetrix, and will be applied for genome-wide association and evolutionary genetic studies, and for genomic selection in oyster breeding programs.

  11. Mycorrhizal synthesis between Boletus edulis species complex and rockroses (Cistus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águeda, Beatriz; Parladé, Javier; Fernández-Toirán, Luz Marina; Cisneros, Óscar; de Miguel, Ana María; Modrego, María Pilar; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Pera, Joan

    2008-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizas of Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, and Boletus reticulatus were synthesized with Cistus sp. under laboratory conditions using synthesis tubes filled with a mixture of sterilized peat-vermiculite and nutrient solution. The fungal strains isolated from sporocarps were identified by molecular techniques. The inoculated seedlings were grown for 4-5 months. The ectomycorrhizas formed were described based on standard morphological and anatomical characters. The three ectomycorrhizas described were very similar, with white monopodial-pinnate morphology, a three-layered plectenchymatous mantle on plan view and boletoid rhizomorphs.

  12. Thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins extracted from juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius) and "Italia" grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), and the effect of heating on the antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, D V; Fraga, S; Antelo, F

    2017-10-01

    The effect of temperature on the degradation of anthocyanins in juçara and "Italia" grape extracts was determined between 50 and 90°C. For both species, thermal degradation followed a first-order kinetic model. The decimal reduction time decreased with increasing temperature, and dependence on the thermodegradable factor was lower at higher temperatures. The anthocyanins from juçara degraded more slowly than those extracted from "Italia" grapes. The activation enthalpy and free energy of inactivation indicated an endothermic reaction, not spontaneous degradation, whereas the activation entropy suggested that the transition state has less structural freedom than that of the reactants. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was reduced when subjected to 90°C heat treatment, however, significant quantities of this bioactive compound still remained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A massive ingression of the alien species Mytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca into the Mediterranean Sea following the Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. CASOLI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster occurred just off the coast of Italy on January 13th, 2012, and entailed the largest marine salvage operation in history. The salvage employed vessels from different European harbours, providing an unexpected means for transporting alien species into the Mediterranean. In this work we identified mussel species using fragments length polymorphism of a nuclear locus and report the first evidence of the transport of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mollusca, into the Mediterranean Sea, as a part of the fouling community of the hull of an accommodation barge arrived from a NE Atlantic location in October 2012. Furthermore, we describe the rapid growth of this species, under the ASV Pioneer, until its almost total extinction during the summer of 2013, which left a covering of mussel shells on the underlying Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, 1813. meadow. This high mortality rate indicated that M. edulis had been exposed to high stress conditions, probably due to different salinity, temperature, and oligotrophic conditions from its place of origin, and there was no spawning event or known settlement on the nearest infralittoral natural habitats. This event reminds us of how the Mediterranean Sea is constantly under alien-species pressure, due to human activities.

  14. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  15. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Mackenzie

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments.

  16. A taxonomic study of the Blepharis edulis complex (Acanthaceae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variable species Blepharis edulis, as well as the recently described B. boranensis, is investigated in Eastern Africa using phenetic analysis of gross morphological data supplemented with field observations and pollen morphology studies. Two species, B. edulis and B. boranensis, occuring in the drylands of Eastern ...

  17. Avaliação da estabilidade oxidativa do óleo bruto de açaí (Euterpe oleracea na presença de compostos fenólicos puros ou de extratos vegetais amazônicos Evaluation of oxidative stability of crude açai (Euterpe oleracea oil in the presence of pure phenolic compounds or Amazonian plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A final 241 µM of ascorbyl palmitate and 555 µM of the following antioxidants separately: BHA, myricetin and quercetin standards, and extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia, Inga edulis or Euterpe oleracea, were added to crude açai oil and submitted to the oxidation process at 60 ºC for 11 days. Among the antioxidants used, only the myricetin standard showed the ability to defer the oxidation process until the third day of treatment. B. crassifolia, I. edulis and E. oleracea extracts showed no preventive capacity against the oxidation process, despite their high concentration phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities.

  18. A PCA-based hyperspectral approach to detect infections by mycophilic fungi on dried porcini mushrooms (boletus edulis and allied species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, Lucia; Zotti, Mirca; Sitta, Nicola; Oliveri, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Mycophilic fungi of anamorphic genus Sepedonium (telomorphs in Hypomyces, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) infect and parasitize sporomata of boletes. The obligated hosts such as Boletus edulis and allied species (known as "porcini mushrooms") are among the most valued and prized edible wild mushrooms in the world. Sepedonium infections have a great morphological variability: at the initial state, contaminated mushrooms present a white coating covering tubes and pores; at the final state, Sepedonium forms a deep and thick hyphal layer that eventually leads to the total necrosis of the host. Up to date, Sepedonium infections in porcini mushrooms have been evaluated only through macroscopic and microscopic visual analysis. In this study, in order to implement the infection evaluation as a routine methodology for industrial purposes, the potential application of Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for detection of Sepedonium presence on sliced and dried B. edulis and allied species was investigated. Hyperspectral images were obtained using a pushbroom line-scanning HSI instrument, operating in the wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm with 5 nm resolution. PCA was applied on normal and contaminated samples. To reduce the spectral variability caused by factors unrelated to Sepedonium infection, such as scattering effects and differences in sample height, different spectral pre-treatments were applied. A supervised rule was then developed to assign spectra recorded on new test samples to each of the two classes, based on the PC scores. This allowed to visualize directly - within false-color images of test samples - which points of the samples were contaminated. The results achieved may lead to the development of a non-destructive monitoring system for a rapid on-line screening of contaminated mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Avaliação da estabilidade oxidativa do óleo bruto de açaí (Euterpe oleracea na presença de compostos fenólicos puros ou de extratos vegetais amazônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A final 241 µM of ascorbyl palmitate and 555 µM of the following antioxidants separately: BHA, myricetin and quercetin standards, and extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia, Inga edulis or Euterpe oleracea, were added to crude açai oil and submitted to the oxidation process at 60 ºC for 11 days. Among the antioxidants used, only the myricetin standard showed the ability to defer the oxidation process until the third day of treatment. B. crassifolia, I. edulis and E. oleracea extracts showed no preventive capacity against the oxidation process, despite their high concentration phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities.

  20. Constraints to native plant species establishment in coastal dune communities invaded by Carpobrotus edulis: Implications for restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novoa, A.; González, L.; Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 164, Aug 2013 (2013), s. 1-9 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : enzymes activities * invasive species * residual effects Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.036, year: 2013

  1. AND KHAT (Catha edulis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-21

    Manson, B. (2000),. Fluoride content in khat (Catha edulis) chewing leaves. Archives of Oral Biology, 45, 253-255. Hill, C.M. and Gibson, A. (1987) The oral and dental effects of q'at chewing. Oral Surg Oral. Med Oral Pathol, 63, 433 ...

  2. Germination of the seeds and cytogenetic analysis in two species of palms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Battistin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe edulis and Archontophoenix alexandrae are palm trees used for ornamentation purpose and palm heart extraction. Seed germination and VGI, mitotic and meiotic chromosome behavior and quantification of pollen were assessed. For each species in each location and in each substracts, 60 seeds were used. Mitotic chromosome analyses and identification of differential nucleoli were made in meristem zone of primary root. Giemsa 2% (m/v and AgNO3 50% (m/v were used as dyes, respectively. Chromosomes analysis in microsporogenesis and pollen viability were made on anthers of buds and stained with carmine propionic 2% (m/v. The greatest index of germination and VGI of the seeds, in two species, were observed in samples from Maquiné in a substract containing vermiculite. A. alexandrae is a diploid with 2n=2x=32 chromosomes with karyotype m+12sm+4st+2t. E. edulis is a diploid with 2n=2x=36 chromosomes with karyotype 16m + 12sm + 8t. Both have a submetacentric pair of chromosomes with intermediate secondary constriction containing nucleoli with active ribosome genes. In these two species microsporogenesis and pollen analyses showed high percentage of normal cells at all stages of meiosis I and II resulting a high meiotic index (normal tetrads and pollen viability, indicating that in these species the genes are expressed normally in environmental conditions in which they live and do not present problems in the formation of male reproductive cells.

  3. Mycorrhization between Cistus ladanifer L. and Boletus edulis Bull is enhanced by the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Olaya; Olaizola, Jaime; Santos-del-Blanco, Luis; Oria-de-Rueda, Juan Andrés; Martín-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Boletus edulis Bull. is one of the most economically and gastronomically valuable fungi worldwide. Sporocarp production normally occurs when symbiotically associated with a number of tree species in stands over 40 years old, but it has also been reported in 3-year-old Cistus ladanifer L. shrubs. Efforts toward the domestication of B. edulis have thus focused on successfully generating C. ladanifer seedlings associated with B. edulis under controlled conditions. Microorganisms have an important role mediating mycorrhizal symbiosis, such as some bacteria species which enhance mycorrhiza formation (mycorrhiza helper bacteria). Thus, in this study, we explored the effect that mycorrhiza helper bacteria have on the efficiency and intensity of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. The aim of this work was to optimize an in vitro protocol for the mycorrhizal synthesis of B. edulis with C. ladanifer by testing the effects of fungal culture time and coinoculation with the helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula. The results confirmed successful mycorrhizal synthesis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. Coinoculation of B. edulis with P. fluorescens doubled within-plant mycorrhization levels although it did not result in an increased number of seedlings colonized with B. edulis mycorrhizae. B. edulis mycelium culture time also increased mycorrhization levels but not the presence of mycorrhizae. These findings bring us closer to controlled B. edulis sporocarp production in plantations.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. against Rotenone In Vitro Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Kolinski Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder (BD and schizophrenia (SCZ, have a very complex pathophysiology. Several current studies describe an association between psychiatric illness and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular modifications, including lipid, protein, and DNA damage, caused by cellular oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea (açaí is a powerful antioxidant fruit. Açaí is an Amazonian palm fruit primarily found in the lowlands of the Amazonian rainforest, particularly in the floodplains of the Amazon River. Given this proposed association, this study analyzed the potential in vitro neuropharmacological effect of Euterpe oleracea (açaí extract in the modulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with rotenone to induce mitochondrial complex I dysfunction and before and after we exposed the cells to açaí extract at 5 μg/mL. Treated and untreated cells were then analyzed by spectrophotometric, fluorescent, immunological, and molecular assays. The results showed that açaí extract can potentially increase protein amount and enzyme activity of mitochondrial complex I, mainly through NDUFS7 and NDUFS8 overexpression. Açaí extract was also able to decrease cell reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation. We thus suggest açaí as a potential candidate for drug development and a possible alternative BD therapy.

  5. Mites in assai palms (Euterpe oleracea Mart. conducted under different cropping systems = Acarofauna em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. conduzido em diferentes sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Aguiar Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The assai palm (Euterpe oleracea is the most important palm tree of the genus Euterpe known in Brazil, which is grown under monocrop and intercrop systems. Despite its great usefulness, this palm tree is important for supplying two cost-effective food products, the fruit and the palm hearts. Due to its importance, the aim of this study was to carry out a survey of mite fauna present in assai crops in the town of São Luis, in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from August 2012 to July 2013, in assai groves under two systems of cultivation: monocrop and intercrop. A faunistic analysis was carried out using the ANAFAU software, when the following indices were determined: abundance, frequency, dominance, constancy and diversity. A total of 6,274 mites were found, with 4,748 in the intercrop system and 1,526 in the monocrop system. Among the occurrence of phytophagic mites, the families Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae were significant in both crops. For the families of predatory mites, the phytoseiid was considered super-dominant, super-abundant, super-frequent and constant; the species Amblyseius largoensis, Euseius concordis and Iphiseiodes zuluagai were dominant under both cropping systems, but the intercrop displayed greater diversity compared to the monocrop. For population dynamics, larger populations of mites were seen in periods of low rainfall under the two systems studied. = O açaizeiro (Euterpe oleraceae é a mais importante palmeira do gênero Euterpe conhecida no Brasil, que é cultivada em sistemas de cultivo solteiro e consorciado. Apesar da grande utilidade, esta palmeira se destaca no fornecimento de dois produtos alimentares economicamente rentáveis, os frutos e o palmito. Em razão da sua importância, objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar o levantamento da acarofauna presente em cultivos de açaizeiro no município de São Luís - Maranhão. As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente, no per

  6. Indigenous multiplication and production practices of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis in Chencha and Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (syn. Coleus edulis) is a tuber-bearing labiate species cultivated in parts of southern Ethiopia. To learn about traditional cultural practices and their rationale, a survey was conducted among farmers from Chencha and Wolaita experienced in growing this crop. A pre-tested

  7. Fluctuating and Directional Asymmetry of the Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis: Improving Methods of Morphological Analysis to Explore Species Performance at the Northern Border of Its Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Lajus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we examined morphological variation at different levels to study performance and population structuring of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Our objectives were: (i to develop an integrated technique for analyzing morphological variation in blue mussels and, based on this technique; (ii to perform a morphometric description of mussels from the northern part of their range; and (iii to verify the hypothesis that populations at the outer range of their distribution have reduced performance due to harsh climatic conditions. Means, directional asymmetry (i.e., systematic differences between left and right structures, fluctuating asymmetry (random deviations from perfect symmetry, a measure of developmental instability, factorial variation (difference between total variance and variance of fluctuating asymmetry, an indirect index of genotypic variation, and measurement error were examined for 14 bilateral characters of muscle scars on mussel shells. Also, we analyzed one non-bilateral character. For the first time directional asymmetry—approaching 13% of the right:left ratio—was described in blue mussels. Measurement error, often ignored in morphometric studies, contributed 26% of total variance. Accurately addressing these methodical challenges is key to further and improved ecological interpretations. Morphological differences were found between (i samples from estuarine areas in the White and Pechora Seas and (ii samples from Barents Sea areas with oceanic salinity. Samples from the first group exhibited lower fluctuating asymmetry, indicating higher developmental stability likely due to better feeding conditions and lower factorial variation, which may result from lower genotypic variation. Absence of correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and temperature suggests that low temperatures in the northern border of their range do not degrade the performance of adult blue mussels in this region.

  8. Bioaccumulation pattern of lanthanides in pteridophytes and magnoliophytes species from Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre Luis Lima de Araujo; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Elvis Joacir De Franca

    2012-01-01

    The availability of chemical elements for plants is mainly dependent on the nature of the soil and characteristics of each species. The transfer factors of lanthanides from the soil to the tree leaves of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, were calculated for one fern species (Alsophila sternbergii-Pteridophyta division) and four magnoliophytes species (Bathysa australis, Euterpe edulis, Garcinia gardneriana and Guapira opposita-Magnoliophyta division) obtained in two areas of Serra do Mar State Park and collected in two different seasons. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF = C plant :C soil ) in magnoliophytes species was correlated to the mass fraction of lanthanides in the soil, described by a exponential model (TF = a.C soil -b ). Despite the tree fern Alsophila sternbergii presented a hyperaccumulation of lanthanides, this species did not have a significant relationship between TF and mass fraction in soil. Results indicated that plants of Magnoliophyta division selected the input of lanthanides from the soil, while the same was not observed in Alsophila sternbergii. (author)

  9. Effects of altitudinal variation on pollination in purple passion fruit crops (passiflora edulis f. edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gutierrez, Julian; Ospina Torres, Rodulfo; Nates Parra, Guiomar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study in two crops of purple passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. edulis harvested at different altitudes (2225 m.a.s.l. and 1657 m.a.s.l.) in the municipality of Buenavista - Boyaca, located in the eastern Mountain range of Colombia, in order to familiarize with visitors and pollinators. This study reveals that in both crops there were differences found in composition, the number of visitors and pollinators. In the crop at 2225 m.a.s.l., 7 species were registered, while 18 species were recorded at the 1657 m.a.s.l. crop. In order to achieve this, collected material by the visitors and the floral structures with which they approach, were observed; at the same time four experiments took place: passive pollination, natural pollination, manual pollination and pollinator's efficiency. These experiments established that pollinator species are: in C1 Apis mellifera, and in C2 and Xylocopa frontalis, Xylocopa lachnea and Epicharis sp.

  10. Impact of forest fragment size on the population structure of three palm species (Arecaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Rita de Cássia Quitete; dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maes

    2014-06-01

    The main threats to natural populations in terrestrial ecosystems have been widly recognized to be the habitat fragmentation and the exploitation of forest products. In this study, we compared the density of the populations and the structure of three tropical palm species, Astrocaryum aculeatissimum, Euterpe edulis and Geonoma schottiana. For this, we selected five forest fragments of different sizes (3 500ha, 2 400ha, 57ha, 21ha and 19ha) where palms were censused in nine 30 x 30m plots. We tracked the palms survival from 2005 to 2007, and recorded all new individuals encountered. Each individual was assigned in one of the five ontogenetic stages: seedling, infant, juvenile, immature and reproductive. The demographic structure of each palm species was analyzed and compared by a generalized linear model (GLM). The analysis was performed per palm species. The forest fragment area and the year of observation were explanatory variables, and the proportion of individuals in each ontogenetic class and palm density were response variables. The total number of individuals (from seedlings to reproductives, of all species) monitored was 6 450 in 2005, 7 268 in 2006, and 8 664 in 2007. The densities of two palm species were not influenced by the size of the fragment, but the population density of A. aculeatissimum was dependent on the size of the fragment: there were more individuals in the bigger than in the smaller forest fragments. The population structure of A. aculeatissimum, E. edulis, and G. schottiana was not altered in the smaller fragments, except the infants of G. schottiana. The main point to be drawn from the results found in this study is that the responses of density and population structure seem not to be dependent on fragment size, except for one species that resulted more abundant in bigger fragments.

  11. Micropropagation of Alibertia edulis Rich

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    Fernanda Augusta Boato da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a micropropagation protocol for Alibertia edulis, a medicinal Brazilian Cerrado plant. A. edulis seeds were sterilized and germinated in water-agar. Fifteen millimeter long explants from the seedlings cultivated for 50 days were used for the multiplication in three consecutive subcultures. The cytokinin benzyladenine (BA alone or combined with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA was added to ¼ MS medium. The treatments containing combinations of the BA + IBA induced more shoot proliferation than the BA alone, with the optimum concentration of 0.5 mg.L-1 for both growth regulators. A. edulis shoots elongated easily and the presence of growth regulators did have a positive effect on the shoot elongation. Consecutive subcultures also had a positive effect on both sprouting and shoot elongation. Activated charcoal was essential for rooting, and all rooted plants were able to acclimatize.Foi desenvolvido um protocolo de micropropagação para A. edulis, uma espécie arbórea frutífera e medicinal presente no Cerrado brasileiro. Sementes de A. edulis foram esterilizadas e germinadas em ágar-água. Explantes de 15 mm foram retirados das plântulas e cultivados por 50 dias em meio de multiplicação e três subculturas. A citocinina benzilalanina (BA, sozinha ou em combinação com ácido indol butírico (IBA foram adicionados em no meio ¼ MS. Os tratamentos contendo combinações de BA-IBA induziram uma maior proliferação de brotos que aqueles somente com BA, e a concentração ótima desses reguladores de crescimento foi de 0.5 mg.L-1 para cada. Os brotos de A. edulis facilmente se alongaram e a presença de reguladores de crescimento no meio de cultura teve efeito positivo sobre o alongamento. Da mesma forma, as consecutivas subculturas tiveram um efeito positivo tanto sobre a brotação quanto no alongamento. Carvão ativado foi essencial para o enraizamento dos ramos, e todas as plantas foram aclimatadas com sucesso.

  12. Keystone Species, Forest and Landscape: A Model to Select Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Daniela Barbosa da Silva; Gardon, Fernando Ravanini; Meyer, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo; Santos, Rozely Ferreira dos

    2017-06-01

    The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance. We developed a model to select areas in forest landscapes to be prioritized for protection based on suitability curves that unify and compare spatial indicators of three categories: forest fragment quality, landscape quality, and environmental conditions for the occurrence of a keystone species. We use a case study to compare different suitability degrees for Euterpe edulis presence, considered an important functional element in Atlantic Forest (São Paulo, Brazil) landscapes and a forest resource for local people. The results show that the identification of medium or advanced stage fragments as singular indicator of forest quality does not guarantee the existence or maintenance of this keystone species. Even in some well-preserved forest fragments, connected to others and with palm presence, the reverse J-shaped distribution of the population size structure is not sustained and these forests continue to be threatened due to human disturbances.

  13. Keystone Species, Forest and Landscape: A Model to Select Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Daniela Barbosa da Silva; Gardon, Fernando Ravanini; Meyer, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo; Santos, Rozely Ferreira Dos

    2017-06-01

    The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance. We developed a model to select areas in forest landscapes to be prioritized for protection based on suitability curves that unify and compare spatial indicators of three categories: forest fragment quality, landscape quality, and environmental conditions for the occurrence of a keystone species. We use a case study to compare different suitability degrees for Euterpe edulis presence, considered an important functional element in Atlantic Forest (São Paulo, Brazil) landscapes and a forest resource for local people. The results show that the identification of medium or advanced stage fragments as singular indicator of forest quality does not guarantee the existence or maintenance of this keystone species. Even in some well-preserved forest fragments, connected to others and with palm presence, the reverse J-shaped distribution of the population size structure is not sustained and these forests continue to be threatened due to human disturbances.

  14. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Boling.

    1995-01-01

    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI)

  15. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Boling

    1995-05-18

    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI).

  16. Comparative central effects of the aqueous leaf extract of two populations of Passiflora edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S.F.S.J. Ayres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPassiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, has been used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. P. edulis is commonly known for its economic interests in Brazil. This species exhibits significant variability in the fruit rind color, then two subpopulations has been described (P. edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg. (PEF; P. edulis fo. edulis (PEE. This study compared phytochemical profile and biological actions of aqueous leaf extract of PEE and PEF. HPLC analysis showed marked distinct chromatograms to the P. edulisvarieties. However, in both extracts the major compounds observed were flavonoids C-glycosides. Behavioral studies showed that PEE (300 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. reduced anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. PEE (300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (1000 mg/kg, p.o. also induced antidepressant-like actions in the forced swimming test. PEE 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced distance moved, thus suggesting sedation. No alterations in sleeping time were observed with PEE and PEF extracts. In conclusion, despite the similarities between the biological actions observed for both P. edulis varieties, quite different phytochemical profile was herein reported. These data suggest that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions are not due to a specific phytochemical component.

  17. Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects of Passiflora edulis in an inflammation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanher, Ana Beatriz; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2007-01-19

    The popular medicine Passiflora edulis has been used as a sedative, tranquilizer, against cutaneous inflammatory diseases and intermittent fever. Most of the pharmacological investigations of Passiflora edulis have been addressed to its Central Nervous System activities, such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and sedative actions. Otherwise, there are few reports about the anti-inflammatory activity of the Passiflora species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous lyophilized extract obtained from leaves of Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener (Passifloraceae) in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan (Cg), bradykinin, histamine or substance P, observing the effects upon leucocytes migration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) levels. Passiflora edulis (250mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) inhibited the leukocyte, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, TNFalpha and IL-1beta levels (P<0.01) in the pleurisy induced by carrageenan. Passiflora edulis (250-500mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited total and differential leukocytes in the pleurisy induced by bradykinin, histamine or substance P (P<0.05). Several mechanisms, including the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1beta), enzyme (myeloperoxidase) and mediators (bradykinin, histamine, substance P, nitric oxide) release and/or action, appear to account for Passiflora edulis's actions.

  18. Initial development of passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis and P. alata grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Zucareli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the initial growth and leaf mineral levels in passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., P. edulis f. edulis Sims. and P. alata Dryander grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata. To obtain seedlings, seeds were sown in plastic bags (500 mL and hypocotyl grafting was performed when seedlings reached the stage of two fully expanded leaves. Fifteen days after grafting, plants were transplanted to 10L pots filled with previously limed and fertilized soil. Each pot contained two plants and corresponded to one plot. For each commercial species studied as rootstock, experimental design was completely randomized, in 3x5 (plant type x time of harvest factorial arrangement, with four replicates of two plants per plot and five destructive harvests. Plant types were ungrafted P. cincinnata, ungrafted commercial passion fruit tree and commercial passion fruit tree grafted onto P. cincinnata. The first harvest was performed at 15 days after transplanting and the remaining ones at 14-day intervals (60, 74, 88, 102 and 116 DAS. At each harvest, the number of leaves per plant was counted, and leaf area, stem length, and stem, root, leaf and total dry matter were estimated. At the last harvest, the mineral composition (macro and micronutrients of plants was analyzed. In general, it was observed that grafting onto P. cincinnata did not interfere negatively with the initial development and mineral levels of commercial passion fruit trees, and this interference varied according to the used canopy.

  19. The socioeconomic context of the use of Euterpe precatoria Mart. and E. oleracea Mart. in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Bussmann, Rainer W; Macía, Manuel J

    2017-06-02

    Traditional knowledge (TK) has enabled communities to adapt to changes in life conditions over centuries. However, this local context is being dramatically affected by recent changes through globalization and modernization of societies. In this paper we seek to identify socio-economic factors that are related to the knowledge and use of two palm species in mestizo and indigenous communities in the Amazonian of Peru and Bolivia. Both species are known in the region under the main vernacular name of Asaí, and are source of two highly commercialized resources: palm-hearts and fruits. Euterpe precatoria Mart. is native to the region whereas E. oleracea Mart. is being introduced for the use of both resources. We compare TK about the two Euterpe species in both countries in relation to 14 socioeconomic factors in seven use categories. We performed a Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to elucidate the influence of each socioeconomic factor on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. In the two countries, we found that mestizos, speaking only Spanish, and migrants in the same ecoregion, knew more uses in all use categories for E. precatoria than for E. oleracea, even in use categories such as Medicinal and veterinary and Construction, for which indigenous participants had more uses in case of other species. In Peru, the use of E. precatoria was higher among participants with greater wealth, which could be related to the commercial importance that both the fruits and the palm-hearts have had in the markets of the region. In contrast, in Bolivia, although some income generation from Euterpe sp. was observed, the use of E. precatoria was much more homogeneously distributed. The use of E. oleracea in Bolivia is recent, and although its most important uses are related to the consumption of fruits and palm-hearts (Human food), it is now being slowly used for Medicinal and Construction purposes, similar to E. precatoria. The use of each of the species

  20. Microsatellite marker development by partial sequencing of the sour passion fruit genome (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Susan; Martins, Alexandre M; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Costa, Ana Maria; Faleiro, Fábio G; Ferreira, Márcio E

    2017-07-21

    The Passiflora genus comprises hundreds of wild and cultivated species of passion fruit used for food, industrial, ornamental and medicinal purposes. Efforts to develop genomic tools for genetic analysis of P. edulis, the most important commercial Passiflora species, are still incipient. In spite of many recognized applications of microsatellite markers in genetics and breeding, their availability for passion fruit research remains restricted. Microsatellite markers in P. edulis are usually limited in number, show reduced polymorphism, and are mostly based on compound or imperfect repeats. Furthermore, they are confined to only a few Passiflora species. We describe the use of NGS technology to partially assemble the P. edulis genome in order to develop hundreds of new microsatellite markers. A total of 14.11 Gbp of Illumina paired-end sequence reads were analyzed to detect simple sequence repeat sites in the sour passion fruit genome. A sample of 1300 contigs containing perfect repeat microsatellite sequences was selected for PCR primer development. Panels of di- and tri-nucleotide repeat markers were then tested in P. edulis germplasm accessions for validation. DNA polymorphism was detected in 74% of the markers (PIC = 0.16 to 0.77; number of alleles/locus = 2 to 7). A core panel of highly polymorphic markers (PIC = 0.46 to 0.77) was used to cross-amplify PCR products in 79 species of Passiflora (including P. edulis), belonging to four subgenera (Astrophea, Decaloba, Distephana and Passiflora). Approximately 71% of the marker/species combinations resulted in positive amplicons in all species tested. DNA polymorphism was detected in germplasm accessions of six closely related Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. alata, P. maliformis, P. nitida, P. quadrangularis and P. setacea) and the data used for accession discrimination and species assignment. A database of P. edulis DNA sequences obtained by NGS technology was examined to identify microsatellite repeats in

  1. Modeling future plant distributions on the Colorado Plateau: An example using Pinus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Cole; Kirsten E. Ironside; Samantha T. Arundel; Philip Duffy; John Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The recent mortality of some plant species in the U.S. Southwest has been attributed to the ongoing drought conditions over the last decade. This mortality has been especially acute in populations of Pinus edulis (Colorado pinyon pine; hereafter abbreviated as pinyon), a widespread and highly visible species (Shaw 2006; Shaw et al. 2005; Mueller et...

  2. Efeito de enzimas de maceração na textura do palmito (Euterpe edulis Mart Influence of cellulase, pectinase and hemicellulase on the texture of hearts of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa GRIZOTTO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de ampliar o aproveitamento da palmeira produtora do palmito estudou-se a influência da poligalacturonase e de enzimas maceradoras na textura das partes semi-rígidas do vegetal não-comestíveis, incubando-se preparados comerciais de celulase, hemicelulase e poligalacturonase com o palmito preparado na forma de pequenos toletes (1-3 cm de comprimento e em porções de 2cm do raquis do vegetal. Embora os tratamentos com hemicelulase e mistura de hemicelulase e poligalacturonase tenham promovido ligeiro amaciamento do palmito, os resultados mostraram ,de modo geral, acréscimo na textura do palmito cortado em porções de 3,0 cm e em fatias de 1,0 cm indicando solubilização intensa das regiões suscetíveis a hidrólise com a permanência das regiões duras mais ricas em lignina. Como nos outros tecidos do palmito, no raquis fibroso, não foi comprovada estatiscamente a ação das enzimas na textura do vegetal.With the aim of amplifying the utilization of the palm tree the influence of poligalacturonase and macerating enzymes on the texture of the hard tips of hearts of palm was studied, incubating commercial preparations of cellulase , hemicellulase and poligalacturonase with the hearts of palm, prepared as small stalks of 1-3 cm length and with 2 cm portions of the rachis of the plant. Although the treatments containing hemicellulase and a mixture of hemicellulase and poligalacturonase promoted a slight softening of the hearts of palm, the results generally showed a hardening of the texture of the hearts of palm prepared as stalks of 1 to 3 cm indicating great solubilization of the parts susceptible to hydrolysis, the hard lignin rich parts remaining intact. As in the other tissue of the plant, in the rachis of the fibrous hearts of palm, the action of the enzymes was not statiscally proven.

  3. Organic and inorganic micropollutants in Adriatic seafood: contamination levels and evaluation of human potential intake; Microinquinanti organici ed inorganici in specie marine eduli del mare Adriatico: livelli di presenza e stima dell`assunzione potenziale da parte dell`uomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubadda, F.; Stacchini, P.; Baldini, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. Alimenti

    1998-06-01

    Review the state of the art on the chemical contamination of seafood and on the human intake of contaminants through these commodities in the Adriatic area. Scientific literature on the levels of inorganic (i.e. cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead) and organic (i.e. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants as well as studies on potential health hazard related to Adriatic seafood consumption were examined. Where sufficient data were available, an evaluation of the average potential intake was carried out through the correlation between contamination levels in marine organisms and seafood consumption. The results of this study did not show any risk for the average consumer related to the consumption of Adriatic seafood. Nevertheless it is essential to carefully evaluate the potential risk to which some population groups, especially high consumers of local seafood, are exposed. For this purpose, it is necessary to obtain additional data on the content of contaminants in the main seafood products and on the levels of consumption by the Adriatic coastal populations. [Italiano] Si propone di fare il punto sullo stato dell`arte in materia di contaminazione chimica delle specie marine eduli e di assunzione di contaminanti da parte dell`uomo mediante tali alimenti nell`are adriatica. A tal fine e` stata presa in esame la letteratura scientifica concernente i livelli di presenza di contaminanti inorganici (cadmio, cromo, mercurio, piombo) e organici (pesticidi, policlorobifenili, diossine, idrocarburi policiclici aromatici), nonche` gli studi relativi al problema del rischio sanitario associato al consumo di prodotti della pesca nel Mare Adriatico. Nel caso dei contaminanti per i quali esiste una sufficiente base di dati si e` proceduto ad una stima dell`assunzione media potenziale calcolata mediante la correlazione dei livelli di presenza negli organismi marini con dati di consumo alimentare. In base ai risultati ottenuti

  4. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of 'acai' (Euterpe precatoria Mart.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galotta, Ana Lucia Q.A.; Boaventura, Maria Amelia D.; Lima, Luciana A. R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Decoction of roots of the Amazonian palm acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) is widely used by Brazilian and Peruvian people as an anti-inflammatory, to heal kidney and liver diseases and against snake bites. In this study, the antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, rutin and astilbin) isolated from roots and leaf stalks of E. precatoria was investigated using β-carotene in TLC plates and DPPH radical scavenging in a spectrophotometric bioassay. All extracts and flavonoids showed activity. Also, the cytotoxic activity of these extracts was evaluated by the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvicide bioassay and was lower than that of lapachol, used as control. The presence of flavonoids and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside in the extracts can justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine. (author)

  5. Influence of process conditions on the physicochemical properties of jussara pulp (Euterpe edulis powder produced by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to optimize the spray drying of jussara pulp using mixtures of modified starch (MS with whey protein concentrate (WPC or soy protein isolate (SPI as the carrier agents. Two central composite rotatable designs were used to evaluate the effect of the independent variables of inlet air temperature (140 °C to 200 °C, carrier agent concentration - CAC (0.5 to 2 g carrier agent/g jussara pulp solids and the proportions of MS:WPC or MS:SPI (5 to 30 g WPC or SPI/100 g carrier agent on the following responses for powders formulated with MS:WPC and MS:SPI, respectively: moisture content (0.3% to 1.4% and 0.6% to 1.2%, solubility (78.0% to 92.9% and 78.9% to 83.8%, retention of total anthocyanins (49.2% to 82.9% and 34.1% to 96.9%, encapsulation efficiency (98.5% to 99.7% and 98.5% to 99.5%, hue angle (9.1 to 44.0 and 3.7 to 42.6, chroma (10.0 to 15.3 and 9.2 to 14.3 and process yield (33.2% to 55.5% and 49.9% to 78.5%. The inlet air temperature 170 °C, CAC of 1.25 and 2 g/g jussara pulp solids and proportion of MS:WPC or MS:SPI of 17.5 and 30 g/100 g were recommended as the selected conditions.

  6. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of jussara (Euterpe edulis M.) oil extracted by cold and hot mechanical pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Cunha, A.L.A.; Freitas, S.P.; Godoy, R.L.O.; Cabral, L.M.C.; Tonon, R.V.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of mechanical pressing on jussara oil yield, oxidative stability and carotenoid profile with or without heat application. Firstly, jussara pulp was centrifuged for juice extraction, and the resulting cake was dried until reaching 10% moisture content. Then, oil extraction was performed in an expeller press at 25 ºC (cold pressing) and at 50 ºC (hot pressing). The process performance was evaluated by the oil yield, and the crude jussara oil was characterized for fatty acid composition, acid value, carotenoid profile and oxidative stability. Jussara oil contained 74% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic acids (48% and 24%, respectively). The oil yield was almost twice as high for the hot process as compared to the cold one. Additionally, hot pressing resulted in 25% higher total carotenoid content as compared to cold pressing, with β-carotene as the most abundant one. Hot and cold pressing showed no difference in oil oxidative stability and fatty acid composition. [es

  7. Flavonoids from Afrofittonia silvestris and Dacryodes edulis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dirhamnoside, as well as a known glycoside, kaempferide 3–O–β–glucoside, were identified from the leaves of Afrofittonia silvestris. Other known compounds, ethylgallate and quercitrin, were isolated from the leaves of Dacryodes edulis.

  8. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L. N.E.Br. on the germination, establishment and survival of native plants: a clue for assessing its competitive strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Novoa

    Full Text Available Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis' soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L. R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L. growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats.

  9. Genetic hitchhiking in a subdivided population of Mytilus edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patrice

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few models of genetic hitchhiking in subdivided populations have been developed and the rarity of empirical examples is even more striking. We here provide evidences of genetic hitchhiking in a subdivided population of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. In the Bay of Biscay (France, a patch of M. edulis populations happens to be separated from its North Sea conspecifics by a wide region occupied only by the sister species M. galloprovincialis. Although genetic differentiation between the two M. edulis regions is largely non-significant at ten marker loci (average FST~0.007, a strong genetic differentiation is observed at a single locus (FST = 0.25. We validated the outlier status of this locus, and analysed DNA sequence polymorphism in order to identify the nature of the selection responsible for the unusual differentiation. Results We first showed that introgression of M. galloprovincialis alleles was very weak in both populations and did not significantly affect their differentiation. Secondly, we observed the genetic signature of a selective sweep within both M. edulis populations in the form of a star-shaped clade of alleles. This clade was nearly fixed in the North Sea and was segregating at a moderate frequency in the Bay of Biscay, explaining their genetic differentiation. Incomplete fixation reveals that selection was not direct on the locus but that the studied sequence recombined with a positively selected allele at a linked locus while it was on its way to fixation. Finally, using a deterministic model we showed that the wave of advance of a favourable allele at a linked locus, when crossing a strong enough barrier to gene flow, generates a step in neutral allele frequencies comparable to the step observed between the two M. edulis populations at the outlier locus. In our case, the position of the barrier is now materialised by a large patch of heterospecific M. galloprovincialis populations. Conclusion High FST

  10. The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo R; Valvassori, Samira S; Bordignon, Celso L; Kappel, Virginia D; Martins, Márcio R; Gavioli, Elaine C; Quevedo, João; Reginatto, Flávio H

    2008-06-01

    Several species of Passiflora have been employed widely as a folk medicine because of sedative and tranquillizer activities. In this study, we evaluate the effects on anxiety and memory process of two popularly used Passiflora species. To this aim, male Wistar rats (weighing 250-300 g) were intraperitoneally injected with the aqueous extract of Passiflora alata or Passiflora edulis (25, 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg; single injection) 30 minutes prior to the elevated plus-maze test, inhibitory avoidance test, or habituation to an open-field apparatus. The effects of both species of Passiflora were compared with that of diazepam (1 mg/kg), a standard anxiolytic drug. Our findings revealed that, similar to diazepam, the treatment with P. alata (100 and 150 mg/kg) and P. edulis (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) induced anxiolytic-like effects in rats. Memory was not affected by the treatment with any dose of P. alata or P. edulis, but diazepam disrupted memory process in rats. Phytochemical analysis showed that the content of flavonoids of the aqueous extract of P. edulis is almost twice that of P. alata. These differences in contents of flavonoids could explain the lower active doses of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in inducing anxiolytic-like effects compared to P. alata. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, distinct from diazepam, the aqueous extract of both species of Passiflora induced anxiolytic-like effects in rats without disrupting memory process.

  11. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) from Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzón, G.A.; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos Eduardo; Vincken, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Berries of Colombian Euterpe oleracea Mart. were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), anthocyanin (ACN) content, and antioxidant activity. Additionally, reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (RP-UHPLC-PDA) and heated electrospray

  12. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historic cultivation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described i...

  13. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Composition in Carludovica palmata, Costus scaber and Euterpe precatoria from Weathered Oil Ponds in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Ruiz, Mónica; Senés-Guerrero, Carolina; Declerck, Stéphane; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous to most natural and anthropized ecosystems, and are often found in polluted environments. However, their occurrence and community composition in highly weathered petroleum-polluted soils has been infrequently reported. In the present study, two ponds of weathered crude oil and their surrounding soil from the Charapa field in the Amazon region of Ecuador were selected and root colonization by AMF of their native plants investigated. The AMF community was further analyzed in three selected plant species (i.e., Carludovica palmata, Costus scaber and Euterpe precatoria) present in the two ponds and the surrounding soil. A fragment covering partial SSU, the whole ITS and partial LSU rDNA region was amplified (i.e., 1.5 kb), cloned and sequenced from the roots of each host species. AMF root colonization exceeded 56% in all plant species examined and no significant difference was observed between sites or plants. For AMF community analysis, a total of 138 AMF sequences were obtained and sorted into 32 OTUs based on clustering (threshold ≥97%) by OPTSIL. The found OTUs belonged to the genera Rhizophagus (22%), Glomus (31%), Acaulospora (25%) and Archaeospora (22%). Glomus and Archaeospora were always present regardless of the plant species or the site. Acaulospora was found in the three plant species and in the two ponds while Rhizophagus was revealed only in the surrounding soil in one plant species (Euterpe precatoria). Our study contributed to the molecular community composition of AMF and revealed an unexpected high presence of four AMF genera which have established a symbiosis with roots of native plants from the Amazon forest under high polluted soil conditions. PMID:29163421

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Composition in Carludovica palmata, Costus scaber and Euterpe precatoria from Weathered Oil Ponds in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Garcés-Ruiz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are ubiquitous to most natural and anthropized ecosystems, and are often found in polluted environments. However, their occurrence and community composition in highly weathered petroleum-polluted soils has been infrequently reported. In the present study, two ponds of weathered crude oil and their surrounding soil from the Charapa field in the Amazon region of Ecuador were selected and root colonization by AMF of their native plants investigated. The AMF community was further analyzed in three selected plant species (i.e., Carludovica palmata, Costus scaber and Euterpe precatoria present in the two ponds and the surrounding soil. A fragment covering partial SSU, the whole ITS and partial LSU rDNA region was amplified (i.e., 1.5 kb, cloned and sequenced from the roots of each host species. AMF root colonization exceeded 56% in all plant species examined and no significant difference was observed between sites or plants. For AMF community analysis, a total of 138 AMF sequences were obtained and sorted into 32 OTUs based on clustering (threshold ≥97% by OPTSIL. The found OTUs belonged to the genera Rhizophagus (22%, Glomus (31%, Acaulospora (25% and Archaeospora (22%. Glomus and Archaeospora were always present regardless of the plant species or the site. Acaulospora was found in the three plant species and in the two ponds while Rhizophagus was revealed only in the surrounding soil in one plant species (Euterpe precatoria. Our study contributed to the molecular community composition of AMF and revealed an unexpected high presence of four AMF genera which have established a symbiosis with roots of native plants from the Amazon forest under high polluted soil conditions.

  15. Micropropagation of Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew is a tuber-bearing food crop in Ethiopia. However, its productivity is hampered by shortage of pathogen-free planting materials. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop micropropagation protocol for this plant using meristem to produce clean planting materials. Mersitems were ...

  16. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L Hutchison

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are

  17. Comparative pharmacological study of hydroethanol extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, R D; Reginatto, F; de-Paris, F; Gosmann, G; Salgueiro, J B; Quevedo, J; Kapczinski, F; Ortega, G G; Schenkel, E P

    2001-03-01

    Several species of the genus Passiflora, known in Brazil as "maracujá", have widespread use in folk medicine as sedatives and tranquillizers. The anxiolytic activity of hydroethanol extracts of P. alata and P. edulis leaves was evaluated using the elevated plus-maze test. The extracts presented anxiolytic activity in dosages around 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Linking nonstructural carbohydrate dynamics to gas exchange and leaf hydraulic behavior in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Woodruff; Frederick C. Meinzer; Danielle E. Marias; Sanna Sevanto; Michael W. Jenkins; Nate G. McDowell

    2014-01-01

    Leaf hydraulics, gas exchange and carbon storage in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma, two tree species on opposite ends of the isohydry–anisohydry spectrum, were analyzed to examine relationships between hydraulic function and carbohydrate dynamics.Leaf hydraulic vulnerability,...

  19. An Anthocyanin-Rich Extract of Acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) Increases Stress Resistance and Retards Aging-Related Markers in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Herbenya; Roxo, Mariana; Krstin, Sonja; Röhrig, Teresa; Richling, Elke; Wink, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Acai fruits (Euterpe precatoria) are rich in antioxidant anthocyanins. Acai consumption is believed to have many health benefits; however, relevant detailed scientific investigations are limited. The current study aimed to investigate an anthocyanin-rich extract from E. precatoria fruits (AE) with regard to its antioxidant and antiaging properties using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. AE can protect the worms against oxidative stress and can ameliorate accumulation of reactive oxygen species in vivo. The expression of stress-response genes, such as sod-3::GFP, was upregulated while hsp-16::GFP was down-regulated after AE treatment. Studies with DAF-16/FOXO mutants indicated that some of the antioxidant effects are mediated by this transcription factor. AE can modulate the development of age-related markers, such as pharyngeal pumping. Despite the apparent antioxidant activity, no lifespan-prolonging effect was observed.

  20. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  1. Conductivity test in seeds of different passion flower species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of the conductivity test as a means of predicting seed viability in seven Passiflora species: P. alata, P. cincinnata, P. edulis f. edulis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. morifolia, P. mucronata, and P. nitida. Conductivity of non-desiccated (control, desiccated, and non-desiccated cryopreserved seeds was determined and related to their germination percentage. The obtained results suggest that the electrical conductivity test has potential as a germination predictor for P. edulis f. flavicarpa seed lots, but not for the other tested species.

  2. Hexane extract of Dacryodes edulis fruits possesses anti-diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The fruit extract of Dacryodes edulis (D. edulis), the African pear or plum, a tree indigenous to the humid tropics has been used for managing wounds, skin diseases, sickle cell anaemia, dysentery and fever in some African nations. In South Eastern Nigeria, 'herbal doctors' include its marshed fruit in decoctions ...

  3. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: Archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Blicher, M.E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthabsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (delta O-18(w)) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records...... these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We...

  4. Accumulation, elimination and chemical speciation of mercury in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.

    1985-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) transferred in net bags from clean to chronically mercury polluted water readily accumulated mercury during an exposure period of three months. Growth of the transplanted mussels had a “diluting” effect on the mercury concentration, but the absolute weight of mercury uptake...... for M. edulis from the chronically polluted area in contrast to only 53 d for mussels from a temporary massive mercury polluted area near a chemical deposit. In both cases about 75% of the total mercury in the mussels was inorganic, and it is suggested that both inorganic and organic mercury species...... were immobilized in mussels from the long-term mercury polluted area, whereas the immobilization capacity was exceeded in the short-term mercury exposed mussels near the chemical deposit. Very slow elimination of mercury was observed in the deposit-feeding bivalve Macoma balthica from the chronically...

  5. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Als

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland, where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (Mytilus edulis δ18Oc values are suitable in reconstructing past meltwater amounts in most cases, but care has to be taken that shells are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid-region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south–north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

  6. Poscosecha de la gulupa: (passiflora edulis sims)

    OpenAIRE

    Orjuela-Baquero, Nubia Marcela; Campos Alba, Sandra; Sánchez Nieves, Jimena; Melgarejo, Luz Marina; Hernández, María Soledad; Sierra A., César A.; Gutiérrez Carranza, Luis Alejandro; Martínez, Sugey M.; Moreno-Chacón, Leonardo; Pérez-Martínez, Laura Victoria; Flórez, Laura Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Este libro presenta resultados de investigación, generados a través del proyecto “Efecto de las condiciones poscosecha sobre la fisiología, bioquímica, conservación y análisis proteómico en frutos de gulupa “Passiflora edulis Sims” ejecutado por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, con la colaboración de la empresa OCATI S.A, y financiación por Colciencias; con el apoyo del proyecto “Materiales poliméricos para la fabricación de un empaque apropiado para el manejo poscosecha de la Gulupa” fi...

  7. Seasonal dynamics of Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus extraradical mycelium in pine forests of central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Varga, Herminia; Águeda, Beatriz; Ágreda, Teresa; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan

    2013-07-01

    The annual belowground dynamics of extraradical soil mycelium and sporocarp production of two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus, have been studied in two different pine forests (Pinar Grande and Pinares Llanos, respectively) in Soria (central Spain). Soil samples (five per plot) were taken monthly (from September 2009 to August 2010 in Pinar Grande and from September 2010 to September 2011 in Pinares Llanos) in eight permanent plots (four for each site). B. edulis and L. deliciosus extraradical soil mycelium was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, with DNA extracted from soil samples, using specific primers and TaqMan® probes. The quantities of B. edulis soil mycelium did not differ significantly between plots, but there was a significant difference over time with a maximum in February (0.1576 mg mycelium/g soil) and a minimum in October (0.0170 mg mycelium/g soil). For L. deliciosus, significant differences were detected between plots and over time. The highest amount of mycelium was found in December (1.84 mg mycelium/g soil) and the minimum in February (0.0332 mg mycelium/g soil). B. edulis mycelium quantities were positively correlated with precipitation of the current month and negatively correlated with the mean temperature of the previous month. Mycelium biomass of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with relative humidity and negatively correlated with mean temperature and radiation. No significant correlation between productivity of the plots with the soil mycelium biomass was observed for any of the two species. No correlations were found between B. edulis sporocarp production and weather parameters. Sporocarp production of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with precipitation and relative humidity and negatively correlated with maximum and minimum temperatures. Both species have similar distribution over time, presenting an annual dynamics characterized by a seasonal variability, with a clear increase

  8. Applying design of experiments (DOE to flavonoid extraction from Passiflora alata and P. edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peky Noriega

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Passifloraceae family is extensively used in native Brazilian folk medicine to treat a wide variety of diseases. The problem of flavonoid extraction from Passiflora was treated by application of design of experiments (DOE, as an experiment with mixture including one categorical process variable. The components of the binary mixture were: ethanol (component A and water (component B; the categorical process variable: extraction method (factor C was varied at two levels: (+1 maceration and (-1 percolation. ANOVA suggested a cubic model for P. edulis extraction and a quadratic model for P. alata.These results indicate that the proportion of components A and B in the mixture is the main factor involved in significantly increasing flavonoid extraction. In regard to the extraction methods, no important differences were observed, which indicates that these two traditional extraction methods could be effectively used to extract flavonoids from both medicinal plants. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the extract by ORAC method showed that P. edulis displays twice as much antioxidant activity as P. alata. Considering that maceration is a simple, rapid and environmentally friendly extraction method, in this study, the optimized conditions for flavonoid extraction from these Passiflora species is maceration with 75% ethanol for P. edulis and 50% ethanol for P. alata.

  9. Anticonvulsant activity of Carissa edulis (Vahl) (Apocynaceae) root bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'u, J; Yaro, A H; Abubakar, M S; Anuka, J A; Hussaini, I M

    2008-11-20

    To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of root bark extract of Carissa edulis. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) of Carissa edulis extract was determined using Lork's method (1983). The anticonvulsant activity of the extract was assessed in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion in mice and maximal electroshock test (MEST) in chicks, with benzodiazepine and phenytoin as standard drugs, respectively. While mechanistic studies were conducted using both flumazenil, a GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex site antagonist and naloxone a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) of Carissa edulis was 282.8mg/kg and over 5000mg/kg following intraperitoneal and oral administration, respectively. Carissa edulis produced 40% and 20% protection against convulsion at 5 and 20mg/kg, respectively, compared with 100% protection with benzodiazepine. The mean onset and percentage protection against convulsion in Carissa edulis extract-treated mice were reduced by flumazenil and naloxone. Carissa edulis exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the convulsion induced by MEST with 20mg/kg providing 90% protection while phenytoin (20mg/kg) produced 100% protection. These results suggest that Carissa edulis possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have anticonvulsant activity which supports the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of epilepsy.

  10. Chemical constituents from roots and leaf stalks of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart., Arecaceae); Constituintes quimicos da raiz e do talo da folha do acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart., Arecaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galotta, Ana Lucia Queiroz de Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Boaventura, Maria Amelia Diamantino [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: dianadb@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br

    2005-07-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of roots and leaf stalks of Euterpe precatoria Mart. (acai), afforded stigmast-4-en-6{beta}-ol-3-one (3); p-hydroxy benzoic acid (4); 3{beta}-O-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol (5); {beta}-sitosterol palmitate (6); mixtures of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol (1 and 2), {alpha}-, {beta}-amyrin and lupeol (7, 8 and 9), friedelin-3-one and 28-hydroxy-friedelin-3-one (10 and 11) and {alpha}-, {beta}-D-glucose (12, 13). Except for 1, 2 and 4, the other isolated constituents are described in the genus for the first time. Compounds 3 and 5 gave good results in the brine shrimp bioassay, which detects compounds with potential uses as antitumor agents, pesticides, etc.. (author)

  11. Chemical constituents of Carissa edulis Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Al-Youssef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the biologically active ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of the aerial parts of Carissa edulis afforded 3-O-acetyl chlorogenic acid (I, along with four known flavonol glucosides including, kaempferol 3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (II, quercetin-3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (III, rhamnetin-3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (IV and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (V from ethyl acetate fraction. Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-(2″→1″′-rhamnopyranoside (VI, Caredulis, 1-{1-[2-(2 hydroxypropoxy propoxy] propan-2-yloxy} propan-2-ol (VII and (+ butyl-O-α-l-rhamnoside (VIII were isolated from butanol fraction. Characterization of these compounds was achieved by various spectroscopic methods (UV, MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC and through comparison with published data. Compounds I–VIII were isolated from C. edulis for the first time, while compounds VII and VIII were isolated for the first time from nature.

  12. Use and perception of the psychostimulant, khat ( catha edulis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    catha edulis) in three towns in south-western Uganda. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Settings: Mbarara, Kabale and Fort Portal. Subjects: Three categories of respondents prone to khat chewing habit were selected; One hundred and thirty ...

  13. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Huang, Dejian; Owens, John; Agarwal, Amit; Jensen, Gitte S; Hart, Aaron N; Shanbrom, Edward

    2006-11-01

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder (OptiAcai) were evaluated by different assays with various free radical sources. It was found to have exceptional activity against superoxide in the superoxide scavenging (SOD) assay, the highest of any food reported to date against the peroxyl radical as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay with fluorescein as the fluorescent probe (ORACFL), and mild activity against both the peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radical by the peroxynitrite averting capacity (NORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays, respectively. The SOD of acai was 1614 units/g, an extremely high scavenging capacity for O2*-, by far the highest of any fruit or vegetable tested to date. Total phenolics were also tested as comparison. In the total antioxidant (TAO) assay, antioxidants in acai were differentiated into "slow-acting" and "fast-acting" components. An assay measuring inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in freshly purified human neutrophils showed that antioxidants in acai are able to enter human cells in a fully functional form and to perform an oxygen quenching function at very low doses. Furthermore, other bioactivities related to anti-inflammation and immune functions were also investigated. Acai was found to be a potential cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitor. It also showed a weak effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide but no effect on either lymphocyte proliferation and phagocytic capacity.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Euterpe oleracea Roots and Leaflets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Brunschwig

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleracea (açaí is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP—ferric feducing antioxidant power, and ORAC—oxygen radical absorbance capacity, in a DNA nicking assay and in a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Their polyphenolic profiles were determined by UV and LC-MS/MS. E. oleracea leaflets had higher antioxidant activity than E. oleracea berries, and leaflets of Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua, as well as similar antioxidant activity to green tea. E. oleracea leaflet extracts were more complex than root extracts, with fourteen compounds, including caffeoylquinic acids and C-glycosyl derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. In the roots, six caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids were identified. Qualitative compositions of E. oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua leaflets were quite similar, whereas the quantitative compositions were quite different. These results provide new prospects for the valorization of roots and leaflets of E. oleracea in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetic industry, as they are currently by-products of the açaí industry.

  15. Dinámica poblacional de la palma Euterpe oleracea (Arecaceae en bosques inundables del Chocó, Pacífico colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A Arango

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La palma Euterpe oleracea es una especie dominante y promisoria en el plano inundable del río Atrato, región del Chocó, Colombia. Nosotros evaluamos la dinámica poblacional de esta especie a través de las tasas de crecimiento, la mortalidad y los patrones de reclutamiento para un período de dos años y medio. La dinámica de las tasas fue comparada entre bosques de palma mixto y puro. Estos tipos de vegetación fueron asociados con diferentes regimenes de inundación. Árboles y palmas fueron cortados en una porción de cada tipo de bosque, el resto no fue alterado. Nosotros utilizamos proyecciones matriciales para determinar las tendencias de las poblaciones. Las cortas incrementaron las probabilidades de transición de individuos pequeños pero disminuyeron las de individuos grandes, como es típico de las especies heliófitas. Las cortas también incrementaron las tasas de mortalidad en casi todas las categorías de tamaño pero no afectaron las tasas de reclutamiento. Bajo condiciones naturales, las poblaciones de E. oleracea están en equilibrio en los bosques puro y mixto. Las cortas aumentaron el crecimiento poblacional en ambos tipos de bosque, lo que sugiere el rol desempeñado por procesos denso-dependientes sobre el tamaño poblacional de esta especie.Population dynamics of the palm Euterpe oleracea (Arecaceae from flooded forests in Choco, Colombian Pacific. The palm Euterpe oleracea is a dominant and promising species in flood plains of the Atrato river, Choco region of Colombia. We assessed the population dynamics of this species through growth rates, mortality and recruitment patterns for a period of two and a half years. Dynamic rates were compared among mixed and pure flood plain palm forests. These forests types were associated to different flooding regimes. Trees and palms were thinned in a portion for each forest type, the rest was left undisturbed. We used projection matrices to follow population trends. Thinning

  16. The exhalant jet of mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Lundgreen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The exhalant jet flow of mussels in conjunction with currents and/or other mussels may strongly influence the mussels' grazing impact. Literature values of mussel exhalant jet velocity vary considerably and the detailed fluid mechanics of the near-mussel flow generated by the exhalant jet has...... hitherto been uncertain. Computational modelling of this phenomenon depends on knowledge of the velocity distribution near the exhalant siphon aperture of mussels to provide appropriate boundary conditions for numerical flow models. To be useful such information should be available for a range of mussel...... shell lengths. Here, we present results of a detailed study of fully open mussels Mytilus edulis in terms of filtration rate, exhalant siphon aperture area, jet velocity, gill area and body dry weight, all as a function of shell length (mean +/- SD) over the range 16.0 +/- 0.4 to 82.6 +/- 2.9 mm...

  17. Field clearance of an intertidal bivalve bed: relative significance of the co-occurring blue mussel Mytilus edulis and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vismann, Bent; Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Davids, Jens

    2016-01-01

    At an approximately 12 000 m2 sheltered intertidal bivalve bed in the western part of the Limfjord, Denmark, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas co-occurs with the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. The relative significance of the impact of the 2 species on phytoplankton density during a tidal cycle...... was estimated by combining field measurements of clearance rates and modelling of the bivalve bed (topography, biomass distribution, temporal and spatial water coverage and depth). The average density of C. gigas and M. edulis was 35 ± 36 and 1001 ± 685 ind. m−2, respectively. The water volume cleared during...

  18. Seasonal acclimation and latitudinal adaptation are of the same magnitude in Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Bundgård, Amanda Marie; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2017-01-01

    variation is, therefore, needed to better predict the effects of global warming on species distribution. Mussels in the genus Mytilus are known to display latitudinal variation in whole animal aerobic metabolism. Here we test the hypothesis that latitudinal variation in whole animal metabolic rate of two...... after five months of acclimation to 1 and 15 °C. At similar experimental temperatures, mitochondrial respiration in animals acclimated to 1 °C was higher compared to those acclimated to 15 °C. After five months of acclimation, 1 °C-acclimated M. edulis had similar mitochondrial respiration as 1 °C......-acclimated M. trossulus despite their different geographical origin. Our data indicate that mitochondrial capacity does not support latitudinal observed differences in whole animal metabolism between M. edulis and M. trossulus. However, we reveal that mitochondrial respiration in M. edulis can increase by 283...

  19. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of four edible mushrooms from the Central Anatolia, Eskisehir - Turkey: Lactarius deterrimus, Suillus collitinus, Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Yamac, Mustafa

    2008-09-01

    The methanolic extracts of Lactarius deterrimus, Suillus collitinus, Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating activities in addition to their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid and DPPH systems, L. deterrimus and B. edulis showed the strongest activity patterns. Their activities were as strong as the positive controls. The reducing power of the species was excellent. Chelating capacity of the extracts was increased with the increasing concentration. On the other hand, B. edulis found to have the highest phenolic content. Total flavonoid content of S. collitinus found the superior to the other mushrooms.

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SILVICULTURAL ASPECTS OF BRAZILIAN PALMHEART (Euterpe edulis Martius PLANTED IN DIFFERENT TIPES OF CONSORTIUM IN LAVRAS – MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ramalho de Morais

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the initial growth of the Brazilian palmheart in agroforestry systems. Four treatments were selected: t1: Brazilian palmheart x hondurean pine; t2: Brazilian palmheart x eucalipto; t3: Brazilian palmheart x secondary forest; t4: Brazilian palmheart in full open conditions. Mensurations of the total height (H, “bold diameter” (DAC and number of leaves were done. The following evaluations have been made: luminosity, dry matter of the litter, density, moisture content and water avaibility in the soil. The results showed that treatment t1 was the most promising due to low relative luminosity index and soil water avaibility found in that treatment. The low values of H and DAC made unviable the introduction of the Brazilian palmheart in the treatments t2, t3 and t4. Luminosity and water deficit were the main factors limiting Brazilian palmheart growth.

  1. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos of Euterpe oleracea Mart. Embriogênese somática em embriões zigóticos de Euterpe oleracea Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Ledo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the morphogenetic responses of zygotic embryos of açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submitted to several conditions of in vitro culture. Several research experiments were conducted, in laboratory, using vegetable material collected from açai palm plants at Embrapa Amazon Oriental, Belém-PA, Brazil. It was possible to verify the expression of a direct, repetitive and no-synchronized model of somatic embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos cultivated in primary MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (339.36 muM and transferred to a secondary MS medium in the presence of NAA (0.537 muM and 2iP (12.30 muM. The conversion of somatic embryos into seedlings was reached after 210 days with the transfer of the cultures to a third medium with sucrose and mineral salts concentrations reduced to a half, without growth regulators.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar as diferentes respostas morfogenéticas de embriões zigóticos de açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submetidos a várias condições de cultura in vitro. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, com material vegetal coletado de plantas de açaí da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém-PA, Brasil. Foi possível verificar a expressão de um modelo de embriogênese somática direto, repetitivo e assincronizado em embriões zigóticos maduros cultivados em meio primário MS, suplementado com 339,36 miM de 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, e transferidos para meio secundário MS na presença de 0,537 miM de ácido 1-naftalenoacético (ANA e 12,30 miM de 2-isopenteniladenina (2iP. A conversão de embriões somáticos em plântulas foi alcançada aos 210 dias da inoculação com a transferência das culturas para um terceiro meio com a concentração de sais e sacarose reduzida pela metade e ausência de reguladores de crescimento.

  2. Initiation of a European Radiation Protection Training and Education Plataforma (EUTERP Platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, J. van der; Fraaisma, F. S.; Marco Arboli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission, D.-G. Transport and Energy, has launched an initiative to establish a European Radiation Protection Training and Education Platform. To this end, a feasibility study is being carried out at the moment. The objective of this feasibility study is to initiate the necessary steps towards the creation of the Platform. It will make recommendations, based on the summary and conclusions obtained as a result of the exchange of information and experience between all involved radiation protection training and education bodies. The project will identify how the future Platform should be initiated and developed in order to achieve the expected results. This paper describes the objectives of the study and the objectives, composition and possible structure of the EUTERP Platform. A workshop will be held from 20-21 May at CIEMAT, Madrid, to identify the work programme and possibilities for the structure of the Platform. The preliminary results of the workshop will be presented in this presentation. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Ana Carolina H.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar V.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2007-01-01

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  4. Chemical constituents from roots and leaf stalks of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart., Arecaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galotta, Ana Lucia Queiroz de Assis; Boaventura, Maria Amelia Diamantino

    2005-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of roots and leaf stalks of Euterpe precatoria Mart. (acai), afforded stigmast-4-en-6β-ol-3-one (3); p-hydroxy benzoic acid (4); 3β-O-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol (5); β-sitosterol palmitate (6); mixtures of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (1 and 2), α-, β-amyrin and lupeol (7, 8 and 9), friedelin-3-one and 28-hydroxy-friedelin-3-one (10 and 11) and α-, β-D-glucose (12, 13). Except for 1, 2 and 4, the other isolated constituents are described in the genus for the first time. Compounds 3 and 5 gave good results in the brine shrimp bioassay, which detects compounds with potential uses as antitumor agents, pesticides, etc.. (author)

  5. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of 'acai' (Euterpe precatoria Mart.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galotta, Ana Lucia Q.A. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Boaventura, Maria Amelia D.; Lima, Luciana A. R.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Decoction of roots of the Amazonian palm acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) is widely used by Brazilian and Peruvian people as an anti-inflammatory, to heal kidney and liver diseases and against snake bites. In this study, the antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, rutin and astilbin) isolated from roots and leaf stalks of E. precatoria was investigated using {beta}-carotene in TLC plates and DPPH radical scavenging in a spectrophotometric bioassay. All extracts and flavonoids showed activity. Also, the cytotoxic activity of these extracts was evaluated by the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvicide bioassay and was lower than that of lapachol, used as control. The presence of flavonoids and sitosterol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside in the extracts can justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine. (author)

  6. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of 'açaí' (Euterpe precatoria Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Q. A. Galotta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Decoction of roots of the Amazonian palm açaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart. is widely used by Brazilian and Peruvian people as an anti-inflammatory, to heal kidney and liver diseases and against snake bites. In this study, the antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, rutin and astilbin isolated from roots and leaf stalks of E. precatoria was investigated using β-carotene in TLC plates and DPPH radical scavenging in a spectrophotometric bioassay. All extracts and flavonoids showed activity. Also, the cytotoxic activity of these extracts was evaluated by the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvicide bioassay and was lower than that of lapachol, used as control. The presence of flavonoids and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside in the extracts can justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  7. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records...... its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring...

  8. Isolation, HPLC/UV characterization and antioxidant activity of phenylethanoids from Blepharis edulis (Forssk. Pers. growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Ghaffar Ashour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program of the Egyptian wild and cultivated plants for antioxidant compounds, four phenylethanoids were reported for the first time from the wild Egyptian species Blepharis edulis (Forssk. Pers. family Acanthaceae. The antioxidant activity-guided chemical investigation of the methanolic fraction of the aerial part revealed the presence of verbascoside (1, cis-verbascoside (2, isoverbascoside (3, Leucosceptoside A (4. The HPLC/UV characterization of these compounds is found. The compounds were isolated and purified using silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC, the structures were identified and confirmed by UV, ESI-MS, MALDI-MS in addition to one and two dimensional NMR experiments. Antioxidant activities of the main fractions of B. edulis extract were determined using the DPPH radical test.

  9. BIOLOGÍA FLORAL Y REPRODUCTIVA DE LA GULUPA PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS F. EDULIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel-Coca Catalina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biología floral y reproductiva de Passiflora edulis f. edulis en cultivos ubicados en la Cordillera Oriental en los Andes colombianos (Buenavista, Boyacá. La flor presentó antesis entre las 6 y las 8 hrs, la longevidad floral promedio fue de 25 hrs. Se reconocieron cuatro fases fenológicas: (1 Femenina con hercogamia (2 Homógama con hercogamia (3 Homógama sin hercogamia y (4 Senescente. Aunque el estigma está receptivo durante todas las fases florales, se obtuvo mayor producción de frutos en las fases segunda y tercera. La donación del polen, en su mayoría ocurrió en la fase dos con una viabilidad del 96%. El néctar mostró una tendencia ascendente durante la vida floral. Los experimentos de polinización indican que la gulupa es una variedad altamente autocompatible, pero requiere de los polinizadores para producir una buena cosecha, pues sólo el 33% de los frutos se forma sin el acceso de éstos. Los resultados sugieren que la gulupa tiene una estrategia floral mixta con el potencial para promover endogamia y entrecruzamiento genético, y que la conservación de las abejas polinizadoras es crucial en la productividad de este frutal.

  10. Diet supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves biomarkers of oxidative stress and the serum lipid profile in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Melina Oliveira de; Silva, Maísa; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Oliveira, Riva de Paula; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the antioxidant potential and hypocholesterolemic effects of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp ingestion in rats fed a standard or hypercholesterolemic diet. Methods: Female Fischer rats were fed a standard AIN-93 M diet (control) or a hypercholesterolemic diet that contained 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol. The test diet was supplemented with 2% acai pulp (dry wt/wt) for control (group CA) and hypercholesterolemic rats (group HA) for 6 wk. At the end of the experim...

  11. Morfoanatomia de folhas e caules de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josseara Beraldo

    Full Text Available Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie vegetal empregada na medicina popular e amplamente cultivada no território nacional, tem suas folhas e seus caules, muitas vezes utilizados como adulterante de amostras comerciais da droga vegetal oficializada no país também conhecida como maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis. Caracteres morfoanatômicos de folhas e de caules de P. edulis, foram descritos e documentados. Dentre os caracteres auxiliares na distinção entre a droga oficial e os órgãos aéreos de P. edulis podem-se destacar o contorno da lâmina foliar, a forma da nervura mediana em secção transversal, o número e a localização de nectários extraflorais e, o indumento

  12. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata) extracts on stimulated neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Serteyn, Didier; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Wauters, Jean-Nöel; Tits, Monique; Yariwake, Janete H; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry

    2011-09-15

    The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts from Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata pulp, and P. edulis rinds, healthy or infected with the passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV), was investigated using the oxidant activities of the neutrophil and the neutrophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), both playing key roles in inflammation. The reactive oxygen species produced by stimulated neutrophils were evaluated by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and the activity of purified MPO was measured by SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection), a technique for studying the direct interaction of a compound with the enzyme. The rind extracts of P. edulis possessed higher and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on CL response and on the peroxidase activity of MPO than total pulp extracts from both passion fruit species. The quantification of isoorientin in the extracts showed a correlation with their antioxidant activity, suggesting the potential of P. edulis rinds as functional food or as a possible source of natural flavonoids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete sequences of the highly rearranged molluscan mitochondrial genomes of the scaphopod graptacme eborea and the bivalve mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Medina, Monica; Rosenberg, Lewis A.

    2004-01-31

    We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scaphopod mollusk Graptacme eborea (Conrad, 1846) (14,492 nts) and completed the sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (16,740 nts). (The name Graptacme eborea is a revision of the species formerly known as Dentalium eboreum.) G. eborea mtDNA contains the 37 genes that are typically found and has the genes divided about evenly between the two strands, but M. edulis contains an extra trnM and is missing atp8, and has all genes on the same strand. Each has a highly rearranged gene order relative to each other and to all other studied mtDNAs. G. eborea mtDNA has almost no strand skew, but the coding strand of M. edulis mtDNA is very rich in G and T. This is reflected in differential codon usage patterns and even in amino acid compositions. G. eborea mtDNA has fewer non-coding nucleotides than any other mtDNA studied to date, with the largest non-coding region being only 24 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis using 2,420 aligned amino acid positions of concatenated proteins weakly supports an association of the scaphopod with gastropods to the exclusion of Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, and Polyplacophora, but is generally unable to convincingly resolve the relationships among major groups of the Lophotrochozoa, in contrast to the good resolution seen for several other major metazoan groups.

  14. Immune modulation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to North Sea produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, M.L., E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.u [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bamber, S.D.; Sundt, R.C. [IRIS - Biomiljo, Mekjarvik 12, 4070 Randaberg (Norway); Galloway, T.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of PW on immune function in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to sublethal PW concentrations (0.125-0.5%) and cellular parameters were measured. Cell viability, phagocytosis and cytotoxicity were inhibited after exposure to 0.25% and 0.5% PW, whilst the 0.125% PW treatment produced significant increases in these biomarker responses. This biphasic response was only observed after 7 days exposure; longer exposure periods led to a reduction in immune parameters. Results indicate that PW concentrations close to the discharge point cause modulation to cellular immunity. The implications for longer-term disease resistance are discussed. - Exposure to produced water alters immune function in the sentinel species Mytilus edulis.

  15. Evaluation of gastroprotective activity of Plinia edulis (Vell.) Sobral (Myrtaceae) leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tati; Donatini, Raquel dos Santos; Diaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Yoshida, Massayoshi; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne; Kato, Edna Tomiko Myiake

    2008-08-13

    Plinia edulis, an arboreous species popularly known as "cambucá", is native to the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest. Despite its traditional uses, no reports are available on the safety of this utilization or on the relationship between the antiulcer activity of its extract and its phytochemical compounds. This paper reports on the investigation of the acute toxicity and gastroprotective effect of the aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of Plinia edulis on HCl/ethanol-induced ulcers. In order to correlate the secondary metabolites and the efficacy of the crude drug in traditional medicine, the extract was submitted to chromatographic fractionation after solvent partition. The extract did not show acute toxicity in mice treated with 5 g/kg p.o., but exhibited significant antiulcer activity in rats at doses of 100, 200, and 400mg/kg p.o., more active than the reference drug lansoprazole.The ethyl acetate fraction yielded beta-amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and maslinic acid, which were identified based on spectrometric analyses. Since antiulcerogenic activity is not restricted to one class of compounds in plants, the triterpenoids isolated in the extract can be associated with the observed effect.

  16. Endozoicomonas dominates the gill and intestinal content microbiomes of Mytilus edulis from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, William B.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Adams, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, Linnaeus 1758 from southern Barnegat Bay, New Jersey were examined to determine the make-up of the normal blue mussel microbiome. Sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from gill and intestinal content microbiomes using the Illumina® MiSeq platform yielded 1,276,161 paired end sequence reads from the gill libraries and 1,092,333 paired end sequence reads from the intestinal content libraries. General bioinformatic analyses were conducted with the open-source packages Qiime and Mothur. Phylotype assignments to the genus level were made using the commercial One Codex platform. This resulted in 1,697,852 gill and 988,436 intestinal content sequences being classified to genus. A majority of these (67.6% and 37.2% respectively) were assigned to a single operational taxonomic unit (Mytilus edulis Symbiont, MeS) that has homologies with other recently described Endozoicomonas pathogens and symbionts of marine invertebrates. MeS shares 98% identity with an uncultured bacterium from the gill tissue of an invasive indo-Pacific oyster and with HQE1 and HQE2 isolated from the sea squirt, Styela clava. Other than MeS, most of the detected bacterial species are known from marine sediments and seawater.

  17. Ontogeny of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis (Lamiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (Lamiaceae) is one of the economically important tuber crops of the genus Plectranthus. It is grown in mid and high altitude areas in parts of Ethiopia. The structure of this plant and its development in time has not been described in detail. Two similar experiments were carried

  18. Khat ( Catha edulis ) Use is Associated with the Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Khat (Catha edulis) chewing leads to a number of health related problems in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). Few studies have examined the effects of regular Khat chewing in relation to gastritis. Experimental studies with animals have shown that an association exists between Khat chewing and the incidence ...

  19. Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae) and Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae) whole plants against high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. ... Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TGs) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were assayed using Merck diagnostic kits. For histopathological analysis ...

  20. Some Proximate Analysis of African Pear ( Dacryodes Edulis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some physical and chemical properties of African pear (Dacryodes edulis) samples from nine different trees were analysed in order to determine the level of differences that exist between trees. The length of the individual fruits ranged from 39.86 mm to 80.76 mm while the weight ranged from 15.97 g to 39.36 g. Significant ...

  1. Oxidative stress and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, Sara [Environmental Research Institute of University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Doyle, Hugh [Tyndall National Institute, Cork (Ireland); Blasco, Julian [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Marine Science Institute of Andalusia, Cadiz (Spain); Redmond, Gareth [Tyndall National Institute, Cork (Ireland); Sheehan, David, E-mail: d.sheehan@ucc.ie [Environmental Research Institute of University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have potential applications in drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and therapy, food industry and environment remediation. However, little is known about their potential toxicity or fate in the environment. Mytilus edulis was exposed in tanks to750 ppb AuNP (average diameter 5.3 {+-} 1 nm) for 24 h to study in vivo biological effects of nanoparticles. Traditional biomarkers and an affinity procedure selective for thiol-containing proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) separations were used to study toxicity and oxidative stress responses. Results were compared to those obtained for treatment with cadmium chloride, a well known pro-oxidant. M. edulis mainly accumulated AuNP in digestive gland which also showed higher lipid peroxidation. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE (1DE) and 2DE analysis of digestive gland samples revealed decreased thiol-containing proteins for AuNP. Lysosomal membrane stability measured in haemolymph gave lower values for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in both treatments but was greater in AuNP. Oxidative stress occurred within 24 h of AuNP exposure in M. edulis. Previously we showed that larger diameter AuNP caused modest effects, indicating that nanoparticle size is a key factor in biological responses to nanoparticles. This study suggests that M. edulis is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles.

  2. Intercalibration of mussel Mytilus edulis clearance rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjerulf Petersen, J.; Bougrier, S.; Smaal, A.C.; Garen, P.; Robert, S.; Larsen, J.E.N.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Clearance rate (CR) was measured in blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Aiguillon Bay and the Oosterschelde using 3 different methods: the flow-through method, the bio-deposition method and the indirect or clearance method. CR differed significantly as a function of the method used and of the origin

  3. Subchronic Crude Khat ( Catha edulis F.) Extract Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People chew khat (Catha edulis F.), believing that it improves memory, alertness and clear thinking. Although such belief are widely held, there are little or no reports assessing the effect of khat on learning and memory as well as neural processes involved in these activities. The aim of the present study was therefore to ...

  4. Khat (Catha edulis): academic, health and psychosocial efects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant effects on objective academic results. It was concluded that to gain concentration and focus was the main reason for students' khat chewing habit. However, there was no evidence of subjective academic achievement. Key Words: Khat; Catha edulis; academic achievement; health effects; mature students; ...

  5. The influence of climatic and physiological performance on population dynamics of Mytilus edulis in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2014-01-01

    . Results show an overall decline in blue mussel abundance along the coast from south to north Greenland. Physiological adaptation and plasticity of blue mussels was found across latitudes spanning from the temperate to the High Arctic region. Combined our results indicate that low ocean temperature per se....... The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has recently expanded its northern distribution in Greenland and is considered to be a sensitive indicator of climate changes. Blue mussels could be a species that would respond to a warmer climate by increased abundance and growth rates in the Arctic. However, adequate...... data on current distribution and physiological performance of blue mussels in the Arctic is lacking, and knowledge of how “climate” in a broad sense specifically influence population dynamics of this species is unknown. Here, we present data on abundance, age and mortality of blue mussels in West...

  6. Modulations in cell-mediated immunity of Mytilus edulis following the 'Sea Empress' oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrynda, E.A.; Dyrynda, P.E.J.; Ratcliffe, N.A.; Pipe, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 'Sea Empress' oil tanker grounded outside Milford Haven (Wales, UK) in February 1996, spilling ∼ 70,000 tonnes of crude oil and contaminating over 100 km of coastline, causing mass mortalities and strandings of at least 11 mollusc species. Intensive field monitoring commenced after the spill, examining immunity and hydrocarbon levels in the mussel, Mytilus edulis (Mollusca: Bivalvia), a commercially-harvested species which can accumulate contaminants. Comparisons of mussels from oiled and reference sites revealed significant modulations in cell-mediated immunity. Elevations in blood cell (haemocyte) numbers and decreases in superoxide generation and phagocytosis were identified in contaminated animals. The immune response of contaminated mussels gradually improved and generally showed no significant differences compared with clean mussels after 11 weeks. By then, total hydrocarbon content in contaminated mussels had declined by 70-90%, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content had decreased by over 90%. (author)

  7. Morphoanatomic aspects and phytochemical screening of Plinia edulis (Vell. Sobral (Myrtaceae Aspectos morfoanatômicos e triagem fitoquímica de Plinia edulis (Vell. Sobral (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Ishikawa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plinia edulis (Myrtaceae, popularly known as "cambucá", is a Brazilian medicinal plant employed in the treatment of stomach problems and throat affections by the "caiçaras", fishermen of coastal localities. Aiming to contribute with the species knowledge the leaves of P. edulis were analyzed macro and microscopically and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was determined using a combination of GC/MS and retention indices. The antimicrobial assay and the phytochemical screening of the aqueous ethanol extract of the leaves have been performed to correlate the secondary metabolites and the traditional use. Leaves present morphological characteristics of others Myrtaceae species and some particularities, such as the circular idioblasts in number of 2 to 4, scattered perpendicularly at the adaxial surface, with druses or prismatic crystals. In the volatile oil fifteen components have been identified, of which epi-α-cadinol (21.7%, α-cadinol (20.2% and trans-caryophyllene (14.2% were major. The phytochemical screening of the aqueous ethanol extract showed the presence of substances with pharmacological interest, such as flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids but, despite of the presence of these classes, the extract did not inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in a concentration of 1,000 mg/mL.Plinia edulis (Myrtaceae, popularmente conhecida como "cambucá", é uma planta medicinal nativa do Brasil e empregada no tratamento de problemas estomacais e afecções de garganta por populações caiçaras. Buscando contribuir para o conhecimento da espécie, as folhas de P. edulis foram caracterizadas macro e microscopicamente e a composição química do óleo volátil foi determinada usando uma combinação de CG/EM e índices de retenção. O extrato hidroetanólico das folhas foi avaliado quanto ao perfil fitoquímico e à atividade antimicrobiana procurando-se a correla

  8. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of jussara (Euterpe edulis M.) oil extracted by cold and hot mechanical pressing; Composición química y estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de jussara (Euterpe edulis M.) extraído mediante prensado mecánico en frío y en caliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Cunha, A.L.A.; Freitas, S.P.; Godoy, R.L.O.; Cabral, L.M.C.; Tonon, R.V.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of mechanical pressing on jussara oil yield, oxidative stability and carotenoid profile with or without heat application. Firstly, jussara pulp was centrifuged for juice extraction, and the resulting cake was dried until reaching 10% moisture content. Then, oil extraction was performed in an expeller press at 25 ºC (cold pressing) and at 50 ºC (hot pressing). The process performance was evaluated by the oil yield, and the crude jussara oil was characterized for fatty acid composition, acid value, carotenoid profile and oxidative stability. Jussara oil contained 74% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic acids (48% and 24%, respectively). The oil yield was almost twice as high for the hot process as compared to the cold one. Additionally, hot pressing resulted in 25% higher total carotenoid content as compared to cold pressing, with β-carotene as the most abundant one. Hot and cold pressing showed no difference in oil oxidative stability and fatty acid composition. [Spanish] El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del calor sobre el rendimiento del aceite, la estabilidad oxidativa y el perfil de carotenoides del aceite de Jussara extraído por prensado mecánico. En primer lugar, se centrifugó la pulpa de jussara para la extracción del zumo, y la torta resultante se secó para alcanzar el contenido de humedad de 10%. Posteriormente, la extracción del aceite se realizó en una prensa a 25 °C (prensado en frío) y a 50 °C (prensado en caliente). El desarrollo del proceso fue evaluado mediante el rendimiento de aceite y en bruto y éste se caracterizó mediante la composición en ácidos grasos, índice de acidez, perfil de carotenoides y la estabilidad oxidativa. El aceite de jussara presentó un 74% de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico (48% y 24%, respectivamente). El rendimiento del aceite para el proceso en caliente fue casi el doble, en comparación con el proceso en frío. Además, el prensado en caliente mostró un contenido total de carotenoides 25% mayor en comparación con el prensado en frío, siendo el β-caroteno, el carotenoide más abundante. Las prensas en calientes y en frío no mostraron diferencias en la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite ni en la composición de ácidos grasos.

  9. Aquaculture-Based Calibration of Mytilus edulis as an Isotope Paleothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanamaker, A. D.; Kreutz, K. J.; Borns, H. W.; Barber, B.; Introne, D.

    2003-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic analysis of marine carbonate shells (δ 18Oc) is a standard paleoceanographic method used to record the chronology of seawater temperature change. Shell δ 18Oc is a function of seawater temperature, isotopic composition of the seawater (δ 18Ow - related to salinity), and any species-specific fractionation that occurs during biomineralization. Previous empirical calibrations of marine bivalves used estimates of time-series variability for the key parameters in the paleotemperature equation. These estimates limited the ability to quantitatively estimate paleotemperatures and salinities from any particular species of interest or environment. The relative abundance and broad geographical distribution of the intertidal bivalve Mytilus edulis makes it an ideal species for aquaculture-based isotope paleothermometry. To calibrate M. edulis, a four by three factorial design is being used to evaluate the effects of water temperature and salinity on isotopic uptake in mussel carbonate. This experimental design consists of four circulating temperature baths (8, 12, 16, and 20 ° C), each containing three salinities (23, 28, and 33 ppt), with replicate environments for each temperature and salinity configuration. In mid-July of 2003, 4,800 juvenile mussels were collected in Salt Bay, Damariscotta, Maine, and 200 were placed in each configuration. The size (shell length) distribution of mussels, based on 100 randomly selected specimens, ranged from 9.8 mm to 20.2 mm with a mean size of 15.3 mm. This variation in shell length allows for quantification of vital effects based on age. Water samples for each configuration are being collected weekly, measured for salinity and analyzed for δ 18Ow. Mussels are being collected monthly, prepared, and microsampled in regions of new growth for δ 18Oc analysis. Initial results to be presented will include the time-series of δ 18Ow, δ 18Oc, temperature, and salinity. The calibrated paleotemperature equation developed

  10. Multiple emulsions containing amazon oil: açaí oil (Euterpe oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ferrari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to formulate O/W/O multiple emulsions containing açaí oil as a model system and to evaluate their physical stability and in vivo Sun Protection Factor (SPF. Multiple emulsions are complex dispersion systems, known also as, "emulsions of emulsions". These emulsion systems, have significant potential in the cosmetic industry. Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae, popularly known in Brazil as "açaí", is an economically important plant. Açaí oil has been used as antioxidant and as anti-inflammatory activities. The multiple emulsions were prepared using a two-step procedure. The investigated formulations were characterized and their stability over time was evaluated by preliminary and accelerated stability. O/W/O multiple emulsions containing the same concentration of sunscreens with and without açaí oil were evaluated by the International Sun Protection Factor Test Method. The samples containing 70% (w/w of primary emulsion, 5% (w/w PEG-30-dipolyhydroxystearate, 10% (w/w of açaí oil and 5% (w/w of sucrose polybehenate have been found to be stable. The rheological measurements revealed that the samples exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic flow behavior and thixotropy. To conclude, no statistical difference could be observed on the in vivo SPF to both multiple systems with or without açaí oil.

  11. Effect of the treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. oil in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Souza, Belmira S Faria; Carvalho, Helison O; Ferreira, Irlon M; da Cunha, Edilson L; Barros, Albenise Santana; Taglialegna, Talisson; Carvalho, José C T

    2017-06-01

    Dyslipidemias are defined as changes in lipid metabolism that have abnormal concentrations of lipids or lipoproteins in the bloodstream. Chronic increase in triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) levels are known as risk factors for the atherogenesis process as well as other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The magnitude of the problems caused by dyslipidemias impels research by new agents that act in the prevention and control. Thus, products from the Amazonian biodiversity, such as Euterpe oleracea oil (OFEO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), constitutes a study source for the treatment of alterations in lipid metabolism. The present study aims to investigate the effect of OFEO treatment in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia (Tyloxapol WR1339). The physicochemical and chromatographic results confirmed the chemical composition of OFEO with a predominance of UFAs (67.83%), with Oleic acid being the majority (54.32%). At Triton-induced dyslipidemia, the animals treated with OFEO and Simvastatin showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels, with values ​​of 121.7±29.5 (pdyslipidemia, acting as antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertriglyceridemic, thus possibly contributing as a preventive agent for CVDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of solar dehydration on composition and antioxidant properties of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida

    2011-03-01

    Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region.

  13. Development of O/W emulsions containing Euterpe oleracea extract and evaluation of photoprotective efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cecilio Daher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleraceaMart. is a palm tree popularly known as açai, which is primarily found in northern Brazil. The açai's fruits contain anthocyanins, a class of polyphenols to which antioxidant properties have been attributed. The aim of this work was to develop O/W sunscreens emulsions containing açai glycolic extract (AGE and to evaluate both their physical stability and photoprotective efficacy. Emulsions containing AGE and sunscreens were formulated using different types and concentrations of polymeric surfactant (acrylates/C 10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer and sodium polyacrylate. The influence of two rheology modifiers (polyacrylamide (and C13-14/isoparaffin (and Laureth-7 and Carbomer on the stability was also investigated. Physical stability was evaluated by preliminary and accelerated studies. Emulsions with 1.0% sodium polyacrylate were stable and exhibited non-newtonian pseudoplastic behavior and thixotropy. Photoprotective efficacy was evaluated by in vivo Sun Protection Factor (SPF and determination of Protection Factor of UVA (PF-UVA. When AGE was added to the sunscreen emulsion, no significant increase in the in vivo SPF value was observed. The emulsion containing AGE showed PF-UVA = 14.97, 1.69 of the SPF/PF-UVA ratio and a critical wavelength value of 378 nm, and may therefore be considered a sunscreen with UVA and UVB protection.

  14. Isoenzimas no monitoramento da deterioração de sementes de Euterpe espiritosantensis Fernandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de Euterpe espiritosantensis são recalcitrantes, pois apresentam redução da germinação com a desidratação e curta longevidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar sistemas enzimáticos eficientes no monitoramento da deterioração e perda da capacidade germinativa de sementes de palmiteiro-vermelho. As sementes foram colocadas para secar por 0, 20 e 40 h (teor de água de 46, 40 e 36%, respectivamente e armazenadas a 15 ºC em sacos plásticos fechados durante 54 semanas. Em intervalos de tempo de seis semanas, a qualidade das sementes foi avaliada quanto à germinação e atividade das enzimas glucose-6-fosfato desidrogenase, glutamato desidrogenase, fosfoglucomutase, fosfoglucose isomerase e peroxidase utilizando eletroforese em géis de poliacrilamida. A enzima peroxidase foi a única eficiente no monitoramento da deterioração e perda da capacidade germinativa de sementes de palmiteiro-vermelho.

  15. Towards the determination of Mytilus edulis food preferences using the dynamic energy budget (DEB theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Picoche

    Full Text Available The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is a commercially important species, with production based on both fisheries and aquaculture. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB models have been extensively applied to study its energetics but such applications require a deep understanding of its nutrition, from filtration to assimilation. Being filter feeders, mussels show multiple responses to temporal fluctuations in their food and environment, raising questions that can be investigated by modeling. To provide a better insight into mussel-environment interactions, an experiment was conducted in one of the main French growing zones (Utah Beach, Normandy. Mussel growth was monitored monthly for 18 months, with a large number of environmental descriptors measured in parallel. Food proxies such as chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and phytoplankton were also sampled, in addition to non-nutritious particles. High-frequency physical data recording (e.g., water temperature, immersion duration completed the habitat description. Measures revealed an increase in dry flesh mass during the first year, followed by a high mass loss, which could not be completely explained by the DEB model using raw external signals. We propose two methods that reconstruct food from shell length and dry flesh mass variations. The former depends on the inversion of the growth equation while the latter is based on iterative simulations. Assemblages of food proxies are then related to reconstructed food input, with a special focus on plankton species. A characteristic contribution is attributed to these sources to estimate nutritional values for mussels. M. edulis shows no preference between most plankton life history traits. Selection is based on the size of the ingested particles, which is modified by the volume and social behavior of plankton species. This finding reveals the importance of diet diversity and both passive and active selections, and confirms the need to adjust DEB models to

  16. Açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Martius) : composição química e bioatividades.

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Melina Oliveira de; Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso dos; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    O açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Martius) é um fruto tipicamente brasileiro e economicamente importante. Relatos populares indicam o uso medicinal do seu suco e trabalhos que descrevem sua composição química, demonstram a presença de compostos fenólicos, fibras, ácidos graxos insaturados e fitosteróis, sugerindo seu potencial como alimento funcional. Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão sobre o açaí, enfatizando os seus componentes químicos e suas bioatividades in vitro e in vivo. ...

  17. Feeding traits of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, and the invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vismann, Bent

    2017-01-01

    °C and a salinity of 25. The CR of O. edulis was one to three times lower than that of C. gigas for the three smaller algal species (5−15 µm) but not different for the two larger algae. Algae in the size range 7−32 µm were retained with 100% RE by both oysters, but the smallest alga was retained...

  18. [Extract of Passiflora edulis in the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats: a tensiometric and morphologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, José Antonio Ferreira; Campos, Antonio Carlos L; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de; Nicareta, Jean Ricardo; Ribeiro, Elaine Rossi; Sebastião, Ana Paula Martins; Urdiales, Akihito Inca A; Moreira, Marlus; Borges, Alessandra Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of new substances with therapeutic effects have been done trying to isolate, extract or purify new compounds of vegetable origin. The Passiflora edulis (maracujá) species from the Plassifloracia family, originated from the tropical and subtropical regions of the american continent, is found all over Brazil. It is commonly used as a sedative, painkiller and anti-inflammatory drug and also for the treatment of skin wounds, lesions and Erisipelae. To evaluate the wound healing in colonic anastomosis in rats that received an hydro-alcoholic extract of Passiflora edulis peri-operatively. 40 wistar rats were used distributed into two groups of 20 rats each, named: Passiflora edulis group (GP) and control group (GC). The rats of each group were separated into two subgroups of 10 animals each and were evaluated on the 3rd and 7th postoperative days. The surgical procedure consisted of a section of the left colon, 5 cm above the peritoneal reflexion with preservation of the vascular elements. Intestinal continuity was restored by an end-to-end single layer anastomosis. The Passiflora edulis group received an intraperitoneal application of the hydro-alcoholic extract in the dosage of 250 mg/kg. The control-group received one intraperitoneal dose of a saline with the same volume of the GP. The parameters evaluated were: macroscopic aspects of the wall and abdominal cavity, perianastomotic (adherences), bursting pressure, inflammatory tissue reaction on the anastomotic wound. The macroscopic aspects did not differ between the groups. No rupture in the anastomotic wound was seen in any rat. Regarding the bursting pressure, it was noticed that the average pressure was significantly higher in the subgroup that received the Passiflora edulis extract on the 3rd day (P3) (42.6 +/- 17.8 mmHg vs. 25.4 +/- 14.1 mmHg, p=0.028), as compared to the control sub-group (C3). However, on the 7th day, bursting pressure was similar in both groups (p=0.447). Rats from the C7 sub

  19. Accumulation factors of mercury by King Bolete Boletus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Frankowska, A.

    2003-05-01

    To understand pollution picture with mercury and to examine suitability of King Bolete Boletits edulis Bull.: Fr. as possible bioindicator the total mercurv concentrations were determined both in the fruiting bodies and underlying soil substrate collected from various regions of Poland. There were quite large spatial variations of mercury concentration and some seasonal also were noted. Mercury content of the caps exceeded that of stalks (p<0.05), Nvhile Hg BCF values varied between 9 and 40, and 4 and 40, respectively.

  20. Physicochemical characteristic of Exudate of Dacryodes edulis | Udo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Present work deals with the study of exudate of Dacryodes edulis with regards to various seasonal physicochemical properties of the purified solids exudate, acid hydrolysis product and saponification product like charring temperature (oC) (195.73 ± 4.75, 190 ± 7.9, 190 ± 3.4, ); flash point (oC) (105 ± 5.0, 100 ± 7.9, 100 ...

  1. Diet enriched with the Amazon fruit açaí (Euterpe oleracea) prevents electrophysiological deficits and oxidative stress induced by methyl-mercury in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Alódia; Rocha, Fernando Allan de Farias; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Oliveira, Karen Renata M; de Carvalho, Tayana Silva; Batista, Evander de Jesus O; Borges, Rosivaldo Dos Santos; Kremers, Jan; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2017-06-01

    The protective effect of a diet supplemented by the Amazonian fruit Euterpe oleracea (EO) against methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in rat retina was studied using electroretinography (ERG) and biochemical evaluation of oxidative stress. Wistar rats were submitted to conventional diet or EO-enriched diet for 28 days. After that, each group received saline solution or 5 mg/kg/day of MeHg for 7 days. Full-field single flash, flash and flicker ERGs were evaluated in the following groups: control, EO, MeHg, and EO+MeHg. The amplitudes of the a-wave, b-wave, photopic negative response from rod and/or cone were measured by ERGs as well as the amplitudes and phases of the fundamental component of the sine-wave flicker ERG. Lipid peroxidation was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive species. All ERG components had decreased amplitudes in the MeHg group when compared with controls. EO-enriched food had no effect on the non-intoxicated animals. The intoxicated animals and those that received the supplemented diet presented significant amplitude reductions of the cone b-wave and of the fundamental flicker component when compared with non-intoxicated control. The protective effect of the diet on scotopic conditions was only observed for bright flashes eliciting a mixed rod and cone response. There was a significant increase of lipid peroxidation in the retina from animals exposed to MeHg and EO-supplemented diet was able to prevent MeHg-induced oxidative stress in retinal tissue. These findings open up perspectives for the use of diets supplemented with EO as a protective strategy against visual damage induced by MeHg.

  2. Effects of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Betsy B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of açai fruit pulp on risk factors for metabolic disorders in overweight subjects. The açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart., which is native to South America, produces a small, black-purple fruit which is edible. The fruit has recently become popular as a functional food due to its antioxidant potential. Although several studies have been conducted in vitro and with animals, little is known about the potential health benefits in humans aside from an increase in plasma anti-oxidant capacity. Metabolic syndrome is a condition which is defined by a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or type-2 diabetes. Preliminary studies indicate that a reduction in reactive oxygen species can assist in the normalization of the metabolic pathways involved in this syndrome. Methods This was an open label pilot study conducted with 10 overweight adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and ≤ 30 kg/m2 who took 100 g açai pulp twice daily for 1 month. The study endpoints included levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, exhaled (breath nitric oxide metabolites (eNO and plasma levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP. The response of blood glucose, blood pressure and eNO to a standardized meal was determined at baseline and following the 30 day treatment. Results Compared to baseline, there were reductions in fasting glucose and insulin levels following the 30 day treatment (both p Conclusion In this uncontrolled pilot study, consumption of açai fruit pulp reduced levels of selected markers of metabolic disease risk in overweight adults, indicating that further studies are warranted.

  3. Actividad hipoglucemiante de Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia y Parmentiera edulis Hypoglicemic activity of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martha Pérez-Gutiérrez

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad hipoglucemiante de los extractos de hexano, cloroformo y metanol de Brickellia veronicaefolia, Bouvardia terniflora y Parmentiera edulis. Material y métodos. Se probaron los extractos de las plantas (100, 200 y 300 mg/kg, vía intraperitoneal en ratones normoglucémicos y con diabetes inducida con aloxana. Resultados. La administración de 300 mg/kg de los extractos clorofórmicos de P. edulis, B. terniflora y hexánico de B. veronicaefolia en ratones diabéticos disminuye el nivel de glucosa sanguínea en 43.75, 58.56 y 72.13%, respectivamente. Estos extractos (300 mg/kg, administrados en ratones normoglucémicos, reducen la glucosa sanguínea en 29.61, 33.42 y 39.84%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Con este estudio se confirma la actividad hipoglucemiante de estas plantas usadas en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de la diabetes.Objective. To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickelia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis. Material and methods. Normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered these plant extracts (intraperitoneal 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Results. The administration of 300 mg/kg of chloroform extracts from P. edulis and B. terniflora and hexane from B. veronicaefolia to diabetic mice decreased the blood glucose levels in 43.75, 58.56 and 72.13%, respectively. These extracts administered to normal mice reduced blood glucose levels in 29.61, 33.42 and 39.84%, respectively. Conclusions. The hypoglycemic effect of these plant extracts used in traditional medicine for diabetes treatment is confirmed.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae, oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. S. Favacho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The oil of the fruits of Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae (OEO, was evaluated in models of inflammation and hyperalgesia in vivo to study its effects on these conditions. The experimental models contained the writhing test in mice, rat paw edema, granuloma test in rats, vascular permeability in rats, cell migration to the peritoneal cavity in rats and ear erythema induced by croton oil in mice. Doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of OEO were administered orally. The observed number of writhes was inhibited by 33.67, 45.88 and 55.58%, respectively. OEO produced a dose-dependent effect, with linear correlation coefficient R=0.99 (y=0.0219x+23.133, and the median effective dose found was 1226.8 mg/kg. The oral administration of 1226.8 mg/kg of OEO inhibited carrageenan-induced edema by 29.18% (p<0.05 when compared to the control group. The daily administration of OEO for six days inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue by 36.66% (p<0.01. In ear erythema induced by croton oil, OEO presented a significant inhibition (37.9%. In the vascular permeability test, treatment with OEO decreased the response to histamine, inhibiting vascular permeability by 54.16%. In carrageenan-induced peritonitis, OEO reduced the number of neutrophils migrating compared to the control group by 80.14%. These results suggested that OEO has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, probably of peripheral origin and linked to prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibition.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae, oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. S. Favacho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The oil of the fruits of Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae (OEO, was evaluated in models of inflammation and hyperalgesia in vivo to study its effects on these conditions. The experimental models contained the writhing test in mice, rat paw edema, granuloma test in rats, vascular permeability in rats, cell migration to the peritoneal cavity in rats and ear erythema induced by croton oil in mice. Doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of OEO were administered orally. The observed number of writhes was inhibited by 33.67, 45.88 and 55.58%, respectively. OEO produced a dose-dependent effect, with linear correlation coefficient R=0.99 (y=0.0219x+23.133, and the median effective dose found was 1226.8 mg/kg. The oral administration of 1226.8 mg/kg of OEO inhibited carrageenan-induced edema by 29.18% (p<0.05 when compared to the control group. The daily administration of OEO for six days inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue by 36.66% (p<0.01. In ear erythema induced by croton oil, OEO presented a significant inhibition (37.9%. In the vascular permeability test, treatment with OEO decreased the response to histamine, inhibiting vascular permeability by 54.16%. In carrageenan-induced peritonitis, OEO reduced the number of neutrophils migrating compared to the control group by 80.14%. These results suggested that OEO has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, probably of peripheral origin and linked to prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibition.

  6. Management of asaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart. for fruit production in southern Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Isaza Aranguren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of asaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart. are a traditional food for Amazonian inhabitants who harvest it from wild populations, employing management practices that affect palm populations and productivity. Here we present management data on fruit harvesting in a Tikuna community in the Colombian Amazon. We identified the market structure in Leticia and evaluated the population structure and fruit productivity in a scarcely harvested forest and a heavily harvested one. We performed interviews to determine management and market practices and we established plots to identify population structure and productivity. Harvesting is mostly for self-supply and palm felling is the main method. The fruits are mostly consumed and marketed as juice. The asaí market is small and seasonal but it represents an important source of income for many, mainly indigenous, families. The population density was 1 680 individuals and 248 adults/ha in San Martín de Amacayacu, where harvesting was from 2 % of all adult palms, and 916 individuals and 30 adults/ha in Leticia, where harvesting was from 23 % of all adult palms. The population structure in both sites followed an in-verted J-curve in which the majority of the individuals were seedlings. Productivity was 2.2 ton/ha/ year in San Martín de Amacayacu and 0.33 ton/ha/ year in Leticia. The population in Leticia is heavily harvested to supply the local market and the consequences of this use are a reduction in population density and fruit productivity and a low abundance of individuals in all size classes.

  7. Fruto de naidi (Euterpe oleracea y su perspectiva en la seguridad alimentaria colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Montenegro-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleracea es una palma originaria de Suramérica, su distribución es netamente tropical y subtropical. Su fruto es altamente aprove - chado en Brasil, donde se conoce como açai. Comercializado tanto dentro como fuera del país, sus niveles de exportación han aumentado debido a resultados científicos que indican altas propiedades antioxidantes y nutritivas. Es considerado alimento funcional y de impor - tancia en el sostenimiento de la seguridad alimentaria. En Colombia, E. oleracea hace presencia en la región pacífica, principalmente en valles medios de los ríos Atrato y Magdalena, su fruto conocido como naidí se aprovecha en los departamentos de Nariño, Cauca, Valle del Cauca y Chocó. Habitantes del Pacífico valoran su fruto por sus cualidades nutritivas y por ser fuente de ingresos para muchas familias que comercializan en mercados locales. Su aprovechamiento se ve afectado debido a que las cosechas abundantes se dan solamente en dos épocas del año, originando priorización por el aprovechamiento del palmito (cogollo sobre el fruto, comprometiéndose el uso sustentable del recurso y la seguridad alimentaria, ya que la extracción de palmito, primero afecta la fructificación, y segundo no favorece la economía de la región, porque su explotación la hacen empresas extranjeras exportadoras. Por lo tanto, este recurso fitogenético requiere atención de entes gubernamentales e instituciones que contribuyan en el fortalecimiento de la comercialización del fruto teniendo como base sus bondades nutritivas y saludables.

  8. Effects of shoot tipping on development and yield of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew is one of the tuber crops of the genus Plectranthus that is widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. P. edulis produces below-ground tubers on stolons originating from the stems, comparable to the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Farmers apply several laborious cultural

  9. Evaluation of Dacryodes edulis (native pear) seed biomass for Pb (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dacryodes edulis (Native pear) seed is herein evaluated as a promising biomass for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution. The Pb(II) adsorption onto Dacryodes edulis seed biomass was influenced by the solution pH, time, biomass dose and initial adsorbate concentration. The Freundlich model fitted better than the ...

  10. Boletus edulis: a digestion-resistant allergen may be relevant for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, A; Bonadies, N; Brander, K A; Pichler, W J

    2002-05-01

    Fungal components can cause allergic symptoms either through inhalation, ingestion or contact. Whereas respiratory allergy is thought to be induced by spores, allergic reactions following ingestion are attributed to other parts of the mushroom. Reports of food-related allergic reactions due to the edible mushroom Boletus edulis have occasionally been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate whether separate allergens may be detected in alimentary allergy to Boletus edulis. Sera of two subjects, one with recurrent anaphylaxis and the other with a predominantly oral allergy syndrome following ingestion of Boletus edulis, have been analysed by a time-course digestion assay using simulated gastric fluid and by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting. Sera of four Boletus edulis skin prick test-negative subjects and all without clinical symptoms to ingested Boletus edulis served as controls. In lyophilized Boletus edulis extract, at least four water-soluble proteins were detected, the most reactive at 55 kDa and at 80 kDa. Following the time-course digestion assay, IgE binding was found to a 75-kDa protein, but only if the sera of the subject with recurrent anaphylaxis was used. The data indicate that Boletus edulis can cause an IgE-mediated food allergy due to a digestion-stabile protein at 75 kDa. No IgE immune response to this protein was detected in the serum of a subject with respiratory allergy and oral allergy syndrome to Boletus edulis nor in control sera.

  11. Fruiting efficiency in Dacryodes edulis (G.Don): A case study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruiting efficiency in 2 varieties of Dacryodes edulis were investigated between 2004 to 2007 in Ekpoma. The influence of variety on fruiting efficiency and abortion rate of gynoecium per inflorescence was determined. D. edulis had a regular fruiting pattern with no interannual variability. The mean fruiting efficiency per ...

  12. Differing effects of eelgrass Zostera marina on recruitment and growth of associated blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusch, B.H.T.

    1998-01-01

    I studied the effects of habitat structure, provided by an eelgrass Zostera marina canopy, on shell growth rate and recruitment of co-occurring blue mussels Mytilus edulis in the Western Baltic Sea. M. edulis in clumps consisting of 10 and 30 individuals were tagged and placed in unvegetated areas

  13. Effects of Catha edulis on kidney and liver function among chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Catha edulis chewing is common in Kenya and is a daily activity in Meru. According to the National Authority for the Campaign against Alcohol and Drug Abuse (NACADA) 2012 drug-use study, there are 1.6 million Catha edulis users in Kenya. The habit of khat chewing is widespread with a deep-rooted ...

  14. Phytochemical Profile, Chemotaxonomic Studies, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Two Endemisms from Madeira Archipelago: Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Vítor; Castilho, Paula C

    2016-10-01

    Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis (Apiaceae) are two endemic plants from Madeira archipelago, phytochemical compositions of which remains little explored, despite their use in folk medicine. Using liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry analysis, their polyphenolic profile was established for the first time. Fifty-six compounds were identified with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-O-(malonyl)hexoside, luteolin diacetyl, and quercetin-O-hexoside being the major constituents in the leaves of both plant species (≥ 0.76 mg/g of dry extract). Principal component analysis provided a suitable tool to differentiate targeted plants. Naringenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentosylhexoside, and 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid can be used as discriminatory taxonomic/geographical markers for M. edulis subspecies from Madeira and Porto Santo populations. This methodology of using polyphenols as chemotaxonomic markers proved to be useful for identification of plant species since the results are consistent with previous taxonomical data. The free-radical scavenging activities of the M. decipiens extracts proved to be higher than those of M. edulis, which correlated well with their phenolic content (R 2  > 0.906). © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  15. First report of phytochelatins in a mushroom: induction of phytochelatins by metal exposure in Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Hansen, Christian; Pedersen, Sindre A; Andersen, Rolf A; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2007-01-01

    Some species of macromycetes (mushrooms) consistently are found to contain high concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), and consumption of wild-growing mushrooms is acknowledged as a significant source for Cd and Hg in humans. Yet little is known about the speciation of Cd and Hg in mushroom tissues. Here we present the first evidence of peptides of the phytochelatin family being responsible for binding a large fraction of Cd in caps of the macromycete Boletus edulis exposed to excess metals. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg, as well as cytosolic Cd-binding capacity (CCBC), glutathione (GSH) and free proline (Pro) were quantified in fruiting bodies of B. edulis differentially exposed to a wide range of metals. Metal distribution among cytosolic compounds were investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by metal determinations with atomic absorption chromatography (AAS) and HR-ICP-MS. Cd-binding compounds in SEC elutates were investigated further by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). CCBC was >90 times higher in the exposed group relative to the reference group (Mann-Whitney's P < 0.001), whereas concentrations of free Pro were almost identical for the two groups. For the whole study selection, CCBC correlated positively with metal exposure (Spearman's P < 0.001 for all four metals), suggesting dose-dependent induction of Cd-binding compounds by exposure to these metals, possibly as a defense mechanism. The presence of phytochelatins (PCs), a family of cystein-rich oligopeptides, was confirmed in Cd-containing SEC fractions by HPLC-MS. The appearance of more complex PCs was coupled to declining concentrations of GSH. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating the presence of PCs in a macromycete.

  16. The Chloroplast Genome ofPassiflora edulis(Passifloraceae) Assembled from Long Sequence Reads: Structural Organization and Phylogenomic Studies in Malpighiales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauz-Santos, Luiz A; Munhoz, Carla F; Rodde, Nathalie; Cauet, Stephane; Santos, Anselmo A; Penha, Helen A; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Varani, Alessandro M; Oliveira, Giancarlo C X; Bergès, Hélène; Vieira, Maria Lucia C

    2017-01-01

    The family Passifloraceae consists of some 700 species classified in around 16 genera. Almost all its members belong to the genus Passiflora . In Brazil, the yellow passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis ) is of considerable economic importance, both for juice production and consumption as fresh fruit. The availability of chloroplast genomes (cp genomes) and their sequence comparisons has led to a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within plant taxa. In this study, we obtained the complete nucleotide sequence of the P. edulis chloroplast genome, the first entirely sequenced in the Passifloraceae family. We determined its structure and organization, and also performed phylogenomic studies on the order Malpighiales and the Fabids clade. The P. edulis chloroplast genome is characterized by the presence of two copies of an inverted repeat sequence (IRA and IRB) of 26,154 bp, each separating a small single copy region of 13,378 bp and a large single copy (LSC) region of 85,720 bp. The annotation resulted in the identification of 105 unique genes, including 30 tRNAs, 4 rRNAs, and 71 protein coding genes. Also, 36 repetitive elements and 85 SSRs (microsatellites) were identified. The structure of the complete cp genome of P. edulis differs from that of other species because of rearrangement events detected by means of a comparison based on 22 members of the Malpighiales. The rearrangements were three inversions of 46,151, 3,765 and 1,631 bp, located in the LSC region. Phylogenomic analysis resulted in strongly supported trees, but this could also be a consequence of the limited taxonomic sampling used. Our results have provided a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships in the Malpighiales and the Fabids, confirming the potential of complete chloroplast genome sequences in inferring evolutionary relationships and the utility of long sequence reads for generating very accurate biological information.

  17. Aspectos morfo-anatômicos do embrião de Euterpe precatoria Mart. durante o processo germinativo Morphological and anatomical studies on germinating seeds of Euterpe precatoria Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Otaviano Aguiar

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe precatoria Mart. é uma palmeira amplamente distribuída na bacia Amazônica, em terra firme e em solos de várzea. Dos frutos obtém-se o "vinho do açaí" e do ápice caulinar o palmito, que fazem desta palmeira um importante recurso alimentar. Foi feita a descrição morfo-anatômica do embrião de Euterpe precatoria, durante o processo germinativo, possibilitando o entendimento do mesmo. As observações foram realizadas em microscopio óptico, a partir de cortes histológicos de secções longitudinais e transversais da semente em diversos estádios da germinação. O eixo embrionário é curvo. No início da germinação, forma-se externamente o botão cotiledonar contendo a futura planta. A radícula emerge primeiro, apresentando coifa bem desenvolvida, desenvolvendo-se mais rapidamente que a plúmula. O processo de formação das primeiras folhas é contínuo. À medida que o embrião se desenvolve, a região distal aumenta de tamanho, formando o haustório e ocupando o lugar do endosperma.Euterpe precatoria is a palm tree widespread in Amazon basin, in terra firme and várzea sites. The fruit is used for the production of Açaí wine, and the sten apex for the production of palm hearts (palmito, which are an important food source. Different stages of germinated açaí seed were studied in longitudinal and transversal sections, under a optical microscope. The embryonic axis is curved. In the early stages of germination, the integument is displaced, forming the cotyledonal bud and the future plant. The radicle emerges first, with a well developed root cap and develops faster than the plumula. The process of formation of the first leaves is continuous. As the embryo is developing, the distal region increases in size, forming the haustorium and occupying the place of the endosperm.

  18. Comportamento fisiológico de sementes de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submetidas à desidratação Physiology behavior of Euterpe oleracea seeds submitted to desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walnice Maria Oliveira do Nascimento

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, objetivando verificar os efeitos imediatos da desidratação sobre o comportamento fisiológico das sementes de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart., utilizou lote oriundo de população de 25 progênies de meio-irmãos, pertencente à Coleção de Germoplasma da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental (Belém/PA. Anteriormente à secagem, foi determinado o grau de umidade das sementes e coletado o tratamento que continha o maior grau de umidade (45%. As demais sementes foram submetidas à secagem, em câmara com circulação de ar (30ºC±2ºC, visando à obtenção dos demais tratamentos com 39%, 33%, 27%, 22% e 15% de água. O efeito da desidratação sobre a qualidade das sementes foi avaliado através das seguintes determinações: grau de umidade, teste de germinação, índice de velocidade de emergência e emergência de plântulas. Foi verificado que a desidratação até 39% de água não produz efeitos fisiológicos imediatos sobre as sementes de açaí; a partir de 33% de água, a dessecação favorece progressivamente a redução da germinação e, ao atingir 15% de água, a capacidade germinativa foi anulada.The objective of this article was to verify the physiological effects of desiccation of Euterpe oleracea Mart. seeds. Açai palm seeds from twenty five progenies from the germoplasm collection of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental (Belém, State of Pará, Brazil were used. Before the desiccation, it was determined the moisture content of the lot and it was removed the treatment with the highest moisture content (45%. The other seeds of the lot were submitted to drying in a chamber with air circulation at 30±2ºC aiming to reach the treatments at 39%, 33%, 27%, 22% and 15% of water. The effects of dehydration were evaluated by means of the following determinations: moisture content, germination test, speed and emergency of seedlings. It was concluded that the desiccation to 39% moisture content does not affect the physiology of

  19. Phenotypic distance among assai palm’s mother plants (Euterpe oleracea Mart. from Eastern Amazon

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    Rosemiro Santos Galate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The açai palm tree (Euterpe oleracea Mart. is native to the Amazonian estuary. Media revelation of the nutraceutical properties of açai palm has resulted in its introduction in the national and international markets, consequently increasing the açai palm crop area in the Amazon. Nevertheless, açai palm cultivation is performed in a rational manner, because of limited product extraction from the native açai palm varieties. The study aimed to conduct a preliminary estimate of genetic variability, parameters, and phenotypic divergence of parent açai palms. Data from 129 parent plants from northeast Pará was collected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA of 22 morphoagronomic traits was performed to estimate the genetic parameters. Divergence was estimated using standardized average euclidean distance by using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA and Tocher clustering methods. Significant variance was noted in 77.3% traits (ANOVA, p<0.01 and p<0.05; CVg/CVe ratio indicated that 72.3% traits may present genetic variability for use in breeding programs. The euclidean distance showed EO-070 and EO-072 parent plants (Combu Island as the least divergent, and EO-010 (Belém and EO-018 (Salinópolis as the most divergent. The clustering methods determined ten (Tocher and nine (UPGMA similar groups. The most dissimilar parent plants were EO-035 (Capitão Poço, EO- 109 (Combu Island, EO-019 (Salinópolis, and EO-010 (Belém (Tocher method, whereas even the EO-010 (Belém; EO-011 (São João de Pirabas; EO-017, EO-018, and EO-019 (Salinópolis; EO-062 and EO-109 (Combu Island plants showed dissimilarity. We concluded that the 129 mother plants have high phenotypic variability, indicating the possibility of their use in genetic breeding programs. Further, the divergent parent plants can be used in the production of genotypes with favorable characteristics.

  20. Identificação e quantificação das antocianinas do fruto do açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart Identification and quantification of the anthocyanins from the fruit of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart

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    Florinda O. BOBBIO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Do extrato aquoso, congelado e liofilizado dos frutos do açaizeiro, foram extraídas as antocianinas e após purificação e separação das duas principais frações as mesmas foram identificadas usando métodos químicos, espectroscópicos e CLAE. As antocianinas foram identificadas como cianidina-3- arabinosídeo e cianidina-3-arabinosil-arabinosídeo. O teor de antocianinas totais no caso do fruto do açaizeiro foi determinado e o valor encontrado foi de 263mg/100g casca.From the liophylized commercialy frozen extract of the fruit of Euterpes oleracea (açaí two anthocyanins were isolated and identified as cianidin-3-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-arabinosylarabinoside. The percentage of total anthocyanins in the peels of the fruits was 263 mg/100g peel.

  1. Fungos conidiais em Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro na Ilha do Combu, Pará-Brasil Conidial Fungi on Euterpe oleracea Mart. on Combu Island, Pará, Brazil

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    Carla Corrêa de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de fungos conidiais (hyphomycetes associados à decomposição de material vegetal morto de Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro na Área de Proteção Ambiental da ilha do Combu, município de Belém, Pará. Entre agosto de 2008 e abril de 2009, foram coletadas partes em decomposição de palmeiras de E. oleracea e mantidas em câmara-úmida durante sete dias. As estruturas reprodutivas dos fungos foram retiradas e montadas em lâminas semipermanentes para o estudo morfológico em microscopia óptica. O presente trabalho contém descrições, comentários, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações dos novos registros para o Brasil. Como resultados deste estudo foram identificados 45 táxons de hifomicetos. Todos são novos registros para a área de estudo, destes 11 representam novos registro para o Brasil e 12 para a Amazônia brasileira.The objective of this study was look for conidial fungi (hyphomycetes associated with decomposing, dead vegetative material of Euterpe oleracea Mart. collected on Combu Island (Belém, Pará, an environmentally protected area. From August 2008 to April 2009, decomposing parts of E. oleracea were collected and kept in a moist chamber for seven days. Somatic and reproductive fungal structures were extracted from the substrate and mounted on semi-permanent slides for morphological study using optical microscopy. This paper includes descriptions, comments, geographical distributions and illustrations of new records for Brazil. All these records are new for the study area, 11 are new records for Brazil, and 12 are new for the Brazilian Amazon.

  2. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on Euterpe oleracea mart. (açaí seedlings Efeitos da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em mudas de Euterpe oleracea mart. (açaí

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    Elizabeth Ying Chu

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of verifying the response of Euterpe oleracea seedlings to seven arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, an experimental trial was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Seeds of E. oleracea were sown in carbonized rice husk. Germinating seeds were initially transferred to plastic cups, containing fumigated Reddish Yellow Quartz Sand and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Two months later, seedlings were transferred to 2 kg black plastic bags, containing the same soil without fumigation. Plant growth and mineral nutrients were evaluated nine months after mycorrhizal inoculation. Differential effects were observed among the species tested, with Scutellispora gilmorei being the most effective ones in promoting growth and nutrient content of E. oleracea seedlings. The increment resulted from inoculation with S. gilmorei were 92% in total plant height, 116% in stem diameter, 361% in dry matter production, 191% in N, 664% in P, 46% in K, 562% in Ca, 363% in Mg and 350% in Zn contents, comparing to uninoculated controls. Infected root length was positively correlated to nutrient content and plant growth. It was concluded that growth and nutrient uptake of E. oleracea seedlings could be significantly improved by inoculation of effective arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.Com objetivo de verificar a resposta das plântulas de Euterpe oleracea Mart. à inoculação de sete espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Sementes de E. oleracea germinadas em casca de arroz carbonizada foram inicialmente transferidas para copos de plástico contendo Areia Quartzosa Vermelho-Amarela fumigada, e nelas inoculados fungos micorrízicos arbusculares. Dois meses depois, as plântulas foram repassadas para sacos de plástico preto contendo o mesmo solo, sem fumigação. Foram avaliados o crescimento e a nutrição mineral das plantas nove meses após a inoculação. Efeitos diferenciados

  3. Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory- and field-cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia

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    H. A. Kennedy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mg/Ca ratios of biogenic calcite is commonly seen as a valuable palaeo-proxy for reconstructing past ocean temperatures. The temperature dependence of Mg/Ca ratios in bivalve calcite has been the subject of contradictory observations. The palaeoceanographic use of a geochemical proxy is dependent on initial, rigorous calibration and validation of relationships between the proxy and the ambient environmental variable to be reconstructed. Shell Mg/Ca ratio data are reported for the calcite of two bivalve species, Mytilus edulis (common mussel and Pecten maximus (king scallop, which were grown in laboratory culturing experiments at controlled and constant aquarium seawater temperatures over a range from ~10 to ~20°C. Furthermore, Mg/Ca ratio data of laboratory- and field-grown M. edulis specimens were compared. Only a weak, albeit significant, shell Mg/Ca ratio–temperature relationship was observed in the two bivalve species: M. edulis (r2=0.37, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens and r2=0.50, p0.001 for field-cultured specimens and P. maximus (r2=0.21, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens only. In the two species, shell Mg/Ca ratios were not found to be controlled by shell growth rate or salinity. The Mg/Ca ratios in the shells exhibited a large degree of variability among and within species and individuals. The results suggest that the use of bivalve calcite Mg/Ca ratios as a temperature proxy is limited, at least in the species studied to date. Such limitations are most likely due to the presence of physiological effects on Mg incorporation in bivalve calcite. The utilization is further limited by the great variability both within and among shells of the same species that were precipitated under the same ambient conditions.

  4. Enzyme characterisation, isolation and cDNA cloning of polyphenol oxidase in the hearts of palm of three commercially important species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Milton Massao; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Brombini Dos Santos, Adriana; Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Araújo, Pedro; Magalhães Silva Moura, Jullyana Cristina; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Heart of palm (palmito) is the edible part of the apical meristem of palms and is considered a gourmet vegetable. Palmitos from the palms Euterpe edulis (Juçara) and Euterpe oleracea (Açaí) oxidise after harvesting, whereas almost no oxidation is observed in palmitos from Bactris gasipaes (Pupunha). Previous investigations showed that oxidation in Juçara and Açaí was mainly attributable to polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.14.18.1) activity. In this study, we partially purified PPOs from these three palmitos and analysed them for SDS activation, substrate specificity, inhibition by specific inhibitors, thermal stability, optimum pH and temperature conditions, Km and Ki. In addition, the total phenolic content and chlorogenic acid content were determined. Two partial cDNA sequences were isolated and sequenced from Açaí (EoPPO1) and Juçara (EePPO1). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR expression assays showed that Açaí and Juçara PPOs were strongly expressed in palmitos and weakly expressed in leaves. No amplification was observed for Pupunha samples. The lack of oxidation in the palmito Pupunha might be explained by the low PPO expression, low enzyme activity or the phenolic profile, particularly the low content of chlorogenic acid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrient composition of Dacryodes edulis seed and seed coat mixture

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    C.U. OGUNKA-NNOKA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nutrient composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, proximate, and vitamin compositions were evaluated using standard methods. Saponins were very high, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins were high, while terpenoids were low, and glycosides, aldehydes, and steroids were absent. The quantitative phytochemical determination followed the order; saponin > kaempferol > rutin > catechin > tannin > sapogenin > lunamarine > phenol > ribalinidine > anthocyanin > oxalate > phytate. For the proximate composition, carbohydrates had the highest concentration, followed by lipids and fibre, while, protein concentration was the lowest. Vitamin E (5.42 mg/100g, vitamin C (3.24 mg/100g, and vitamin A (2.84 mg/100g were the highest occurring constituent vitamins while vitamin B12 (0.035 mg/100g and vitamin B2 (0.075 mg/100g were the least occurring vitamins. This study has shown the rich phytochemical composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture while showing deficiencies in proteins, distinct vitamins, and ash contents.

  6. Estudio farmacoquímico de extractos acuosos de Passiflora alata Dryander y Passiflora edulis Sim

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Fernanda de; Petry, Raquel D.; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gosmann, Grace; Quevedo, Joâo; Salgueiro, Jennifer B.; Kapczinski, Flávio; González Ortega, George; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Se realizaron estudios farmacológicos y químicos de extractos acuosos estandarizados de hojas de P. alata y P. edulis. Los resultados fitoquímicos mostraron que el extracto acuoso de hojas de P. edulis contiene el doble de flavonoides que el extracto de P. alata. La comparación cromatográfica de los extractos de P. alata y P. edulis demostró que la composición en flavonoides y saponinas es distinta. Los resultados farmacológicos mostraron que los extractos de P. alata en dosis de 100 y 150 mg...

  7. Effects of chemical contaminants on growth, age-structure, and reproduction of Mytilus edulis complex from Puget sound, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagley, Anna N; Kardong, Kyle E; Snider, Robert G; Casillas, Edmundo

    2014-07-01

    Bivalves are used as sentinel species to detect chemical contaminants in the marine environment, but biological effects on indigenous populations that result from chemical exposure are largely unknown. We assessed age-weight, length-weight relationships, age structure, and reproductive status (i.e. fecundity, egg size) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis complex from six sites in central Puget Sound, Washington, and one site in the relatively pristine area of northern Puget Sound. Results of this study suggest that mussels from urban areas of Puget Sound exhibit a lower growth rate, altered population age-structure, and potential reproductive impairment as a result of exposure to chemical contaminants. These findings support the use of mussels as sentinel species to assess the biological effects of contaminants on invertebrate populations.

  8. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on agronomy and crop physiology of Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.

    2008-01-01


    Keywords: Development, morphology, plant density, potato, radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, seed size, seed tuber, spacing, stolon, tipping, tuber


    Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew (Lamiaceae) is an ancient Ethiopian tuber crop grown in mid and high altitude

  10. Modelação espacial da adequabilidade de habitat a espécies invasoras: o Carpobrotus Edulis em terreno não dunar

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    César Capinha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SPATIAL MODELLING OF HABITAT SUITABILITY FOR INVASIVE SPECIES: THE CARPOBROTUS EDULIS IN A NON-DUNE AREA. The use of habitat modelling for exotic invasive species can be extremely useful for identifying their potential impacts and for assisting in the design of eradication strategies. Even though the latter builds on theoretical assumptions that are quite different from those involved in the modelling of the habitat of native species, these two modelling methods are in fact quite similar. This article presents a habitat suitability modelling framework for Carpobrotus edulis, an alien invader plant in Serra do Bouro, Portugal. Several land surveys have been carried out in the study area in order to record the presence of this plant. The criteria for recording a presence were that the plant did not show any signs of weakness and that there were mat formations covering at least 5m2. Pseudo-absences were also obtained in a completely random way. The model was calibrated using a binary logistic regression. The performance of this model usually considered superior to that of models that rely on presence data only. Additionally, an evaluation technique based on the minimum area of higher adequacy is also presented. This technique assumes that, for a given probability threshold, model performance is higher whenever it has the same number of correct presences for a smaller predicted area. Using a 0.7 probability threshold, the model correctly predicted 80% of the total presences using only 8% of the study area. The model suggests that the main factor contributing to the expansion of Carpobrotus edulis has been the abandonment of agriculture in the study area. In addition, proximity to the shoreline and above-average erosion potential in the study area both seem to benefit the plant’s expansion. Conversely, steeper and longer slopes, and greater distances from the shoreline, were found to be significant contributors to the plant’s absence.

  11. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of SBP-like transcription factor genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Wang, Yue; Liu, Huanglong; Wu, Min; Chu, Wenyuan; Chen, Danmei; Xiang, Yan

    2017-06-27

    The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) that function in a variety of developmental processes including growth, flower development, and signal transduction. SPL proteins are encoded by a gene family, and these genes have been characterized in two model grass species, Zea mays and Oryza sativa. The SPL gene family has not been well studied in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), a woody grass species. We identified 32 putative PeSPL genes in the P. edulis genome. Phylogenetic analysis arranged the PeSPL protein sequences in eight groups. Similarly, phylogenetic analysis of the SBP-like and SBP proteins from rice and maize clustered them into eight groups analogous to those from P. edulis. Furthermore, the deduced PeSPL proteins in each group contained very similar conserved sequence motifs. Our analyses indicate that the PeSPL genes experienced a large-scale duplication event ~15 million years ago (MYA), and that divergence between the PeSPL and OsSPL genes occurred 34 MYA. The stress-response expression profiles and tissue-specificity of the putative PeSPL gene promoter regions showed that SPL genes in moso bamboo have potential biological functions in stress resistance as well as in growth and development. We therefore examined PeSPL gene expression in response to different plant hormone and drought (polyethylene glycol-6000; PEG) treatments to mimic biotic and abiotic stresses. Expression of three (PeSPL10, -12, -17), six (PeSPL1, -10, -12, -17, -20, -31), and nine (PeSPL5, -8, -9, -14, -15, -19, -20, -31, -32) genes remained relatively stable after treating with salicylic acid (SA), gibberellic acid (GA), and PEG, respectively, while the expression patterns of other genes changed. In addition, analysis of tissue-specific expression of the moso bamboo SPL genes during development showed differences in their spatiotemporal expression patterns, and many were expressed at high levels in flowers and

  12. Molecular identification of a new begomovirus infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca-Vaca, Juan Carlos; Carrasco-Lozano, Emerson Clovis; López-López, Karina

    2017-02-01

    The complete genome sequence of a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in the state of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) has been determined. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B components were determined to be 2600 and 2572 nt in length, respectively. The DNA-A showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (87.2 %) to bean dwarf mosaic virus (M88179), a begomovirus found in common bean crops in Colombia, and only 77.4 % identity to passion fruit severe leaf distortion virus (FJ972767), a begomovirus identified infecting passion fruit in Brazil. Based on its sequence identity to all other begomoviruses known to date and in accordance with the ICTV species demarcation criterion for the genus Begomovirus (≥91 % sequence identity for the complete DNA-A), the name passion fruit leaf distortion virus is proposed for this new begomovirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bipartite begomovirus affecting passion fruit in Colombia and the second report of a geminivirus affecting this crop worldwide.

  13. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of estrogen exposure in mussels, Mytilus edulis, at different stages of gametogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciocan, Corina M.; Cubero-Leon, Elena; Puinean, Alin M.; Hill, Elizabeth M. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Minier, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, Universite du Havre, 25 Rue Philippe Lebon, BP540, 766058 Le Havre (France); Osada, Makoto [Laboratory of Aquacultural Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-amamiyamachi, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Fenlon, Kate [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: j.rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Mytilus edulis were exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and the synthetic estrogens ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and estradiol benzoate (EB) for 10 days. Two exposures were performed to determine their effect on vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor 2 (ER2) mRNA expression at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Significant natural variation was not observed in VTG mRNA expression, though ER2 mRNA expression displayed significantly lower values during January, February and July compared with other times of the year. A significant increase in VTG and ER2 mRNA expression was observed in mussels exposed to estrogens at the early stage of gametogenesis. In contrast, mature mussels displayed no statistically significant change in the VTG or ER2 mRNA expression. The data presented suggests that the reproductive physiology of molluscs, in terms of VTG and ER2 mRNA expression, may be susceptible to damage by environmental estrogens at certain points in their gametogenesis process. - This study concerns vitellogenin and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in a mollusc and is relevant to those studying endocrine disruption in invertebrate species.

  15. Dual transcriptomics reveals co-evolutionary mechanisms of intestinal parasite infections in blue mussels Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feis, Marieke E; John, Uwe; Lokmer, Ana; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C; Wegner, K Mathias

    2018-02-17

    On theoretical grounds, antagonistic co-evolution between hosts and their parasites should be a widespread phenomenon but only received little empirical support so far. Consequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary steps remain elusive, especially in nonmodel systems. Here, we utilized the natural history of invasive parasites to document the molecular underpinnings of co-evolutionary trajectories. We applied a dual-species transcriptomics approach to experimental cross-infections of blue mussel Mytilus edulis hosts and their invasive parasitic copepods Mytilicola intestinalis from two invasion fronts in the Wadden Sea. We identified differentially regulated genes from an experimental infection contrast for hosts (infected vs. control) and a sympatry contrast (sympatric vs. allopatric combinations) for both hosts and parasites. The damage incurred by Mytilicola infection and the following immune response of the host were mainly reflected in cell division processes, wound healing, apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the functional coupling of host and parasite sympatry contrasts revealed the concerted regulation of chitin digestion by a Chitotriosidase 1 homolog in hosts with several cuticle proteins in the parasite. Together with the coupled regulation of ROS producers and antagonists, these genes represent candidates that mediate the different evolutionary trajectories within the parasite's invasion. The host-parasite combination-specific coupling of these effector mechanisms suggests that underlying recognition mechanisms create specificity and local adaptation. In this way, our study demonstrates the use of invasive species' natural history to elucidate molecular mechanisms of host-parasite co-evolution in the wild. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Influence of Organic Material and Temperature on the Burial Tolerance of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: Considerations for the Management of Marine Aggregate Dredging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Cottrell

    Full Text Available Aggregate dredging is a growing source of anthropogenic disturbance in coastal UK waters and has the potential to impact marine systems through the smothering of benthic fauna with organically loaded screening discards. This study investigates the tolerance of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis to such episodic smothering events using a multi-factorial design, including organic matter concentration, temperature, sediment fraction size and duration of burial as important predictor variables.Mussel mortality was significantly higher in organically loaded burials when compared to control sediments after just 2 days. Particularly, M. edulis specimens under burial in fine sediment with high (1% concentrations of organic matter experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (p<0.01 than those under coarse control aggregates. Additionally, mussels exposed to the summer maximum temperature treatment (20°C exhibited significantly increased mortality (p<0.01 compared to those in the ambient treatment group (15°C. Total Oxygen Uptake rates of experimental aggregates were greatest (112.7 mmol m-2 day-1 with 1% organic loadings in coarse sediment at 20°C. Elevated oxygen flux rates in porous coarse sediments are likely to be a function of increased vertical migration of anaerobically liberated sulphides to the sediment-water interface. However, survival of M. edulis under bacterial mats of Beggiatoa spp. indicates the species' resilience to sulphides and so we propose that the presence of reactive organic matter within the burial medium may facilitate bacterial growth and increase mortality through pathogenic infection. This may be exacerbated under the stable interstitial conditions in fine sediment and increased bacterial metabolism under high temperatures. Furthermore, increased temperature may impose metabolic demands upon the mussel that cannot be met during burial-induced anaerobiosis.Lack of consideration for the role of organic matter and

  17. First cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic assessment of Euterpe oleracea fruit oil (açaí) in cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, E S; Tsuboy, M S F; Carvalho, J C T; Rosa, P C P; Perazzo, F F; Gaivão, I O M; Maistro, E L

    2017-08-17

    Euterpe oleracea Mart., popularly known as "açaí", is a tropical fruit from the Amazon region where it has considerable economic importance. Açaí has been used as food and for several medicinal purposes. Despite the widespread use of this fruit, there is a lack of data regarding the safety of using this fruit oil exclusively. Therefore, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic effects of E. oleracea fruit oil (EOO) in cultured human lymphocytes (non-metabolizing cells) and HepG2 cell line (human hepatoma) (metabolizing cells) by using MTT, comet, and micronucleus assays. A wide range of EOO concentrations was tested with a preliminary MTT assay, which allowed selecting five concentrations for comet and micronucleus assays: 2.5, 10, 100, 500, and 1000 µg/mL. The results showed that none of the EOO tested concentrations presented cytotoxic effects. The genotoxic assessment revealed an absence of significant DNA and chromosome damage in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells but did not show chemoprotection against the DNA damage induced by methyl methanesulfonate and benzo[a]pyrene, used as DNA-damaging agents.

  18. ANÁLISE ESTRUTURAL DE AÇAIZAIS NATIVOS (Euterpe oleracea Mart. EM FLORESTA DE VÁRZEA, AMAPÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Jesus Veiga Carim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho analisar a estrutura das populações de açaizais da várzea estuarina do município de Mazagão-AP. Utilizou-se cinco parcelas amostrais de 1ha, subdivididas em 50 subparcelas de 200m2. Todos os indivíduos com CAP 10cm, a partir de 3 metros de altura foram mensurados e estratificados em classes de tamanho. Os dados foram digitalizados no software Excel. Foi analisado as medidas de tendência central e de dispersão por meio do programa BIOSTAT. Registrou-se 545 touceiras de açaizeiros (Euterpe oleracea Mart. com 1.934 plantas e 3.474 perfilhos. Os valores de circunferência apresentaram maior número de indivíduos entre 15,1cm a 30cm, assumindo aproximadamente 58% do total amostrado. Observou-se que, entre 10m e 25m de altura concentraram-se o maior número de indivíduos. A média de touceiras foi de 109 com 386,8 plantas e 694,8 perfilhos para as cinco áreas trabalhadas. Palavras-chave: estuário amazônico, ribeirinhos, açaí. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p45-51

  19. A?ai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Renata Rebeca; de Abreu, Isabel Cristina Mallosto Emerich; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana M?rcia Macedo; Silva, Ma?sa; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eust?quio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (c...

  20. In vitro approaches to assess the effects of açai (Euterpe oleracea) digestion on polyphenol availability and the subsequent impact on the faecal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Alqurashi, Randah M.; Alarifi, Sehad N.; Walton, Gemma E.; Costabile, Adele F.; Rowland, Ian R.; Commane, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    A considerable proportion of dietary plant-polyphenols reach the colon intact; determining the effects of these compounds on colon-health is of interest. We hypothesise that both fibre and plant polyphenols present in açai (Euterpe oleracea) provide prebiotic and anti-genotoxic benefits in the colon. We investigated this hypothesis using a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of açai pulp, and a subsequent pH-controlled, anaerobic, batch-culture fermentation model reflective of the d...

  1. Análises físico-química e microbiológica de palmito em conserva do tipo Açaí (Euterpe oleracea)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Jéssica Fernandes de; Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil.; Ferreira, Ana Carolina; Faculdades Integradas Regionais de Avaré, Fundação Regional Educacional de Avaré, São Paulo, Brasil.; Freitas, Henrique Fogaça; Faculdades Integradas Regionais de Avaré, Fundação Regional Educacional de Avaré, São Paulo, Brasil.; Raghiante, Fernanda; Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil; Martins, Otávio Augusto; Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil

    2017-01-01

    O palmito é usado como alimento desde épocas remotas, sendo atualmente utilizado não só na culinária brasileira, como também na internacional. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da salmoura e do palmito em conserva do tipo açaí (Euterpe oleracea) comercializado na forma inteira ou em pedaços. As amostras foram armazenadas por 45 dias a 4oC, a temperatura ambiente e a 37oC. Foi analisado um total de 360 amostras de palmitos em inteiros (n = 180) e em pedaços (n = 180). ...

  2. Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigler, David S; Pauli, Guido F; Nahrstedt, Adolf; Leen, Rosemary

    2002-08-01

    Leaf and stem material of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) contains the new cyanogenic glycosides (2R)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1a) and (2S)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1b), along with smaller amounts of (2R)-prunasin (2a), sambunigrin (2b), and the alloside of benzyl alcohol (4); the major cyanogens of the fruits are (2R)-prunasin (2a) and (2S)-sambunigrin (2b). The major cyanogenic glycoside of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is 2a; only small amounts of 2b also are present. We were not able to confirm the presence of a cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycoside, tetraphyllin B, in Carica papaya leaf and stem materials. In detailed 1H NMR studies of 1a/b and 2a/b, differences in higher order effects in glucosides and allosides proved to be valuable for assignment of structures in this series. The diagnostic chemical shifts of cyanogenic methine and anomeric protons in 1a/b are sensitive to anisotropic environmental effects. The assignment of C-2 stereochemistry of 1a/b was made in analogy to previous assignments in the glucoside series and was supported by GLC analysis of the TMS ethers.

  3. Bioremediation of waste under ocean acidification: Reviewing the role of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broszeit, Stefanie; Hattam, Caroline; Beaumont, Nicola

    2016-02-15

    Waste bioremediation is a key regulating ecosystem service, removing wastes from ecosystems through storage, burial and recycling. The bivalve Mytilus edulis is an important contributor to this service, and is used in managing eutrophic waters. Studies show that they are affected by changes in pH due to ocean acidification, reducing their growth. This is forecasted to lead to reductions in M. edulis biomass of up to 50% by 2100. Growth reduction will negatively affect the filtering capacity of each individual, potentially leading to a decrease in bioremediation of waste. This paper critically reviews the current state of knowledge of bioremediation of waste carried out by M. edulis, and the current knowledge of the resultant effect of ocean acidification on this key service. We show that the effects of ocean acidification on waste bioremediation could be a major issue and pave the way for empirical studies of the topic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides extracted from Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anqiang; Xiao, Nannan; He, Pengfei; Sun, Peilong

    2011-12-01

    Boletus edulis is a well-known delicious mushroom. In this study, three crude polysaccharides (BEPF30, BEPF60 and BEPF80) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of B. edulis with boiling water. Chemical and physical characteristics of the three crude polysaccharides were investigated by the combination of chemical and instrumental analysis methods. Their antioxidant activities were investigated in vitro systems including hydroxyl assay, superoxide radical assay, reducing power and chelating activity. Among these three polysaccharides, BEPF60 showed more significant reducing power and chelating activity; and highest inhibitory effects on superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical. These results indicated that polysaccharides extracted from B. edulis might be employed as ingredients in healthy and functional food to alleviate the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Soluble dietary fiber from Canna edulis Ker by-product and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Wu

    2013-01-30

    Using Canna edulis Ker by-product as raw materials, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared using six different methods, including chemical, physical-chemical, enzymatic, physical-enzymatic, chemical-enzymatic and physical-chemical-enzymatic methods. As main component in the C. edulis by-product composed of cellulose, glucose converts to other single sugars, which form a series of compounds in the SDF. The treated methods have impact effects on single sugar composition, metal ion content, molecular size distribution, chemical bonds and groups in the structure, thermal property and color of the final product. In view of security, high yield and homogeneity as well as good thermal stability of final product, physical-enzymatic method will be a best choice for the production of SDF from C. edulis by-product. The SDF obtained can be used as dietary supplement and additive in the food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polifenoles y Actividad Antioxidante del Fruto Liofilizado de Palma Naidi (Açai Colombiano (Euterpe oleracea Mart Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of the Freeze-Dried Palm Naidi (Colombian Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Alberto Rojano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleracea es una palmera indígena autóctona de América del Sur. El fruto conocido como açaí en Brasil y palma naidi en Colombia, es de gran valor económico para los pueblos nativos. Para los análisis se usó una pulpa liofilizada, proveniente del Pacifico colombiano. Entre los muchos hallazgos, se presenta un alto porcentaje de minerales (6,94%, específicamente sodio, hierro y potasio. La palma naidi es rica en compuestos polifenólicos, tipo antocianinas (268,5 mg Cianidin-3-Glucosido/ 100 g de liofilizado donde el 95% de las antocianinas corresponden al Cianidin-3-Glucosido (255,1 mg/ 100 g de liofilizado y de otros compuestos fenólicos como los ácidos fenólicos: ferúlico (10,27 mg/100 g de liofilizado, caféico (7,06 mg/100 g de liofilizado, p-coumárico (2,81 mg/100 g de liofilizado y menor cantidad clorogénico 0,30 mg/100 g de liofilizado. Los polifenoles contribuyen a la capacidad antioxidante del naidi; medida por las técnicas ABTS, DPPH y FRAP y específicamente un valor ORAC (Hidrofílico (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity de 98142,0 Micromol Tx/100 g de liofilizado; además un valor ORAC Lipofílico de 3194,1 Micromol Tx/ 100 g de liofilizado. Un valor ORAC total igual a 101336,1 Micromol Tx/ 100 g de liofilizado.Euterpe oleracea Mart is a native palm tree native of South America. The fruit known as açaí in Brazil and naidi palm in Colombia and is of great economic value to the native peoples. For the analysis was used freeze-dried pulp, from the Colombian Pacific. This fruit has a high percentage of minerals (6.94%, specifically sodium, potassium and iron. Naidi palm is rich in polyphenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins (268.5 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside per 100 g of freeze dried and phenolic acid as ferulic (10.27 mg/100 g of freeze dried , caffeic (7.06 mg/100 g of freeze dried, p-Coumaric (2.81 mg/100 g of freeze dried and fewer chlorogenic (0.30 mg/100 g of freeze dried; which provides high antioxidant

  7. Mytilus edulis haemocytes variability: technique, individual, and environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    The widely distributed marine bivalve Mytilus edulis is used as a sentinel organism for ecological and toxicological assessments. As a filter feeder, it has the potential to bio-accumulate pollutants. It has been assumed that the cell concentration and cell type ratio of its circulating immune....... Eosinophils are found in large numbers in epithelial association in the gills, guts and in the mantle, where their numbers have been evaluated at 3x107 As a case study, Mytilus edulis challenged with barium sulphate smothering, used by the oil industry in drilling muds, shows gill damage and their subsequent...

  8. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

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    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  9. Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Annona muricata, Passiflora edulis and nine other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Dzotam, Joachim K; Voukeng, Igor K; Fankam, Aimé G; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells rapidly acquire resistance leading to treatment failures. In the present study, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity of 17 methanol extracts from 11 Cameroonian medicinal plants against the sensitive leukemia CCRF-CEM cells and the best ones were further tested on a panel of 8 other human cancer cell lines, including various MDR phenotypes as well as against the normal AML12 hepatocytes. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin reduction assay meanwhile flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reactive oxygen species. In an initial screening using leukemia CCRF-CEM cells, ten extracts from five plants namely Alchornea floribunda , Annona muricata , Euphorbia prostata , Pachypodanthium staudtii and Passiflora edulis displayed IC 50 values below 20 µg/mL. They were further tested in 8 other cell lines as well as in normal AML12 hepatocytes. All selected extracts were active against leukemia CEM/ADR5000 cells with IC 50 value below 40 µg/mL. IC 50 values ranging from 10.13 µg/mL (towards CEM/ADR5000 cells) to 72.01 µg/mL [towards resistant colon carcinoma HCT116 ( p53 - / - ) cells] for Pachypodanthium staudtii roots and from 0.11 µg/mL (towards CCRF-CEM cells) to 108 µg/mL (towards P-glycoprotein-over-expressing CEM/ADR5000 cells) for doxorubicin were obtained in the eight other cancer cell lines studied. Extracts from Annona muricata leaves (AML) and seeds (AMS), and Passiflora edulis fruit (PEF) had IC 50 values below 1 µg/mL against CCRF-CEM cells and below 10 µg/mL against its MDR subline CEM/ADR5000 cells. AML, AMS and PEF induced MMP-loss-mediated apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells. Results of the present study suggest that some of the tested plants namely Alchornea floribunda , Annona muricata , Euphorbia prostata , Pachypodanthium staudtii and Passiflora edulis represent a source of anticancer drugs. Annona muricata and Passiflora edulis are good

  10. Ethnobotany and ecological perspectives on the management and use of plant species for a traditional fishing trap, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Flavia C; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2011-07-01

    The cerco-fixo is an artisanal fishing trap widely used by traditional communities in the estuarine region of the southern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The primary goal of the study was to investigate, through ethnobotanical and ecological approaches, the use of plant species by traditional fishermen to build the cerco-fixo at Cardoso Island State Park and Cananéia Island. Ethnobotanical data were collected through interviews, direct observation, plant collection and identification, and document analysis. An ecological evaluation was also done comparing five 20 × 20 m plots in a managed area to five 20 × 20 m plots in an unmanaged area, both within arboreal sandy soil vegetation called restinga arbórea, found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. This study involved 34 fishermen living at Cardoso and Cananéia Islands. The fishermen know more than 90 Atlantic Forest plant species that can be used to build the cerco-fixo. Tree species from the family Myrtaceae were the most quoted in the interviews. With respect to the ecological evaluation, the cluster analyses showed greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition (i.e. greater floristic dissimilarity) within the plots of the managed area. The analyses of diversity showed a slightly higher species richness and slightly lower values for Shannon, Simpson, Hurlbert's PIE and Evenness indices in the managed area (59 species; H' = 3.28; 1/D = 10.77; E = 0.80; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.91) compared to the unmanaged area (54 species; H' = 3.39; 1/D = 20.21; E = 0.85; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.95). The Hutcheson's t test showed no significant difference between both areas' Shannon diversity indices (t: -1.04; p: 0.30). These results are attributed to the greater dominance of the palm species Euterpe edulis Mart. in the managed area (28.2% of the trees sampled at this area; n = 118), which equals twice the percentage of individuals of the same species found for the unmanaged area (14.6% of the sampled

  11. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties, and thermal stability of a phytochemical enriched oil from Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Palencia, Lisbeth A; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne; Talcott, Stephen T

    2008-06-25

    Phenolic compounds present in crude oil extracts from acai fruit ( Euterpe oleracea) were identified for the first time. The stability of acai oil that contained three concentrations of phenolics was evaluated under short- and long-term storage for lipid oxidation and phenolic retention impacting antioxidant capacity. Similar to acai fruit itself, acai oil isolates contained phenolic acids such as vanillic acid (1,616 +/- 94 mg/kg), syringic acid (1,073 +/- 62 mg/kg), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (892 +/- 52 mg/kg), protocatechuic acid (630 +/- 36 mg/kg), and ferulic acid (101 +/- 5.9 mg/kg) at highly enriched concentrations in relation to acai pulp as well as (+)-catechin (66.7 +/- 4.8 mg/kg) and numerous procyanidin oligomers (3,102 +/- 130 mg/kg). Phenolic acids experienced up to 16% loss after 10 weeks of storage at 20 or 30 degrees C and up to 33% loss at 40 degrees C. Procyanidin oligomers degraded more extensively (23% at 20 degrees C, 39% at 30 degrees C, and 74% at 40 degrees C), in both high- and low-phenolic acai oils. The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of acai oil isolates with the highest phenolic concentration was 21.5 +/- 1.7 micromol Trolox equivalents/g, and the total soluble phenolic content was 1252 +/- 11 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg, and each decreased by up to 30 and 40%, respectively, during long-term storage. The short-term heating stability at 150 and 170 degrees C for up to 20 min exhibited only minor losses (oil from acai fruit offers a promising alternative to traditional tropical oils for food, supplements, and cosmetic applications.

  12. EFEITO DO TAMANHO DO RECIPIENTE SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE AÇAÍ (Euterpe oleracea Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEIROZ JOSÉ ANTONIO LEITE DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes tamanhos de recipientes sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart., conduziu-se o presente trabalho no Campo Experimental da Fazendinha, da Embrapa Amapá. O estudo foi realizado em viveiro telado com sombrite (50% de sombra, à temperatura ambiente, adotando-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com 3 tratamentos (tamanho de recipiente e 5 repetições de 16 plantas. Foram usados recipientes pequenos (12 x 17,5 cm = 0,8 l, médios (17 x 22 cm = 2,02 l e grandes (20 x 27 cm = 3,45 l. A repicagem foi feita 45 dias após a semeadura. Para avaliar o desenvolvimento das mudas, foram determinadas as alturas da planta, diâmetro do colo e peso seco da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. O tamanho do recipiente utilizado afetou o desenvolvimento das mudas de açaí, sendo que, nos recipientes médios e grandes, as mudas apresentaram desenvolvimento superior ao obtido no recipiente pequeno. Como a maioria dos parâmetros medidos foram superiores para as mudas produzidas no recipiente de tamanho médio e considerando-se a economia de trabalho e volume de substrato utilizado quando comparado com o uso de recipientes grandes, recomenda-se a utilização de recipientes de tamanho médio, na produção de mudas de açaí.

  13. Coletar ou Cultivar: as escolhas dos produtores de açaí-da-mata (Euterpe precatoria do Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Feldmann Martinot

    Full Text Available Resumo: A crescente demanda de mercado por produtos florestais não madeireiros oferece uma oportunidade de desenvolvimento econômico que poderia aliar a inclusão social produtiva de agricultores familiares com a conservação dos ecossistemas florestais. No entanto, o aumento da produção poderá significar a substituição do manejo extrativo das florestas pelo monocultivo, anulando seus efeitos positivos quanto à conservação das florestas. Buscou-se identificar os fatores determinantes que levam os agricultores familiares tradicionais do baixo rio Manacapuru a se engajarem na atividade extrativista ou de cultivo do açaí-da-mata (Euterpe precatória, a espécie nativa do estado do Amazonas. Dado que a coleta extrativa dos frutos é feita mediante a escala das árvores, a decisão de produção parece depender principalmente da oferta de mão de obra masculina jovem, de trabalhadores com a habilidade e força física para realizar essa tarefa. Já a decisão de cultivo pode estar associada à maior disponibilidade de capital financeiro que as famílias obtêm da renda das atividades agrícolas. As famílias que cultivam o açaí mantiveram a prática de coleta extrativa, indicando que o plantio de pequenas áreas de cultivos consorciados representa uma estratégia de aumento da produção sem que necessariamente haja a completa substituição do extrativismo pelo cultivo da espécie.

  14. Embryo sac development in yellow passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, is one of the most important Brazilian fruit crops. It is an allogamous, diploid, and self-incompatible species. It has hermaphrodite, solitary flowers, located in the leaf axils and protected by leaf bracts. The flower has an androgynophore, which is a straight stalk supporting its reproductive parts. There are usually five anthers, located at the tip of each of the five filaments. The ovary is borne just above the filaments, at the top of the androgynophore; there are three styles that are united at their base, and at the top there are three stigmas. The objective of this research was to observe embryo sac development in yellow passion flowers. Ovaries at different stages of development were fixed in FAA (formalin, acetic acid and alcohol solution, hydrated, stained with Mayer’s hemalum, and dehydrated. Ovules were cleared by using methyl salicylate, mounted on slides, and observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope. The yellow passion fruit ovule is bitegmic, crassinucellate, and anatropous, and its gametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. After meiosis, functional megaspores under go three successive mitotic divisions, resulting in an eight-nucleate megagametophyte: the egg apparatus at the micropylar end, two polar nuclei at the cell center, and three antipodals at the chalazal end. The egg apparatus is formed by an egg cell and two synergids, each with a filiform apparatus. The mature embryo sac has an egg cell, two synergids, two polar nuclei, and three antipodes, as has been described for most angiosperms.

  15. (90)Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Glycosidic inhibitors of melanogenesis from leaves of Passiflora edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Koike, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Ayako; Ukiya, Motohiko; Fukatsu, Makoto; Banno, Norihiro; Miura, Motofumi; Motohashi, Shigeyasu; Tokuda, Harukuni; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2013-10-01

    A new flavonoid glycoside, chrysin 6-C-β-rutinoside (chrysin α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-C-β-glucopyranoside; 2), and two new triterpene glycosides, (31R)-31-O-methylpassiflorine (7) and (31S)-31-O-methylpassiflorine (8), along with 14 known glycosides, including three flavonoid glycosides, 1, 3, and 4, six triterpene glycosides, 5, 6, and 9-12, three cyano glycosides, 13-15, and two other glycosides, 16 and 17, were isolated from a MeOH extract of the leaves of Passiflora edulis (passion flower; Passifloraceae). The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Upon evaluation of compounds 1-17 against the melanogenesis in the B16 melanoma cells induced with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), three compounds, isoorientin (1), 2, and (6S,9R)-roseoside (17), exhibited inhibitory effects with 37.3-47.2% reduction of melanin content with no, or almost no, toxicity to the cells (90.8-100.2% cell viability) at 100 μM. Western blot analysis showed that compound 2 reduced the protein levels of MITF, TRP-1, and tyrosinase, in a concentration-dependent manner while exerted almost no influence on the level of TRP-2, suggesting that this compound inhibits melanogenesis on the α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of TRP-1 and tyrosinase. In addition, compounds 1-17 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the EpsteinBarr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Boletus edulis y cistus ladanifer : caracterización de sus ectomicorrizas, síntesis in vitro y área ptoencial= Boletus edulis and cistus ladanifer: characterization of its ectomycorrhizae, in vitro synthesis, and realised niche

    OpenAIRE

    Águeda Hernández, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    El grupo Boletus edulis incluye cuatro especies que poseen gran importancia económica por su valor gastronómico: Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, Boletus pinophilus y Boletus reticulatus. Las Cistaceae son plantas características de las primeras etapas sucesionales, ecológicamente importantes por su papel como reservorio de inóculo de hongos ectomicorrícicos ante perturbaciones ecológicas. Los carpóforos del grupo Boletus edulis son recolectados en algunas regiones de la España Central, en z...

  18. Soil fungal communities in a Castanea sativa (chestnut) forest producing large quantities of Boletus edulis sensu lato (porcini): where is the mycelium of porcini?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peintner, Ursula; Iotti, Mirco; Klotz, Petra; Bonuso, Enrico; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2007-04-01

    A study was conducted in a Castanea sativa forest that produces large quantities of the edible mushroom porcini (Boletus edulis sensu lato). The primary aim was to study porcini mycelia in the soil, and to determine if there were any possible ecological and functional interactions with other dominant soil fungi. Three different approaches were used: collection and morphological identification of fruiting bodies, morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae by rDNA-ITS sequence analyses and molecular identification of the soil mycelia by ITS clone libraries. Soil samples were taken directly under basidiomes of Boletus edulis, Boletus aestivalis, Boletus aereus and Boletus pinophilus. Thirty-nine ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified on root tips whereas 40 fungal species were found in the soil using the cloning technique. The overlap between above- and below-ground fungal communities was very low. Boletus mycelia, compared with other soil fungi, were rare and with scattered distribution, whereas their fruiting bodies dominated the above-ground fungal community. Only B. aestivalis ectomycorrhizae were relatively abundant and detected as mycelia in the soil. No specific fungus-fungus association was found. Factors triggering formation of mycorrhizae and fructification of porcini appear to be too complex to be simply explained on the basis of the amount of fungal mycelia in the soil.

  19. Analysis of passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis: isoorientin quantification by HPTLC and evaluation of antioxidant (radical scavenging capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Zeraik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of isoorientin in passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Degener was determined by HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography with densitometric analysis. The results revealed a higher amount of isoorientin in healthy rinds of P. edulis (92.275 ± 0.610 mg L-1 than in rinds with typical symptoms of PWV (Passion fruit Woodiness Virus infection (28.931 ± 0.346 mg L-1. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of radical scavenging activity, suggest the potential of P. edulis rinds as a natural source of flavonoids or as a possible functional food.

  20. Seasonal light interception, radiation use efficiency, growth and tuber production of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew (Lamiaceae) is an ancient Ethiopian crop that produces below-ground, edible tubers on stolons. It is grown from seed tuber pieces. There is thus far little quantitative information on dry matter production of this crop and parameters determining growth and yield.

  1. Effects of breaking seed tubers on yield components of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, Mulugeta; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis is an ancient tuber crop, cultivated in Ethiopia, which produces stem tubers on stolons below the ground; however, agronomic and physiological information on this crop is scarce. Three field experiments were carried out at each of two locations (Awassa and Wondogenet, Ethiopia).

  2. Optimization of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) seed culture using recirculation aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Garcia, A.; Kamermans, P.

    2015-01-01

    By introducing recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) in the nursery phase of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) (17–18 mm), we aimed at a similar growth and survival and a similar water quality compared to the commonly used flow-through systems (FTS). To calculate water flow and size of the

  3. Population dynamics of subtidal blue mussels Mytilus edulis and the impact of cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, J.; Stralen, Van Marnix; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Herman, Peter M.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Fishery on subtidal mussel beds and subsequent relying on culture plots in the same system is a common practice in bottom mussel culture. We address factors that determine the population dynamics of subtidal blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. and to what extent total (natural plus cultured) subtidal

  4. Seasonal variations in biochemical composition of mytilus edulis with reference to energy metabolism and gametogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandee, D.I.; Kluytmans, J.H.; Zurburg, W.; Pieters, H.

    1. 1. Seasonal changes in biochemical composition in relation to energy metabolism and to gametogenesis were studied in Mytilus edulis for nearly one and a half year. 2. 2. During the whole experimental period animals were selected from samples of the same musselbed in the Dutch Wadden Sea at

  5. Production and refining of Dacryodes edulis “native pear” seeds oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... The suitability of native pear Dacryodes edulis seeds as a source of good quality vegetable oil was investigated. Oil was extracted from the dried seeds by simple solvent extraction process with hexane. Extracted oil was degummed using 0.2% H3PO4 or Na2CO3 solutions, and then bleached with activated.

  6. Seed viability of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. J. Lam subjected to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four hundred and fifty seeds of Dacryodes edulis were extracted from mature fruits obtained from the same source. These were divided into five parts and subjected to five treatments thus: T1: Fresh; T2: 7 days storage; T3: 14 days storage; T4: 21 days storage and T5: 28 days storage. Storage was done at room temperature ...

  7. effects of catha edulis' leaf extract on blood chemistry and kidney

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-06

    Jun 6, 2014 ... edulis leaf extract. Design: Experimental study. Setting: Department of Biological Sciences at the Chepkoilel University College, Moi. University. Subjects: .... antibiotic dosage (procaine penicillin, Unisel Pharma. (Kenya) Ltd) and .... changes denoted disrupted physiology of fluid and electrolytes that could ...

  8. Transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes provides insight into stolon formation in Tulipa edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan eMiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tulipa edulis (Miq. Baker is an important medicinal plant with a variety of anti-cancer properties. The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and possesses a unique morphology. To explore the molecular mechanism of stolon formation, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the transcriptomes of stolons at three developmental stages. In the present study, 15.49 Gb of raw data were generated and assembled into 74,006 unigenes, and a total of 2,811 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected in T. edulis. Among the three libraries of stolons at different developmental stages, there were 5,119 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. A functional annotation analysis based on sequence similarity queries of the GO, COG, KEGG databases showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, such as material and energy metabolism, hormone signaling, cell growth, and transcription regulation. In addition, qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the DEGs were consistent with the transcriptome data, which further supported a role for the DEGs in stolon formation. This study provides novel resources for future genetic and molecular studies in T. edulis.

  9. effects of catha edulis' leaf extract on blood chemistry and kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-06

    Jun 6, 2014 ... Kidney histology of representative control goats exhibited a thick normal Bowman's capsule wall and glomerulus cells (Figure 2, i and ii). On the other hand histology of animals that received daily treatment of Catha edulis leaves' extract (120mg/Kg body weight) showed kidney tissues disruption with thin ...

  10. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, Antioxidant and cytotoxicity test of Carissa edulis Vahl dried fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowsiya, J.; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Plants are the main source of medicine which is used in traditional as well as modern medicine in recent years for curing many diseases. Carissa edulis Vahl is one of the traditional plants which have healing property on diarrhea, toothache and chest pain. The present work aims on phytochemical, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis dried fruits. The different solvent extracts obtained from petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water have been evaluated the presence of phytochemicals. Several assays were carried out like total antioxidant, DPPH, reducing power and thiobarbituric acid to investigate the free radical scavenging property. In addition, the cytotoxicity study also carried out on human lung cancer cells (A549). Among different solvent extract, ethanol exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis on human lung cancer cell (A549) showed IC50 value 405.704 ± 2.42 μg/mL. Therefore, C. edulis could be useful as a potential preventive intervention for free radicals mediated diseases as well as an antioxidant drug in the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Seasonal variability in nutrient regeneration by mussel Mytilus edulis rope culture in oligotrophic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.M.; Strand, O.; Strohmeier, T.; Krogness, C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussel Mytilus edulis cultures contribute to nutrient cycling in coastal ecosystems. Mussel populations filter particulate nutrients from the water column and inorganic nutrients are regenerated by excretion of metabolic wastes and decomposition of (pseudo-)faeces. The objective of this study

  12. The interactions between bed structure of Mytilus edulis L. and the predator Asterias rubens L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    1998-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of asteroids is usually analyzed with optimal foraging models, which assume that asteroids maximize the ratio of energy uptake relative to energy used in the feeding process. The behaviour of Asterias rubens feeding at subtidal beds of Mytilus edulis was studied in order...

  13. A pilot study on the effect of Catha edulis frosk., (celastraceae) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot study on the effect of Catha edulis frosk., (celastraceae) on metabolic syndrome in WOKW rats. ... Feeding with khat leaves reduced the body weight and the triglyceride level of the animals. The effect of KD on these parameters was stronger than that of KL. KD lowered the blood glucose concentration and the leptin ...

  14. Topographic and spatial controls of palm species distributions in a montane rain forest, southern Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Harlev, D.; Sørensen, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    location as factors controlling species distributions in a palm community in a montane rain forest landscape in the Andes of southern Ecuador (1900-2150 m above sea level). Eleven species were present: Aiphanes verrucosa, Ceroxylon parvifrons, Chamaedorea pinnatifrons, Dictyocaryum lamarckianum, Euterpe......). Mantel tests and indicator species analysis showed that both topography and spatial location imposed strong controls on palm species distributions at the study site. Our results suggest that species distributions in the studied montane forest landscape were partly determined by the species' habitat......-association of some species corresponded to their general elevational ranges in southern Ecuador, this was not the case for other species. Based on such considerations, we conclude that elevational climatic gradients are likely to only form part of the explanation for the topographic effects on palm species...

  15. NMR Profiling of Metabolites in Larval and Juvenile Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) under Ambient and Low Salinity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Melissa A; Bishop, Karl D; Rawson, Paul D

    2017-07-06

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) are ecologically and economically important marine invertebrates whose populations are at risk from climate change-associated variation in their environment, such as decreased coastal salinity. Blue mussels are osmoconfomers and use components of the metabolome (free amino acids) to help maintain osmotic balance and cellular function during low salinity exposure. However, little is known about the capacity of blue mussels during the planktonic larval stages to regulate metabolites during osmotic stress. Metabolite studies in species such as blue mussels can help improve our understanding of the species' physiology, as well as their capacity to respond to environmental stress. We used 1D ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 2D total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiments to describe baseline metabolite pools in larval (veliger and pediveliger stages) and juvenile blue mussels (gill, mantle, and adductor tissues) under ambient conditions and to quantify changes in the abundance of common osmolytes in these stages during low salinity exposure. We found evidence for stage- and tissue-specific differences in the baseline metabolic profiles of blue mussels, which reflect variation in the function and morphology of each larval stage or tissue type of juveniles. These differences impacted the utilization of osmolytes during low salinity exposure, likely stemming from innate physiological variation. This study highlights the importance of foundational metabolomic studies that include multiple tissue types and developmental stages to adequately evaluate organismal responses to stress and better place these findings in a broader physiological context.

  16. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olenycz, M.; Sokolowski, A.; Niewinska, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Namiesnik, J.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene,

  17. Effects of coexistence between the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and eelgrass Zostera marina on sediment biogeochemistry and plant performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, H.F.; Norling, P.; Kristensen, Per Sand

    2012-01-01

    The habitat-modifying suspension-feeding mussel, Mytilus edulis, may have facilitating or inhibiting effects on seagrass meadows depending on the environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of M. edulis on sediment biogeochemistry in Zostera marina meadows under eutrophic conditions...... in Flensborg fjord, Denmark. Sediment and plant samples were collected at ten stations; five with Z. marina (Eelgrass) and five with Z. marina and M. edulis (Mixed) and at two unvegetated stations; one with mussels (Mussel) and one with sand (Sand). The Mixed sediment was enriched in fine particles (2-3 times...... significantly reduced at Mixed stations suggesting inhibiting effect of M. edulis on Z. marina. Negative correlations between eelgrass measures and sediment sulphide at Mixed stations indicate that presence of mussels increase sulphide invasion in the plants. A survey of 318 stations in Danish fjords suggests...

  18. QUALIDADE DE FRUTOS PROCESSADOS ARTESANALMENTE DE AÇAÍ (Euterpe oleracea MART. E BACABA (Oenocarpus bacaba MART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO TIMONI BUCHDID CAMARGO NEVES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os frutos do açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. e da bacabeira ( MOenocarpus bacabaart, duas palmeiras tropicais nativas e socioeconomicamente importantes para os estados Amazônicos, são utilizados na produção de polpas processadas em sistemas agrofamiliares. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou a avaliação da qualidade físico-química e funcional de polpas de açaí e bacaba processadas artesanalmente. Os frutos foram coletados em propriedades rurais do município do Cantá/Roraima (bacaba e Boa Vista/ Roraima (açaí. Para a constituição do experimento, as polpas processadas foram armazenadas em pequenas embalagens de politereftalato de etileno (PET transparente e com tampa (mesmo material, com capacidade de 145 mL e refrigeradas a 3 ± 0,2°C e 45% de U.R., durante 5 dias. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: pH, acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS, relação SS/AT, açúcares totais e redutores, pectinas totais e solúveis, teor de antocianinas e fenólicos totais. Ao final, para as polpas de açaí, levando-se em consideração os limites estabelecidos pelo Padrão de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ, apenas o parâmetro AT apresentou-se fora da instrução normativa. Entretanto, a inexistência de padrões para bacaba inviabilizou tal comparação. Quanto ao teor das pectinas totais, pode-se concluir que ambas as polpas apresentam baixas concentrações desse componente, não sendo indicadas para produção de doces e geleias sem adição de agentes geleificantes. Os teores de compostos fenólicos e de antocianinas, em ambas as polpas, apesar de diminuir com o período de armazenamento refrigerado, apresentam altas concentrações quando em comparação a outros alimentos com apelo funcional.

  19. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Biodisponibilidade de ferro do açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) e da farinha de mandioca fortificada com ferro em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Toaiari,Sirlene Duarte Alves; Yuyama,Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki; Aguiar,Jaime Paiva Lopes; Souza,Risonilce Fernandes Silva

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a biodisponibilidade do ferro do açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) e da farinha de mandioca fortificada com ferro, utilizando o método de depleção e repleção de hemoglobina em ratos. MÉTODOS: No período de depleção, durante a lactação, as ratas (Rattus novergicus) e seus filhotes receberam ração à base de caseína (American Institute of Nutrition - 93G), sem adição de ferro na mistura salina, sendo que os filhotes, quando desmamados, continuaram a r...

  1. Genetic variations among passion fruit species using rapd markers Variação genética entre espécies de maracujá utilizando marcadores rapd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Andrade Aukar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been evaluated the genetic variability through the use of RAPD molecular markers on the following passionflower species: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims and its botanical variety P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. In this research work, the analyses of the random amplified polymorphic DNA products (RAPD were employed to estimate the genetic diversity and the taxonomic linkage within the species above. The total of 21 primers were used in this study which generated 270 different polymorphic products. It was possible to detect that the Passiflora species had shown a similarity of 17,3%, and between Passiflora edulis Sims and Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa a similarity of 34,35% has been found. The rate of similarity within edulis specie is low, making it clear that a large variability between the yellow and the purple forms exists.Foram avaliadas as variações genéticas através de marcadores moleculares RAPD, as seguintes espécies de maracujá: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims e sua variedade botânica P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. Neste estudo, a análise dos produtos da amplificação ao acaso do DNA polimórfico (RAPD foi usada para estimar a diversidade genética e as relações taxonômicas entre as espécies. Foram utilizados 21 "primers", que produziram um total de 270 bandas polimórficas. Verificou-se que as espécies de Passiflora apresentaram uma média de similaridade de 17,3%, e entre Passiflora edulis Sims e Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa, de 34,35%. Pode-se perceber que o valor de

  2. {sup 90}Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara [Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute, Maritime Branch, 42 Waszyngtona Av., PL 81-342 Gdynia (Poland); Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology, Gdańsk University, 63 Wita Stwosza Str., PL 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland); Wang, Yuanzhong [Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2238 Beijing Road, Panlong District, 650200 Kunming (China); Falandysz, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.falandysz@ug.edu.pl [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology, Gdańsk University, 63 Wita Stwosza Str., PL 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-02-01

    The {sup 90}Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996–2013. Measurement of {sup 90}Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed {sup 90}Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the {sup 90}Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass in 1998–2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed {sup 90}Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. Concentration of {sup 90}Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. In several other species from Poland {sup 90}Sr was at < 0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. Activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (< 1 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. - Highlights: • Mushrooms are an important food in some regions of the world. • Radioactive strontium ({sup 90}Sr) in mushrooms from Europe and China was measured. • Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus from Yunnan in China accumulates {sup 90}Sr.

  3. Assessment of sedative effects of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa and Passiflora alata extracts in mice, measured by telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nadine; Gazola, Andressa Córneo; de Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro; Schenkel, Eloir; Nieber, Karen; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    Several Passiflora species have been used widely as a folk medicine due to their sedative and anxiolytic activities. In Brazil, a number of native plants of the genus Passiflora exist, but only Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (PE) and Passiflora alata (PA) are of commercial value. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the sedative effects of aqueous extracts obtained from the pericarp as well as from the leaves of PE and PA in mice using radiotelemetry. Aqueous extracts from PE and PA were tested for effects on locomotion over 180 min in 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg, in male C57BL/6J mice after oral administration. For validation of the telemetry system, caffeine (negative control) and midazolam (positive control) were used. All tested extracts decreased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner in comparison to the control group. The two lower concentrations of each extract showed the highest decrease in locomotion after 24 min, while 1200 mg/kg had a significant sedative effect already after 18 min. Interestingly, aqueous extracts of PA were more active in comparison to aqueous extracts of PE and the pericarp extracts of both plants showed more pronounced effects on locomotor activity if compared to leaf extracts. In conclusion, the present study represents an innovative, objective approach to measure sedative effects of plant extracts with minimized handling-related stress and remote data collection. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A HPTLC densitometric determination of flavonoids from Passiflora alata, P. edulis, P. incarnata and P. caerulea and comparison with HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cintia A M; Yariwake, Janete H; Lanças, Fernando M; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc

    2004-01-01

    A high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed in order to determine quantitatively the flavonoids in leaves of Passiflora alata, P. edulis, P. caerulea and P. incarnata. The content of orientin and isoorientin was determined, and the results were compared with those obtained using a quantitative HPLC-UV method. The latter employed rutin as standard and was developed to analyse flavonoid content from Passiflora leaves for the purpose of ensuring the quality of Passiflora phytomedicines. The results obtained using the two methods indicate that there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the flavonoids of the reference Passiflora species studied. The two methods were also employed to analyse commercial samples to illustrate their application in qualitative ('fingerprint') and quantitative determination, demonstrating their feasibility in the quality control of flavonoids from crude Passiflora drugs and phytomedicines. The HPLC conditions used are also suitable for the quantitative analysis of aqueous extracts (Passiflora infusions).

  5. DESENVOLVIMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DE SORVETE DE IOGURTE SIMBIÓTICO, DE LEITE DE BÚFALA ENRIQUECIDO COM POLPA DE AÇAÍ (Euterpe oleracea)

    OpenAIRE

    MONTEIRO, Ranna Catarine da Rocha; VELOSO, Carlos Ribeiro; NERES, Lilaine de Sousa; LOURENÇO JÚNIOR, José de Brito; PACHECO, Evelyn Azevedo; ABE SATO, Suenne Taynah; SANTOS, Marcos Antônio Souza dos; NAHUM, Benjamim de Souza; RIBEIRO, Illana de Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods as prebiotics and probiotics, ensure balanced and healthy intestinal flora and help in preventing chronic degenerative diseases, however, little use is made of these foods because of the difficulty of developing products with attractive sensory characteristics and viable micro-organisms throughout the useful life of the product. The objective of this study was to develop a symbiotic yogurt ice cream enriched with açaí (Euterpe oleracea) prepared from buffalo milk. For the pre...

  6. Clearance rate of Mytilus edulis (L.) as a function of current velocity and mussel aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Vismann, Bent

    2014-01-01

    observed in the experiments with 20 mussels was most likely a result of a combination of reduced current velocity within the aggregated mussels, a current velocity-dependent change of siphon orientation, and attachment of the mussels at current velocities less than 1.2 m/sec, whereas in experiments with 3......The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of water current velocities on the clearance rate of Mytilus edulis when different numbers of mussels were used in the experiments. An automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continually, was used to measure...... the effect of increasing current velocity (0.05-1.4 m/sec) on the M. edulis clearance rate. Clearance rate measurements were performed under constant food concentrations of 3,000 cells/mL of Rhodomonas salina on either 3 mussels or 20 mussels. We found that the clearance rate of 20 mussels was unaffected...

  7. Characterization and identification of field ectomycorrhizae of Boletus edulis and Cistus ladanifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueda, Beatriz; Parladé, Javier; de Miguel, Ana María; Martínez-Peña, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Field ectomycorrhizae sampled under Boletus edulis and Cistus ladanifer have been characterized and described in detail based on standard morphological and anatomical characters. The described ectomycorrhiza has traits typical of Boletales: whitish with three differentiated plectenchymatous layers in the mantle in plan view forming ring-like structures and rhizomorphs with highly differentiated hyphae. The inflated, smooth cystidia-like clavate end cells on the surface of the rhizomorphs and their slightly twisted external hyphae are additional characterizing features. The Hartig net occupies 1 1/2 rows of cortical cells, partly reaching the endodermis. Not all hyphae have clamps. The identification of the fungal symbiont as B. edulis was confirmed by ITS rDNA sequence comparison between mycorrhizas and sporocarps. The singularity of this symbiotic association, as well as its ecological and practical implications, are discussed.

  8. Proteome analysis of an ectomycorrhizal fungus Boletus edulis under salt shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Chen, Hui; Tang, Mingjuan; Shen, Shihua

    2007-08-01

    Soil salinization has become a severe global problem and salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stresses inhibiting growth and survival of mycorrhizal fungi and their host plants. Salinity tolerance of ectomycorrhizal fungi and survival of ectomycorrhizal inocula is essential to reforestation and ecosystem restoration in saline areas. Proteomic changes of an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Boletus edulis, when exposed to salt stress conditions (4% NaCl, w/v) were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. Twenty-two protein spots, 14 upregulated and 8 downregulated, were found changed under salt stress conditions. Sixteen changed protein spots were identified by nanospray ESI Q-TOF MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. These proteins were involved in biosynthesis of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine, glycolysis, DNA repair, cell cycle control, and general stress tolerance, and their possible functions in salinity adaptation of Boletus edulis were discussed.

  9. Detection of Bonamia ostreae and B. exitiosa (Haplosporidia) in Ostrea edulis from the Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcisi, V; Arzul, I; Cargini, D; Mosca, F; Calzetta, A; Traversa, D; Robert, M; Joly, J P; Chollet, B; Renault, T; Tiscar, P G

    2010-02-24

    The flat oyster Ostrea edulis L. is widespread along the Italian coasts. In particular, the Manfredonia Gulf (Adriatic Sea) represents an important site where natural beds subsist. Previous monitoring conducted in 1990 by light microscopy and ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of Bonamia-like microcell parasites in some flat oysters: following this observation, a new sampling of O. edulis was carried out at this location in 2007. Of 750 oysters collected, 3 showed the presence of uninucleated microcells (2 to 3 microm diameter) free or inside the haemocyte cytoplasm by cytology and histopathology. Molecular analysis confirmed that the microcells in 2 oysters were B. exitiosa, whereas in the third oyster the microcells were B. ostreae. Moreover, molecular studies were carried out to confirm the existence of Bonamia sp. in archived samples, confirming the presence of B. ostreae in the Manfredonia Gulf since 1990.

  10. Uji Toksisitas Akut Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Markisa Ungu (Passiflora edulis Sims.) Menggunakan Mencit

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Edo Kusda

    2016-01-01

    Indonesian had known, gathered and used several plants as an effort in order to prevent health problems since a long ago. One of the plants is very famous in Indonesia which known have many benefits is purple passion fruit or markisa (Passiflora edulis Sims). Purple passion fruit peel has antihypertensive activity, an antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria, an also as a color for lipstick. The objective of this study was to determine the safety limit to use ...

  11. New phenyl-ethanediols from the culture broth of Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Qiu; Qin, Xiang-Dong; Shao, Hong-Jun; Fang, Li-Zhen; Wang, Fei; Ding, Zhi-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-04-01

    A new phenyl-ethanediol, (1S)-(4-acetylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (1), and a new natural product, (1S)-(3-ethenylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (2), were isolated from the culture broth of the basidiomycete Boletus edulis together with three related known compounds, 1-(4-ethylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (3), 1-(3-ethylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (4) and 1-(3-formylphenyl)-ethanone (5). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 2D-NMR techniques.

  12. Relationship between oxygen concentration, respiration and filtration rate in blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baojun; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2017-06-01

    The large water-pumping and particle-capturing gills of the filter-feeding blue mussel Mytilus edulis are oversized for respiratory purposes. Consequently, the oxygen uptake rate of the mussel has been suggested to be rather insensitive to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the ambient water, since the diffusion rate of oxygen from water flowing through the mussel determines oxygen uptake. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the oxygen uptake in mussels exposed to various oxygen concentrations. These concentrations were established via N2-bubbling of the water in a respiration chamber with mussels fed algal cells to stimulate fully opening of the valves. It was found that mussels exposed to oxygen concentrations decreasing from 9 to 2 mg O2 /L resulted in a slow but significant reduction in the respiration rate, while the filtration rate remained high and constant. Thus, a decrease of oxygen concentration by 78% only resulted in a 25% decrease in respiration rate. However, at oxygen concentrations below 2 mg O2 /L M. edulis responded by gradually closing its valves, resulting in a rapid decrease of filtration rate, concurrent with a rapid reduction of respiration rate. These observations indicated that M. edulis is no longer able to maintain its normal aerobic metabolism at oxygen concentration below 2 mg O2/L, and there seems to be an energy-saving mechanism in bivalve molluscs to strongly reduce their activity when exposed to low oxygen conditions.

  13. Identification and Antithrombotic Activity of Peptides from Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Qiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis reportedly contains many bioactive components of nutritional value. Water-, salt- and acid-soluble M. edulis protein fractions were obtained and the proteins were trypsinized. The resultant peptides were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. 387 unique peptides were identified that matched 81 precursor proteins. Molecular mass distributions of the proteins and peptides were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The differences between the three protein samples were studied by Venn diagram of peptide and protein compositions. Toxicity, allergic and antithrombotic activity of peptides was predicted using database website and molecular docking respectively. The antithrombotic activity of enzymatic hydrolysate from water-, salt- and acid-soluble M. edulis protein were 40.17%, 85.74%, 82.00% at 5 mg/mL, respectively. Active mechanism of antithrombotic peptide (ELEDSLDSER was also research about amino acid binding sites and interaction, simultaneously.

  14. Passiflora edulis Sims: the correct taxonomic way to cite the yellow passion fruit (and of others colors Passiflora edulis Sims: a maneira taxonômica correta de referir-se ao maracujá-amarelo (e aos de outras cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Bernacci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora edulis, the passion fruit native from Brazil, has several common names (such as sour passion fruit, yellow passion fruit, black passion fruit, and purple passion fruit, and presents a wide variability with the different rind colors of its fruits, which are very easy to notice. However, in 1932, Otto Degener suggested that the yellow passion fruit had its origin in Australia through breeding, calling it P. edulis forma flavicarpa, and that it could be distinguished by the color of the fruit, the deeper shade of purple of the corona, and the presence of glands on the sepals. These distinctions do not support themselves, for the glands are common to the species (although they may be absent, and the corona has a wide range of colors, regardless of the color of the fruit. A more critical ingredient is the fact that the external coloration of the fruit is a character of complex inheritance and is not dominant, thus displaying a number of intermediate colors, making it difficult to identify the extreme colors. For the correct scientific naming of agricultural plants, the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature must be used in conjunction with the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, with the selections with significant agronomic characteristics recognized and named cultivars. In accordance with the international convention promoted by the UPOV, of which Brazil is a signatory, several colors (light yellow, yellow, orange yellow, pink red, red, red purple, green purple, purple, and dark purple can be recognized in order to adequately characterize passion fruit cultivars within the species P. edulis. At taxonomic level, Passiflora edulis Sims must be used for any plant and color of sour passion fruits, in combination with a cultivar name for the selected materials.Passiflora edulis, o maracujá é nativo do Brasil, apresenta vários nomes populares (tais como maracujá-azedo, maracujá-amarelo, maracujá-preto e

  15. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Li, Long; Hou, Dan; Ma, Yanjun; Liu, Jun; Bai, Qingsong; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS)-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis . In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis , and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKC C , MIKC ∗ , Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis . Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15 , an AP1 -like gene, in Arabidopsis , and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis . Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis .

  16. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKCC, MIKC∗, Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis. Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15, an AP1-like gene, in Arabidopsis, and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis. Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis.

  17. Acute and chronic effects of acidic pH on four subtropical frog species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted acute (LC50) and chronic acid tolerance bioassays on embryos and tadpoles of four frog species found in the park, i.e., Chiromantis xerampelina (Southern Foam Nest Frog), Pyxicephalus edulis (African Bullfrog), Amietophrynus maculatus (Flat-backed Toad) and Hildebrandtia ornata (Ornate Frog), using ...

  18. Analysis of C-glycosyl flavonoids from South American Passiflora species by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fagundes, Carize; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Ramos, Freddy A; Castellanos, Leonardo; Duque, Carmenza; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Leaves and fruits of Passiflora species are widely used around the world in popular medicine, mainly as sedatives and tranquilisers. C-glycosyl flavonoids are the main components of these species. To investigate the constituent patterns and to develop a chromatographic method for the characterisation of the C-glycosyl flavonoids profile of the extracts of the leaves and the pericarp of South American Passiflora species. The chemical composition of extracts from the leaves and the fruits' pericarp of Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa, P. edulis var. edulis, Passiflora alata, Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima, Passiflora quadrangularis, Passiflora manicata and Passiflora ligularis was evaluated for the presence of C-glycosyl flavonoids. Two separate HPLC methods were developed suitable for a diode array detector (DAD) and a MS detector. Separation by HPLC-DAD was achieved on a Luna C-18 column, using solvent A (tetrahydrofuran-isopropanol-acetonitrile) and solvent B (H₃PO₄ 0.5%) in an isocratic elution mode. In the HPLC-MS, the components were separated on a Luna RP-18A column by a gradient elution (water-acetonitrile-formic acid). The presence of C-glycosyl flavonoids was identified in leaves and pericarp of P. edulis var. flavicarpa, P. alata, P. edulis var. edulis and P. tripartita var. molissima, but only in leaf extracts of P. quadrangularis and P. manicata and not at all in P. ligularis. The different species and varieties showed different major constituents. The C-glycosyl flavonoids identified more frequently were orientin, isoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin. The methods established are simple and can be used as a tool for the characterisation and quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing these Passiflora extracts. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Väinölä, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in

  20. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historical cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R; Simmons, Mark P; Richards, Christopher M; Reeves, Patrick A; Reilley, Ann; Curto, Manuel A; Meimberg, Harald; Ngugi, Grace; Demissew, Sebsebe; Al Khulaidi, Abdul Wali; Al-Thobhani, Mansoor; Simpson, Sheron; Varisco, Daniel M

    2017-04-01

    Qat ( Catha edulis , Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described in often contradictory historical documents. We examined the wild origins, human-mediated dispersal, and genetic divergence of cultivated qat compared to wild qat. We sampled 17 SSR markers and 1561 wild and cultivated individuals across the historical areas of qat cultivation. On the basis of genetic structure inferred using Bayesian and nonparametric methods, two centers of origin in Kenya and one in Ethiopia were found for cultivated qat. The centers of origin in Ethiopia and northeast of Mt. Kenya are the primary sources of cultivated qat genotypes. Qat cultivated in Yemen is derived from Ethiopian genotypes rather than Yemeni wild populations. Cultivated qat with a wild Kenyan origin has not spread to Ethiopia or Yemen, whereas a small minority of qat cultivated in Kenya originated in Ethiopia. Hybrid genotypes with both Ethiopian and Kenyan parentage are present in northern Kenya. Ethiopian cultivars have diverged from their wild relatives, whereas Kenyan qat has diverged less. This pattern of divergence could be caused by the extinction of the wild-source qat populations in Ethiopia due to deforestation, undersampling, and/or artificial selection for agronomically important traits. © 2017 Tembrock et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  1. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katolikova

    Full Text Available Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME and M. trossulus (MT, co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1 in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2 mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3 in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4 at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been

  2. Le savoir-faire local dans la valorisation alimentaire des fruits du safoutier (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noumi, GB.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Local Know-how in the Valorisation of (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam Fruits in Cameroon. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam (Burseraceae is an oleaginous plant highly appreciated in the forest zone of Cameroon. This tree yields fruits called african pear or safou, highly consumed by local populations and even abroad. African pear is at the centre of a great economic activity in the Central Africa subregion as its trade generates cash for local traders during the production period. However, the valorisation of african pear is hindered by its high perishable nature responsible for important post-harvest losses due to lack of proper post-harvest handling. Some studies addressed the problem, unfortunately, nothing was done on the local know-how which has still to be investigated. The present paper sheds light on african pear local harvesting, handling and marketing practices in Cameroon. Field surveys were carried out in different production zones in Cameroon savannah and humid forest lowlands: Adamawa, centre, east, littoral and west provinces. Results showed that african pear occupies an important place in the population daily life. This multipurpose tree specie appears to be a source of foodstuffs, cash income, drugs and wood. If, on one hand diverse strategies are developed by the population for a proper conservation of fruits, on the other hand there is not a real fruits transformation activity. Results of this study highlight the traditional know-how and bring out prospects for future works on african pear valorisation.

  3. Effects of bark flour of Passiflora edulis on food intake, body weight and behavioral response of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara A.F. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Effects of treatment with the bark flour of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days (130 mg/kg, p.o. with the albedo flour, flavedo and full bark of P. edulis, corresponding to albedo associated with flavedo. Behavioral response observed after treatment with bark flour P. edulis showed sedative effects by the reduction of exploratory activity and increased duration of immobility in the open field test for the group of animals that received the albedo flour associated with the flavedo. Sedative effects were observed in the absence of motor incoordination or muscle relaxation. Food intake of experimental animals was not changed, but the weight gain was decreased both in animals that received only albedo flour, and in those who received the full bark flour. The full bark flour of Passiflora showed sedative effects, without anxiolytic effect detectable and muscle relaxation or motor incoordination, and reduces body weight gain.

  4. A King Bolete, Boletus edulis (Agaricomycetes), RNA Fraction Stimulates Proliferation and Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells Against Myelogenous Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Nunes, Fernando Herminio Ferreira Milheiro; Sawa-Wejksza, Katarzyna; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate the crucial role of natural killer (NK) cells in the prevention of tumor growth and inhibition of their metastasis, which suggests the possibility of their use in cancer treatment. This therapeutic strategy required finding a selective NK cell stimulator that, upon administration, did not disturb organism homeostasis, unlike natural activators (interleukin-2 or interleukin-12). Because the majority of anticancer agents derived from Basidiomycetes are able to stimulate lymphocytes, we describe the influence of Boletus edulis RNA on a human NK cell line (NK92). Our studies showed that a B. edulis RNA fraction was not toxic against NK92 cells. Furthermore, the tested fraction significantly stimulated NK92 cell proliferation and their cytotoxicity against tumor cells. We demonstrate here, to our knowledge for the first time, that B. edulis RNA enhances NK cell activity and possesses immunomodulatory potential.

  5. Capacidade antioxidante e triagem farmacológica de extratos brutos de folhas de Byrsonima crassifolia e de Inga edulis Antioxidant capacity and pharmacologic screening of crude extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia and Inga edulis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darly R. Pompeu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de duas espécies amazônicas em doenças relacionadas aos processos de oxidação, determinou-se a capacidade antioxidante (método Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, o teor de polifenóis totais (método Folin-Ciocalteu - PT, bem como os efeitos farmacológicos in vitro (efeito antiproliferativo e in vivo (antinociceptivo, antiinflamatório, antiulcerogênico dos extratos hidroalcoólicos (65:35; v/v; etanol:água das folhas de Byrsonima crassifolia (BC e Inga edulis (IE. Os extratos de BC e IE apresentaram elevada capacidade antioxidante (1.422 e 694 µmol de Trolox Equivalente g-1 de folha seca - FS, respectivamente e um valor relativamente alto de PT (35,93 e 24,50 mg Equivalente ácido gálico g-1 FS, respectivamente. Essa atividade antioxidante não teve relação direta com o teor de compostos fenólicos dos extratos, sugerindo a contribuição de outros grupos químicos nessa atividade. Em cultura de células tumorais humanas (nove linhagens, os extratos não apresentaram atividade antiproliferativa significante, com efeito citotóxico somente na concentração mais elevada. Em modelo de nocicepção induzida pelo calor (placa quente, o extrato de IE apresentou efeito antinociceptivo (P In order to evaluate the effect of two Amazonian species on chronic diseases linked with the oxidative processes, we performed antioxidant capacity analyses (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity - ORAC and Folin-Ciocalteu - PT assays and pharmacological effects in vitro (antiproliferative effect and in vivo (antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, antiulcerogenic effects for ethanolic extracts (65:35; v/v; ethanol:water from Byrsonima crassifolia (BC and Inga edulis (IE leaves. Both BC and IE extracts showed high ORAC values (1,422 and 694 mmol of Trolox equivalent/g of dry leaf, respectively and high PT contents (35.93 and 24.50 mg gallic acid equivalent g-1 dry leaf, respectively. The ORAC values had no correlation with PT

  6. Influência da posição e da profundidade de semeadura na emergência de plântulas de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. - Arecaceae Influence of the position and the depth of sowing in the emergency of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. - Arecaceae seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Marques da Silva e Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a posição e a profundidade de semeadura mais adequadas para a emergência de plântulas de açaizeiro. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar nas profundidades de 0; 3 e 6 cm e nas seguintes posições: sementes com a rafe perpendicular à superfície do substrato e poro germinativo para cima, rafe perpendicular e poro germinativo para baixo, rafe paralela à superfície e poro germinativo para baixo e rafe paralela à superfície e poro germinativo para cima. A emergência de plântulas de açaizeiro com a rafe perpendicular à superfície do substrato e poro germinativo para cima é a mais adequada, pois proporciona igual porcentagem e menor tempo médio de emergência. Profundidades iguais ou superiores a 3 cm são inadequadas para semeadura de Euterpe oleracea Mart.The present work had the objective to determine the most suitable depth and position of sowing for the emergency of açaizeiro seedlings. The seeds were placed to germinate at the depths of 0; 3 and 6 cm and in the following positions: with the raphe perpendicular to the surface of the substratum and germinative aperture up, the raphe perpendicular and germinative aperture down, the raphe parallel to the low surface and germinative aperture down, and raphe parallel to the surface and germinative aperture up. The emergency of açaizeiro seedlings with rafe perpendicular to the surface of the substratum and germinative aperture up is the most suitable, as it provides an equal percentage and minor average time of emergency. Depths equal or superior to 3 cm are inadequate for sowing of Euterpe oleracea Mart.

  7. HEXANE EXTRACT OFDacryodes edulisFRUITS POSSESSES ANTI-DIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDAEMIC POTENTIALS IN ALLOXAN DIABETES OF RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, Chidinma A; Ejere, Vincent C; Chukwuka, Christian O; Ezeigbo, Ihechiluru I; Nwibo, Daniel D; Okorie, Augustine N

    2016-01-01

    The fruit extract of Dacryodes edulis (D. edulis) , the African pear or plum, a tree indigenous to the humid tropics has been used for managing wounds, skin diseases, sickle cell anaemia, dysentery and fever in some African nations. In South Eastern Nigeria, 'herbal doctors' include its marshed fruit in decoctions administered to diabetic patients. However no scientific substantiation of their claim and use exist in literature. Hence, the need to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic activity of hexane extracts of D. edulis fruit in alloxanised animal model. Sub-toxic doses between 400 and 1600mg/kg were orally administered sub-chronically to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 15 days and compared to glibenclamide (2.5mg/kg). The glycaemia levels, body weights, lipid profile, blood urea, creatinine and liver enzyme levels were measured. Basic histology of the pancreatic tissue was also performed to examine the effects on the pancreas as possible mechanistic lead. Oral acute dosing of D. edulis hexane extract decreased blood glucose levels, while sub-chronic treatment of the extract down-regulated significantly hyperglycaemia, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, ALT and ALP levels. However, the HDL-C levels increased significantly. Histopathological examination of the pancreatic tissues after sub-chronic treatment showed that glibenclamide and the highest dose of the extract 1600mg/kg restored the afore-damaged pancreatic β-cell architecture. Our findings portend that D. edulis hexane fruit extract possesses hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities as well as restoration of the pancreatic architecture without any obvious untoward hepatic damages, suggesting that its use in the management of the diabetes may be valid. List of Non-standard abbreviations: D. edulis = dacryode edulis , DEnH = Dacryodes edulis n-hexane fruit extract, B.wt. = Body weight, Per os = Oral administration, NC = normal control, DC =Diabetic control, SC = Standard control, LDL

  8. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis-Soto, Diego; Blake, Stephen; Soultan, Alaaeldin; Gu?zou, Anne; Cabrera, Fredy; L?tters, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoi...

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red using Carissa edulis extract capped zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowsiya, J; Madhumitha, G; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan

    2016-09-01

    The use of plant extract to synthesize nanoparticle has been considered as one of the eco-friendly method. Additionally, it is a strong alternate for conventional methods which includes chemical and physical approach. In this study, microwave assisted extraction of Carissa edulis (C. edulis) at 70°C and 400W was used to extract the secondary metabolites. Further, the metabolites were used as capping agent and Zn (NO3)2 as the metal precursor to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and HR-TEM were used for the characterization of nanoparticles. The Surface Plasmon Resonance around 358nm from the UV-Vis spectroscopy result represents the ZnO NPs formation. The FT-IR confirms the presence of functional groups that acts as the capping agent for the synthesis of ZnO NPs. The crystalline structure of nanoparticles is revealed in the XRD result, morphology showed by SEM results and the size of the ZnO NPs were predicted by HR-TEM. We have carried out the photocatalytic degradation of Congo red at 365nm in photo reactor using ZnO NPs. The result from the photocatalytic degradation Congo red showed rate constant is (-k) 0.4947 with 97% of degradation. This is our first attempt on the C. edulis extract on ZnO NPs preparation and Congo red dye degradation revels that ZnO NPs exhibit good photocatalytic property. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical Profile and Biological Activity of Casimiroa Edulis Non-Edible Fruit`s Parts

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    Wafaa Mostafa Elkady

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the non-edible fruit parts of Casimiroa edulis Llave et were evaluated for their active constituents and their potential as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. Methods: Fruits peel (FP and seeds kernel (SK of Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex. were extracted successively with hexane and then methanol. Fatty acids were prepared from hexane extracts and identified by GC. Total flavonoid, phenolic acids and tannins contents in methanol extracts were determined by UV spectrophotometer and identified by HPLC. Antioxidant, in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity and antitumor effect against Caco-2 cell line were determined. Results: GC analysis of hexane extracts showed that oleic acid (47.00% was the major unsaturated fatty acids in both extracts while lignoceric acid (15.49% is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in (FP. Total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents in (FP & (SK methanol extracts were; 37.5±1.5, 10.79±0.66 and 22.28±0.23 for (FP; 53.5±1.5mg/g, 14.44±0.32 mg/g; and 53.73±3.58 mg/g for (SK respectively. HPLC analysis of methanol extract revealed that; the major phenolic compound was pyrogallol in (FP and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in (SK, the major flavonoid was luteolin 6-arabinose-8-glucose in (FP and acacetin in (SK. Conclusion: This study showed that non-edible parts of C. edulis fruit is a rich source of different phenolic compounds and fatty acids which has great antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities; that could be used as a natural source in pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Boletus edulis biologically active biopolymers induce cell cycle arrest in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Cardoso, Claudia; Ferreira Milheiro Nunes, Fernando Hermínio; Ramos Novo Amorim de Barros, Ana Isabel; Marques, Guilhermina; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2013-04-25

    The use of biologically active compounds isolated from edible mushrooms against cancer raises global interest. Anticancer properties are mainly attributed to biopolymers including mainly polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, polysaccharide proteins, glycoproteins and proteins. In spite of the fact that Boletus edulis is one of the widely occurring and most consumed edible mushrooms, antitumor biopolymers isolated from it have not been exactly defined and studied so far. The present study is an attempt to extend this knowledge on molecular mechanisms of their anticancer action. The mushroom biopolymers (polysaccharides and glycoproteins) were extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The antiproliferative activity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180) was screened by means of MTT and BrdU assays. At the same time fractions' cytotoxicity was examined on the human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) by means of the LDH assay. Flow cytometry and Western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis and protein expression involved in anticancer activity of the selected biopolymer fraction. In vitro studies have shown that fractions isolated from Boletus edulis were not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells and in the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells. The best results were obtained in the case of the fraction designated as BE3. The tested compound inhibited cancer cell proliferation which was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1-phase. Growth inhibition was associated with modulation of the p16/cyclin D1/CDK4-6/pRb pathway, an aberration of which is a critical step in the development of many human cancers including colon cancer. Our results indicate that a biopolymer BE3 from Boletus edulis possesses anticancer potential and may provide a new therapeutic/preventive option in colon cancer chemoprevention.

  12. Composition, Granular Structure, and Pasting Properties of Native Starch Extracted from Plectranthus edulis (Oromo dinich) Tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellemans, Tom; Abera, Gifty; De Leyn, Ingrid; Van der Meeren, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Eeckhout, Mia; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Van Bockstaele, Filip

    2017-12-01

    Chemical composition, granular morphology and pasting properties of native starch extracted from tubers of Plectranthus edulis were analyzed. Starch was extracted from tubers of 6 accessions collected from 4 different areas in Ethiopia. Particle size analysis (PSA) and cryo-scanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM) imaging were used to examine the granular morphology and visualize the starch paste, respectively. Pasting properties, water absorption, and gelation capacity were compared. A wide range was found for the amylose (14.2% to 23.9%), calcium (216 to 599), potassium (131 to 878), and phosphorus (1337 to 2090) contents (parts per million per dry matter). PSA showed a bimodal distribution containing small spherical (14.6 μm) and large ellipse-shaped (190.4 μm) granules. Major differences were found for the pasting with peak viscosities differing from 3184 to 7312 mPa⋅s. Starch from accessions Chencha and Inuka showed a difference in packing density as clearly seen through cryo-SEM image at 75% of the peak viscosity (PV), and the granular integrity was mainly responsible for the significant difference in their PV and breakdown. Principal component analysis revealed 2 distinct groups: native starch extracted from accessions at the Wolayta zone (Inuka, Lofua, and Chenqoua) and other accessions (Jarmet, Arjo white, and Chencha). The study revealed the potential of P. edulis starch for its application in food industries. However, the inherent variation due to environmental conditions on physicochemical properties of the starch needs further investigation. Plectranthus edulis is cultivated in considerable amounts throughout Ethiopia, which makes it a valuable starch source. Due to its low tendency to retrograde, it could be applied in food industry as an equivalent for the current starch sources. Moreover, the low amylose content makes it preferable for an application in refrigerated foods as this unique quality trait prevents syneresis in end products during

  13. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

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    Jean De Dieu Tamokou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae, is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25-38 m. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v. The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml. Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml. The median lethal doses (LD50 of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05 changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (≥ 200 mg/kg BW, the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities

  14. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  15. Effect of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) Oil on Dyslipidemia Caused by Cocos nucifera L. Saturated Fat in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria E Souza, Belmira S; Carvalho, Helison O; Taglialegna, Talisson; Barros, Albenise Santana A; da Cunha, Edilson Leal; Ferreira, Irlon Maciel; Keita, Hady; Navarrete, Andres; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares

    2017-09-01

    Dyslipidemia is caused by disturbances in lipid metabolism that lead to chronic elevations of serum lipids, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides, increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, atherogenic processes, and cardiovascular diseases. The oil from the fruits of Euterpe oleracea (OFEO) is rich in unsaturated fatty acids with potential for treating alterations in lipid metabolism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of OFEO on hyperlipidemia induced by Cocos nucifera L. saturated fat (GSC) in Wistar rats. Chromatographic profile showed that unsaturated fatty acids account for 66.08% in OFEO, predominately oleic acid (54.30%), and saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid 31.6%) account for 33.92%. GSC-induced dyslipidemia resulted in an increase in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and liver and abdominal fat, as well as atherogenic processes in the thoracic aorta. OFEO treatment did not reduce hypertriglyceridemia, but did reduce total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, thus contributing to the antiatherogenic action of OFEO. OFEO treatment inhibited the formation of atheromatous plaques in the vascular endothelium of the treated rats, as well as those who were treated with simvastatin. The results obtained suggest that OFEO has an antiatherogenic effect in a rat model of dyslipidemia.

  16. Effects of clarification on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Leiliane Teles; de Freitas Cabral, Marília; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcântara; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen Luiza

    2014-11-01

    The effects of a clarifying process using pectinases and chitosan on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice were evaluated. Clarification of acaí pulp resulted (P ≤ 0.05) in a 50 % loss of total anthocyanin (4.2730 mg/100 mL) and 29 % reduction in antioxidant capacity (33.60 μM FeSO4/g). A high association (P ≤ 0.05) was found between the decrease of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin loss. The use of pectinases associated with chitosan as an aid for clarification of açaí juice proved to be highly effective and resulted in a clear juice with a brighter purple to red color that was free of lipids, insoluble solids, and others substances that cause hazes. The obtained clarified açaí juice is a genuinely high-value anthocyanin-rich product that could be used as colorant and functional ingredient to fruit juices and soft drinks.

  17. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rebeca Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart., a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control diet or a high-fat (HF diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  18. In vitro approaches to assess the effects of açai (Euterpe oleracea) digestion on polyphenol availability and the subsequent impact on the faecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqurashi, Randah M; Alarifi, Sehad N; Walton, Gemma E; Costabile, Adele F; Rowland, Ian R; Commane, Daniel M

    2017-11-01

    A considerable proportion of dietary plant-polyphenols reach the colon intact; determining the effects of these compounds on colon-health is of interest. We hypothesise that both fibre and plant polyphenols present in açai (Euterpe oleracea) provide prebiotic and anti-genotoxic benefits in the colon. We investigated this hypothesis using a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of açai pulp, and a subsequent pH-controlled, anaerobic, batch-culture fermentation model reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Following in vitro digestion, 49.8% of the total initial polyphenols were available. In mixed-culture fermentations with faecal inoculate, the digested açai pulp precipitated reductions in the numbers of both the Bacteroides-Prevotella spp. and the Clostridium-histolyticum groups, and increased the short-chain fatty acids produced compared to the negative control. The samples retained significant anti-oxidant and anti-genotoxic potential through digestion and fermentation. Dietary intervention studies are needed to prove that consuming açai is beneficial to gut health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de palmiteiro-vermelho em função da desidratação e do armazenamento Physiological quality of Euterpe espiritosantensis seeds as affected by partial drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele C Martins

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Para algumas espécies com sementes recalcitrantes, como o palmito-vermelho (Euterpe espiritosantensis Fernandes, a secagem parcial favorece a manutenção da viabilidade durante o armazenamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da desidratação e do armazenamento na germinação e vigor das sementes de palmito-vermelho. Dois lotes de sementes (L1 e L2 foram colocados para secar por 0; 20 e 40 horas (três sublotes em câmara seca e armazenados a 15ºC em sacos plásticos fechados. Foi realizado um ensaio em delineamento inteiramente casualizado para cada lote de semente, com os tratamentos dispostos em fatorial 3 x 6 (L1 e 3 x 10 (L2, correspondendo a três tempos de secagem e seis ou dez semanas de armazenamento. A qualidade das sementes foi avaliada a cada seis semanas, durante 30 e 54 semanas para respectivamente L1 e L2, por meio do teor de água (U, porcentagem de germinação (G e vigor (primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação. O teor de água das sementes de ambos os lotes foi em média de aproximadamente de 46; 40 e 36%, respectivamente, para 0; 20 e 40 horas de secagem, sem alterações importantes em função do período de armazenamento. Para sementes não-armazenadas, a secagem reduziu de modo significativo o vigor, mas não comprometeu a germinação. O lote L1 apresentou sementes viáveis em todos os sublotes até o final do armazenamento (G = 71; 61 e 45% para 0; 20 e 40 horas, respectivamente. As sementes do lote L2 apresentaram perda total da viabilidade por volta da 30a.semana apenas no sublote onde foram secas por 40 horas (U = 36%. Nos demais sublotes, as sementes se mantiveram viáveis até 54 semanas de armazenamento (G = 46%. A secagem parcial reduziu o vigor e diminuiu a longevidade das sementes. Com base nos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que sementes de E. espiritosantensis devem ser armazenadas sem secagem, com 45-46% de teor de água.Euterpe espiritosantensis seeds are

  20. Phylogeny of the Celastreae (Celastraceae) and the relationships of Catha edulis (qat) inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mark P; Cappa, Jennifer J; Archer, Robert H; Ford, Andrew J; Eichstedt, Dedra; Clevinger, Curtis C

    2008-08-01

    The phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Celastreae, which includes about 350 species of trees and shrubs in 15 genera, was inferred in a simultaneous analysis of morphological characters together with nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) and plastid (matK, trnL-F) genes. A strong correlation was found between the geography of the species sampled and their inferred relationships. Species of Maytenus and Gymnosporia from different regions were resolved as polyphyletic groups. Maytenus was resolved in three lineages (New World, African, and Austral-Pacific), while Gymnosporia was resolved in two lineages (New World and Old World). Putterlickia was resolved as nested within the Old World Gymnosporia. Catha edulis (qat, khat) was resolved as sister to the clade of Allocassine, Cassine, Lauridia, and Maurocenia. Gymnosporia cassinoides, which is reportedly chewed as a stimulant in the Canary Islands, was resolved as a derived member of Gymnosporia and is more closely related to Lydenburgia and Putterlickia than it is to Catha. Therefore, all eight of these genera are candidates for containing cathinone- and/or cathine-related alkaloids.

  1. Extrato de Passiflora edulis na cicatrização de anastomose colônica em ratos: estudo morfológico e tensiométrico Extract of Passiflora edulis in the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats: a tensiometric and morphologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ferreira Bezerra

    2006-01-01

    comparação ao subgrupo controle (C3, cuja pressão foi 25,4 ± 14,1 mmHg, p=0,028. O mesmo não ocorreu no 7º dia, onde o subgrupo C7 apresentou pressão de ruptura de 187,3 ± 39,5 mmHg, enquanto o subgrupo P7, apresentou pressão de ruptura de 203,0 ± 50,0 mmHg, p=0,447. Na análise histológica, os polimorfonucleares foram mais freqüentes no subgrupo C3, em comparação ao subgrupo P3, com diferença significante (p=0,034. Os monomorfonucleares (MMN e proliferação fibroblástica foram mais freqüentes no subgrupo P3, com diferença significante, onde p=0,02 para MMN, e p=0,001 para proliferação fibroblástica. No 7º dia, houve diferença significante em todas as variáveis histológicas coradas pela hematoxilina-eosina e Tricômico de Masson (pINTRODUCTION: Investigation of new substances with therapeutic effects have been done trying to isolate, extract or purify new compounds of vegetable origin. The Passiflora edulis (maracujá species from the Plassifloracia family, originated from the tropical and subtropical regions of the american continent, is found all over Brazil. It is commonly used as a sedative, painkiller and anti-inflammatory drug and also for the treatment of skin wounds, lesions and Erisipelae. PURPOSE: To evaluate the wound healing in colonic anastomosis in rats that received an hydro-alcoholic extract of Passiflora edulis peri-operatively. METHOD: 40 wistar rats were used distributed into two groups of 20 rats each, named: Passiflora edulis group (GP and control group (GC. The rats of each group were separated into two subgroups of 10 animals each and were evaluated on the 3rd and 7th postoperative days. The surgical procedure consisted of a section of the left colon, 5 cm above the peritoneal reflexion with preservation of the vascular elements. Intestinal continuity was restored by an end-to-end single layer anastomosis. The Passiflora edulis group received an intraperitoneal application of the hydro-alcoholic extract in the dosage of 250

  2. Pulsed counter-current ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Ji, Chaowen

    2014-01-30

    Four methods for extracting polysaccharides from Boletus edulis, namely, hot-water extraction, ultrasonic clearer extraction, static probe ultrasonic extraction, and pulsed counter-current probe ultrasonic extraction (CCPUE), were studied. Results showed that CCPUE has the highest extraction efficiency among the methods studied. Under optimal CCPUE conditions, a B. edulis polysaccharide (BEP) yield of 8.21% was obtained. Three purified fractions, BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III, were obtained through sequential purification by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The average molecular weights of BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III were 10,278, 23,761, and 42,736 Da, respectively. The polysaccharides were mainly composed of xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose; of these, mannose contents were the highest. The antioxidant activities of the BEPs were further investigated by measurement of their ability to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as their reducing power. The results indicated that the BEPs have good antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacology of Casimiroa edulis; II. Cardiovascular effects in the anesthesized dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, H; Magos, G A

    1991-06-01

    The cardiovascular effects of an aqueous extract of seeds of Casimiroa edulis were assessed in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. The extract produced marked hypotension which lasted more than two hours; it was accompanied by moderate and less persistent bradycardia. The histaminergic nature of these effects was investigated in animals pretreated with the specific antagonists diphenhydramine, cimetidine, or a combination of both agents. These experiments showed that both H1- and H2-receptors were involved in the hypotensive response, while the bradycardia was mediated solely through an H1-mechanism. In open-chest dogs instrumented for recording cardiac output (ascending aortic flow), left ventricular contractility (dp/dt), central venous pressure (superior vena cava), systemic blood pressure, heart rate, total peripheral resistance and stroke volume, the extract decreased blood pressure and peripheral resistance and increased cardiac output and stroke volume, without modifying the other parameters. It was concluded that the cardiovascular pattern of Casimiroa edulis in the dog is that of a peripheral arterial vasodilator and that it increases cardiac output by reducing left ventricular afterload.

  4. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

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    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  5. Initial growth of Eugenia stipitata, Inga spectabilis, and Inga edulis in Napo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinicio Abril Saltos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has been one of the causes of deforestation, causing environmental impact and soil degeneration, which leads to lower income earned by farmers; hence the need to implement agroforestry systems .This research aims to describe fromthe initial growth of Eugenia stipitata, Inga edulis, and Inga spectabilis to 320 days after emergence. The study took place at the Amazon Research and Conservation Center of the Amazonas State University, during 2014 and 2015. The growth process was evaluated in regards to plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, and branch length. Plant height and stem diameter were compared over time applying variance analysis. Precipitation was also compared to analyze whether its variations had a direct influence on plant growth. The linear and polynomial models fitted better for thespecies regarding plant height and sprout diameter. Predominance of green leaves compared to yellow and dry ones, as branch length showed significant differences over all the sampling periods. The two-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the correlation between age and precipitation over plant height and stem diameter. The outcomes led to conclude that Eugenia stipitata had a lower growth than both Inga edulis and Inga spectabilis. Branch production and growth and the number of leaves were also important elements of the growth process.

  6. Isolation and N-terminal sequencing of a novel cadmium-binding protein from Boletus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Hansen, C.; Andersen, R. A.; Steinnes, E.

    2003-05-01

    A Cd-binding protein was isolated from the popular edible mushroom Boletus edulis, which is a hyperaccumulator of both Cd and Hg. Wild-growing samples of B. edulis were collected from soils rich in Cd. Cd radiotracer was added to the crude protein preparation obtained from ethanol precipitation of heat-treated cytosol. Proteins were then further separated in two consecutive steps; gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. In both steps the Cd radiotracer profile showed only one distinct peak, which corresponded well with the profiles of endogenous Cd obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Concentrations of the essential elements Cu and Zn were low in the protein fractions high in Cd. N-terminal sequencing performed on the Cd-binding protein fractions revealed a protein with a novel amino acid sequence, which contained aromatic amino acids as well as proline. Both the N-terminal sequencing and spectrofluorimetric analysis with EDTA and ABD-F (4-aminosulfonyl-7-fluoro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazole) failed to detect cysteine in the Cd-binding fractions. These findings conclude that the novel protein does not belong to the metallothionein family. The results suggest a role for the protein in Cd transport and storage, and they are of importance in view of toxicology and food chemistry, but also for environmental protection.

  7. Rehydration of freeze-dried and convective dried boletus edulis mushrooms: effect on some quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, I; Sanjuán, N; Pérez-Munuera, I; Mulet, A

    2008-10-01

    Quality of rehydrated products is a key aspect linked to rehydration conditions. To assess the effect of rehydration temperature on some quality parameters, experiments at 20 and 70 degrees C were performed with convective dried and freeze-dried Boletus edulis mushrooms. Rehydration characteristics (through Peleg's parameter, k(1), and equilibrium moisture, W(e)), texture (Kramer), and microstructure (Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy) were evaluated. Freeze-dried samples absorbed water more quickly and attained higher W(e) values than convective dried ones. Convective dehydrated samples rehydrated at 20 degrees C showed significantly lower textural values (11.9 +/- 3.3 N/g) than those rehydrated at 70 degrees C (15.7 +/- 1.2 N/g). For the freeze-dried Boletus edulis, the textural values also exhibited significant differences, being 8.2 +/- 1.3 and 10.5 +/- 2.3 N/g for 20 and 70 degrees C, respectively. Freeze-dried samples showed a porous structure that allows rehydration to take place mainly at the extracellular level. This explains the fact that, regardless of temperature, freeze-dried mushrooms absorbed water more quickly and reached higher W(e) values than convective dried ones. Whatever the dehydration technique used, rehydration at 70 degrees C produced a structural damage that hindered water absorption; consequently lower W(e) values and higher textural values were attained than when rehydrating at 20 degrees C.

  8. BEL β-trefoil: a novel lectin with antineoplastic properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Cenci, Lucia; Perduca, Massimiliano; Capaldi, Stefano; Carrizo, Maria E; Civiero, Laura; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2013-05-01

    A novel lectin was purified from the fruiting bodies of king bolete mushrooms (Boletus edulis, also called porcino, cep or penny bun). The lectin was structurally characterized i.e its amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure were determined. The new protein is a homodimer and each protomer folds as β-trefoil domain and therefore we propose the name Boletus edulis lectin (BEL) β-trefoil to distinguish it from the other lectin that has been described in these mushrooms. The lectin has potent anti-proliferative effects on human cancer cells, which confers to it an interesting therapeutic potential as an antineoplastic agent. Several crystal forms of the apoprotein and of complexes with different carbohydrates were studied by X-ray diffraction. The structure of the apoprotein was solved at 1.12 Å resolution. The interaction of the lectin with lactose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc, was examined in detail. All the three potential binding sites present in the β-trefoil fold are occupied in at least one crystal form and are described in detail in this paper. No important conformational changes are observed in the lectin when comparing its co-crystals with carbohydrates with those of the ligand-free protein.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of Boletus edulis polysaccharide on asthma pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songquan; Wang, Guangli; Yang, Ruhui; Cui, Yubao

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disease common around the world. The burden of this disease could be reduced with new and effective treatments. Here, the efficacy of a polysaccharide extract from the Boletus edulis (BEP) mushroom, which has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, was tested in a mouse model of asthma. Five groups of BaLB/C mice were developed; one group served as a control and did not have asthma induction. The other four groups of mice were sensitized by ovalbumin challenge. FinePointe™ RC animal airway resistance and pulmonary compliance was used to assess airway function in asthma models. Three of the 4 model groups received treatments: one received pravastatin, one received dexamethasone, and one received BEP. Histopathology of lung tissues was performed using H&E and AB-PAS staining. Levels of cytokines IL-4 and IFN-g were detected using ELISA, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. Cyclophilin A was measured by Western blot, and flow cytometry was used to determine the proportion of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg cells. BEP treatment resulted in improvements in lung pathology, IL-4 level (PBoletus edulis polysaccharide reduces pro-inflammatory responses and increases anti-inflammatory responses in mouse models of asthma, suggesting this may be a novel treatment method. PMID:27830033

  10. STUDIES ON ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS BOLETUS EDULIS AND CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena ZAVASTIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antimicrobial effects of both ethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts of the fruiting bodies of wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis (penny bun and Cantharellus cibarius (golden chanterelle sampled in Poiana Stampei (Suceava county, Romania. The total phenolic contents of extracts were also determined. Boletus edulis hydromethanolic extract showed the highest total phenolic content (72.78±0.29 mg/g. This extract was also the most active as scavenger of DPPH and ABTS radicals (EC50=151.44±0.85 and 65.4±0.4 µg/mL, respectively and reducing agent (EC50=46.77±0.34 µg/mL. Cantharellus cibarius ethanolic extract showed high ferrous ion chelating (EC50=82.9±0.6 µg/mL, 15-lipoxygenase (EC50=236.7±1.5 µg/mL and α-glucosidase (EC50=9.77±0.06 μg/mL inhibitory activities. For both mushrooms, the ethanolic extracts were more active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 than the hydromethanolic ones. The antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects revealed in this study support further investigations for a possible valorization of both mushrooms in the dietary supplement and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Structure of a lectin with antitumoral properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Carrizo, Maria E; Capaldi, Stefano; Perduca, Massimiliano; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2011-08-01

    A novel lectin has been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the common edible mushroom Boletus edulis (king bolete, penny bun, porcino or cep) by affinity chromatography on a chitin column. We propose for the lectin the name BEL (B. edulis lectin). BEL inhibits selectively the proliferation of several malignant cell lines and binds the neoplastic cell-specific T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc. The lectin was structurally characterized: the molecule is a homotetramer and the 142-amino acid sequence of the chains was determined. The protein belongs to the saline-soluble family of mushroom fruiting body-specific lectins. BEL was also crystallized and its three-dimensional structure was determined by X-ray diffraction to 1.15 Å resolution. The structure is similar to that of Agaricus bisporus lectin. Using the appropriate co-crystals, the interactions of BEL with specific mono- and disaccharides were also studied by X-ray diffraction. The six structures of carbohydrate complexes reported here provide details of the interactions of the ligands with the lectin and shed light on the selectivity of the two distinct binding sites present in each protomer.

  12. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Grażyna; Pogoń, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Bernaś, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg β-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw.

  13. Allometric equations for maximum filtration rate in blue mussels Mytilus edulis and importance of condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul S.; Pleissner, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between body dry weight ( W) and shell length ( L) of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, can be expressed by the condition index (CI = W/ L 3) which varies from population to population and during the year. Here, we examine the influence of CI on the relationships between maximum filtration rate ( F, l h-1), W (g), and L (mm) as described by the equations: F W = aW b and F L = cL d , respectively. This is done by using available and new experimental laboratory data on M. edulis obtained by members of the same research team using different methods and controlled diets of cultivated algal cells. For all data, it was found that F W = 6.773 W 0.678 and F L = 0.00135 L 2.088 which are very similar to equations for mussels with `medium condition' (CI = 4-6 mg cm-3): F W = 6.567 W 0.681 and F L = 0.00150 L 2.051, with b- and d-values within a few percent of the theoretically expected of 2/3 and 2, respectively. Further, based on the present data, we propose a correction factor expressed by the empirical relation F W / F L = 0.3562CI2/3 which implies that F W tends to underestimate the actual filtration rate ( F L ) when CI 4.70.

  14. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices of filtra......The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body...

  15. Fibras da semente do açaizeiro (Euterpe Oleracea Mart.): avaliação quanto ao uso como reforço de compósitos fibrocimentícios

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Júnior, Ubirajara Marques

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho investiga pela primeira vez a possibilidade de utilização de fibras vegetais oriundas do subproduto da extração da polpa de açaí, fruto da estirpe Euterpe oleracea, como material alternativo para o setor de construção civil. O estudo envolveu aspectos relacionados à determinação de propriedades da fibra tais como morfologia e propriedades físico-químicas, à produção de corpos-de-prova com diferentes teores de fibra, além de ensaios físicos (massa específica, porosidade apa...

  16. Suplementação da dieta com polpa do fruto do açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Martius) melhora o perfil lipídico e a capacidade antioxidante – uma avaliação in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Melina Oliveira de

    2009-01-01

    O açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Martius) é um fruto tipicamente brasileiro e economicamente importante. Relatos populares indicam um efeito positivo do uso medicinal do seu suco e trabalhos que descrevem sua composição demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos, fibras, ácidos graxos insaturados e fitosteróis, componentes dietéticos relacionados com o controle da hipercolesterolemia e do balanço redox fisiológico. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar in vivo algumas propriedades funcion...

  17. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records...... during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (

  18. Impact of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Riegman, R.; van der Meer, J.

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact of juvenile blue mussels Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the Dutch Wadden Sea, natural sea water was first exposed to mussel filtration. Subsequently, filtered plankton communities were used in a dilution experiment to establish mussel-induced changes in bacterial,

  19. Impact of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the western Wadden Sea, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Riegman, R.; Meer, van der J.

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact of juvenile blue mussels Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the Dutch Wadden Sea, natural sea water was first exposed to mussel filtration. Subsequently, filtered plankton communities were used in a dilution experiment to establish mussel-induced changes in bacterial,

  20. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-10-08

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications.

  1. Comparison of trace metal bioavailabilities in European coastal waters using mussels from Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przytarska, J.E.; Sokołowski, A.; Wołowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Cu at 17 sampling sites to assess the relative bioavailability of metals in coastal waters around the European continent. Because accumulated metal concentrations in a given area can differ

  2. Somatic growth of mussels Mytilus edulis in field studies compared to predictions using BEG, DEB, and SFG models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Filgueira, Ramón; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of somatic growth of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, based on the data from 2 field-growth studies of mussels in suspended net-bags in Danish waters was made by 3 models: the bioenergetic growth (BEG), the dynamic energy budget (DEB), and the scope for growth (SFG). Here, the standard BEG...

  3. Influence of abiotic factors on bacterial proliferation and anoxic survival of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babarro, J.M.F.; De Zwaan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of several abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and pH) on bacterial proliferation and survival time of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L. were studied under anoxic incubations. In addition, the presence in the incubation media of ammonium and the volatile fatty acids propionate and

  4. Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically bound tritium to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C; Bradshaw, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities. Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l(-1)). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined. Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in N. spumigena following exposure. After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the potential for biomagnification. Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the difficulties in using a 'representative' species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium. Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when water-concentrations are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts as a persistent organic pollutant. The

  5. Single, binary and multi-component adsorption of some anions and heavy metals on environmentally friendly Carpobrotus edulis plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiban, Mohamed; Soudani, Amina; Sinan, Fouad; Persin, Michel

    2011-02-01

    A low-cost adsorbent and environmentally friendly adsorbent from Carpobrotus edulis plant was used for the removal of NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions from single, binary and multi-component systems. The efficiency of the adsorbent was studied using batch adsorption technique under different experimental conditions by varying parameters such as pH, initial concentration and contact time. In single component systems, the dried C. edulis has the highest affinity for Pb(2+), followed by NO(3)(-), Cd(2+) and H(2)PO(4)(-), with adsorption capacities of 175mg/g, 125mg/g, 28mg/g and 26mg/g, respectively. These results showed that the adsorption of NO(3)(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) ions from single and binary component systems can be successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Freundlich adsorption model, showed the best fit to the single and binary experimental adsorption data. These results also indicated that the adsorption yield of Pb(2+) ion was reduced by the presence of Cd(2+) ion in binary metal mixture. The competitive adsorption of NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions on dried C. edulis plant shows that NO(3)(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) anions are able to adsorb on different free binding sites and Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) cations are able to adsorb on the same active sites of C. edulis particles. The dried C. edulis was found to be efficient in removing nitrate, phosphate, cadmium and lead from aqueous solution as compared to other adsorbents already used for the removal of these ions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluctuating seawater pH/pCO2regimes are more energetically expensive than static pH/pCO2levels in the musselMytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Stephanie; Urbina, Mauricio A; Findlay, Helen S; Wilson, Rod W; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-10-25

    Ocean acidification (OA) studies typically use stable open-ocean pH or CO 2 values. However, species living within dynamic coastal environments can naturally experience wide fluctuations in abiotic factors, suggesting their responses to stable pH conditions may not be reflective of either present or near-future conditions. Here we investigate the physiological responses of the mussel Mytilus edulis to variable seawater pH conditions over short- (6 h) and medium-term (2 weeks) exposures under both current and near-future OA scenarios. Mussel haemolymph pH closely mirrored that of seawater pH over short-term changes of 1 pH unit with acidosis or recovery accordingly, highlighting a limited capacity for acid-base regulation. After 2 weeks, mussels under variable pH conditions had significantly higher metabolic rates, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation than those exposed to static pH under both current and near-future OA scenarios. Static near-future pH conditions induced significant acid-base disturbances and lipid peroxidation compared with the static present-day conditions but did not affect the metabolic rate. These results clearly demonstrate that living in naturally variable environments is energetically more expensive than living in static seawater conditions, which has consequences for how we extrapolate future OA responses in coastal species. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. A new genus and species of phytoseiid mite (Acari: phytoseiidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Marina Ferraz De Camargo; Rocha, Matheus Dos Santos; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2014-05-09

    A new genus, Ingaseius nov. gen., and a new species, Ingaseius silvaticus nov. sp., Phytoseiidae, collected from Inga edulis Martius and Inga marginata Wild. (Fabaceae) are described from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This species is unique in the following characteristics: females and males with few teeth on fixed cheliceral digit and short Jv5, without J2, Z1 and leg macrosetae. In addition, females lack Jv3 and Zv3, and have a reduced ventrianal shield. 

  8. Expression patterns ofPassiflora edulis APETALA1/FRUITFULLhomologues shed light onto tendril and corona identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Livia C T; Hernandes-Lopes, Jose; Melo-de-Pinna, Gladys F A; Dornelas, Marcelo C

    2017-01-01

    Passiflora (passionflowers) makes an excellent model for studying plant evolutionary development. They are mostly perennial climbers that display axillary tendrils, which are believed to be modifications of the inflorescence. Passionflowers are also recognized by their unique flower features, such as the extra whorls of floral organs composed of corona filaments and membranes enclosing the nectary. Although some work on Passiflora organ ontogeny has been done, the developmental identity of both Passiflora tendrils and the corona is still controversial. Here, we combined ultrastructural analysis and expression patterns of the flower meristem and floral organ identity genes of the MADS-box AP1 / FUL clade to reveal a possible role for these genes in the generation of evolutionary novelties in Passiflora . We followed the development of structures arising from the axillary meristem from juvenile to adult phase in P. edulis . We further assessed the expression pattern of P. edulis AP1 / FUL homologues ( PeAP1 and PeFUL ), by RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization in several tissues, correlating it with the developmental stages of P. edulis . PeAP1 is expressed only in the reproductive stage, and it is highly expressed in tendrils and in flower meristems from the onset of their development. PeAP1 is also expressed in sepals, petals and in corona filaments, suggesting a novel role for PeAP1 in floral organ diversification. PeFUL presented a broad expression pattern in both vegetative and reproductive tissues, and it is also expressed in fruits. Our results provide new molecular insights into the morphological diversity in the genus Passiflora . Here, we bring new evidence that tendrils are part of the Passiflora inflorescence. This points to the convergence of similar developmental processes involving the recruitment of genes related to flower identity in the origin of tendrils in different plant families. The data obtained also support the hypothesis that the corona

  9. Expression patterns of Passiflora edulis APETALA1/FRUITFULL homologues shed light onto tendril and corona identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia C. T. Scorza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passiflora (passionflowers makes an excellent model for studying plant evolutionary development. They are mostly perennial climbers that display axillary tendrils, which are believed to be modifications of the inflorescence. Passionflowers are also recognized by their unique flower features, such as the extra whorls of floral organs composed of corona filaments and membranes enclosing the nectary. Although some work on Passiflora organ ontogeny has been done, the developmental identity of both Passiflora tendrils and the corona is still controversial. Here, we combined ultrastructural analysis and expression patterns of the flower meristem and floral organ identity genes of the MADS-box AP1/FUL clade to reveal a possible role for these genes in the generation of evolutionary novelties in Passiflora. Results We followed the development of structures arising from the axillary meristem from juvenile to adult phase in P. edulis. We further assessed the expression pattern of P. edulis AP1/FUL homologues (PeAP1 and PeFUL, by RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization in several tissues, correlating it with the developmental stages of P. edulis. PeAP1 is expressed only in the reproductive stage, and it is highly expressed in tendrils and in flower meristems from the onset of their development. PeAP1 is also expressed in sepals, petals and in corona filaments, suggesting a novel role for PeAP1 in floral organ diversification. PeFUL presented a broad expression pattern in both vegetative and reproductive tissues, and it is also expressed in fruits. Conclusions Our results provide new molecular insights into the morphological diversity in the genus Passiflora. Here, we bring new evidence that tendrils are part of the Passiflora inflorescence. This points to the convergence of similar developmental processes involving the recruitment of genes related to flower identity in the origin of tendrils in different plant families. The data obtained also

  10. Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid - a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Guichard Alves, Helena; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2016-07-13

    Despite the large popularity of the Boletus edulis mushroom, little is known about its influence on human health and the possibilities of its therapeutic use. Nevertheless, several reports revealed the usefulness of biopolymers isolated from it in cancer treatment. Our previous studies have shown that B. edulis water soluble biopolymers are not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells (CCD841 CoTr) and at the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells (LS180) which was accompanied with cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The purpose of the present study was to verify the proapoptotic properties of a selected fraction from B. edulis - BE3, as well as determine its chemical nature. The BE3 fraction was extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Further chemical examinations revealed that BE3 consists mainly of ribonucleic acid (59.1%). The ability of BE3 to induce programmed cell death was examined in human colon cancer cell lines LS180 and HT-29 by measuring caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and expression of BAX, BCL2, TP53 and CDKN1A genes. The sensitivity of colon cancer cells with silenced BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A expression to BE3 treatment was also evaluated. We have demonstrated for the first time that the BE3 fraction is a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon cancer cells. The revealed mechanism of apoptosis triggering was dependent on the presence of functional p53 and consequently was a little different in investigated cell lines. Our results indicated that BE3 stimulated proapoptotic genes BAX (LS180, HT-29), TP53 (LS180) and CDKN1A (HT-29) while at the same time silenced the expression of the key prosurvival gene BCL2 (LS180, HT-29). The obtained results indicate the high therapeutic potential of the BE3 fraction against colon cancer, yet it is necessary to further confirm fraction efficacy and safety in animal and clinical studies.

  11. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Gene expression and metal tissue concentrations were compared in Mytilus edulis. • Expression levels of several transcripts correlated with metal concentrations. • Transcripts involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced. • Integration of transcriptomics and tissue levels provides insight to toxicity. - Abstract: Marine biomonitoring programs in the U.S. and Europe have historically relied on monitoring tissue concentrations of bivalves to monitor contaminant levels and ecosystem health. By integrating ‘omic methods with these tissue residue approaches we can uncover mechanistic insight to link tissue concentrations to potential toxic effects. In an effort to identify novel biomarkers and better understand the molecular toxicology of metal bioaccumulation in bivalves, we exposed the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., to sub-lethal concentrations (0.54 μM) of cadmium, lead, and a Cd + Pb mixture. Metal concentrations were measured in gill tissues at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and increased linearly over the 4 week duration. In addition, there was evidence that Pb interfered with Cd uptake in the mixture treatment. Using a 3025 sequence microarray for M. edulis, we performed transcriptomic analysis, identifying 57 differentially expressed sequences. Hierarchical clustering of these sequences successfully distinguished the different treatment groups demonstrating that the expression profiles were reproducible among the treatments. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology terms identified several biological processes that were perturbed by the treatments, including nucleoside phosphate biosynthetic processes, mRNA metabolic processes, and response to stress. To identify transcripts whose expression level correlated with metal bioaccumulation, we performed Pearson correlation analysis. Several transcripts correlated with gill metal concentrations including mt10, mt20, and contig 48, an unknown transcript containing a wsc domain. In addition

  12. Manganese in the shell of the bivalve Mytilus edulis: Seawater Mn or physiological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Pedro S.; Clarke, Leon J.; Kennedy, Hilary; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2016-12-01

    Manganese in the shell calcite of marine bivalves has been suggested to reflect ambient seawater Mn concentrations, thus providing a high-resolution archive of past seawater Mn concentrations. However, a quantitative relationship between seawater Mn and shell Mn/Ca ratios, as well as clear understanding of which process(es) control(s) shell Mn/Ca, are still lacking. Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were grown in a one-year duration field experiment in the Menai Strait, U.K., to study the relationship between seawater particulate and dissolved Mn2+ concentrations and shell calcite Mn/Ca ratios. Shell Mn/Ca showed a well-defined intra-annual double-peak, with maximum values during early spring and early summer and low values during autumn and winter. Seawater particulate Mn peaked during winter and autumn, with a series of smaller peaks during spring and summer, whereas dissolved Mn2+ exhibited a marked single maximum during late-spring to early-summer, being low during the remainder of the year. Consequently, neither seawater particulate Mn nor dissolved Mn2+ concentrations explain the intra-annual variation of shell Mn/Ca ratios. A physiological control on shell Mn/Ca ratios is evident from the strong similarity and timing of the double-peaked intra-annual variations of Mn/Ca and shell growth rate (SGR), the latter corresponding to periods of increased metabolic activity (as indicated by respiration rate). It is thus likely that in M. edulis SGR influences shell Mn/Ca by altering the concentration or activity of Mn2+ within the extra-pallial fluid (EPF), by changing the flux of Mn into or the proportion of protein bound Mn within the EPF. By linking shell Mn/Ca ratios to the endogenous and environmental factors that determine growth and metabolic activity, this study helps to explain the lack of a consistent relationship between shell Mn/Ca in marine bivalve shell calcite and seawater particulate and dissolved Mn2+ concentrations. The use of Mn content from M. edulis

  13. Chemical, physico-chemical and sensory characterization of mixed açai (Euterpe oleracea and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao jellies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Four formulations of mixed açaí (Euterpe oleracea (A and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao (CH jellies were prepared according to the following proportions: T1 (40% A:60% CH, T2 (50% A:50% CH, T3 (60% A: 40% CH and T4 (100% A - control. All formulations were prepared using a rate 60:40 (w/w of sucrose and pulp, plus 0.5% pectin and the products reached to average of 65% soluble solids content. The jellies were analyzed by chemical and physicochemical (titratable acidity, pH, soluble solid content, dry matter, total protein, lipids, vitamin C and calories and sensory characteristics; also were evaluated levels of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. It was used a hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate the attributes: overall impression, spreadability, brightness, flavor, texture and color, and also was verified the purchase intention score. The titratable acidity and pH ranged from 0.46 to 0.64% and 3.35 to 3.64, respectively, that are within the range found at most fruit jellies. The soluble solids content ranged between 65.2 and 65.5 ºBrix. The sensory acceptance results showed that all treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4 presented means of sensory attributes above 4, demonstrating good acceptance of the product, but the treatment T1 presented the higher scores for the evaluated attributes. Cocoa´s honey added a positive influence on the attributes of color, texture and spreadability.

  14. Zoneamento agroclimático da cultura do açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. para o estado do Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaio Allan Cruz Gasparini

    Full Text Available RESUMOOs produtos do açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. apresentam grande importância econômica e cultural no Brasil com um crescente mercado consumidor. Com intuito de fornecer bases para ampliação desse cultivo em outros estados, buscou-se elaborar o zoneamento agroclimático para essa cultura no estado do Espírito Santo. Para tanto, utilizou-se de dados meteorológicos de 110 estações de órgãos governamentais e da ferramenta geotecnológica ArcGIS 10.1 para espacializar os dados de temperatura, precipitação e déficit hídrico e depois reclassificá-las para a geração do zoneamento. Os resultados demonstraram que 20,74% da área total do Espírito Santo possui zonas aptas a essa cultura, localizadas nas regiões Nordeste, Serrana e Sul, sendo Linhares o município com maior aptidão. Embora a maior parte do estado tenha algum tipo de restrição que limita o cultivo, seja da variável déficit hídrico, seja da precipitação, algumas técnicas podem minimizar tais restrições. Logo, torna-se viável a implantação da cultura do açaí no estado do Espírito Santo de acordo com as variáveis temperatura, precipitação e déficit hídrico.

  15. Anthocyanin-rich açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Fisher, Derek R; Larson, Jessica; Bielinski, Donna F; Rimando, Agnes M; Carey, Amanda N; Schauss, Alexander G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    Age-related diseases of the brain compromise memory, learning, and movement and are directly linked with increases in oxidative stress and inflammation. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berries can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of their high polyphenolic content, fruit pulp fractions of açai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.) were explored for their protective effect on BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Freeze-dried açai pulp was fractionated using solvents with different polarities and analyzed using HPLC for major anthocyanins and other phenolics. Fractions extracted using methanol (MEOH) and ethanol (ETOH) were particularly rich in anthocyanins such as cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, and peonidin, whereas the fraction extracted using acetone (ACE) was rich in other phenolics such as catechin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol, and synergic and vanillic acids. Studies were conducted to investigate the mitigating effects of açai pulp extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) induced oxidative stress and inflammation; treatment of BV-2 cells with acai fractions resulted in significant (p fractions. The protection of microglial cells by açai pulp extracts, particularly that of MEOH, ETOH, and ACE fractions, was also accompanied by a significant concentration-dependent reduction in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The current study offers valuable insights into the protective effects of açai pulp fractions on brain cells, which could have implications for improved cognitive and motor functions.

  16. Posterior hyaloid detachment and internal limiting membrane peeling assisted by anthocyanins from acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) and 10 other natural vital dyes: experimental study in cadaveric eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jane; Ferreira, Magno Antonio; Farah, Michel Eid; de Carvalho, André Maia; Alves Ferreira, Raquel Eustaquio; de Moraes Filho, Milton Nunes; Souza Lima-Filho, Acácio Alves; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rodrigues, Eduardo Buchele; Ferreira, Eber; Peris, Cristiane; Maia, Maurício

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether natural dyes facilitate posterior hyaloid detachment (posterior vitreous detachment [PVD]) and retinal internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in human eyes. Open-sky vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid and ILM removal was performed in 86 human cadaveric eyes. After core vitrectomy, 11 different dyes were injected into the vitreous cavity to aid hyaloid detachment and ILM removal. The dyes were allowed to settle on the macula for 5 minutes after PVD and were removed by mechanical aspiration. Intraocular forceps were used for ILM peeling, which was confirmed by light microscopy of the peeled tissue. Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) extract and 10 additional dyes from plants or animal sources were tested: pomegranate (Punica granatum), logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum), chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), cochineal (Dactylopius coccus), hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), indigo (Indigofera tinctoria), paprika (Capiscum annuum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), old fustic (Maclura tinctoria), and grape (Vitis vinifera). The dyes facilitated PVD and ILM peeling. Acai fruit (E. oleracea) extract, logwood (H. campechianum), cochineal (D. coccus), and old fustic (M. tinctoria) facilitated PVD in all cases; dye-assisted PVD was compared with triamcinolone-assisted PVD performed previously in a comparative model. Acai fruit (E. oleracea) extract, cochineal (D. coccus), and chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (M. sativa) showed the best capability for ILM staining; dye-assisted ILM removal was compared with the ILM peeling guided by indocyanine green staining performed previously in a comparative model. Light microscopy confirmed the ILM removal in all cases. Anthocyanin dye of the acai fruit (E. oleracea) and the dyes from cochineal (D. coccus) and chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (M. sativa) resulted in the best capability for posterior hyaloid and ILM staining in human cadaveric eyes and may be a useful tool for

  17. Antifouling effects of the periostracum on algal spore settlement in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In nature, marine mussels (Mytilus edulis suffer less fouling colonization on the newly formed sides of their shells. Using settlement assays with algal spores of Porphyra suborbiculata, we determined that spore attachment and germination on the periostracum decreased to 36.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. Additionally, the spore settlement was considerably diminished by periostracum dichloromethane extracts containing 19 % oleamide, a major antifouling compound. A scanning electron micrograph of the surface revealed a regular ripple structure with approximately 1.4 μm between ripples. Based on these results, mussel periostraca or their associated biomimetic materials may become environmentally friendly, antifouling agents for preventing the settlement of soft foulants.

  18. Damage to DNA and lipids in Boletus edulis exposed to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Hansen, Christian; Andersen, Rolf A; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2005-12-01

    This study investigates the potential of emissions from a zinc smelter to induce oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in Boletus edulis, the king bolete. Concentrations of cadmium, zinc, copper, and mercury were determined in 16 fruit bodies collected near the smelter (exposed group), as well as in 15 reference samples. Frequency of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA (a pre-mutagenic DNA base modification) and concentration of lipid hydroperoxides were chosen as damage parameters. Concentrations of the four metals, as well as oxidative damage to DNA and lipids were significantly elevated in the exposed group (Mann-Whitney, Pmetals and AP sites or lipid hydroperoxides in the reference group (significant only for mercury and lipid hydroperoxides; Pmetals determined in the present study, may induce dose-response relationships of a hormetic ('J-shaped') nature.

  19. Pharmacology of Casimiroa edulis; III. Relaxant and contractile effects in rat aortic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos, G A; Vidrio, H; Enríquez, R

    1995-06-23

    The relaxant and contractile effects of an aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis were investigated in rat aortic rings. The extract inhibited contractions elicited by noradrenaline, serotonin and prostaglandin F2 alpha, but did not affect responses to KCl. Inhibition did not require the presence of intact vascular endothelium and was not affected by histamine antagonists. In this preparation, the extract also elicited concentration-related contractions which were more marked in the absence of endothelium, were not blocked by histamine antagonists, and were completely suppressed by alpha-adrenergic blockade. It was concluded that the relaxant effect of the extract is not exerted through release of an endothelial relaxing factor nor through blockade of calcium channels or of specific smooth muscle receptors, and does not involve histaminergic mechanisms. The contractile effect is modulated by vascular endothelium and is alpha-adrenergic in nature.

  20. Pharmacology of Casimiroa edulis; Part I. Blood pressure and heart rate effects in the anesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos, G A; Vidrio, H

    1991-02-01

    The effect of an alcoholic extract of seeds of Casimiroa edulis on blood pressure and heart rate was determined in rats anesthetized with pentobarbital and compared with that of histamine. The extract induced hypotension, accompanied at high doses by tachycardia. Hypotension after histamine was more transient and was not accompanied by changes in heart rate. Experiments with a variety of autonomic antagonists revealed that extract-induced hypotension was not mediated by histamine H2, muscarinic, or beta-adrenergic receptors, but involved an H1 mechanism. After H1 blockade, the depressor response was reversed to a pressor effect, mediated by alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation. The increase in heart rate was due in part to H1 and in part to beta-adrenergic receptor activation. It was suggested that imidazole derivatives could be responsible for the depressor effect observed. The pressor response could be caused by these or other components of the extract.

  1. Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Marceau; Martin-Benito, Dario; Von Arx, Georg; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Griffin, Kevin L.; Hamdan, Rayann; McDowell, Nate G.; Muscarella, Robert; Pockman, William T.; Gentine, Pierre

    2018-01-31

    In recent years, widespread forest mortality in response to drought has been documented worldwide (Allen, Breshears & McDowell 2015). An example of widespread and rapid increase in drought-induced mortality, or die-off, was observed for Pinus edulis Engelm. across the Southwestern USA in response to several years of reduced rainfall and high vapor pressure deficits (VPD) (Breshears et al. 2009; Allen et al. 2010; Williams et al. 2013). Although stomatal closure under drought has been hypothesized to increase mortality through carbon starvation (McDowell et al. 2008; Breshears et al. 2009), more evidences exist for mortality being caused by hydraulic failure (Plaut et al. 2012; McDowell et al. 2013; Sevanto et al. 2014; Garcia-Forner et al. 2016). Regardless of the mechanism of drought-induced decline, maintaining a positive supply of water to the foliage is critical for tree functioning and survival.

  2. Yellow passion fruit seed oil (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa: physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Roberta Malacrida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition -physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol compositions and total phenolic compounds -and evaluate the radical-scavenging activity of crude oil extracted from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa seeds, aiming to use the agro-industrial by-products. The oil seed extraction was performed by Soxhlet method and the oil yield from the seeds was 30.39%. The oil showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (87.59%, including mainly linoleic (73.14% and oleic (13.83% acids, tocopherol (499.30 mg/kg and phenolic compounds (1,314.13 mg GAE/kg. The physico-chemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oil showed significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, the potential utilization of the passion fruit seed oil as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries could be favorable.

  3. [The composition of volatile components of cepe (Boletus edulis) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds in cooked and canned cepe (Boletus edulis) and in cooked oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is studied using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is found that unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight atoms of carbon determine the aroma of raw mushrooms and take part in the formation of the aroma of cooked mushrooms as well. The content of these compounds was the highest in canned cepes. In oyster mushrooms, the concentration of these alcohols and ketones was lower in comparison with cepes. The content of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes was much higher in oyster mushrooms. Volatile aliphatic and heterocyclic Maillard reaction products and isomeric octenols and octenones formed the aroma of cooked and canned mushrooms.

  4. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels......, and whether a shift from dredging of full-grown blue mussels to production of blue mussels in bottom culture could reduce the area of impacted sea bottom. In the first study, the macrostructure of a commercial bottom culture was analysed by side scan mapping, and the growth of blue mussels was recorded...... on a transect from the edge to the central part of the bottom culture. In the second study, we analysed the effect of seeding density (1.5 and 3.5 kg m−2) on mussel production. The measured production was used to model the affected area when producing blue mussels in bottom culture. The macrostructure...

  5. The production of relaid blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Per Sand; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) smaller than the commercial size caught in Limfjorden, as in other areas, are typically discarded. However, during the period 1990 to 1993 these small mussels were returned, after sorting to mussel beds for later harvest; a process defined as ''relay''. This paper...... presents data from two commercial culture beds and from two smaller experimental beds established to study growth and mortality of these small mussel discards. The data were analysed by a yield- per-recruit model to calculate yields from such relays. This model was also used to predict the optimal time...... of harvest. The parameters utilized in the model were: (1) initial mortality due to harvesting, unshipping and sorting; (2) growth and mortality between relay and harvest; and, (3) the drained wet weight of a mussel of a given shell length. The initial mortality was estimated from observations of mussels...

  6. Allometric equations for maximum filtration rate in blue mussels Mytilus edulis and importance of condition index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Pleissner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between body dry weight (W) and shell length (L) of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, can be expressed by the condition index (CI = W/L3) which varies from population to population and during the year. Here, we examine the influence of CI on the relationships between maximum filtration....... For all data, it was found that FW = 6.773W0.678 and FL = 0.00135L2.088 which are very similar to equations for mussels with ‘medium condition’ (CI = 4–6 mg cm-3): FW = 6.567W0.681 and FL = 0.00150L2.051, with b- and d-values within a few percent of the theoretically expected of 2/3 and 2, respectively...

  7. Field data and growth model for mussels Mytilus edulis in Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul S.

    2012-01-01

    Growth rates of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, in suspended net-bags were measured in field experiments conducted in Limfjorden and Great Belt, Denmark, for extended periods of time (22 69 days) with up to 8 intermediate data samplings during the period. The resulting time series of growth...... bioenergetic growth model for mussels (μ = aWb, a = 0.871 x C - 0.986, b = -0.34), and observed power-law relations of growth data were in good agreement with the model, which takes into account the prevailing average chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration (C, μ g chl a l-1) at field sites. Thus, the b...... of mussel and at a given experimental site....

  8. Biomixing in stagnant wate above population of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Andrup, P.; Tang, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dense beds of filter-feeding mussels can exert a considerable grazing impact on phytoplankton in many marine areas depending on downmixing promoted by current, wave- and wind action. But downmixing may also be promoted by biomixing caused by the action of the strong exhalent jets of water from...... the mussels. Here we study the strength of biomixing exerted by large actively filtering blue mussels Mytilus edulis in stagnant water. Vertical concentration profiles of added algal cells (Rhodomonas salina) were measured (as chl a) over a 70 cm high and stagnant water column in an aquarium above...... a population of 48 ind.m-2 of mussels of shell length 69.5 ± 2.3 mm. Due to the intense agitation (biomixing) generated by exhalant jets of the actively feeding mussels the profiles remained nearly uniform over the full water column while decreasing exponentially with time, reaching a level of about 40...

  9. Characterization of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) Dof transcription factors in floral development and abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhanchao; Hou, Dan; Liu, Jun; Li, Xiangyu; Xie, Lihua; Ma, Yanjun; Gao, Jian

    2018-03-01

    The Dof transcription factor (TF) family belongs to a class of plant-specific TFs and is involved in plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stresses. However, there are only very limited reports on the characterization of Dof TFs in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). In the present research, PheDof TFs showed specific expression profiles based on RNA-seq data analyses. The co-expression network indicated that PheDof12, PheDof14, and PheDof16 might play vital roles during flower development. Cis-regulatory element analysis of these PheDof genes suggested diverse functions. Expression patterns of 12 selected genes from seven different classes under three abiotic stresses (cold, salt, and drought) are further investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. This work will provide useful information for functional analysis and regulation mechanisms of Dof TFs in moso bamboo.

  10. Quantification of extraradical soil mycelium and ectomycorrhizas of Boletus edulis in a Scots pine forest with variable sporocarp productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Varga, Herminia; Agueda, Beatriz; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The availability of most edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms depends on their natural fructification. Sporocarp formation of these fungi is linked to habitat characteristics and climate conditions, but these data alone do not explain all the trends of fungal fruiting and dynamics. It could be hypothesized that the amount of soil mycelia could also be related to the production of carpophores. Soil samples (five cylinders of 250 cm(3) per plot) were taken monthly, from September to November, in five fenced permanent plots (5 × 5 m) in Pinar Grande (Soria, Spain), a Pinus sylvestris stand situated in the north of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. Plots were chosen to establish a gradient of Boletus edulis productivity from 0 to 38.5 kg/ha year, according to the mean fresh weight of sporocarps collected during the last 10 years. B. edulis ectomycorrhizal root tips were identified in each soil sample according to its morphology and counted. DNA extractions were performed with the PowerSoil(TM) DNA Isolation Kit and quantification of extraradical soil mycelium by real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and a TaqMan® probe. The concentration of soil mycelium of B. edulis (mg mycelium/g soil) did not differ significantly between plots (p = 0.1397), and sampling time (p = 0.7643) within the fructification period. The number of mycorrhizal short roots per soil volume showed significant differences between the plots (p = 0.0050) and the three sampling times (p < 0.0001). No significant correlation between the number of mycorrhizas and the productivity of the plot (kg of B. edulis/ha year) was detected (p = 0.615). A statistically significant positive correlation (p = 0.0481) was detected between the concentration of mycelia of B. edulis in the soil samples and the presence of short roots mycorrhizal with B. edulis in these samples. The productivity of the plots, in terms of sporocarps produced during the last 10 years, was not correlated either with the

  11. L-alanine uptake in membrane vesicles from Mytilus edulis gills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajor, A.M.; Wright, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that gills from M. edulis can accumulate L-alanine from seawater by a saturable process specific for α-neutral amino acids. This uptake occurs against chemical gradients in excess of 10 6 to 1. To further characterize this uptake, membrane vesicles were prepared from M. edulis gill tissue by differential centrifugation. Enrichments of putative enzyme markers (relative to that in combined initial fractions) were as follows: γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase, 25-30x; Alkaline Phosphatase, 5-6x; K + -dependent para-Nitrophenyl Phosphatase, 3-5x; Succinate Dehydrogenase 0.1-0.2x. These results suggest that the preparation is enriched in plasma membranes, although histochemical studies will be needed to verify this. The time course of 14 C-L-alanine uptake in the presence of inwardly-directed Na + gradient showed a transient overshoot (3-5 fold) at 10 minutes which decreased to equilibrium after six hours. The size of the overshoot and early uptake rates depended on the size of the inwardly-directed Na + gradient. No overshoot was seen in the presence of inwardly-directed gradients of LiCl or choline-Cl, or with equilibrium concentrations NaCl or mannitol. A reduced overshoot was seen with a gradient of NaSCN. A small overshoot was seen with an inwardly-directed gradient of KCl. Transport of L-alanine included saturable and diffusive components. Uptake of 6 μM L-alanine was inhibited more than 80% by 100 μM α-zwitterionic amino acids (alanine, leucine, glycine); by 30 to 75% by proline, aspartate and lysine; and less than 20% by a β-amino acid, taurine. The results of these experiments agree with those from intact gill studies and support the hypothesis that L-alanine is transported into gill epithelial cells by a secondary active transport process involving Na +

  12. Molecular defense systems are expressed in the king bolete (Boletus edulis) growing near metal smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Hansen, Christian; Andersen, Rolf A; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2005-01-01

    The induction of defense systems against metal exposure was investigated in 48 wild-growing fruiting bodies of the king bolete (Boletus edulis) from two areas polluted with several transition metals from smelters, as well as five reference areas. To determine the degree of metal exposure, cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were determined in caps of fruiting bodies by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), whereas mercury (Hg) was determined by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). Caps were analyzed further with respect to relative activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as concentrations of total glutathione (GSHTOT = GSH + GSSG) and relative concentrations of heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70). The results showed that concentrations of the four metals, as well as SOD, CAT and HSP70, were significantly elevated in the exposed group (Mann-Whitney, P < or = 0.001). In contrast, GSHTOT was significantly lowered in the exposed group (P < or = 0.05). Significant positive correlations were established between concentrations of Cd, Zn, Hg, or Cu and activities of SOD (Spearman's P < or = 0.01 for the association between SOD and Cd, P < or = 0.001 for all other metal exposure parameters), CAT (P < or = 0.001 for all exposure parameters), or expression of HSP70 (P < or = 0.001 for all exposure parameters). Significant negative correlations were found between total GSH and Cd (P < or = 0.001), Zn (P < or = 0.001), or Hg (P < or = 0.05). We conclude that antioxidant enzymes are induced in wild-growing B. edulis exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of potentially toxic transition metals; whereas the net consumption of GSH that occurs with increasing metal exposure may reflect GSH consumption by mechanisms of metal detoxification. Finally, the induction of HSP70 suggests that the antioxidant response and the mechanisms in which GSH is consumed are insufficient for protection against

  13. Identification of the pattern of heterochromatin distribution in Passiflora species with C-banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, A J C; Souza, M M

    2010-09-28

    We tested four C-banding protocols to obtain heterochromatic bands in the passion fruit species Passiflora edulis and P. cacaoensis (Passifloraceae). Three of these protocols had been previously described. The three published protocols were not adequate to obtain C-bands in these species. An adapted protocol demonstrated heterochromatin distribution in metaphasic chromosomes of species of Passiflora for the first time. The differentiated coloration for C-bands was obtained with immersion of the slides in 99% ethanol, 45% acetic acid (additional step), 0.2 N hydrochloric acid, hydroxide of barium, 45% acetic acid, and 2X standard saline citrate at four different temperatures. The C-bands were observed in the satellites and in the telomere and centromere regions of all chromosomes, both in P. edulis and in P. cacaoensis.

  14. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace

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    DANIEL A.V. MONTERO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.. Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC, São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata, geraniol (P. quadrangularis, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis, benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea.

  15. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Daniel A V; Marques, Marcia Ortiz M; Meletti, Laura M M; Kampen, Maria H VAN; Polozzi, Sandra C

    2016-09-01

    This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.). Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC), São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata), geraniol (P. quadrangularis), 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis), benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata) and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea).

  16. Catha edulis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro 2520

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... cylindrical plastic containers with 26 cm depth and 53 cm width under shade. All containers were ... 38.5%, the C: N ratio reduced between 62 and 65.5% and considerable reduction was also observed in. pH value of the final product ... was to explore the suitability and potential use of an epigeic earthworm ...

  17. Catha edulis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro 2520

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... mixed with cow dung in 3:1 ratio and treated with D. veneta in the following waste and worm mass .... experiment were air dried for 48 h and chopped into small pieces before lying into experimental containers. All wastes were mixed with sliced cow dung in 3:1 ratio in dry weight basis. The cow dung.

  18. Associational resistance of fouled blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) against starfish (Asterias rubens) predation: relative importance of structural and chemical properties of the epibionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudien, Jürgen; Wahl, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Several epibiotic species reduce starfish (Asterias rubens) preference for the blue mussel Mytilus edulis in the Baltic. The aim of this study was to reveal whether this associational resistance was caused by structural or chemical aspects of the different epibionts. To assess structural epibiont effects, an in situ experiment was conducted with unfouled mussels and mussels equipped with artificial epibionts (`dummies') exposed to natural predation by A. rubens. The chemically inert dummies closely matched the structural properties of the locally common epibionts Balanus improvisus (barnacle), Ceramium strictum (red alga), Halichondria panicea (sponge), and Laomedea flexuosa (hydrozoan). Starfish fed indiscriminately in all treatments. Chemical effects of epibionts on the attractiveness of mussels for A. rubens were investigated by incorporating freeze-dried epibionts or mussel tissue into Phytagel pellets at natural concentrations. Starfish were allowed to choose among these structurally similar but chemically different prey items in an in vitro experiment. The predators exhibited significant preferences among the food pellets, which closely matched their preferences for corresponding natural mussel-epibiont associations. Thus, chemical aspects of epibionts appear to play a larger role in this associational resistance than do structural aspects. Implications of these indirect interactions for benthic communities are discussed.

  19. Crescimento Inicial de Mimosa scabrella Benth., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Allophylus edulis (St. Hil. Radl. sob Diferentes Regimes de Adubação Initial Growth of Mimosa scabrella Benth., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Allophylus edulis (St. Hil. Radl. with Different Levels of Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Garcia Knapik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho estudou a produção de mudas em viveiro envolvendo as espécies Mimosa scabrella Benth. (bracatinga, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (aroeira-vermelha e Allophylus edulis (ST Hil. Radl (vacum. O experimento foi conduzido no Município de Colombo, PR, no viveiro da Embrapa Florestas. Em fevereiro de 2004, foi realizada a semeadura das três espécies, em tubetes com cerca de 50 cm3, preenchidos com 70% de substrato comercial a base de casca de pínus e vermiculita e 30% de fibra de coco granulada. Os tratamentos corresponderam à três diferentes dosagens de adubos, parceladas em adubação de base e de cobertura, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas de nove mudas e sete repetições, correspondendo a 63 mudas por espécie/tratamento. Aos quatro meses após a semeadura, foi realizada a avaliação do experimento, com medições de altura e diâmetro o caule de todas as mudas, e selecionada uma muda por repetição para as análises destrutivas de biomassa seca (parte aérea e radicial, tendo como critério a escolha da muda mais próxima da média da repetição. A aroeira-vermelha foi a espécie que melhor respondeu à adubação, seguida da bracatinga. Diferentemente das demais espécies, o vacum apresentou baixa exigência quanto à adubação no processo de produção de mudas. O crescimento das espécies pode ter sido mais lento devido à época do ano, que envolveu o inverno. 
    In order to study the influence of mineral nutrition on quality and the growth of��seedlings of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Mimosa scabrella Benth. and Allophylus edulis (ST. Hil. Radl, a experiment was conducted in the nursery facilities of Embrapa Florestas, Colombo – PR. The three species were sown in plastic containers of 50 cm3 in February 2004. The substrate was a mixture of a commercial formula (pine bark and vermiculite and granulated coconut fiber in a proportion of 70% and 30

  20. Study the possibility of use of extracts of the mushroom Boletus edulis in the production of functional dairy products

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    L. I. Aleksandrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are rich in proteins. The most rich in proteins is Boletus edulis (white mushroom, and total protein contains all the essential amino acids. The low bioavailability of proteins Boletus edulis stimulates the search for ways to improve. One way to improve the bioavailability of nutrients of Boletus edulis is an extraction. This article presents the results of studies of extracts of white mushroom (Boletus edulis, obtained using different methods of processing the chopped dry fruiting body. The effect of physical and biotechnological parameters on the efficiency of the extraction of proteins was studied. The spectral characteristics and protein content of the obtained extracts were determined. It is shown that the ultrasonic extraction activation leads to the most efficient protein extraction(an increase of 9.5%. It is also significantly affected by the duration of extraction. The use of the enzyme preparation in the investigated ratios do not have a positive impact, however, enzymatic treatment in conjunction with ultrasound treatment increased the efficiency of 13.5%, showing the complex diffusion processes in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms. Increasing the length of the extraction, despite the high content of protein in the extract, is impractical because of the risk of bacterial contamination of high-nutritive extract. Increasing the temperature of the process has no significant effect on the protein content, but it reduces the value of the extract, due to the destruction of heat-labile components, which include vitamins and secondary metabolites. The extract application rate for curd product was determined. For the test samples organoleptic characteristics and titratable acidity were determined. The most appropriate dose of the extract in the manufacture of making curd product is 15% by weight of the finished product.

  1. Effects if 60Co γ rays radiation on seed vigor and young seedling growth of phyllostachys edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chunju; Gao Jian; Mu Shaohua

    2007-01-01

    The dry seeds of Phyllostachys edulis were irradiated by different doses of 60 Co γ rays, the effects of the radiation on seed vigor and seedling growth characters were investigated by four testing methods, i.e. germination testing indoor, electrical conductivity, TTC vigor testing and growth classification of saddling. Results showed that the germination process and germination rate could be accelerated by doses of 60 Co γ rays (≤100 Gy), and higher doses of 60 Co γ rays (>100 Gy) could obviously inhibit the germination process and reduce seed vigor, while induce seed embryo broken, cell division, growth restrained, the height of young seedling and length of root decreasing. The inhibition effects were significantly increased with radiation dose increase. The optimal range of radiation dose for radiation breeding of Phyllostachys edulis dry seeds was 100 to 175 Gy. Linear relationships were existed in electrical conductivity after dipping in water for 24h in germination rate (G), germination index (GI), vigor index (VI), height of seedlings and length of root. EC after 24h and height of seedlings were chosen to test the change of seeds vigor and the effect of the radiation of 60 Co γ rays on Phyllostachys edulis. (authors)

  2. Genotoxic and immunotoxic potential effects of selected psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, Emilie; Pédelucq, Julie; Fortier, Marlène; Brousseau, Pauline; Auffret, Michel; Budzinski, Hélène; Fournier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The potential toxicity of pharmaceuticals towards aquatic invertebrates is still poorly understood and sometimes controversial. This study aims to document the in vitro genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on Mytilus edulis. Mussel hemocytes were exposed to fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin, at concentrations ranging from μg/L to mg/L. Paroxetine at 1.5 μg/L led to DNA damage while the same concentration of venlafaxine caused immunomodulation. Fluoxetine exposure resulted in genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and cytotoxicity. In the case of antibiotics, trimethoprim was genotoxic at 200 μg/L and immunotoxic at 20 mg/L whereas erythromycin elicited same detrimental effects at higher concentrations. DNA metabolism seems to be a highly sensitive target for psychotropic drugs and antibiotics. Furthermore, these compounds affect the immune system of bivalves, with varying intensity. This attests the relevance of these endpoints to assess the toxic mode of action of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. - Highlights: • Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics affect the immune system of Mytilus edulis. • Genotoxic and immunotoxic endpoints were relevant to assess pharmaceuticals toxicity. • DNA metabolism is a highly sensitive target for pharmaceuticals. • Fluoxetine and paroxetine were the most toxic compounds on mussel hemocytes. - Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics have the potential to cause immune toxicity and genotoxicity on Mytilus edulis hemocytes

  3. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF elements determined it can be concluded that occasional consumption of fruiting bodies of L. aurantiacum, X. badius, L. deliciosus, B. edulis, C. cibarius and S. luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors.

  4. Development of pollen grain in yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available To clarify events occurring during pollen grain formation in yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, floral buds were collected at different stages of development. After bracket, petal and sepal removal the anthers were fixed, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned at 10 mum and after differential dying with safranin O and fast green, mounted in Canada balsam and observed under optical microscope. Formation of the male gamete followed the normal pattern for angiosperms. Observation covered final sporogenic mass phase up to pollen grain formation; microsporangium tissue modifications were also observed. Microsporogenesis was characterized by sporogenic tissue differentiation in microsporic mother cells, followed by meiosis and resulting in tetrads. Microgametogenesis began with callose microspore release, subsequent mitosis, in addition to radial and tangential tapetum wall degradation, parietal layer compression nearer to the tapetum and endothecium widening, terminating in mature pollen grain formation.Visando elucidar os processos que ocorrem durante a formação dos grãos de pólen em maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, foram coletados botões em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. As anteras foram desidratadas, embebidas em parafina, cortadas a 10 mm e, após a coloração diferencial com safranina e verde rápido, montadas em bálsamo do Canadá e observadas sob microscópio óptico. A formação do gameta masculino seguiu padrão normal para angiospermas. A observação foi iniciada na fase final de massa esporogênica indo até a formação do grão de pólen, tendo sido também observadas as modificações ocorridas nos tecidos do microsporângio. A microsporogênese foi caracterizada pela diferenciação do tecido esporogênico em células-mãe de micrósporos, passando por meiose e resultando em tétrades. A microgametogênese iniciou-se com a liberação dos micrósporos da calose, os

  5. Germinação e crescimento de espécies de maracujá Germination and growth of passion fruit species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelise de Almeida Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a germinação e o índice de velocidade de emergência de cinco espécies de maracujazeiro para obtenção de plantas aptas ao processo de enxertia. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, em Cruz das Almas (BA, no período de janeiro a junho de 2002. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, e os tratamentos foram constituídos de: Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg., Passiflora edulis Sims, Passiflora giberti N.E. Brown, Passiflora laurifolia L. e Passilfora alata Curtis, com quatro repetições e 25 plantas por parcela. As espécies constituíram cinco grupos diferentes para a variável índice de velocidade de emergência. No tocante à germinação, foram identificados dois grupos diferentes, um formado pelas espécies P. giberti e P. laurifolia e o outro, pelas demais espécies. Em termos de altura de planta, a espécie P. giberti apresentou a maior média, 40,40 cm, constituindo um grupo que é diferente das demais. As espécies P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa apresentaram melhores índices de velocidades de emergência e germinação e, conseqüentemente, as plantas obtidas mostraram-se aptas ao processo de enxertia em menor período de tempo.This work aimed to verify the germination and speed of emergence index of passion fruit species to obtain plants suitable for grafting. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, in Cruz das Almas, BA from January to June, 2002. It was used a completely randomized design and the treatments were constituted of five passion fruit species: Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg., Passiflora edulis Sims, Passiflora giberti N.E. Brown, Passiflora laurifolia L. and Passiflora alata Curtis, with four replications. The species constitute five different groups for the variable, speed of emergence index and, concerning to the

  6. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of stem barks of Coula edulis Baill. Pseudospondias longifolia Engl. and Carapa klaineana Pierre. from Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sima Obiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts of Coula edulis (C. edulis, Pseudospondia longifolia (P. longifolia and Carapa klaineana (C. klaineana. Methods: Presence of total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins was evaluated to estimate the effects of plants on microbial diseases. Water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts were examined for antioxidant activities. All plant extracts were evaluated against six reference strains, eleven clinical isolates and two fungal strains. Results: The contents of total phenols [(12 857.56 ± 1.00 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g], flavonoids [(1 634.13 ± 1.88 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g], tannins [(2 672.00 ± 1.59 mg tannic acid equivalent/100 g] and proanthocyanidins [(395.11 ± 0.83 mg apple procyanidin equivalent/100 g] were highest in the water-acetone and water-ethanol extracts from C. edulis in comparison with P. longifolia and C. klaineana. The water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts from C. edulis presented the highest antimicrobial activities against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103907, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella sp. The tested microorganisms showed sensitivity to all extracts of P. longifolia and C. klaineana with the exception of Shigella dysenteriae CIP 5451, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Conclusions: Our results suggest that C. edulis extracts contain greater antioxidant and antimicrobial properties than P. longifolia and C. klaineana extracts.

  7. POTENSI BUAH SALAK (Salacca edulis, R. SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN HIPOLIPIDEMIK DITINJAU DARI GAMBARAN HISTOPATOLOGI JANTUNG DAN HEPAR MENCIT YANG DIBERI DIET RENDAH LEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hardjana

    2016-10-01

      This study aims to study the structure of the heart histopathologic and the liver of white rat given the Salacca edulis, R extract and animal fat diet. This research used experimental research with the aim to measure the response of an object that appears as a result of the change in a factor that is about it. Place of research did in animal house of Yogyakarta State University and observation of preparations did in the laboratory of biological, faculty of mathematics and natural science, at Yogyakarta State University during the months of June to October 2015. Independent study variables such as salacca edulis, R extract, while the dependent variable is the description of liver histopathology includes damaged cells and fat cell infiltration, while the heart includes endothelial damage and infiltration of fat cells. Data were analyzed descriptively to present the frequency distribution, Linkages between these variables are presented in table format and analyzed with cross descriptive statistics. The results are (1 the structure of the heart histopathologic white rat given salacca edulis, R extract and animal fat diet have endotel defect and fat infiltration less than structure of the heart histopahologic white rat given animal fat diet. (2 the structure of the liver histopathologic white rat given salacca edulis, R extract and animal fat diet have endotel defect and fat infiltration more  than structure of the heart histopahologic white rat given animal fat diet. Keywords: Salacca edulis, R, fat, histopathology, liver, heart

  8. Characterization of the floral transcriptome of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis at different flowering developmental stages by transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As an arborescent and perennial plant, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J. Houzeau, synonym Phyllostachys heterocycla Carrière is characterized by its infrequent sexual reproduction with flowering intervals ranging from several to more than a hundred years. However, little bamboo genomic research has been conducted on this due to a variety of reasons. Here, for the first time, we investigated the transcriptome of developing flowers in Moso bamboo by using high-throughput Illumina GAII sequencing and mapping short reads to the Moso bamboo genome and reference genes. We performed RNA-seq analysis on four important stages of flower development, and obtained extensive gene and transcript abundance data for the floral transcriptome of this key bamboo species. RESULTS: We constructed a cDNA library using equal amounts of RNA from Moso bamboo leaf samples from non-flowering plants (CK and mixed flower samples (F of four flower development stages. We generated more than 67 million reads from each of the CK and F samples. About 70% of the reads could be uniquely mapped to the Moso bamboo genome and the reference genes. Genes detected at each stage were categorized to putative functional categories based on their expression patterns. The analysis of RNA-seq data of bamboo flowering tissues at different developmental stages reveals key gene expression properties during the flower development of bamboo. CONCLUSION: We showed that a combination of transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis was a powerful approach to identifying candidate genes related to floral transition and flower development in bamboo species. The results give a better insight into the mechanisms of Moso bamboo flowering and ageing. This transcriptomic data also provides an important gene resource for improving breeding for Moso bamboo.

  9. [Comparative analysis of growth of edible mussel Mytilus edulis from different White Sea regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerniuk, N D; Zotin, A A

    2006-01-01

    Growth properties were studied in edible mussel Mytilus edulis from different biotopes of the Kandalaksha Bay in the White Sea. Growth curves of the mussel shell were approximated by the von Bertalanffy equation. The highest growth rate, primarily dependent on hydrological conditions, was observed in mussels from the Chupa Bay (Levin Navolok fishery), while the lowest rate was observed in mussels from the Umba region (Turn Cape, Murmansk Region). Allometric relationships of the mussel shell were determined. Analysis of the relationship between the maximum width/convexity and their length demonstrated that this relationship is described by a single allometric equation for mussels from the Umba region, which indicates the homogeneity of this population. For mussels from the Chupa Bay, this relationship cannot be described by a single equation, which points to the population heterogeneity. For 90% mussels from this region, the shell width/convexity ratio ranged from 0.5 to 0.9; while for the remaining 10%, it ranged from 0.9 to 1.15.

  10. Differential depuration of poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, U.F.; Collins, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The elimination of sewage effluent-associated poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a 22-nm icosahedral coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis, was studied. Both laboratory-and commercial-scale recirculating, UV depuration systems were used in this study. In the laboratory system, the logarithms of the poliovirus, E. coli, and coliphage levels were reduced by 1.86, 2.9, and 2.16, respectively, within 52 h of depuration. The relative patterns and rates of elimination of the three organisms suggest that they are eliminated from mussels by different mechanisms during depuration under suitable conditions. Poliovirus was not included in experiments undertaken in the commercial-scale depuration system. The differences in the relative rates and patterns of elimination were maintained for E. coli and coliphage in this system, with the logarithm of the E. coli levels being reduced by 3.18 and the logarithm of the coliphage levels being reduced by 0.87. The results from both depuration systems suggest that E. coli is an inappropriate indicator of the efficiency of virus elimination during depuration. The coliphage used appears to be a more representative indicator. Depuration under stressful conditions appeared to have a negligible affect on poliovirus and coliphage elimination rates from mussels. However, the rate and pattern of E. coli elimination were dramatically affected by these conditions. Therefore, monitoring E. coli counts might prove useful in ensuring that mussels are functioning well during depuration

  11. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Rahim, Bahaa-Eldin E A; Mohan, Syam; Taha, Sara; Mohamed Elhassan, Manal; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2015-01-01

    Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10) to measure Khat dependence. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, reasons for Khat chewing, and DAST-10. Stepwise-logistic regression was used to explore predictors of Khat dependence. The majority of the respondents were married, had a secondary school level of education, were employed, were younger than 35 years old, and were living in rural areas. Many chewers gave more than one reason for using Khat. It was mainly used to increase mental capacity, physical strength, and social entertainment, as well as enhance cheerfulness and orgasms. Statistical modeling of Khat dependence suggested that the most significant predictors were residence (OR = 1.67, P use and its potential to cause dependence.

  12. [Occupational allergic IgE-mediated disease from Boletus edulis: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Adriana; Pisati, G; Russello, Marina; Falagiani, P

    2005-01-01

    Fungal components can cause allergic symptoms either through inhalation, ingestion or contact. Allergic disease from occupational exposure to Boletus edulis (BE) has only seldom been reported. Report on a female worker who developed respiratory and skin symptoms from occupational exposure to BE in selecting and packing dried mushrooms. She never had symptoms after eating mushrooms. An environmental study was performed by personal air samplings and settled dust collection. The RAST-inhibition procedure was used to detect BE allergen potency in collected dust. The subject underwent clinical evaluation, spirometry, skin prick-tests, RAST methacoline and specific inhalation challenge with BE extract. A follow-up study was made 2, 4 and 8 months after the first evaluation and after cessation of exposure. BE allergens were found in the settled dust. Clinical examination showed eczema on the face and hands. The worker had hyper-eosinophilia, bronchial hyper-responsiveness to methacoline, no allergy to common inhalants and foods, positive prick-test and RAST for BE. The specific inhalation challenge induced broncho-constriction. At follow-up we observed a progressive clinical and functional improvement. Our data show that BE can induce cutaneous and respiratory symptoms from occupational exposure to dried mushroom dusts. The pathogenesis is an IgE-allergy. Our patient had no symptoms from ingestion, which supports the hypothesis that respiratory allergy is due to mushroom antigens that differ from those involved in food-related allergic reactions.

  13. Structural investigation of a novel heteropolysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-qiang; Liu, Ye; Xiao, Nan-nan; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Pei-long

    2014-03-01

    A novel water-soluble heteropolysaccharide, BEPF1, was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Boletus edulis with boiling water extraction and purified by Sephacryl S-300, with a molecular weight of 1.08×10(4)Da. Sugar composition of BEPF1 showed that it was composed of l-fucose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-galactose in the ratio of 0.21:0.23:1.17:1.00. Methylation analysis together with (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR spectroscopy established that BEPF1 was consisted of α-d-(1→6)-galactopyranan backbone with a terminal of α-l-fucosyl unit on O-2 of the 2-d-(2→6)-galactosyl units, β-d-(1→6)-4-O-Me-glucopyranan and β-d-(1→6)-glucopyranan backbone with a terminal β-d-glucosyl unit and it also contained a minor of 2,6-β-d-Mannopyranan residues. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  15. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Stenalt, Ea

    2010-01-01

    -settling mortality may be due to a reduced benthic predation in habitats with high complexity. In a field experiment, the larval settling of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, was recorded on an artificial substrate 0.25, 1 and 2 m above the bottom during six periods in spring 1999. The experiment was conducted at four......The choice of a mussel bed as a settling locality by conspecific mussel larvae is a trade-off between reduced fitness due to an increased risk of larval predation and post-settling food competition with the filtering adults and the benefit from a reduced post-settling mortality. This reduced post...... stations with dense mussel beds located at two of these stations. Two of the four stations, one with mussel beds and one without, were located in a wind-exposed area and the two other stations in a sheltered area. It was demonstrated that the larval settling was reduced up to 1 m above the mussel beds...

  16. Is Khat (Catha edulis) chewing a risk factor for periodontal diseases? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Al-Maweri, Sadeq-Ali; Al-Shamiri, Hashem-Motahir; Ijaz, Anum; Gamal, Shukri; Dhaifullah, Esam

    2017-10-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is a highly prevalent habit in the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa, and has recently spread to Western countries. The association between khat chewing and oral mucosal lesions is well documented in the literature. However, there is no concrete evidence on the association between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the influence of khat chewing on periodontal health. A literature search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Sciences databases was carried out to identify relevant articles published from 1990 to May 2017. The inclusion criteria were all clinical studies that assessed the relationship between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The search yielded 122 articles, of which 10 were included in this systematic review. Most of the studies exhibited a positive correlation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Altogether, the analysis of the current evidence reveals that khat chewing is destructive to the periodontium and enhances the risk of periodontal disease progression. However, due to variability of studies, more longitudinal case-controlled studies are highly warranted to establish a causal relation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Key words: Khat chewing, periodontal health, periodontal disease, risk factor.

  17. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk. Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10 to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, reasons for Khat chewing, and DAST-10. Stepwise-logistic regression was used to explore predictors of Khat dependence. Results. The majority of the respondents were married, had a secondary school level of education, were employed, were younger than 35 years old, and were living in rural areas. Many chewers gave more than one reason for using Khat. It was mainly used to increase mental capacity, physical strength, and social entertainment, as well as enhance cheerfulness and orgasms. Statistical modeling of Khat dependence suggested that the most significant predictors were residence (OR = 1.67, P<0.02, frequency of Khat chewing (OR = 4.8, P<0.01, age of starting Khat chewing (OR = 1.15, P<0.01, and time of Khat effect (OR = 1.15, P<0.04. Conclusion. Our study provides important information on the pattern of Khat use and its potential to cause dependence.

  18. Isolation and evaluation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial ability from Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoye Shen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi (30 isolates from bamboo branches were categorized into 12 genera, based on the blast analyses of ITS nrDNA sequence in GenBank and microscopic examination. The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of endophytic fungi. Inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens have been screened for all the isolates preliminarily and strains tentatively identified as Cladosporium sphaerospermum (PE106, Simplicillium lanosoniveum (PE120, Curvularia sp. (PE127, Didymella sp. (PE128 and Penicillium cf. raistrickii (PE130 presented bioactivity against at least four tested pathogens using the agar diffusion method. Crude extracts of PE106, PE120, PE127 and PE130 displayed broad-spectrum activity against plant pathogenic fungi by mycelial radial growth test. All of the four isolates were found to have high bioactivity against the frequent plant pathogenic fungus Botryotinia fuckeliana, and two of the isolates (PE120 and PE130 also inhibited the growth of phytopathogen Thanatephorus cucumeris noteworthily. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with branches of Ph. edulis.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and the correlation with major phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, and tocopherol content in various extracts from the wild edible Boletus edulis mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Emanuel; Nita, Sultana

    2013-01-01

    Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7 ± 0.23 and 56 ± 0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds.

  20. Ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis Sims leaves inhibits protein glycation and restores the oxidative burst in diabetic rat macrophages after Candida albicans exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes Ribas Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis leaves on blood glucose, protein glycation, NADPH oxidase activity and macrophage phagocytic capacity after Candida albicans exposure in diabetic rats. The Passiflora edulis Sims leaves were dried to 40°C, powdered, extracted by maceration in 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and lyophilised. The biochemical tests performed were total phenolic content (TP as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, trapping potential DPPH assay and total iron-reducing potential. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection. Protein glycation was determined by AGE and fructosamine serum concentrations. Extract-treated diabetic animals demonstrated lower fructosamine concentrations compared with the diabetic group. Our results suggest that ethanolic Passiflora edulis Sims leaf extraction may have beneficial effects on diabetes and may improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats.

  1. Antioxidant Capacity and the Correlation with Major Phenolic Compounds, Anthocyanin, and Tocopherol Content in Various Extracts from the Wild Edible Boletus edulis Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7±0.23 and 56±0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds.

  2. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Potential of Fruiting Bodies of the Wild-Growing King Bolete Mushroom, Boletus edulis (Agaricomycetes), from Western Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Aleksandra; Karaman, Maja; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Radusin, Tanja; Llic, Nebojsa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the bioactivity of crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Boletus edulis prepared from caps and stipes of wild-growing basidiocarps collected from the Prijepolje region (western Serbia). The bioactivity screening included antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH], nitric oxide, super-oxide anion*, and hydroxyl radicals and ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and antiproliferative MTT assays (human breast MCF-7 cancer cell line). In addition, all extracts were primarily characterized by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry to determine total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The highest anti-DPPH and anti-hydroxyl radical activity were observed in aqueous B. edulis extract from the caps (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 50.97 μg/ mL and 2.05 μg/mL, respectively), whereas the highest anti-nitric oxide radical activity was observed in aqueous B. edulis extract from the stipes (IC50 = 10.74 μg/mL). The ethanolic extract obtained from the mushroom stipe showed higher anti-superoxide anion radical activity (IC50 = 9.84 μg/mL) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (22.14 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g dry weight) compared with aqueous extracts. Total phenolic content for all extracts was similar but total flavonoid content was significantly higher in the aqueous B. edulis extract from the caps (4.5 mg quercetin equivalents/g dry weight). All crude extracts showed activity against the MCF-7 cell line, with the ethanolic extract of B. edulis prepared from stipes (IC50 = 56 μg/mL) being the most potent. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the antiproliferative effects of crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts prepared from caps and stipes of wild-growing basidiocarps of B. edulis on the human breast MCF-7 cancer cell line.

  3. Material compósito - propriedades do aglomerado de gesso e partículas fragmentadas de bambu (phyllostachys edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Luís Miguel Ferreira Leite de Novaes

    2011-01-01

    Neste trabalho estudou-se um compósito de gesso FGD reforçado com fibras vegetais. As fibras utilizadas neste estudo são provenientes de bambu da espécie Phyllostachys edulis e foram trituradas até se obter uma granulometria apropriada à composição de uma pasta de gesso que permitisse a execução de placas de gesso laminado. As placas produzidas foram ensaiadas à flexão e posteriormente submetidas à análise de humidade para aferir a percentagem de água de cristalização nas amostras. Foram a...

  4. Efeito da radiação gama nas propriedades químicas de Boletus edulis Bull: Fr. silvestre

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C.M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Boletus edulis Bull: Fr. (comumente designado níscaro) é um cogumelo comestível bastante apreciado pelas suas propriedades organoléticas e nutricionais. No entanto, a sua sazonalidade e perecibilidade causam algumas dificuldades na distribuição e comercialização desta espécie em fresco; as perdas associadas a este tipo de alimentos durante a comercialização podem chegar aos 40% (Lacroix & Ouattara, 2000). Tem havido muita investigação no sentido de encontrar tecnologias que garant...

  5. Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo of the polysaccharides from Boletus edulis bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Aoxue; Luo, Aoshuang; Huang, Jiandong; Fan, Yijun

    2012-07-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP) was extracted from Boletus edulis Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw), IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  6. Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis spray-dried aqueous extracts inhibit inflammation in mouse model of pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A J; Geremias, D S; Provensi, G; Fornari, P E; Reginatto, F H; Gosmann, G; Schenkel, E P; Fröde, T S

    2007-02-01

    The aqueous leaves extracts of Passiflora alata (100-300 mg/kg, i.p.) and Passiflora edulis (100-1000 mg/kg, i.p.) possess a significant antiinflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice. Treatment with the extracts inhibited leukocyte migration and reduced the formation of exudate. Moreover, a significant inhibition of myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities was observed at the doses tested (100 or 250 mg/kg, i.p.). At the same doses, a significant decrease of serum C-reactive protein was observed.

  7. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  8. Annual variation in the levels of transcripts of sex-specific genes in the mantle of the common mussel, Mytilus edulis.

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    Sandhya Anantharaman

    Full Text Available Mytilus species are used as sentinels for the assessment of environmental health but sex or stage in the reproduction cycle is rarely considered even though both parameters are likely to influence responses to pollution. We have validated the use of a qPCR assay for sex identification and related the levels of transcripts to the reproductive cycle. A temporal study of mantle of Mytilus edulis found transcripts of male-specific vitelline coat lysin (VCL and female-specific vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL could identify sex over a complete year. The levels of VCL/VERL were proportional to the numbers of sperm/ova and are indicative of the stage of the reproductive cycle. Maximal levels of VCL and VERL were found in February 2009 declining to minima between July - August before increasing and re-attaining a peak in February 2010. Water temperature may influence these transitions since they coincide with minimal water temperature in February and maximal temperature in August. An identical pattern of variation was found for a cryptic female-specific transcript (H5 but a very different pattern was observed for oestrogen receptor 2 (ER2. ER2 varied in a sex-specific way with male > female for most of the cycle, with a female maxima in July and a male maxima in December. Using artificially spawned animals, the transcripts for VCL, VERL and H5 were shown to be present in gametes and thus their disappearance from mantle is indicative of spawning. VCL and VERL are present at equivalent levels in February and July-August but during gametogenesis (August to January and spawning (March to June VCL is present at lower relative amounts than VERL. This may indicate sex-specific control mechanisms for these processes and highlight a potential pressure point leading to reduced reproductive output if environmental factors cause asynchrony to gamete maturation or release.

  9. Application of SSH and a macroarray to investigate altered gene expression in Mytilus edulis in response to exposure to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Davies, I M; Moffat, C F; Craft, J A

    2006-07-01

    The lack of genomic resources for aquatic invertebrates restricts their use as sentinel species in coastal environments. It is known that where genomic data are not available, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) can generate cDNA libraries representative of pollutant-responsive gene transcription in aquatic vertebrates. To assess whether the approach was equally suited to aquatic invertebrates, altered gene expression in digestive gland of the mussel, Mytilus edulis, in response to exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (1 mg/l) was investigated with SSH and a nylon macroarray. Screening of the subtracted libraries showed 112/250 up-regulated and 25/55 down-regulated clones were positive for differential expression and characterisation of these identified 87 with unique sequence suitable for array on a nylon membrane. The transcripts isolated were from a diverse range of genes involved in general stress, oxidative stress, cell adhesion, transcriptional and translational regulation, transport mechanisms, energy metabolism, cell metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein turnover and activation, lysosomal activity and 22 cryptic clones. Subsequent use of the clones in macroarray format to analyse expression of BaP-responsive genes (0 vs 4 day exposed) showed 0-100-fold increased levels of the forward-subtracted probes and between 0 and 0.1-fold down-regulation of the reverse-subtracted probes. Only 15% of the clones showed less than 2-fold change in expression. The gene ontology of the transcripts isolated demonstrates that BaP elicits a multitude of responses with a major feature being disruption of cellular redox status. The results indicate that the use of SSH and a macroarray is a robust method to discover novel pollutant-responsive genes in aquatic invertebrates.

  10. Distribution and population characteristics of Mytilus edulis L. in the Sel'dyanaya, Kruglaya and Levaya Bays (the Chupa Inlet, White Sea

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    Khacheturova K. S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of researching the structure of Mytilus edulis L. settlements and the growth rate of mollusks on the littoral of the Kruglaya, Sel'dyanaya and Levaya Bays of the Chupa Inlet, the White Sea in summer 2014–2015 have been presented; the spatial distribution, abundance indices, size-weight and age structure have been analyzed. Mussels form the huge aggregations on the middle and lover intertidal zone due to the nature of the bay bed represented by the stone-boulder belt and providing the mussel with large attachment surface. The increase in the abundance of mussels is observed simultaneously in two directions: from the upper horizon of the littoral to the lower one and from the mouth of the bay to its opposite part. In 2014, the highest mussel abundance was registered in the Kruglaya Bay, in 2015 – in the Levaya Bay. Molluscs of this species form aggregations with high biomass and density on the lower horizon of the littoral, which is associated with increased water exchange due to tidal currents that provide mussels with food. Mussels characterized by the largest size-weight parameters have been found in the Sel'dyanaya Bay. Mussels of 3–6 years dominated in the Kruglaya and Sel'dyanaya Bays in 2015. The mussels of 0–2 years dominated in the Levaya Bay the same year; the intensive subsidence of juveniles in the period under study has been observed. The highest growth rate has been observed for mussels inhabiting the Levaya Bay.

  11. Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandari, Laxman S; Yadav, Hiranmai R; Thakur, Ashok K; Kandari, Tripti

    2014-01-01

    Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia's second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer's income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of crop on the community. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. The chat yields in the area ranges from 1500-1800 kg/ha through monoculture. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, 533.00 to 13, 166.00 kg/ha per year in Baate and Genede cultivating areas. When the average cost per/ha was rupees 60/kg. The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. Alternative sources of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the production of food grains being produced.

  12. Molecular imaging of alkaloids in khat (Catha edulis) leaves with MeV-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenčič, Boštjan; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Vencelj, Matjaž; Kelemen, Mitja; Matsuo, Jiro; Kusakari, Masakazu; Siketić, Zdravko; Al-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Shaltout, Abdallah; Pelicon, Primož

    2017-08-01

    Imaging Mass Spectroscopy (IMS) is a unique research tool providing localization and identification of a wide range of biomolecules as essential data to understand biochemical processes in living organisms. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with high-energy heavy ions (MeV-SIMS) is emerging as a promising IMS technique for chemical imaging of biological tissue. We measured the molecular mass spatial distributions in leaves of khat (Catha edulis). Khat is a natural drug plant, native to eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In these countries, fresh leaves are being chewed by significant part of population. It was reported that 80% of the adult population in Yemen chew the khat leaves. The main stimulating effects of khat are induced by a monoamine alkaloid called cathinone. During leaf ageing, cathinone is further metabolised to cathine and norephedrine. Earlier studies identified the alkaloids in khat, however little is known on their spatial distribution, reflecting the biosynthesis and accumulation in the tissue. Chemical mapping of alkaloids on cross-sections of khat leaves by MeV-SIMS was done at JSI by a pulsed 5.8 MeV 35Cl6+ beam, focused to a diameter of 15 μm, using a linear time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with a mass resolution of 500. In addition, measurements of MeV-SIMS mass spectra were performed at Kyoto University by a continuous broad beam of 6 MeV 63Cu4+ ions at an orthogonal TOF spectrometer with a high mass resolution of 11,000. Sections of leaves were analysed and mass spectra obtained at both MeV-SIMS setups were compared. Tissue-level distributions of detected alkaloids are presented and discussed.

  13. Bibliometric analysis on global Catha edulis (khat) research production during the period of 1952-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2015-09-04

    Publication of scientific articles related to khat (Catha edulis) in peer-reviewed journals is considered a measure of research productivity. The principal objectives of this study were to quantify the research contribution related to khat at the global level, as well as to determine its relative growth rate, collaborative measures taken, productivity at the institutional level, and the most prolific journals publishing on the topic. On the basis of title words related to khat, publications were identified for all data in Scopus bibliographic database's history up to December 31, 2014. The research productivity for the top 10 countries was evaluated in relation to the population size and gross domestic product (GDP) in 2013. The criteria were met by 651documents published in 51 countries. The largest number of articles associated with khat was from the UK (15.2 %), followed by Yemen (10.3 %), the USA (9.7 %) and Ethiopia (9.1 %). Ethiopia, Yemen, and Kenya had the highest productivity of publications after standardization by population size and GDP. Furthermore, Yemen achieved the highest number of collaborations, by having researchers from 19 countries. Ethiopia followed, having researchers from 16 countries. This bibliometric study provides a demonstration for the worldwide research activity regarding khat. The number of articles related to khat has increased rapidly over the last 10 years. The present study is a good starting point to evaluate research activity in the field of khat. Although the data shows a promising increase in the research activity, the quantity of khat-related research is still too little compared to the massive use of khat in certain countries.

  14. Estimating fruitpulp carotenoid content from shell color in gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Franco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims es un fruto aceptado en mercados europeos; pero, su corta vida en poscosecha limita la comercialización. Por lo tanto, es necesario, caracterizar algunos atributos de la maduración, para que el fruto mantenga las mejores condiciones de calidad. La investigación tuvo como objetivo estimar, a partir de los cambios de color del fruto y de su edad, la evolución de los carotenoides, mediante el uso de modelos que predijeran esta relación. Se utilizaron frutos con edad conocida para determinar el color con base en el espacio CIE L*, a* y b*. La colorimetría confirmó que hay evolución apreciable a partir de los 84 días después de floración (DDF, con color morado oscuro hacia los 98 DDF y púrpura muy oscuro a los 105 DDF. En frutos madurados en la planta, se apreció disminución en la luminosidad (L*, mientras que en las coordenadas a* el valor aumentó y el b* disminuyó, cambios que definen el color del fruto. Se observó una tendencia similar en frutos cosechados a partir de los 91 DDF. Tanto en los frutos madurados en la planta como en los cosechados, el contenido de carotenoides se incrementó a medida que la senescencia del fruto avanzaba. Modelos de regresión permitieron estimar el contenido de carotenoides: uno múltiple, con las coordenadas de color como predictoras y el otro polinomial, basado en la edad del fruto.

  15. Dasiops luzestelae: a new species of the genus dasiops rondani (diptera: lonchaeidae) associated with passion fruit crops in colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Angela; Korytkowski, Cheslavo; Ebratt, Everth; Brochero, Helena L.

    2013-01-01

    Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) is a species that previously was not described formally and is regarded as an undetermined pest affecting buds of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener. This study evaluated material collected in 10 departments of Colombia where passion fruit crops constitute an important economic income. Data of geographical distribution and passion fruit crops associated with Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. are presented.

  16. Fruit species of Rondónia State center-south, Especies frutíferas do centro-sul do Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available his work constitutes the first survey of fruitful species of Rondónia State, in the Brazilian Amazon. This started in 2005, until now 22 species had been catalogued, distributed in 13 botanical families. Among the families Palmae and Sterculiaceae have been distinguished, each one with five described species. Some species are not part of the popular knowledge, being consumed mainly for the wild fauna, as Diospyros brasiliensis Mart. (caqui-do-mato, Bellucia grossularioides (L. Triana (jambinho and Maclura tinctoria (L. Engl. (amoreira. Beyond the nourishing use, some species present new potentials, case of açaí Euterpe oleracea Mart., whose seeds are used in the manufacture of “bio-jewels”.Este trabalho se constitui no primeiro levantamento de espécies frutíferas do Estado de Rondónia, na Amazónia brasileira. Iniciado em 2005, até o momento foram catalogadas 22 espécies, distribuídas em 13 famílias botânicas. Entre as famílias destaca-se Palmae e Sterculiaceae, cada uma com cinco espécies descritas. Algumas espécies não fazem parte do conhecimento popular, sendo consumidas principalmente pela fauna silvestre, como Diospyros brasiliensis Mart. (caqui-do-mato, Bellucia grossularioides (L. Triana (jambinho e Maclura tinctoria (L. Engl. (amoreira. Além do uso alimentício, há espécies que apresentam novos potenciais, caso do açaí Euterpe oleracea Mart., cujas sementes são utilizadas na fabricação de biojóias.

  17. The Use of Selected Biomarkers, Phagocytic and Cholinesterase Activity to Detect the Effects of Dimethoate on Marine Mussel (Mytilus edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHUSNUL YAQIN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of organophosphorous pesticide, dimethoate on blue mussels, Mytilus edulis using selected biomarkers have been studied. Mussels were exposed to serial dilutions of dimethoate, 7.88, 15.75, 31.35, and 63.00 µg/l including positive and negative controls for 14 days. The suppression effects of dimethoate on phagocytic activity significantly occurred at two lowest concentrations of dimethoate (7.88 and 15.75 µg/l, but stimulation effects significantly emerged at the following highest concentrations (31.35 and 63.00 µg/l. The declining tendency of the cholinesterase (ChE activity (23% lower than the control appeared when mussels exposed to 7.88 and 15.75 µg/l dimethoate. Moreover, the significant inhibition of the ChE activity occurred at 31.35 µg/l dimethoate exposure. This study suggested that the phagocytic and the ChE activity are useful biomarkers for assessing the affects of organophosporous pesticide, dimethoate on neuro-immune system of blue mussels, M. edulis.

  18. Pharmacology of Casimiroa edulis IV. Hypotensive effects of compounds isolated from methanolic extracts in rats and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos, G A; Vidrio, H; Reynolds, W F; Enríquez, R G

    1999-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the methanolic extract of seeds of Casimiroa edulis led to the isolation of seven constituents with cardiovascular activity, namely the new compound synephrine acetonide and the known compounds N-monomethylhistamine, N,N-dimethylhistamine, proline, N-methylproline, gamma-aminobutyric acid and casimiroedine. In anesthetized rats, both histamine derivatives produced transient hypotension mediated via H1-histaminergic receptors and in the case of N,N-dimethylhistamine, via nitric oxide release. Synephrine acetonide produced transient hypertension and tachycardia, mediated via alpha- and alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptores, respectively. The chromatographic zone containing N-methyproline, proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid elicited marked and prolonged hypotension. Finally, casimiroedine did not modify the blood pressure of anesthetized rats, but lowered it persistently in anesthetized guinea pigs. It was concluded that hypotension produced by C. edulis is due to several active components. The immediate effect can be attributed to the histamine derivatives acting on H1-receptors. More prolonged hypotension would be produced by the mixture of amino acids through an unknown mechanism, as well as by casimiroedine, possibly by activation of H3-receptors. Hypotension is partially offset by synephrine acetonide through adrenergic mechanisms.

  19. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, Hans

    2016-01-01

    A recently developed BioEnergetic Growth (BEG) model for blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), valid for juvenile mussels, has been further developed to an ‘extended model’ and an alternative ‘ad hoc BEG model’ valid for post-metamorphic mussels, where the latter accounts for changing ambient chl...... a concentration. It was used to predict the growth of M. edulis on optimally thinned farm-ropes in Great Belt (Denmark), from newly settled post-metamorphic mussels of an initial shell size of 0.8 mm to marketable juvenile 30–35 mm ‘mini-mussels’. Such mussels will presumably in the near future be introduced...... as a new Danish, smaller-sized consumer product. Field data for actual growth (from Day 0 = 14 June 2011) showed that size of ‘mini-mussel’ was reached on Day 109 (Oct 1) and length 38 mm on Day 178 (Dec 9) while the corresponding predictions using the extended model were Day 121 (Oct 13) and Day 159 (Nov...

  20. Direct and indirect effects of seastars Asterias rubens on mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis) in the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saier, Bettina

    2001-08-01

    Near the island of Sylt in the Wadden Sea (German Bight, North Sea), seastars Asterias rubens (L.) co-occur with their preferred prey, mussels Mytilus edulis (L.), which form extensive beds from the intertidal down to the subtidal zone. Mussel density within these beds is significantly lower in the subtidal than the intertidal zone. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to check if this was due to seastar predation. Feeding experiments did not indicate size refuge of M. edulis from predation by A. rubens, but showed that seastars preferred clean subtidal mussels above barnacle-overgrown intertidal ones. This preference coincided with higher abundances of both large ( arm length >5.5 cm) and smaller seastars in the shallow subtidal, but their abundance was too low to account for the decreased subtidal mussel density in the area studied. However, seastars may indirectly reduce mussel recruitment in the subtidal zone. This is caused by juvenile seastar predation upon the barnacles that grow on mussels, because such epigrowth strongly enhances recruitment in mussels. Such an indirect effect on mussel recruitment may affect mussel density more than adult seastar predation. An exception may be mass invasions of A. rubens on subtidal mussel beds. One such event happened during this study, clearing a large patch of mussels.

  1. Genome-wide analysis and expression characteristics of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qingsong; Hou, Dan; Li, Long; Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Liu, Jun; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Gao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is well known for its rapid shoot growth. Auxin exerts pleiotropic effects on plant growth. The small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are early auxin-responsive genes involved in plant growth. In total, 38 SAUR genes were identified in P. edulis (PheSAUR). A comprehensive overview of the PheSAUR gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, and subcellular location predictions. A transcriptome analysis indicated that 37 (except PheSAUR18) of the PheSAUR genes were expressed during shoot growth process and that the PheSAUR genes were differentially expressed. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that all of the PheSAUR genes could be induced in different tissues of seedlings and that 37 (except PheSAUR41) of the PheSAUR genes were up-regulated after indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatment. These results reveal a comprehensive overview of the PheSAUR gene family and may pave the way for deciphering their functions during bamboo development.

  2. Biochemical and Molecular Study of Carpobrotus edulis Bioactive Properties and Their Effects on Dugesia sicula (Turbellaria, Tricladida) Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Emna; Charni, Mohamed; Ghazouani, Tesnime; Cozzolino, Autilia; Fratianni, Florinda; Raboudi, Faten; Nazzaro, Filomena; Fattouch, Sami

    2017-07-01

    The traditional medicinal properties of Carpobrotus edulis are well recognized, particularly in Tunisia where it is used for wound healing. Thus, in this study, biochemical and molecular properties of its leaves' bioactive aqueous-acetone extract were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract was estimated to be 184 ± 5 mg/100 g of fresh matter (FM). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic profile was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) and showed that chlorogenic acid was the major compound (43.7%). The extract exhibits potent antioxidant capacities with IC50 = 56.19 and 58.91 μg/ml, as accessed via the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical scavenging assays, respectively. The extract has high antibacterial properties, especially against the Gram+ Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus strains. To investigate the extract effect on regeneration, the flatworm Dugesia sicula Lepori, 1948, was used as a model. The macroscopic analysis of planarian cultures in ordinary medium containing phenolic extract at non-toxic concentrations illustrated that the extract caused morphological changes. Additionally, the molecular study through the fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) technique showed that C. edulis polyphenols can harm the stem cells' development. These results emphasize the ecotoxicological impact of phenolic rejections in the environment on flatworms' physiology.

  3. Interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism in the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-11-01

    Seawater acidification and warming resulting from anthropogenic production of carbon dioxide are increasing threats to marine ecosystems. Previous studies have documented the effects of either seawater acidification or warming on marine calcifiers; however, the combined effects of these stressors are poorly understood. In our study, we examined the interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(CO2)) and temperature on biomineralization and amino acid content in an ecologically and economically important mussel, Mytilus edulis. Adult M. edulis were reared at different combinations of P(CO2) (pH 8.1 and 7.8) and temperature (19, 22 and 25°C) for 2 months. The results indicated that elevated P(CO2) significantly decreased the net calcification rate, the calcium content and the Ca/Mg ratio of the shells, induced the differential expression of biomineralization-related genes, modified shell ultrastructure and altered amino acid content, implying significant effects of seawater acidification on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism. Notably, elevated temperature enhanced the effects of seawater acidification on these parameters. The shell breaking force significantly decreased under elevated P(CO2), but the effect was not exacerbated by elevated temperature. The results suggest that the interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on mussels are likely to have ecological and functional implications. This study is therefore helpful for better understanding the underlying effects of changing marine environments on mussels and other marine calcifiers. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Seasonal changes in size selection and intake rate of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus feeding on the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, B.J.; Dirksen, S; Smit, CJ; Bunskoeke, AJ

    1996-01-01

    During the course of spring, Cockles Cerastoderma edule and Mussels Mytilus edulis grow in size, while the condition, as measured by the biomass content of shells of a given size, also increases. Condition temporarily drops when the larger individuals spawn. This study investigates the effects of

  5. Predation of shore crabs (Carcinus maenas (L.)) and starfish (Asterias rubens L.) on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) seed from wild sources and spat collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Blankendaal, M.; Perdon, J.

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands, several pilot projects are carried out on the use of spat collectors as an additional supply of seed for bottom culture of mussels (Mytilus edulis). The method proves to be successful in yielding substantial amounts of seed. One of the conditions for successful application of

  6. Mechanistic evidence of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) anxiolytic activity in relation to its metabolite fingerprint as revealed via LC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otify, Asmaa; George, Camilia; Elsayed, Aly; Farag, Mohamed A

    2015-12-01

    Passiflora edulis Sims F. flavicarpa along with several other plants belonging to the genus Passiflora have been reported as sedatives and for treatment or prevention of central disorders. This study evaluated the anxiolytic effect of P. edulis ethanol extract and its fractions (viz. chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol) using the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety and assessment of γ-aminobutyric acid levels. The results revealed that butanol and chloroform extracts exhibit the strongest effect followed by ethyl acetate suggesting that a combination of different classes of metabolites is likely to mediate for P. edulis anxiolytic effect in these fractions. To further pinpoint bioactive agents in fractions, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to high resolution qTOF-MS was used for secondary metabolite profiling. A total of 65 metabolites were characterized including O-flavonoids, C-flavonoids, cyanogenic glycosides and fatty acids. Harman type alkaloids found in P. incarnata were not detected in P. edulis ethanol extract or any of its fractions suggesting that they do not mediate for its CNS modulating effects. Multivariate data analysis (PCA) was further applied to identify metabolite markers for fractions and revealed that enrichment of C-glycoside type flavonoids in chloroform/ethyl acetate fractions versus the exclusive presence of cyanogenic glycosides in its butanol fraction.

  7. Biochemical and volatile organic compound profile of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) cultivated in the Eastern Scheldt and Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houcke, van Jasper; Medina, Isabel; Linssen, Jozef; Luten, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two important different geographical cultivation areas in the Netherlands (Eastern Scheldt and Lake Grevelingen) on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea

  8. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...

  9. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds.

  10. Acute Oral Mammalian Toxicity and Effect of Solvents on Efficacy of Maerua edulis (Gilg. & Ben. De Wolf against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus Koch, 1844 (Acarina: Ixodidae, Tick Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel T. Nyahangare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy and toxicity of aqueous and organic solvents extracts of Maerua edulis against ticks and mice, respectively, were determined. Ground leaves were extracted separately using cold water, cold water plus surfactant (1% v/v liquid soap, hot water plus surfactant, hexane, or methanol to make 25% w/v stock solutions from which serial dilutions of 5, 10, 20, and 25% were made. For each concentration, 20 Rhipicephalus decoloratus tick larvae were put in filter papers impregnated with extracts and incubated for 48 h at 27°C and 85–90% RH for mortality observation after 24 h and 48 h. In the toxicity experiment, hot water plus surfactant treatments of 5, 10, 20, and 25% (w/v M. edulis were administered in suspension per os to sexually mature Balb/C mice and observed for clinical signs and mortality for 72 h. Larvae mortality was highest (>98% in methanol-extracted M. edulis treatments (20 and 25%, which was not different from the amitraz-based control (Tickbuster®. Mortality was also higher in the hot water than in cold water plus surfactant treatments (P<0.05. No postadministration adverse health effects were observed in the mice. These results suggest that M. edulis is an effective tick remedy best extracted using methanol or hot water plus surfactant.

  11. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Endson S; Brown, Judith K; Moreira, Adriana G; Watson, Gillian; Lourenção, André L; Piedade, Sônia M S; Rezende, Jorge A M; Vieira, Maria L C

    2008-01-01

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci.

  12. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica]. E-mail: esnunes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; mlcvieir@esalq.usp.br; Brown, Judith K. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences]. E-mail: jbrown@Ag.arizona.edu; Moreira, Adriana G.; Rezende, Jorge A.M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mails: agmoreir@esalq.usp.br; amrezen@esalq.usp.br; Watson, Gillian [California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: gwatson@cdfa.ca.gov; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br; Piedade, Sonia M.S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: jsoniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2008-11-15

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  13. Probable neuro sexual mode of action of Casimiroa edulis seed extract versus [correction of verses] sildenafil citrate (Viagra(tm)) on mating behavior in normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the aphrodisiac actions of the aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis on the sexual behavior of normal male rats. In this investigation 30 healthy male Wister strain white albino rats showing the brisk sexual activity age 15 weeks, weighing 400-450 grams were included. Female rats were artificially brought into estrous by hormonal treatment. Receptivity was checked by exposing them to the male rats and the most receptive females were selected for the stud The mating responses including Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Mounting Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculatory Latency in first and second series (EL1 and EL2) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were recorded after treating the animals with 250 mg/kg casimiroa edulis extract (test reference) and 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (standard reference) respectively orally per day for 7 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant increase in Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, and first and second ejaculatory latencies, where as Mounting and Intromission latencies and the Post Ejaculatory Interval showed a significant reduction than the controls. Although a similar pattern of mating behavior was observed among the test and the standard groups, however in all the cases as expected, sildenafil produced greater activity than the casimiroa edulis extract. These results suggest the possibility of a similar mode of action of casimiroa edulis and sildenafil citrate on mating behavior in these animals. Our work reported in this research thus provide preliminary evidence that the aqueous seed extract of casimiroa edulis possesses alphrodisiac activity and may be used as an alternative drug therapy to restore sexual functions probably via a neurogenic mode of action.

  14. Biodisponibilidade de ferro do açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. e da farinha de mandioca fortificada com ferro em ratos Iron bioavailability of the açaí(Euterpe oleracea Mart. and the iron-fortified manioc flour in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlene Duarte Alves Toaiari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a biodisponibilidade do ferro do açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. e da farinha de mandioca fortificada com ferro, utilizando o método de depleção e repleção de hemoglobina em ratos. MÉTODOS: No período de depleção, durante a lactação, as ratas (Rattus novergicus e seus filhotes receberam ração à base de caseína (American Institute of Nutrition - 93G, sem adição de ferro na mistura salina, sendo que os filhotes, quando desmamados, continuaram a receber a mesma ração por mais sete dias. Paralelamente, houve um grupo controle no qual ratas e filhotes receberam ração comercial. No período de repleção de catorze dias, os ratos machos (n=40 foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em cinco grupos de oito ratos cada um, os quais receberam rações experimentais (açaí e farinha de mandioca fortificada com ferro e controles (do açaí e American Institute of Nutrition 93. A concentração de hemoglobina foi determinada semanalmente e a biodisponibilidade de ferro das rações foi determinada por meio de cálculos do ferro ingerido e do ferro hemoglobínico dos ratos dos diferentes grupos. RESULTADOS: Ao final do período de depleção, a concentração de hemoglobina dos ratos, de 4,7 ± 0,5g/dL, demonstrou a efetividade do método utilizado. A maior biodisponibilidade de ferro foi constatada na farinha de mandioca fortificada (44,6±3,6%, em contraste com a baixa biodisponibilidade do ferro do açaí (12,1±5,5%. CONCLUSÃO: O ferro presente no açaí não foi eficaz na recuperação da concentração de hemoglobina dos ratos. Portanto sugere-se cautela ao recomendar a utilização do açaí como fonte de ferro.OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the bioavailability of iron derived from açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. and from iron-fortified manioc flour, using the hemoglobin iron-depletion-recovery method in rats. METHODS: A casein-based diet (American Institute of Nutrition - 93G, without

  15. Spatial variations in biomarkers of Mytilus edulis mussels at four polluted regions spanning the Northern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, F.; Burgeot, T.; Hellou, J.; St-Jean, S.; Farcy, E.; Blaise, C.

    2008-01-01

    Economic and social developments have taken place at the expense of the health of the environment, both locally and on a global scale. In an attempt to better understand the large-scale effects of pollution and other stressors like climate change on the health status of Mytilus edulis, mussels were collected during the first two weeks of June 2005 at three sites (one pristine and two affected by pollution) located in each of the regions of the Canadian West Coast, the St. Lawrence estuary, the Atlantic East Coast and the northwestern coast of France, covering a total distance of some 11 000 km. The mussels were analyzed for morphologic integrity (condition factor), gametogenic activity (gonado-somatic and gonad maturation index, vitellogenin(Vtg)-like proteins), energy status (temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity and gonad lipid stores), defense mechanisms (glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, cytochrome P4503A activity and xanthine oxidoreductase-XOR), and tissue damage (lipid peroxidation-LPO and DNA strand breaks). The results showed that data from the reference sites in each region were usually not normally distributed, with discriminant factors reaching the number of regions (i.e. four), except for the biomarkers gonadal lipids, XOR and LPO in digestive gland. The integrated responses of the biomarkers revealed that biomarkers of stress were significantly more pronounced in mussels from the Seine estuary, suggesting that the impacts of pollution are more generalized in this area. Mussels from the Seine estuary and the Atlantic East Coast (Halifax Harbor) responded more strongly for Vtg-like proteins, but was not related to gonad maturation and gonado-somatic indexes, suggesting the presence of environmental estrogens. Moreover, these mussels displayed reduced DNA repair activity and increased LPO. Factorial analyses revealed that energy status, cytochrome P4503A activity and Vtg-like proteins were the most important

  16. The availability and quality of the mussel prey ( Mytilus edulis) of oystercatchers ( Haematopus ostralegus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss-Custard, J. D.; West, A. D.; Dit Durell, S. E. A. LeV

    Spatial variations in the availability and quality of the mussel Mytilus edulis food supply of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the Exe estuary, England, are described. Oystercatchers open mussels by stabbing into gaping mussels (or prising open closed ones) or by hammering a hole in either the dorsal or ventral shells. Spatial variations in the food supply are considered at four scales. In decreasing order of size, these are (i) whole mussel beds, (ii) zones within a mussel bed, (iii) different places within one zone, and (iv) different places within one clump of mussels. The first two scales are clearly related to exposure time. Both between and within the 12 main mussel beds of the estuary, most upshore mussels are up to 10% less likely than downshore mussels to be hidden under mud. However, upshore mussels of a given length contain less flesh, have thicker ventral shells and, except on high-level beds subject to wave erosion, have thicker dorsal shells than downshore mussels. Mussels at the top of the shore also contain the highest infestations of the helminth parasite of Oystercatchers, Psilostomum brevicolle. At a particular shore level, mussels of a given length have less flesh and thicker shells, though only on the dorsal side, in areas of high mussel density. Within one clump, mussels of a given length with thick dorsal shells have more flesh than those with thin shells. In contrast, flesh content is slightly higher in mussels that are thin on the ventral side. Flesh content and shell thickness on both sides are unaffected by whether a mussel is visible at the edge of a clump or hidden inside. Simulations with a model of foraging Oystercatchers suggested that variations in mussel availability (visibility and shell thickness) and flesh content at all four scales could sometimes have an important influence on intake rate. Most published values of intake rates of Oystercatchers eating surface-dwelling mussels may be biassed (and often considerably over

  17. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B.C., E-mail: Ben.Jaeschke@gmail.com [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Lind, O.C. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Bradshaw, C. [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Salbu, B. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h{sup −1}) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment

  18. Ion microprobe assessment of the heterogeneity of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis (bivalvia shell calcite precipitated at constant temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale heterogeneity of biogenic carbonate elemental composition can be a significant source of error in the accurate use of element/Ca ratios as geochemical proxies. In this study ion microprobe (SIMS profiles showed significant small-scale variability of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in new shell calcite of the marine bivalves Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis that was precipitated during a constant-temperature culturing experiment. Elevated Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios were found to be associated with the deposition of elaborate shell features, i.e. a shell surface stria in P. maximus and surface shell disturbance marks in both species, the latter a common occurrence in bivalve shells. In both species the observed small-scale elemental heterogeneity most likely was not controlled by variable transport of ions to the extra-pallial fluid, but by factors such as the influence of shell organic content and/or crystal size and orientation, the latter reflecting conditions at the shell crystal-solution interface. In the mid and innermost regions of the P. maximus shell the lack of significant small-scale variation of Mg/Ca ratios, which is consistent with growth at constant temperature, suggest a potential application as a palaeotemperature proxy. Cross-growth band element/Ca ratio profiles in the interior of bivalve shells may provide more promising palaeo-environmental tools than sampling from the outer region of bivalve shells.

  19. Morphology and viability of pollen grains from passion fruit species (Passiflora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and viability of pollen grains are useful tools to guide crosses in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to describe the morphological patterns and viability of pollen grains from five accessions of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa O. Deg. and five accessions of Passiflora setacea DC. Pollen morphology descriptions were made using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas the viability analysis was performed by in vitro germination and histochemical analysis (Lugol's solution and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Pollen grains assessed for germination were inoculated in culture medium containing Ca(NO3.4H2O (0.03%, Mg(SO4.7H2O (0.02%, KNO3 (0.01%, H3BO3 (0.01%, sucrose (15% and agar (0.8%. Although P. edulis and P. setacea showed the same shape and type of pollen aperture, the two differed in terms of their morphology and exine ornamentation pattern. In vitro analysis showed that one of the P. edulis f. flavicarpa accessions (designated BGP 330 presented the highest germination rate (53.98% and longest pollen tube (2.18 mm. The histochemical analysis overestimated pollen viability when compared with the in vitro results. The results of this study contribute to the breeding of Passiflora species by increasing the understanding of their morphology and pollen grain viability.

  20. Euphorbia latex: a possible source of hydrocarbons and rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P.; Teisseire, D.

    1975-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions are given of 36 plants of potential economic value in underdeveloped tropical countries, classified by use. The plants are either wild or cultivated on a fairly local scale. Accounts of limitations and special requirements and lists of references, research contacts and sources of germ plasm are included for each species. The following tree and shrub species are included: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, C. chayamansa and hearts of several edible palm species including Euterpe edulis (vegetables); Durio species, Garcinia mangostana, Solanum quitoense, Bactris gaspiaes, Citrus grandis, Annona muricata and Pourouma cecropiaefolia (fruits); Orbignya martiana, Caryocar species, Jessenia polycarpa and Simmondsia chinensis (oil seeds); Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum, Cassia sturtii, Atriplex species and Prosopis tamarungo (forage (browse)); Mauritia flexuosa (fruit, wood, etc.); Euphorbia antisyphilitica (wax); and Parthenium argentatum (rubber).

  1. Metabolomics Reveals Cryptic Interactive Effects of Species Interactions and Environmental Stress on Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism in Seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Castorani, Max; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    among foundational species and eventually affect ecosystem health. Here, we used metabolomics to assess the impact of light reductions on interactions between the seagrass Zostera marina, an important habitat-forming marine plant, and the abundant and commercially important blue mussel Mytilus edulis....... Plant performance varied with light availability but was unaffected by the presence of mussels. Metabolomic analysis, on the other hand, revealed an interaction between light availability and presence of M. edulis on seagrass metabolism. Under high light, mussels stimulated seagrass nitrogen and energy...... metabolism. Conversely, in low light mussels impeded nitrogen and energy metabolism, and enhanced responses against sulfide toxicity, causing inhibited oxidative energy metabolism and tissue degradation. Metabolomic analysis thereby revealed cryptic changes to seagrass condition that could not be detected...

  2. Assessment of blue mussel Mytilus edulis fisheries and waterbird shellfish-predator management in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karsten; Kristensen, Per Sand; Clausen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    biomass and mussel bed areas in zones closed to fishery, (ii) decrease in eiders Somateria mollissima numbers and increase or stable numbers for oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and herring gull Larus argentatus and (iii) that energy estimations based on ecological food requirements for the mussel-eating......We assessed the blue mussel Mytilus edulis fishery management scheme introduced in 1994 in the Danish Wadden Sea that regulate fishing vessels, fishery quota, set-aside for mussel-eating birds and established zones closed to mussel fishery. The results showed (i) a reduction in the blue mussel......, it is recommended to revise the present blue mussel management scheme in the Danish Wadden Sea, to continue and improve mussel stock and bird surveys, and to consider novel studies of the mussel-eating birds’ energetics for improved set-aside estimates and future assessments....

  3. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  4. Variations in Element Levels Accumulated in Different Parts of Boletus edulis Collected from Central Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ICP-AES and microwave assisted digestion were applied to determine P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Na, Cu, Ba, Ni, V, Cd, Sr, Co, and Li in the caps and stipes of Boletus edulis collected from six spatially distant sites in Yunnan province, China. Fruiting bodies of King Bolete are abundant in P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Na, followed by Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co. Contents of P, Mg, Zn, and Cu are more abundant in caps than in stipes of King Bolete. However, elements such as Na, Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co prefer to accumulate in stipes of mushrooms from Yaoan, Chuxiong. The results of this study indicate that spatial variations of elements between caps and stipes are mainly related to different bedrock soil geochemistry and enrichment capability for various elements.

  5. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja

    2015-01-01

    For bluemussels,Mytilus edulis, onemajor constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study...... was to incorporate the effects of low salinity into an eco-physiological model of blue mussels and to identify areas suitable for mussel production. A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model was modified with respect to i) the morphological parameters (DW/WW-ratio, shape factor), ii) change in ingestion rate and iii......) metabolic costs due to osmoregulation in different salinity environments. Themodified DEBmodel was validated with experimental data fromdifferent locations in the Western Baltic Sea (including the Limfjorden) with salinities varying from 8.5 to 29.9 psu. The identified areas suitable for mussel production...

  6. On the dynamics of the stocks of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Sten; Kristensen, Per Sand

    2001-01-01

    As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis...... parameters. By applying these in the Beverton & Holt model, estimates of average biomass and annual production (P) of the mussels have been obtained together with possible fisheries yields from the beds. The growth and mortality parameters and the figures for annual production and P/B are compared...... with figures from other investigations. These analyses have been the basis for annual assessments of the mussel stocks, which again are used in the current management of mussel fishery in the Danish Wadden Sea....

  7. Effects of substrate type on growth and mortality of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) exposed to the predator Carcinus maenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Dolmer, Per

    2002-01-01

    Structure and complexity of the substrate are important habitat characteristics for benthic epifauna. The specific growth and mortality rates and inducible defence characters on medium- sized blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) exposed to shore crabs (Carcinus maenas L.) were examined on three...... different substrate types in combined field and laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that complexity of the substrate increased blue mussel survival significantly, through a decrease in predation pressure. However, increased intraspecific competition for food on the complex substrate resulted...... in significantly lower growth rates of the mussels. Inducible defence characters were also influenced by substrate type. Blue mussels were more affected by predators on the structurally simple substrate, where they developed thicker shells and a larger posterior adductor muscle....

  8. Lactic Acid Bacteria Producing Inhibitor of Alpha Glucosidase Isolated from Ganyong (Canna Edulis) and Kimpul (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Rifa; Miftakhussolikhah; Frediansyah, Andri; Lailatul Rachmah, Desy

    2017-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a disease that caused by the failure of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas and insulin resistance in peripheral levels. One therapy for diabetics is by inhibiting the activity of α-glucosidase. Lactic acid bacteria have the ability to inhibit of α-glucosidase activity. The aims of this research was to isolation and screening of lactic acid bacteria from ganyong tuber (Canna Edulis) and kimpul tuber (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), which has the ability to inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase. Eightteen isolates were identified as lactic acid bacteria and all of them could inhibit the activity of α-glukosidase. The GN 8 isolate was perform the highest inhibition acivity.

  9. A pilot study on the effect of Catha edulis Frosk., (Celastraceae) on metabolic syndrome in WOKW rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Samira Abdulla; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2008-04-10

    This study investigated the effect of Catha edulis (khat) on some important parameters of the metabolic syndrome in Wistar Ottawa Karlsburg W (WOKW) rat. The animals were fed with the standard chow containing 5% air dried pulverized khat leaves for 14 days; followed by the standard chow for 16 days. The khat leaves were sorted into green (khat light; KL) and crimson (khat dark; KD) leaves. The control rats were fed on standard chow. Blood glucose (G), serum insulin, serum leptin and serum lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-, LDL-, and VLDL cholesterol) were determined. Feeding with khat leaves reduced the body weight and the triglyceride level of the animals. The effect of KD on these parameters was stronger than that of KL. KD lowered the blood glucose concentration and the leptin content whereas KL was inactive. The khat intake had no significant influence on serum insulin, total serum cholesterol, HDL-, LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol.

  10. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul S. Larsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed BioEnergetic Growth (BEG model for blue mussels (Mytilus edulis, valid for juvenile mussels, has been further developed to an ‘extended model’ and an alternative ‘ad hoc BEG model’ valid for post-metamorphic mussels, where the latter accounts for changing ambient chl a concentration. It was used to predict the growth of M. edulis on optimally thinned farm-ropes in Great Belt (Denmark, from newly settled post-metamorphic mussels of an initial shell size of 0.8 mm to marketable juvenile 30–35 mm ‘mini-mussels’. Such mussels will presumably in the near future be introduced as a new Danish, smaller-sized consumer product. Field data for actual growth (from Day 0 = 14 June 2011 showed that size of ‘mini-mussel’ was reached on Day 109 (Oct 1 and length 38 mm on Day 178 (Dec 9 while the corresponding predictions using the extended model were Day 121 (Oct 13 and Day 159 (Nov 20. Similar results were obtained by use of the ad hoc BEG model which also demonstrated the sensitivity of growth prediction to levels of chl a concentration, but less to temperature. The results suggest that it is possible (when the conditions are optimal, i.e., no intraspecific competition ensured by sufficient thinning to produce ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt during one season, but not the usual marketable 45-mm mussels. We suggest that the prediction model may be used as a practical instrument to evaluate to what degree the actual growth of mussels on farm ropes due to intraspecific competition may deviate from the potential (optimal growth under specified chl a and temperature conditions, and this implies that the effect of thinning to optimize the individual growth by eliminating intraspecific competition can be rationally evaluated.

  11. Detoxification and protein quality control markers in the mussel Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) exposed to crude oil: Salinity-induced modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila; Sukhovskaya, Irina; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Krupnova, Marina; Kantserova, Nadezda; Bakhmet, Igor'; Nemova, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems are influenced by oil from chronic contamination or sporadic oil spills. An oil spill was simulated in an aquarium-based experiment designed to reproduce interactions of crude oil with inert environmental components, particularly adhesion on shore gravel and dissolution in sea water. Total experimental oil concentrations were in the range of comparable hydrocarbon concentrations following an oil spill. Furthermore, the possible interaction of a chemical (anthropogenic) stressor, such as oil PAHs, and a "natural" stressor like desalination, was simulated. In order to assess the biological effects of crude oil contamination and desalination (each individually and in combination) on the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L., biochemical responses were estimated including: detoxification capacity by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, and protein quality control by autophagy-related proteases cathepsin B (CatB), cathepsin D (CatD), and calcium-dependent calpain-like proteases. Oil treatment stimulated defense system response in the mussels with primary effects on GST and protease-mediated reactions such as the activation of CatB, CatD, and calpains. Most of biomarkers responded to oil in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additional environmental stress, such as desalination, promoted the oil-induced activation of GST and CatD while resulting in a delay or impairement of the defense response to oil by GSH and proteases CatB and calpains. Thus, biomarker data shows that combined effects of oil compounds and desalination can be realized in both a synergistic and an antagonistic manner. The evaluated interaction between oil pollution effects and sub-optimal salinity on M. edulis indicates the potential risk of maladaptation to the biota of estuaries.

  12. Food supply and seawater pCO2 impact calcification and internal shell dissolution in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Melzner

    Full Text Available Progressive ocean acidification due to anthropogenic CO(2 emissions will alter marine ecosystem processes. Calcifying organisms might be particularly vulnerable to these alterations in the speciation of the marine carbonate system. While previous research efforts have mainly focused on external dissolution of shells in seawater under saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, the internal shell interface might be more vulnerable to acidification. In the case of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, high body fluid pCO(2 causes low pH and low carbonate concentrations in the extrapallial fluid, which is in direct contact with the inner shell surface. In order to test whether elevated seawater pCO(2 impacts calcification and inner shell surface integrity we exposed Baltic M. edulis to four different seawater pCO(2 (39, 142, 240, 405 Pa and two food algae (310-350 cells mL(-1 vs. 1600-2000 cells mL(-1 concentrations for a period of seven weeks during winter (5°C. We found that low food algae concentrations and high pCO(2 values each significantly decreased shell length growth. Internal shell surface corrosion of nacreous ( = aragonite layers was documented via stereomicroscopy and SEM at the two highest pCO(2 treatments in the high food group, while it was found in all treatments in the low food group. Both factors, food and pCO(2, significantly influenced the magnitude of inner shell surface dissolution. Our findings illustrate for the first time that integrity of inner shell surfaces is tightly coupled to the animals' energy budget under conditions of CO(2 stress. It is likely that under food limited conditions, energy is allocated to more vital processes (e.g. somatic mass maintenance instead of shell conservation. It is evident from our results that mussels exert significant biological control over the structural integrity of their inner shell surfaces.

  13. Especies frutíferas do centro-sul do Estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira Fruit species of Rondônia State center-south, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santina Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se constitui no primeiro levantamento de espécies frutíferas do Estado de Rondônia, na Amazônia brasileira. Iniciado em 2005, até o momento foram catalogadas 22 espécies, distribuídas em 13 famílias botânicas. Entre as famílias destaca-se Palmae e Sterculiaceae, cada uma com cinco espécies descritas. Algumas espécies não fazem parte do conhecimento popular, sendo consumidas principalmente pela fauna silvestre, como Diospyros brasiliensis Mart. (caqui-do-mato, Bellucia grossularioides (L. Triana (jambinho e Maclura tinctoria (L. Engl. (amoreira. Além do uso alimentício, há espécies que apresentam novos potenciais, caso do açaí Euterpe oleracea Mart., cujas sementes são utilizadas na fabricação de biojóias.This work constitutes the first survey of fruitful species of Rondônia State , in the Brazilian Amazon. This started in 2005, until now 22 species had been catalogued, distributed in 13 botanical families. Among the families Palmae and Sterculiaceae have been distinguished, each one with five described species. Some species are not part of the popular knowledge, being consumed mainly for the wild fauna, as Diospyros brasiliensis Mart. (caqui-do-mato, Bellucia grossularioides (L. Triana (jambinho and Maclura tinctoria (L. Engl. (amoreira. Beyond the nourishing use, some species present new potentials, case of açaí Euterpe oleracea Mart., whose seeds are used in the manufacture of “bio-jewels”.

  14. Obtención del aceite vegetal de Euterpe precatoria Mart. (Asaí) por diferentes métodos de extracción: evaluación del rendimiento y calidad (características físico-químicas, actividad antioxidante y estabilidad)

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Romero, Elizabeth Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    Frutos de Euterpe precatoria Mart. procedentes del departamento de Loreto-Yurimaguas, se investigaron según sus caracteres morfológicos, análisis proximal, extracción, propiedades fisicoquímicas de aceites crudos y evaluación de la actividad antioxidante. Los resultados morfológicos indicaron longitudes, diámetros y peso de frutos de 1,324 cm. 1,425 cm. y 1,797 g. El análisis químico proximal se realizó en pulpa seca, utilizada para extraer el aceite. El contenido de cenizas, fue similar a ...

  15. Temperature response surfaces for mortality risk of tree species with future drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Minor, Rebecca L.; Gardea, Alfonso A.; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Law, Darin J.; Breshears, David D.; McDowell, Nate G.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2017-11-01

    Widespread, high levels of tree mortality, termed forest die-off, associated with drought and rising temperatures, are disrupting forests worldwide. Drought will likely become more frequent with climate change, but even without more frequent drought, higher temperatures can exacerbate tree water stress. The temperature sensitivity of drought-induced mortality of tree species has been evaluated experimentally for only single-step changes in temperature (ambient compared to ambient + increase) rather than as a response surface (multiple levels of temperature increase), which constrains our ability to relate changes in the driver with the biological response. Here we show that time-to-mortality during drought for seedlings of two western United States tree species, Pinus edulis (Engelm.) and Pinus ponderosa (Douglas ex C. Lawson), declined in continuous proportion with increasing temperature spanning a 7.7 °C increase. Although P. edulis outlived P. ponderosa at all temperatures, both species had similar relative declines in time-to-mortality as temperature increased (5.2% per °C for P. edulis; 5.8% per °C for P. ponderosa). When combined with the non-linear frequency distribution of drought duration—many more short droughts than long droughts—these findings point to a progressive increase in mortality events with global change due to warming alone and independent of additional changes in future drought frequency distributions. As such, dire future forest recruitment patterns are projected assuming the calculated 7-9 seedling mortality events per species by 2100 under business-as-usual warming occur, congruent with additional vulnerability predicted for adult trees from stressors like pathogens and pests. Our progressive projection for increased mortality events was driven primarily by the non-linear shape of the drought duration frequency distribution, a common climate feature of drought-affected regions. These results illustrate profound benefits for

  16. Seedling growth and survival of selected wild edible fruit species of the Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundriyal, Manju; Sundriyal, R. C.

    2005-07-01

    In the Sikkim Himalaya, an enormous variety of wild growing plants are exploited at large scale for collection of their edible parts, of which six most prominently utilized fruit species (viz., Baccaurea sapida, Diploknema butyracea, Elaeagnus latifolia, Eriolobus indica, Machilus edulis and Spondias axillaris) were investigated. The growth of nursery raised seedlings was measured at 3 month intervals until two years old in terms of absolute growth rate (AGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf weight ratio (LWR), stem weight ratio (SWR), root weight ratio (RWR) and root-shoot ratio (RSR). Spondias axillaris and Machilus edulis had the maximum AGR, RGR, LAR and SWR among all species. LWR was highest for B. sapida. RGR, LAR and LWR declined with the age of seedlings. RGR was negatively correlated with NAR, SWR, RWR and RSR, though it showed a positive relationship with LAR. For all species, seedlings attained significant sizes after one year of age, and showed reasonable survival after transplantation into the farmers' fields. It is expected that information on the growth behaviour of these species would be useful while they are adopted into agroforestry systems. It is suggested that these species should be multiplied at large scale and distributed to the local inhabitants to reduce pressure on them in natural stands as well as provide economic benefit to the subsistence farmers.

  17. New insights into the molecular mechanism of Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction (BE3) concerning antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-05-24

    One of the relatively new and promising strategies of cancer treatment is chemoprevention, which involves the use of natural or synthetic compounds to block, inhibit or reverse carcinogenesis. A valuable and still untapped source of chemopreventive compounds seems to be edible mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes. Boletus edulis biopolymers extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography showed antiproliferative activity in colon cancer cells, but only fraction BE3, mostly composed of ribonucleic acids, was able to inhibit DNA synthesis in HT-29 cells. The present work aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction and in this sense flow cytometry and western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis in HT-29 cells. We found that the antiproliferative ability of fraction BE3 observed in HT-29 cells was associated with the modulation of expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cyclin D1, Cyclin A, p21 and p27) leading to cell accumulation in the S phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, the BE3 fraction showed effective silencing of the signal transduction in an MAPK/Erk pathway in HT-29 and LS180 colon cancer cell lines. Thus, the previously and currently obtained results indicate that the BE3 fraction from Boletus edulis has great potential and needs to be further exploited through animal and clinical studies in order to develop a new efficient and safe therapeutic strategy for people who have been threatened by or suffered from colon cancer.

  18. Evaluación de la toxicidad del extracto metanólico de hojas de Passiflora edulis Sims (maracuyá, en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rojas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la toxicidad oral a dosis repetidas del extracto metanólico de las hojas de Passiflora edulis en ratas. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas e Instituto de Patología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Ratas albinas, adultas hembras y machos, y hojas de Passiflora edulis. Métodos: Las hojas Passiflora edulis recolectadas en Trujillo fueron desecadas a 38ºC, pulverizadas y macerado con metanol. Se filtró, concentró y liofilizó. Se conformó dos grupos experimentales de 10 ratas (5 de cada sexo. Un grupo fue control, al cual se le administró agua destilada, y el otro fue grupo tratado, al cual se le administró extracto metanólico de las hojas de Passiflora edulis, en dosis de 200 mg/kg, una vez/día, vía oral, durante 28 días. Se hizo diariamente observaciones clínicas a los animales, se controló el peso cada semana. Al final del experimento se realizó las determinaciones hematológicas y de bioquímica clínica y necropsia. Se extrajo los órganos para la determinación de su peso y estudio histopatológico. Principales medidas de resultados: Peso corporal, e indicadores hematológicos, bioquímicos e histopatológicos. Resultados: No se observó mortalidad ni alteraciones clínicas o hematológicas. La alanina aminotransferasa se incrementó muy ligeramente hasta 55,4 ± 4,9 U/L, en machos (VN = 35,1-53,5, y 53,8 ± 3,9 U/L (VN = 28,8-46,0, en hembras. En el estudio histopatológico se observó en un caso microvesículas focal de hepatocitos y dos casos de focos de necrosis tubular. Conclusiones: La administración oral a dosis repetidas durante 28 días del extracto metanólico de las hojas de Passiflora edulis en ratas no es tóxica.

  19. Análise de crescimento de açaizeiros em áreas de várzea do estuário amazônico Growth analysis of açaí palm trees (Euterpe oleracea Mart. in floodplain of Amazon estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR LAMEIRA NOGUEIRA

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar o crescimento de açaizeiros (Euterpe oleracea Mart. em áreas de várzea submetidas à exploração de palmito, visando ao manejo racional da espécie, foi realizado estudo no município de Igarapé-Miri, Pará. Foram amostrados todos os estipes e rebrotes de três plantas de cada idade após o corte (12, 24, 36 e 48 meses após a extração do palmito, e avaliada a matéria seca dos seguintes componentes: folíolos, ráquis + pecíolos, bainhas + palmitos, e estipes. As plantas selecionadas são representativas da população quanto à altura média dos estipes, número de perfilhos e número de folhas. A produção de matéria seca total foi de 2,68, 5,25, 9,23 e 42,91 kg por planta no 12º, 24º, 36º e 48º mês após a extração do palmito, respectivamente. Nos açaizais recém-explorados, os folíolos representaram cerca de 40% do peso total da parte aérea da planta, e os estipes, 10%. Após 48 meses, em açaizais recompostos, os estipes foram responsáveis por 73% do peso total da parte aérea da planta, e os folíolos, somente por 10%. Doze meses após o corte do palmito, os açaizeiros apresentavam altura média de 1 m, e atingiram mais de 3 m após 48 meses.With the objective of analyzing the palm heart tree growth, in lowland areas submitted to the palm heart exploration, aiming to subsidize the rational handling of the species, a study was accomplished in the county of Igarapé-Miri, PA, Brazil. All of the stems and new budding of three plants of different ages (12, 24, 36 and 48 months after heart extraction were sampled, and the following components were collected for dry matter evaluation: leaflets, rachis + petioles, sheath + palm hearts and trunks. Representative clumps of the population were selected based on the medium height of the trunks, and number of shoots and leaves. The total dry matter production was 2.68, 5.25, 9.23 and 42.91 kg per plant at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months after the palm heart

  20. Biomonitoring of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and degradation products in the marine environment with transplanted blue mussels (M. edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehse, Jennifer S; Appel, Daniel; Geist, Catharina; Martin, Hans-Jörg; Maser, Edmund

    2017-09-01

    Since World War I considerable amounts of warfare material have been dumped at sea worldwide, but little is known about the fate of the explosive components in the marine environment. Sea dumped munitions are able to contaminate the surroundings because of the release of explosive chemicals due to corrosion and breaching or by detonation after blast-operations. This implies the risk of accumulation of toxic compounds in human and wildlife food chains. With the help of divers, we performed an active biomonitoring study with transplanted blue mussels (M. edulis) in a burdened area (Kolberger Heide, Germany) with explosive compounds near blast craters over an exposure time of 93days. With this biomonitoring system, we could show that blue mussels accumulate 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its metabolites 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) in their tissues. In all mussels deployed at the ground, we found a body burden with 2-ADNT of 103.75±12.77ng/g wet weight and with 4-ADNT of 131.31±9.53ng/g wet weight. TNT itself has been found in six mussels with an average concentration of 31.04±3.26ng/g mussel wet weight. In the mussels positioned at one meter above the ground no TNT nor 2-ADNT could be detected, but 4-ADNT was found in all samples with an average concentration of 8.71±2.88ng/g mussel wet weight. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using blue mussels M. edulis as an active biomonitoring system for TNT and its metabolites 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT in a free field experiment in a burdened area. Moreover, with this system, we unequivocally proved that these toxic explosives accumulate in the marine biota resp. in the marine food chain, thereby posing a possible risk to the marine ecosphere and human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of pre-treatment, freezing and frozen storage on the texture of Boletus edulis (Bull: Fr.) mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworska, Grazyna; Bernas, Emilia [Department of Raw Material and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, 122 Balicka Street, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present work was to determine changes in the texture of Boletus edulis resulting from blanching or soaking and blanching, freezing and twelve months' frozen storage. The texture was examined using instrumental as well as sensory profiling methods. Instrumental textural profile analysis (TPA) showed that, there was a reduction in hardness, chewiness and gumminess of 77-100% and an increase in cohesiveness of 121-521% after frozen storage, when compared to the raw material. Measurements using a Kramer shear cell revealed that the changes occurring at all stages of the investigation were similar. The end, the work required to cut strips of mushroom decreased by 3-32%, while the force increased by 27-110%. In the evaluation of texture through sensory profiling, the greatest changes in the characteristics listed occurred as a result of pre-treatment and frozen storage. There was a decrease in hardness, brittleness, crispiness and firmness of 0.7-3.5 points, accompanied by an increase in wateriness of 1.8-4.0 points. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail a ete de determiner les changements dans la texture de Boletus edulis, sous l'effet du blanchiment ou bien du trempage avec blanchiment, de la congelation et de l'emmagasinage gele pendant douze mois. La texture des champignons a ete examinee par des methodes instrumentales et le profilage sensoriel. Apres l'emmmagasinage gele l'analyse TPA a demontre il y a une diminution de la durete, de la mastiquabilite et de la gommalite de l'ordre de 77-100% et l'augmentation de la cohesivite de l'ordre de 121-521%, qu'en comparaison avec le materiau premier. Le mesurage dans la cellule detachee de Kramer a demontre que les changements apparaissant a toutes les etapes de la recherche etaient similaires. En resultat, le travail necessaire pour couper les cossettes du champignon a diminue de 3-32% et la valeur de la force a augmente de 27-110%. Dans l'evaluation de la

  2. High resolution melting analysis for identification of commercially-important Mytilus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilberto, Felipe; Araneda, Cristián; Larraín, María Angélica

    2017-08-15

    Mytilus are edible mussels, including commercially-significant species such as M. chilensis, M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis. The scientific name of the species must be indicated on commercial products to satisfy labelling and traceability requirements. Species identification using morphological criteria is difficult due the plasticity of these characteristics and the absence of shells in processed products, and conventional PCR-based methods are laborious and time-intensive. As alternative, we propose high resolution melting (HRM) analysis as a simple tool to detect and identify SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and length polymorphisms in Mytilus spp. We designed HRM-specific primers for the Mytilus genus to identify M. chilensis, M. galloprovincialis, M. edulis and their hybrids through clearly-distinguishable melting curves. HRM analysis showed high sensitivity (0.9639), specificity (1.0000) and precision (1.0000) compared to a conventional PCR-RFLP test. HRM is a fast and low cost method, being a reliable tool for species identification within the Mytilus genus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. AKTIVITAS ANTIHIPERURIKEMIA EKSTRAK ETIL ASETAT DAN ETANOL BUAH SALAK VARIETAS BONGKOK (Salacca edulis Reinw. PADA TIKUS GALUR WISTAR [Antihyperuricemic Activity of Ethyl Acetate and Ethanol Extracts of Snake Fruit var. Bongkok (Salacca edulis Reinw. on Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Herliani Afrianti1*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study was to determine antihyperuricemic activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extractsof snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw. var. Bongkok on Wistar male rats. Wistar male rats administered with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w ethyl acetat extract and 200 mg/kg b.w ethanol extract and simulationsly induced with potassium oxonate peritoneally and uric acid orally showed descreased uric acid serum level significantly as compared to control group at 6th and 7thhour (p < 0.05. Meanwhile ethanol extract at 100 mg/kg bw did not affect uric acid serum level significantly. Determination of uric acid level in urine of the rats, indicated that administration ofethanol extract at 200 mg/kg bw, orprobenecid as a standard at 45 mg/kg bw, increased excretion of urine uric acid level significantly as compared to control group at 7thhour (p < 0.05. Additionally, administration of ethyl acetate extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg bw did not show an increase of uric acid excretion in urine. Mechanism of action of the ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract as an antihyperuricemic agent has been proposed by inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity wich decrease the synthesis of uric acid. Hence, the mechanism of action of antihyperuricemia of the ethanol extract was suggested to be an uricosuric i.e. increases the excretion of urine uric acid and xanthine oxidase inhibitory.

  4. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenolic Compounds, Amino Acids and Mineral Elements of Representative Genotypes of Lonicera edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Sochor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive substances in 19 berry cultivars of edible honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis. A statistical evaluation was used to determine the relationship between the content of selected bioactive substances and individual cultivars. Regarding mineral elements, the content of sodium was measured using potentiometry and spectrophotometry. The content of selected polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was determined by a HPLC–UV/ED method. The total amount of polyphenols was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined using five methods (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, FR and DMPD that differ in their principles. The content of 13 amino acids was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The experimental results obtained for the different cultivars were evaluated and compared by statistical and bioinformatic methods. A unique feature of this study lies in the exhaustive analysis of the chosen parameters (amino acids, mineral elements, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity during one growing season.

  6. Long-term loss rates of radioisotopes of cobalt, zinc, ruthenium, caesium and silver by Mytilus edulis under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term loss rates of cobalt, zinc, ruthenium, caesium and silver by Mytilus edulis soft parts as well as shells were measured under field conditions in the Mediterranean Sea at Monaco during a period of 13 months after experimental contamination. For all 5 elements, the loss could be described by two exponential functions for the soft parts and one for the shells. Biological half lives for the long-lived compartment ranged from ∼20 days for caesium to 100 - 200 days for cobalt, zinc, ruthenium and silver for soft parts as well as for shells. A comparison with results from similar experiments performed under very different environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea indicated that caesium and maybe silver had a faster turnover in the warm and saline Mediterranean, whereas loss rates for cobalt and zinc were comparable. It is argued, that reliable deduction of loss rates require experiments running over several months to a year, and it is pointed out that shorter term experiments - even up to 3 months - may give biased results. (author)

  7. Composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa in natura

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    Silva Sandra Regina da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo in natura (Passiflora edulis comercializado em Campinas, Brasil, foi avaliada utilizando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Em todas as amostras foram encontrados os seguintes carotenóides: beta-criptoxantina, prolicopeno, cis-zeta-caroteno, zeta-caroteno, beta-caroteno e 13-cis-beta-caroteno, além de neurosporeno e gama-caroteno em alguns lotes. Em geral, os teores de carotenóides nos diversos lotes foram significativamente diferentes. Em dois dos cinco lotes analisados, o z-caroteno foi o carotenóide principal, contribuindo com 41 e 62% do total de carotenóides, enquanto que em outros dois lotes, o beta-caroteno foi o majoritário, com 55 e 74% do total e em um dos lotes o cis-zeta-caroteno esteve presente em maior concentração, com 29%. Este tipo de inversão entre os carotenóides majoritários não é comumente encontrado em frutas e vegetais.

  8. Macromolecule oxidation and DNA repair in mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) gill following exposure to Cd and Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanouil, C.; Sheehan, T.M.T.; Chipman, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of DNA and lipid was analysed in the marine mussel (Mytilus edulis) in response to exposure (10 μg/l and 200 μg/l) to cadmium (Cd) and chromium [Cr(VI)]. Concentration dependent uptake of both metals into mussel tissues was established and levels of gill ATP were not depleted at these exposure levels. DNA strand breakage in gill cells (analysed by the comet assay) was elevated by both metals, however, DNA oxidation [measured by DNA strand breakage induced by the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)] was not elevated. This was despite a statistically significant increase in both malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal - indicative of lipid peroxidation - following treatment with Cd. In contrast, both frank DNA stand breaks and FPG-induced DNA strand breaks (indicative of DNA oxidation) were increased following injection of mussels with sodium dichromate (10.4 μg Cr(VI)/mussel). The metals also showed differential inhibitory potential towards DNA repair enzyme activity with Cd exhibiting inhibition of DNA cutting activity towards an oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and Cr(VI) showing inhibition of such activity towards an oligonucleotide containing ethenoadenosine, both at 200 μg/l. The metals thus show DNA damage activity in mussel gill with distinct mechanisms involving both direct and indirect (oxidative) DNA damage, as well as impairing different DNA repair capacities. A combination of these activities can contribute to adverse effects in these organisms

  9. An Improved Micropropagation Protocol by Ex Vitro Rooting of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. through Nodal Segment Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Mahipal S.; Manokari, M.; Ravindran, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for rapid clonal propagation of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. (Passifloraceae) has been developed in this study. Nodal explants were sterilized with 0.1% HgCl2 and inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. The addition of 2.0 mgL−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to MS medium caused an extensive proliferation of multiple shoots (8.21 ± 1.13) primordial from the nodal meristems. Subculturing of these multiple shoots on the MS medium augmented with 1.0 mgL−1 of each BAP and Kinetin (Kin) was successful for the multiplication of the shoots in vitro with maximum numbers of shoots (25.73 ± 0.06) within four weeks of incubation. Shoots were rooted best (7.13 ± 0.56 roots/shoots) on half strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgL−1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). All in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted by ex vitro method, and this has achieved 6-7 roots per shoot by pulsing of cut ends of the shoots using 200 as well as 300 mgL−1 IBA. The plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse for 4-5 weeks. The hardened plantlets were shifted to manure containing nursery polybags after five weeks and then transferred to a sand bed for another four weeks for acclimatization before field planting with 88% survival rate. PMID:26273489

  10. Extracts of passion fruit peel and seed of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) attenuate oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandandapani, Salanee; Balaraman, Ashok K; Ahamed, Haja N

    2015-09-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the anti-diabetic potential of passion fruit Passiflora edulis (EPE) extracts in diabetic rats, following Streptozotocin (STZ) induced oxidative stress. Thirty adult Wistar rats were divided into five groups, with six rats in each group. The control rats were injected intraperitoneally with citrate buffer (pH 4.5). The remaining groups of rats were administered single dose of 45 mg·kg(-1) of STZ by intraperitoneal route to induce diabetes. The diabetic animals were treated with 250 and 500 mg·kg(-1) of EPE and glibenclamide 0.6 mg·kg(-1) for fifteen days by oral route. Blood glucose, end organ oxidative stress marker, and anti-oxidants were assayed. Further, histopathological investigation of pancreas was studied at the end of the experimentation. The results revealed that subacute administration of EPE significantly (P < 0.001) controlled the blood glucose level in the diabetic rats. In addition, EPE extract protected the end organs by restoring the anti-oxidants enzyme, significantly increasing super oxide dismutase level (SOD) and decreasing catalase (CAT) and TBARS level in visceral organs. In conclusion, that EPE extracts showed anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant potential against streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PENGARUH PERLAKUAN PENDAHULUAN PADA PEMBUATAN TEPUNG GANYONG (CANNA EDULIS TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN AMILOGRAFI TEPUNG YANG DIHASILKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Slamet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ganyong flour is product derived from ganyong crop (Canna edulis. However, its appearance looks a bit dull. With pretreatments blanching, submerging in salt water or bisulphide, it is expected that processing would yield (a brighter flour. Wider use of ganyong flour other than conventional ones has not been attempted because of lack of information on its amilographical property. A research on this is therefore needed. Pretreatments vary from none serving as a check to blanching, submerging in salt water or bislphide. Ganyong flour produced from all processing was analyzed for its color, water absorbing capacity, and amilographical properties which include gelatination temperature, gelatination time, and peak viscosity at 50oC. Experimental yield showed that with treatments, ganyong flour produced is brighter than control. Water absorbing capacity of flour from processing with blanching pretreatment is 509,28% of dry weight. The amilographical properties are as follows : gelatination temperature and time are 76,05 oC and 32,82 minutes respectively, viscosity at peak and at 50 oC are 580and 370 Brabender Unit (BU.

  12. Khat (Catha edulis: The herb with officio-legal, socio-cultural and economic uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikiru Lamina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Khat (Catha edulis is a plant of uncertain and highly controversial status grown in the countries around the Red Sea and on the eastern coast of Africa. The chewing of khat leaves has a deep-rooted religious and socio-cultural tradition. Khat is considered a cash crop and its cultivation is a source of economic value to the societies and nations involved. There have, however, been reports of negative economic effects on the individuals engaging in the habit of khat chewing.

    The increasing use of khat worldwide, along with the negative international attention that this has garnered, has led to the present status of uncertainty of the once indigenous practice of khat chewing. Scientists, mostly western Europeans, have tended to focus on problems related to khat with little attention to the positive role of khat chewing in society and the world at large. In addition, no report has directly associated khat with any organised crime, violence or antisocial activity, particularly in countries where khat is legalised.

    This paper reviewed the various areas of uncertainty and controversy relating to khat. Based on the findings of the review, further qualitative and quantitative research is required and a positive international approach to khat use at economic, religious and socio-cultural levels is advocated.

  13. MISTURAS VITAMÍNICAS NA REGENERAÇÃO DO MARACUJAZEIRO AMARELO (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas Alessandra Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotilédones obtidos a partir de sementes germinadas in vitro foram usados como explantes com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de dois complexos vitamínicos e de duas concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP na organogênese direta do maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.. Empregou-se o meio Murashige & Skoog (1962 suplementado com as vitaminas MS ou B5 (vitaminas de GAMBORG et al., 1968 e 1 ou 2 mg. -1 de BAP. Foram testados quatro tratamentos, sendo cada um constituído de 60 explantes. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições. Os dados, analisados pelo teste de Tukey, demonstraram que os meios de cultura suplementados com o complexo vitamínico B5 induziram gemas em mais de 70% dos explantes, obtendo-se até 8 brotos por explante, com um enraizamento superior a 90%. A análise de ploidia das plantas regeneradas indicou um número aparentemente normal de cromossomos típicos dessa espécie (2n=18

  14. Immunostimulatory activity of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) cultivar Pondoh Hitam extract on the activation of macrophages in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijanarti, Sri; Putra, Agus Budiawan Naro; Nishi, Kosuke; Harmayani, Eni; Sugahara, Takuya

    2017-05-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) cultivar Pondoh Hitam is a tropical fruit produced in Indonesia. It is consumed freshly or processed and believed as the most delicious snake fruit cultivar. Snake fruit flesh contains high polisaccharides such as pectin and dietary fiber. Therefore, snake fruit is a potential immunostimulator candidates but the immunological effect of snake fruit flesh has not been reported. In the present study, immunostimulatory activity of snake fruit flesh extract (SFFE) on macrophages activation was evaluated. SFFE was prepared by extracting from snake fruit flesh with water, methanol 70%, and ethanol 70% for 15 h at 4°C. Then obtained SFFE was used to stimulated cytokine production in vitro using J774.1 cell line. The extract giving strongest stimulation was sellected for in vivo assay to stimulate cytokines production and gene expression using peritoneal macrophage (P-mac) of BALB/c mice. The results showed that SFFE exhibited immunostimulatory activities. Immunostimulatory activity could be indicated by macrophages activation characteristics such as cytokines production. Water extract of SFFE gave strongest stimulation on cytokines production in vitro and sellected for in vivo assay. In vivo assay showed that SFFE stimulated cytokines production as well as their gene expression levels. The optimum stimulation was demonstrated by SFFE 16.7 mg/g. Overall findings suggest that SFFE has a potent beneficial effects to promote the body health through activating macrophages.

  15. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O 2 • ), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  16. Alteration of shell nacre micromorphology in blue mussel Mytilus edulis after exposure to free-ionic silver and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Belzile, Claude; Demers, Serge

    2011-07-01

    This study describes the morphology of inner shell surface (ISS) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis Linnaeus after short-term exposures to radiolabeled silver in free-ionic ((110m)Ag(+)) and engineered nanoparticulate ((110m)AgNPs, silver in starting solutions was used in a similar low concentration (∼15 Bq mL(-1)) for both treatments. After exposure experiments radiolabeled silver was leached from the ISS using HCl. It concentration for shells from both treatments was ∼0.5 Bq mL(-1). Whole ISS of young individuals and prismatic layer of adults showed no evidence of any major alteration process after silver uptake. However, the nacre portion of adult mussels exposed to both treatments revealed distinct doughnut shape structures (DSS) formed by calcium carbonate micrograins that covered the surface of aragonite tablets. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging revealed the existence of only minor differences in DSS morphology between mussels exposed to Ag(+) and AgNPs. From literature survey, DSS were also found in bivalves exposed to Cd(2+). The DSS occurring in a specimen of a field-collected bivalve is also shown. Formation of distinctive DSS can be explained by a disturbance of the shell calcification mechanism. Although the occurrence of DSS is not exclusively associated with metal bioavailability to the mussels, the morphology of DSS seems to be linked to the speciation of the metal used in the uptake experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensory and Textural Characteristics of Noodle Made of Ganyong Flour (Canna edulis Kerr.) and Arenga Starch (Arenga pinnata Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, ERN; Ariani, D.; Miftakhussolikhah; Yosieto, E.; Angwar, M.; Pranoto, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ganyong (Canna edulis Kerr) is a local tuber which highest amount of starch content, but has not been fully utilized well at present. One way to improve the usefulness of canna is to process it into noodle, but it needs arenga starch which has high amylose content. The aim of this research was to study the sensory and textural properties of noodle made from canna flour and arenga starch. Research methodologies consist of: (i) characterization of canna flour and arenga starch, (ii) noodle production, and (iii) characterization sensory and textural properties of the noodle. Noodle was made with five ratio variations of canna flour and arenga starch, i.e. 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; and 0:100. Sensory analysis was done by hedonic scoring method with attributes : color, stickiness, elasticity, firmness, surface smoothness and overall liking. Textural properties analyses consist of tensile strength, elongation, and stickiness measurements. The results showed that canna flour and arenga starch can be used in noodle making process. Noodle with 25% of canna flour was the most favored product and has the best textural properties. Factors which affect textural properties of product are the amylose and amylopectin amount in each starch. Tensile strength, elongation, and stickiness measurements of noodle with 25% of canna flour were 0,13 N; 41,61%; and 0,0115N respectively.

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of composite flour from canna flour (Canna edulis) and lima bean flour (Phaseolus lunatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Tryas, Anisha Ayuning; Affandi, Dian Rachmawanti; Atmaka, Windi; Ariyantoro, Achmad Ridwan; Minardi, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    The diversity of Indonesian local food sources has potential to be developed for supporting food security based development of local food diversification. Canna tubers (Canna edulis) and lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) are two local commodities in Indonesia which under is utilization and has limited assessment to its characteristics. This study aimed at determining the best formula of composite flour based on physical and chemical properties of composite flour produced. There were three formulas, F1 for 85% of canna flour and 15%of lima beans flour, F2 for 70% of canna flour and 30% of lima beans flour and F3 for 55% of canna flour and 45% of lima beans flour. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted and completely randomized design was used. De Garmo analysis was then used to determine the highest effectiveness index from the three formulas developed in this study and F3 demonstrated the highest effectiveness index (0.545) among three formulas evaluated. Thus, formula (F3) was selected as the best composite of the flour developed from canna flour and lima beans flour.

  19. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  20. Coleopterans Associated with Plants that form Phytotelmata in Subtropical and Temperate Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Raúl E.; Fernández, Liliana A.

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  1. Short-term impact of blue mussel dredging ( Mytilus edulis L.) on a benthic community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, T.; Christiansen, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The short-term effect of mussel dredging in a brackish Danish sound was studied. A commercial dredging track was identified and an analysis of the species composition inside the track and at an adjacent control area showed that dredging changed the community structure by reducing the density...... of polychaetes. In order to investigate the extent and the duration of the dredging impact experimental dredging was conducted. The experimental dredging removed 50% of the mussels in two dredged areas. Immediately after dredging, a significantly lower number of species was measured inside the mussel beds...... outside the mussel beds just after dredging, but this effect lasted for less than 7 days. After dredging, brown shrimps, C. crangon invaded the dredged areas. This species is an important predator of smaller invertebrates, and it is suspected that it was feeding on small vulnerable polychaetes exposed...

  2. Understanding the influence of urbanization on invasibility: Carpobrotus edulis as an exemplar.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lechuga-Lago, Y.; Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, J. J.; Gonzáles, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2017), s. 3601-3611 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : enzymatic activities * ecological impacts * germination invasive species * nutrients * urban areas Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  3. Mining the transcriptomes of four commercially important shellfish species for single nucleotide polymorphisms within biomineralization genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrami, David L J; Shah, Abhijeet; Telesca, Luca; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional profiling not only provides insights into patterns of gene expression, but also generates sequences that can be mined for molecular markers, which in turn can be used for population genetic studies. As part of a large-scale effort to better understand how commercially important European shellfish species may respond to ocean acidification, we therefore mined the transcriptomes of four species (the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the great scallop Pecten maximus and the blunt gaper Mya truncata) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Illumina data for C. gigas, M. edulis and P. maximus and 454 data for M. truncata were interrogated using GATK and SWAP454 respectively to identify between 8267 and 47,159 high quality SNPs per species (total=121,053 SNPs residing within 34,716 different contigs). We then annotated the transcripts containing SNPs to reveal homology to diverse genes. Finally, as oceanic pH affects the ability of organisms to incorporate calcium carbonate, we honed in on genes implicated in the biomineralization process to identify a total of 1899 SNPs in 157 genes. These provide good candidates for biomarkers with which to study patterns of selection in natural or experimental populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Leaf Morphological Plasticity of Tree Species from Two Developmental Stages in Araucaria Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyam de Lima Vieira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the morphological and anatomical variations of the leaves of four shade-tolerant tree species Allophylus edulis (St.-Hil. Radlk (Sapindaceae, Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Salicaceae, Cupania vernalis Cambess. (Sapindaceae and Luehea divaricata Mart. (Malvaceae from a fragment of Araucaria forest in two developmental stages. Morphological and anatomical traits, such as leaf and tissue thickness, leaf area, leaf dry mass, specific leaf area, leaf density and stomata density were measured from 30 leaves of each developmental stage. The phenotypic plasticity index was also calculated for each quantitative trait. The results showed that the four species presented higher mean values ​​for specific leaf area and spongy/palisade parenchyma ratio at young stage, and higher mean values ​​for stomata density, total and palisade parenchyma thickness in the adult stage. The plasticity index demonstrated that L. divricata presented highest plasticity for both the morphological and anatomical traits while A. edulis displayed the lowest plasticity index. The results of this study indicated that the leaves of these species exhibited distinct morphological traits at each stage of development to cope with acting environmental factors.

  5. Evaluación del desarrollo de Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Guapacha, Cristiam Camilo; Mesa, Jhon Jairo; Patiño, Andrés Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    En el Municipio de Quinchía, Departamento de Risaralda (Colombia), se evaluó el desarrollo de los tutores vivos Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth), también la incidencia de Peronospora sparsa y Oidium sp en plantas de mora asociadas a estos sistemas agroforestales. Se utilizo un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados indican que Erythrina edulis es el tutor con mejor adapta...

  6. Expressão do gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) em explantes radiculares de Passiflora edulis Sims e organogênese in vitro em Passiflora setacea D.C. (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Lorena Melo

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivos caracterizar a expressão do gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1), via hibridização in situ, durante a regeneração in vitro de segmentos radiculares de Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie comercialmente cultivada, e estabelecer um protocolo reproduzível via organogênese in vitro em Passiflora setacea, espécie silvestre. Explantes radiculares de P. edulis foram cultivados em meio MS, para indução de organogênese de ramos, suplementado com 2,35 μM de BA. Para dete...

  7. Enxertia de mesa de Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. sobre Passiflora alata Curtis, em ambiente de nebulização intermitente Bench graft of Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. on Passiflora alata Curtis, in intermittent misty atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Matos Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro é uma cultura típica de países tropicais, sendo estes responsáveis por cerca de 90% da produção mundial. A propagação vegetativa do maracujazeiro permite a obtenção de pomares uniformes, bem como de porta-enxertos altamente produtivos ou resistentes a doenças. O experimento teve como objetivo verificar a viabilidade da enxertia de mesa do maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. sobre o maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis, conduzido em telado com 50% de sombreamento, dotado de sistema de nebulização intermitente. Foi conduzido de agosto de 2001 a maio de 2002, na Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP - Câmpus de Ilha Solteira, localizada no município de Selvíria - MS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, totalizando quatro tratamentos (T1 - enxertia tipo fenda cheia, com o garfo do ponteiro dos ramos; T2 - enxertia tipo inglês simples, com o garfo do ponteiro dos ramos; T3 - enxertia tipo fenda cheia, com o garfo da parte mediana dos ramos; T4 - enxertia tipo inglês simples, com o garfo da parte mediana dos ramos, cinco repetições e 25 estacas enxertadas por parcela. Foram avaliados: a porcentagem de sobrevivência das estacas enxertadas; b porcentagem de estacas enxertadas enraizadas; c número de brotos emitidos por estaca enxertada; d número de folhas emitidas por estaca enxertada; e massa da matéria seca da raiz, caule, folha e planta. Com base nos resultados, pode-se concluir que: a técnica de enxertia de mesa, quando aplicada ao maracujazeiro, mostrou-se viável, com excelente porcentagem de sobrevivência e enraizamento.The passion fruit plant is a typical culture of tropical countries, which are responsible for about 90% of the world production. The vegetative propagation of the passion fruit plant allows the obtainment of uniform orchards, as well as of rootstocks highly productive or resistant to

  8. Pre and Postharvest Enzymatic Activity in Gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims Fruits from the Colombian Lower Montane Rain Forest / Actividad Enzimática Precosecha y Poscosecha en Frutos de Gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims, en Condiciones del Bosque Húmedo Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Franco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available “High-Andean fruits” are deemed important because oftheir potential for domestic consumption and exportation. Among them, gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims is an exotic fruit of good acceptance in European markets. However, the technological support associated with the crop is incipient and its short shelf life leads to rapid deterioration of the product. This fact makes it necessary to investigate the physical, physiological and biochemical processes that characterize fruit ripening, in order to take actions to ensure that it arrives in its best possible condition to the consumer. In this context, the current study aimed at identifying enzymatic activity in gulupa fruits during pre and postharvest. Plant materialfrom the Colombian Gene Bank (administered by Corpoica was used. Fruits of known age were periodically harvested to determine the activity of the enzymes α-amylase, polygalacturonase (PG, pectinmethylesterase (PME and polyphenol oxidase (PPO through destructive samplings. It was found that α-amylase and PG are linked to the increase of soluble solids, which favors the sweet taste of the fruit. In turn, the low activity of PPO enables agroindustrial processing without severe fruit browning. / Los “frutales alto-andinos”, se consideran importantes por su potencial de consumo nacional y exportación. Entre ellos está la gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims, reconocida como un frutal exótico de buena aceptación en mercados europeos. Sin embargo, el respaldo tecnológico asociado al cultivo, es incipiente y su corta vida poscosecha conduce al rápido deterioro del producto. Esto hace necesario plantear estudios de los procesos físicos, fisiológicos y bioquímicos que caracterizan la maduración, con el fin de procurar que el fruto llegue en las mejores condiciones de calidad a los consumidores. El estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer la actividad enzimática en los frutos de gulupa en precosecha y en poscosecha, con el

  9. Preparative HPLC for large scale isolation, and salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction based method for HPLC-DAD determination of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlabachew, Minaleshewa; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Redi-Abshiro, Mesfin

    2017-10-17

    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is an evergreen shrub of the Celastraceae family. It is widely cultivated in Yemen and East Africa, where its fresh leaves are habitually chewed for their momentary pleasures and stimulation as amphetamine-like effects. The main psychostimulant constituents of khat are the phenylpropylamino alkaloids: cathinone, cathine and norephedrine. In this study, simple procedures based on preparative HPLC and salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) based methods were developed respectively for large scale isolation and the extraction of psychoactive phenylpropylamino alkaloids; cathinone, cathine and norephedrine, from khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing leaves, a stimulant and drug of abuse plant. The three khat alkaloids were directly isolated from the crude oxalate salt by preparative HPLC-DAD method with purity > 98%. In addition, a modified (SALLE) method has been developed and evaluated for the extraction efficiency of psychoactive phenylpropylamino alkaloids from khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing leaves. An in situ two steps extraction protocol was followed without dispersive SPE clean up. The method involves extraction of the samples with 1% HAc and QuEChERS salt (1.0 g of CH 3 COONa and 6.0 g of MgSO 4 ) followed by subsequent in situ liquid-liquid partitioning by adding ethyl acetate and NaOH solution. The optimized method allowed recoveries of 80-86% for the three alkaloids from khat sample with relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 15% and limits of detection (0.85-1.9 μg/mL). The method was found to be simple, cost-effective and provides cleaner chromatogram with good selectivity and reproducibility. The SALLE based protocol provided as good results as the conventional extraction method (ultrasonic assisted extraction followed by solid phase extraction, UAE-SPE) and hence the method can be applicable in forensic and biomedical sectors.

  10. No time for candy: passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) plants down-regulate damage-induced extra floral nectar production in response to light signals of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Miriam M; Mazza, Carlos A; Astigueta, María S; Ciarla, Ana M; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-09-01

    Plant fitness is often defined by the combined effects of herbivory and competition, and plants must strike a delicate balance between their ability to capture limiting resources and defend against herbivore attack. Many plants use indirect defenses, such as volatile compounds and extra floral nectaries (EFN), to attract canopy arthropods that are natural enemies of herbivorous organisms. While recent evidence suggests that upon perception of low red to far-red (R:FR) ratios, which signal the proximity of competitors, plants down-regulate resource allocation to direct chemical defenses, it is unknown if a similar phytochrome-mediated response occurs for indirect defenses. We evaluated the interactive effects of R:FR ratio and simulated herbivory on nectar production by EFNs of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). The activity of petiolar EFNs dramatically increased in response to simulated herbivory and hormonal treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Low R:FR ratios, which induced a classic "shade-avoidance" repertoire of increased stem elongation in P. edulis, strongly suppressed the EFN response triggered by simulated herbivory or MeJA application. Strikingly, the EFN response to wounding and light quality was localized to the branches that received the treatments. In vines like P. edulis, a local response would allow the plants to precisely adjust their light harvesting and defense phenotypes to the local conditions encountered by individual branches when foraging for resources in patchy canopies. Consistent with the emerging paradigm that phytochrome regulation of jasmonate signaling is a central modulator of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, our results demonstrate that light quality is a strong regulator of indirect defenses.

  11. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.

  12. Identifikasi Penyebab Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Markisa (Passiflora edulis Sims.) di Kecamatan Tiga Panah Kabupaten Karo

    OpenAIRE

    Karosekali, Relly

    2012-01-01

    Identification Caused of Wilt Disease on Passion Fruit (Passiflora edutis simm) in some Main area at Karo regency. Fusarium wilt disease is a main constraint in passion fruit productivity that spread in Indonesia, especially in some main area at Karo Regency, Nort Sumatera. Attacking of wilt disease caused plant died. Therefore, the interest of farmer to study about plantation of passion fruit is be lessen. The objectives of this research were : (1) to find out some fusarium species that caus...

  13. Evaluation of the Allelopathic Influence of Selected Multi-purpose Tree Species on Maize (Zea mays under a Simulated Field Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeorike, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and growth response of maize (Zea mays that was periodically watered with 200 ml of leaf leachates of three selected multipurpose tree species (MPTs - Inga edulis, Anthonatha macrophylla and Dactyladenia barterii were evaluated under a simulated field condition to determine their allolepathic characteristics and suitability for alley cropping. There was a significant (P <0.05 difference in the germination percentage of the maize seeds among the MPTs studied. Maximum germination percentage (76.7 % of the seeds and seedling growth as indicated by radicle length, shoot length, fresh weight and plant height at taselling were obtained from seeds watered/treated with rainwater as the control treatment. Reduction in germination percentage (33 % was observed in Anthonatha macrophylla leachates while moderate germination percentage of 50 % was observed in Dactyladenia barterii leachate. Anthonatha macrophylla leachate inhibited both radicle and shoot lenght. Similarly Inga edulis leachate had inhibiting effects on radicle and shoot of germinating maize seeds. This resuit suggets that Inga edulis, Anthonatha macrophylla and Dactyladenia barterii produce allelochems which inhibit seed germination and growth of maize under the conditions of the experiment. Investigations on allelopathic characteristics of potential MPTs could be integrated in farm planning strategies in a tropical agroecology especially where alley cropping is contemplated.

  14. Potential for production of ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt (Denmark) evaluated on basis of actual and modeled growth of young mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a first step towards evaluation of the potential for line-mussel production in the Great Belt region between the Kattegat and Baltic Sea, Denmark. We present experimental results for actual growth rates of juvenile/adult mussels Mytilus edulis in suspended net bags in terms......) as a function of dry weight of soft parts (W, g) by a previously developed simple bioenergetic growth model μ = aW −0.34. Results were generally in good agreement with the model which assumes the prevailing average chlorophyll a concentration at field sites to essentially account for the nutrition. Our studies...

  15. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Strand, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage, measured as tail moment in the Comet assay), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase inhibition, AChE) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability, LMS) were studied in native and transplanted blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in coastal areas of western Denmark...... of chemical pollution complex, as seen especially in the variability in results on DNA damage, and also in regard to AChE activity. These investigations further stress the importance of understanding the effects of natural factors (salinity, temperature, water levels, rain and storm events) in correct...

  16. Caracterización fisiológica del fruto de gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims), en condiciones del bosque húmedo montano bajo de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Los “frutales alto-andinos”, se consideran como frutos agradables, generalmente se comercializan y consumen en fresco, tienen corta vida en poscosecha debido a su alta actividad metabólica, lo que afecta su calidad y dificulta el transporte y comercialización en forma natural. El género Passiflora cuenta con gran número de especies comestibles, de las cuales pocas han sido estudiadas, la gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims), es una de ellas. En Colombia ha adquirido importancia nacional, ...

  17. Heterogeneity of Cr in Mytilus edulis: Implications for the Cr isotope system as a paleo-redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Klaebe, Robert; Frei, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Changes in 53Cr/52Cr (δ53Cr) values recorded by biogenic carbonates are emerging as a proxy for variations in the redox state of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere (e.g. [1], [2]). We investigate the ability of modern carbonate shells (Mytilus edulis) to record the δ53Cr composition of ambient seawater in order to assess their utility as a paleo-redox proxy. Samples of cultivated M. edulis from the Kiel Fjord, Germany, were analyzed for their δ53Cr composition and Cr concentrations [Cr] using TIMS. To disentangle the pathway of Cr into the carbonate shell, a series of step-digestions of their organic outer sheaths (periostraca) and their intra-layer composition were performed. Bulk analyses of specimens with intact periostraca returned 16 to 34 ppb Cr with δ53Cr values ranging from 0.28 to 0.65 ± 0.1 (2SE) and thus fall within the range of surface seawater from the Baltic Sea (0.3 - 0.6 \\permil [3]). Partial removal of periostraca resulted in lower [Cr] (5 to 17 ppb) and δ53Cr values (-0.05 ± 0.15 \\permil). These results show a positive correlation between the amount of organic matter present in a sample and both [Cr] and δ53Cr (n = 9). With nearly complete removal of periostraca, the remaining [Cr] is significantly lower (less than 5 ppb) and can only be accessed by incineration of the carbonate shell. The correlation between [Cr], δ53Cr and the amount of periostracum present in bulk samples indicates that a significant proportion of preserved Cr may be associated with the organic outer sheath. The Cr endmember accessed after incineration is less likely associated with the carbonate crystal lattice. Instead, the δ53Cr values obtained after incineration are similar to those reported from terrestrial rocks, suggesting the influence of detrital particles. Alternatively, Cr may be reduced and subsequently re-oxidized during the mineralization of biogenic carbonates [4]. Seasonal changes in primary productivity in seawater may further influence the shell

  18. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  19. Somatic growth of mussels Mytilus edulis in field studies compared to predictions using BEG, DEB, and SFG models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Filgueira, Ramón; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2014-04-01

    Prediction of somatic growth of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, based on the data from 2 field-growth studies of mussels in suspended net-bags in Danish waters was made by 3 models: the bioenergetic growth (BEG), the dynamic energy budget (DEB), and the scope for growth (SFG). Here, the standard BEG model has been expanded to include the temperature dependence of filtration rate and respiration and an ad hoc modification to ensure a smooth transition to zero ingestion as chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration approaches zero, both guided by published data. The first 21-day field study was conducted at nearly constant environmental conditions with a mean chl a concentration of C = 2.7 μg L- 1, and the observed monotonous growth in the dry weight of soft parts was best predicted by DEB while BEG and SFG models produced lower growth. The second 165-day field study was affected by large variations in chl a and temperature, and the observed growth varied accordingly, but nevertheless, DEB and SFG predicted monotonous growth in good agreement with the mean pattern while BEG mimicked the field data in response to observed changes in chl a concentration and temperature. The general features of the models were that DEB produced the best average predictions, SFG mostly underestimated growth, whereas only BEG was sensitive to variations in chl a concentration and temperature. DEB and SFG models rely on the calibration of the half-saturation coefficient to optimize the food ingestion function term to that of observed growth, and BEG is independent of observed actual growth as its predictions solely rely on the time history of the local chl a concentration and temperature.

  20. Modeling and predicting the growth of the mussel, Mytilus edulis: implications for planning of aquaculture and eutrophication mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Per; Lindegarth, Susanne; Lindegarth, Mats

    2015-12-01

    The increased pressure on the marine ecosystems highlights the need for policies and integrated approaches for sustainable management of coastal areas. Spatial planning based on geographic information of human activities, ecological structures and functions, and their associated goods and services is a fundamental component in this context. Here, we evaluate the potential of predictive modeling to provide spatial data on one ecosystem function, mussel growth for use in such processes. We developed a methodology based on statistical modeling, spatial prediction, and mapping for the relative growth of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. We evaluated the performance of different modeling techniques and classification schemes using empirical measurements of growth from 144 sampling sites and data on biological, chemical, and physical predictors. Following comparisons of the different techniques and schemes, we developed random forest models to predict growth along the Swedish west coast. Implemented into GIS the best model produced in this study predicts that low, intermediate, and high growth rates can be expected in 53%, 32%, and 15% of modeled area, respectively. The results of this study also suggest that the nature and quality of predictor data hold the key to improving the predictive power of models. On a more general note, this study exemplifies a feasible approach based on measuring, modeling, and mapping for obtaining scientifically based spatial information on ecosystem functions and services affected by a complex set of factors. Such information is fundamental for maritime spatial planning and ecosystem-based management and its importance is likely to increase in the future. Because of its close link to nutrient assimilation and production yield, site-specific information of soft tissue growth such as the map of predicted growth rate developed in this study can be used as a tool for optimizing actions aimed at mitigating eutrophication and aquaculture

  1. Enxertia de progênies de maracujazeiro-roxo australiano em espécies nativas Grafting of australian purple passion fruit progenies in different native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Carvalho Pires

    2009-09-01

    evaluate the production of clonal nursery plants of Australian purple passion fruit it was realized at the Fruit Section of University of Brasília an experiment from May 2005 to February 2006. Randomized blocks were used with 3 replications in a factorial arrangement 7 x 2 x 3 with 7 rootstock, 2 varieties and 3 periods of evaluation, where each parcel had 3 plants. P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, (P. coccinea X P. setacea, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' were used as rootstock and as a scion the purple passion fruit '96A' and '25' from Australia. The rooted rootstock was transferred to plastic bags and kept under misting condition and grafted 30 days later. The rooting success rate was evaluated 31 and 61 days after grafting (DAG. The scion/rootstock combination ("25" and "96 A" X P. nítida followed by ("25" and "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' with 100%, 90%, 90% and 80%, respectively, achieved high success rate 61 DAG. The production of purple passion fruits grafted onto native and commercial species as rootstock P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' and P. edulis is viable since there is no evidence of incompatibility and the grafted plants showed high percentage of success rate.

  2. Effect of temperature on immunocompetence of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Beaudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The blue mussel is a filter-feeding bivalve commonly used in ecotoxicological monitoring as a sentinel species. Due to climate change and the increase of temperature expected in marine environment, it is important to anticipate potential impacts on this species. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunocompetence of blue mussels acclimated to different temperatures and on the effects of increasing temperatures (5, 10 and 20°C. Different indices and gonad maturation stages were also determined throughout the experiments. Cell viability, phagocytosis, serum lysozyme activity and cyclooxygenase (COX activity were evaluated as immune parameters. The cellular immunity was also evaluated after hemocytes exposure to various cadmium concentrations in vitro. The results obtained demonstrate modulation of hemocyte viability and the ability of these cells to phagocytize in absence of contaminants. After the exposure to cadmium, hemocytes showed greater viability at 5°C while maintaining a higher phagocytic competence. In addition, the lysozyme activity stayed stable at all tested temperatures, contrary to that of COX, which increased when the mussels were maintained at 20°C. The evaluation of indices demonstrated no reduction of general conditions during all the experiment despite the increase of temperature and the reduction of the digestive gland weight. Moreover, the lack of food does not affect gonad maturation and the spawning process.

  3. The mineral scoring technique and evaluation of indigenous browse species as natural mineral phytocentres for goats in African rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasa, J D; Opuda-Asibo, J; Thinggaard, G; ter Meulen, U

    2004-05-01

    The utilization and evaluation of indigenous browse species as natural mineral phytocentres for goats was examined by the combined use of mineral concentrations, mineral scores, browse accessibility and abundance in the Ankole rangeland, Uganda. The species Grewia bicolor and Carissa edulis with > 140% mineral scores and > 70% accessibility were the most valuable mineral phytocentres and were the victims of overgrazing. Acacia albida and Acacia abyssinica with > 130% mineral scores but genus Acacia and lowest (5.3%) in Dichrostachsys. Browse accessibility was < 35%, in 69.2% of species. Acacia hockii was the most abundant species (24.5%) but had the lowest mineral score (17.7%). Browse species (90-100%) were deficient in Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The combined use of mineral concentrations and mineral scoring technique was superior to the use of mineral concentrations alone in defining mineral adequacy, deficiency and supply potential, making the mineral scoring technique a valuable tool in browse management.

  4. Feature Fusion of ICP-AES, UV-Vis and FT-MIR for Origin Traceability of Boletus edulis Mushrooms in Combination with Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luming Qi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Origin traceability is an important step to control the nutritional and pharmacological quality of food products. Boletus edulis mushroom is a well-known food resource in the world. Its nutritional and medicinal properties are drastically varied depending on geographical origins. In this study, three sensor systems (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR were applied for the origin traceability of 184 mushroom samples (caps and stipes in combination with chemometrics. The difference between cap and stipe was clearly illustrated based on a single sensor technique, respectively. Feature variables from three instruments were used for origin traceability. Two supervised classification methods, partial least square discriminant analysis (FLS-DA and grid search support vector machine (GS-SVM, were applied to develop mathematical models. Two steps (internal cross-validation and external prediction for unknown samples were used to evaluate the performance of a classification model. The result is satisfactory with high accuracies ranging from 90.625% to 100%. These models also have an excellent generalization ability with the optimal parameters. Based on the combination of three sensory systems, our study provides a multi-sensory and comprehensive origin traceability of B. edulis mushrooms.

  5. Feature Fusion of ICP-AES, UV-Vis and FT-MIR for Origin Traceability of Boletus edulis Mushrooms in Combination with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Luming; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Li, Tao; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2018-01-15

    Origin traceability is an important step to control the nutritional and pharmacological quality of food products. Boletus edulis mushroom is a well-known food resource in the world. Its nutritional and medicinal properties are drastically varied depending on geographical origins. In this study, three sensor systems (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR)) were applied for the origin traceability of 192 mushroom samples (caps and stipes) in combination with chemometrics. The difference between cap and stipe was clearly illustrated based on a single sensor technique, respectively. Feature variables from three instruments were used for origin traceability. Two supervised classification methods, partial least square discriminant analysis (FLS-DA) and grid search support vector machine (GS-SVM), were applied to develop mathematical models. Two steps (internal cross-validation and external prediction for unknown samples) were used to evaluate the performance of a classification model. The result is satisfactory with high accuracies ranging from 90.625% to 100%. These models also have an excellent generalization ability with the optimal parameters. Based on the combination of three sensory systems, our study provides a multi-sensory and comprehensive origin traceability of B. edulis mushrooms.

  6. Feature Fusion of ICP-AES, UV-Vis and FT-MIR for Origin Traceability of Boletus edulis Mushrooms in Combination with Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Luming; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Li, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Origin traceability is an important step to control the nutritional and pharmacological quality of food products. Boletus edulis mushroom is a well-known food resource in the world. Its nutritional and medicinal properties are drastically varied depending on geographical origins. In this study, three sensor systems (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR)) were applied for the origin traceability of 184 mushroom samples (caps and stipes) in combination with chemometrics. The difference between cap and stipe was clearly illustrated based on a single sensor technique, respectively. Feature variables from three instruments were used for origin traceability. Two supervised classification methods, partial least square discriminant analysis (FLS-DA) and grid search support vector machine (GS-SVM), were applied to develop mathematical models. Two steps (internal cross-validation and external prediction for unknown samples) were used to evaluate the performance of a classification model. The result is satisfactory with high accuracies ranging from 90.625% to 100%. These models also have an excellent generalization ability with the optimal parameters. Based on the combination of three sensory systems, our study provides a multi-sensory and comprehensive origin traceability of B. edulis mushrooms. PMID:29342969

  7. Kinetic modeling, equilibrium isotherm and thermodynamic studies on a batch adsorption of anionic dye onto eco-friendly dried Carpobrotus edulis plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziam, R.; Chiban, M.; Eddaoudi, H.; Soudani, A.; Zerbet, M.; Sinan, F.

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, a low-cost bio-adsorbent is developed from the naturally and abundantly available dried Mediterranean plant which is biodegradable. The bio-adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (PZC). A study on the adsorption kinetics and isotherms was performed applying the optimized conditions. The equilibrium data for the adsorption of acid blue 113 on dried plant is tested with various adsorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. The Langmuir isotherm model is found to be the most suitable one for the acid blue 113 (AB113) adsorption using dried C. edulis plant and the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity obtained with the application of Langmuir isotherm model is 8.2 mg.g-1 at room temperature. The adsorption process follows the second-order kinetics and the corresponding rate constants are obtained. The thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic nature. It can be concluded that the dried C. edulis adsorbent studied has good perspective to be used as adsorbent material in anionic dyes removal from industry effluents.

  8. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a H(+)-dependent phosphate transporter gene from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Boletus edulis in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Li, Tao; Wu, Xiaogang; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate transporters (PTs), as entry points for phosphorus (P) in organisms, are involved in a number of P nutrition processes such as phosphate uptake, transport, and transfer. In the study, a PT gene 1632 bp long (named BePT) was cloned, identified, and functionally characterized from Boletus edulis. BePT was expected to encode a polypeptide with 543 amino acid residues. The BePT polypeptide belonged to the major facilitator superfamily and showed a high degree of sequence identity to the Pht1 family. A topology model revealed that BePT exhibited 12 transmembrane helices, divided into two halves, and connected by a large hydrophilic loop in the middle. A yeast mutant complementation analysis suggested that BePT was a functional PT which mediated orthophosphate uptake of yeast at micromolar concentrations. Green fluorescent protein-BePT fusion proteins expressed were extensively restricted to the plasma membrane in BePT transformed yeast, and its activity was dependent on electrochemical membrane potential. In vitro, quantitative PCR confirmed that the expression of BePT was significantly upregulated at lower phosphorus availability, which may enhance phosphate uptake and transport under phosphate starvation. Our results suggest that BePT plays a key role in phosphate acquisition in the ectomycorrhizal fungus B. edulis. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geographical traceability of wild Boletus edulis based on data fusion of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with data mining methods (SVM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the data fusion strategy of Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used in combination with Support Vector Machine (SVM) to determine the geographic origin of Boletus edulis collected from nine regions of Yunnan Province in China. Firstly, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was used for selecting an optimal combination of key wavenumbers of second derivative FT-MIR spectra, and thirteen elements were sorted with variable importance in projection (VIP) scores. Secondly, thirteen subsets of multi-elements with the best VIP score were generated and each subset was used to fuse with FT-MIR. Finally, the classification models were established by SVM, and the combination of parameter C and γ (gamma) of SVM models was calculated by the approaches of grid search (GS) and genetic algorithm (GA). The results showed that both GS-SVM and GA-SVM models achieved good performances based on the #9 subset and the prediction accuracy in calibration and validation sets of the two models were 81.40% and 90.91%, correspondingly. In conclusion, it indicated that the data fusion strategy of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with the algorithm of SVM can be used as a reliable tool for accurate identification of B. edulis, and it can provide a useful way of thinking for the quality control of edible mushrooms.

  10. Too much food may cause reduced growth of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) – Test of hypothesis and new ‘high Chl a BEG-model’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Lüskow, Florian; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high C...... the effect of Chl a, but the present study shows that too much food may cause reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated marine areas regardless of high or moderate salinity above about 10 psu.......Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high Chl...... in which the growth of mussels in net bags was measured along a Chl a gradient are presented. Finally, we discuss the phenomenon of reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated areas versus a possible impact of low salinity. It is concluded that it is difficult to separate the effect of salinity from...

  11. Influence of light conditions on the allometry and growth of the understory palm Geonoma undata subsp. edulis (Arecaceae) of neotropical cloud forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Olivia; Avalos, Gerardo

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge on the growth responses of understory palms to changing light conditions within neotropical cloud forests is limited. The low light regime of these environments, in addition to persistent cloudiness, low ambient temperatures, and slow nutrient cycles, imposes significant constraints on biomass accumulation. Here, we evaluate how changes in the understory light conditions influenced the allometry and growth of G. undata subsp. edulis in two cloud forests in Costa Rica. We examined the structural relationships between stem diameter, stem height, and crown area in reproductive and nonreproductive individuals. We related the variation in stem growth and crown area with allometry, leaf production and longevity, and light conditions that we measured using hemispherical photographs over 1 year. The allometric and growth pattern of G. undata subsp. edulis was characterized by its investment in crown area, which was strongly and positively related to increments in palm height and reproduction. Growth, measured as the increase in crown area and stem height, was not explained by the variation in the light regime spanning 1 year. However, reproductive individuals were generally taller, more slender, and had larger leaf areas than nonreproductive individuals. Our results demonstrated that stem growth responses were mostly controlled by initial crown size rather than by temporal differences in the understory light regimes of cloud forests. These results suggest that cloud forest understory palms have a limited capacity to respond to light changes and rely mostly on an opportunistic strategy for biomass accumulation and reproduction.

  12. Expression of important pathway genes involved in withanolides biosynthesis in hairy root culture of Withania somnifera upon treatment with Gracilaria edulis and Sargassum wightii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Arunachalam, Chinnathambi; Selvaraj, Natesan; Sulaiman, Ali Alharbi; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-06-01

    The investigation of seaweeds, Gracilaria edulis and Sargassum wightii extracts was carried out for the estimation of growth characteristics and major withanolides production in hairy root culture of Withania somnifera. The extract of G. edulis (50%) in MS liquid basal medium enabled maximum production of dry biomass (5.46 g DW) and withanolides contents (withanolide A 5.23 mg/g DW; withaferin A 2.24 mg/g DW and withanone 4.83 mg/g DW) in hairy roots after 40 days of culture with 48 h contact time. The obtained withanolides contents were significantly higher (2.32-fold-2.66-fold) in hairy root culture when compared to the control. RT PCR analysis of important pathway genes such as SE, SS, HMGR and FPPS exhibited substantial higher expression upon the seaweed extracts treatment in hairy root culture. This experiment would paw a platform for withanolides production in hairy root culture with the influence of sea weed extracts for pharmaceutical companies in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. An axenic culture system for fruiting body formation by an edible bolete phylogenetically related to culinary-medicinal penny bun mushroom, Boletus edulis Bull.:Fr. strains from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shao Chun; Zhang, Mei Yan; Shang, Xiao Dong; Chen, Ming Jie; Tan, Qi

    2011-01-01

    The ability of two freshly isolated Boletus stains to fruit under axenic conditions was tested using different solid and liquid nutrient media. One strain (YNCX04) produced numerous primordia from which fruiting bodies, 12 mm and 10 mm in length, with grey, convex pilei, and yellow-white, clavate stipes developed between 15 and 30 d after inoculation of fungal mycelium onto a solid medium consisting of mineral salts, thiamine, glucose, potato, an extract of Cunninghamia lanceolata root, and agar. The other strain (YNB200) produced numerous primordia but no sporophores. Strain YNCX04 lost the ability to form fruiting bodies in axenic culture 6 mo after initial isolation but retained the ability to form primordia for up to 18 mo. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequencing data, strains YNB200 and YNCX04 formed a sub-cluster together with four previously designated Boletus edulis strains from China. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Chinese strains closer to B. aestivalis than to European and North American strains of B. edulis, although a 29-bp fragment specific to all the B. aestivalis strains was absent from all the Chinese strains. Furthermore, partial 18S rDNA sequences from strains YNB200 and YNCX04 exhibited 98% similarity with an 18S rDNA sequence from B. edulis strain Be3. Further molecular studies are indicated to more accurately establish the taxonomic positions ofF3 and F4-3, as well as the Chinese strains designated as B. edulis.

  14. Defaunation of large mammals leads to an increase in seed predation in the Atlantic forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Galetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Defaunation can trigger cascading events in natural communities and may have strong consequences for plant recruitment in tropical forests. Several species of large seed predators, such as deer and peccaries, are facing dramatic population collapse in tropical forests yet we do not have information about the consequences of these extinctions for seed predation. Using remote camera traps we tested if defaunated forests have a lower seed predation rate of a keystone palm (Euterpe edulis than pristine areas. Contrary to our expectation, we found that seed predation rates were 2.5 higher in defaunated forests and small rodents were responsible for most of the seeds eaten. Our results found that defaunation leads to changes in the seed predator communities with potential consequences for plant–animal interactions.

  15. New microsatellite markers for wild and commercial species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae) and cross-amplification1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos B. M.; Santos, Elisa S. L.; Vieira, João G. P.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Jesus, Onildo N.; Corrêa, Ronan X.; Souza, Anete P.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We developed the first microsatellites for Passiflora setacea and characterized new sets of markers for P. edulis and P. cincinnata, enabling further genetic diversity studies to support the conservation and breeding of passion fruit species. • Methods and Results: We developed 69 microsatellite markers and, in conjunction with assessments of cross-amplification using primers available from the literature, present 43 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for three species of Passiflora. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.1, and the mean values of the expected and observed levels of heterozygosity were 0.406 and 0.322, respectively. • Conclusions: These microsatellite markers will be valuable tools for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and commercial species of passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) and may be useful for developing conservation and improvement strategies by contributing to the understanding of the mating system and hybridization within the genus. PMID:25202599

  16. New microsatellite markers for wild and commercial species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae) and cross-amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos B M; Santos, Elisa S L; Vieira, João G P; Mori, Gustavo M; Jesus, Onildo N; Corrêa, Ronan X; Souza, Anete P

    2014-02-01

    We developed the first microsatellites for Passiflora setacea and characterized new sets of markers for P. edulis and P. cincinnata, enabling further genetic diversity studies to support the conservation and breeding of passion fruit species. • We developed 69 microsatellite markers and, in conjunction with assessments of cross-amplification using primers available from the literature, present 43 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for three species of Passiflora. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.1, and the mean values of the expected and observed levels of heterozygosity were 0.406 and 0.322, respectively. • These microsatellite markers will be valuable tools for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and commercial species of passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) and may be useful for developing conservation and improvement strategies by contributing to the understanding of the mating system and hybridization within the genus.

  17. New Microsatellite Markers for Wild and Commercial Species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae and Cross-Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. M. Cerqueira-Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed the first microsatellites for Passiflora setacea and characterized new sets of markers for P. edulis and P. cincinnata, enabling further genetic diversity studies to support the conservation and breeding of passion fruit species. Methods and Results: We developed 69 microsatellite markers and, in conjunction with assessments of cross-amplification using primers available from the literature, present 43 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for three species of Passiflora. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.1, and the mean values of the expected and observed levels of heterozygosity were 0.406 and 0.322, respectively. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers will be valuable tools for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and commercial species of passion fruit (Passiflora spp. and may be useful for developing conservation and improvement strategies by contributing to the understanding of the mating system and hybridization within the genus.

  18. Mercury and its bioconcentration factors in King Bolete (Boletus edulis) Bull. Fr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Frankowska, Aneta; Mazur, Aneta

    2007-12-01

    The total mercury content for a representative number of the carpophores of King Bolete from 13 sites across Poland averaged from 1.1 +/- 1.4 to 7.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g dry matter in the caps (total variation between 0.02 and 14 microg/g dm), and from 0.82 +/- 0.71 to 3.8 +/- 1.8 microg/g dm in stalks (total variation between 0.03 and 6.7 microg/g dm). A top soil layer (0-10 cm) collected from the mushroom sampling sites showed mean mercury content at range from 0.02 +/- 0.01 to 0.05 +/- 0.02 microg/g dm (total variation between 0.01 and 0.08 microg/g dm). King Bolete is effective mercury accumulator in the carpophores and bioconcentration factor (BCF) of this element in the caps ranged from 41 +/- 6 to 130 +/- 39 (total variation between 13 and 170) and in the stalks were from 27 +/- 18 to 72 +/- 22 (total variation between 4.0 and 90). Based on a relatively large set of data on the total mercury concentrations obtained in this survey, and dataset available for King Bolete from various sites in Europe, it seems reasonable to state that the upper food hygienic limit for the total mercury content in this species collected from unpolluted (background) sites should not exceed 20 microg/g dm in a single cap or a carpophore, while on an average, per site or consignment, should not exceed 10 mug/g dm in the caps or the carpophores.

  19. Analysis of transferability of microsatellite primers (SSR) in wild Passiflora species and intraspecific genetic diversity in Passiflora alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A A; Souza, M M; Silva, G S; Melo, C A F; Corrêa, R X; Araújo, I S; Conceição, L D H C S

    2014-08-07

    The genus Passiflora L. is the most representative of Passifloraceae, with over 500 known species, among which 150-200 originated from Brazil. In addition to the great commercial importance of this genus for the fruit market, many of the species have exotic flowers with a huge diversity of colors and can thereby be exploited as ornamental plants. This study was aimed at investigating the transferability of microsatellite primers in wild Passiflora species (P. cacao, P. cincinnata, P. glandulosa, P. gibertii, and P. mucronata) and characterizing 29 P. alata accessions using microsatellite primers that were previously developed in a library enriched with microsatellites from P. edulis f. flavicarpa for P. alata. The interspecies cross-amplification rate varied, and P. cacao exhibited the highest rate of amplification, suggesting a greater degree of proximity to P. edulis. The study of intraspecific accessions in P. alata found genetic similarity, with values ranging from 0.47 to 1.00 and an average similarity of 0.74. Hence, this study revealed the intraspecific genetic variability of P. alata in the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz's Active Germplasm Bank and will lead to the adoption of mating strategies between accessions; thus making their use more suitable for breeding purposes.

  20. Tissue injury and cellular immune responses to mercuric chloride exposure in the common mussel Mytilus edulis: modulation by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheir, Sherin K; Handy, Richard D; Galloway, Tamara S

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the immunotoxic effects of sublethal mercury (Hg) exposure in bivalves, and whether or not stimulation of the immune system exacerbates Hg toxicity. The mussel, Mytilus edulis, was exposed to a total inorganic Hg concentration of 50 microgl(-1) as HgCl2 for up to 11 days compared to no added Hg controls. Then the immune functions of haemocytes, haematology, biochemistry and organ histology were assessed. Selected experiments were then repeated in mussels injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate the immune system prior to Hg exposure. Hg exposure alone caused Hg accumulation mainly in gills and digestive gland, and to a lesser extent in the adductor muscle and haemolymph. This general pattern of Hg accumulation also occurred during the Hg plus LPS experiments. Hg exposure alone caused a transient increase of phagocytosis, but no Hg-dependent effects on neutral red retention or the cytotoxicity of haemocytes. Changes in haemolymph Na+, K+ and glucose levels were negligible during Hg exposure alone compared to controls. However, histological examination showed tissues injuries consistent with inflammation in the gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle during Hg exposure alone. LPS injection had a significant effect (Kruskal Wallis, P=0.02) on circulating haemocytes numbers at the end of the experiment compared to saline injected controls and the Hg+LPS treatment (mean+/-S.E.M., n=6, cells ml(-1)x10(6)); control, 2.1+/-0.08; LPS treated, 3.18+/-0.36, and LPS+Hg, 2.1+/-0.2. The Hg+LPS treatment also caused a transient decline in superoxide dismutase activity in haemocytes (85% decline, Kruskal Wallis, P=0.006) compared to controls. Target tissue inflammation and injury was greatly increased by the effect of Hg exposure with an LPS injection compared to either treatment alone. We conclude that Hg can cause inflammation in mussels in vivo, and that stimulation with LPS can greatly increase Hg-dependent immunotoxicity. Copyright (c) 2010

  1. Useful palms (Arecaceae near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Balslev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the uses of 64 species of palms in 28 villages in Departamento de Loreto, Peru. There, the palms are of great use as food (Bactris gasipaes, Mauritia flexuosa, Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, for fiber production (Astrocaryum chambira, Aphandra natalia, for construction of houses (Euterpe precatoria, Iriartea deltoidea,Socratea exorrhiza, thatching (many species of Attalea, Lepidocaryum tenue and for many medicinal purposes (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua.

  2. Pre and postharvest enzymatic activity in gulupa (passiflora edulis sims) fruits from the colombian lower montane rain forest / actividad enzimática precosecha y poscosecha en frutos de gulupa (passiflora edulis sims), en condiciones del bosque húmedo mo

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Germán; Cartagena Valenzuela, José Régulo; Correa Londoño, Guillermo Antonio; Rojano, Benjamín Alberto; Piedrahita Correa, Ana María; Ibarz, Albert; Falguera, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    “High-Andean fruits” are deemed important because oftheir potential for domestic consumption and exportation. Among them, gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims) is an exotic fruit of good acceptance in European markets. However, the technological support associated with the crop is incipient and its short shelf life leads to rapid deterioration of the product. This fact makes it necessary to investigate the physical, physiological and biochemical processes that characterize fruit ripening, in order ...

  3. Dredging of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish sound: stock sizes and fishery-effects on mussel population dynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    1999-01-01

    in the mussel stock. In summer 1994, there was a long period of oxygen depletion in parts of Limfjorden. This caused mortality of 33% of the mussels in the affected areas. In fishery zones without oxygen depletion a 46% increase in the mussel stocks was estimated. The massive loss of blue mussels caused......In April 1993, 1994 and 1995 the abundance of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis L., was estimated in Limfjorden, Denmark. The stocks were assessed by using a down-scaled model of a commercial mussel dredge which efficiency was analysed by comparing its samples with others collected by diver. The mean...... dredge efficiency was 17%. The fishing area in Limfjorden (700 km(2)) is divided into 22 fishery zones and mussel stock size was calculated for each zone. From April 1993 to April 1994 the total stock size declined from 771 000 to 616 000 t. In the same period, the exploitation rate in the fishery was 14...

  4. Dredging of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish sound: stock sizes and fishery-effects on mussel population dynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    1999-01-01

    In April 1993, 1994 and 1995 the abundance of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis L., was estimated in Limfjorden, Denmark. The stocks were assessed by using a down-scaled model of a commercial mussel dredge which efficiency was analysed by comparing its samples with others collected by diver. The mean...... dredge efficiency was 17%. The fishing area in Limfjorden (700 km(2)) is divided into 22 fishery zones and mussel stock size was calculated for each zone. From April 1993 to April 1994 the total stock size declined from 771 000 to 616 000 t. In the same period, the exploitation rate in the fishery was 14......% of the 1993 stock, and the size of mussel landings from each zone significantly correlated with their change in stock. In April 1995, the total mussel stock was reduced to 494 000 t. The mean exploitation rate in 1994-1995 was 15%. No correlation was observed between the size of mussel landings and the change...

  5. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement...... is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels...... originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels...

  6. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic...... arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples....... For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted...

  7. Accumulation du cadmium par Mytilus edulis en présence de bactéries marines sensibles ou résistantes à ce metal

    OpenAIRE

    Flatau, Gilles N.; Gauthier, Michel J

    1982-01-01

    L'accumulation du cadmium par les branchies les viscères et le manteau de Mytilus edulis en présence de bactéries marines résistantes ou sensibles à ce métal, a été étudiée. Le cadmium ionique était plus accumulé par la chair totale en présence de la souche sensible, qu'en présence de la souche résistante. L'accumulation du cadmium fourni par les souches préalablement cultivées sur milieu cadmié puis tuées était plus importante que celle du cadmium ionique. Le métal lié à la souche résistante...

  8. Effect of infection with Metacercariae of Himasthla elongata (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) on cardiac activity and growth rate in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmet, Igor; Nikolaev, Kirill; Levakin, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Trematode parasites can affect their molluscan hosts, which serve as the first intermediate hosts in their life cycles, in manifold ways, but little is known about trematode-induced effects on their second intermediate hosts. Experimental infection of blue mussels Mytilus edulis serving as second intermediate hosts for larval stages (metacercariae) of the trematodes Himasthla elongata was studied in field experiments during one year. The heart rates and growth rates of noninfected mussels were significantly higher than those of infected mussels. During the summer, the heart rates of noninfected mussels showed rhythmic oscillations, whereas the parasitized animals displayed no any rhythmicity. There was a significant difference between the infected and uninfected mussels in relation to heart rates and temperature. The results indicate that mussels infected with H. elongata metacercariae may be at an energetic disadvantage relative to noninfected mussels. Furthermore, trematode infection may disrupt neuronal control of cardiac function.

  9. Effects of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebello, B.M. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande no Norte, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro 87, Fundos, 4o andar, 20551030, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moreno, S.R.F. [Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro 87, Fundos, 4o andar, 20551030, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil); Godinho, C.R.; Neves, R.F. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande no Norte, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro 87, Fundos, 4o andar, 20551030, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro 87, Fundos, 4o andar, 20551030, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande no Norte, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro 87, Fundos, 4o andar, 20551030, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Medeiros, A.C. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande no Norte, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa (P. flavicarpa) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, on the morphology of red blood cells, and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (sodium {sup 99m}Tc). Male Wistar rats were treated with either P. flavicarpa extract or 0.9% NaCl. After that, radiolabeling of blood constituents, morphological analysis of red blood cells and biodistribution of sodium {sup 99m}Tc was evaluated. Radiolabeling of blood constituents and shape of red blood cells were not modified, but a significant (p<0.05) alteration of the biodistribution of sodium {sup 99m}Tc was observed after treatment with P. flavicarpa extract. Although our results were obtained with animals, they could contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

  10. Estudos anatômicos e ultraestruturais de sistemas de regeneração in vitro de Passiflora cincinnata Masters e Passiflora edulis Sims (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Diego Ismael

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever, através de análises anatômicas e ultraestruturais, o processo de regeneração in vitro de Passiflora cincinnata Masters, via embriogênese somática, a partir de embriões zigóticos e de Passiflora edulis Sims, via organogênese, a partir de explantes radiculares. Embriões zigóticos maduros de P. cincinnata foram colocados em meio de indução MS suplementado com 18,1 μM de 2,4-D e 4,4 μM de BAP. Embriões somáticos originaram-se a partir de z...

  11. Estudos sôbre a conservação de sementes. IX- Ingá Storage of Inga edulis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Dada sua extrema sensibilidade à desidratação, a semente de ingá (Inga edulis Mart. tem, em condições normais de armazenamento, uma longevidade bastante curta. Mesmo quando conservada dentro do próprio fruto, sua capacidade germinativa já se apresenta com evidentes sinais de enfraquecimento após 14 dias. De acôrdo com os resultados ora apresentados, o fator umidade constitui, realmente, o principal responsável pela maior ou menor longevidade da semente. Em todos os ensaios realizados, a perda de vitalidade se iniciou quando o teor de umidade das sementes se encontrava ao redor de 35%. A influência da temperatura foi apenas indireta, aumentando ou diminuindo a rapidez de desidratação das sementes. Embora mantendo seu teor inicial de umidade, as sementes conservadas em recipiente hermèticamente fechado perderam totalmente sua vitalidade em apenas 14 dias; isto se deu, provàvelmente, em conseqüência do acúmulo de gás carbônico proveniente da respiração da semente.Like other seeds of various economic crops, those of Inga edulis lose their vitality in a few days when exposed to the air. Storage of these short-lived seeds under different conditions of moisture content, temperature, and carbon dioxide accumulation has given the following information: 1. Seeds lose their viability when the water content is reduced to 35% or less. 2. Temperature seems not to be effective unless on the rale to which this critical point dessication is attained. 3. The rapid loss of vitality of seeds kept in airtight containers is probably due to the carbon dioxide accumulation. Here also the temperature seems to act indirectly, modifyng the rate of respiration of the seeds.

  12. Investigação da atividade antihiperglicemiante da farinha da casca de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, em ratos diabéticos induzidos por aloxano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Braga

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou a modelagem farmacodinâmica da ação antihiperglicemiante da farinha da casca de maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae em ratos diabéticos induzidos por aloxano. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos (n = 9: grupo diabético tratado com 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg ou 160 mg/kg da farinha. As amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas da veia lateral da cauda e a glicemia foi determinada com auxílio de um glucômetro em 0, 1, 2, 4 e 6 h após o tratamento via oral. Observou-se que o efeito antihiperglicemiante da farinha da casca de maracujá foi dependente da dose, obtendo um efeito expressivo observado em quatro horas para todas as doses, sendo mais pronunciado na dose de 160 mg/kg. O efeito, expresso como redução da glicemia basal em relação ao tempo zero, pode ser modelado através de um modelo dose-efeito clássico, o qual permitiu a determinação do efeito máximo (Emax e da dose necessária para alcançar 50% deste efeito (DE50. Após a modelagem dos dados, obteve-se um valor de Emax = 58,41% e de DE50 = 23,61 mg/kg. Esta abordagem pode permitir a comparação do efeito antihiperglicemiante de Passiflora edulis com outras espécies que apresentem atividade sobre a redução da glicemia, mediada pela presença de fibras solúveis.

  13. Growth-Mortality Relationships in Piñon Pine (Pinus edulis) during Severe Droughts of the Past Century: Shifting Processes in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Alison K.; Bugmann, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to drought-associated tree mortality are poorly understood, particularly long-term predisposing factors, memory effects, and variability in mortality processes and thresholds in space and time. We use tree rings from four sites to investigate Pinus edulis mortality during two drought periods in the southwestern USA. We draw on recent sampling and archived collections to (1) analyze P. edulis growth patterns and mortality during the 1950s and 2000s droughts; (2) determine the influence of climate and competition on growth in trees that died and survived; and (3) derive regression models of growth-mortality risk and evaluate their performance across space and time. Recent growth was 53% higher in surviving vs. dying trees, with some sites exhibiting decades-long growth divergences associated with previous drought. Differential growth response to climate partly explained growth differences between live and dead trees, with responses wet/cool conditions most influencing eventual tree status. Competition constrained tree growth, and reduced trees’ ability to respond to favorable climate. The best predictors in growth-mortality models included long-term (15–30 year) average growth rate combined with a metric of growth variability and the number of abrupt growth increases over 15 and 10 years, respectively. The most parsimonious models had high discriminatory power (ROC>0.84) and correctly classified ∼70% of trees, suggesting that aspects of tree growth, especially over decades, can be powerful predictors of widespread drought-associated die-off. However, model discrimination varied across sites and drought events. Weaker growth-mortality relationships and higher growth at lower survival probabilities for some sites during the 2000s event suggest a shift in mortality processes from longer-term growth-related constraints to shorter-term processes, such as rapid metabolic decline even in vigorous trees due to acute drought stress, and

  14. Growth-mortality relationships in piñon pine (Pinus edulis during severe droughts of the past century: shifting processes in space and time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K Macalady

    Full Text Available The processes leading to drought-associated tree mortality are poorly understood, particularly long-term predisposing factors, memory effects, and variability in mortality processes and thresholds in space and time. We use tree rings from four sites to investigate Pinus edulis mortality during two drought periods in the southwestern USA. We draw on recent sampling and archived collections to (1 analyze P. edulis growth patterns and mortality during the 1950s and 2000s droughts; (2 determine the influence of climate and competition on growth in trees that died and survived; and (3 derive regression models of growth-mortality risk and evaluate their performance across space and time. Recent growth was 53% higher in surviving vs. dying trees, with some sites exhibiting decades-long growth divergences associated with previous drought. Differential growth response to climate partly explained growth differences between live and dead trees, with responses wet/cool conditions most influencing eventual tree status. Competition constrained tree growth, and reduced trees' ability to respond to favorable climate. The best predictors in growth-mortality models included long-term (15-30 year average growth rate combined with a metric of growth variability and the number of abrupt growth increases over 15 and 10 years, respectively. The most parsimonious models had high discriminatory power (ROC>0.84 and correctly classified ∼ 70% of trees, suggesting that aspects of tree growth, especially over decades, can be powerful predictors of widespread drought-associated die-off. However, model discrimination varied across sites and drought events. Weaker growth-mortality relationships and higher growth at lower survival probabilities for some sites during the 2000s event suggest a shift in mortality processes from longer-term growth-related constraints to shorter-term processes, such as rapid metabolic decline even in vigorous trees due to acute drought stress, and

  15. Too much food may cause reduced growth of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) - Test of hypothesis and new 'high Chl a BEG-model'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Lüskow, Florian; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-04-01

    Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high Chl a concentrations (> about 8 μg Chl a l-1) result in reduced growth because mussels are not evolutionarily adapted to utilize such high phytoplankton concentrations and to physiologically regulate the amount of ingested food in such a way that the growth rate remains high and constant. We first make a comparison of literature values for actually measured weight-specific growth rates (μ, % d-1) of small (20 to 25 mm) M. edulis, either grown in controlled laboratory experiments or in net bags in Danish waters, as a function of Chl a. A linear increase up to about μ = 8.3% d-1 at 8.1 μg Chl a l-1 fits the "standard BEG-model" after which a marked decrease takes place, and this supports the hypothesis. A "high Chl a BEG-model", applicable to newly settled post-metamorphic and small juvenile (non-spawning) mussels in eutrophicated Danish and other temperate waters, is developed and tested, and new data from a case study in which the growth of mussels in net bags was measured along a Chl a gradient are presented. Finally, we discuss the phenomenon of reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated areas versus a possible impact of low salinity. It is concluded that it is difficult to separate the effect of salinity from the effect of Chl a, but the present study shows that too much food may cause reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated marine areas regardless of high or moderate salinity above about 10 psu.

  16. Temperature response surfaces for mortality risk of tree species with future drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Henry D.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Minor, Rebecca L.; Gardea, Alfonso A.; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Law, Darin J.; Breshears, David D.; McDowell, Nate G.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2017-11-01

    Widespread, high levels of tree mortality, termed forest die-off, associated with drought and rising temperatures, are disrupting forests worldwide. Drought will likely become more frequent with climate change, but even without more frequent drought, higher temperatures can exacerbate tree water stress. The temperature sensitivity of drought-induced mortality of tree species has been evaluated experimentally for only single-step changes in temperature (ambient compared to ambient + increase) rather than as a response surface (multiple levels of temperature increase), which constrains our ability to relate changes in the driver with the biological response. Here we show that time-to-mortality during drought for seedlings of two western United States tree species, Pinus edulis (Engelm.) and Pinus ponderosa (Douglas ex C. Lawson), declined in continuous proportion with increasing temperature spanning a 7.7 °C increase. Although P. edulis outlived P. ponderosa at all temperatures, both species had similar relative declines in time-to-mortality as temperature increased (5.2% per °C for P. edulis; 5.8% per °C for P. ponderosa). When combined with the non-linear frequency distribution of drought duration—many more short droughts than long droughts—these findings point to a progressive increase in mortality events with global change due to warming alone and independent of additional changes in future drought frequency distributions. As such, dire future forest recruitment patterns are projected assuming the calculated 7-9 seedling mortality events per species by 2100 under business-as-usual warming occurs, congruent with additional vulnerability predicted for adult trees from stressors like pathogens and pests. Our progressive projection for increased mortality events was driven primarily by the non-linear shape of the drought duration frequency distribution, a common climate feature of drought-affected regions. These

  17. Genetic diversity and hybridization in the two species Inga ingoides and Inga edulis: potential applications for agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rollo, A.; Lojka, B.; Honys, David; Mandák, Bohumil; Wong, J.A.C.; Santos, C.; Costa, R.; Quintela-Sabaris, C.; Ribeiro, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2016), s. 425-435 ISSN 1286-4560 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : Agroforestry * Biodiversity conservation * Introgression Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2016

  18. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  19. Detecting latitudinal and altitudinal expansion of invasive bamboo Phyllostachys edulis and Phyllostachys bambusoides (Poaceae) in Japan to project potential habitats under 1.5°C-4.0°C global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kohei Takenaka; Hibino, Kenshi; Numata, Ayaka; Oguro, Michio; Aiba, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Takayabu, Izuru; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2017-12-01

    Rapid expansion of exotic bamboos has lowered species diversity in Japan's ecosystems by hampering native plant growth. The invasive potential of bamboo, facilitated by global warming, may also affect other countries with developing bamboo industries. We examined past (1975-1980) and recent (2012) distributions of major exotic bamboos ( Phyllostachys edulis and P. bambusoides ) in areas adjacent to 145 weather stations in central and northern Japan. Bamboo stands have been established at 17 sites along the latitudinal and altitudinal distributional limit during the last three decades. Ecological niche modeling indicated that temperature had a strong influence on bamboo distribution. Using mean annual temperature and sun radiation data, we reproduced bamboo distribution (accuracy = 0.93 and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) = 0.92). These results infer that exotic bamboo distribution has shifted northward and upslope, in association with recent climate warming. Then, we simulated future climate data and projected the climate change impact on the potential habitat distribution of invasive bamboos under different temperature increases (i.e., 1.5°C, 2.0°C, 3.0°C, and 4.0°C) relative to the preindustrial period. Potential habitats in central and northern Japan were estimated to increase from 35% under the current climate (1980-2000) to 46%-48%, 51%-54%, 61%-67%, and 77%-83% under 1.5°C, 2.0°C, 3.0°C, and 4.0°C warming levels, respectively. These infer that the risk areas can increase by 1.3 times even under a 1.5°C scenario and expand by 2.3 times under a 4.0°C scenario. For sustainable ecosystem management, both mitigation and adaptation are necessary: bamboo planting must be carefully monitored in predicted potential habitats, which covers most of Japan.

  20. Influencia del estado de coloración y del agente de extracción sobre la obtención de pectina a partir de dos variedades de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca Nevárez, Gerardo; Intriago Flor, Frank; Talledo Solórzano, Viviana; Rivera Molina, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Se analizó la influencia del estado de coloración y del tipo de agente extractante (HCl, H3PO4, C3H4OH (COOH)3) sobre  la  obtención  de  pectina  a  partir  de  las  cáscaras  de  dos  variedades  de  maracuyá Passiflora edulis flavicarpa (amarilla) y Passiflora edulis sims (púrpura). La extracción de pectina se realizó siguiendo un diseño estadístico de experimentos completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2x6x3, ...

  1. Desenvolvimento de métodos espectrofotométricos de análise de flavonóides do \\"maracujá\\" (Passiflora alata e Passiflota edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Cristina Soares Pozzi

    2007-01-01

    \\"Maracujá\\" é o nome popular de várias espécies, dentre as quais Passiflora edulis e Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae). Esta última é uma planta medicinal amplamente utilizada no Brasil devido às suas propriedades ansiolíticas e sedativas, sendo também a espécie oficial da Farmacopéia Brasileira. Porém, freqüentemente ocorre a sua substituição indevida por Passiflora edulis, espécie usada para o preparo de sucos. Há também a confusão com a Passiflora incarnata, espécie usada na Europa, mas q...

  2. Ionic liquids-lithium salts pretreatment followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Phyllostachys edulis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kexin; Chen, Fengli; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-29

    An efficient method for the extraction of vitexin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from Phyllostachys edulis leaves comprises heat treatment using an ionic liquid-lithium salt mixture (using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as the solvent and lithium chloride as the additive), followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction. To obtain higher extraction yields, the effects of the relevant experimental parameters (including heat treatment temperature and time, relative amounts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and lithium chloride, power and time of the ultrasound irradiation, and the liquid-solid ratio) are evaluated and response surface methodology is used to optimize the significant factors. The morphologies of the treated and untreated P. edulis leaves are studied by scanning electron microscopy. The improved extraction method proposed provides high extraction yield, good repeatability and precision, and has wide potential applications in the analysis of plant samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of pumping rate by two species of marine bivalve molluscs in response to neurotransmitters: Comparison of in vitro and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dana M; Deaton, Lewis; Shumway, Sandra E; Holohan, Bridget A; Ward, J Evan

    2015-07-01

    Most studies regarding the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of molluscan ctenidia have focused on isolated ctenidial tissue preparations. This study investigated how bivalve molluscs modulate their feeding rates by examining the effects of a variety of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, and the dopamine agonist apomorphine on both isolated ctenidial tissue and in intact members of two commercially important bivalve species: the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis; and the bay scallop Argopecten irradians. In particular, we examined the effect of changes in: 1) beat of the lateral cilia (in vitro), 2) distance between ctenidial filaments and/or plicae (in vivo), and 3) diameter of the siphonal openings (in vivo) on alteration of bulk water flow through the mantle cavity. Important differences were found between isolated tissue and whole animals, and between species. Drugs that stimulated ciliary beat in vitro did not increase water processing rate in vivo. None of the treatments increased water flow through the mantle cavity of intact animals. Results suggest that A. irradians was primarily modulating lateral ciliary activity, while M. edulis appeared to have a number of ways to control water processing activity, signifying that the two species may have different compensatory and regulatory mechanisms controlling feeding activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Número floral, clima, densidad poblacional de Xylocopa spp. (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae y polinización del maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    airon M Da Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available La influencia del número de flores en la antesis del maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. y de los factores climáticos sobre la actividad polinizadora y densidad poblacional de las abejas del género Xylocopa fue estudiada en condiciones de campo. El menor porcentaje de formación de frutos (14.3% se observó cuando había menos de 0.8 flores en la antesis/m linear de "soporte". Entre 0.8 y 1.2 flores en antesis/m linear de "soporte" se observó aumento en el porcentaje de frutos formados y en el número de visitas por parte de la abeja. Con más de 1.2 flores en la antesis/m linear de "soporte", hubo menor porcentaje de frutos formados en función del número de visitas de la abeja. La mayor densidad de Xylocopa spp. (49 abejas/ha/hora se observó entre las 14: 00 y 15: 00 hr cuando los factores climáticos como la temperatura, la humedad relativa del aire y la insolación obtuvieron valores en torno de 26 °C, 55% y 0.56, respectivamente. Temperatura y humedad relativa del aire arriba de esos valores redujeron la densidad de Xylocopa spp., mientras que con mayor insolación fue verificado aumento en la misma.The relationship of weather conditions, passion fruit vines (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa flower number, density of carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp., Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae and effective pollinization was studied in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Low levels of viable fruits (14.3% were observed when there were less flowers/ row (< 0.8 flowers in anthesis/ linear meter. When densities of flowers in anthesis were between 0.8 and 1.2, there was a higher proportion of viable flowers and more visits by Xylocopa spp. (maximum: seven visits/ flower. Above 1.2 flowers in anthesis/ linear meter there was a linear increase in the proportion of viable fruits and visits by Xylocopa spp. However; numbers were lower than in days with 0.8-1.2 flowers in anthesis/ linear meter. The highest bee density (ca. 49 bees/ ha/ hr was between 2

  5. Efecto antihipertensivo y dosis letal 50 del jugo del fruto y del extracto etanólico de las hojas de Passiflora edulis (maracuyá, en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rojas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar el efecto antihipertensivo y la dosis letal (DL 50 del jugo del fruto y el extracto etanólico de las hojas de Passiflora edulis en ratas. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo, analítico-experimental, preclínico in vivo. Lugar: Facultades de Medicina Humana, de Química e Ingeniería Química y de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: Ratas. Intervenciones: Para el efecto antihipertensivo se utilizó 4 grupos de ratas (n = 6. Después de una medición basal, se indujo hipertensión arterial con L-NAME 50 mg/kg/día VO y transcurridos dos días se inició el tratamiento con agua destilada, extracto etanólico 500 mg/kg/día VO, jugo del fruto 500 mg/kg/día v.o, captopril 100 mg/kg/día VO, respectivamente. Se continuó midiendo la presión arterial en los días 3, 4, 7 y 10. Para determinar la DL50, se utilizó 12 grupos de ratones (n = 10; se aplicó 7 niveles de dosis de extracto etanólico y 5 niveles para el jugo, por única vez. Principales medidas de resultados: Disminución de la presión arterial. Resultados: El extracto etanólico y el jugo del fruto disminuyeron la presión arterial sistólica (PAS desde el primer día de tratamiento: 157,2 ± 2,3 y 156,2 ± 2,1 mmHg comparado con 167,7 ± 1,7 mmHg del grupo L-NAME (p < 0,005 y p < 0,001, respectivamente; la presión arterial diastólica (PAD también disminuyó significativamente a partir del primer día. Las DL50 para el extracto etanólico y jugo del fruto fueron 10 687 y 21 471 mg/kg, respectivamente. Conclusiones: El extracto etanólico de las hojas y el jugo del fruto de Passiflora edulis fueron efectivos en disminuir la presión arterial en ratas hipertensas, que no presentaron toxicidad aguda oral.

  6. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

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    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  7. New data on Perkinsus mediterraneus in the Balearic Archipelago: locations and affected species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, J M; Bassitta, M; Picornell, A; Ramon, C; Castro, J A

    2014-11-13

    Perkinsus mediterraneus, a protozoan parasite that can cause perkinsosis (marine mollusc disease), was first detected in oysters Ostrea edulis from Mahon (Minorca, Balearic Islands, Spain) in 2004. Several years later it was also found in Andratx Harbour (Majorca, Balearic Islands) and in the Gulf of Manfredonia (Adriatic coast of Italy) in oyster populations. Since 2007, Perkinsus surveys have been conducted in different localities and shellfish species in the Balearic Archipelago. In the present work, we found P. mediterraneus in the Balearic Islands infecting oyster and other shellfish species. We describe infection with P. mediterraneus for the first time in Arca noae and Mimachlamys varia. The detection was carried out using Ray's fluid thioglycolate medium (RFTM), histology and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodologies. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (including ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) of P. mediterraneus ribosomal DNA was sequenced from infected bivalve gills (or from the body in Chamelea gallina) from Balearic Archipelago localities. Twelve haplotypes with a strong genetic similarity between them (97-100%) were observed in our samples. These data were completed with 12 more haplotypes from GenBank sequences. The phylogenetic relationship between Balearic P. mediterraneus haplotypes found in this study, those previously obtained in Mahon Harbour, and the Perkinsus spp. sequences available in GenBank clearly grouped the different Perkinsus spp. in distinct clades supported by strong bootstrap values. Moreover, these analyses detected different P. mediterraneus groups in O. edulis from Minorca Island. No abnormal mortalities or decline in populations were detected during the survey, except for C. gallina, which is also affected by Marteilia refringens.

  8. Soil carabids and ants in two farming areas of yellow passion fruit (passiflora edulis) at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Anderson; Armbrecht, Inge; Chacon, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The fauna of beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and ants that survive in the soil of a passion fruit crop under conventional management in Roldanillo-Valle del Cauca was examined, in March and May (rainy season) and in June and July (dry season), 2012. We carried out four samplings of monthly intensity in two plots with plants of different ages, and registered the species found. We found 149 individuals of Carabidae, distributed into ten species and 2447 ants, distributed in 19 morphospecies. The most abundant species of ants was Solenopsis geminata, while Megacephala (Tetracha) sobrina was the most abundant species of Carabidae. It was also found that the abundance and richness of carabid beetles tend to be higher in the rainy season, while some ant species showed a preference for specific seasonal periods. We conclude that a rich fauna of ground carabids and ants survives in the study area, which could contribute in the control of phytophagous insects populations associated with the crops of passion fruit.

  9. Construction and characterization of a forward subtracted library of blue mussels Mytilus edulis for the identification of gene transcription signatures and biomarkers of styrene exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de Cerio, O.; Hands, E.; Humble, J.; Cajaraville, M.P.; Craft, J.A.; Cancio, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Transcription responses in blue mussels exposed to styrene have been studied by SSH. ► 1440 Clones were obtained from which 287 were sequenced. ► Immune system, cancer-related and ribosomal genes identified as upregulated genes. ► Chitin and β-1-3-glucan metabolism genes highly represented in subtracted library. -- Abstract: Transcriptional profiling can elucidate adaptive/toxicity pathways participating in achieving homeostasis or leading to pathogenesis in marine biota exposed to chemical substances. With the aim of analyzing transcriptional responses in the mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to the corrosive and putatively carcinogenic hydrocarbon styrene (3–5 ppm, 3 days), a forward subtracted (SSH) cDNA library was produced. Female mussels were selected and digestive gland mRNA was isolated. A library with 1440 clones was produced and a total of 287 clones were sequenced, 53% being identified through BlastN analysis against Mytibase and DeepSeaVent databases. Those genes included GO terms such as ‘response to drugs’, ‘immune defense’ and ‘cell proliferation’. Furthermore, sequences related to chitin and beta-1-3-glucan metabolism were also up-regulated by styrene. Many of the obtained sequences could not be annotated constituting new mussel sequences. In conclusion, this SSH study reveals novel sequences useful to generate molecular biomarkers of styrene exposure in mussels

  10. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of “Sweetheart” Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Golding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis, Sims, cultivar “Sweetheart” were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS, titratable acidity (TA level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development, nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to “Sweetheart” purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  11. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi extract and linoleic acid from Passiflora edulis synergistically decrease melanin synthesis in B16 cells and reconstituted epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, A T S; Arroteia, K F; Santos, I A; Andres, E; Medina, S P H; Ferrari, C R; Lourenço, C B; Biaggio, R M T T; Moreira, P L

    2012-10-01

    Several treatments for skin whitening are available today, but few of them are completely adequate, especially owing to the carcinogenic potential attributed to classical drugs like hydroquinone, arbutin and kojic acid. To provide an alternative and safer technology for whitening, we developed two botanical compounds originated from Brazilian biodiversity, an extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and a linoleic acid fraction isolated from Passiflora edulis oil. The whitening effect of these compounds was assessed using biochemical assays and in vitro models including cellular assays and equivalent skin. The results showed that S. terebinthifolius Raddi extract is able to reduce the tyrosinase activity in vitro, and the combination of this extract with linoleic acid is able to decrease the level of melanin produced by B16 cells cultured with melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, melanin was also reduced in human reconstituted epidermis (containing melanocytes) treated with the compounds. The combination of the compounds may provide a synergistic positive whitening effect rather than their isolated use. Finally, we demonstrated that the performance of these mixed compounds is comparable to classical molecules used for skin whitening, as kojic acid. This new natural mixture could be considered an alternative therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation and an effective component in whitening cosmetics. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Survey on composition and bioconcentration potential of 12 metallic elements in King Bolete (Boletus edulis) mushroom that emerged at 11 spatially distant sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Frankowska, Aneta; Jarzynska, Grazyna; Dryzałowska, Anna; Kojta, Anna K; Zhang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides data on baseline concentrations, interrelationships and bioconcentration potential of 12 metallic elements by King Bolete collected from 11 spatially distant sites across Poland. There are significant differences in concentrations of metals (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Zn) and their bioconcentration potential in King Bolete Boletus edulis at 11 spatially distant sites surveyed across Poland. These have resulted from significant geographical differences in trace metal concentrations in a layer (0-10 cm) of organic and mineral soil underneath to fruiting bodies and possible local bioavailabilities of macro- (Ca, K, Mg, Na) and trace metals (Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn) to King Bolete. The use of highly appreciated wild-grown edible King Bolete mushroom has established a baseline measure of regional minerals status, heavy metals pollution and assessment of intake rates for wild mushroom dish fanciers against which future changes can be compared. Data on Cd, Cu and Zn from this study and from literature search can be useful to set the maximum limit of these metals in King Bolete collected from uncontaminated (background) areas. In this report also reviewed are data on Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Zn accumulation in King Bolete.

  13. Characterization of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Boletus edulis and its antitumor and immunomodulatory activities on renal cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Sun, Shu-Qing; Wu, Wei-Zhen; Yang, Shun-Liang; Tan, Jian-Ming

    2014-05-25

    A polysaccharide (BEP, Mw=113,432Da) was purified from Boletus edulis, which had a backbone consisting of (1→6)-linked-α-d-glucopyranosyl, (1→2,6)-linked-α-d-galactopyranosyl, (1→6)-linked-α-d-galactopyranosyl, and (1→3)-linked-α-d-rhamnopyranosyl residues, which were branched at O-2 position of (1→2,6)-linked-α-d-galactopyranosyl residue with a single terminal (1→)-linked-α-l-arabinofuranosyl residue. After 32 days' BEP administration to Renca tumor bearing mice, the tumor mass of Renca transplanted in mice was significantly repressed. Furthermore, BEP could significantly increase the spleen and thymus indices, stimulate splenocytes proliferation, augment NK cell and CTL activities in spleen, and promote the secretion of the cytokines IL-2 and TNF-α in Renca tumor bearing mice. Meanwhile oral administration of BEP (100 and 400mg/kg) restored all the altered hematological and biochemical parameters of tumor-bearing mice to normal levels. Thus, these data demonstrate that BEP possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and might be employed as effective therapeutic agents for the prevention of renal caner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical modelling of spatio-temporal variability of growth of Mytilus edulis (L.) and influence of its cultivation on ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Tomasz; Lyons, Kieran; Curé, Marcel; Berry, Alan; Nolan, Glenn

    2013-02-01

    One of the key needs of the aquaculture industry is the implementation of effective management methods to ensure the sustainability, economic viability and minimization of negative impacts on both human and ecosystem well-being. The authors developed a Fortran 90 implementation of the dynamic energy budget (DEB) model for Mytilus edulis. The model has been further developed to include physiological interactions with the ecosystem and coupled to a biogeochemical nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model. Phytoplankton and detritus uptakes, oxygen utilisation, CO2 production, NH4 excretion, egestion of faeces, and assimilation of food are modelled. A novel approach was derived that accounts for the allocation of C and N in mussel flesh and shell organic fraction. The DEB-NPZD model has been subsequently coupled to a high resolution three dimensional numerical coastal ocean model of the south-west coast of Ireland, where approximately 80% of national rope mussel is produced annually. Simulations have been carried out for the time period July 2010-June 2011, for which the field data on mussel biometrics and ambient seawater properties were collated. The model accurately reproduced the spatio-temporal variability in blue mussel growth. It is also shown that the ecosystem dynamics is affected by the presence of aquaculture farms. The modelling system presented allows for the assessment of the impacts of aquaculture activities on water quality, quantification of the production and ecological carrying capacities and improvement of our understanding of the ecosystem functioning with particular emphasis on interactions between various trophic levels.

  15. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Dacryodes edulis and Raphia hookeri Mann and Wendl exudates used in herbal medicine in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwu, D E; Nnamdi, Fred U

    2008-01-22

    The phytochemical contents and medicinal values of Dacroydes edulis and Raphia hookeri exudates were investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant showed that they contain the presence of bioactive compounds comprising saponins (2.08-3.98 mg 100 g(-1)), alkaloids (0.28-0.49 mg 100 g(-1)), tannins (0.47-0.72 mg 100 g(-1)), flavonoids (0.26-0.39 mg 100 g(-1)), and phenolic compounds (0.01-0.05 mg 100 g(-1)). The carbohydrates, lipids and protein content were 77.42-78.90%, 2.02-4.185% and 16.63-18.38% respectively. The exudates are a good source of water soluble vitamins; ascorbic acid (7.04-26.40 mg 100 g(-1)), niacin (3.12-4.00 mg 100 g(-1)), riboflavin (0.14-0.54 mg 100 g(-1)) and thiamine (0.15-0.22 mg 100 g(-1)). Both plants exudates are good sources of minerals such as Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn while Cr and Co were trace. These results indicate that exudates can be potential sources of feedstock for the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Changes in the volatile compounds and in the chemical and physical properties of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) Cv. Pondoh during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi; Suhardi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yoshida, Koichi; Muto, Tokie; Fujita, Akira; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2002-12-18

    During the maturation of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) Pondoh, the contents of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and volatile compounds changed drastically. The glucose, fructose, and volatile compounds contents showed their maximum levels at the end of maturation; however, the sucrose content decreased. During maturation, the flesh firmness tended to increase; however, at the end of maturation (6 months), the flesh became soft. The major volatile aroma in solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and solvent extracts were identified to be methyl esters of butanoic acids, 2-methylbutanoic acids, hexanoic acids, pentanoic acids, and the corresponding carboxylic acids. Furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) was also identified as a minor aroma constituent in the SAFE residue. The methyl esters were found to increase dramatically during stages 4-6 (5-6 months after the pollination) to exceed the amounts of carboxylic acids, whereas the acid amount increased gradually until stage 5 (5.5 months after the pollination) to reach the maximum at stage 6 (6 months after the pollination).

  17. Small is profitable: No support for the optimal foraging theory in sea stars Asterias rubens foraging on the blue edible mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Christiaan; Honkoop, Pieter; van der Meer, Jaap

    2011-07-01

    Doubt has been shed recently on the most popular optimal foraging theory stating that predators should maximize prey profitability, i.e., select that prey item that contains the highest energy content per handling time. We hypothesized that sea stars do not forage on blue mussels accordin