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Sample records for eutectoide zn-al solidificada

  1. Phase transformations in the Zn-Al eutectoid alloy after quenching from the high temperature triclinic beta phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval-Jimenez, A., E-mail: asandovalj@correo.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Dpto. de Aceleradores, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Mexico, C.P. 52750, ESIME, Unidad Culhuacan, Dpto. Ing. Mecanica, IPN (Mexico); Negrete, J. [Instituto de Metalurgia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, SLP 78210 (Mexico); Torres-Villasenor, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-360, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    Ribbons of the Zn-Al eutectoid alloy obtained by melt-spinning, were heat treated at 350 deg. C during 30 min in a free atmosphere furnace, and then quenched in liquid nitrogen. The temperature correspond to {beta} phase zone, which has a triclinic crystalline structure [1, 2]. Some evidence, obtained by X-ray diffraction, show that the structures present in the just quenched material are both close-packed hexagonal ({eta}-phase) and rhombohedral (R-phase). X-ray diffractograms taken in the same ribbons after annealed 500 h at room temperature, show that the R phase its transform to {alpha} and {eta} phases.

  2. Hydrogen-induced changes in the crystalline structure and mechanical properties of a Zn-Al eutectoid alloy rapidly solidified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Jimenez, Alberto; Iturbe Garcia, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: alberto.sandoval@inin.gob.mx; asandovalj@correo.unam.mx; Negrete Sanchez, Jesus [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Torres Villasenor, Gabriel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Ribbon fractions of a zinc-aluminum eutectoid (Zn40.8Al%at.) alloy, obtained by rapid solidification using melt spinning technique, were submitted to a thermo-hydrogenation process by periods of 1, 6, 18, 24, 30, and 48 hours, to 200 degrees Celsius and 20 atmospheres. Thermo-hydrogenated samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen-induced changes were produced, such as microstructure refining, development of crystalline defects, microhardness changes and modification of stable crystalline structures to {alpha}R meta-stable phase at room temperature. [Spanish] Fracciones de tiras de una aleacion eutectoide de zinc-aluminio (Zn40.8Al%at.), obtenidas mediante solidificacion rapida usando la tecnica de melt spinning, se sometieron a un proceso de termohidrogenacion por periodos de 1, 6, 18, 24, 30 y 48 horas, a 200 grados centigrados y 20 atmosferas. Las muestras termohidrogenadas se analizaron por microscopia electronica de transmision (MET). Se produjeron cambios inducidos por hidrogeno, tales como la refinacion de la microestructura, el desarrollo de defectos cristalinos, cambios de microdureza y modificacion de las estructuras cristalinas estables a fase metaestable {alpha}R a temperatura ambiente.

  3. Influence of Solution Heat Treatment on Structure and Mechanical Properties of ZnAl22Cu3 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of solution heat treatment at 385°C over 10 h with cooling in water on the structure, hardness and strength of the ZnAl22Cu3 eutectoid alloy is presented in the paper. The eutectoid ZnAl22Cu3 alloy is characterized by a dendritic structure. Dendrites are composed of a supersaturated solid solution of Al in Zn. In the interdendritic spaces a eutectoid mixture is present, with an absence of the ε (CuZn4 phase. Solution heat treatment of the ZnAl22Cu3 alloy causes the occurrence of precipitates rich in Zn and Cu, possibly ε phase. Solution heat treatment at 385°C initially causes a significant decrease of the alloy hardness, although longer solution heat treatment causes a significant increase of the hardness as compared to the as-cast alloy.

  4. Synthesis of substituted guanidines using Zn-Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Substituted guanidines were synthesized by the guanylation of amines with carbodiimides using Zn-Al hydrotalcite (Zn-Al HT) catalyst. Zn-Al HT was prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman and ...

  5. Analysis of Plastic Flow Instability During Superplastic Deformation of the Zn-Al Eutectoid Alloy Modified with 2 wt.% Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Azpeitia, Mitsuo; Elizabeth Martínez-Flores, E.; Hernandez-Rivera, Jose Luis; Torres-Villaseñor, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the plastic flow instability in Zn-21Al-2Cu alloy deformed under 10-3 s-1 and 513 K, which are optimum conditions for inducing superplastic behavior in this alloy. An evaluation using the Hart and Wilkinson-Caceres criteria showed that the limited stability of plastic flow observed in this alloy is related to low values of the strain-rate sensitivity index (m) and the strain-hardening coefficient (γ), combined with the tendency of these parameters to decrease depending on true strain (ɛ). The reduction in m and γ values could be associated with the early onset of plastic instability and with microstructural changes observed as function of the strain. Grain growth induced by deformation seems to be important during the first stage of deformation of this alloy. However, when ɛ > 0.4 this growth is accompanied by other microstructural rearrangements. These results suggest that in this alloy, a grain boundary sliding mechanism acts to allow a steady superplastic flow only for ɛ 0.7 as another mechanism is thought to take over.

  6. Fatigue crack behavior on a Cu-Zn-Al SMA

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    V. Di Cocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mechanical property of many SMA has improved in order to introduce these alloys in specific field of industry. Main examples of these alloys are the NiTi, Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Ni which are used in many fields of engineering such as aerospace or mechanical systems. Cu-Zn-Al alloys are characterized by good shape memory properties due to a bcc disordered structure stable at high temperature called β-phase, which is able to change by means of a reversible transition to a B2 structure after appropriate cooling, and reversible transition from B2 secondary to DO3 order, under other types of cooling. In β-Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys, the martensitic transformation is not in equilibrium at room temperature. It is therefore often necessary to obtain the martensitic structure, using a thermal treatment at high temperature followed by quenching. The martensitic phases can be either thermally-induced spontaneous transformation, or stressinduced, or cooling, or stressing the β- phase. Direct quenching from high temperatures to the martensite phase is the most effective because of the non-diffusive character of the transformation. The martensite inherits the atomic order from the β-phase. Precipitation of many kinds of intermetallic phases is the main problem of treatment on cu-based shape memory alloy. For instance, a precipitation of α-phase occurs in many low aluminum copper based SMA alloy and presence of α-phase implies a strong degradation of shape recovery. However, Cu-Zn-Al SMA alloys characterized by aluminum contents less than 5% cover a good cold machining and cost is lower than traditional NiTi SMA alloys. In order to improve the SMA performance, it is always necessary to identify the microstructural changing in mechanical and thermal conditions, using X-Ray analyses. In this work a Cu-Zn-Al SMA alloy obtained in laboratory has been microstructurally and metallographically characterized by means of X-Ray diffraction and Light

  7. Detecting the Extent of Eutectoid Transformation in U-10Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McInnis, Colleen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lombardo, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sweet, Lucas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    During eutectoid transformation of U-10Mo alloy, uniform metastable γ UMo phase is expected to transform to a mixture of α-U and γ’-U2Mo phase. The presence of transformation products in final U-10Mo fuel, especially the α phase is considered detrimental for fuel irradiation performance, so it is critical to accurately evaluate the extent of transformation in the final U-10Mo alloy. This phase transformation can cause a volume change that induces a density change in final alloy. To understand this density and volume change, we developed a theoretical model to calculate the volume expansion and resultant density change of U-10Mo alloy as a function of the extent of eutectoid transformation. Based on the theoretically calculated density change for 0 to 100% transformation, we conclude that an experimental density measurement system will be challenging to employ to reliably detect and quantify the extent of transformation. Subsequently, to assess the ability of various methods to detect the transformation in U-10Mo, we annealed U-10Mo alloy samples at 500°C for various times to achieve in low, medium, and high extent of transformation. After the heat treatment at 500°C, the samples were metallographically polished and subjected to optical microscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Based on our assessment, optical microscopy and image processing can be used to determine the transformed area fraction, which can then be correlated with the α phase volume fraction measured by XRD analysis. XRD analysis of U-10Mo aged at 500°C detected only α phase and no γ’ was detected. To further validate the XRD results, atom probe tomography (APT) was used to understand the composition of transformed regions in U-10Mo alloys aged at 500°C for 10 hours. Based on the APT results, the lamellar transformation product was found to comprise α phase with close to 0 at% Mo and γ phase with 28–32 at% Mo, and the Mo concentration was highest at the

  8. Highly efficient and selective adsorption of In{sup 3+} on pristine Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (Zn/Al-LDH) from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabas, Mary Jenisha; Parambadath, Surendran; Mathew, Aneesh; Park, Sung Soo [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Vinu, Ajayan [Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, #75 Corner College and Cooper Road, Brisbane 4072, QLD (Australia); Ha, Chang-Sik, E-mail: csha@pnu.edu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    A pristine Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide (Zn/Al-LDH) showed excellent adsorption ability and selectivity towards In{sup 3+} ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption behaviour as a function of the contact time, solution pH, ionic strength, and amount of adsorbent under ambient conditions revealed a strong dependency on the pH and ionic strength over In{sup 3+} intake. The structure and properties of Zn/Al-LDH and In{sup 3+} adsorbed Zn/Al-LDH (In–Zn/Al-LDH) were examined carefully by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2}-sorption/desorption, UV–vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorbent had a sufficient number of active sites that were responsible for the In{sup 3+} adsorption and quite stable even after the adsorption process. The selective adsorption of In{sup 3+} on Zn/Al-LDH was also observed even from a mixture containing competing ions, such as Mn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+}. The adsorption experiments showed that Zn/Al-LDH is a promising material for the pre-concentration and selective removal of In{sup 3+} from large volumes of aqueous solutions. - Highlights: • A pristine Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide showed good selectivity for In{sup 3+} ions. • The material exhibited a maximum In{sup 3+} intake of 205 mg g{sup −1} at pH 6. • The materials showed good affinity of In{sup 3+} over Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from ion mixtures.

  9. Effects of CuZnAl Particles on Properties and Microstructure of Sn-58Bi Solder

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    Fan Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of improving the properties of the Sn-58Bi lead-free solder, micro-CuZnAl particles ranging from 0 to 0.4 wt % were added into the low temperature eutectic Sn-58Bi lead-free solder. After the experimental testing of micro-CuZnAl particles on the properties and microstructure of the Sn-58Bi solders, it was found that the wettability of the Sn-58Bi solders was obviously improved with addition of CuZnAl particles. When the addition of CuZnAl particles was 0.2 wt %, the wettability of the Sn-58Bi solder performed best. At the same time, excessive addition of CuZnAl particles led to poor wettability. However, the results showed that CuZnAl particles changed the melting point of the Sn-58Bi solder slightly. The microstructure of the Sn-58Bi solder was refined by adding CuZnAl particles. When the content of CuZnAl addition was between 0.1 and 0.2 wt %, the refinement was great. In addition, the interfacial IMC layer between new composite solder and Cu substrate was thinner than that between the Sn-58Bi solder and Cu substrate.

  10. Synthesis of nanocomposite coating based on TiO2/ZnAl layer double hydroxides

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    V. Jovanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was the synthesis of nanocomposite coatings based on Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDH and TiO2. The Zn-Al LDH material, which acted as the catalyst support of the active TiO2 component (in the content of 3 and 10 wt. %, was synthesized by a low super saturation co-precipitation method. The interaction between the Zn-Al LDH and the active TiO2 component was accomplished by using vacuum evaporation prior to the mechanical activation and only by mechanical activation. The final suspension based on Zn-Al LDH and 10wt. % TiO2, impregnated only by mechanical activation, showed the optimal characteristics from the aspect of particle size distribution and XRD analysis. These properties had a positive effect on the functional properties of the coatings (photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning efficiency after the water rinsing procedure.

  11. Structure, molecular simulation, and release of aspirin from intercalated Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zilin; Li, Xiaowei; Lv, Fengzhu; Zhang, Qian; Chu, Paul K; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-11-01

    Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (AA), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is intercalated into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-LDHs) by co-precipitation and reconstruction methods. The composition, structure, and morphology of the intercalated products as well as their release behavior are determined experimentally and theoretically by Material Studio 5.5. Experimental results disclose the strong interaction between the LDHs sheets and AA in the intercalated ZnAl-LDHs produced by co-precipitation and slow release of AA from the intercalated ZnAl-LDHs in both phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and borate buffered saline (BBS) solutions. The percentage of AA released from the ZnAl-LDHs prepared by both methods in PBS (96.87% and 98.12%) are much more than those in BBS (68.59% and 81.22%) implying that both H4BO4(-) and H2PO4(-) can exchange with AA in the ZnAl-LDHs. After AA is released to PBS, ZnAl-LDHs break into small pieces. The experimental results are explained theoretically based on the calculation of the bonding energy between the anions and LDHs sheets as well as the AlO bond length change in the LDHs sheets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Detecting the Extent of Cellular Decomposition after Sub-Eutectoid Annealing in Rolled UMo Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, Elizabeth J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sweet, Lucas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report presents an automated image processing approach to quantifying microstructure image data, specifically the extent of eutectoid (cellular) decomposition in rolled U-10Mo foils. An image processing approach is used here to be able to quantitatively describe microstructure image data in order to relate microstructure to processing parameters (time, temperature, deformation).

  13. Catalytic Decomposition of N2O over Cu–Zn/ZnAl2O4 Catalysts

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    Xiaoying Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic decomposition of N2O was investigated over Cu-Zn/ZnAl2O4 catalysts in the temperature range of 400–650 °C Catalytic samples have been prepared by wet impregnation method. Prepared catalysts were characterized using several techniques like BET surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The Cu-Zn/ZnAl2O4 showed higher catalytic performance along with long term stability during N2O decomposition. The Cu-Zn/ZnAl2O4 catalysts yielded 100% N2O conversion at 650 °C. The Cu-Zn/ZnAl2O4 catalysts are promising for decrease this strong greenhouse gas in the chemical industry.

  14. Preparation and inhibition properties of molybdate intercalated ZnAlCe layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Huajie; Wang, Jihui, E-mail: jhwang@tju.edu.cn; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Wenbin

    2016-09-05

    ZnAlCe layered double hydroxide intercalated by molybdate (ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH) was successfully synthesized by using co-precipitation method, and the morphology, structure of ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH were observed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The inhibition behavior of ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH for Q235 steel in 3.5%NaCl solution was determined by polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) methods. The results shows that the synthesized ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH has a lamellar structure with a particle size of 0.1–2.0 μm, an average thickness of 30 nm, and a basal plane spacing of 0.898 nm. Compared with the addition of ZnAl layered double hydroxide intercalated by nitrate (ZnAl−NO{sub 3} LDH) and ZnAl layered double hydroxide intercalated by molybdate (ZnAl−MoO{sub 4} LDH) in 3.5% NaCl solution, Q235 steel in 3.5%NaCl + ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH solution has a lower corrosion current density, larger polarization resistance and a higher inhibition efficiency. The addition of ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH will reduce the chloride concentration in 3.5% NaCl solution by the anion exchanged with molybdate, and improve the corrosion resistance of Q235 steel owing to the formation of passive film with the composition of ferrous or iron molybdate and deposition film with zinc and cerium hydroxides. - Highlights: • ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH compound was successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method. • ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH has a better inhibition effect to Q235 steel in 3.5%NaCl solution. • The Cl{sup −} ions in solution was partially exchanged with MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions in host layers. • The passive film and deposition film were formed by the release of LDH compound.

  15. Thermoelectric ZnO and ZnAl2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    ZnO har vist sig at være et lovende termoelektrisk materiale. Den høje termiske ledningsevne kræver at man forsker i at finde en måde at sænke den. Tilstedeværelsen af både ZnAl2O4 og ZnO har vist sig at sænke den termiske ledningsevne for ZnO. Berardan et al. [5] har vist at når ZnAl2O4...... is tilstede på baggrund af en for høj aluminium doping koncentration under syntese af ZnO, så medfører tilstedeværelsen af ZnAl2O4 at zT sænkes. Modsat, så har Jood et al. vist at tildstedeværelsen af ZnAl2O4 kan medføre en aftagende termisk ledningsevne. På trods af en samtidig sænkning af den elektriske...... ledningsevne giver det overordnet en øget zT. Baillieul [29] har [20] syntetiseret ZnAl2O4 og ZnO separat, hvorefter krystalliterne er presset sammen. Det viser sig at medføre en øget elektrisk ledningsevne kombineret med aftagende termiske ledningsevne. Disse resultater viser at tilstedeværelsen af ZnAl2O4...

  16. HYDROTALSIT Zn-Al-EDTA SEBAGAI ADSORBEN UNTUK POLUTAN ION Pb(II) DI LINGKUNGAN Zn-Al-EDTA Hydrotalcite as Adsorbent for Pb(II) Ion Pollutant in The Environment)

    OpenAIRE

    Roto Roto; Dahlia Rosma Indah; Agus Kuncaka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRAK Polusi ion Pb(II) di dalam lingkungan perairan cenderung naik seiring peningkatan jumlah industri smelter dan daur ulang aki bekas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kemampuan hidrotalsit Zn-Al-EDTA sebagai adsorben ion Pb(II) dalam air secara mendalam. Hidrotalsit Zn-Al-NO3 disintesis dengan metode kopresipitasi dan hidrotermal pada temperatur 100 °C selama 15 jam. Hidrotalsit Zn-Al-EDTA diperoleh dengan penukaran ion. Keasaman larutan, kinetika dan kapasitas adsorpsi diteli...

  17. Preparation, characterization and dye adsorption of Au nanoparticles/ZnAl layered double oxides nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu Xin, E-mail: zhangyuxin@cqu.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Devices and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hao, Xiao Dong; Kuang, Min [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhao, Han [School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technology University (NTU), 639875 Singapore (Singapore); Wen, Zhong Quan [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Devices and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2013-10-15

    In this work, Au/ZnAl-layer double oxides (LDO) nanocomposties were prepared through a facile calcination process of AuCl{sub 4}{sup −} intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanocomposites. The morphology and crystal structure of these nanocomposites were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and N{sub 2} sorption analysis. By tailoring the process parameter, such as calcination temperature, heating time and the component composition, the adsorption properties of methyl orange (MO) on the Au/ZnAl-LDO nanocomposites were investigated in this work. In a typical adsorption process, it was found that 0.985 mg of MO (0.01 g L{sup −1}, 100 mL, 1 mg of MO in total) can be removed in 60 min by utilizing only 2.5 mg of Au/ZnAl-LDO (Au content, 1%) as adsorbents. Our adsorption data obtained from the Langmuir model also gave good values of the determination coefficient, and the saturated adsorption capacity of Au/ZnAl-LDO nanocomposites for MO was found to be 627.51 mg/g under ambient condition (e.g., room temperature, 1 atm). In principle, these hybrid nanostructures with higher adsorption abilities could be very promising adsorbents for wastewater treatment.

  18. Thermal Microstructural Multiscale Simulation of Solidification and Eutectoid Transformation of Hypereutectic Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Alejandro; Celentano, Diego J.; Gunasegaram, Dayalan R.; Deeva, Natalia

    2014-08-01

    Although the gray cast iron solidification process has been the subject of several modeling studies, almost all available models appear to deal with only the more widely used hypoeutectic compositions. Models related to hypereutectic gray iron compositions with lamellar (or flake) graphite, and in particular for the proeutectic and eutectoid zones, are hard to find in the open literature. Hence, in the present work, a thermal microstructural multiscale model is proposed to describe the solidification and eutectoid transformation of a slightly hypereutectic composition leading to lamellar graphite gray iron morphology. The main predictions were: (a) temperature evolutions; (b) fractions of graphite, ferrite, and pearlite; (c) density; and (d) size of ferrite, pearlite, and gray eutectic grains; (e) average interlamellar graphite spacing; and (f) its thickness. The predicted cooling curves and fractions for castings with two different compositions and two different pouring temperatures were validated using experimental data. The differences between this model and existing models for hypoeutectic compositions are discussed.

  19. Electrochemical Performance of Zn-Al Double Layered Hydroxide for Supercapacitor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yang; Zhao, Yu; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Shuo Jia; Xu, Bing

    2017-10-01

    Zn-Al double layered hydroxide (Zn-Al-LDH) was synthesized by a facile coprecipitation method. The morphology and microstructure of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that the sample is uniform nanosheet with the diameter of ∼400 nm and the thickness of ∼80 nm. XRD characterization confirms that it is Zn6A12(OH)16CO3.4H2O and belongs to Rhombohedral crystallographic system. Electrochemical performances of the sample were investigated by cyclic voltammery (CV) and charge/discharge. The Pure Zn-Al-LDH nanocomposites achieves a specific capacitance of 37.0 F g-1 at the current density of 1.0 A/g.

  20. Acetyl salicylic acid–ZnAl layered double hydroxide functional nanohybrid for skin care application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosangi, Damodar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a pharmaceutically active ingredient, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), was intercalated into ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH). The LDH–ASA nanohybrid material was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, ICP-MS, TEM and TGA. Successful...

  1. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol over a carbon paste electrode modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez F, D.; Palomar P, M.; Licona S, T. de J.; Romero R, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central No. 152, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    A study is presented on the electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol (4cp) in aqueous solution using a bare carbon paste electrode, Cpe, and another one that was modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The electro-oxidation was effected at ph values ranging from 3 up to 11. It was found through cyclic voltammetry that this process was irreversible, namely, there were no reduction peaks, and that depending on the nature of the electrode, the anodic current was limited either by adsorption (Cpe) or diffusion (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The energy required and the oxidation reaction rate depended on the ph and on the nature of the electrode, such that the greater rates were obtained when the Cpe/Zn Al-LDH electrode and acid ph were used. The Zn Al-LDH was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  2. Zn-Al LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE PILLARED BY DIFFERENT DICARBOXYLATE ANIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gago

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs intercalated by terephthalate (TPH and biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate (BPH anions have been synthesized by direct co-precipitation from aqueous solution. The Zn/Al ratio in the final materials was 1.8. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR and FT Raman spectroscopy, and MAS NMR spectroscopy. The basal spacing for the TPH-LDH intercalate was 14.62 Å, indicating that the guest anions stack to form a monolayer with the aromatic rings perpendicular to the host layers. For the LDH intercalate containing BPH anions, a basal spacing of at least 19.2 Å would be expected if the anions adopted an arrangement similar to that for the TPH anions. The observed spacing was 18.24 Å, suggesting that the anions are tilted slightly with respect to the host layers.

  3. Nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys physically synthesized by ion milling deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavon, Luis Alberto Lopez [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (UANL), Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Cuellara, Enrique Lopez; Castro, Alejandro Torres; Cruza, Azael Martinez de la [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (CIIDIT/UANL), Nuevo Leon (Mexico). Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia; Ballesteros, Carmen [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Fisica; Araujo, Carlos Jose de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2012-05-15

    In this research, an ion milling equipment was used to elaborate nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al alloys with shape memory effect. Two different compositions were used, target A: 75.22Cu-17.12Zn-7.66Al at % with an Ms of -9 deg C and target B: 76.18Cu-15.84Zn-7.98Al with an Ms of 20 degree C. Nanoparticles were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles showed a small dispersion, with a size range of 3.2-3.5 nm. Their crystal structure is in good agreement with the bulk martensitic structure of the targets. In this sense, results on morphology, composition and crystal structure have indicated that it is possible to produce nanoparticles of CuZnAl shape memory alloys with martensitic structure in a single process using Ion Milling. (author)

  4. Determination of processing maps for the warm working of vanadium microalloyed eutectoid steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastegari, H., E-mail: rastegary@birjandut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering, Birjand University of Technology, South Khorasan 97198-66981 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Fould Institute of Technology, Fouldshahar, Isfahan 8491663763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Somani, M.C.; Porter, D.A. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Ghassemali, E.; Jarfors, A.E.W. [Jönköping University, School of Engineering, Department of Materials and Manufacturing, P.O. Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping (Sweden)

    2016-03-21

    Microalloying of an eutectoid steel with V may facilitate formation of dispersed nano-scaled VC particles in the microstructure during thermomechanical processing or subsequent heat treatment. In this research, the constitutive flow behavior of vanadium microalloyed eutectoid steel has been investigated in the temperature range 620–770 °C at strain rates in the range 0.01–10 s{sup −1}. Microstructural characterization of the deformed specimens was conducted using SEM and EBSD techniques. In this context, various deformation mechanisms occurring during warm deformation have been characterized and delineated through construction of a processing map by establishing a power dissipation map and an instability map for the steel and superimposing them. The results show that the pearlitic microstructure exhibits several deformation mechanisms within these warm working conditions. Dynamic spheroidization of cementite lamella takes place in the range 660–720 °C and 0.01–0.1 s{sup −1} with a power dissipation efficiency of 27–33%, characterizing a safe window of processing this steel. The presence of vanadium carbides at grain boundaries strengthened the pearlitic microstructure and retarded the occurrence of some deformation defects during low temperature, high speed deformation in the range 620–720 °C and 1–10 s{sup −1}.

  5. Fabrication of biodegradable Zn-Al-Mg alloy: Mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Hamzah, E; Low, H T; Kasiri-Asgarani, M; Farahany, S; Akbari, E; Cho, M H

    2017-04-01

    In this work, binary Zn-0.5Al and ternary Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys with various Mg contents were investigated as biodegradable materials for implant applications. Compared with Zn-0.5Al (single phase), Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys consisted of the α-Zn and Mg 2 (Zn, Al) 11 with a fine lamellar structure. The results also revealed that ternary Zn-Al-Mg alloys presented higher micro-hardness value, tensile strength and corrosion resistance compared to the binary Zn-Al alloy. In addition, the tensile strength and corrosion resistance increased with increasing the Mg content in ternary alloys. The immersion tests also indicated that the corrosion rates in the following order Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mgcorrosion rate, good biocompatibility and antibacterial activities was believed to be a good candidate as a biodegradable implant material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wetting and Spreading Behavior of Mg-Zn-Al Solder Under Ultrasonic Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Guo-dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The spreading and wetting behavior of Mg-Zn-Al solder under the action of flux and ultrasonic vibration was conducted in atmosphere. The ultrasonic vibration time was 1, 2, 3, 4s, respectively. The spreading morphology and microstructure of the solder was investigated by optical microscope. The results show that the Mg-Zn-Al solder is forced spread under the effect of ultrasonic vibration along the base metal. The impact wave induced by ultrasonic cavitation can break the oxide film on the surface of base metal and the solder, which can promote the solder to wet the base metal. The depth of the dissolved base metal is only 0.12mm. When the ultrasonic time is 2s, the spreading area reaches its maximum. The ultrasonic cavitation can break the columnar crystals of Mg-Zn eutectic phase and the dendrite crystals of α-Mg, which can refine the microstructure of the Mg-Zn-Al solder.

  7. HYDROTALSIT Zn-Al-EDTA SEBAGAI ADSORBEN UNTUK POLUTAN ION Pb(II DI LINGKUNGAN Zn-Al-EDTA Hydrotalcite as Adsorbent for Pb(II Ion Pollutant in The Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roto Roto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Polusi ion Pb(II di dalam lingkungan perairan cenderung naik seiring peningkatan jumlah industri smelter dan daur ulang aki bekas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kemampuan hidrotalsit Zn-Al-EDTA sebagai adsorben ion Pb(II dalam air secara mendalam. Hidrotalsit Zn-Al-NO3 disintesis dengan metode kopresipitasi dan hidrotermal pada temperatur 100 °C selama 15 jam. Hidrotalsit Zn-Al-EDTA diperoleh dengan penukaran ion. Keasaman larutan, kinetika dan kapasitas adsorpsi diteliti. Hidrotalsit Zn-Al-EDTA memiliki d003 sebesar 14,52 Å sementara Zn-Al-NO3 sebesar 8,90 Å. Spektra FTIR menunjukkan keberadaan serapan gugus C=O pada bilangan gelombang 1684,77 cm-1. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi ion Pb(II terjadi pada pH 4, waktu kontak 60 menit dan kapasitas adsorpsi diperoleh 2,07 mg/g pada konsentrasi awal 10 mg/L dengan berat adsorben 0,100 g. Adsorpsi ion Pb(II oleh hidrotalsit Zn-Al-EDTA mengikuti reaksi pseudo orde dua dengan tetapan laju adsorpsi sebesar 8,90 g mmol-1min-1. Adsorpsi ion Pb(II oleh Zn-Al-EDTA terjadi karena  pembentukan khelat Pb-EDTA di dalam struktur hidrotalsit. Hasil ini diharapkan mampu memberikan kontribusi yang lebih luas di dalam pengendalian konsentrasi Pb(II di lingkungan. ABSTRACT Polution by Pb(II ion in the water environment tends to increase due the increase in the number of lead smelter and lead acid battery recycling industries. This work aims at studying in details the ability of Zn-Al-EDTA hydrotalcite as adsorbent for Pb(II ion in the environment. The Zn-Al-NO3 hydrotalcite was synthesized first by coprecipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment at 100 °C for 15 h. The Zn-Al-EDTA hydrotalcite was later obtained by ion exchange process. The solution pH, kinetics and adsorption capacity were studied. The XRD data showed that Zn-Al-EDTA and Zn-Al-NO3 hydrotalcites have d003 of 14.52 and 8.90 Å, respectively. The FTIR spectra suggested that C=O group was observed with absorption band at 1684

  8. Corrosion resistance of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide/poly(lactic acid) composite coating on magnesium alloy AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Xiao-Ting; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Fen; Li, Shuo-Qi; Cui, Hong-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH) coating consisted of uniform hexagonal nano-plates was firstly synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal treatment on the AZ31 alloy, and then a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coating was sealed on the top layer of the ZnAl-LDH coating using vacuum freeze-drying. The characteristics of the ZnAl-LDH/PLA composite coatings were investigated by means of XRD, SEM, FTIR and EDS. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the ZnAl-LDH coating contained a compact inner layer and a porous outer layer, and the PLA coating with a strong adhesion to the porous outer layer can prolong the service life of the ZnAl-LDH coating. The excellent corrosion resistance of this composite coating can be attributable to its barrier function, ion-exchange and self-healing ability.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg coating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xuping, E-mail: sxping@cczu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jianhua; Wu, Changjun; Liu, Ya; Tu, Hao; Peng, Haoping [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The surface oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg melt were analyzed with XPS. • Certain Al must be added in bath containing Mg to get stable galvanizing melts. • The oxidation products vary with the bath composition. • Oxidation can be predicted in galvanizing by using the calculated phase diagrams. • The thermodynamic analysis can be used to design the practical bath melts. - Abstract: Surface oxidation of molten Zn-6Al baths containing 0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 wt. % Mg were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed on the surface of the Zn-6Al bath, while MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgO occur at 460 °C in the Zn-6Al-3Mg and Zn-6Al-6Mg baths, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg baths was performed. Calculated phase diagrams at 460 °C and 560 °C show good agreements with the experimental results. MgO or MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exists in almost the entire composition range of the calculated oxidation diagrams. According to the calculation, oxidation products depend on the composition and temperature of the baths. The primary and secondary oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg baths can be reasonably explained by oxidation phase diagrams. Utilizing these results, the favorable practical bath melts and operating conditions can be designed.

  10. Zn-Al alloy as a new anode-metal of a zinc-air battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, C.J.; Chin, T.S.; Lin, P.H.; Perng, T.P. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2006-01-15

    Low operating power and short cycle life are 2 of the main draw-backs of zinc-air batteries, despite the fact that various attempts have been made to develop improved zinc (Zn) anodes. This study investigated the performance of a Zn anode with a substantial addition of aluminium (Al). Rolled sheets of Zn-Al alloys of varying amounts of Zn and Al were used to prepare the anodes. Results of the study showed that the cells had higher open circuit voltages (OCV) values as well as a higher specific anode capacity. It was observed that specific anode capacity increased with higher current loading. The Zn{sub 59}Al{sub 41} and Zn{sub 67}Al{sub 33} sheets showed the highest performance with high OCV values of between 1540 and 1560 mV, as well as the largest specific anode capacity of 750-800 mAh per g at a discharge current of 200 mA. The 2-phase structure of the Zn-Al sheets was considered to be useful in reducing anode-passivation, and increasing anode-utilization due to its self-generated porosity when the Al-rich phase was preferentially reacted during discharge tests. It was noted that the density of the Zn-Al alloys was much smaller than that of pure Zn. It was concluded that the proposed alloys may be used as anodes in primary or mechanical-recharge type zinc-air batteries, as well as in electric vehicles. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Enhancement of Heat Transfer in PCM by Cellular Zn-Al Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naplocha K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of open cellular metal foam technology based on investment casting applying the polyurethane pattern is discussed. Technological process comprises preparing of the ceramic mold applying PUR foam as the pattern, firing of the mold, pouring of the liquid Zn-Al alloy into the mold and washing out of the ceramic material from cellular casting. Critical parameters such as the temperature of mold and poured metal, design of gating system affected by metalostatic pressure allowed to produce castings with cellular structure characterized by the open porosity.

  12. Measurement of casting parameters in ZnAlCu3 molds created by additive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Medić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the parameters of casting ZnAl4Cu3 alloy (volume, castability, density and occupancy of the mold in mold made additive technology. Molds made by additive technology are: cheaper in production of a small number of castings, geometrically more accurate and faster made. From obtained results of this paper it is clearly seen that printed mold must be protected with thermal coating because liquid adhesive of powder otherwise evaporates during casting and creates additional moisture in the mold, as it was noted.

  13. Modelling of the crystallization front – particles interactions in ZnAl/(SiCp composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Szucki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented work focuses on solid particle interactions with the moving crystallization front during a solidification of the metal matrix composite. The current analyses were made for silicon carbide particles and ZnAl alloy with different additions of aluminium. It was found, that the chemical composition of the metal matrix influences the behaviour of SiC particles. At the same time calculations of the forces acting on a single particle near the crystallization front were performed. For each alloy type the critical conditions that determine whether particle will be absorbed or pushed, were specified.

  14. Fusion and characterization of an alloy Cu-Zn-Al-Ni of nuclear interest; Fusion y caracterizacion de una aleacion Cu-Zn-Al-Ni de interes nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana M, J.S

    2003-07-01

    The present work is the result of the study of a non ferrous quatenary alloy of Cu-Zn-Al-Ni (Foundry 3), it was chosen of a series of alloys to obtain so much information of its microstructural properties like mechanical, evaluating them and comparing them with the previously obtained ternary alloys of Cu-AI-Ni (Foundry 1) and Cu-Zn-AI (Foundry 2) identified as alloys of memory effect and superalloys. These were carried out starting from the foundry of their pure elements of Cu, Zn, Al, Ni. When physically having the ingot of each alloy, different techniques were used for their characterization. The used techniques were through the metallographic analysis, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical essays and Rockwell hardness. The non ferrous quaternary alloy Cu-Zn-AI-Ni by means of the metallographic analysis didn't show significant differences in their three sections (superficial, longitudinal and transverse) since result an homogeneous alloy at the same that the both ternaries. The grain size of the quaternary alloy is the finest while the ternary alloy of Cu-AI-Ni is the one that obtained the biggest grain size. Through MEB together with the analysis by EDS and the mapping of the elements that constitute each alloy, show that the three foundries were alloyed, moreover the presence of aggregates was also observed in the Foundries 2 and 3. These results by means of the analysis of XRD corroborate that these alloys have more of two elements. Relating the microstructural properties with those mechanical show us that as minor was the grain size, better they were his mechanical properties, in this case that of the quaternary alloy. With regard to the test of Rockwell hardness the Foundry 1 were the softest with the temper treatment, while that the Foundries 2 and 3 were the hardest with this same treatment, being still harder the Foundry 2 but with very little difference, for what great

  15. A bionanohybrid ZnAl-NADS ecological pesticide as a treatment for soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Irigoyen, Erika Elizabeth; de Las Mercedes Gómez-Y-Gómez, Yolanda; Flores-Moreno, Jorge Luis; Franco-Hernández, Marina Olivia

    2017-09-18

    Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc) is a phytopathogenic strain that causes soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), resulting in postharvest losses. Chemical control is effective for managing this disease, but overdoses cause adverse effects. Because farmers insist on using chemical agents for crop protection, it is necessary to develop more effective pesticides in which the active compound released can be regulated. In this context, we proposed the synthesis of ZnAl-NADS, in which nalidixic acid sodium salt (NADS) is linked to a ZnAl-NO 3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) host as a nanocarrier. XRD, FT-IR, and SEM analyses confirmed the successful intercalation of NADS into the interplanar LDH space. The drug release profile indicated that the maximum release was completed in 70 or 170 min for free NADS (alone) or for NADS released from ZnAl-NADS, respectively. This slow release was attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between the drug and the anion exchanger. A modulated release is preferable to the action of the bulk NADS, showing increased effectiveness and minimizing the amount of the chemical available to pollute the soil and the water. The fitting data from modified Freundlich and parabolic diffusion models explain the release behavior of the NADS, suggesting that the drug released from ZnAl-NADS bionanohybrid was carried out from the interlamellar sites, according to the ion exchange diffusion process also involving intraparticle diffusion (coeffect). ZnAl-NADS was tested in vitro against Escherichia coli (Ec) and Pc and exhibited bacteriostatic and biocidal effects at 0.025 and 0.075 mg mL -1 , respectively. ZnAl-NADS was also tested in vivo as an ecological pesticide for combating potato soft rot and was found to delay typical disease symptoms. In conclusion, ZnAl-NADS can potentially be used to control pests, infestation, and plant disease.

  16. Intercalation of p-methycinnamic acid anion into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide to improve UV aging resistance of asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A UV absorber, p-methycinnamic acid (PMCA, was intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH by calcination recovery. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the PMCA anions completely replaced the CO32− anions in the interlayer galleries of Zn-Al-LDH containing PMCA anions (Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the interlayer distance increased from 0.78 nm to 1.82 nm after the substitution of PMCA anions for CO32− anions. The similar diffraction angles of the CO32− anion-containing Zn-Al-LDH (Zn-Al-CO32−-LDH and the Zn-Al-CO32−-LDH/styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS modified asphalt implied that the asphalt molecules do not enter into the LDH interlayer galleries to form separated-phase structures. The different diffraction angles of Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH and Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH/SBS modified asphalt indicated that the asphalt molecules penetrated into the LDH interlayer galleries to form an expanded-phase structure. UV-Vis absorbance analyses showed that Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH was better able to block UV light due to the synergistic effects of PMCA and Zn-Al-LDH. Conventional physical tests and atomic force microscopy images of the SBS modified asphalt, Zn-Al-CO32−-LDH/SBS modified asphalt and Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH/SBS modified asphalt before and after UV aging indicated that Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH improved the UV aging resistance of SBS modified asphalts.

  17. Synthesis and morphological modification of semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: jsanchez@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); López-Salinas, Esteban [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Prince, Julia [Universidad Anáhuac México Norte, Av. Universidad Anáhuac # 46, Huixquilucan, Edo. de México 52786 (Mexico); González, Ignacio; Acevedo-Peña, Prospero [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Ángel, Paz del [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) thin films with different chemical compositions (MgZnAl, MgZnGa, MgGaAl) and varying thicknesses were easily prepared by sol–gel method followed by dip-coating. Films were chemically uniform, transparent and well adhered to a conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Structure, chemical composition and morphology of the thin films were characterized by XRD-GADDS, SEM-EDS and AFM. Additionally, the semiconducting properties of all the prepared films were studied through the Mott–Schottky relationship; such properties were closely related to the chemical compositions of the film. The films were characterized after electrochemical treatment and important modifications regarding surface morphology, particle and crystal sizes were observed. An in-depth study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of several different electrochemical treatments on the morphology, particle size distribution and crystal size of LDH thin films. Upon electrochemical treatment, the films' surface became smooth and the particles forming the films were transformed from flaky open LDH platelets to uniformly distributed close-packed LDH nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films prepared by sol–gel. • LDH thin films show a turbostratic morphology made up of porous flakes. • Electrochemical treatments change the flaky structure into a nanoparticle array.

  18. Immobilization of kojic acid in ZnAl-hydrotalcite like compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogi, Valeria; Perioli, Luana; Nocchetti, Morena; Latterini, Loredana; Pagano, Cinzia; Massetti, Elena; Rossi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Kojic acid (KOJ) is a melanin synthesis inhibitor widely used as skin lightening agent in topical preparations. Unfortunately it is easily susceptible to photo-oxidation, phenomenon responsible for chemical and organoleptic modifications. The aim of this work was the intercalation of KOJ in hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) in order to stabilize KOJ and to reduce its photolability. Hydrotalcite containing Zn and Al (ZnAl-HTlc) was used as host to obtain the final compound ZnAl-HTlc-KOJ. The intercalation was carried out, after many attempts, by ionic exchange mechanism by means of the strong base EtO- in anhydrous ethanol/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) mixture as solvent in order to generate KOJ- anions. The final product was characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and elemental analysis. The intercalated compound was formulated in a siliconic water free self-emulsifying ointment and the in vitro release profile was evaluated. All samples (intercalation compound and its formulation) were submitted also to spectrophotometric assays in order to evaluate the matrix protective effect towards ultraviolet rays.

  19. Composition dependence of the rate of bainitic transformation in Cu-Zn-Al alloys; Cu-Zn-Al gokin ni okeru bainite hentai sokudo no gokin sosei izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, M.; Marukawa, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-04-20

    The bainitic transformation is known to have an intermediate nature between the martensitic transformation and the diffusional transformation, while its transformation mechanism has not yet been clarified precisely. If this transformation involves lattice shearing like the martensitic transformation, it should take place more easily in those alloys which have a higher tendency to transform martensitically. On this expectation, the composition dependence of bainitic transformation kinetics has been studied in Cu-Zn-Al alloys. Especially, the relation between the martensitic transformation temperature (Ms) and the bainitic transformation rate was examined. The transformation process was traced by measuring the electrical resistivity of specimens during aging. It was found that the transformation rate is higher in those alloys having a higher Ms temperature. The activation energy for the process, obtained from its temperature dependence, is independent of the alloy composition and roughly equal to that for solute diffusion in the parent alloy. This indicates that the transformation is controlled by diffusion of solute atoms. The composition dependence of the bainitic transformation rate is discussed in terms of a diffusion controlled growth theory. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Removal of an Acid Dye from Water Using Calcined and Uncalcined ZnAl-r Anionic Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessaha, Hassiba; Bouraada, Mohamed; de Ménorval, Louis Charles

    2017-09-01

      The present report describes the removal of indigo carmine dye from water via adsorption on ZnAl-r hydrotalcite. Two grades of clay based on Zn/Al molar ratios of 3 and 4, uncalcined and calcined, were used. The adsorbents characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA and TGA, respectively) revealed a layered structure for the hydrotalcite clays, whereas their calcination favored the formation of ZnO and ZnAl2O4 mixed metal oxides. The calcined materials immobilized much larger amounts of indigo carmine dye than the uncalcined layered double hydroxides (LDHs) specimens. The maximum adsorption capacities obey the order: CZnAl-4 (520.8 mg/g) > CZnAl-3 (358.4 mg/g) > ZnAl-3 (67.25 mg/g) > ZnAl-4 (21.65 mg/g). The adsorption isotherms are best described by Langmuir model. The sorption process is spontaneous in nature and its kinetics data are best described by a pseudo-second-order model. Adsorption tests on re-used calcined clays demonstrate its reusability after three thermal cycles.

  1. Design and fabrication of enhanced corrosion resistance Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films based anion-exchange mechanism on magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Meng; Yan, Luchun; Ling, Hao; Diao, Yupeng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wang, Yanlin; Gao, Kewei, E-mail: kwgao@yahoo.com

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Zn-Al LDHs film loaded nitrate anions has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method. • The Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO{sub x} LDHs film were obtained based on anion-exchange mechanism. • The Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO{sub x} LDHs film could effectively protect magnesium alloy. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with brucite-like layer structure and the facile exchangeability of intercalated anions had attracted tremendous interest in many fields because of their great importance for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Herein zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) films intercalated with nitrate anions on the magnesium alloy substrate were designed and fabricated via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method. In order to obtain better corrosion resistance, chloride and vanadate anions were intercalated into the LDHs interlayers via the anion-exchange reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to examine structure, composition and morphology of the Zn-Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs, Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO{sub x} LDHs films. The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Al LDHs with different anion films was estimated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization curves measurements revealed that the magnesium alloy could be effectively protected by the Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO{sub x} LDHs films due to the blocking effect of chloride anions and the control-release ability of vanadate anions.

  2. Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to Propylene Glycol on Nanosized Cu-Zn-Al Catalysts Prepared Using Microwave Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Won; Ha, Sang Ho; Moon, Myung Jun; Lim, Kwon Taek; Ryu, Young Bok; Lee, Sun Do; Lee, Man Sig; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Cu-Zn-Al catalysts were prepared using microwave-assisted process and co-precipitation methods. The prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS and TPD of ammonia and their catalytic activity for the hydrogenolysis of glycerol to propylene glycol was also examined. The XRD patterns of Cu/Zn/Al mixed catalysts show CuO and ZnO crystalline phase regardless of preparation method. The highest glycerol hydrogenolysis conversion is obtained with the catalyst having a Cu/Zn/Al ratio of 2:2:1. Hydrogen pre-reduction of catalysts significantly enhanced both glycerol conversions and selectivity to propylene glycol. The glycerol conversion increased with an increase of reaction temperature. However, the selectivity to propylene glycol increased with an increase of temperature, and then declined to 30.5% at 523 K.

  3. Performance assessment of the catalyst ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Cu/ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} esterification reaction fatty acid in biodiesel; Avaliacao do desempenho do catalisador ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} e Cu/ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} na reacao de estereficacao de acidos graxos em biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, A.C.; Dantas, J.; Costa, A.C.M.F., E-mail: alexcaval2@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Barbosa, D.C.; Meneghetti, S.M.P. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of the Cu/ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} methyl esterification of fatty acids of soybean oil into biodiesel. The ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized by combustion reaction and then the sample was wet impregnated with a copper source. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, textural analysis and catalytic tests bench. The characterization results showed that the samples showed characteristic diffraction peaks spinel, with the characteristic of mesoporous material (10-250 Å), particles in the form of blocks and slabs of hard point. The results showed that the conversion impregnation of copper has increased by 17% conversion to biodiesel. (author)

  4. Corrosión bajo tensión de aceros eutectoides con trefilado progresivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovejero, E.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of the microstructural evolution in an eutectoid steel that has undergone a cold drawing process are studied. This manufacturing technique produces changes in the steel microstructure: a progressive orientation and slenderising of the pearlite colonies and an orientation and packing of the pearlite lamellae, thus reducing the interlamellar spacing. In addition, the experimental results of the stress corrosion cracking tests show that cold drawing produces resistant anisotropy in the steel and thus the stress corrosion cracking resistance is a directional property which seems to depend on the orientation of the microstructure in relation to the cold drawing direction. As a consequence, a transversal crack tends to change its propagation direction approaching the wire axis and a crack growth in mode I evolves to a mixed mode propagation.

    Se estudian las consecuencias de la evolución microestructural en un acero eutectoide que ha sufrido un proceso de trefilado progresivo. Esta técnica de fabricación origina una serie de cambios en la microestructura del acero: una orientación progresiva y un estiramiento de las colonias de perlita y una orientación y densificación de las láminas de perlita, reduciendo así el espaciado interlaminar. Por otra parte, los resultados experimentales de los ensayos de corrosión bajo tensión demuestran que el trefilado produce anisotropía resistente en el acero, y así la resistencia a la corrosión bajo tensión es una propiedad direccional que parece depender de la orientación de la microestuctura con respecto a la dirección del trefilado. Como consecuencia, una fisura transversal tiende a cambiar su dirección de propagación para aproximarse a la del eje del alambre, y un crecimiento en modo I evoluciona hacia una propagación en modo mixto.

  5. A Comparative Study of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized from Co/Zn/Al and Fe/Ni/Al Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Dixon Dikio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalyst systems Fe/Ni/Al and Co/Zn/Al were synthesized and used in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes produced were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM, Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDS, Raman spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM. A comparison of the morphological profile of the carbon nanotubes produced from these catalysts indicates the catalyst system Fe/Ni/Al to have produced higher quality carbon nanotubes than the catalyst system Co/Zn/Al.

  6. Orientation Dependence of Cracking in Hot-Dip Zn-Al-Mg Alloy Coatings on a Sheet Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. B.; Kim, I. G.; Kim, S. G.; Kim, W. T.; Kim, T. C.; Oh, M. S.; Kim, J. S.

    2017-03-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating a basic cause of cracking in hot-dip Zn-Al-Mg alloy coatings on an extra deep drawing quality sheet steel. The electron backscattering diffraction technique was employed to examine the crystallographic planes of the cracks generated before and after bending deformation of the coated steel sheets. It was clarified that the occurrence of cracking in the Zn-Al-Mg alloy coatings absolutely depends on the orientation of the primary Zn and eutectic Zn alloy phases. Finally, a cracking mechanism was proposed on the basis of the anisotropy of thermal expansion and the Young's modulus in the phases constituting the coatings.

  7. Superhydrophobic ZnAl double hydroxide nanostructures and ZnO films on Al and glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Debasis, E-mail: debasis.de@bcrec.ac.in [Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Department, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, West Bengal 713206 (India); Sarkar, D.K. [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l' Aluminium (CURAL), L' Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Blvd. Université, Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Québec G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and ZnO films have been fabricated on Al and glass substrates, respectively, by a simple and cost effective chemical bath deposition technique. Randomly oriented hexagonal patterned of ZnAl: LDHs thin nanoplates are clearly observed on Al-substrate in the scanning electron microscopic images. The average size of these hexagonal plates is ∼4 μm side and ∼30 nm of thickness. While on the glass substrate, a oriented hexagonal patterned ZnO nanorods (height ∼5 μm and 1 μm diameter) are observed and each rod is further decorated throughout the top few nanometers with several nanosteps. At the top of the nanorod, a perfectly hexagonal patterned ZnO surface with ∼250 nm sides is observed. The tendency to form hexagonal morphological features is due to the hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy image. The ZnAl: LDHs and/or ZnO coated substrates have been passivated by using stearic acid (SA) molecules. Infrared spectra of passivated ZnAl: LDHs coated substrates confirm the presence of SA. X-ray diffraction pattern also corroborates the results of infrared spectrum. The contact angle of the as prepared samples is zero. The superhydrophobicity is achieved by observing contact angle of ∼161° with a hysteresis of ∼4° for Al-substrate. On the glass substrate, a higher contact angle of ∼168° with a lower hysteresis of ∼3° is observed. A lower surface roughness of ∼4.93 μm is measured on ZnAl: LDHs surface layer on the Al substrate as compare to a higher surface roughness of 6.87 μm measured on ZnO layer on glass substrate. The superhydrophobicity of passivated nanostructured films on two different substrates is observed due to high surface roughness and low surface energy. - Highlights: • ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanoplates are fabricated on Al substrate. • ZnO nanorods are fabricated on

  8. Corrosion Inhibition of Zn-Al-Cu Alloy by 2-Aminothiazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, A. A.; Salih, S. A.; Gad-Allah, A. G.; Tammam, R. H.

    2008-04-01

    The inhibitive effect of 2-aminothiazole on corrosion of Zn-Al-Cu alloy was investigated in acid, neutral and alkaline media by impedance and polarization techniques. The impedance data were fitted to a simple equivalent circuit model and indicated control by a diffusion process. Satisfactory inhibition was obtained in alkaline and neutral media. On the other hand, quite low inhibition efficiency was observed in acid medium. Increase in concentration of the inhibitor increased the inhibitive effect, whereas the reverse was observed when the temperature was increased. Different adsorption isotherms were tested in neutral and alkaline media, the best fit was obtained for the Freundlich isotherm. The highest value for the free energy change was recorded in alkaline medium in accordance with the high inhibition efficiency observed in this medium.

  9. Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Eutectoid Steel Under Cyclic Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Soma; Subhani, Amir Raza; Show, Bijay Kumar; Maity, Joydeep

    2017-07-01

    A systematic study has been carried out to ascertain the effect of cooling rate on structure and mechanical properties of eutectoid steel subjected to a novel incomplete austenitization-based cyclic heat treatment process up to 4 cycles. Each cycle consists of a short-duration holding (6 min) at 775 °C (above A1) followed by cooling at different rates (furnace cooling, forced air cooling and ice-brine quenching). Microstructure and properties are found to be strongly dependent on cooling rate. In pearlitic transformation regime, lamellar disintegration completes in 61 h and 48 min for cyclic furnace cooling. This leads to a spheroidized structure possessing a lower hardness and strength than that obtained in as-received annealed condition. On contrary, lamellar disintegration does not occur for cyclic forced air cooling with high air flow rate (78 m3 h-1). Rather, a novel microstructure consisting of submicroscopic cementite particles in a `interweaved pearlite' matrix is developed after 4 cycles. This provides an enhancement in hardness (395 HV), yield strength (473 MPa) and UTS (830 MPa) along with retention of a reasonable ductility (%Elongation = 19) as compared to as-received annealed condition (hardness = 222 HV, YS = 358 MPa, UTS = 740 MPa, %Elongation = 21).

  10. Tribo-chemical behavior of eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Cai, Z.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Peng, J.F. [Tribology Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cao, B.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Jin, X.S. [Tribology Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhu, M.H., E-mail: zhuminhao@swjtu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Tribology Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Tribo-chemical behavior was investigated during rolling contact friction. • Tribo-film may weaken the absorptive ability of O/C atoms on the surface. • Tribo-film is related to a low friction coefficient at rolling friction condition. - Abstract: The tribo-chemical behavior of the eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction is investigated via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The worn surface is divided into three zones: matrix zone (without friction), tribo-film zone (formed during friction) and delamination zone (tribo-film spalling). The different chemical states of atoms between those three zones and the air were investigated using the XPS analysis. The results showed that the matrix zone is composed of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO and metallic Fe, while the tribo-film and delamination zones only contain Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeO. Where the tribo-film is formed, the absorptive ability of O and C atoms on the top 2–3 atomic layers is probably weakened, while the exposed fresh metal in the delamination zone tends to be continuously oxidized and form tribo-film. The tribo-chemical reaction in the delamination zone is more activated than that in the other two zones. The protective nature of the tribo-film probably maintains a low friction coefficient under rolling contact friction condition.

  11. Synthesis and luminescence properties of ZnAl2O4:RE3+ (RE = Eu, Sm) phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Cho, Shinho

    2014-01-01

    ZnAl2O4:RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphor powders were synthesized with different concentrations of activator ions by using the conventional solid-state reaction method. The effects of the concentration of activator ions on the structural, morphological, and luminescent properties of zinc aluminate phosphors were investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the phosphors synthesized with different concentrations of activator ions showed mixed phases of ZnAl2O4, ZnO, and Al2O3. The crystallite size was estimated using the Scherrer formula, and the maximum size was obtained for 0.20 mol of Eu3+ions. The emission spectra of of Eu3+-doped ZnAl2O4 phosphors under excitation at 303 nm exhibited one intense green band at approximately 520 nm and three weak bands centered at 590, 621, and 701 nm, respectively. The intensity of all the emission bands reached a maximum for 0.05 mol of Eu3+ ions. For the Sm3+-doped ZnAl2O4 phosphors, a broad emission band peak at 526 nm and several weak lines in the range 470-700 nm were observed. The results suggest that the luminescent intensity of the phosphors can be enhanced by controlling the amount of activator ions incorporated into the host lattice.

  12. Interfacial Reactions of Zn-Al Alloys with Na Addition on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    Spreading tests for Cu substrate with Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Na were studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed for 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min of contact, at the temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading area of Zn-Al + Na on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy of the interfacial microstructure. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Na addition on the kinetics of formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 phases, which were identified using x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The addition of Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused the spreading area to decrease and the thickness of intermetallic compound layers at the interface to reduce. Samples after the spreading test at 500 °C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 120,170, and 250 °C. The greater thicknesses of IMC layers were obtained for a temperature of 250 °C. With increasing Na content in Zn-Al + Na alloys, the thickness reduced, which correlates to the highest value of activation energy for Zn-Al with 1% Na.

  13. Thermal and Microstructure Characterization of Zn-Al-Si Alloys and Chemical Reaction with Cu Substrate During Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Katarzyna; Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    The problems associated with the corrosion of aluminum connections, the low mechanical properties of Al/Cu connections, and the introduction of EU directives have forced the potential of new materials to be investigated. Alloys based on eutectic Zn-Al are proposed, because they have a higher melting temperature (381 °C), good corrosion resistance, and high mechanical strength. The Zn-Al-Si cast alloys were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, which were performed to determine the melting temperatures of the alloys. Thermal linear expansion and electrical resistivity measurements were performed at temperature ranges of -50 to 250 °C and 25 to 300 °C, respectively. The addition of Si to eutectic Zn-Al alloys not only limits the growth of phases at the interface of liquid solder and Cu substrate but also raises the mechanical properties of the solder. Spreading test on Cu substrate using eutectic Zn-Al alloys with 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt.% of Si was studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed with contact times of 1, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min, and at temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreadability of Zn-Al-Si on Cu was determined. Selected, solidified solder/substrate couples were cross-sectioned, and the interfacial microstructures were studied using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The growth of the intermetallic phase layer was studied at the solder/substrate interface, and the activation energy of growth of Cu5Zn8, CuZn4, and CuZn phases were determined.

  14. Kinetics of cellular transformation and competing precipitation mechanisms during sub-eutectoid annealing of U10Mo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Varga, Tamas; Lavender, Curt A.; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2017-11-01

    Transformation kinetics of metastable body-centered cubic γ-UMo phase in U-10 wt.percent Mo alloy during annealing at sub-eutectoid temperatures of 500C and 400C has been determined as a function of time using detailed microstructural characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. Based on the results, we found that the phase transformation is initiated by cellular transformation at both the temperatures, which results in formation of a lamellar microstructure along prior γ-UMo grain boundaries.

  15. Hydrothermal epitaxial growth of ZnO films on sapphire substrates presenting epitaxial ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-Guang, E-mail: houguang@isu.edu.tw; Wang, Chi-Wei; Tu, Zhi-Fan

    2014-03-01

    This article describes our investigation of the hydrothermal epitaxial growth of c-plane ZnO films on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates presenting ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} buffer layers. We obtained (111) ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} epitaxial layers on a-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates readily through solid phase epitaxy. Although the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} buffer layers grew epitaxially with a (111) out-of-plane orientation and comprised two coexisting equivalent azimuthal variants with relative 180° in-plane rotation, the ZnO epitaxial films grown upon them exhibited a c-plane orientation with unitary in-plane epitaxial orientation of <11{sup ¯}00>{sub ZnO}∥<11{sup ¯}0>{sub ZnAl{sub 2O{sub 4}}} on the two different ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} variants. Taking the coincidence of the site lattices between the (0001) plane of ZnO and the (111) plane of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} into account, a reduction in lattice misfit was achieved through a 30° rotation between the lattices of the ZnO and the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. We used X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy to obtain detailed microstructural views of the hydrothermally grown ZnO epitaxial films on the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} buffer layers. - Highlights: • The c-plane ZnO films were epitaxially grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates presenting ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} buffer layers. • We obtained (111) ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} epitaxial layers on a-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates through solid phase epitaxy. • The ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layers comprised two equivalent azimuthal variants with relative 180° in-plane rotation. • The c-plane ZnO epitaxial films grown on ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layers with an in-plane relationship of <11{sup ¯}00>{sub ZnO}∥<11{sup ¯}0>{sub ZnAl{sub 2O{sub 4}}}.

  16. Co-Zn-Al based hydrotalcites as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, C.L.; Pirola, C.; Boffito, D.C.; Di Fronzo, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica; Di Michele, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Vivani, R.; Nocchetti, M.; Bastianini, M.; Gatto, S. [Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    2011-07-01

    Co-Zn-Al based hydrotalcites have been investigated as catalysts for the well-known Fischer- Tropsch synthesis. A series of ternary hydrotalcites in nitrate form was prepared with the urea method in order to obtain active catalysts for the above mentioned process. The thermal activation at 350 C gives raise to finely dispersed metallic Co on the mixed oxides, so resulting in retaining the metal distribution of the parent compounds. An optimization study concerning the amount of cobalt of the prepared catalysts (range 15-70% mol, metal based) and the reaction temperature (220-260 C) is reported. All the samples have been fully characterized (BET, ICP-OES, XRPD, TG-DTA, FT-IR, SEM and TEM) and tested in a laboratory pilot plant. Tests to evaluate the stability of these materials were carried out in stressed conditions concerning both the activation and the operating temperatures and pressures (up to 350 C and 2.0 MPa). The obtained results suggest the possibility of using synthetic hydrotalcites as suitable Co-based catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. (orig.)

  17. Preparation of Tween 80-Zn/Al-Levodopa-Layered Double Hydroxides Nanocomposite for Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu Umar Kura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We incorporated anti-Parkinsonian drug, levodopa (dopa, in Zn/Al-LDH by coprecipitation method to form dopa-LDH nanocomposite. Further coating of Tween-80 on the external surfaces of dopa-LDH nanocomposite was achieved through the oxygen of C=O group of Tween-80 with the layer of dopa-LDH nanocomposite. The final product is called Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite. The X-ray diffraction indicates that the Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite was formed by aggregation structure. From the TGA data, the Tween-80 loading on the surface of LDH and dopa-LDH was 8.6 and 7.4%, respectively. The effect of coating process on the dopa release from Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite was also studied. The release from Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite shows slower release compared to the release of the drug from dopa-LDH nanocomposite as done previously in our study, presumably due to the retarding shielding effect. The cell viability study using PC12 showed improved viability with Tween-80 coating on dopa-LDH nanocomposite as studied by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay.

  18. Interfacial Reactions Between ZnAl(Ge) Solders on Cu and Ni Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Antti; Vuorinen, Vesa; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi

    2017-04-01

    Reactions between zinc-aluminum-germanium solder and copper/nickel substrates were investigated after 30 min of soldering at 420°C that simulates a wafer-level bonding process, and the results were compared to a eutectic zinc-aluminum solder. The ZnAlGe system (81.4 at.% Zn, 13.1 at.% Al, 5.5 at.% Ge) was selected in order to decrease the eutectic temperature of the ZnAleut (88.7 at.% Zn, 11.3 at.% Al) for high-temperature lead-free solder applications. In addition, a standard high temperature storage test at 150°C was performed up to 3000 h in order to investigate the evolution of the interconnection microstructures. Extensive copper dissolution was discovered during the soldering process. Germanium did not participate in any of the interfacial reactions on a copper substrate. On a nickel substrate, rapid formation of intermetallic compounds was discovered with both solders, and all the aluminum from the 500 μm thick solder was consumed by the formation of the Al3Ni2 phase during bonding. Germanium was observed to dissolve in the Al3Ni2 phase, but the addition of germanium to the solder was not found to affect markedly the interfacial microstructure. Based on the results, isothermal sections at 150°C of Al-Cu-Zn and Al-Ni-Zn systems are presented with superimposed diffusion paths.

  19. Adsorption kinetics of benzotriazole and its derivatives by nano Zn-Al-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingbing; Qi, Fei; Wu, Fengchang; Xu, Qiujin; Chen, Zhonglin

    2014-09-01

    Benzotriazole and its derivatives are important industrial auxiliaries, which are serious pollution sources in the natural aquatic environment. Benzotriazole and its derivatives adsorption by a novel nano absorbent (nano Zn-Al-O binary metal oxide, named as ZAO) being explored as an effective water treatment method, was carried out in this study. Results showed that benzotriazole and its derivatives were all effectively adsorbed from water by ZAO. Removal efficiencies of benzotriazole, 5-methyl-benzotriazol and 5,6-dimethyl-benzotriazole with 5 g/L adsorbent dosage achieved 89%, 81% and 92%, respectively. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm models were used to express the adsorption process and discuss the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption kinetics well followed pseudo-second-order model, indicating that chemical adsorption dominated the adsorption. Adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Freundlich model. Structure characteristics of benzotriazole and its derivatives had great effect on their adsorption. Hydrogen-bond interaction was considered as the main mechanism for the surface adsorption. However, hydrophobic interactions played an important role in 5,6-dimethyl-benzotriazole adsorption due to its weak polarity.

  20. Surface Pre-treatment for Thermally Sprayed ZnAl15 Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Pre-treatment of substrates is an important step in thermal spraying. It is widely accepted that mechanical interlocking is the dominant adhesion mechanism for most substrate-coating combinations. To prevent premature failure, minimum coating adhesion strength, surface preparation grades, and roughness parameters are often specified. For corrosion-protection coatings for offshore wind turbines, an adhesion strength ≥ 5 MPa is commonly assumed to ensure adhesion over service lifetime. In order to fulfill this requirement, Rz > 80 µm and a preparation grade of Sa3 are common specifications. In this study, the necessity of these requirements is investigated using the widely used combination of twin-wire arc-sprayed ZnAl15 on S355J2 + N as a test case. By using different blasting media and parameters, the correlation between coating adhesion and roughness parameters is analyzed. The adhesion strength of these systems is measured using a test method allowing measurements on real parts. The results are compared to DIN EN 582:1993, the European equivalent of ASTM-C633. In another series of experiments, the influence of surface pre-treatment grades Sa2.5 and Sa3 is considered. By combining the results of these three sets of experiments, a guideline for surface pre-treatment and adhesion testing on real parts is proposed for the considered system.

  1. ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO{sub 3}-LDH particles as fluorescent probe for sensing of folic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Dan; Liu, Yanhuan [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemical Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Lei, E-mail: lilei@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemical Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-09-15

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for detecting folic acid (FA) in aqueous media has been developed based on 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (ANTS) anchored to the surface of Zn-Al-CO{sub 3}-layered double hydroxides (LDH) particles. The nanosensor showed high fluorescence intensity and good photostability due to a strong coordination interaction between surface Zn{sup 2+} ions of Zn-Al-CO{sub 3}-LDH and N atoms of ANTS, which were verified by result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ANTS-anchored on the surface of Zn-Al-CO{sub 3}-LDH restricted the intra-molecular rotation leading to ANTS-anchored J-type aggregation emission enhancement. ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO{sub 3}-LDH particles exhibited highly sensitive and selective response to FA over other common metal ions and saccharides present in biological fluids. The proposed mechanism was that oxygen atoms of -SO{sub 3} groups in ANTS-anchored on the surface of Zn-Al-CO{sub 3}-LDH were easily collided by FA molecules to form potential hydrogen bonds between ANTS-anchored and FA molecules, which could effectively quench the ANTS-anchored fluorescence. Under the simulated physiological conditions (pH of 7.4), the fluorescence quenching was fitted to Stern-Volmer equation with a linear response in the concentration range of 1 μM to 200 μM with a limit of detection of 0.1 μM. The results indicate that ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO{sub 3}-LDH particles can afford a very sensitive system for the sensing FA in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A novel fluorescent nanosensor has been developed. • The sensor exhibited highly sensitive and selective response to FA. • The fluorescence quenching was fitted to Stern–Volmer equation. • The linear response range was 1–200 μM with a limit of detection of 0.1 μM.

  2. Design and fabrication of enhanced corrosion resistance Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films based anion-exchange mechanism on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Yan, Luchun; Ling, Hao; Diao, Yupeng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wang, Yanlin; Gao, Kewei

    2017-05-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with brucite-like layer structure and the facile exchangeability of intercalated anions had attracted tremendous interest in many fields because of their great importance for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Herein zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) films intercalated with nitrate anions on the magnesium alloy substrate were designed and fabricated via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method. In order to obtain better corrosion resistance, chloride and vanadate anions were intercalated into the LDHs interlayers via the anion-exchange reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to examine structure, composition and morphology of the Zn-Al-NO3 LDHs, Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VOx LDHs films. The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Al LDHs with different anion films was estimated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization curves measurements revealed that the magnesium alloy could be effectively protected by the Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VOx LDHs films due to the blocking effect of chloride anions and the control-release ability of vanadate anions.

  3. The influence of the UV irradiation intensity on photocatalytic activity of ZnAl layered double hydroxides and derived mixed oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadnađev-Kostić Milica S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs have been studied to a great extent as environmental-friendly complex materials that can be used as photocatalysts or photocatalyst supports. ZnAl layered double hydroxides and their derived mixed oxides were chosen for the investigation of photocatalytic performances in correlation with the UV intensities measured in the South Pannonia region. Low supersaturation coprecipitation method was used for the ZnAl LDH synthesis. For the characterization of LDH and thermal treated samples powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, nitrogen adsorption-desorption were used. The decomposition of azodye, methylene blue was chosen as photocatalytic test reaction. The study showed that the ZnAl mixed oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of ZnAl LDH has stable activity in the broader UV light irradiation range characterizing the selected region. Photocatalytic activity could be mainly attributed to the ZnO phase, detected both in LDH and thermally treated samples. The study showed that the ZnAl mixed oxide obtained by the calcination of ZnAl LDH has a stable activity within the measured UV light irradiation range; whereas the parent ZnAl LDH catalyst did not perform satisfactory when low UV irradiation intensity is implied.

  4. Destruction Mechanism of ZnAl4 as Cast Alloy Subjected to Cavitational Erosion Using Different Laboratory Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasionowski R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main reason of a cavitational destruction is the mechanical action of cavitation pulses onto the material’s surface. The course of cavitation destruction process is very complex and depends on the physicochemical and structural features of a material. A resistance to cavitation destruction of the material increases with the increase of its mechanical strength, fatigue resistance as well as hardness. Nevertheless, the effect of structural features on the material’s cavitational resistance has been not fully clarified. In the present paper, the cavitation destruction of ZnAl4 as cast alloy was investigated on three laboratory stands: vibration, jet-impact and flow stands. The destruction mechanism of ZnAl4 as cast alloy subjected to cavitational erosion using various laboratory stands is shown in the present paper.

  5. Guaranteed behaviour of shape memory alloys: after quench and long time effects in CuZnAl SMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isalgue, A.; Torra, V. [CIRG, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. Fisica Aplicada UPC

    2001-11-01

    The use of shape memory alloys (SMA) in critical ''high tech'' applications such as robotics and in continuous actuators needs an increased reliability and a guaranteed behaviour lasting several years. High resolution measurements enabled to quantify the time effects of aging near room temperature on the properties of CuZnAl SMA and to modelize the macroscopic behaviour. Some structural measurements showed small changes on the material structure. (orig.)

  6. Functional Characterization of Shape Memory CuZnAl Open-Cell Foams by Molten Metal Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, S.; Bassani, P.; Passaretti, F.; Redaelli, A.; Tuissi, A.

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years, the research for novel materials with tailored mechanical properties, as well as functional properties, has encouraged the study of porous and cellular materials. Our previous work proposed and reported about the possibility to manufacture open-cell metal foams of CuZnAl shape memory alloy by liquid infiltration in a leachable bed of silica-gel particles. This innovative methodology is based on cheap commercial consumables and a simple technology, focusing on intermediate-density low-cost foams with interesting cost/benefits ratio. Microstructural analyses on foamed specimens showed uniform microstructure of ligaments and a very regular and well reproducible open-cell morphology. Moreover, calorimetric analysis detected a thermo-elastic martensitic transformation in the foamed material. In this study, a CuZnAl shape memory alloy was considered and tested to clarify possible effects of the foaming process on the functional properties of the material. Morphological, calorimetric, and thermo-mechanical analyses were carried out. The results show that it is possible to produce metal foams of CuZnAl shape memory alloy with different functional properties and able to recover mono-axial compressive strains up to 3%.

  7. Effects of Surface Morphology of ZnAl2O4 Ceramic Materials on Osteoblastic Cells Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Suárez-Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic scaffolds are widely studied in the tissue engineering field due to their potential in medical applications as bone substitutes or as bone-filling materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surface morphology of nanostructure thin films of ZnAl2O4 prepared by spray pyrolysis and bulk pellets of polycrystalline ZnAl2O4 prepared by chemical coprecipitation reaction on the in vitro cell adhesion, viability, and cell-material interactions of osteoblastic cells. Our result showed that cell attachment was significantly enhanced from 60 to 80% on the ZnAl2O4 nanostructured material surface when compared with bulk ceramic surfaces. Moreover, our results showed that the balance of morphological properties of the thin film nanostructure ceramic improves cell-material interaction with enhanced spreading and filopodia with multiple cellular extensions on the surface of the ceramic and enhancing cell viability/proliferation in comparison with bulk ceramic surfaces used as control. Altogether, these results suggest that zinc aluminate nanostructured materials have a great potential to be used in dental implant and bone substitute applications.

  8. Síntesis y caracterización estructural de hidrotalcitas de Cu-Zn-Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Meza Fuentes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Las hidrotalcitas pueden ser usadas en áreas como catálisis, medicina, química ambiental, entre otras. Dependiendo de los metales presentes, los sólidos derivados de la calcinación de hidrotalcitas también son usados debido a su carácter básico, efecto de memoria y alta área superficial especifica. En este estudio se evaluaron características de hidrotalcitas a base de Cu-Zn-Al. Los análisis se realizaron usando AAS, DRX, FTIR, TGA y DSC. Se observó que, en los sólidos con mayor cantidad de cobre, la banda del estiramiento O••H (M••OH, H••OH se desplaza a valores más bajos de número de onda, debido a que la densidad electrónica de los grupos OH se orienta hacia el centro metálico de cobre. En todos los sólidos se observó la formación de la fase hidrotalcita, y de la fase Cu(OH2 en los sólidos con mayor contenido de cobre, lo que puede ser atribuido al efecto Jahn-Teller. Los resultados mostraron que los sólidos con mayor contenido de  cobre colapsan en temperaturas menores. En todas las muestras se observaron eventos como: descomposición de la estructura HTLc, formación de óxidos metálicos y descomposición de carbonatos que quedaron ocluidos en los poros de los sólidos debido al colapso de la estructura laminar.

  9. Influence of Li Addition to Zn-Al Alloys on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstrus, Janusz; Cempura, Grzegorz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    The spreading of Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.2 wt.% Li on Cu substrate has been studied using the sessile drop method in presence of QJ201 flux. Wetting tests were performed after 1 min, 3 min, 8 min, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of contact at temperatures of 475°C, 500°C, 525°C, and 550°C. Samples after spreading at 500°C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1 day, 10 days, and 30 days at temperature of 120°C, 170°C, and 250°C. The spreadability of eutectic Zn-5.3Al alloy with different Li contents on Cu substrate was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected solidified solder-substrate couples were, after spreading and aging tests, cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the interfacial microstructure. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Li addition on the kinetics of the formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) phases, during spreading and aging. The IMC layers formed at the interface were identified using XRD and EDS analyses. Increasing addition of Li to Zn-Al alloy caused a reduction in the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface during spreading, and an increase during aging. The activation energy was calculated, being found to increase for the Cu5Zn8 phase but decrease for the CuZn and CuZn4 phases with increasing Li content in the Zn-Al-Li alloys. The highest value of 142 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Zn-Al with 1.0 Li during spreading and 69.2 kJ mol-1 for Zn-Al with 0.05 Li during aging. Aging at 250°C caused an increase in only the Cu5Zn8 layer, which has the lowest Gibbs energy in the Cu-Zn system. This result is connected to the high diffusion of Cu from the substrate to the solder.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Fullerene modified ZnAlTi-LDO in photo-degradation of Bisphenol A under simulated visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Liting; Wu, Pingxiao; Lai, Xiaolin; Yang, Shanshan; Gong, Beini; Chen, Meiqing; Zhu, Nengwu

    2017-09-01

    In this study, ZnAlTi layered double hydroxide (ZnAlTi-LDH) combined with fullerene (C60) was fabricated by the urea method, and calcined under vacuum atmosphere to obtain nanocomposites of C60-modified ZnAlTi layered double oxide (ZnAlTi-LDO). The morphology, structure and composition of the nanocomposites were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy, High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared and specific surface area. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that the incorporation of C60 expanded the absorption of ZnAlTi-LDO to visible-light region. The photo-degradation experiment was conducted by using a series of C60 modified ZnAlTi-LDO with different C60 weight percentage to degrade Bisphenol A (BPA) under simulated visible light irradiation. In this experiment, the degradation rate of C60 modified ZnAlTi-LDO in photo-degradation of BPA under simulated visible light irradiation was over 80%. The intermediates formed in the degradation of BPA process by using LDO/C60-5% were 4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propanol, 4-isopropenylphenol and Phenol. Photogenerated holes, superoxide radical species, ·OH and singlet oxygen were considered to be responsible for the photodegradation process, among which superoxide radical species and ·OH played a predominant role in the photocatalytic reaction system. C60 modified ZnAlTi-LDO catalysts for photocatalytic reduction shows great potential in degradation of organic pollutants and environmental remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of the dye-sensitized solar cell designed by a series of mixed metal oxides based on ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yatong; Wang, Dali; Yang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Sha; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Hongdi; Hao, Xiaotao; Liu, Jianqiang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the anode materials for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were prepared by a facile calcination method using the ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) as a precursor. The ZnAl-LDHs with different molar ratios (Zn:Al = 2, 4, 6, 8) were prepared by the urea method and the mixed metal oxides (MMO) were prepared by calcining the LDHs at 500 °C. A series of cells were assembled by the corresponding MMOs and different dyes (N3 and N719). The basic parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, nitrogen sorption analysis and UV-Vis absorption spectrum. The photovoltaic performance of DSSCs was measured by electrochemical method. It could be seen that ZnAl molar ratios and different dyes had great influence on the efficiency of DSSC. The efficiency improved explicitly with increasing ZnAl molar ratio and the DSSC made of N3 showed better efficiency than that of N719. The best efficiency of N3 conditions reached 0.55% when the ratio of ZnAl-LDH precursor was 8:1.

  12. Synthesis and Enhanced Corrosion Protection Performance of Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheet/ZnAl Layered Double Hydroxide Composite Films by Hydrothermal Continuous Flow Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaohu; Yuan, Song; Pan, Xinyu; Zhang, Caixia; Du, Shuo; Liu, Yali

    2017-05-31

    Prevention of water, oxygen, and chloride ions contained in hydrotalcite interlayers from diffusing through the layered double hydroxides (LDH) is of crucial importance in corrosion protection. In this work, a hybrid composed of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets/Zn 2+ /Al 3+ layered double hydroxide (RGO/ZnAl-LDH) composite films on the surface of 6N01 aluminum (Al) alloy was successfully synthesized by a novel and facile hydrothermal continuous flow method, which enabled direct growth of the composite on the surface of the Al alloy substrate. The structure and morphology of the RGO/ZnAl-LDH composite films were fully characterized. Based on electrochemical measurements in a NaCl solution, the RGO/ZnAl-LDH composite film significantly enhanced the corrosion protection, as compared with the ZnAl-LDH film. The RGO/ZnAl-LDH composite film could maintain an outstanding corrosion resistance after 7 days immersion in a high concentration of NaCl solution (i.e., 5.0 wt %). The enhanced corrosion resistance was attributed to the barrier effect on diffusion of water, oxygen, and chloride ions by the RGO contained in the RGO/ZnAl-LDH composite films.

  13. One-pot synthesis of Cu/ZnO/ZnAl2O4 catalysts and their catalytic performance in glycerol hydrogenolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Hua

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a series of Cu/ZnO/ZnAl2O4 catalysts with different metal molar fractions (Cu:Zn:Al) were successfully prepared using a one-pot method via the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of Pluronic P123 and the corresponding metal precursors. The catalysts were characterized using N2 adsorption, H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The catalytic properties of the resulting Cu/ZnO/ZnAl2O4 with different molar fractions of metals were investigated for the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO). It was observed that the ZnAl2O 4 support exerts a strong positive effect on the catalytic activity of the copper-based catalysts, and the presence of ZnO further improves the catalytic activity of the Cu/ZnAl2O4 catalysts. The Cu/ZnO/ZnAl2O4 catalyst (Cu10Zn 30Al60, Cu/Zn/Al molar ratio is 10:30:60), which was the best catalyst, exhibited the highest yield (79%) of 1,2-PDO with 85.8% glycerol conversion and 92.1% 1,2-PDO selectivity at 180 °C reaction temperature in 80 wt% glycerol aqueous solution over 10 h reaction time. The high catalytic activity was attributed to the presence of the ZnAl2O4 support, the strong interaction between ZnO and Cu nanoparticles and the small particle size of ZnO and Cu. Moreover, the Cu/ZnO/ZnAl2O4 catalysts exhibited higher stability than Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/Al2O 3 catalysts prepared by a co-precipitation method during consecutive cycling experiments, which is due to the high chemical and thermal stability of crystalline ZnAl2O4 under harsh reaction conditions. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Calotropis procera mediated combustion synthesis of ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ nanophosphors: Structural and luminescence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, B. S.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Vidya, Y. S.; Anantharaju, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ nanophosphors were synthesized for the first time by a simple and environment friendly route using Calotropis procera milk latex as fuel. The structural and surface morphological studies were carried out using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ as a function of dopant concentration and calcination temperature was studied in detail. The PXRD patterns and Rietveld confinement confirmed the cubic crystal system with space group Fd-3m. The crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's and W-H plots was found to be in the range of 16-26 nm. The PL spectrum shows an intense peak at ∼688 and ∼699 nm assigned to spin - forbidden 2Eg → 4A2g transition of Cr3+ ions. The PL measurements for two excitations (∼410 and 527 nm) and with respect to calcination temperature indicated no significant change in the shape and position of emission peak except PL intensity. The CIE chromaticity coordinates lies well within the white region. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies revealed well resolved glow peak at ∼212 °C with a small shoulder at 188 and 233 °C. The glow peak intensity at ∼212 °C increases linearly with γ-dose which suggest ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ is suitable candidate for radiation dosimetric applications. The activation energy (E in eV), order of kinetics (b) and Frequency factor (s) were estimated using glow peak shape method.

  15. Calotropis procera mediated combustion synthesis of ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) nanophosphors: structural and luminescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, B S; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Vidya, Y S; Anantharaju, K S

    2015-02-05

    ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) nanophosphors were synthesized for the first time by a simple and environment friendly route using Calotropis procera milk latex as fuel. The structural and surface morphological studies were carried out using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) as a function of dopant concentration and calcination temperature was studied in detail. The PXRD patterns and Rietveld confinement confirmed the cubic crystal system with space group Fd-3m. The crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's and W-H plots was found to be in the range of 16-26 nm. The PL spectrum shows an intense peak at ∼688 and ∼699 nm assigned to spin-forbidden (2)Eg→(4)A2g transition of Cr(3+) ions. The PL measurements for two excitations (∼410 and 527 nm) and with respect to calcination temperature indicated no significant change in the shape and position of emission peak except PL intensity. The CIE chromaticity coordinates lies well within the white region. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies revealed well resolved glow peak at ∼212°C with a small shoulder at 188 and 233°C. The glow peak intensity at ∼212°C increases linearly with γ-dose which suggest ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) is suitable candidate for radiation dosimetric applications. The activation energy (E in eV), order of kinetics (b) and Frequency factor (s) were estimated using glow peak shape method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel ZnAl2O4:SiO2 Nano-composites for High Temperature Refractory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Gunjan; Balaramakrishna, P. V.

    2014-08-01

    High Temperature properties in nanocomposites have received significant attention in recent years due to its potential as an efficient refractory material. Nanoenabled spinel refractory products are finding widespread application owing to their enhanced temperature withstanding limits coupled with excellent abrasion resistance. Several synthesis techniques have been employed to develop these spinel nanopowders. Sol-Gel synthesis provides lower processing temperatures, control over purity, composition and easy introduction of doping elements. In this work an in-situ sol-gel route was adopted for preparation of novel nanocrytalline ZnAl2O4 dispersed in silica matrix. The gels of composition 5%ZnO-6%Al2O3- 89%SiO2 were developed by using tetraethyl ortho silicate, zinc nitrate, aluminium nitrate and ethyl alcohol as precursors. The transparent gels were converted to xero gel and subsequently to crystalline phase by controlled heat treatment. The structure and thermal behavior of these nanopowders was studied by utilizing various characterization techniques. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis were performed on the xero gel in inert argon atmosphere indicating the crystallization of spinel ZnAl2O4 and formation of oxide network. X-ray diffraction spectra were studied for samples heat treated at different temperatures in the range of 800 deg C to 1200 deg C confirming the formation of crystalline ZnAl2O4 phase. Fourier Transfer Infrared specta was recorded to understand the mechanism of development of glass from xero gel and the various bond-formations during the transformation. The morphology and crystallite size of nanocrystals were observed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The crystallite size measured by AFM was in the range 23 - 28 nm and the mean size calculated using Scherrer's equation was 29 nm. This approach may enable rapid and cost-efficient manufacturing of bulk refractory nanocomposites for supporting the industrial demands

  17. Prediction of hardness of the Zn-Al-Cu alloys of agreement by composition in weight; Prediccion de la dureza de la aleacion Zn-Al-Cu de acuerdo a su composicion en peso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas-Cardenas, Jose David; Camarillo-Villegas, Alejandra; Juanico-Loran, Antonio [Universidad Politecnica del Valle de Mexico, Tultitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mails: jdvc76@yahoo.com.mx; v_c_a_77@hotmail.com; ajuanico@yahoo.com.mx; Espinosa-Rojas, Raul [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco (Mexico)]. E-mail: rer21@hotmail.com; Camacho-Olguin, Carlos [Universidad Politecnica del Valle de Mexico, Tultitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: ccamacho@upvm.edu.mx

    2013-07-15

    Ten alloys Zn-Al-Cu were developed in two parts, in agreement to two zones presented in the isopleth diagrams (Villas et al., 1995). The percentage of Cu and Al was systematically varied. Subsequently, hardness measurements were performed. These measurements allowed establishing two equations that predict the hardness with an error lower than 5%. With these equations, it is possible to obtain alloys that replace Al base alloys by a Zn base alloy, having the same hardness. This implicates also the elimination of the volumetric change in the presence of e phase. [Spanish] Se desarrollaron diez aleaciones Zn-Al-Cu divididas en dos partes, de acuerdo a dos zonas presentadas en los diagramas isopleticos de Hans (Villas et al., 1995). Se incremento el porcentaje de Cu y Al paulatinamente. Posteriormente se desarrollaron pruebas de macrodureza y de ese analisis se obtuvieron dos ecuaciones que permiten pronosticar y disenar aleaciones de una dureza determinada de acuerdo a su porcentaje en peso de cada elemento, con un error menor que 5%. Como se demuestra en este trabajo, con estas ecuaciones es posible desarrollar aleaciones sustitutas base aluminio por una aleacion base zinc o viceversa, teniendo la misma dureza para cada tipo de aleacion y eliminando el problema del cambio volumetrico debido a la presencia de la fase e.

  18. Zn-Al LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE AS HOST MATERIAL FOR SUNSCREEN COMPOUND OF p-AMINOBENZOIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roto Roto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al layered double hydroxide can be used as host material for UV active compound p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, which is having capability to block UV light of sunlight. The formation of Zn-Al-PABA was best developed in which the nucleation process was done at room temperature and followed by hydrothermal treatment at 100 oC.   To make a better product, the molar ratio of Zn to Al to PABA was adjusted to 3:1:1. From the elemental analysis and the content of PABA, it was observed that the product has structural formula of Zn0,745Al0.254(OH1.650(PABA0.349. 0.684H2O. The particle size of the powder as estimated using SEM was in the range 100-200 nm. FTIR and XRD proved that the p-amino benzoate ion occupied the interlayer space. This material is expected to have high sun protection factor (SPF.   Keywords: layered double hydroxide, sunscreen, p-amino benzoic acid, nanoparticle

  19. Surface modification of ZnAl{sub 1.9}Eu{sub 0.05}O{sub 4} aiming to obtaining ZnAl{sub 1.9}Eu{sub 0.05}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} hybrid for use as a biosensor; Modificacao da superficie do ZnAl{sub 1.9}Eu{sub 0.05}O{sub 4} visando a obtencao do hibrido ZnAl{sub 1.9}Eu{sub 0.05}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} para aplicacao como biossensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, P.M.A.G.; Santos, P.T.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: pascally.guerra@gmail.com, E-mail: polyanaquimica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ana.costa@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Junior, S.A.; Viana, R. S., E-mail: salvesjr@ufpe.br, E-mail: rodrigosilva.viana@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of surface modification of ZnAl{sub 1.9}Eu{sub 0.05}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for obtaining hybrid ZnAl{sub 1.9}Eu{sub 0.05}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} for application as a biosensor. Initially ZnAl{sub 1.9}Eu{sub 0.05}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion reaction and, subsequently, their surfaces were modified with silane agent. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and excitation and emission spectroscopy. The results showed formation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the major phase. By SEM, hard agglomerates, irregularly shaped in the form of plaques, with the presence of few irregular and variables pores were observed. The surface modification was confirmed by FTIR through the silanol and siloxane groups. The excitation and emission spectra revealed the presence of a broadband of ZnAl{sub 2} O{sub 4} matrix, and fine and intense transitions from europium ion arising from doping of non-stoichiometric ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} with the europium. From the results of emission and excitation, it was observed that the luminescence of ZnAl{sub 1.9}Eu{sub 0.05}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} hybrid presented a small decrease in relation to the ZnAl{sub 1.9}Eu0.0{sub 5}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. This decrease was almost insignificant in relation to the benefits of silanization caused by the introduction of functional groups that promote combination of hybrid ZnAl{sub 1.9}Eu{sub 0.05}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} with biomolecules, being this promising for application as a biosensor used in the biomedical field for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. (author)

  20. ZnO/ZnAl2O4 Nanocomposite Films Studied by X-Ray Diffraction, FTIR, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iaiche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO/ZnAl2O4 nanocomposite films were synthesised by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP by extracting Al2O(SO42 oxide with zinc chloride hydrate in deionised water. The sample was then subjected to heat treatment at 650°C and 700°C for 1 h, which led to the formation of the spinel oxide (ZnAl2O4 and wurtzite (ZnO phases. Al2(SO43·18H2O salt was transformed into aluminum oxide sulfate Al2O(SO42, which is an intermediary decomposition product, by calcination at 795°C for 3 h. The structures of the synthesised ZnO/ZnAl2O4 films were confirmed by XRD, FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. XPS spectra of the major Zn, Al, and O photoelectron lines and the major X-ray induced Zn LMM Auger lines for ZnO/ZnAl2O4 are presented.

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2-impregnated with MgZnAl mixed oxides obtained from layered double hydroxides for phenol degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Marciano Fabiano; Bellato, Carlos Roberto; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Ferreira, Sukarno Olavo; Milagres, Jaderson Lopes; Miranda, Liany Divina Lima

    2015-12-01

    A series of TiO2/MgZnAl photocatalysts were successfully synthesized from ternary (Mg, Zn and Al) layered double hydroxides impregnated with TiO2 nanoparticles by the co-precipitation method at variable pH with different Zn2+/Mg2+ molar ratios. The composite photocatalysts were calcined at 500 °C resulting in the incorporation of oxide zinc, in the calcined MgZnAl LDH structure. Synergistic effect between ZnO and TiO2 lead to significant enhancement of TiO2/MgZnAl photocatalytic activity. Composite photocatalysts were characterized by ICP-MS, N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM, EDS, IR and UV-vis DRS. Phenol in aqueous solution (50 mg/L) was used as a model compound for evaluation of UV-vis (filter cut-off for λ > 300 nm) photocatalytic activity. The most efficient photocatalyst composite was obtained at a 5% Zn2+/Mg2+ molar ratio, in the catalyst identified as TiO2/MgZnAl-5. This composite catalyst had high photocatalytic activity, completely destroying phenol and removing 80% of total organic carbon in solution after 360 min. The TiO2/MgZnAl-5 catalyst remained relatively stable, presenting a 15% decrease in phenol degradation efficiency after five consecutive photocatalytic cycles.

  2. Synthesis of porous zinc aluminate spinel (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) by metal-chitosan complexation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringhini, Fabiane Marconato [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria (Brazil); Foletto, Edson Luiz, E-mail: efoletto@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria (Brazil); Sallet, Daniela; Bertuol, Daniel Assumpção [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria (Brazil); Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-970 Natal (Brazil); Nascimento, Claudio Augusto Oller do [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of São Paulo, 05424-970 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} with a spinel structure was prepared by metal-chitosan complexation method. • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel was obtained by the thermal decomposition of chitosan. • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} solid with porous structure and large surface area was obtained. -- Abstract: Zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) particles with a spinel structure were prepared by metal-chitosan complexation method. The solids were obtained by the thermal decomposition of precursor compound of metallic hydroxides mixture and the biopolymer chitosan. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N{sub 2}-adsorption–desorption isotherms were used for the characterization of the products. The results showed that the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel can be obtained by heating the precursor at temperatures above of 500 °C, resulting in a material with porous structure and large surface area and high purity.

  3. Development of Zn-Al-Cu coatings by hot dip coated technology: preparation and characterization; Obtencion y caracterizacion de recubrimientos Zn-Al-Cu por inmersion en caliente sobre aceros de bajo carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, J.; Barba, A.; Hernandez, M. A.; Salas, J.; Espinoza, J. L.; Denova, C.; Torres-Villasenor, G.; Conde, A.; Covelo, A.; Valdez, R.

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, research concerning Zn-Al-Cu coatings on low carbon steels has been conducted in order to characterize different properties obtained by a hot-dip coated process. The results include preparation procedure as well as the processing parameters of the coatings. The obtained coatings were subjected to a cold rolling process followed by an anneal heat treatment at different temperatures and under different time conditions. The structural characteristics of coatings have been investigated by optical and electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were obtained by using micro-hardness testing, deep drawing and wear tests whereas chemical analyses were carried out using the SEM/EDAX microprobe. The corrosion properties were achieved by using a salt spray fog chamber and potentiodynamic tests in a saline solution. The coatings are resistant to corrosion and wear in the presence of sodium chloride, therefore, the coatings could be an attractive alternative for application in coastal areas, and adequate wear adhesive resistance. (Author)

  4. Microstructure and calorimetric behavior of laser welded open cell foams in CuZnAl shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Previtali, Barbara; Tuissi, Ausonio

    Cellular shape memory alloys (SMAs) are very promising smart materials able to combine functional properties of the material with lightness, stiffness, and damping capacity of the cellular structure. Their processing with low modification of the material properties remains an open question. In this work, the laser weldability of CuZnAl SMA in the form of open cell foams was studied. The cellular structure was proved to be successfully welded in lap joint configuration by using a thin plate of the same alloy. Softening was seen in the welded bead in all the investigated ranges of process speed as well as a double stage heat affected zone was identified due to different microstructures; the martensitic transformation was shifted to higher temperatures and the corresponding peaks were sharper with respect to the base material due to the rapid solidification of the material. Anyways, no compositional variations were detected in the joints.

  5. Coordination mechanism, characterization, and photoluminescence properties of spinel ZnAl2O4 nanoparticles prepared by a modified polyacrylamide gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangzhuang; Sun, Guangai; Zhong, Mian; Wang, Shifa; Zu, Xiaotao; Xiang, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Single-phase ZnAl2O4 nanoparticles with the spinel structure were successfully synthesized using a modified polyacrylamide gel method according to the atomic ratio of Zn to Al = 1: 1.8. The as-prepared samples were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. XRD patterns show that the pure phase of ZnAl2O4 is obtained after heating the xerogel at 900°C for 5 h in air. The SEM images reveal that the ZnAl2O4 nanoparticles have a narrow particle size distribution and the average particle size is around 45 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra demonstrate the single phase ZnAl2O4 nanoparticles have an emission peak located at 469 nm when excited by 350 nm light. The phase structure, coordination mechanism, and luminescence properties have been discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  6. Synthesis and luminescence properties of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Sm) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Cho, Shin Ho [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphor powders were synthesized with different concentrations of activator ions by using the conventional solid-state reaction method. The effects of the concentration of activator ions on the structural, morphological, and luminescent properties of zinc aluminate phosphors were investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the phosphors synthesized with different concentrations of activator ions showed mixed phases of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, ZnO, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The crystallite size was estimated using the Scherrer formula, and the maximum size was obtained for 0.20 mol of Eu{sup 3+} ions. The emission spectra of of Eu{sup 3+}-doped ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphors under excitation at 303 nm exhibited one intense green band at approximately 520 nm and three weak bands centered at 590, 621, and 701 nm, respectively. The intensity of all the emission bands reached a maximum for 0.05 mol of Eu{sup 3+} ions. For the Sm{sup 3+}-doped ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphors, a broad emission band peak at 526 nm and several weak lines in the range 470 - 700 nm were observed. The results suggest that the luminescent intensity of the phosphors can be enhanced by controlling the amount of activator ions incorporated into the host lattice.

  7. Degradation of cationic red GTL by catalytic wet air oxidation over Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst under room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Li, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Xiang; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Xueye

    2012-03-06

    To overcome the drawback of catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) with high temperature and high pressure, the catalytic activity of Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst for degradation of cationic red GTL under room temperature and atmospheric pressure was investigated. Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst was prepared by coprecipitation and impregnation. XRD, TG-DTG, and XPS were used to characterize the resulting sample. Central composition design using response surface methodology was employed to optimize correlation of factors on the decolorization of cationic red GTL. The results show that the optimal conditions of pH value, initial concentration of dye and catalyst dosage were found to be 4.0, 85 mg/L and 2.72 g/L, respectively, for maximum decolorization of 80.1% and TOC removal of 50.9%. Furthermore, the reaction on the Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst and degradation mechanism of cationic red GTL was studied by Electron spin resonance (ESR) and GC-MS technique. The possible reaction mechanism was that the Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst can efficiently react with adsorbed oxygen/H(2)O to produce ·OH and (1)O(2) and finally induce the degradation of cationic red GTL. GC-MS analysis of the degradation products indicates that cationic red GTL was initiated by the cleavage of -N ═ N- and the intermediates were further oxidized by ·OH or (1)O(2).

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene over ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by different methods: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhu Zhengru; Zhao Qidong [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang Lianzhou, E-mail: l.wang@uq.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles could be synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. {yields} ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles show high efficiency (90.25%) in photocatalytic degradation of toluene. {yields} The toluene could be finally mineralized into carbon dioxide and water. - Abstract: The development of a 'green' treatment process for typical indoor pollutants such as toluene is greatly desirable. In this study, ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via three different routes, i.e., solvothermal, citrate precursor and hydrothermal methods. Their structural properties were systematically investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The photo-induced charge separation in the samples was demonstrated by surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement. The photocatalytic performances of the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples and nanostructured TiO{sub 2} samples were comparatively studied by the degradation of gaseous toluene under UV lamp irradiation in in situ FTIR reactor. The results indicated that the sample synthesized by facile solvothermal method exhibited about 90% photocatalytic efficiency of toluene. The toluene was mineralized into carbon dioxide and water as the major species. The photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous pollutant over UV-illuminated ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is a promising technique for air purification.

  9. Six-Year Evaluation of Thermal-Sprayed Coating of Zn/Al in Tropical Marine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Salas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of thermal-sprayed coating of Zn/Al (double layer after six years of exposure, with and without the use of sealant (wash primer in tropical marine environments of very high aggressiveness: La Voz Station (located at the Peninsula de Paraguaná/Falcón State and Lake Maracaibo Crossing Station (located at Zulia State, in Venezuela. To that effect, carbon steel coupons (100 mm × 150 mm × 2 mm were sprayed by flame process. The coupons were characterized by means of initial weight, thickness, metallographic, adherence, and roughness, being evaluated monthly by visual inspection during six years. After removal, the coupons were evaluated by microscopic analysis to determine the morphology of attack, microstructure, penetration of contaminants, composition, and morphology of corrosion products. The results showed that after six years, the double-layer system represents an excellent choice for corrosion protection of steel by combining the galvanic protection of zinc with the erosion resistance of aluminum. However, due to the erosion-corrosion effect, a sealant such as wash primer can be used in order to extend its service life.

  10. Defluoridation of water using as-synthesized Zn/Al/Cl anionic clay adsorbent: Equilibrium and regeneration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, S., E-mail: s.mandal@ncl.res.in [Chemical Engineering and Process Development Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India); Mayadevi, S. [Chemical Engineering and Process Development Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India)

    2009-08-15

    Zn/Al/Cl anionic clay has been synthesized by co-precipitation method and applied for adsorption of fluoride in aqueous medium. Equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Generalized isotherm equations. Thermodynamic parameters like {Delta}G and {Delta}H values show the feasibility and exothermic nature of the adsorption process. Influence of solution pH and presence of other anions on fluoride adsorption by the clay has also been studied. Presence of carbonate in water was found to have an adverse effect on fluoride adsorption by the clay. pH{sub pzc} of the clay has been found to be 8.97. A two-step 1st order kinetic model was used to explain the fluoride adsorption kinetics of the as-synthesized clay. It was possible to regenerate the adsorbent with an aqueous solution of 0.01 M NaOH and the effect of regeneration on fluoride adsorption was reported up to five regeneration cycles.

  11. Defluoridation of water using as-synthesized Zn/Al/Cl anionic clay adsorbent: equilibrium and regeneration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S; Mayadevi, S

    2009-08-15

    Zn/Al/Cl anionic clay has been synthesized by co-precipitation method and applied for adsorption of fluoride in aqueous medium. Equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Generalized isotherm equations. Thermodynamic parameters like DeltaG and DeltaH values show the feasibility and exothermic nature of the adsorption process. Influence of solution pH and presence of other anions on fluoride adsorption by the clay has also been studied. Presence of carbonate in water was found to have an adverse effect on fluoride adsorption by the clay. pH(pzc) of the clay has been found to be 8.97. A two-step 1st order kinetic model was used to explain the fluoride adsorption kinetics of the as-synthesized clay. It was possible to regenerate the adsorbent with an aqueous solution of 0.01 M NaOH and the effect of regeneration on fluoride adsorption was reported up to five regeneration cycles.

  12. Benzotriazole removal from water by Zn-Al-O binary metal oxide adsorbent: behavior, kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingbing; Wu, Fengchang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Liao, Haiqing

    2010-12-15

    In this study, a novel Zn-Al-O binary metal oxide adsorbent was prepared and used to remove the emerging polar contaminant benzotriazole from water. The adsorption behavior, kinetics and mechanism were systemically studied. Results showed that benzotriazole was rapidly and effectively adsorbed by the adsorbent. Instantaneous adsorption was observed under each studied condition, and the adsorption reached equilibrium within 30 min. High initial benzotriazole concentration enhanced the adsorption. The amount of absorbed benzotriazole increased with increasing adsorbent dosage, but decreased with increasing ionic strength. Solution pH had little effect on benzotriazole adsorption. The adsorption isotherm was consistent with S-type. Langmuir isotherm model fitted the equilibrium data better than Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models. The maximum monolayer adsorptive capacity of benzotriazole with and without electrolytes was 7.30 mg g(-1) and 9.51 mg g(-1), respectively. Elovich and pseudo-second-order models were most suitable for describing the adsorption kinetics. Interactions between the surface sites of the adsorbent and benzotriazole may be a combination of electrostatic interaction, ion exchange and hydrogen bond. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Catalytic steam reforming of volatiles released via pyrolysis of wood sawdust for hydrogen-rich gas production on Fe–Zn/Al2O3 nanocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, F; Wu, C; Dong, L; Jin, F; Williams, PT; Huang, J

    2015-01-01

    Thermo-chemical processing of biomass is a promising alternative to produce renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel or renewable syngas for a sustainable chemical industry. However, the fast deactivation of catalysts due to coke formation and sintering limits the application of catalytic thermo-chemical processing in the emerging bio-refining industry. In this research, Fe–Zn/Al2O3 nanocatalysts have been prepared for the production of hydrogen through pyrolysis catalytic reforming of wood sawdust...

  14. Evaluation of wrought Zn-Al alloys (1, 3, and 5 wt % Al) through mechanical and in vivo testing for stent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Patrick K; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Guillory, Roger J; Braykovich, Jacob P; Zhao, Shan; Goldman, Jeremy; Drelich, Jaroslaw W

    2017-01-27

    Special high grade zinc and wrought zinc-aluminum (Zn-Al) alloys containing up to 5.5 wt % Al were processed, characterized, and implanted in rats in search of a new family of alloys with possible applications as bioabsorbable endovascular stents. These materials retained roll-induced texture with an anisotropic distribution of the second-phase Al precipitates following hot-rolling, and changes in lattice parameters were observed with respect to Al content. Mechanical properties for the alloys fell roughly in line with strength (190-240 MPa yield strength; 220-300 MPa ultimate tensile strength) and elongation (15-30%) benchmarks, and favorable elastic ranges (0.19-0.27%) were observed. Intergranular corrosion was observed during residence of Zn-Al alloys in the murine aorta, suggesting a different corrosion mechanism than that of pure zinc. This mode of failure needs to be avoided for stent applications because the intergranular corrosion caused cracking and fragmentation of the implants, although the composition of corrosion products was roughly identical between non- and Al-containing materials. In spite of differences in corrosion mechanisms, the cross-sectional reduction of metals in murine aorta was nearly identical at 30-40% and 40-50% after 4.5 and 6 months, respectively, for pure Zn and Zn-Al alloys. Histopathological analysis and evaluation of arterial tissue compatibility around Zn-Al alloys failed to identify areas of necrosis, though both chronic and acute inflammatory indications were present. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Compressive Deformation Behavior of Open-Cell Cu-Zn-Al Alloy Foam Made Through P/M Route Using Mechanically Alloyed Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, Ajay Kumar; Mondal, D. P.; Kumar, Rajeev; Prasanth, N.; Dasgupta, R.

    2018-02-01

    Cu-Zn-Al foams of varying porosity fractions using mechanical alloyed powder have been made through powder metallurgy route. Here, NH4 (HCO3) was used as a space holder. Mechanically alloyed Cu-Zn-Al is made using a planetary ball mill taking the ratio of Cu/Zn/Al = 70:25:5 (by weight ratio). The ball/powder ratios were varied in the four ranges 10:1, 15:1, 20:1, and 25:1. Green compacts of milled powder and space holder samples were sintered at three stages at three different temperatures 350, 550, and 850 °C for 1 h at each stage. The crystalline size and particle size as a function of ball/powder ratios were examined. The compressive deformation responses of foams are varied with relative density and the ball/powder ratio. The plateau stress and energy absorption of these foams increase with an increase in relative density but decreases with increase in ball/powder ratio, even though crystalline size decreases. This has further been explained on the basis of particle morphology as a function of ball/powder ratio.

  16. Enhanced bonding property of cold-sprayed Zn-Al coating on interstitial-free steel substrate with a nanostructured surface layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Y.L. [University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei 230026 (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Advanced Technology Division, Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., 655 Fujin Road, Shanghai 201900 (China); Wang, Z.B., E-mail: zbwang@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, J. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, J.B. [Advanced Technology Division, Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., 655 Fujin Road, Shanghai 201900 (China); Lu, K. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A nanostructured surface layer was produced on hot-rolled interstitial-free steel. • Zn-Al coating was cold-sprayed on the steel plate with nanostructured surface layer. • Bonding strength of the coating on the nanostructured surface increases ∼30%. • Improved bonding property was due to promoted diffusion and hardness in surface layer. • No further increase in bonding property was achieved after annealing at 400 °C. - Abstract: By means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT), a gradient nanostructured surface layer was fabricated on a hot-rolled interstitial-free steel plate. A Zn-Al coating was subsequently deposited on the SMAT sample by using cold spray process. The bonding property of the coating on the SMAT substrate was compared with that on the coarse-grained (CG) sample. Stud-pull tests showed that the bonding strength in the as-sprayed SMAT sample is ∼30% higher than that in the as-sprayed CG sample. No further improvement in bonding strength was achieved in the coated SMAT sample after annealing at 400 °C, mostly due to the formation of cracks and intermetallic compounds at the coating/substrate interface in an earlier stage (<30 min) and in a final stage (>90 min), respectively. The enhanced bonding property of the Zn-Al coating on the SMAT sample might be related with the promoted atomic diffusion and hardness in the nanostructured surface layer.

  17. Phosgene-free synthesis of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate by the catalytic decomposition of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate over zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO{sub 4})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Da-Lei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Jun-Yin; Wen, Ru-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Deng, Jian-Ru [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Chao, Zi-Sheng, E-mail: zschao@yahoo.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of HDI via HDU decomposition over ZnAlPO{sub 4} heterogeneous catalyst. • Employment of self-designed reliable fixed bed reactor for HDU decomposition to HDI. • As high as 89.4% yield of HDI over ZnAlPO{sub 4} catalyst. • High stability and large ability for repeating usage of ZnAlPO{sub 4} catalyst. -- Abstract: The phosgene-free synthesis of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI) by the decomposition of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (HDU) was carried out on a self-designed fixed-bed catalytic reactor, using zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO{sub 4}) as catalyst, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as solvent and N{sub 2} as carrier gas. Factors influencing the yield of HDI, including the Zn/Al molar ratio, HDU concentration and liquid space velocity (LHSV), were investigated. Under the optimized reaction conditions, i.e., 4.8 wt.% concentration of HDU in DOP, 100 ml/min N{sub 2} flow rate, 0.09 MPa vacuum, 623 K reaction temperature, 1.2 h{sup −1} LHSV and catalyst usage 2.0 g, a 89.4% yield of HDI had been achieved over the ZnAlPO{sub 4} (molar ratio Zn/Al = 0.04) catalyst. The ZnAlPO{sub 4} catalyst was found to exhibit a considerable large on-stream stability and could be repeatedly used in the decomposition of HDU to HDI, after its regeneration.

  18. Modificação da superfície do ZnAl1,9Eu0,05O4 visando a obtenção do híbrido ZnAl1,9Eu0,05O4/SiO2 para aplicação como biossensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. A. G. Araújo

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a modificação de superfície do ZnAl1,9Eu0,05O4 visando a obtenção do híbrido ZnAl1,9Eu0,05O4/SiO2 para aplicação como biossensor. Inicialmente as nanopartículas de ZnAl1,9Eu0,05O4 foram sintetizadas por reação de combustão e, subsequentemente, as suas superfícies foram modificadas com o agente silano. As amostras foram caracterizadas por difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, espectroscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR e espectroscopia de excitação e de emissão. Os resultados evidenciaram a formação da fase majoritária do ZnAl2O4. Através de MEV observou-se a presença de aglomerados de aspecto duro, com formato irregular na forma de placas, com presença de poucos poros irregulares e variáveis. A modificação da superfície foi confirmada por FTIR através dos grupos silanóis e siloxanos. Os espectros de excitação e de emissão revelaram a presença de uma banda larga da matriz ZnAl2O4 e transições finas e intensas do íon európio provenientes da dopagem do óxido não estequiométrico ZnAl2O4 com o európio. Pelos resultados de emissão e excitação constatou-se que a luminescência do híbrido ZnAl1,9Eu0,05O4/SiO2 apresentou uma pequena diminuição em relação às nanopartículas de ZnAl1,9Eu0,05O4, sendo esta diminuição praticamente insignificante diante dos benefícios da silanização ocasionada pela introdução de grupos funcionais que promovem a conjugação do híbrido ZnAl1,9Eu0,05O4/SiO2 com biomoléculas, sendo este promissor para aplicação como biossensor aplicado na área biomédica para o diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças.

  19. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnAlQ{sub 5} (zinc aluminum quinolate) organic phosphor for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpure, I. M., E-mail: indrajitnagpure@gmail.com; Painuly, Deepshikha [Physics, Department of Sciences and Humanities, National Institute of Technology,Uttarakhand-246174 (India); Rabanal, Maria Eugenia [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering,University Carlos III of Madrid, Avd. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-06

    The various composition of ZnAlQ{sub 5} such as Zn{sub 1.5}A{sub 10.5}Q{sub 5}, Zn{sub 1}Al{sub 1}Q{sub 5}, Zn{sub 0.5}Al{sub 1.5}Q{sub 5} organic phosphors were prepared via simple cost effective co-precipitation method. The FTIR, SEM, photoluminescence analysis of the prepared phosphors were reported. ZnQ{sub 2} and AlQ{sub 3} were also prepared by similar method and their properties were compared with different composition of ZnAlQ{sub 5}. The structural elucidation in the form of stretching frequencies of chemical bonds of the prepared phosphor was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The stretching frequency analysis confirms the formation of prepared phosphor materials. The SEM analysis shows the surface morphological behavior of prepared phosphor materials. Greenish photoluminescence were observed at 505 to 510 nm for the different composition of ZnAlQ{sub 5},in which Zn{sub 1.5}Al{sub 0.5}Q{sub 5} shows maximum luminescence intensity at 505 nm. PL emission of ZnQ{sub 2} was observed at 515 nm, while for AlQ{sub 3} at 520 nm. The blue shift of 10 nm was observed in Zn{sub 1.5}A{sub 10.5}Q{sub 5} due to modification of energy level due to presence of Zn{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+}. The enhancement in PL intensity was observed in Zn{sub 1.5}A{sub 10.5}Q{sub 5} compared to the other composition due to transfer of energy between Zn{sup 2+} and quinolate complex. Optical properties of the prepared materials were evaluated for possible applications in organic light emitting devices (OLED).

  20. Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility properties of para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide and Zn/Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah,1 Mohamed E El Zowalaty,2,3 Palanisamy Arulselvan,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2,4 Thomas J Webster,5,6 Benjamin M Geilich,5 Mohd Zobir Hussein1 1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 6Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The treatment of tuberculosis by chemotherapy is complicated due to multiple drug prescriptions, long treatment duration, and adverse side effects. We report here for the first time an in vitro therapeutic effect of nanocomposites based on para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide (PAS-ZLH and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (PAS-Zn/Al LDH, against mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. The nanocomposites demonstrated good antimycobacterial activity and were found to be effective in killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A biocompatibility study revealed good biocompatibility of the PAS-ZLH nanocomposites against normal human MRC-5 lung cells. The para-aminosalicylic acid loading was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In summary, the present preliminary in vitro studies are highly encouraging for further in vivo studies of PAS-ZLH and PAS-Zn/Al LDH nanocomposites to treat tuberculosis.  Keywords: Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides, zinc layered hydroxides, tuberculosis, para

  1. Analysis of inelasticity in high-damping Zn - Al alloys, gray irons, and iron alloys with internal friction of a magnetomechanical nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, A. I.

    2012-09-01

    Results are presented from a comparative analysis of the main mechanisms of internal friction in high-damping alloys based on the Zn - Al system, cast iron with flaked graphite, and iron alloys that exhibit internal friction of a magnetomechanical nature. A study is made of the damping capacity of alloys Zn - 26% Al, SCh25, and Fe - 5% Cr - 3% Al and steel 45, which are typical representatives of the types of materials in question. Their set of physico-mechanical properties is determined with allowance for damping capacity.

  2. Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barahuie, Farahnaz [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hussein, Mohd Zobir, E-mail: mzobir@putra.upm.edu.my [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Arulselvan, Palanisamy [Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Fakurazi, Sharida [Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zainal, Zulkarnain [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-15

    A nano-structured drug-inorganic clay hybrid involving an active anticancer compound, which is chlorogenic acid (CA) intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide, has been assembled via ion-exchange and co-precipitation methods to form a nanohybrid CZAE (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using an ion-exchange method) and CZAC (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using a direct method), respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the CA-LDH had a hybrid structure in which the anionic chlorogenate is arranged between the interlayers as a horizontal monolayer at 90 and 20° angles from the x axis for CZAE and CZAC, respectively. Both nanohybrids have the properties of mesoporous materials. The high loading percentage of chlorogenic acid (approximately 43.2% for CZAE and 45.3% for CZAC) with basal spacings of 11.7 and 12.6 Å for CZAE and CZAC, respectively, corroborates the successful intercalation of chlorogenic acid into the interlayer gallery of layered double hydroxides. Free chlorogenic acid and the synthesised nanocomposites (CZAE, CZAC) were assessed for their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. The Fourier transform infrared data supported the formation of both nanohybrids, and a thermal analysis showed that the nanohybrids are more thermally stable than their counterparts. The chlorogenate shows a sustained release, and the release rate of chlorogenate from CZAE and CZAC nanohybrids at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8 due to their different release mechanisms. The release rate of chlorogenate from both nanohybrids can be described as pseudo-second order. The present investigation revealed the potential of the nanohybrids to enhance the in vitro anti-tumour effect of chlorogenic acid in liver and lung cancer cells in vitro. - Highlights: • We intercalated chlorogenic into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide by ion-exchange and coprecipitation methods. • The two methods gave nanocomposites

  3. Influence of the milling process on the structure and morphology of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and catalytic performance in the methyl transesterification reaction of soybean oil; Influencia do processo de moagem na estrutura e morfologia de ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} e no desempenho catalitico na reacao de transesterificacao metilica do oleo de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, A.C.; Dantas, B.B.; Santana, A.; Costa, A.C.M.F., E-mail: alexcaval2@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Costa, D.B. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of milling time over the structure and morphology of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, synthesized by combustion reaction, and study the effect of milled samples over the methyl transesterification reaction of soy bean oil. ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesizing, by means combustion reaction, using a electrical resistance plate. The powder was milled over 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes and the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph, particle size distribution and N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Milling process promoted changes over the agglomerate size and textural characteristics of the samples. Catalytic tests were conducted at 160 deg C, with 1% of catalyst, with molar ratio oil:methanol of 1:6 and reaction time of 1 hour. According the results, the sample milled over 30 minutes showed the highest conversion. (author)

  4. Lubrication performance and mechanisms of Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as lubricant additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 29 Xueyuan Road, Haidian Distract, Beijing 100083 (China); Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLBB), The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210-1142 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat, E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu [Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLBB), The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210-1142 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Mg/Al-, Zn/Al- and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide were synthesized. • Mg/Al-LDH had superior tribological performance compared to other LDHs. • The best thermal stability of Mg/Al-LDH was responsible for its friction property. - Abstract: Solid lubricant particles are commonly used as oil additives for low friction and wear. Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides (LDH) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The benefits of LDH nanoparticles are that they can be synthesized using chemical methods where size and shape can be controlled, and can be modified organically to allow dispersal in fluids. The LDH nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. A pin-on-disk friction and wear tester was used for evaluating the friction and wear properties of LDH nanoparticles as lubricant additives. LDH nanoparticles have friction-reducing and anti-wear properties compared to oil without LDHs. Mg/Al-LDH has the best lubrication, possibly due to better thermal stability in severe conditions.

  5. Lattice dynamics of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Moreno, S.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, P.; Munoz, A. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental II, MALTA Consolider Team, Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnologia Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna 38205, Tenerife (Spain); Romero, A.H. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro Libramiento Norponiente No 2000 Real de Juriquilla 76230 Queretaro, Qro (Mexico); Manjon, F.J. [Instituto de Diseno para la Fabricacion y Produccion Automatizada, MALTA Consolider Team, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Errandonea, D. [Fundacion General de la Universidad de Valencia ICMUV, MALTA Consolider Team, Edificio de Investigacion, C/Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Rusu, E.; Ursaki, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 2028 Chisinau (Moldova)

    2011-01-15

    In this work we present a first-principles density functional study of the vibrational properties of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} as function of hydrostatic pressure. Based on our previous structural characterization of these two compounds under pressure, herewith, we report the pressure dependence on both systems of the vibrational modes for the cubic spinel structure, for the CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-type structure (Pnma) in ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and for marokite (Pbcm) ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Additionally we report a second order phase transition in ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} from the marokite towards the CaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}-type structure (Cmcm), for which we also calculate the pressure dependence of the vibrational modes at the {gamma} point. Our calculations are complemented with Raman scattering measurements up to 12 GPa that show a good overall agreement between our calculated and measured mode frequencies. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. High-Temperature Active Soldering of SiC Particle-Reinforced Al-MMC Using a Novel ZnAlGaMgTi Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biqiang; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhang, Linjie; Xu, Tingting

    2017-10-01

    In order to broaden the application of SiC particle-reinforced aluminum matrix composite in electronics packaging, newly developed ZnAlGaMgTi filler with a low melting point of 418-441 °C was utilized as filler metal for active soldering of aluminum matrix composites (70 vol.%, SiCp/Al-MMCs) for the first time. The effect of loading pressure on joint properties of ZnAlGaMgTi active filler was investigated. The experimental results indicated that novel filler could successfully solder Al-MMCs, and the presence of Mg in the filler enhanced the penetration of Zn, while the forming of Zn-rich barrier layer influenced the active element MPD (melting point depressant) diffusion into parent composite, and the bulk-like (Mg-Si)-rich phase and Ti-containing phase were readily observed at the interface and bond seam. With the increase in loading pressure, the runout phenomenon appeared more significant, and the filler foil thickness and the Zn penetration depth varied pronouncedly. Sound joints with maximum shear strength of 29.6 MPa were produced at 480 °C at 1 MPa, and the crack occurred adjacent to the boundary of SiC particle and then propagated along the interface. A novel model describing the significant mutual diffusion of Al and Zn atoms between the parent material and solder was proposed.

  7. Effect of Zn Site for Ca Substitution on Optical and Microwave Dielectric Properties of ZnAl2O4 Thin Films by Sol Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nasarudin Wan Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CaxZn(1-xAl2O4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 thin films were prepared by a sol gel method. The XRD patterns displayed the characteristic peaks of (Ca/ZnAl2O4 with the standard pattern of face-centred cubic (fcc. The addition of Ca decreased the lattice constant from 14.6 nm to 23.2 nm. The optical bandgap of undoped thin film was found to be at 3.84 eV while for doped Ca was observed at 3.50 to 3.73 eV. The substitution of Zn2+ by Ca2+ in ZnAl2O4 thin films was found to increase the crystallite size, grain size, and surface morphology which evidently affect the density and dielectric constant. The CaxZn1-xAl2O4 thin films were characterized at 20 to 1 MHZ frequency to determine the dielectric constant εr and unloaded quality factor Qu using LCR spectrometer. It can be observed that specimen using Ca0.25Zn0.75Al2O4 possesses εr~10.41 and Qu~5770 which is suggested as a candidate material for millimetre-wave applications. Therefore, this ceramic is suggested as a candidate material for GPS patch antennas.

  8. Catalysis over zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4) of the methoxycarbonylation of 1,6-hexanediamine with dimethyl carbonate to form dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Da-Lei; Deng, Jian-Ru; Chao, Zi-Sheng

    2007-11-07

    The alkoxycarbonylation of diamines with dialkyl carbonates presents promising route for the synthesis of dicarbamates, one that is potentially 'greener' owing to the lack of a reliance on phosgene. While a few homogeneous catalysts have been reported, no heterogeneous catalyst could be found in the literature for use in the synthesis of dicarbamates from diamines and dialkyl carbonates. Because heterogeneous catalysts are more manageable than homogeneous catalysts as regards separation and recycling, in our study, we hydrothermally synthesized and used pure berlinite (AlPO4) and zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4) as heterogeneous catalysts in the production of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and XPS. Various influencing factors, such as the HDA/DMC molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio, were investigated systematically. The XRD characterization identified a berlinite structure associated with both the AlPO4 and ZnAlPO4 catalysts. The FT-IR result confirmed the incorporation of zinc into the berlinite framework for ZnAlPO4. The XPS measurement revealed that the zinc ions in the ZnAlPO4 structure possessed a higher binding energy than those in ZnO, and as a result, a greater electron-attracting ability. It was found that ZnAlPO4 catalyzed the formation of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from the methoxycarbonylation of HDA with DMC, while no activity was detected on using AlPO4. Under optimum reaction conditions (i.e. a DMC/HDA molar ratio of 8:1, reaction temperature of 349 K, reaction time of 8 h, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio of 5 (mg/mmol)), a yield of up to 92.5% of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (with almost 100% conversion of HDA) was obtained. Based on these results, a possible mechanism for the methoxycarbonylation over ZnAlPO4 was also proposed. As a heterogeneous catalyst ZnAlPO4 berlinite is highly active and

  9. Catalysis over zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 of the methoxycarbonylation of 1,6-hexanediamine with dimethyl carbonate to form dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Da-Lei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alkoxycarbonylation of diamines with dialkyl carbonates presents promising route for the synthesis of dicarbamates, one that is potentially 'greener' owing to the lack of a reliance on phosgene. While a few homogeneous catalysts have been reported, no heterogeneous catalyst could be found in the literature for use in the synthesis of dicarbamates from diamines and dialkyl carbonates. Because heterogeneous catalysts are more manageable than homogeneous catalysts as regards separation and recycling, in our study, we hydrothermally synthesized and used pure berlinite (AlPO4 and zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 as heterogeneous catalysts in the production of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA and dimethyl carbonate (DMC. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and XPS. Various influencing factors, such as the HDA/DMC molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio, were investigated systematically. Results The XRD characterization identified a berlinite structure associated with both the AlPO4 and ZnAlPO4 catalysts. The FT-IR result confirmed the incorporation of zinc into the berlinite framework for ZnAlPO4. The XPS measurement revealed that the zinc ions in the ZnAlPO4 structure possessed a higher binding energy than those in ZnO, and as a result, a greater electron-attracting ability. It was found that ZnAlPO4 catalyzed the formation of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from the methoxycarbonylation of HDA with DMC, while no activity was detected on using AlPO4. Under optimum reaction conditions (i.e. a DMC/HDA molar ratio of 8:1, reaction temperature of 349 K, reaction time of 8 h, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio of 5 (mg/mmol, a yield of up to 92.5% of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (with almost 100% conversion of HDA was obtained. Based on these results, a possible mechanism for the methoxycarbonylation over ZnAlPO4 was also proposed. Conclusion As a heterogeneous

  10. One-Pot Synthesis of Dialkyl Hexane-1,6-Dicarbamate from 1,6-Hexanediamine, Urea, and Alcohol over Zinc-Incorporated Berlinite (ZnAlPO4 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Lei Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dialkyl hexane-1,6-dicarbamate was synthesized, for the first time, by a one-pot reaction of 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA, urea, and alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol, in a self-designed batch reactor, using zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 as a catalyst. The yield of dibutyl hexane-1,6-dicarbamate (2 was systematically investigated as a function of Zn/Al molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst usage and urea/HDA/butanol molar ratio. Based on these studies, the optimized reaction conditions were as follows: molar ratio urea/HDA/butanol = 2.6:1:8.6, catalyst usage = 3.0 g, reaction temperature = 493 K, reaction time = 6 h and reaction pressure = 1.2 MPa; a yield of 2 of 89.7% was achieved over the ZnAlPO4 (molar ratio Zn/Al = 0.04 catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Additionally, based on these experimental results, it was also proposed that the catalysis recycle of the one-pot synthesis of 2 from urea, HDA, and butanol over the ZnAlPO4 catalyst.

  11. Formation of a mixed Fe(II)-Zn-Al layered hydroxide: Effects of Zn co-sorption on Fe(II) layered hydroxide formation and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starcher, Autumn N.; Elzinga, Evert J.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2017-08-01

    Previous research demonstrated the formation of single divalent metal (Co, Ni, and ZnAl) and mixed divalent metal (NiZnAl) layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases from reactions of the divalent metal with Al-bearing substrates and soils in both laboratory experiments and in the natural environment. Recently Fe(II)-Al-LDH phases have been found in laboratory batch reaction studies, and although they have yet to be found in the natural environment. Potential locations of Fe(II)-Al-LDH phases in nature include areas with suboxic and anoxic conditions. Because these areas can be environments of significant contaminant accumulation, it is important to understand the possible interactions and impacts of contaminant elements on LDH phase formation. One such contaminant, Zn, can also form as an LDH and has been found to form as a mixed divalent layered hydroxide phase. To understand how Zn impacts the formation of Fe(II)-Al-LDH phase formation and kinetics, 3 mM or 0.8 mM Fe(II) and 0.8 mM Zn were batch reacted with either 10 g/L pyrophyllite or 7.5 g/L γ-Al2O3 for up to three months under anoxic conditions. Aqueous samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and solid samples were analyzed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Shell-by-shell fits of Fe(II) and co-sorption samples with pyrophyllite show the formation of a mixed divalent metal (Fe(II)-Zn-Al) layered hydroxide phase, while Fe(II) and Zn co-sorption samples with γ-Al2O3 produce Fe(II)-Al-LDH phases and Zn in inner-sphere complexation with the γ-Al2O3. This study demonstrates the formation of a mixed divalent metal layered hydroxide and further iterates the importance of sorbent reactivity on LDH phase formation.

  12. Controlled release of a plant growth regulator, alpha-naphthaleneacetate from the lamella of Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Foo, Dickens Wong Vui

    2002-08-21

    Formation of the so-called organic-inorganic nanohybrid material was exploited for the preparation of a controlled release formulation. The inorganic Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was used as a matrix, hosting an active agent or a guest, alpha-naphthaleneacetate (NAA), a plant growth regulator by self-assembly technique. The reverse process, i.e., the deintercalation or release of the guest, NAA was found to be rapid initially, followed by a more sustained release thereafter and this behavior was dependent on the pH of the release medium, the aqueous solution. The mechanism of release has been interpreted on the basis of the ion-exchange process between the NAA anion intercalated in the lamella host and nitrate or hydroxyl anions in the aqueous solution.

  13. Simultaneous intercalation and release of 2,4-dichloro- and 4-chloro-phenoxy acetates into Zn/Al layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Matrod Bashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new nanohybrid compound was formed by the concurrent insertion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate (DPA used as herbicides and 4-chlorophenoxy acetate (CPA as plant growth regulator, the two guest anions into the interlamellar space of the host Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH using co-precipitation or spontaneous self-assembly method. Two different basal spacings of 2.54 and 1.97 nm were detected by PXRD of the nanohybrid accounting for the presence of two distinct intercalated phases. Direct insertion mass spectroscopy (DIMS analyses confirm that both anions are intercalated to give a biphasic well ordered nanohybrid material. The study of the release properties shows that both ions were released, but with different rates. This opens up the possibility of using such a biphasic nanohybrid for controlled release of more than one active anionic agent at different controlled rates.

  14. Avaliação catalítica dos espinélios ZnAl2O4 e ZnAl1,9Eu0,1O4 na transesterificação metílica do óleo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. A. Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da dopagem de európio na estrutura e na morfologia do espinélio ZnAl1,9Eu0,1O4 e seu desempenho como catalisador na transesterificação metílica do óleo de soja. Os pós do espinélio ZnAl1,9Eu0,1O4 foram sintetizados por meio da reação de combustão e caracterizados por difração de raios X (DRX, espectroscopia de absorção óptica na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e análise termogravimétrica. As reações de transesterificação foram conduzidas a 160 e 180 ºC, razão molar óleo/álcool 1:15, 2% de catalisador e tempo de reação 3 h. Os resultados das caracterizações por DRX e FTIR indicaram a fase espinélio do aluminato e duas bandas de absorção entre 450 e 700 cm-1, características da estrutura de espinélio. Os resultados das reações de transesterificação mostraram que a dopagem de ZnAl2O4 com 0,1 mol de európio favoreceu um aumento na conversão catalítica de 15,8% para 68,7%, indicando que os íons európio tornam o catalisador mais ativo. Aumentando a temperatura da reação de 120 para 180 ºC promoveu um aumento considerável na conversão catalítica de 18,4 para 68,7%, utilizando o catalisador dopado com európio. A conversão do catalisador reutilizado ZnAl1,9Eu0,1O4 mostrou uma redução em cerca de 31% quando foi utilizado pela terceira vez.

  15. Using Zn/Al layered double hydroxide as a novel solid-phase extraction adsorbent to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at trace levels in water samples prior to the determination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan-Long [Wuhan University of Technology, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan (China); Shandong Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory for Applied Technology of Sophisticated Analytical Instruments of Shandong Province, Analysis and Test Center, Jinan (China); Zhou, Jia-Bin [Wuhan University of Technology, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan (China); Zhao, Ru-Song; Chen, Xiang-Feng [Shandong Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory for Applied Technology of Sophisticated Analytical Instruments of Shandong Province, Analysis and Test Center, Jinan (China)

    2012-09-15

    This paper demonstrates, for the first time, the great potential of using Zn/Al layered double hydroxide intercalated sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (Zn/Al-SDBS-LDH) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) material in the extraction of persistent organic pollutants prior to the determination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in environmental water samples. Zn/Al-SDBS-LDH, a relatively inexpensive and simply prepared material, was synthesized and used as a SPE adsorbent to quantitatively determine the concentration of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. Factors affecting extraction efficiency, such as, eluent type, eluent volume, flow rate of sample, sample volume, and amount of adsorbent, were investigated and optimized in detail. Experimental results indicate that there is an excellent linear relationship between peak area and the concentration of PAHs over the range of 5-500 ng L{sup -1}, and the precisions (relative standard deviation (RSD)) were 2.5-6.3 % under the optimum conditions. Based on the ratio of chromatographic signal-to-base line noise (S/N = 3), the limits of detection could reach 1.2-3.2 ng L{sup -1}. This novel method was successfully applied to the analysis of PAHs in environmental water samples. As such, we show here that the use of Zn/Al-SDBS-LDH as SPE adsorbent materials, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, is an excellent improvement in the routine analysis of PAHs at trace levels in the environment. (orig.)

  16. Effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:1.5% Pb{sup 2+} nanocrystals synthesized via sol-gel reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloung, S.V., E-mail: setumo.motloung@smu.co.za [Department of Physics, Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, P. O. Box 94, Medunsa, 0204 (South Africa); Tsega, M.; Dejene, F.B. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba, 9866 (South Africa); Swart, H.C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300 (South Africa); Koao, L.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba, 9866 (South Africa); Motaung, T.E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Guldengracht st & East Arterial Road, Richards Bay, 3900 (South Africa); Hato, M.J. [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical and Mineral Sciences, University of Limpopo (Turfloop), Private Bag X1106, Polokwane, Sovenga, 0727 (South Africa)

    2016-08-25

    Lead-doped zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:1.5% Pb{sup 2+}) spinel nanocrystals powders were prepared by the citric assisted sol-gel process. The effects of annealing temperature (AT) at a fixed dopant concentration on the structure, morphology and optical properties of the powders were investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the minimum annealing temperature required to obtain single phase ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} must be above 400 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results suggest that heat treating destroys some of the bonds. From the XRD results, it was observed that the required structure started to grow at the AT of 500 °C. With an increase in AT > 500 °C the structure transformed to single phase of cubic ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel. The crystallinity increases upon further rise of AT to 800 °C. On heating at 600–800 °C, the powders had the average crystallite sizes of around 18–22 nm. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of the expected elements (Zn, Al, O and Pb). The morphology of the prepared phosphor were influenced by the AT. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the prepared powders are in the nano-scale range. The band gap of the sample annealed at 800 °C were estimated to be 3.2 eV. The emission position and intensity of the phosphor was dependent on the AT. Emissions arising from both the host and Pb{sup 2+} ion were observed. Emission wavelength of the prepared phosphors can be tuned by varying the AT. The results suggest that ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:1.5% Pb{sup 2+} is a promising candidate for blue-light emitting phosphor. - Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:1.5% Pb{sup 2+} nanocrystals have been synthesized via sol-gel process. • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:1.5% Pb{sup 2+} cubic spinel started to develop at 500 °C. • Emission of the phosphor highly depends on the annealing temperature (AT). • Photoluminescence emission originated from the host

  17. Obtención y caracterización de recubrimientos Zn-Al-Cu por inmersión en caliente sobre aceros de bajo carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes, J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, research concerning Zn-Al-Cu coatings on low carbon steels has been conducted in order to characterize different properties obtained by a hot-dip coated process. The results include preparation procedure as well as the processing parameters of the coatings. The obtained coatings were subjected to a cold rolling process followed by an anneal heat treatment at different temperatures and under different time conditions. The structural characteristics of coatings have been investigated by optical and electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were obtained by using micro-hardness testing, deep drawing and wear tests whereas chemical analyses were carried out using the SEM/EDAX microprobe. The corrosion properties were achieved by using a salt spray fog chamber and potentiodynamic tests in a saline solution. The coatings are resistant to corrosion and wear in the presence of sodium chloride, therefore, the coatings could be an attractive alternative for application in coastal areas, and adequate wear adhesive resistance.El presente estudio describe los trabajos desarrollados para generar y caracterizar recubrimientos de aleaciones Zn-Al-Cu sobre aceros de bajo carbono, mediante tecnología de inmersión en caliente. Los trabajos incluyen la determinación del proceso de preparación y la definición de los parámetros que permiten obtener el recubrimiento. Los recubrimientos obtenidos fueron sometidos a procesos de laminación en frío y a tratamientos de recocido en diferentes temperaturas y a diversos tiempos. Las piezas se caracterizaron empleando técnicas de microscopía óptica y electrónica, ensayos de microdureza, análisis químico puntual mediante microsonda, ensayos de embutido, ensayos de desgaste y de corrosión en solución de cloruro de sodio, empleando técnicas electroquímicas. Los recubrimientos muestran resistencia a la corrosión y al desgaste en presencia de cloruro de sodio, por lo que constituyen una

  18. Comparative study of Mg/Al- and Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide-perindopril erbumine nanocomposites for inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein Al Ali, Samer Hasan; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2012-01-01

    The intercalation of a drug active, perindopril, into Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide for the formation of a new nanocomposite, PMAE, was accomplished using a simple ion exchange technique. A relatively high loading percentage of perindopril of about 36.5% (w/w) indicates that intercalation of the active took place in the Mg/Al inorganic interlayer. Intercalation was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis shows markedly enhanced thermal stability of the active. The release of perindopril from the nanocomposite occurred in a controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity effects from either Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide or its nanocomposite, PMAE. Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, with 5.6% inhibition after 90 minutes of incubation. On incubation of angiotensin-converting enzyme with 0.5 μg/mL of the PMAE nanocomposite, inhibition of the enzyme increased from 56.6% to 70.6% at 30 and 90 minutes, respectively. These results are comparable with data reported in the literature for Zn/Al-perindopril.

  19. Multi-minimum adiabatic potential in the single crystal normal spinel ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, doped by Cu{sup 2+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalov, V A; Zhitlukhina, E S; Lamonova, K V; Orel, S M; Pashkevich, Yu G [A A Galkin Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering of NASU, 83114, Donetsk (Ukraine); Shapovalov, V V; Rafailovich, M [Garcia Center for Polymers at Engineered Interfaces, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Schwarz, S A [Department of Physics, Queens College of the City University of New York, NY 11367 (United States); Jahoda, R; Reidy, V J, E-mail: lamonova@fti.dn.u [Bronx High School of Science, NY 10468 (United States)

    2010-06-23

    Spectroscopic investigations of a ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel doped with bivalent copper ions of 0.05% concentration have been carried out in the temperature range 4.2-290 K using a 3 cm{sup -1} range electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer having an operational frequency f = (9.241 {+-} 0.001) GHz. The spectrum can be represented as a superposition of two components: a low-temperature (LT) and a high-temperature (HT) one. Redistribution of integrated intensity between HT and LT components of the spectra occurs with temperature change that is typical of systems with multi-minimum adiabatic potential. Spectra observed are explained within the modified theory of crystalline field (MTCF). The electron levels of a Cu{sup 2+} ion placed in an octahedral coordination center with trigonal distortion [CuO{sub 6}]{sup 10-} have been calculated. The influence of possible types of oxygen octahedron distortions and possible displacement of copper ions from the symmetry center on the electron spectrum, as well as the shape of the adiabatic potential, has been analyzed. It is shown that in the low-temperature phase the multiple minima of the adiabatic potential occur due to tetragonal distortions while the depth of a minimum is determined by the degree of trigonal octahedron distortions. Tetragonal distortion values and multi-minimum potential barrier heights have been determined.

  20. Systematic study of the elastic properties of Mn{sub 3}AC antiperovskite with A = Zn, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge and Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medkour, Y.; Roumili, A. [Laboratoire d' Etudes des Surfaces et Interfaces des Materiaux Solides (LESIMS), Universite de Setif (Algeria); Maouche, D., E-mail: djmaouche@yahoo.fr [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterizations, University of Setif (Algeria); Saoudi, A.; Louail, L. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterizations, University of Setif (Algeria)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal elastic constants C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44} were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elastic moduli for polycrystalline aggregate were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the atomic number of A element reduces B, G Prime , Y and v. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn{sub 3}AlC has a high melting point and light weight. - Abstract: First principle calculations were made to investigate the elastic properties of Mn{sub 3}AC antiperovskites, A = Zn, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge and Sn. The estimated equilibrium lattice parameters are in agreement with the experimental ones. From the single crystal elastic constants we have calculated the polycrystalline elastic moduli: the bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, tetragonal shear modulus G Prime , Young's modulus Y, Cauchy's pressure CP, Poisson's ratio v, elastic anisotropy factor and Pugh's criterion G/B. Using Debye's approximation we have deduced the elastic wave velocities and Debye's temperature.

  1. In Vitro Inhibition of Histamine Release Behavior of Cetirizine Intercalated into Zn/Al- and Mg/Al-Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazrul Hakim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The intercalation of cetirizine into two types of layered double hydroxides, Zn/Al and Mg/Al, has been investigated by the ion exchange method to form CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites, respectively. The basal spacing of the nanocomposites were expanded to 31.9 Å for CTZAN and 31.2 Å for CTMAN, suggesting that cetirizine anion was intercalated into Layered double hydroxides (LDHs and arranged in a tilted bilayer fashion. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR study supported the formation of both the nanocomposites, and the intercalated cetirizine is thermally more stable than its counterpart in free state. The loading of cetirizine in the nanocomposite was estimated to be about 57.2% for CTZAN and 60.7% CTMAN. The cetirizine release from the nanocomposites show sustained release manner and the release rate of cetirizine from CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8, presumably due to the different release mechanism. The inhibition of histamine release from RBL2H3 cells by the free cetirizine is higher than the intercalated cetirizine both in CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites. The viability in human Chang liver cells at 1000 μg/mL for CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites are 74.5 and 91.9%, respectively.

  2. APLIKASI PENGOLAHAN POLUTAN ANION KHROM(VI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN AGEN PENUKAR ION HYDROTALCIT ZN-AI-SO4 (Synthesis of and its Application to Treat Chrom(VI Pollutant Using Hydrotalcite Zn-Al_SO4 as Anion Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roto Roto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Keberadaan logam khrom di dalam sistem perairan bersifat polutan yang harus ditangani dengan baik, dan untuk khrom (Vl yang sering dijumpai dalam bentuk anion dapat diolah dengan menggunakan mekanisme pertukaran ion. Suatu agen penukar anion telah dibuat berupa senyawa hidrotalsit Zn-Al-SOa melalui proses sintesis, karakterisasi serta dilakukan pula pengujian aplikasinya untuk pengurangan polutant anion khrom (VI dalam bentuk ion dikromat. Sintesis hidrotalsit Zn-Al-SOa dilakukan dengan metode stoikiometri pada pH 8 dan perlakuan hidrotermal. Aplikasi pertukaran dikromat dengan anion sulfat dalam antar lapis hidrotalsit serta uji regenerasi bahan diamati dengan bantuan analisis struktur dan analisis kinetika reaksi pertukaran. Produk pertukaran ion dikarakterisasi dengan XRD, spektrofotometri IR dan spektrometri serapan atom. Rumus kimia hidrotalsit produk diketahui adalah Zn0,74Al0,26(OH1,74(SO40,13.0,52H2O. Anion dikromat dapat menukar sulfat dalam antarlapis hidrotalsit yang ditunjukkan dalam spektra IR dan pola XRD. Kapasitas pertukaran anion untuk dikromat diketahui 216,84 mek/100 g, sedangkan kinetika reaksi pertukaran ion mengikuti orde dua dengan k = 3 x 10-8 ppm-1.detik-1. Hasil menunjukkan Zn-Al-Cr2O7 dapat mudah diregenerasi.    ABSTRACT  Chrom as pollutant in aquatics system usually establishes as crom (VI and should be worked with special treatment and as an example is ion exchanger. Material Zn-Al-SO4 hydrotalcite product have been synthesized and its application as anion exchanger for dichromate have been studied. Synthesis of Zn-Al-SO4 hydrotalcite was carried out by stoichiometric method at pH 8 and hydrothermal treatment. Sulphate in hydrotalcite interlayer was exchanged by dichromate. Kinetics of ion exchange was also investigated. The product of ion exchange was characterized by XRD, IR spectrophotometry and atomic adsorption  spectrometry. The chemical formula of the  hydrotalcite is Zn0.74Al0.26(OH1.74(SO4 0

  3. Effect of the container in the synthesis of the combustion reaction of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}; Efeito do tipo de reciente na sintese por reacao de combustao do ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.A.R.; Cavalcanti, L.R.C.; Moura, A.L.S.; Rocha, M.L.; Neto, O.L.A.; Cabral, I.C.; Viana, K.M.S., E-mail: kalineviana@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    In the present work is a study on the influence of the container in the synthesis of the combustion reaction ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Products of combustion obtained for both synthesis routes, were broken and sieved in 325 mesh (44μm). The powders resulting from two types of synthesis were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. By means of XRD analysis showed the formation of the main phase of zinc aluminate spinel (Z) as phase the mineral guanine in the two procedures synthesis. By means of SEM analysis showed that in the procedure used the crucible metal zinc aluminate is introduced in the form of smaller agglomerates. Therefore, the container used in the synthesis of combustion influences the microstructure of the material synthesized. (author)

  4. Effect of the bismuth content on the interface reactions between copper substrate and Sn-Zn-Al-Bi lead-free solder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of environmental and health concerns, some alternative solder alloys, named lead-free ones, are being developed. Among them, the Sn-Zn-Al system has been studied and reveals promising properties. In this work the presence of bismuth, in the range of 0-8 wt%, was evaluated in what concerns to the chemical interactions between solder/substrate and the equilibrium phases present at the interface. The phases formed at the interface between the copper substrate and a molten lead-free solder were studied with different time of stage and alloy compositions. The effect of bismuth content on transformation temperatures of a Sn-9Zn-1Al base alloy was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. For each alloy the solidification range was determined, which is an important characteristic regarding the application of these materials in the electronic industry. Identification of equilibrium phases and their chemical composition evaluation was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS. The interface thickness and chemical composition profiles were also evaluated.

    Debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y sanitarias, se están desarrollando aleaciones alternativas para soldadura sin plomo. Entre ellas se ha estudiado el sistema Sn-Zn-Al, que revela propiedades prometedoras. En este trabajo se evalúa la presencia de bismuto, en el rango de 0 a 8 % en peso, en relación con las interacciones químicas entre soldadura y substrato y con las fases de equilibrio presentes en la superficie de contacto. Se han estudiado las fases formadas en la superficie de contacto entre el substrato de cobre y una soldadura fundida sin plomo en función del tiempo de mantenimiento y de la composición de la aleación. Se ha evaluado el efecto del contenido en bismuto sobre las temperaturas de transformación de una aleación de base Sn-9Zn-1Al mediante Calorimetría de Barrido Diferencial (DSC. Se ha determinado el rango de solidificación para cada

  5. High-temperature segmented thermoelectric oxide module using p-type Ca3Co4O9 and n-type ZnAlO/CaMn0.95Nb0.05O3 legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo; Jeffrey Snyder, G.

    temperatures up to 1200 K, where most the conventional TE materials based on alloys are often degraded over the time. In this report, oxide TE materials of p­type Ca3Co4O9, n­types ZnAlO, and CaMn0.95Nb0.05O3 were used to fabricate high temperature TE segmented modules. These oxide materials were prepared....... In these calculations, the power generation characteristics were investigated in terms of various n-­leg selections (ZnAlO, CaMn0.95Nb0.05O3, and segmented ZnAlO/CaMn0.95Nb0.05O3), while the p-leg Ca3Co4O9 was fixed. Based on the model predication, several modules were fabricated, tested, and compared again...... with the theoretical calculations. The obtained results are discussed in details and also compared with other reported oxide modules....

  6. Electronic structure and band gap of zinc spinel oxides beyond LDA: ZnAl2O4, ZnGa2O4 and ZnIn2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, H.; Tandon, N.; Cottenier, S.; Saniz, R.; Lamoen, D.; Partoens, B.; Van Speybroeck, V.; Waroquier, M.

    2011-06-01

    We examine the electronic structure of the family of ternary zinc spinel oxides ZnX2O4 (X=Al, Ga and In). The band gap of ZnAl2O4 calculated using density functional theory (DFT) is 4.25 eV and is overestimated compared with the experimental value of 3.8-3.9 eV. The DFT band gap of ZnGa2O4 is 2.82 eV and is underestimated compared with the experimental value of 4.4-5.0 eV. Since DFT typically underestimates the band gap in the oxide system, the experimental measurements for ZnAl2O4 probably require a correction. We use two first-principles techniques capable of describing accurately the excited states of semiconductors, namely the GW approximation and the modified Becke-Johnson (MBJ) potential approximation, to calculate the band gap of ZnX2O4. The GW and MBJ band gaps are in good agreement with each other. In the case of ZnAl2O4, the predicted band gap values are >6 eV, i.e. ~2 eV larger than the only reported experimental value. We expect future experimental work to confirm our results. Our calculations of the electron effective masses and the second band gap indicate that these compounds are very good candidates to act as transparent conducting host materials.

  7. Modification the Oxalic Co-precipitation Method on a Novel Catalyst Cu/Zn/Al2O3/Cr2O3 for Autothermal Reforming Reaction of Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng- Hsin Kuo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the catalytic performance of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3/Cr2O3 in low-temperature of autothermal reforming (ATR reaction. Various operating conditions were used to decide the optimum reaction conditions: type of promoter (ZrO2, CeO2, and Cr2O3, precipitation temperature, precipitation pH, operation temperature, molar ratio of O2/CH3OH (O/C, and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV. The catalysts were prepared using the oxalic coprecipitation method. Characterization of the catalyst was conducted using a porosity analyzer, XRD, and SEM. The methanol conversion and volumetric percentage of hydrogen using the best catalyst (Cu/ZnO/Al2O3/Cr2O3 exceeded 93% and 43%, respectively. A catalyst prepared by precipitation at -5 oC and at pH of 1 converted methanol to 40% H2 and less than 3000 ppm CO at reaction temperature of 200 oC. The size and dispersion of copper and the degradation rate and turnover frequency of the catalyst was also calculated. Deactivation of the Cu catalyst at a reaction temperature of 200 oC occurred after 30 h. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 8th May 2013; Revised: 10th August 2013; Accepted: 18th August 2013[How to Cite: Cheng, H.K., Lesmana, D., Wu, H.S. (2013. Modification the Oxalic Co-precipitation Method on a Novel Catalyst Cu/Zn/Al2O3/Cr2O3 for Autothermal Reforming Reaction of Methanol. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (2: 110-124. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4844.110-124][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4844.110-124

  8. Fabrication of a novel NiFe2O4/Zn-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with EDTA composite and its adsorption behavior for Cr(VI) from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin; Shi, Zhou; Wang, Li; Zhou, Shiqing

    2017-05-01

    A novel magnetic NiFe2O4/Zn-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with EDTA composite (NiFe2O4/ZnAl-EDTA LDH) was prepared through modified coprecipitation method and employed for adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The adsorbents were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Factors affecting the Cr(VI) adsorption, such as initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, temperature and coexisting ions, were studied systematically. Experiments results show that the magnetic NiFe2O4/ZnAl-EDTA LDH exhibits high adsorption efficiency within a wide pH range of 3.0-7.0 (R>80% at Cr(VI) concentration 50 mg L-1, contact time 360 min, and adsorbent dosage 2 g/L) and quick separation property. The adsorption process is fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum theoretical adsorption capacity is found to be 77.22 mg g-1 at pH 6.0 and 318 K. The positive ΔH value (2.907 kJ mol-1) and negative ΔG value (-4.722 kJ mol-1) at 298-318 K reveals that the adsorption process is feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Coexisting anions (PO43-, SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, and NO3-) have no significant effect on Cr(VI) removal. The mechanism study indicates that the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto NiFe2O4/ZnAl-EDTA LDH mainly involves electrostatic attraction and ion exchange interaction. It is interesting to note that a proportion of Cr(VI) adsorbed on the adsorbent surface are reduced to Cr(III) during the adsorption process. Results from this study demonstrate the potential utility of the magnetic NiFe2O4/ZnAl-EDTA LDH that could be developed into a viable technology for efficient removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution.

  9. Síntese de hidróxidos duplos lamelares do sistema Cu, Zn, Al-CO3: propriedades morfológicas, estruturais e comportamento térmico Synthesis of layered double hydroxides of the Cu, Zn, Al-CO3 system: morphological and structural properties and thermal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hidrotalcitas são argilas aniônicas, também conhecidas como Hidróxidos Duplos Lamelares (HDLs e possuem estrutura semelhante ao mineral brucita. Os HDLs do sistema Cu, Zn, Al-CO3 foram sintetizados em condições que favorecem a formação de cristais pequenos e de elevada área superficial. A caracterização foi feita por difração de raios X, análise termogravimétrica, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A síntese foi feita pelo método de coprecipitação em pH variável, utilizando sulfatos de cobre e zinco, soluções de alumínio e solução de hidróxido sódio. Os difratogramas de raios X mostram que os compostos sintetizados possuem alta cristalinidade; a intensidade e a largura dos picos comprovam que os materiais se apresentam bem organizados e com empilhamento das lamelas. Os espectros de infravermelho apresentaram bandas associadas ao ânion carbonato presente na região interlamelar dos HDLs.Hydrotalcite-like compounds are anionic clays, also known as layered double hydroxides (LDH, which have structure similar to brucite mineral. The LDHs of the system Cu, Zn, Al-CO3 were synthesized under conditions to promote the formation of small crystals with high surface area. The characterization was done by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis were based on the co-precipitation method, under different conditions (hydrothermal bath, titration time using copper and zinc sulfate, aluminum and sodium hydroxide solutions. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that synthesized compounds have high crystallinity, the peak intensities show that they are well organized and stacked with the lamellae. The infrared spectrum shows bands associated with carbonate anion in the interlayer region.

  10. Radiative energy transfer in ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:0.1% Ce{sup 3+}, x% Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphor synthesized by sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloung, S.V., E-mail: motloungsv@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, F.B. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Kroon, R.E.; Swart, H.C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) hosts and 0.1% Ce{sup 3+}, x% Eu{sup 3+} co-activated ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphor were successfully prepared at a relatively low temperature (~80 °C) using the sol–gel method. The co-activator (Eu{sup 3+}) concentration was varied in the range of 0≤x≤2 mol%, while the 0.1% Ce{sup 3+} was kept constant. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data revealed that all annealed samples consisted of the pure cubic ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure. The estimated crystallite size was in the range of 18–21 nm in diameter. The results showed that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) increased with the increase in Eu{sup 3+} mol%, which suggested a decrease in particle size. The nanopowder microstructure revealed that the material consisted of non-uniform sizes and the loss of lattice fringes as the Eu{sup 3+} concentration was increased suggested the increase in strain or disorder. The photoluminescence (PL) results showed that the host, activated and co-activated nanophosphor emitted at different wavelengths. The peak shifts suggested that the luminescence might originate either from the defects in the host, Ce{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} ions. The incorporation of the co-activator (Eu{sup 3+}) at higher concentration resulted in radiative energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+}. The CIE colour coordinates showed a shift from the blue to orange region as the Eu{sup 3+} concentration was increased.

  11. Fabrication of ZnAl2O4 from corresponding metals nitrate in the co-existence of natural SiO2 and it application as adsorben of mercury nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Agus Martono Hadi; Salprima Yudha, S.; Adfa, Morina; Suharto, Totok Eka; Mardlia, Zulfikri Achid

    2017-03-01

    In situ fabrication of ZnAl2O4 from precursorof zinc nitrate and andaluminium nitrate aqueous solutions was carried out in a rice husk's SiO2 suspension. The reaction's mixture was heated at 100 °C in open air under stirring and the solvent was evaporated to form white gel. The gel was cooled to room temperature and a solid material was obtained, subsequently heated at 1100 °C for 5 hours. The obtained material was applied as adsorbent for mercury ions at room temperature

  12. Catalisadores cerâmicos de ZnAl2-xFe xO4: síntese de pós nanométricos e sua caracterização ZnAl2-xFe xO4 ceramic catalysts: synthesis and characterization of nanosize powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. T. Lula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos têm-se observado um crescente interesse na redução catalítica direta de SOx para enxofre elementar por vários agentes redutores tais como CO, metano ou gases sintéticos. Os óxidos metálicos mistos são uma importante classe de materiais catalíticos mundialmente investigados em diferentes campos de aplicações. Nesse contexto este trabalho tem como objetivo a sintetização por reação de combustão e a caracterização de catalisadores ZnAl2-xFe xO4, x = 0,0/0,75/1,0/1,25/1,5/1,75. Os pós resultantes foram caracterizados por medidas de densidade, área superficial por adsorção gasosa pelo método BET, difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostram que foi possível obter pós monofásicos com tamanho de partículas nanométrico. O aumento da substituição dos íons de Al3+ por Fe3+ provocou uma elevação da área superficial e consequentemente uma diminuição do tamanho de partícula (82,74 - 30,94 nm. Desta forma os catalisadores com maior teor de Fe3+ são adequados para atuar na redução de gases de emissão provenientes da indústria petrolífera.In recent years, increasing interest has focused on direct catalytic SOx reduction of elementary sulfur by several reducing agents such as CO, methane and synthetic gases. Mixed metallic oxides are an important class of catalytic materials investigated worldwide for application in a variety of fields. In this context, this work focused on the synthesis by combustion reaction and characterization of ZnAl2-X Fe xO4 catalysts, x = 0.0, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75. The resulting powders were characterized by their density and surface area measured by BET, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Our findings indicate that single phase powders comprised of nanosized particles were obtained. Increasing the amount of Fe3+ ions replacing Al3+ ions caused the surface area to increase, thereby reducing the particle size (82

  13. Doping effect on the structural properties of Cu{sub 1−x}(Ni, Zn, Al and Fe){sub x}O samples (0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, J.B. [Faculdade Estácio de Sergipe, 49020-530 Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Araujo, R.M. [Coordenação de Química, IPISE/PIC, Faculdade Pio Décimo, 49095-000 Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Pedra, P.P. [CETEC, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Meneses, C.T.; Duque, J.G.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Rezende, M.V. dos S, E-mail: mvsrezende@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, the effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu{sub 1−x}TM{sub x}O samples (0Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu{sub 1−x}TM{sub x}O samples (0

  14. First-principles study of the high-pressure phase transition in ZnAl2O4 and ZnGa2O4 : From cubic spinel to orthorhombic post-spinel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sinhué; Romero, A. H.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.

    2009-06-01

    In this work we present a first-principles density functional study of the electronic, vibrational, and structural properties of ZnGa2O4 and ZnAl2O4 spinel structures. Here we focus our study in the evolution of the structural properties under hydrostatic pressure. Our results show that ZnGa2O4 under pressure has a first-order phase transition to the marokite (CaMn2O4) structure, which is in good agreement with recent angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments. We also report a similar study for the ZnAl2O4 spinel; we found that this compound under pressure has a first-order phase transition to the orthorhombic CaFe2O4 -type structure. Our results in both compounds support, under nonhydrostatic condition, the possibility of a second-order phase transition from the cubic spinel to the tetragonal spinel as reported experimentally in ZnGa2O4 .

  15. A photochemical proposal for the preparation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films from β-diketonate complex precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabello, G., E-mail: gerardocabelloguzman@hotmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán (Chile); Lillo, L.; Caro, C.; Seguel, M.; Sandoval, C. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán (Chile); Buono-Core, G.E. [Instituto de Química, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso (Chile); Chornik, B.; Flores, M. [Deparamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8370415 (Chile)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were prepared by photo-chemical method. • The Zn(II), Mg(II) and Al(III) β-diketonate complexes were used as precursors. • The photochemical reaction was monitored by UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. • The results reveal spinel oxide formation and the generation of intermediate products. - Abstract: ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were grown on Si(100) and quartz plate substrates using a photochemical method in the solid phase with thin films of β-diketonate complexes as the precursors. The films were deposited by spin-coating and subsequently photolyzed at room temperature using 254 nm UV light. The photolysis of these films results in the deposition of metal oxide thin films and fragmentation of the ligands from the coordination sphere of the complexes. The obtained samples were post-annealed at different temperatures (350–1100 °C) for 2 h and characterized by FT-Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force miscroscopy (AFM), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The results indicate the formation of spinel-type structures and other phases. These characteristics determined the quality of the films, which were obtained from the photodeposition of ternary metal oxides.

  16. The Effect of Annealing Time on the Structural and Optical Properties of ZnAl2O4:0.01% Cr3+ Nanophosphor Prepared via the Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motloung, S. V.; Motloung, S. J.; Swart, H. C.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.

    2018-01-01

    Zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) host and 0.01% Cr3+ doped were successfully prepared using the sol-gel method. The annealing time (AT) was varied in the range of 0.5-19 h. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the AT does not affect the crystal structure of the prepared powders. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the morphology of the prepared nanophosphors was influenced by the AT. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the homogeneous distribution of the constituent elements. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggested that the average crystallites sizes of the ZnAl2O4 to be 20 nm. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy results revealed that the bandgap ( E g) of the prepared nanophosphor can be tuned by varying the AT. The emission peak at 390 nm is attributed to the intrinsic defects within the host material bandgap. The emission peak at 572 nm is attributed to both contribution from the host and Cr3+ (4T1 → 4A2) transition. The maximum PL intensity was observed from the samples annealed for 3 h. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) chromaticity diagram showed a slight shift on the blue emission with an increase in AT.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of the NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels by the polymeric precursors method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, L., E-mail: lucianna@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Federal University of Campina Grande, Department of Engineering of Materials, Av. Aprigio Veloso 882, 58.109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Ribeiro, M.A. [Federal University of Campina Grande, Department of Engineering of Materials, Av. Aprigio Veloso 882, 58.109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Barros, B.S. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Department of Chemistry, 59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Kiminami, R.H.A. [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Department of Materials Engineering, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Weber, I.T. [Federal University of Pernambuco, Department of Fundamental Chemistry, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Costa, A.C.F.M. [Federal University of Campina Grande, Department of Engineering of Materials, Av. Aprigio Veloso 882, 58.109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2009-08-26

    The spinels constitute an important group of materials with great technological appeal, being able to be applied as pigments, refractory, catalysts and electronic ceramics. In this paper, we reported the preparation of nanocrystalline NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases by Pechini method. This method employs the dissolution of cations precursors in a citric acid aqueous solution. Due to the high chemical homogeneity, cation segregation during thermal decomposition is minimal. The resulting powders were characterized by XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption curves (BET curves) and SEM. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the synthesis is efficient to produce single-phased NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders and the crystallite sizes were 12, 34 and 20 nm, respectively. The micrographs show the formation of soft agglomerates with irregular morphology constituted by the superposition of the quite fine particles.

  18. Nickel catalyst supported on magnesium and zinc aluminates (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinels for dry reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, L.C.B. de; Melo, D.M. de A.; Melo, M.A. de F.; Barros, J.M. de F.; Braga, R.M.; Costa, C. de C.; Rodrigues, G., E-mail: ieda.garcia@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (LACOM/UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2017-01-15

    Materials such as MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} assessed in the reaction of dry reforming of methane to produce syngas were synthesized by microwave-assisted combustion method using urea as fuel. Samples of synthesized oxides were calcined at 800 °C for 2 h and impregnated with 5% nickel. The impregnated samples were calcined at 850 °C for 4 h to obtain the desired phases. The results of the catalytic tests showed that the catalysts are active for the reaction of dry reforming of methane, and the catalyst that showed the best performance for methane conversion was 5% Ni/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} calcined at 850 °C/4 h. (author)

  19. On the excitation spectra of Cr{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 2+} and V{sup 3+} co-doped ZnAl{sub 2}S{sub 4} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghel, S., E-mail: anggell@gmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, Academiei Str 5, Chis,inău MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Anorganische Chemie III, Universitätsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Brik, M.G. [College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14 C, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Ma, C.-G. [College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Sushkevich, K. [State University of Moldova, Mateevici Str 60, Chis,inău MD-2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Kulyuk, L. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academiei Str 5, Chis,inău MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The excitation spectra of the ZnAl{sub 2}S{sub 4} spinel crystals codoped with chromium and vanadium are investigated in order to explain some features of the Cr{sup 3+} ions optical spectra and the inconsistency of the experimental absorption/emission bands position with the Tanabe–Sugano diagram, as well as the “missing” band in the absorption spectrum of V{sup 3+} ion although this band should be present as it is due to a spin allowed transition. The unusual high Racah parameters of the C/B ratio for Cr{sup 3+} ions have been induced to recalculate the Tanabe–Sugano diagram for the d{sup 3} electron configuration and the ratio C/B=8 in order to use it for the experimental results interpretation. The presence of Cr{sup 2+} ions in the low spin electron configurations in the octahedral coordination was confirmed; the temperature dependence of the Cr{sup 2+} emission at about 1.9 eV was studied and the Huang–Rhys factors were estimated for different temperatures. Despite the fact that the V{sup 3+}C/B ratio has a different value compared to the case of Cr{sup 3+} ions, the electron–phonon interaction is similar for both ions, with the Huang–Rhys parameter equal to 10 in both cases. Further research into optimizing the ZnAl{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Cr, V system to get an efficient enhancement of the vanadium emission on account on re-absorbing the chromium emission is suggested. - Highlights: • The spectroscopic properties of Cr and V codoped α-ZnAI{sub 2}S{sub 4} have been investigated. • The crystal field calculations have been performed. • The Huang–Rhys factors have been estimated for different temperatures. • The theoretical calculations have been correlated with the excitation spectra.

  20. Study of irradiation damages in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels in the framework of nuclear waste transmutation; Dommages d'irradiation dans des ceramiques de structure spinelle MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} et ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} application a la transmutation des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet-Dodane, C

    2002-07-01

    The transmutation of minor actinides in-reactor is one solution currently being studied for the long time management of nuclear waste. In the heterogeneous concept the radionuclides are incorporating in an inert ceramic matrix. The support material must be insensitive to radiation damage. Fission product damage is the main radiation damage source during the transmutation process and therefore it is of the utmost importance to study their effects. We irradiated spinels MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (matrix of reference) and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} by fast ions (by example: {sup 86}Kr of approximately 400 MeV) simulating the fission products. Under these conditions, the damage is primarily due to the electronic energy losses (S{sub e}). One of the structural features of spinel AB{sub 2}O{sub 4} is that the two cations (A{sup 2+} and B{sup 3+}) can exchange their site. This phenomenon is quantified by the inversion parameter. We highlight by XRD in grazing incidence that the structural changes observed in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} correspond to an order-disorder transition from the cation sub-networks and not to a phase shift as described in the literature. Using other techniques characterizing the space group (Raman spectroscopy) as well as the local order (NMR 27Al, spectroscopy of absorption X with the thresholds K of Al and Zn), we confirm this interpretation. Moreover, for a fluence of 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}, the loss of the order at long distance is observed thus meaning a beginning of amorphization of material. The ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel presents the same behaviour. For this last spinel, an evolution of the inversion parameter according to the stopping power 2 was highlighted after irradiation by ions {sup 86}Kr from approximately 20 MeV. We illustrate our study by the analysis of the results obtained in XRD of an irradiation out of composite fuel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} + UO{sub 2}) called THERMHET. (authors)

  1. Structural relaxation and colour in the spinel-magnesiochromite (MgAl2O4-MgCr2O4) and gahnite-zincochromite (ZnAl2O4-ZnCr2O4) solid solution series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hålenius, U.; Andreozzi, G. B.; Skogby, H.

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies on binary mineral solid solution series utilising synchrotron based x-ray absorption spectroscopies have indicated strong structural relaxation. For instance, it has been suggested that the real Cr-O bond distances remain nearly constant (relaxation parameter (ɛ) of 0.85, where ɛ=1 equals full relaxation) over the entire compositional range of the MgAl2O4-MgCr2O4 series (Juhin et al. 2007). In the present study we have measured room temperature optical absorption spectra of synthetic single crystals of the ZnAl2-2xCr2xO4 (0.03?x?1) and MgAl2-2xCr2xO4(0.02?x?1) series with the aim to explore the real architecture of the structure and in particular the Cr-O distance as function of composition. Our crystals were synthesized by means of flux-growth methods under atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles resulting in an estimated cation ordering temperature of ca 850 °C. Crystals close to the spinel (sensu stricto) and gahnite end-member compositions were faintly red in colour. With increasing Cr-content the crystals become more intensely red-coloured and at the higher Cr-contents there is a distinct shift towards a dark greenish colouration. These colour changes are reflected in the measured optical spectra by the position and intensity of the two spin-allowed electronic d-d transitions in octahedrally coordinated Cr3+ at ca 18000 (4A2g -4T2g (4F) transition) and 25000 cm-1(4A2g -4T1g (4F) transition). The energy of the first transition (?1-band) is ca 1200 cm-1 lower in magnesiochromite than in weakly Cr-doped spinel (x=0.02) and ca 1400 cm-1 lower in zincochromite than in gahnite with the lowest Cr-content (x=0.03). Concomitantly the energy of the second transition (?2-band) decreases with increasing Cr-content in both series by ca. 1800 cm-1. From the position of the ?1-band, a decrease in crystal field splitting, 10Dq, for six-coordinated Cr3+ with increasing Cr-content in the MgAl2-2xCr2xO4 and ZnAl2-2xCr2xO4 series of 6.5 and 7

  2. The Effect of Single, Binary and Ternary Anions of Chloride, Carbonate and Phosphate on the Release of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate Intercalated into the Zn-Al-layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Jaafar, Adila Mohamad; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2009-08-04

    Intercalation of beneficial anion into inorganic host has lead to an opportunity to synthesize various combinations of new organic-inorganic nanohybrids with various potential applications; especially, for the controlled release formulation and storage purposes. Investigation on the release behavior of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) intercalated into the interlayer of Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAN) have been carried out using single, binary and ternary aqueous systems of chloride, carbonate and phosphate. The release behavior of the active agent 2,4-D from its double-layered hydroxide nanohybrid ZANDI was found to be of controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. It was found that carbonate medium yielded the highest accumulated release of 2,4-D, while phosphate in combination with carbonate and/or nitrate speeds up the release rate of 2,4-D. These results indicate that it is possible to design and develop new delivery system of latex stimulant compound with controlled release property based on 2,4-D that is known as a substance to increase latex production of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis.

  3. Optimisation d'une nanotechnologie liée à la post combustion automobile : étude par EXAFS, RMN & DRX de catalyseurs industriels Zn/Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, D.; Revel, R.; Klur, I.; Pourpoint, A.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we report a structural characterisation of an industrial catalyst conducted through the combined use of different characterisation techniques i.e. ^{27}Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electronic Microscopy (HRTEM). The usual characterisation techniques help to restrict the problem but do not precisely show the structure of the supported system "Zn"/Al2O3. For example, ^{27}Al NMR shows the occupation of tetrahedral site by zinc through a modification of the occupation of tetrahedral and octahedral site by aluminium atoms. Unfortunately this technique is not able to determine the size of the zinc based metal oxide cluster. A more appropriate technique, such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy is thus necessary. In fact, we show that only the complete set of data leads to major information regarding the cation distribution as well as the electronic state of the metal atoms. Nous présentons une étude de matériaux nanodivisés industriels initiée à l'aide de techniques de caractérisation classiques (Microscopie électronique haute résolution, Résonance Magnétique Nucléaire, Diffraction des rayons X) et affinée par une technique spécifique au rayonnement synchrotron, la spectroscopie d'absorption X. Le catalyseur industriel est obtenu par dispersion à l'échelle atomique d'atomes de zinc à la surface d'une yc alumine de grande surface spécifique (> 200m^2/g). Le fait qu'une similarité structurale existe entre le support et le composé défini obtenu par insertion du cation dans la matrice rend quasi-inopérante la DRX classique. La RMN de l'aluminium par contre constitue une technique de choix puisque l'occupation par le zinc de sites tétraédriques se traduit par l'occupation plus conséquente de sites octaédriques par l'aluminium. Néanmoins, la taille des cristallites de "ZnAl2O4", les possibilités d'inversion (limitées ici car le zinc occupe préférentiellement les sites t

  4. Investigations of zero-field splitting (ZFS) and local distortion parameters of Fe3+ ions doped into three oxi-spinels (ZnAl2O4, MgAl2O4, and ZnGa2O4) by theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkgöz, Muhammed

    2011-08-01

    The local environment around the paramagnetic centers formed by the Fe(3+) ions doped into three oxi-spinel crystals (ZnAl(2)O(4), MgAl(2)O(4), and ZnGa(2)O(4)) is investigated utilizing the fourth-order perturbation formula of the axial zero-field splitting parameter D on the basis of the dominant spin-orbit coupling mechanism. In order to fix a plausible cubic space group for B-sites located by Al(3+)/Ga(3+) cations, several modeling approaches are used and the results are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Zn/citric acid mole fraction on the structure and luminescence properties of the un-doped and 1.5% Pb{sup 2+} doped ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders synthesized by citrate sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloung, S.V., E-mail: motloungsv@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, F.B. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, H.C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Un-doped and 1.5% Pb{sup 2+}doped zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was successfully prepared at a relatively low temperature (~80 °C) using the sol–gel process. The Zn/citric acid (CA) mole fraction was varied from 0.083 to 1.3. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data revealed that most of the annealed samples consist of the cubic ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure with ZnO impurities. The surface morphology of the phosphors was influenced by the Zn/CA mole fractions. The increase in the CA content lead to the morphological evolution and transformation from small particles to rods-like-needles. The nanopowder samples exhibited violet luminescence that varied from 400 to 410 nm, which suggested that the CA content affected the bandgap energy of the host. The results suggest that the emission originated either from the host, Pb{sup 2+} or ZnO impurities. Emission at 400 nm is attributed to the oxygen vacancies (V{sub 0}{sup *}) in the host and emission peak at 410 nm is attributed to the intrinsic defects emission of ZnO, while the emission at 552 nm is attributed to the second order emission of the excitation wavelength. The emission intensity was influenced by the Zn/CA mole fractions. The CIE colour coordinates of all samples are close to each other in the blue region. Two distinct peaks were observed at around 160 and 385 °C in thermo luminescence (TL) glow curve, which indicates that there are two set of traps. - Highlights: • Un-doped and 1.5% Pb{sup 2+}doped zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was successfully prepared at a relatively low temperature (~80 °C) using the sol–gel process. • The increase in the catalyst content lead to the morphological evolution from small particles to rods-like-needles. • The catalyst content affected the band gap energy of the host. • Results showed that the emission can only arise from the host and ZnO impurities. • CIE colour coordinates of all samples is situated in the blue region of the chart.

  6. Fusion and characterization of a Cu-Zn-Al-Ni alloy of nuclear interest; Fusion y caracterizacion de una aleacion Cu-Zn-Al-Ni de interes nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora R, L.; Arenas A, J.A.; Santana M, J.S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The first part of the work was made in the Melting Laboratory where an ingot of each alloy was obtained under the same conditions. When having the ingots physically, the following thing consisted, in using different techniques for their characterization in the laboratories of Metallography, Scanning Electron Microscopy, (Sem), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and that of mechanical assays. (Author)

  7. The growth of artificial voids during superplastic deformation of a Zn-Al-Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, C.H.; Lescano, D.E. (Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina))

    1990-09-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on samples of Zn-22wt.%Al-0.5wt.%Cu alloy at 523 K, at low and intermediate strain rates, with either one or three drilled holes. Similar tests were run for polystyrene, to compare the alloy with a Newtonian viscous material. At low strains and the higher strain rate, the alloy was less sensitive to the presence of the holes than the polymer was. The results are analysed following a modified Hart model of tensile stability, including the effect of hardening due to the grain growth. The instability points, i.e. first when the voids start to grow and then when they start to grow more rapidly in the alloy than in the polymer, are predicted accurately. The main effect of grain growth hardening is to delay the onset of accelerated void growth. From the point of view of microcavitation, the latter implies that the transition between diffusion and plasticity-controlled growth may be delayed. (orig.).

  8. Development of heat resistant Mg-Zn-Al-Ca-RE diecasting alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokan, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Nozawa, S.; Anyanwu, I.A.; Kamado, S.; Kojima, Y. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan); Takeda, S.; Ishida, T. [Ahresty Corp., Magnesium Products Mfg. Div. (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Diecast Mg-0.5{proportional_to}1%Zn-4{proportional_to}6%Al-1{proportional_to}2%Ca-1{proportional_to}3%RE alloys are evaluated in order to determine the influence of each alloying element on the casting characteristics and heat resistance of the alloys. The result shows that creep properties improve with a decrease in the amount of Zn and Al contents. However, high Al and Zn additions increase the fluidity of the alloys. Ca addition leads to the formation of an Al-Ca compound along the grain boundaries, and this helps to improve creep properties. However, the presence of large quantities of such compounds along the grain boundaries deteriorates the fluidity of the alloys and leads to hot cracking during diecasting. The creep properties of some of the investigated alloys are far superior to those of conventional heat resistant AE42 magnesium alloy. Furthermore, the diecasting characteristics of the new alloys are comparable to those of the best diecasting magnesium alloy, AZ91D, but their creep resistance is far superior to that of AZ91D alloy. (orig.)

  9. Mineralogy of C-S-H belite hydrates incorporating Zn-Al-Ti layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the belitic cements with low alite content were the subject of several research works which aimed to replace the Ordinary Portland Clinker (OPC for ecological reasons (reduction of CO2 emissions, so to understand the reactivity of this cement, the hydration study of the C2S “dicalcium silicate” phase is primordial research step. As well for a clean environment, the TiO2 photocatalyst has been extensively applied in the science of building materials because of its ability to degrade the cement surface pollutants. New photocatalyst based layered double hydroxides (LDH associated with zinc, aluminium and TiO2 was introduced to increase the compatibility with mortars. The present work is subjected to investigate the effect of the layered double hydroxides on the hydration of C2S in following the evolution of hydration by X-ray diffraction at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days and analyzing the calcium/silicon ratio of different formed hydrates.

  10. Cu-Zn-Al2O3 nanocomposites: study of microstructure, corrosion, and wear properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghani, Mohammad; Aliofkhazraei, Mahmood; Askari, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    Alumina nanoparticles were added to a Cu-Zn alloy to investigate their effect on the microstructural, tribological, and corrosion properties of the prepared alloys. Alloying was performed using a mixture of copper and zinc powders with 0vol% and 5vol% of α-Al nanopowder in a satellite ball mill. The results showed that the Cu-Zn solid solution formed after 18 h of mechanical alloying. The mechanically alloyed powder was compacted followed by sintering of the obtained green compacts at 750°C for 30 min. Alumina nanoparticles were uniformly distributed in the matrix of the Cu-Zn alloy. The tribological properties were evaluated by pin-on-disk wear tests, which revealed that, upon the addition of alumina nanoparticles, the coefficient of friction and the wear rate were reduced to 20% and 40%, respectively. The corrosion properties of the samples exposed to a 3.5wt% NaCl solution were studied using the immersion and potentiodynamic polarization methods, which revealed that the addition of alumina nanoparticles reduced the corrosion current of the nanocomposite by 90%.

  11. COMPUTER MODELING OF THE ROLLING TECHNOLOGICAL REGIMES INFLUENCE ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF EUTECTOID COLONIES OF ROD PEARLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interconnection between the parameters of the rolled wire production technology and characteristics of its microstructure is shown. The correlation interconnections between the characteristics of the rolled wire microstructure, calculated by method of image processing, and technology of its receipt in conditions of RUP «BMZ» are determined. 

  12. Characterization of the Ni-45wt% Ti shape memory alloy rapidly solidified; Caracterizacao da liga Ni-45wt%Ti com efeito de memoria de forma solidificadas rapidamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmo, G.C.S.; Castro, W.B. de; Araujo, C.J. de, E-mail: walman@dem.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEM/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of miniaturized actuation principles efficient at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early on been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be processed at the micro-scale. shape memory characteristics of Ni-45wt%Ti alloy ribbons prepared by melt spinning were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray. In these experiments particular attention has been paid to change the velocity of cooling wheel from 30 to 50 m/s. Then the cooling rates of ribbons were controlled. The effect of this cooling rate on martensitic transformation behaviors and structure are discussed. (author)

  13. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation over FeOx/(Mg,Zn)(Al)O catalysts derived from hydrotalcites: Role of MgO as basic sites

    KAUST Repository

    Balasamy, Rabindran J.

    2011-05-01

    A series of Mg3-xZnxFe0.5Al0.5 mixed oxide catalysts derived from hydrotalcites were tested in the ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene in He atmosphere at 550 °C. The catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation from the nitrates of metal components followed by calcination to mixed oxides at 550 °C. A part of Mg2+ in Mg 3Fe0.5Al0.5 mixed oxide was replaced with Zn2+ to test the effect of MgO as the support. The mixed oxides were composed of periclase and spinel-type compounds with a high surface area of 100-180m2gcat-1. Mössbauer and XPS measurements indicated the presence of Fe3+ on the catalysts and H2-TPR measurement suggested that the dehydrogenation reaction is catalyzed by the reduction-oxidation between Fe3+/Fe2+. The activity of Mg3-xZnxFe0.5Al0.5 mixed oxide decreased with increasing x, indicating an important role of MgO on the activity. Both CO2-TPD measurements as well as IR measurements of adsorbed CO2 clearly indicated the presence of basic sites of Mg 2+O2- on the catalysts. It seems that the combination of Mg2+O2- and Fe3+ was essential for the catalytic activity. It is concluded that the surface base sites generated on O2- bound Mg2+ near Fe3+ sites are responsible for H+-abstraction; the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene was initiated by the H+ abstraction on Mg2+O2- basic sites, and accelerated by the reduction-oxidation of Fe3+/Fe2+ active species. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Comparative study of Mg/Al- and Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide-perindopril erbumine nanocomposites for inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Al Ali SH; Al-Qubaisi M; Hussein MZ; Ismail M; Zainal Z; Hakim MN

    2012-01-01

    Samer Hasan Hussein Al Ali,1 Mothanna Al-Qubaisi,2 Mohd Zobir Hussein,1,3 Maznah Ismail,2,4 Zulkarnain Zainal,1 Muhammad Nazrul Hakim51Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 3Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 4Department of Nutrition and Health Science, 5Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaAbst...

  15. Microstructures and Photovoltaic Properties of Zn(AlO/Cu2O-Based Solar Cells Prepared by Spin-Coating and Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Oku

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells were fabricated by spin-coating and electrodeposition methods, and photovoltaic properties and microstructures were investigated. Zinc oxide (ZnO and Cu2O were used as n- and p-type semiconductors, respectively, to fabricate photovoltaic devices based on In-doped tin oxide/ZnO/Cu2O/Au heterojunction structures. Short-circuit current and fill factor increased by aluminum (Al doping in the ZnO layer, which resulted in the increase of the conversion efficiency. The efficiency was improved further by growing ZnO and Cu2O layers with larger crystallite sizes, and by optimizing the Al-doping by spin coating.

  16. Laüe back-reflection method for crystallographic orientation of a martensitic Cu-Zn-Al single crystal of the monoclinic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uíslei Carlos Zambrano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A martensitic single crystal Cu-23.95Zn-3.62(wt.%Al alloy was obtained melting pure Cu, Zn and Al using Bridgman's method. The martensitic phase (monoclinic can present up to 24 variants, and orienting the surface according to a certain plane is a very hard task. The single crystal was submitted to 8 tons of tension (stress along the longitudinal direction to reduce the number of variants and facilitate the surface orientation according to the desired plane. This single crystal was oriented using the Laüe back-reflection method to give surfaces with the following oriented crystallographic planes: (010, (120 and (130. It was observed that the tension stress was applied along the [010] direction.

  17. PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam Reforming, and Reverse-Water-Gas-Shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Platon, Alexandru; Datye, Abhaya K.; Vohs, John M.; Wang, Yong; Palo, Daniel R.

    2008-03-07

    Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were studied for water-gas-shift (WGS), methanol steam reforming, and reverse-water-gas-shift (RWGS) reactions. WGS activity was found to be dependent on the Pd:Zn ratio with a maximum activity obtained at approximately 0.50, which was comparable to that of a commercial Pt-based catalyst. The catalyst stability was demonstrated for 100 hours time-on-stream at a temperature of 3600C without evidence of metal sintering. WGS reaction rates were approximately 1st order with respect to CO concentration, and kinetic parameters were determined to be Ea = 58.3 kJ mol-1 and k0 = 6.1x107 min-1. During methanol steam reforming, the CO selectivities were observed to be lower than the calculated equilibrium values over a range of temperatures and steam/carbon ratios studied while the reaction rate constants were approximately of the same magnitude for both WGS and methanol steam reforming. These results indicate that although Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 are active WGS catalysts, WGS is not involved in methanol steam reforming. RWGS rate constants are on the order of about 20 times lower than that of methanol steam reforming, suggesting that RWGS reaction could be one of the sources for small amount of CO formation in methanol steam reforming.

  18. The effect of the melting spinning cooling rate on transformation temperatures in ribbons Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory; Efeito da taxa de resfriamento nas temperaturas de transformacao de uma liga Ni-Cu-Ti com efeito de memoria de forma solidificadas rapidamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A.P.; Castro, W.B.; Anselmo, G.C. dos S., E-mail: walman@dem.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Ti-Ni-Cu alloys have been attracting attention by their high performance of shape memory effect and decrease of thermal and stress hysteresis in comparison with Ti-Ni binary alloys. One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of miniaturized actuation principles efficient at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early on been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be processed at the micro-scale. Shape memory characteristics of Ti-37,8Cu-18,7Ni alloy ribbons prepared by melt spinning were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. In these experiments particular attention has been paid to change of the velocity of cooling wheel from 21 to 63 m/s. Then the cooling rates of ribbons were controlled. The effect of this cooling rate on austenitic and martensitic transformations behaviors is discussed. (author)

  19. Effect of titanium content and cooling rate on the microstructure and martensitic transformation of rapidly solidified Ti-Ni shape memory alloys; Influencia do Ti e da taxa de resfriamento na microestrutura e na temperatura M{sub S} em ligas Ni-Ti com EMF solidificadas rapidamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmo, George Carlos dos Santos; Castro, Walman Benicio de, E-mail: georgeanselmo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: walman.castro@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of efficient principles of miniaturized actuation at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be micro-scale processed. Alloys of composition Ni-44,8wt%Ti and Ni- 45,3wt%Ti were produced using the melt spinning method in air atmosphere. Ribbons obtained in this process showed martensitic grain size between 5 and 30 μm, depending on the alloy composition and the linear velocity of the wheel. (author)

  20. Intercomparación bilateral entre LATU y PTB de calibración en puntos fijos (ITS-90 del Zn al Hg de un SPRT con PTB como laboratorio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Robatto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, es el Instituto Metrológico Nacional del Uruguay, miembro fi rmante del Acuerdo de Reconocimiento Mutuo (MRA entre Laboratorios Nacionales de Metrología del Comité Internacional de Pesas y Medidas (CIPM. Las capacidades de medida y calibración (CMCs del LATU fueron reconocidas en junio de 2004 y se encuentran publicadas en la BIPM- Key Comparison Data Base (BIPM, 2009. El LATU estuvo acreditado desde 2001 hasta junio de 2007 por el Deutscher Kalibrier Dienst (Servicio de Acreditación Alemán en las magnitudes Masa, Balanzas y Temperatura (Laboratorio DKD, DKD-K-25601. Se decidió a partir de ese momento probar el cumplimiento con los criterios establecidos por el CIPM MRA y los requisitos de la Norma ISO/IEC 17025 en el marco de una auditoría in situ llevada a cabo en el LATU en enero de 2008. Como parte de ese proceso de revisión de pares, se realizó una Intercomparación Bilateral entre el PTB y el LATU en los puntos fi jos de la Escala Internacional de Temperatura (ITS-90, desde el punto triple de Hg hasta el punto de congelación del Zn, con el PTB como laboratorio piloto. En este artículo los resultados son presentados y discutidos de manera de sostener ladeclaración de mejores capacidades de medida y calibración (CMCs en sustitución de las ya declaradas.AbstractLaboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, is the National Metrology Institute of Uruguay, signatory of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA, has Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs in temperature that were fi rst published in the BIPM Key Comparison Data Base (BIPM, 2009 in June 2004. LATU was a DKD Laboratory accredited in Mass, Balances and Temperature from 2001 until June 2007 when it was decided to adopt the CIPM criteria for proving compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 through a Peer Review process. The LATU on site Peer Review was carried out in January 2008, as part of the process. During the evaluation, a bilateral intercomparison was performed between PTB and LATU at the ITS- 90 fi xed points covering the range from Hg TP to Zn FP with PTB acting as the Pilot Laboratory. In this paper the results are presented and discussed in order to support the declaration of better Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs andsubstitute the declared ones.

  1. Application of the system free energy theory to the ferrite/pearlite transformation in hypo-eutectoid steel; Akyosekiko no ferrite pearlite hentai ni taisuru soshiki jiyu energy riron no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Y.; Miyazaki, T. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The kinetics of pearlite transformation in Fe-0.5mass%C steel has theoretically been investigated based on the system free energy theory proposed by us, by which the kinetics of phase transformation for each phase can be estimated according to its energy priority. The inter-lamellar spacing of pearlite is precisely predicted by the energy analysis, and the calculated time-temperature-transformation diagrams consist with the experimental ones. It is obvious that the system free energy theory is also effective for analyzing the lamellar structure produced by, e.g., the pearlite transformation in steel. (author)

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Natural Rubber/Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. A. A.; Ahmad, M. B.; Yunus, W. M. Z. Wan; Rahman, M. Z. Ab.; Hussein, M. Z.; Dahalan, K. Z. M.

    2007-05-01

    Nanocomposites of organo Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) with natural rubber (SMR CV60) were successfully synthesized and characterized. To prepare the nanocomposites, a hydrophilic Zn-Al layer double hydroxide (ZnAl LDH -NO3-) was first converted into the organophilic form by using dodecylsulphate ion (DS) as a guest in Zn-Al layer double hydroxide (ZnAl LDH-DS). Intercalation of dodecylsulphate anion into the interlayer of LDH increased the surface area and the porosity of LDH. Nanocomposites of NR / ZnAl LDH-DS was then prepared by melt intercalation method using Haake internal mixer. The resulting compounds were then vulcanizated using the conventional method. X-Ray diffractogram the organophilic ZnAl-DS LDH shows the basal spacing of the ZnAl-LDH expands from 0.89 nm with nitrate as the intergallery anions to 2.53 nm due to the accommodation of DS surfactant anions. After the compounding with the natural rubber, the basal spacing of ZnAl LDH-DS in the composites is increased to 3.90 and 3.66 nm when the Zn-Al-LDH-DS contents are 1 phr and 15 phr respectively. TEM revealed the layered double hydroxide generally uniformly distributed in the rubber matrix. Further characterization indicates that the tensile strength of NR/ Zn-Al LDH-DS (nanocomposites) is higher than that of the NR/Zn-Al LDH-NO3- (macrocomposites).

  3. Influência das Variáveis Térmicas Sobre os Espaçamentos Dendríticos Terciários durante a Solidificação Direcional Horizontal da Liga Al-6%Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Dias Filho,José Marcelino; Kikuchi,Rafael Hideo; Costa,Thiago Antônio Paixão de Sousa; Moreira,Antonio Luciano Seabra; Rocha,Otávio Fernandes Lima da

    2015-01-01

    A liga Al-6%Cu foi solidificada direcionalmente sob condições transitórias de extração de calor e microestruturas dendríticas, variáveis térmicas de solidificação, ou seja, velocidade de deslocamento da isoterma líquidus (VL), taxa de resfriamento (TR) e gradiente de temperatura à frente da isoterma liquidus (GL) foram caracterizadas, determinadas experimentalmente e correlacionadas com os espaçamentos dentríticos terciários (λ3). Para tanto, foi projetado, construído e aferido um dispos...

  4. Revising the Subsystem Nurse’s A-Phase-Silicocarnotite within the System Ca3(PO4)2–Ca2SiO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Tárraga, Patricia; Mazón, Patricia; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; De Aza, Piedad N.

    2016-01-01

    The subsystem Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite within the system Ca3(PO4)2–Ca2SiO4 was conducted as a preliminary step toward obtaining new biomaterials with controlled microstructures. Phase composition of the resulting ceramics was studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy with attached wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the sub-system presents an invariant eutectoid point at 1366 ± 4 °C with a composition of 59.5 wt % Ca3(PO4)2 and 40.5 wt % Ca2SiO4, and typical eutectoid microstructure of lamellae morphology. These results are in disagreement with the previous reported data, which locate the invariant eutectoid point at 1250 ± 20 °C with a composition of 55 wt % Ca3(PO4)2 and 45 wt % Ca2SiO4. In addition, cell attachment testing showed that the new eutectoid material supported the mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and spreading, and the cells established close contact with the ceramic after 28 days of culture. These findings indicate that the new ceramic material with eutectoid microstructure of lamellae morphology possesses good bioactivity and biocompatibility and might be a promising bone implant material. PMID:28773447

  5. Revising the Subsystem Nurse’s A-Phase-Silicocarnotite within the System Ca3(PO42–Ca2SiO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ros-Tárraga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The subsystem Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite within the system Ca3(PO42–Ca2SiO4 was conducted as a preliminary step toward obtaining new biomaterials with controlled microstructures. Phase composition of the resulting ceramics was studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy with attached wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the sub-system presents an invariant eutectoid point at 1366 ± 4 °C with a composition of 59.5 wt % Ca3(PO42 and 40.5 wt % Ca2SiO4, and typical eutectoid microstructure of lamellae morphology. These results are in disagreement with the previous reported data, which locate the invariant eutectoid point at 1250 ± 20 °C with a composition of 55 wt % Ca3(PO42 and 45 wt % Ca2SiO4. In addition, cell attachment testing showed that the new eutectoid material supported the mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and spreading, and the cells established close contact with the ceramic after 28 days of culture. These findings indicate that the new ceramic material with eutectoid microstructure of lamellae morphology possesses good bioactivity and biocompatibility and might be a promising bone implant material.

  6. Revising the Subsystem Nurse's A-Phase-Silicocarnotite within the System Ca₃(PO₄)₂-Ca₂SiO₄.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Tárraga, Patricia; Mazón, Patricia; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; De Aza, Piedad N

    2016-04-28

    The subsystem Nurse's A-phase-silicocarnotite within the system Ca₃(PO₄)₂-Ca₂SiO₄ was conducted as a preliminary step toward obtaining new biomaterials with controlled microstructures. Phase composition of the resulting ceramics was studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy with attached wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the sub-system presents an invariant eutectoid point at 1366 ± 4 °C with a composition of 59.5 wt % Ca₃(PO₄)₂ and 40.5 wt % Ca₂SiO₄, and typical eutectoid microstructure of lamellae morphology. These results are in disagreement with the previous reported data, which locate the invariant eutectoid point at 1250 ± 20 °C with a composition of 55 wt % Ca₃(PO₄)₂ and 45 wt % Ca₂SiO₄. In addition, cell attachment testing showed that the new eutectoid material supported the mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and spreading, and the cells established close contact with the ceramic after 28 days of culture. These findings indicate that the new ceramic material with eutectoid microstructure of lamellae morphology possesses good bioactivity and biocompatibility and might be a promising bone implant material.

  7. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance Property of a Zn-AI-Mg Alloy with Different Solidification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Guang-rui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al-Mg alloy coating attracted much attention due to its high corrosion resistance properties, especially high anti-corrosion performance at the cut edge. As the Zn-Al-Mg alloy coating was usually produced by hot-dip galvanizing method, solidification process was considered to influence its microstructure and corrosion properties. In this work, a Zn-Al-Mg cast alloy was melted and cooled to room temperature with different solidification processes, including water quench, air cooling and furnace cooling. Microstructure of the alloy with different solidification processes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Result shows that the microstructure of the Zn-Al-Mg alloy are strongly influenced by solidification process. With increasing solidification rate, more Al is remained in the primary crystal. Electrochemical analysis indicates that with lowering solidification rate, the corrosion current density of the Zn-Al-Mg alloy decreases, which means higher corrosion resistance.

  8. Zn–Al layered double hydroxides intercalated with carbonate, nitrate, chloride and sulphate ions: Synthesis, characterisation and dye removal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Mahjoubi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Zn–Al layered double hydroxides intercalated with carbonate, nitrate, chloride and sulphate ions were synthesised via a co-precipitation method at a constant solution pH. The as-synthesised samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and simultaneous thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA. The XRD patterns showed that Zn-Al-SO4 had the greatest interlayer spacing, followed by Zn-Al-Cl, Zn-Al-NO3 and Zn-Al-CO3. The FTIR spectra clearly confirmed the presence of intercalated anions in the structure of the LDHs. Batch experiments for methyl orange (MO adsorption onto synthesised samples were investigated under various conditions such as contact time, initial dye concentration and solution pH. The experimental results show that pH is the most influencing factor. The effective pH range for the MO removal was found to be 3.5–4.5. The kinetics data can be described accurately by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model instead of a pseudo-first-order model. The equilibrium data were analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich models. The results showed that the Langmuir and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models fit well to the experimental data. The Zn-Al-LDH samples exhibited exceptional Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of 2758, 2455, 2270 and 1684 mg/g for Zn-Al-SO4, Zn-Al-Cl, Zn-Al-NO3 and Zn-Al-CO3, respectively.

  9. Microstructure and transformation kinetics in bainitic steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzginova, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of reaching a better understanding of the microstructure evolution and the overall phase transformation kinetics in hyper-eutectoid steels a commercial SAE 52100 bearing steel and 7 model alloys with different concentrations of chromium, cobalt and aluminum have been studied in this

  10. The Cementite Spheroidization Process in High-Carbon Steels with Different Chromium Contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzginova, N.V.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The cementite spheroidization process is investigated in hypereutectoid steels with different chromium (Cr) contents. A spheroidized structure in high-carbon steel is usually obtained by a divorced eutectoid transformation (DET) reaction, which occurs during slow cooling of austenite with fine

  11. Gamma stability and powder formation of UMo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, F.B.V.; Andrade, D.A.; Angelo, G.; Belchior Junior, A.; Torres, W.M.; Umbehaun, P.E., E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.br, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelo, E., E-mail: eangelo@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Simulacao Numerica (GSN)

    2015-07-01

    A study of the hydrogen embrittlement as well as a research on the relation between gamma decomposition and powder formation of uranium molybdenum alloys were previously presented. In this study a comparison regarding the hypo-eutectoid and hyper-eutectoid molybdenum additions is presented. Gamma uranium molybdenum alloys have been considered as the fuel phase in plate type fuel elements for material and test reactors (MTR). Regarding their usage as a dispersion phase in aluminum matrix, it is necessary to convert the as cast structure into powder, and one of the techniques considered for this purpose is the hydration-dehydration (HDH). This paper shows that, under specific conditions of heating and cooling, γ-UMo fragmentation may occur with non-reactive or reactive mechanisms. Following the production of the alloys by induction melting, samples of the alloys were thermally treated under a constant flow of hydrogen. It was observed that, even without a massive hydration-dehydration process, the alloys fragmented under specific conditions of thermal treatment, during the thermal shock phase of the experiments. Also, there is a relation between absorption and the rate of gamma decomposition or the gamma phase stability of the alloy and this phenomenon can be related to the eutectoid transformation temperature. This study was carried out to search for a new method for the production of powders and for the evaluation of important physical parameter such as the eutectoid transformation temperature, as an alternative to the existing ones. (author)

  12. Characterization of nitrides in an AISI 1010 steel; Caracterizacion de nitruros en un acero AISI 1010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquid G, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    It was characterized the phase formation in the 1010 carbon steel nitrided in a plasma reactor nearby to eutectoid point. The microstructure and identification of these ones were evaluated by Optical microscopy (OM), Dilatometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (Author)

  13. Large continuous, transparent and oriented self-supporting films of layered double hydroxides with tunable chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianying; Li, Cang; Liu, Miao; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2007-01-14

    Highly ordered transparent self-supporting films of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a size of the order of cm2 have been obtained by a simple method; the chemical composition of both the layers and interlayers can be readily tuned, as demonstrated by the preparation of [ZnAl-NO3] LDH, [NiAl-NO3] LDH and [Tb(EDTA)]- intercalated-ZnAl LDH films.

  14. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultravioletlight (UV-resistant material. In this study, two types of LDHs (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry to reveal the mechanisms of action for LDHs and bitumen. The results showed that within the UV spectra (220–400 nm, the reflectance of Zn-Al-LDHs was larger than that of Mg-Al-LDHs. These two LDHs have different influences on the performance of bitumen. Mg-Al-LDHs had a more obvious influence on the physical and dynamic rheological properties of bitumen than Zn-Al-LDHs. Zn-Al-LDHs improved the UV-aging resistance of bitumen more. The reason can be that the reflectance of the Zn-Al-LDHs to the UV light is larger than that of the Mg-Al-LDHs. The Zn-Al-LDH-modified bitumen had more potential to improve the UV-aging resistance during the service life of asphalt pavement.

  15. Carbon quantum dots/layered double hydroxide hybrid for fast and efficient decontamination of Cd(II): The adsorption kinetics and isotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanian, Omid; Dinari, Mohammad; Abdolmaleki, Mahmood Karimi

    2018-01-01

    Novel carbon quantum dots/zinc aluminum layered double hydroxide (CQD/ZnAl-LDH) composite was prepared through the precipitation of metal nitrates in the presence of CQD by a facile and simple method and further applied to remove excessive Cd(II) ions from water. The chemical composition and morphology of the CQDs/ZnAl-LDH hybrid was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Batch studies were done to evaluate the effects of the adsorption of Cd(II) by CQDs/ZnAl-LDH to optimize the major parameters such as pH, contact time, and initial concentration. The maximum uptake capacity of Cd(II) on CQDs/ZnAl-LDH was only 12.60 mg/g at 20 min due to the available exterior sites on the adsorbent. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of Cd(II) on CQDs/ZnAl-LDH were also investigated. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms of Cd(II) on CQDs/ZnAl-LDH were well-fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm model, respectively.

  16. Visible luminescence characteristics of Sm{sup 3+} doped Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swapna, K.; Mahamuda, Sk. [Department of Physics, K L University, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram 522502, AP (India); Rao, A. Srinivasa, E-mail: drsrallam@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, K L University, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram 522502, AP (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Sasikala, T.; Moorthy, L. Rama [Department of Physics, S V University, Tirupathi 517502, AP (India)

    2014-02-15

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses at different compositions doped with 1 mol% of Sm{sup 3+} ions were prepared by using the melt quenching technique and investigated by XRD, optical absorption, emission and decay curve analysis to understand the visible luminescence of these glasses. From the absorption spectra the JO parameters are evaluated and are used to calculate the radiative properties such as transition probability, radiative lifetime, branching ratio and absorption cross-sections for various fluorescent levels of Sm{sup 3+} ions. The emission spectra of Sm{sup 3+} ions doped ZnAlBiB glasses show two intense emission bands {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} (orange) and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 9/2} (red) for which the stimulated emission cross-section and branching ratios are evaluated to understand the potentiality of these materials as visible lasers. The decay profiles for the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} fluorescent level of Sm{sup 3+} doped ZnAlBiB glasses have been recorded to measure the quantum efficiency (η) of these glasses. The strong visible emissions, large stimulated emission cross-sections, high branching ratios and good quantum efficiencies observed for the present ZnAlBiB glasses suggest the suitability of these glasses as laser and photonic devices operating in visible region. -- Highlights: • Sm{sup 3+} doped ZnAlBiB glasses have been synthesised using melt quenching technique. • JO theory has been applied to evaluate the radiative properties of Sm{sup 3+} doped ZnAlBiB glasses. • Emission cross-sections have been evaluated for the intense emission transitions. • Quantum efficiency of the ZnAlBiB glasses was measured to understand the suitability of these glasses for lasers.

  17. Phase transformation kinetics in rolled U-10 wt. % Mo foil: Effect of post-rolling heat treatment and prior γ-UMo grain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Overman, Nicole; Varga, Tamas; Lavender, Curt; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of sub-eutectoid heat treatment on the phase transformation behavior in rolled U-10 wt.percent Mo (U10Mo) foils was systematically investigated. The as-cast 5 mm thick foils were initially homogenized at 900 degrees C for 48 hours and were hot rolled to 2 mm and later cold rolled down to 0.2 mm. Three starting microstructures were evaluated: (i) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm (as-rolled condition), (ii) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm + annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 hour, and (iii) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm + annealed at 1000 deg. C for 60 hours. U10Mo rolled foils went through various degrees of decomposition when subjected to the sub-eutectoid heat-treatment step and formed a lamellar microstructure through a cellular reaction mostly along the previous γ-UMo grain boundaries.

  18. ADI after Austenitising from Intercritical Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalskia A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ADI subjected to austenitising at intercritical temperatures contains in its matrix the precipitates of pre-eutectoid ferrite. Studies were carried out on the ductile iron of the following chemical composition: C = 3,80%, Si = 2,30%, Mn = 0,28%, P = 0,060%, S = 0,010%, Mg = 0,065%, Ni = 0,60%, Cu = 0,70%, Mo = 0,21% This cast iron was austenitised at three different temperatures, i.e. 800, 815 and 830oC and austempered at 360 and 380oC. For each variant of the cast iron heat treatment, the mechanical properties, i.e. YS, TS, EL and Hardness, were measured, and structure of the matrix was examined. Higher plastic properties were obtained owing to the presence of certain amount of pre-eutectoid ferrite. The properties were visualised using fuzzy logic model in a MATLAB. software.

  19. ADI After Austenitising From Intercritical Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kowalski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ADI subjected to austenitising at intercritical temperatures contains in its matrix the precipitates of pre-eutectoid ferrite. Studies were carried out on the ductile iron of the following chemical composition: C = 3,80%, Si = 2,30%, Mn = 0,28%, P = 0,060%, S = 0,010%, Mg = 0,065%, Ni = 0,60%, Cu = 0,70%, Mo = 0,21% This cast iron was austenitised at three different temperatures, i.e. 800, 815 and 830oC and austempered at 360 and 380oC. For each variant of the cast iron heat treatment, the mechanical properties, i.e. YS, TS, EL and Hardness, were measured, and structure of the matrix was examined. Higher plastic properties were obtained owing to the presence of certain amount of pre-eutectoid ferrite. The properties were visualised using fuzzy logic model in a MATLAB. software.

  20. Optimisation of post-drawing treatments by means of neutron diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Hervías, Jesús; Atienza Riera, José Miguel; Elices Calafat, Manuel; Oliver, E.C

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties and the durability of cold-drawn eutectoid wires (especially in aggressive environments) are influenced by the residual stresses generated during the drawing process. Steelmakers have devised procedures (thermomechanical treatments after drawing) attempting to relieve them in order to improve wire performance. In thiswork neutron diffraction measurements have been used to ascertain the role of temperature and applied force – during post-drawing treatments – on the re...

  1. Thermomechanical process optimization of U-10 wt% Mo – Part 1: high-temperature compressive properties and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Vineet V., E-mail: vineet.joshi@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Garmestani, Hamid [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Burkes, Douglas E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Nuclear power research facilities require alternatives to existing highly enriched uranium alloy fuel. One option for a high density metal fuel is uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U–10Mo). Fuel fabrication process development requires specific mechanical property data that, to date has been unavailable. In this work, as-cast samples were compression tested at three strain rates over a temperature range of 400–800 °C to provide data for hot rolling and extrusion modeling. The results indicate that with increasing test temperature the U–10Mo flow stress decreases and becomes more sensitive to strain rate. In addition, above the eutectoid transformation temperature, the drop in material flow stress is prominent and shows a strain-softening behavior, especially at lower strain rates. Room temperature X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of the as-cast and compression tested samples were conducted. The analysis revealed that the as-cast samples and the samples tested below the eutectoid transformation temperature were predominantly γ phase with varying concentration of molybdenum, whereas the ones tested above the eutectoid transformation temperature underwent significant homogenization.

  2. Isothermal transformation behavior in 12%Cr-0.3%C steel; 12%Cr-0.3%C ko ni okeru koon hentai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, M. [Japan Casting and Forging Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan); Tsuchiyama, T.; Takaki, S. [Kyushu Univearsity, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    In order to get fine grain of large martensitic stainless steels products, it is available to use the isothermal transformation before the austenitizing. When 12%Cr-0.3%C steel is subjected to the full solution treatment and following isothermal transformation at 900-1,020K, it is observed that the microstructures are affected by the isothermal ageing temperature. The microstructure transformed isothermally at 1,020K is the full eutectoid structure where carbides precipitate homogeneously. On the other hand, the microstructure transformed at 900K is the mixed heterogeneous structure: the eutectoid structure where carbides precipitate densely around the edge of prior austenite grains and the ferrite structure where carbides hardly precipitate in the center of prior austenite grains. These phenomena are concerned with the decreasing in carbon content in the untransformed austenite as the eutectoid transformation progresses. The amount of decreasing in carbon at 900K is larger than at 1,020K, which causes the shortage of carbon in austenite in the last period of isothermal transformation. In the case of the isothermal transformation at 900K, the reason of why there are the ferrite structures with no carbide in the center of prior austenite grains is that the massive transformation is induced by the shortage of carbon in untransformed austenite. (author)

  3. Failure Mechanism of a Stellite Coating on Heat-Resistant Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhao, Haixing; Wang, Huang; Li, Yuyan; Liu, Xia; He, Guo

    2017-09-01

    The Stellite 21 coating on the heat-resistant steel X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1 (so-called COSTE) used in a steam turbine valve was found to be fatigue broken after service at around 873 K (600 °C) for about 8 years. In order to investigate the failure mechanism, a fresh Stellite 21 coating was also prepared on the same COSTE steel substrate by using the similar deposition parameters for comparison. It was found that the Stellite 21 coating was significantly diluted by the steel, resulting in a thin Fe-rich layer in the coating close to the fusion line. Such high Fe concentration together with the incessant Fe diffusion from the steel substrate to the coating during the service condition (about 873 K (600 °C) for long time) induced the eutectoid decomposition of the fcc α-Co(Fe,Cr,Mo) solid solution, forming an irregular eutectoid microstructure that was composed of the primitive cubic α'-FeCo(Cr,Mo) phase and the tetragonal σ-CrCo(Fe,Mo) phase. The brittle nature of such α'/ σ eutectoid microstructure contributed to the fatigue fracture of the Stellite 21 coating, resulting in an intergranular rupture mode.

  4. Silica Aerogel-supported Hydrozincite and Carbonate-intercalated Hydrotalcite for High-efficiency Removal of Pb(II) Ions by Precipitation Transformation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Jianfa; Feng, Xiaolan; Wang, Yusen

    2017-09-01

    In this work, hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite supported on silica aerogel were prepared via a simple and economical process and used as adsorbents for Pb(II) removal. The supported hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite possess ultra-thin thickness, high surface area, and weak crystallinity. In the batch Pb(II) adsorption experiments, the adsorbents with higher Zn(II) contents showed higher Pb(II) adsorption capacities, and the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating a mechanism of surface chemisorption. The adsorption capacities calculated based Langmuir isotherm model are 684.9 mg/g and 555.6 mg/g for the supported hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite, respectively, higher than the adsorption capacities of other hydrotalcite-based adsorbents and most of other inorganic adsorbents reported previously. The XRD diffraction peaks of hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite disappeared after the adsorption, and the Pb(II) species were uniformly dispersed in the adsorbents in form of Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 proven by TEM, EDS mapping and XRD analysis, demonstrating the nature of the adsorption is the precipitation conversion of hydrozincite or Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite into Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2. These results demonstrate the synergic Pb(II) removal effect of the CO3 2- and OH- derived from hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite together with their ultra-thin thickness and high surface area contribute the excellent properties of the adsorbents.

  5. Influence of annealing on polymeric precursor derived ZnO thin films on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choppali, Uma, E-mail: umachoppali@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Science, Collin College, Frisco, TX 75035 (United States); Kougianos, Elias; Mohanty, Saraju P. [NanoSystem Design Laboratory (NSDL), University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Gorman, Brian P. [Colorado Center for Advanced Ceramics, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on c-sapphire substrates were synthesized by spin-coating aqueous polymeric precursors. The effects of annealing at 1000 °C on crystallinity, surface morphology, and optical properties of ZnO thin films, with varying thicknesses, were studied. Single-layered ZnO thin films are polycrystalline with wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented along the (002) plane. X-ray diffraction pattern also reveals the presence of spinel zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) peaks. ZnO films have highly faceted granular morphology. Multilayered ZnO films, annealed twice at 1000 °C, do not exhibit any ZnO peaks but only ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} peaks. Moreover, the surface morphology was smooth with ridges. These films do not exhibit the band gap or ultra-violet emission photoluminescence characteristics of ZnO. On annealing, there is an interfacial reaction between ZnO and sapphire resulting in ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Multilayer polymeric precursor derived ZnO film is annealed at 1000 °C on c-sapphire. • X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of ZnO film annealed at 1000 °C shows ZnO peaks. • XRD pattern of ZnO films twice-annealed at 1000 °C shows only ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} peaks. • Optical characterization of the multilayered films does not show ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} peaks. • On annealing twice at 1000 °C, ZnO reacts with the c-sapphire to form ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  6. Silica Aerogel-supported Hydrozincite and Carbonate-intercalated Hydrotalcite for High-efficiency Removal of Pb(II) Ions by Precipitation Transformation Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Jianfa; Feng, Xiaolan; Wang, Yusen

    2017-09-25

    In this work, hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite supported on silica aerogel were prepared via a simple and economical process and used as adsorbents for Pb(II) removal. The supported hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite possess ultra-thin thickness, high surface area, and weak crystallinity. In the batch Pb(II) adsorption experiments, the adsorbents with higher Zn(II) contents showed higher Pb(II) adsorption capacities, and the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating a mechanism of surface chemisorption. The adsorption capacities calculated based Langmuir isotherm model are 684.9 mg/g and 555.6 mg/g for the supported hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite, respectively, higher than the adsorption capacities of other hydrotalcite-based adsorbents and most of other inorganic adsorbents reported previously. The XRD diffraction peaks of hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite disappeared after the adsorption, and the Pb(II) species were uniformly dispersed in the adsorbents in form of Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 proven by TEM, EDS mapping and XRD analysis, demonstrating the nature of the adsorption is the precipitation conversion of hydrozincite or Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite into Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2. These results demonstrate the synergic Pb(II) removal effect of the CO3(2-) and OH(-) derived from hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite together with their ultra-thin thickness and high surface area contribute the excellent properties of the adsorbents.

  7. Luminescence characterization of Eu{sup 3+} doped Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate glasses for visible red emission applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swapna, K.; Mahamuda, Sk. [Department of Physics, K L University, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram, 522 502 Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rao, A. Srinivasa, E-mail: drsrallam@gmail.com [Department of Physics, K L University, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram, 522 502 Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, New Delhi 110 042 (India); Sasikala, T. [Department of Physics, SV University, Tirupathi 517 502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Packiyaraj, P. [Nanophotonics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, Hauz Khaz, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Moorthy, L. Rama [Department of Physics, SV University, Tirupathi 517 502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Prakash, G. Vijaya [Nanophotonics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, Hauz Khaz, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses doped with different concentrations of Eu{sup 3+} ions have been prepared by rapid melt quenching technique and characterized for their luminescence behavior through various spectroscopic techniques such as absorption, excitation, emission, decay profiles and confocal image measurements at room temperature. From the measured absorption spectra, the bonding parameters (δ) were evaluated to find the nature of bonding between Eu{sup 3+} ions with its surrounding ligands in these ZnAlBiB glasses. The emission spectra of Eu{sup 3+} ions in ZnAlBiB glasses excited at 410 nm (CW laser) show the characteristic of Eu{sup 3+} ions with more intense visible red emission corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. This intense visible red emission is further confirmed by the confocal luminescence images recorded for all the ZnAlBiB glasses. Judd–Ofelt (J–O) parameters estimated from the emission spectral information are used to estimate the important radiative properties such as transition probability (A{sub R}), branching ratios (β{sub R}) and emission-cross sections for the prominent emission levels. The large stimulated emission cross-sections and branching ratios observed for ZnAlBiB glasses suggest the utility of these glasses in visible red region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The CIE chromaticity coordinates evaluated from the emission spectra and the confocal images recorded for all the ZnAlBiB glasses also indicates that, these glasses at higher concentration of Eu{sup 3+} ions are aptly suitable for intense red emission at 613 nm corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. - Highlights: • ZnAlBiB glasses doped with Eu{sup 3+} ions were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. • Radiative properties are measured from the emission spectra. • Quantum efficiency of the ZnAlBiB glasses is measured by using radiative and measured lifetimes. • CIE Chromaticity

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Cu-based Catalysts resulting from Cu,Zn,X Hydrotalcite-like Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kühl, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cu,Zn,Al-Hydrotalcit (engl: layered double hydroxide – LDH) wird im Co-Fällungsschritt der bekannten Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 Katalysatoren zur Methanol Synthese als Nebenprodukt gebildet. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das LDH System systematisch untersucht. Zuerst wurde durch Co-Fällung ein phasenreines Cu,Zn,Al-LDH mit der Zusammensetzung (Cu0.5Zn0.17)Al0.33(OH)2(CO3) 0.17 ·mH2O hergestellt. Es zeigt die typische plättchenförmige Morphologie sowie erwartete homogene Elementverteilung. Durch thermisc...

  9. Cytotoxicity of current adhesive systems: in vitro testing on cell culture of L929 and balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts = Citotoxicidade de sistemas adesivos atuais: teste in vitro em cultura de células fibroblásticas L929 e balbc 3T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poskus, Laiza Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de três adesivos: Prime & Bond NT (PBNT, Single Bond (SB e XENO III (XENO. Metodologia: Após embebição e polimerização de filtros de papel com os referidos adesivos, estes foram colocados em contato com a superfície de agar solidificada sobre a monocamada de células L929 plaqueadas em cultura celular de 6-poços e incubadas por 24 h. A zona de inibição formada ao redor dos filtros de papel foi medida em milímetros. Outro teste realizado foi o do MTT, utilizando fibroblastos Balb / c 3T3 em placas de multi-poços, sendo os ensaios realizados em triplicatas. Resultados: Todos os materiais testados foram citotóxicos (Kruskal-Wallis, P0,05. Para a análise intra-grupos, o SB apresentou a mais baixa citotoxicidade (P0,05. O ensaio de MTT confirmou a citotoxicidade dos adesivos. Conclusão: Considerando as limitações deste trabalho, todos os adesivos testados foram tão citotóxicos quanto o látex

  10. Transferencia de calor en la colada continua de aceros. I parte. El molde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicutti, C.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuous casting mold plays the important role of receiving the liquid steel and allowing an uniform and defect free solidified skin to be developed. In this work, the different heat transfer mechanisms which are present from the liquid steel to the mold cooling water are reviewed. The effect of operating variables on heat extraction and the relationship between global and distributed heat flux are also analyzed.

    El molde de colada continua cumple la importante función de recibir el acero líquido y permitir que se desarrolle una capa solidificada uniforme y libre de defectos. En este trabajo se revisan los distintos mecanismos implicados en el proceso de transferencia de calor, desde el acero líquido hasta el agua de refrigeración del molde. Se analiza también el efecto de las distintas variables de funcionamiento en la extracción calórica producida y la relación entre el flujo global de calor y su distribución a lo largo del molde.

  11. Novel hollow microspheres of hierarchical zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides and their enhanced adsorption capacity for phosphate in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Yang, Siliang; Yu, Jiaguo; Shu, Zhan

    2011-09-15

    Hollow microspheres of hierarchical Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using urea as precipitating agent. The morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the morphology of hierarchical Zn-Al LDHs can be tuned from irregular platelets to hollow microspheres by simply varying concentrations of urea. The effects of initial phosphate concentration and contact time on phosphate adsorption using various Zn-Al LDHs and their calcined products (LDOs) were investigated from batch tests. Our results indicate that the equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted by Langmuir isothermal model, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 54.1-232 mg/g; adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and intra-particle diffusion model. In addition, Zn-Al LDOs are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing phosphate from aqueous solutions due to their hierarchical porous structures and high specific surface areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and Fischer-Tropsch performance of cobalt/zinc aluminate nanocomposites via a facile and corrosion-free coprecipitation route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenxin; Xing, Yu; Xue, Yingying; Wu, Depeng; Fang, Shaoming

    2015-02-01

    Literature about ZnAl2O4-supported cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalytic materials is sparse. A series of cobalt-containing nanocomposites, supported by nanosized ZnAl2O4 spinel (i.e., a complex oxide of about 6.4 nm) or alumina (i.e., a simple oxide of about 6.2 nm), were prepared via urea-gelation, coprecipitation, or impregnation methods followed by stepwise reduction. These materials were examined by XRD, TGA, nitrogen sorption, FESEM, and EDS. Effects of corrosion and pore size distributions on materials preparation were also investigated. The "coprecipitation/stepwise reduction" route is facile and suitable to prepare nanosized ZnAl2O4-supported Co0 nanocomposites. At similar CO conversions, the coprecipitated Co/ZnAl2O4 exhibits significantly lower C1 hydrocarbon distribution, slightly lower C5+ hydrocarbon distribution, significantly higher C2-C4 hydrocarbon distribution, and significantly higher olefin/paraffin ratio of C2-C4 than Co/γ-Al2O3.

  13. First-principles study of the structural, mechanical and electronic properties of ZnX2O4 (X=Al, Cr and Ga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Ji, Guang-Fu; Zhao, Feng; Gong, Zi-Zheng

    2011-04-01

    This paper performs first-principles calculations to study the structural, mechanical and electronic properties of the spinels ZnAl2O4, ZnGa2O4 and ZnCr2O4, using density functional theory with the plane-wave pseudopotential method. Our calculations are in good agreement with previous theoretical calculations and the available experimental data. The studies in this paper focus on the evolution of the mechanical properties of ZnAl2O4, ZnGa2O4 and ZnCr2O4 under hydrostatic pressure. The results show that the cubic phases of ZnAl2O4, ZnGa2O4 and ZnCr2O4 become unstable at about 50 GPa, 40 GPa and 25 GPa, respectively. From analysis of the band structure of the three compounds at equilibrium volume, it obtains a direct band gap of 4.35 eV for ZnAl2O4 and 0.89 eV for ZnCr2O4, while ZnGa2O4 has an indirect band gap of 2.73 eV.

  14. SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Catalyst (Zn-Al-HT) was prepared by using chloride salts of zinc and aluminum, in co-precipitation method with NaOH solution. All amines ... The elemental analysis was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) using a Thermo Electron make ICP-OES model IRIS intrepid II XDL.

  15. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing Liu; Shaopeng Wu; Gang Liu; Liping Li

    2015-01-01

    ... (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs) were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR...

  16. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis, characterization, photoluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence investigations of orange red-emitting Sm-doped ZnAl2O4 phosphor · Mithlesh Kumar V Natarajan .... pp 1249-1253. Synthesis and photoluminescence property of silicon carbide nanowires thin film by HF-PECVD system · Zhang Enlei ...

  17. Effect of metal ion doping on the photocatalytic activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    +3 in aluminophosphates (AlPOs). These compounds were used for the first time as possible photocatalysts for the degradation of organic dyes. Among the doped AlPOs, ZnAlPO-5, CoAlPO-5, MgAlPO-11, 18 and 36 did not show any ...

  18. Structural Investigation of Zn(II) Insertion in Bayerite, an Aluminum Hydroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pushparaj, Suraj Shiv Charan; Jensen, Nicholai Daugaard; Forano, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Bayerite was treated under hydrothermal conditions (120, 130, 140, and 150 °C) in order to prepare a series of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with an ideal composition of ZnAl4(OH)12(SO4)0.5nH2O (ZnAl4-LDHs). These products were investigated by both bulk techniques (PXRD, TEM, and elemental...... analysis) and atomic level techniques (1H and 27Al solid state NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopy) to gain a detailed insight into the structure of ZnAl4-LDHs and sample composition. Four structural models (one stoichiometric and three different defect models) were investigated by Rietveld refinement...... of the PXRD data. These were assessed using the information obtained from other characterization techniques, which favored the ideal (non-defect) structural model for ZnAl4-LDH, as e.g. 27Al MAS NMR showed that excess Al was present as amorphous bayerite (Al(OH)3) and pseudoboehmite (AlOOH). Moreover...

  19. Catalytic synthesis of 2-methylpyrazine over Cr-promoted copper ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Cr-promoted Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by impregnation method and characterized by ICP-AES, N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD, XPS, N2O chemisorption, TPR and NH3-TPD techniques. The amorphous chromium species existing in Cu-Zn-Cr/Al2O3 catalyst enhanced the dispersion of active component Cu, ...

  20. Synthesis of nanocomposite 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid with layered double hydroxide: physicochemical characterization and controlled release properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarijo, Siti Halimah, E-mail: izaddinizaddin@yahoo.com; Ghazali, Sheikh Ahmad Izaddin Sheikh Mohd [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Malaysia); Hussein, Mohd Zobir [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Malaysia); Sidek, Norizzah Jaafar [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Malaysia)

    2013-01-15

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite Zn-Al-MCPA-layered double hydroxide (ZAM) was prepared by intercalation of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAL) at various concentration of MCPA ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 M. The pH of the synthesis was kept constant at 7.5. Well-ordered hybrid nanocomposite was obtained with 0.4 M MCPA with an expansion of basal spacing from 8.9 Angstrom-Sign in the ZAL to 19.7 Angstrom-Sign in the resulting nanocomposite. The FTIR spectra of the nanocomposite show resemblance peaks of the MCPA and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide indicating the inclusion of MCPA into the layered double hydroxide. The average particle size of ZAL and ZAM in this study was 115 and 128 nm, respectively. Percentage loading of MCPA was found to be 45.0 % (w/w), calculated based on the percentage of carbon in the sample. The release of MCPA into various aqueous solution was found to be dependent to the anion in the aqueous solution in the order of phosphate > sulfate > chloride with the percentage release of 80, 44, and 8%, respectively. This study shows that Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide can be used as a host carrier for herbicide, MCPA, with controlled release capability.

  1. Synthesis of nanocomposite 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid with layered double hydroxide: physicochemical characterization and controlled release properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarijo, Siti Halimah; Ghazali, Sheikh Ahmad Izaddin Sheikh Mohd; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Sidek, Norizzah Jaafar

    2013-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite Zn-Al-MCPA-layered double hydroxide (ZAM) was prepared by intercalation of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAL) at various concentration of MCPA ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 M. The pH of the synthesis was kept constant at 7.5. Well-ordered hybrid nanocomposite was obtained with 0.4 M MCPA with an expansion of basal spacing from 8.9 Å in the ZAL to 19.7 Å in the resulting nanocomposite. The FTIR spectra of the nanocomposite show resemblance peaks of the MCPA and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide indicating the inclusion of MCPA into the layered double hydroxide. The average particle size of ZAL and ZAM in this study was 115 and 128 nm, respectively. Percentage loading of MCPA was found to be 45.0 % (w/w), calculated based on the percentage of carbon in the sample. The release of MCPA into various aqueous solution was found to be dependent to the anion in the aqueous solution in the order of phosphate > sulfate > chloride with the percentage release of 80, 44, and 8 %, respectively. This study shows that Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide can be used as a host carrier for herbicide, MCPA, with controlled release capability.

  2. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells: Long-Term Metal(loid) Leaching at Their End-of-Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Y.S.; Schäffer, A.; Corvini, P.F.X.; Lenz, M.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic effect of thin-film copper indium gallium selenide cells (CIGS) is conferred by the latter elements. Organic photovoltaic cells (OPV), relying on organic light-absorbing molecules, also contain a variety of metals (e.g., Zn, Al, In, Sn, Ag). The environmental impact of such

  3. Grain iron density variability among new farmer-preferred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain micronutrient content assessment is important in breeding pearl millet, in order to maintain or improve its high nutritional quality. Grain samples of 12 farmer-preferred pearl millet varieties produced in four representative environments in Niger during the 2013 rainy season were assessed for Fe, Zn, Al and P grain ...

  4. Spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition of alxzn1-xo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Scherpenborg, R.; Wu, Y.; Roozeboom, F.; Poodt, P.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of growing multicomponent oxides by spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition has been investigated. To this end, Al xZn1-xO films have been deposited using diethyl zinc (DEZ), trimethyl aluminum (TMA), and water as Zn, Al, and O precursors, respectively. When the metal precursors

  5. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides. Fengzhu Lv Zilin Meng Penggang Li Yihe Zhang Guocheng Lv Qian Zhang Zhilei Zhang. Volume 38 Issue 4 August 2015 pp 1079-1085. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF.

  6. Flame synthesis of nanoparticles - Applications in catalysis and product/process engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Jensen, Joakim R.; Mosleh, Majid

    2004-01-01

    High-temperature flame processes for the production of nanoparticles can be applied in chemical product and process engineering. As an example one can produce well-defined spinel structures, e.g. zinc aluminate spinel (ZnAl2O4) and magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with high specific surface...

  7. Product engineering by high-temperature flame synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid

    also - coalescence of aggregated metal oxide nano-particles. As an example, it is possible produce well-defined spinel structures, e.g. zinc-aluminate (ZnAl2O4), with high specific surface area because the desired phase is formed directly without any need for post calcination. The production of other...

  8. Synthesis, characterization, photoluminescence and thermally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Sm3+-doped ZnAl2O4 phosphor was synthesized by citrate sol–gel method and characterized using. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to identify the crystalline phase and determine the parti- cle size. Photoluminescence (PL) studies on the sample showed emission peaks at 563, 601, 646 and ...

  9. Structure and mechanical properties of a eutectic high-temperature Nb-Si alloy grown by directional solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, M. I.; Vnukov, V. I.; Korzhov, V. P.; Stroganova, T. S.; Zheltyakova, I. S.; Prokhorov, D. V.; Gnesin, I. B.; Kiiko, V. M.; Kolobov, Yu. R.; Golosov, E. V.; Nekrasov, A. N.

    2014-04-01

    The structure and the short-term high-temperature strength of Ni-18.7 at % Si (Nb-Nb3Si eutectic) alloys fabricated by vacuum electron-beam zone melting and induction melting in an argon atmosphere are studied. The structure of the samples prepared by vacuum electron-beam zone melting is characterized by the presence of primary Nb5Si3 intermetallic precipitates and the absence of its secondary precipitates. The structure of the samples prepared by induction melting in an argon atmosphere has two characteristic zones, namely, eutectic and eutectoid ones.

  10. Fundamental Studies of Beta Phase Decomposition Modes in Titanium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-24

    Ti-7.15% Cr alloy in order to take advantage of the subsitutional character of both parent and product phases during the formation of proeutectoid...operative at higher reaction tempera- -. tures in at least ten other Ti-X eutectoid systems. By the term "bainite" we mean the product of a non-lamellar, i.e...1). In this program, the "generalized micro- structural" definition of bainite (1,6) is being employed: bainite is the product of a non-lamellar

  11. Morphology of Upper and Lower Bainite with 0.7 Mass Pct C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiaqing; Hillert, Mats; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-09-01

    There has been an on-going discussion on the difference in formation mechanisms of upper and lower bainite. Various suggestions have been supported by reference to observed morphologies and illustrated with idealized sketches of morphologies. In order to obtain a better basis for discussions about the difference in mechanism, the morphology of bainite in an Fe-C alloy with 0.7 mass pct carbon was now studied in some detail from 823 K to 548 K (550 °C to 275 °C) at temperature intervals of 50 K or less. The work focused on bainite seen to start from a grain boundary in the plane of polish and showing an advancing tip in the remaining austenite. The results indicate that there is no essential difference with temperature regarding the ferritic skeleton of feathery bainite. The second stage of bainite formation, which involves the formation of both ferrite and cementite, was regarded as a eutectoid transformation and the resulting morphologies were analyzed in terms of two modes, degenerate and cooperative eutectoid transformation. There was no sharp difference between upper and lower bainite. Ways to define the difference were discussed.

  12. Thermomechanical process optimization of U-10wt% Mo – Part 2: The effect of homogenization on the mechanical properties and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nyberg, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    Low-enriched uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) is currently being investigated as an alternative fuel for the highly enriched uranium used in several of the United States’ high performance research reactors. Development of the methods to fabricate the U-10Mo fuel plates is currently underway and requires fundamental understanding of the mechanical properties at the expected processing temperatures. In the first part of this series, it was determined that the as-cast U-10Mo had a dendritic microstructure with chemical inhomogeneity and underwent eutectoid transformation during hot compression testing. In the present (second) part of the work, the as-cast samples were heat treated at several temperatures and times to homogenize the Mo content. Like the previous as-cast material, the “homogenized” materials were then tested under compression between 500 and 800°C. The as-cast samples and those treated at 800°C for 24 hours had grain sizes of 25-30 μm, whereas those treated at 1000°C for 16 hours had grain sizes around 250 μm before testing. Upon compression testing, it was determined that the heat treatment had effects on the mechanical properties and the precipitation of the lamellar phase at sub-eutectoid temperatures.

  13. Thermomechanical process optimization of U-10wt% Mo – Part 2: The effect of homogenization on the mechanical properties and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Vineet V., E-mail: vineet.joshi@pnnl.gov; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean; Burkes, Douglas E.

    2015-10-15

    In the first part of this series, it was determined that the as-cast U-10Mo had a dendritic microstructure with chemical inhomogeneity and underwent eutectoid transformation during hot compression testing. In the present (second) part of the work, the as-cast samples were heat treated at several temperatures and times to homogenize the Mo content. Like the previous as-cast material, the “homogenized” materials were then tested under compression between 500 and 800 °C. The as-cast samples and those treated at 800 °C for 24 h had grain sizes of 25–30 μm, whereas those treated at 1000 °C for 16 h had grain sizes around 250 μm before testing. Upon compression testing, it was determined that the heat treatment had effects on the mechanical properties and the precipitation of the lamellar phase at sub-eutectoid temperatures.

  14. Controlling factors of pearlite transformation rate of 0.4mass%C steels; 0.4mass% C ko no pearlite hentai sokudo no ritsusokuu inshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Narutani, T. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Y. [Waseda Univearsity, Tokyo (Japan). School of Seicence and Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Kinetics of austenite to pearlite phase transformation in 0.4mass%C-X (X=Cr, Ni) steels were investigated. The isothermal transformation curves were analyzed with of the Avrami Equation: X(t)=1-exp(-Gt{sup n}) where X(t) is the fraction transformed and n and Care constants. The exponents n were found to be about 2 except for Cr steels. The value of n for steels containing 0.5 and 1.0 mass% Cr were about 3. This results indicated that the pearlite transformation in 0.4 mass% C steels in present study is controlled by the site saturation mechanism. The parameters G, transformation rate constant of pearlite, were independent of the supercooling from A{sub 1}, temperature and the driving force of pearlite transformation. These values were dependent on the energy differences of ferrite phase from supercooling austenite phase. This energy difference was equivalent to the driving force of eutectoid ferrite. The predicted transformation rate of pearlite is independent of transformation temperature and containing alloy. The pearlite transformation rate of 0.4 mass% C steels was found to be controlled by eutectoid ferrite growth. (author)

  15. Investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al alloy with Ag and Mn additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.A.G., E-mail: galdino.ricardo@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra-UNIFESP, Diadema-SP (Brazil); Paganotti, A.; Gama, S. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra-UNIFESP, Diadema-SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A. [Instituto de Quimica - UNESP, Araraquara-SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al, Cu-11%Al-3%Ag, Cu-11%Al-10%Mn and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn-3%Ag alloys was made using microhardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy and magnetic moment change with applied field measurement. The results indicated that the Mn addition changes the phase stability range, the microhardness values and makes undetectable the eutectoid reaction in annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-3%Ag alloys while the presence of Ag does not modify the phase transformation sequence neither microhardness values of the annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn alloys, but it increases the magnetic moment of this latter at about 2.7 times and decreases the rates of eutectoid and peritectoid reactions of the former. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure of Cu-Al alloy is modified in the Ag presence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ({alpha} + {gamma}) phase is stabilized down to room temperature when Ag is added to Cu-Al alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-rich phase modifies the magnetic characteristics of Cu-Al-Mn alloy.

  16. Dust Explosion Characteristics of Aluminum, Titanium, Zinc, and Iron-Based Alloy Powders Used in Cold Spray Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, K.; Tagomori, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Sasaki, S.; Shinya, Y.; Nanbu, T.; Kawashita, Y.; Narita, I.; Kuwatori, K.; Ikeda, T.; Hara, R.; Miyahara, H.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional thermal spray coating, cold spray processing typically employs finer, smaller-diameter metal powders. Furthermore, cold-sprayed particles exhibit fewer surface oxides than thermally sprayed particles due to the absence of particle melting during spraying. For these reasons, it is important to consider the potential for dust explosions or fires during cold spray processing, for both industrial and R&D applications. This work examined the dust explosion characteristics of metal powders typically used in cold spray coating, for the purpose of preventing dust explosions and fires and thus protecting the health and safety of workers and guarding against property damage. In order to safely make use of the new cold spray technology in industrial settings, it is necessary to manage the risks based on an appropriate assessment of the hazards. However, there have been few research reports focused on such risk management. Therefore, in this study, the dust explosion characteristics of aluminum, titanium, zinc, carbonyl iron, and eutectoid steel containing chromium at 4 wt.% (4 wt.% Cr-eutectoid steel) powders were evaluated according to the standard protocols JIS Z 8818, IEC61241-2-3(1994-09) section 3, and JIS Z 8817. This paper reports our results concerning the dust explosion properties of the above-mentioned metal powders.

  17. COEFICIENTE DE TRANSFERÊNCIA DE CALOR NA INTERFACE METAL/MOLDE E VARIÁVEIS TÉRMICAS NA SOLIDIFICAÇÃO DIRECIONAL HORIZONTAL DA LIGA Al-6%Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Lima Rocha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar o coeficiente de transferência de calor na interface metal/molde (hi da liga Al-6%Si solidificada direcionalmente em um sistema horizontal refrigerado a água bem como as varáveis térmicas de solidificação velocidade da isoterma liquidus (VL e taxa de resfriamento (TR. Um dispositivo experimental de solidificação horizontal foi desenvolvido e amostras da liga foram obtidas sob condições transientes de fluxo de calor. As variáveis térmicas são calculadas a partir dos perfis de temperatura obtidos para cinco termopares inseridos no metal que permitem correlacionar a posição da isoterma liquidus (P com o tempo de solidificação. Um método baseado no confronto entre os perfis de temperatura teóricos e experimentais foi utilizado para determinar os valores hi. Para o cálculo dos perfis teóricos, aplicou-se um modelo numérico de transferência de calor e massa, consagrado na literatura, para solidificação direcional. Leis experimentais em forma de potência do tipo hi = A1(t-n1, VL = A2(P-n2 e TR = A3(P-n3 foram obtidas. Um estudo comparativo entre os valores de hi obtidos neste trabalho e aqueles propostos na literatura, durante a solidificação unidirecional vertical ascendente das ligas investigadas, também é apresentado.

  18. UTILIZAÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS DE MINÉRIO DE FERRO COMO MATÉRIA PRIMA PARA FABRICAÇÃO DE ARGAMASSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Mendes Aguiar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A quantidade cada vez maior de resíduos gerados na fase de exploração e extração de minério de ferro constitui um problema ambiental às mineradoras, devido as grandes áreas requeridas para disposição dos mesmos, bem como a constante necessidade de gerenciamento desses locais. Neste estudo foi verificada a viabilidade técnica de utilização do resíduo gerado na exploração de um minério itabirítico como matéria prima para confecção de argamassa. Foram confeccionadas diferentes formulações de argamassas através da variação da proporção cimento/resíduo e da proporção água/cimento. Para cada amostra foram determinados o tempo de pega, viscosidade e densidade, no caso da amostra fresca, e densidade e resistência à compressão para a amostra solidificada. Concluiu-se que a argamassa confeccionada com maior quantidade de resíduo (traço 1:2,5 e menor relação água/cimento (0,95 foi aquela que apresentou menor tempo de pega e maior resistência à compressão. Este resultado foi bastante satisfatório, pois o aumento de resíduo incorporado favoreceu a resistência à compressão final do produto.

  19. Nucleation and Growth of Tetrataenite (FeNi) in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.; Zhang, J.

    1992-07-01

    The mineral tetrataenite (ordered FeNi) has been observed in chondrites, stony irons, and iron meteorites (1). FeNi is an equilibrium phase in the Fe-Ni phase diagram (Figure 1) and orders to tetrataenite at ~320 degrees C (2). The phase forms at temperatures at or below the eutectoid temperature (~400 degrees C) where taenite (gamma) transforms to kamacite (alpha) plus FeNi (gamma"). An understanding of the formation of tetrataenite can lead to a new method for determining cooling rates at low temperatures (transformation sequences for the formation of tetrataenite were observed. In either sequence, during the cooling process, the taenite (gamma) phase initially undergoes a diffusionless transformation to a martensite (alpha, bcc) phase without a composition change. The martensite then decomposes either above or below the eutectoid temperature (~400 degrees C) during cooling or upon subsequent reheating. During martensite decomposition above the eutectoid, the taenite (gamma) phase nucleates by the reaction alpha(sub)2 ---> alpha + gamma and grows under volume diffusion control. The Ni composition of the taenite increases continuously following the equilibrium gamma/alpha + gamma boundary while the Ni composition of the kamacite matrix decreases following the alpha/alpha + gamma phase boundary (2), see Figure 1. Below the eutectoid temperature, the precipitate composition follows the equilibrium gamma"/alpha + gamma" boundary and reaches ~52 wt% Ni, the composition of FeNi, gamma". The kamacite (alpha) matrix composition approaches ~4 to 5 wt% Ni. The ordering transformation starts at ~320 degrees C forming the tetrataenite phase. During martensite decomposition below the eutectoid temperature, FeNi should form directly by the reaction alpha2 --> alpha + gamma" (FeNi). If this transformation sequence occurs, then the composition of kamacite and tetrataenite should also be given by the alpha/alpha + gamma" and gamma"/alpha + gamma" boundaries of the Fe-Ni phase

  20. Origins of asymmetric stress-strain response in phase transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehitoglu, H.; Gall, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It has been determined that the transformation stress-strain behavior of CuZnAl and NiTi shape memory alloys is dependent on the applied stress state. The uniaxial compressive stress necessary to macroscopically trigger the transformation is approximately 34% (CuZnAl) and 26% (NiTi) larger than the required uniaxial tensile stress. For three dimensional stress states, the response of either alloy system is dependent on the directions of the dominant principal stresses along with the hydrostatic stress component of the stress state. The stress state effects are dominated by the favored growth and nucleation of more martensite plates in tension versus compression. The effect of different hydrostatic pressure levels between stress states on martensite plates volume change is considered small.

  1. Local structure analysis of diluted magnetic semiconductor Co and Al co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, K.; Morimoto, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Ichiyanagi, Y. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Utsumi, J. [Engineering Department Machine Tool Division, Machinery, Equipment & Infrastructure, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Ritto, Shiga 520-3080 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co and Al ions co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn(Al, Co)O NPs) were prepared by our original chemical preparation method. The obtained samples prepared by this method, were encapsulated in amorphous SiO{sub 2}. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed Zn(Al, Co)O NPs had a single-phase nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure. These particle sizes could be controlled to be approximately 30 nm. We investigate the effect that the increase in the carrier has on the magnetization by doping Al to Co-doped ZnO NPs. The local structures were qualitatively analyzed using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements.

  2. EFFICIENCY OF ULTRAFILTRATION CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR TOXIC ELEMENTS REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alami Younssi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of porous ceramics multilayer ultrafiltration membrane is described. The first step consisted to prepare high-quality macroporous support in Moroccan clay. The choice of this material is based on its natural abundance and thermal stability.The microporous interlayer was then prepared by slip casting from zirconia commercial powders and finally the active UF toplayers was obtained by sol-gel route using ZnAl2O4 and TiO2 mixed sols. The performance of ultrafiltration membrane (TiO2 (50�20– ZnAl2O4 (50� was evaluated by pores diameter, water flux, thickness and molecular weight cut off (MWCO. The water permeability measured for this composite membrane is 9.42 L/(m2•h•bar, the thickness is less than 700 nm, the pore diameter is centered near 5 nm and the MWCO was about 4500 Da.

  3. Synthesis and crystal structure of three new quaternary compounds in the system (Cu-III-Se{sub 2}){sub 1-x}ZnSe{sub x} (III = Al, Ga, In), formed by Zn incorporation in Cu-III-Se{sub 2} chalcopyrite s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, G. E. [Universidad de Los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Cristalografia, 5101 Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Grima G, P.; Quintero, M., E-mail: gerzon@ula.ve [Universidad de Los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Estudios de Semiconductores, 5101 Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    The crystal structure of the chalcogenide alloys CuZnAlSe{sub 3}, CuZnCaSe{sub 3} and CuZnInSe{sub 3}, new members of the system I-II-III-VI{sub 3}, were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction data. All materials crystallize in the tetragonal space group P{sub -4} 2{sub c} (N 112) with a CuFeInSe{sub 3}- type structure. (Author)

  4. Effect of zinc-borate glass addition on the thermal properties of the cordierite/Al2O3 composites containing nano-sized spinel crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sinae; Kang, Seunggu

    2013-11-01

    Low-melting zinc-borate glass was added to the cordierite/Al2O3 composite in order to improve the sintering facility of Al2O3 and formation of nano-sized spinel crystal of high thermal conductivity. Increasing the ZnO/B2O3 ratio in the zinc-borate glass increased the ZnAl2O4 spinel and decreased the Al4B2O9 crystal peak intensities in X-ray diffraction pattern. The XRD peak intensities of the ZnAl2O4 spinel and Al4B2O9 crystals in the specimen containing 10 wt% zinc-borate glass (10G series) are higher than that of the specimen containing 5 wt% zinc-borate glass (5G series). The microstructures of most 10G series specimens had the flower-shaped crystal which was composed of 50 nm wide and 250 nm long needle-like crystals and identified as ZnAl2O4 spinel phase. The thermal conductivity of the 10G series specimen was higher than that of the 5G series in any ZnO/B2O3 ratio due to the formation of plenty of nano-sized ZnAl2O4 spinel of high thermal conductivity. Particularly, the thermal conductivity of the cordierite/Al2O3 composite containing 10 wt% zinc-borate glass of ZnO/B2O3 weight ratio = 1.5 was 3.8 W/Km which is much higher than that of the published value (3.0 W/Km).

  5. Phosphate adsorption from sewage sludge filtrate using zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Huang, Xinrui; Wang, Xingzu; Zhao, Bingqing; Chen, Aiyan; Sun, Dezhi

    2009-09-30

    A series of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with different metal cations were synthesized to remove phosphate in waste sludge filtrate from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for phosphorus recovery and to help control eutrophication. The highest phosphate adsorption capacity was obtained by using Zn-Al-2-300, that is LDHs with Zn/Al molar ratio of 2 and calcined at 300 degrees C for 4h. Circumneutral and mildly alkaline waters appeared suitable for the possible application of Zn-Al LDHs due to the amphoteric nature of aluminum hydroxide. Phosphate adsorption from the sludge filtrate by the LDHs followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium was determined to be approximately 50 mg P/g. Adsorption isotherms showed that phosphate uptake in this study was an endothermic process and had a good fit with a Langmuir-type model. The absorbed phosphate can be effectively desorbed (more than 80%) from LDHs particles by a 5 wt% NaOH solution. The regeneration rate of used LDHs was approximately 60% after six cycles of adsorption-desorption-regeneration.

  6. Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

    2014-05-01

    Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals.

  7. Interstratified nanohybrid assembled by alternating cationic layered double hydroxide nanosheets and anionic layered titanate nanosheets with superior photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bizhou; Sun, Ping; Zhou, Yi; Jiang, Shaofeng; Gao, Bifen; Chen, Yilin

    2014-09-15

    Oppositely charged 2D inorganic nanosheets of ZnAl-layered double hydroxide and layered titanate were successfully assembled into an interstratified nanohybrid through simply mixing the corresponding nanosheet suspensions. Powder X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly revealed that the component nanosheets in the as-obtained nanohybrid ZnAl-Ti3O7 retain the 2D sheet skeletons of the pristine materials and that the two kinds of nanosheets are well arranged in a layer-by-layer alternating fashion with a basal spacing of about 1.3 nm, coincident with the thickness summation of the two component nanosheets. The effective interfacial heterojunction between them and the high specific surface area resulted in that the nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue with a reaction constant k of 2.81 × 10(-2)min(-1), which is about 9 and 4 times higher than its precursors H2Ti3O7 and ZnAl-LDH, respectively. Based on UV-vis, XPS and photoelectrochemical measurements, a proposed photoexcitation model was provided to understand its photocatalytic behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microstructure and Solderability of Zn-6Al- xSn Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Hu, Wei; Yan, Xin; Lei, Yongping

    2015-04-01

    The eutectic point of Zn-6Al alloy is 381°C, and the peritectic reaction of Zn-Al-Sn alloy occurs at 280°C. In order to find an alloy with an appropriate melting point between 280°C and 340°C, Zn-6Al-5Sn, Zn-6Al-10Sn, Zn-6Al-15Sn, and Zn-6Al-20Sn alloys were prepared. The microstructure, melting behavior, and wettability of the Zn-6Al- xSn solder alloys were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the sessile drop method. The results show that the alloys were composed of Zn-rich phase, Zn-Al structure, Sn-Zn-Al peritectic structure, and Sn-Zn eutectic structure. The progressive decrease of the liquidus temperature of the Zn-6Al- xSn solders was confirmed by the DSC results in the order: Zn-6Al-5Sn, Zn-6Al-10Sn, Zn-6Al-15Sn, Zn-6Al-20Sn. A decrease of the wetting angle, selected for evaluation of the solderability of the Zn-6Al- xSn solders, was observed in the same order. The cross-section of a solder joint on a Cu substrate was examined by SEM coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis.

  9. Tb{sup 3+} doped Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate glasses for green emitting luminescent devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swapna, K.; Mahamuda, Sk. [Department of Physics, K L University, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram, Guntur (Dt), Andhra Pradesh 522502 (India); Rao, A. Srinivasa, E-mail: drsrallam@gmail.com [Department of Physics, K L University, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram, Guntur (Dt), Andhra Pradesh 522502 (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, New Delhi 110042 (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, New Delhi 110042 (India); Shakya, Suman; Prakash, G. Vijaya [Nanophotonics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses doped with terbium (Tb{sup 3+}) ions with a chemical composition 20ZnO–10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–(10−x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–60B{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xTb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mol%) were prepared by a conventional melt quenching method and studied their optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay spectral properties. The Judd–Ofelt (J–O) parameters evaluated from the experimental oscillator strengths were used to measure the radiative properties for the prominent luminescent transitions of Tb{sup 3+} ions such as {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 6}, {sup 7}F{sub 5}, {sup 7}F{sub 4} and {sup 7}F{sub 3.} The effect of Tb{sup 3+} ion concentration on the luminescence process observed in the visible region was discussed in detail. The emission spectra recorded for all the ZnAlBiB glasses doped with Tb{sup 3+} ions, show an intense peak in green region at 542 nm. The stimulated emission cross-section, branching ratios and quantum efficiency values evaluated for green emission ({sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5}) suggests the utility of these glasses for green luminescence applications. It was found that, within the concentration range investigated, 2.5 mol% of Tb{sup 3+} doped ZnAlBiB glass is most suitable for green luminescence applications at 542 nm in principle. - Highlights: • ZnAlBiB glasses doped with Tb{sup 3+} ions were prepared by a conventional melt quenching technique. • Judd–Ofelt and radiative properties are measured from the emission spectra. • Quantum efficiency of the ZnAlBiB glasses is measured by using radiative and measured lifetimes. • CIE Chromaticity co-ordinates are evaluated from emission spectra.

  10. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine, E-mail: mohamed.djebbi@etu.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Braiek, Mohamed [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Namour, Philippe [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Irstea, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  11. Influence of Homogenization on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the U-10Mo Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In Phase 1 of this study, the mechanical properties of as-cast, depleted uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum alloy (U-10Mo) samples were evaluated by high-temperature compression testing. Compression testing was conducted at three strain rates over a temperature range of 400 to 800°C. The results indicated that with increasing test temperature, the material flow stress decreases and the material becomes more sensitive to strain rate. In addition, above the eutectoid transformation temperature (~ 550°C), the drop in material flow stress is prominent and shows a strain-softening behavior, especially at lower strain rates. In the second part of this research, we studied the effect that homogenization heat treatment had on the high temperature mechanical properties and microstructure of the cast U-10Mo alloy. Various homogenization times and temperatures were studied ranging between 800 and 1000°C for 4 to 48 hours. Based on the microstructural response in this homogenization study, a heat treatment cycle of 800°C for 24 hours and another at 1000°C for 16 hours were selected as the times at temperature to achieve a fully homogenized sample. Samples from these conditions were then compression tested at a variety of temperatures ranging from 500 to 800°C. The microstructure of these samples were compared to the as-cast samples and to a baseline sample homogenized at 1000°C for 16 hours. The results indicate that below the eutectoid temperature (~ 550°C) all three samples showed strain hardening and followed similar trends. Above the eutectoid temperature, the yield strength of the material decreased linearly. For the as-cast sample and the sample homogenized at 800°C for 24 hours, the n-values were negative, whereas for the samples homogenized at 1000°C for 16 hours the material exhibited a perfectly plastic behavior. The as-cast sample, heat treated at 800°C for 24 hours, showed significant lamellar structure transformation that seems to have

  12. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant, colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistive materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2003-07-08

    Method of making an active magnetic refrigerant represented by Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4 alloy for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0 comprising placing amounts of the commercially pure Gd, Si, and Ge charge components in a crucible, heating the charge contents under subambient pressure to a melting temperature of the alloy for a time sufficient to homogenize the alloy and oxidize carbon with oxygen present in the Gd charge component to reduce carbon, rapidly solidifying the alloy in the crucible, and heat treating the solidified alloy at a temperature below the melting temperature for a time effective to homogenize a microstructure of the solidified material, and then cooling sufficiently fast to prevent the eutectoid decomposition and improve magnetocaloric and/or the magnetostrictive and/or the magnetoresistive properties thereof.

  13. Influence of Microstructure on Strength and Ductility in Fully Pearlitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Toribio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relationship between the microstructure and both strength and ductility in eutectoid pearlitic steel. It is seen how standard mechanical properties and fracture micromechanisms are affected by heat treatment and the resulting microstructure in the material. The yield stress, the ultimate tensile strength and the ductility (measured by means of the reduction in area exhibit a rising trend with the increasing cooling rate (associated with smaller pearlite interlamellar spacing and a lower pearlitic colony size, while the strain for maximum load shows a decreasing tendency with the afore-said rising cooling rate. With regard to the fracture surface, its appearance becomes more brittle for lower cooling rates, so that the fracture process zone exhibits a larger area with observable pearlite lamellae and a lower percentage of microvoids.

  14. Investigations of Temperatures of Phase Transformations of Low-Alloyed Reinforcing Steel within the Heat Treatment Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargul T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of DSC analysis of steel B500SP produced in the process of continuous casting, which is intended for the production reinforcement rods with high ductility. Studies were carried out in the temperature range below 1000°C in a protective atmosphere of helium during samples heating program. The main objective of the study was to determine the temperature range of austenite structure formation during heating. As a result of performed experiments: Ac1s, Ac1f – temperatures of the beginning and finish of the eutectoid transformation, Ac2 – Curie temperature of the ferrite magnetic transformation and the temperature Ac3 of transformation of proeutectoid ferrite into austenite were elaborated. Experimental determination of phase transformations temperatures of steel B500SP has great importance for production technology of reinforcement rods, because good mechanical properties of rods are formed by the special thermal treatment in Tempcore process.

  15. Heat treatment induced phase transition and microstructural evolution in electron beam surface melted Nb-Si based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueling; Jia, Lina; Kong, Bin; Peng, Hui; Zhang, Hu

    2017-11-01

    The hardness, phase and microstructural development of Nb-18Si-24Ti-2Cr-2Al (at.%) alloys processed by electron beam surface melting (EBSM) and subsequent heat treatments were investigated. The EBSM experiments were performed using an electron beam based 3D printing system. Results showed that Nbss and Nb3Si phases were obtained via EBSM with a significantly refined microstructure. The eutectoid reaction of Nb3Si → Nbss + αNb5Si3 was triggered by heat treatments (HT) at 1200 °C or 1450 °C for 5 h. The growth and the coarsening of αNb5Si3 grains were promoted with a higher HT temperature. The hardness of the EBSM alloy was remarkably reduced by HT.

  16. Ag-rich precipitates formation in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.A.G., E-mail: galdino.ricardo@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Paganotti, A.; Jabase, L. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A. [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Cu-rich nanoprecipitates are formed in the presence of Ag. • Bainite precipitation is shifted to higher temperatures in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy. • The eutectoid α phase and bainite α{sub 1} phase compete by the Cu atoms during precipitation process. - Abstract: The formation of Ag-rich precipitates in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy initially quenched from 1123 K was analyzed. The results showed that nanoprecipitates of a Cu-rich phase are produced at about 523 K. In higher temperatures these nanoparticles grow and the relative fraction of Ag dissolved in it is increased, thus forming the Ag-rich phase.

  17. Spot Feeding Spheroidal Graphite Iron with Exothermic and Insulating Ram-Up Sleeves in Vertically Parted Moulds: Efficiency, Microstructure, Dimensional Accuracy, Deformation, and Driving Force and Feeding Criteria Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard

    the castings, as well as the exothermic and insulating feeders. The thermal deformation related to the feeder combinations are investigated, and it is found that the thermal gradients created by the feeders could be signified by the deformation of the plane reverse side of the casting. The eutectoid phase...... in this dissertation is based on large-scale quantitative experiments with duplicates for statistical representation. The focus, as stated by the dissertation title, has been: ‘Spot Feeding Spherical Graphite Iron with Exothermicand Insulating Ram-Up Sleeves in Vertically Parted Moulds’. The application of spot...... feeders (ram-up sleeves) is investigated, showing that this new feeding approach can be used successfully to feed secluded sections inductile cast iron (EN-GJS-500-7). The feeder efficiency is tested using a high Silicon (Si) ductile iron (EN-GJS-450-10). The limits for the examined feeder configurations...

  18. Electric conductivity and cubic phase decomposition in the zirconia totally stabilized with magnesia by impedance spectroscopy; Condutividade eletrica e decomposicao da fase cubica na zirconia totalmente estabilizada com magnesia por espectroscopia de impendancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccillo, Eliana N.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-09-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements have been done by impedance spectroscopy in Mg-fully stabilized zirconia ceramics, in order to verify the effects produced by the stabilizing cation. The results show that the intragranular component of the resistivity increases gradually for increasing dopant content. The blocking effect of charge carriers by grain boundaries also increases with the increase in the Mg content, reaching a maximum value near the eutectoid composition, and vanishing for higher concentrations. Impedance spectroscopy diagrams show markedly changes due to the cubic phase decomposition. For an aging temperature of 1100 deg C, the total resistivity increases by a factor of 100 in 3 h. For aging times longer than 8 h, there is no significant changes in the total resistivity. That means that under these experimental conditions, the cubic phase decomposition process reaches its completion in zirconia-magnesia ceramics. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Graphite nodules and local residual stresses in ductile iron: Thermo-mechanical modelingand experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito

    Ductile iron is nowadays widely used in key industrial sectors like off-shore, transport and energy production, accounting for as much as 25 % of the total casting production in the world. It is well known that ductile iron parts, depending on their size, may contain residual stresses developing...... stages of the manufacturing process are simulated numerically, accounting for the different thermal expansion of the nodules and of the matrix during both the eutectoid transformation and the subsequent cooling to room temperature. The results show the formation of significant residual stresses...... the theoretical predictions that local stresses up to approximately half the macroscopic yield strength may remain in the ductile iron microstructure after manufacturing. Needless to say, this new type of residual stresses is expected to play an important role in determining the properties of ductile iron...

  20. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of as-Drawn and Laboratory Annealed Pearlitic Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgaprasad, A.; Giri, S.; Lenka, S.; Kundu, S.; Mishra, S.; Chandra, S.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, I.

    2017-10-01

    Near eutectoid fully pearlitic wire rod (5.5 mm diameter) was taken through six stages of wire drawing (drawing strains of 0 to 2.47). The as-drawn (AD) wires were further laboratory annealed (LA) to re-austenitize and reform the pearlite. AD and LA grades, for respective wire diameters, had similar pearlite microstructure: interlamellar spacing ( λ) and pearlite alignment with the wire axis. However, LA grade had lower hardness (for both phases) and slightly lower fiber texture and residual stresses in ferrite. Surprisingly, essentially identical tensile yield strengths in AD and LA wires, measured at equivalent spacing, were found. The work hardened AD had, as expected, higher torsional yield strengths and lower tensile and torsional ductilities than LA. In both wires, stronger pearlite alignment gave significantly increased torsional ductility.

  1. The Effect of Rolling As-Cast and Homogenized U-10Mo Samples on the Microstructure Development and Recovery Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-30

    Over the past several years Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been actively involved in supporting the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Material Management and Minimization (formerly Global Threat Reduction Initiative). The U.S. High- Power Research Reactor (USHPRR) project is developing alternatives to existing highly enriched uranium alloy fuel to reduce the proliferation threat. One option for a high-density metal fuel is uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo). Forming the U-10Mo fuel plates/foils via rolling is an effective technique and is actively being pursued as part of the baseline manufacturing process. The processing of these fuel plates requires systematic investigation/understanding of the pre- and post-rolling microstructure, end-state mechanical properties, residual stresses, and defects, their effect on the mill during processing, and eventually, their in-reactor performance. In the work documented herein, studies were conducted to determine the effect of cold and hot rolling the as-cast and homogenized U-10Mo on its microstructure and hardness. The samples were homogenized at 900°C for 48 h, then later annealed for several durations and temperatures to investigate the effect on the material’s microstructure and hardness. The rolling of the as-cast plate, both hot and cold, was observed to form a molybdenum-rich and -lean banded structure. The cold rolling was ineffective, and in some cases exacerbated the as-cast defects. The grains elongated along the rolling direction and formed a pancake shape, while the carbides fractured perpendicularly to the rolling direction and left porosity between fractured particles of UC. The subsequent annealing of these samples at sub-eutectoid temperatures led to rapid precipitation of the ' lamellar phase, mainly in the molybdenum-lean regions. Annealing the samples above the eutectoid temperature did not refine the grain size or the banded

  2. THE METALLURGICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND HARDNESS PROFILE OF A RAIL THERMITE WELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet MERİÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of railroad construction is a important factor for comfort and safety in railroad transportation. Thermite welding being known for a long time prevents rail failure and, off road the train. It provides smoothly journey, and long life to rails and wagons. In this study, S 49 type St 70 steel rails have been welded by thermite process, hardness profile of welding zone rails has been obtained and its microstructure has been examined. In this profile maximum hardness values have been observed in front of welding region. Hardness value was 290 HB in the front of melting zone in the zone under heat effect (HAZ, 260 HB in welding zone and 220 HB in main structure. For microstructure pro-eutectoid ferrite and perlite were observed but not martensite.

  3. Visible red, NIR and Mid-IR emission studies of Ho3+ doped Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamuda, Sk.; Swapna, K.; Packiyaraj, P.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2013-12-01

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses doped with different concentrations of Holmium were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The glassy nature of these glasses has been confirmed through the XRD spectral measurements. The FTIR spectra recorded for undoped glass revealed the information related to the functional groups involved in the host glass. Optical absorption, excitation and photoluminescence spectra of these glasses have been recorded at room temperature. The Judd-Ofelt theory has been applied successfully to characterize the absorption spectra of the ZnAlBiB glasses. From this theory various radiative properties such as radiative transition probability (AR), radiative lifetimes (τR), branching ratios (βR) and spectroscopic quality factor (χ) for the prominent emission levels 5F5 → 5I7, 5F5 → 5I8 and 5I7 → 5I8 have been evaluated. The photoluminescence spectra revealed the quenching of luminescence intensity beyond 1.0 mol% of Ho3+ ion concentration in ZnAlBiB glasses. To investigate the lasing potentiality of 5F5 → 5I7, 5F5 → 5I8 and 5I7 → 5I8 transitions, the effective band width (Δλp) and the stimulated emission cross-section (σse) were determined. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were also evaluated from the emission spectra for all the glasses to understand the suitability of these materials for visible red laser emission in principle.

  4. Coating powdered copper catalyst with yttria sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kuan-Ying [Department of Chemical and Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Shen, Chia-Chieh, E-mail: ccshen@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Renewable Energy Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Renewable Energy Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Leu, Chih-Hsing [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jung-Hui [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Chuin-Tih [Department of Chemical and Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The neutral Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sol is an effective binder for coating powders of CuZnAl catalyst. {yields} A particle size ratio of 15 for catalyst to binder is suggested for stable coating. {yields} Sufficient stirring is an important step in the catalyst slurry preparation. - Abstract: A commercial Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sol was tested as a binder for coating CuZnAl catalyst powder onto microchannels of a stainless steel plate (SSP). Coated plates were used to fabricate microchannel reactors that generate hydrogen via the steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Washcoating slurries were prepared by suspending catalyst powders into the sol. Slurry parameters, such as solid content, binder content, pH value, and stir time, were optimized to achieve a stable catalyst coating and good SRM performance. The expected stable coating could be obtained from neutral (pH 7) Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} slurry that is required for a negligible dissolution of the copper component of the catalyst. The experimental coating stability generally improved with the slurry stir time. Observed improvements were attributed to a dispersion of catalyst powders in the slurry through a two-step mechanism: the mechanical disassembly of agglomerated CuZnAl powders into primary particles, and the repelling of dissembled particles through adsorption of positively charged Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} binders. A reasonable reaction temperature of 280 deg. C was found for 95% conversion of methanol in SRM from the resulted microchannel reactors. A low CO fraction of 0.3% was also found in the hydrogen-rich gas reformed.

  5. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However, MgAl LDH shows better performance than ZnAl LDH, due to the presence of magnesium cations in the layers. Following the structural, morphological and electrochemical behavior studies of both synthesized LDHs, the prepared LDH modified electrodes were tested through microbial fuel cell configuration, revealing a remarkable, potential new pathway for high-performance and cost-effective electrode use in electrochemical power devices.

  6. Screening of Mineral Elements in Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis Essential Oils and their Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Zidane, H.; Aouniti, F.; Tahani, A.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Elbachiri, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of mineral compounds in Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis growing in Eastern Morocco from two different regions Jerada (arid climate) and Tafoughalt (humid climate). A total of fifteen elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Zn, Al, Ca, Fe, K and Mg) has been measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Their concentrations have been found to vary in leaves and their essential oils. From the results of the study,...

  7. THE CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON WATER POLLUTION OF KURNOOL DISTRICT BY WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    K., Mohemmad Rafi; T., Ramachar; M., Umamahesh

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of the determination of the trace metal ions and some physiochemical properties in drinking water samples from the neighboring villages of Nandyal region, Kurnool district, where drinking water samples are not treated before it is consumed. The purpose was to ascertain the quality of water from these sources. Samples were taken from ten sampling points and analyzed for the following parameters Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Al, pH,EC,NO3-, SO4 , and F- using the procedure outline in the...

  8. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

    OpenAIRE

    Bajčičák Martin; Šuba Roland

    2014-01-01

    The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum tempe...

  9. Análise estatística e optimização de perfis de redução termoprogramada (TPR Statistical analysis and optimization of temperature programmed reduction (TPR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Nele

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of operational variables and their interaction in TPR profiles was studied using a fractional factorial experimental design. The heating rate and the reducing agent concentration were found to be the most important variables determining the resolution and sensitivity of the technique. They showed opposite effects. Therefore, they should be manipulated preferentially in order to obtain optimized TPR profiles. The effect of sample particle size was also investigated. The tests were carried out within a Cu/Zn/Al2O3 catalyst used for the water-gas shift reaction that presented two distinct species of Cu2+ in TPR profiles.

  10. Competitive reactions during synthesis of zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides by thermal hydrolysis of urea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staal, Line Boisen; Pushparaj, Suraj Shiv Charan; Forano, Claude

    2017-01-01

    at four different reaction times (7, 12, 16, and 24 h) and characterized by bulk (PXRD, TEM, and elemental analysis) and local techniques (27Al SSNMR, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopies) in combination with a time-resolved synchrotron PXRD study of the reaction mixture. The products obtained are a mixture...... on the synthesis conditions, e.g., reaction time, urea/metal ratio, metal source, and hydrothermal treatment post synthesis, with less than half of the total Al3+ content incorporated in ZnAl-LDHs according to solid state 27Al NMR. Thus, the preparation of highly crystalline and pure LDHs remains a challenge...

  11. [Determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fang; Shi, Song-Li; Wang, Deng-Kui; Cheng, Xiang-Hui; Liu, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    For determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica, the samples were digested by nitric acid-perchloric. The contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al, Sr, Sn and Pb in the leaves of Prunus mongolica were determined by ICP-AES, at the same time a blank experiment was carried out. The results showed that the recovery rate of the ten elements was between 93% and 110%, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.33% and 2.94%. This method is fast, simple and accurate.

  12. Photocatalytic property and structural stability of CuAl-based layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Haiqiang, E-mail: Liuhaiqiang1980@126.com

    2015-07-15

    Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis) were used to confirm the formation of as-synthesized solids with good crystal structure. The photocatalytic activity of those LDH materials for CO{sub 2} reduction under visible light was investigated. The experimental results show that CuNiAl-LDHs with narrowest band gap and largest surface areas behave highest efficiency for methanol generation under visible light compared with CuMgAl-LDHs and CuZnAl-LDHs. The CuNiAL-LDH showed high yield for methanol production i.e. 0.210 mmol/g h, which was high efficient. In addition, the influence of the different M{sup 2+} on the structures and stability of the CuMAl-LDHs was also investigated by analyzing the geometric parameters, electronic arrangement, charge populations, hydrogen-bonding, and binding energies by density functional theory (DFT) analysis. The theoretical calculation results show that the chemical stability of LDH materials followed the order of CuMgAl-LDHs>CuZnAl-LDHs>CuNiAl-LDHs, which is just opposite with the photocatalytic activity and band gaps of three materials. - Graphical abstract: The host–guest calculation models and XRD patterns of CuMAl-LDHs: CuMgAl-LDHs (a), CuZnAl-LDHs (b) and CuNiAl-LDHs (c). - Highlights: • Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) has been synthesized. • CuMgNi shows narrower band gap and more excellent textural properties than other LDHs. • The band gap: CuMgAlZnAl

  13. Micro structural characterization of two way memory effect obtained by stabilised stress induced martensite in a smart Cu base shape memory alloys. Caracterizacion estructural del efecto doble memoria de forma obtenido mediante martensita estabilizada en aleaciones inteligentes base cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilemany, J.M.; Fernandez, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Metalurgia Facultad de Quimica, Barcelona (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The processes that take place during the training of a smart CuZnAlCo shape memory alloy to get Two Way Memory Effect (TWME) have been studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show gamma precipitation during thermomechanical training. This process is facilitated by previous precipitation of cobalt which supersaturates the matrix. The presence of these gamma precipitates gives rise to local reduction of the solute content in the matrix involving a locally increase of the martensitic transformation M[sub s], stabilizing the martensite plates and thus providing TWME. Author (19 refs.)

  14. Desenvolvimento de microcélula eletroquímica para estudos de microrregiões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Heleno Akita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and optimization of a device that can be applied to electrochemical studies in flat micro regions are described. This was developed as an attempt to study small regions of metallic samples, whose properties may differ completely from its macroscopic behavior and for studies in highly resistive medium. Some results were obtained for individual grains of polycrystalline samples, welded regions, pure copper, platinum, glassy carbon, single crystals of Cu-Zn-Al alloy, and steel in biodiesel without electrolyte intentionally added. The device showed to be useful for the proposed purpose, allowing to be automated and has potential possibilities of other applications.

  15. Synthesis and optical property of zinc aluminate spinel cryogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Su

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc aluminate spinel cryogels with various molar ratio of Al/Zn are synthesized by sol–gel technology followed by vacuum freeze drying. The structures and optical properties are both found to be affected by the molar ratios of Al/Zn and annealed temperatures. The peaks of zinc oxide (ZnO and zinc dialuminum oxide (ZnAl2O4 are both obtained for the samples with more Zn content annealed at 750 °C or upward. The composites have a large surface area (137 m2/g with mesoporous structure after annealing at 750 °C. The SEM images reveal that the ZnAl2O4 crystals formed a multilayer structure with redundant ZnO particles which deposited on it. Furthermore, the maximum infrared reflectance is about 80% with an improvement of 35% in the infrared region after annealing at 950 °C compared with that of 450 °C, which indicates that these porous cryogels have a potential application as thermal insulating materials at a high temperature.

  16. Study on the Shielding Effectiveness of an Arc Thermal Metal Spraying Method against an Electromagnetic Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An electromagnetic pulse (EMP explodes in real-time and causes critical damage within a short period to not only electric devices, but also to national infrastructures. In terms of EMP shielding rooms, metal plate has been used due to its excellent shielding effectiveness (SE. However, it has difficulties in manufacturing, as the fabrication of welded parts of metal plates and the cost of construction are non-economical. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of the arc thermal metal spraying (ATMS method as a new EMP shielding method to replace metal plate. The experimental parameters, metal types (Cu, Zn-Al, and coating thickness (100–700 μm used for the ATMS method were considered. As an experiment, a SE test against an EMP in the range of 103 to 1010 Hz was conducted. Results showed that the ATMS coating with Zn-Al had similar shielding performance in comparison with metal plate. In conclusion, the ATMS method is judged to have a high possibility of actual application as a new EMP shielding material.

  17. Optical studies of Sm3+ ions doped Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, K.; Mahamuda, Sk.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Shakya, S.; Sasikala, T.; Haranath, D.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses doped with different concentrations of samarium (Sm3+) ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized for their lasing potentialities in visible region by using the techniques such as optical absorption, emission and emission decay measurements. Radiative properties for various fluorescent levels of Sm3+ ions were estimated from absorption spectral information using Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis. The emission spectra and con-focal photoluminescence images obtained by 410 nm laser excitation demonstrates very distinct and intense orange-red emission for all the doped glasses. The suitable concentration of Sm3+ ions in these glasses to act as an efficient lasing material has been discussed by measuring the emission cross-section and branching ratios for the emission transitions. The quantum efficiencies were also been estimated from emission decay measurements recorded for the 4G5/2 level of Sm3+ ions. From the measured emission cross-sections, branching ratios, strong photoluminescence features and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 1 mol% of Sm3+ ions doped ZnAlBiB glasses are most suitable for the development of visible orange-red lasers.

  18. Optical studies of Sm³⁺ ions doped zinc alumino bismuth borate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, K; Mahamuda, Sk; Srinivasa Rao, A; Shakya, S; Sasikala, T; Haranath, D; Vijaya Prakash, G

    2014-05-05

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses doped with different concentrations of samarium (Sm(3+)) ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized for their lasing potentialities in visible region by using the techniques such as optical absorption, emission and emission decay measurements. Radiative properties for various fluorescent levels of Sm(3+) ions were estimated from absorption spectral information using Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis. The emission spectra and con-focal photoluminescence images obtained by 410 nm laser excitation demonstrates very distinct and intense orange-red emission for all the doped glasses. The suitable concentration of Sm(3+) ions in these glasses to act as an efficient lasing material has been discussed by measuring the emission cross-section and branching ratios for the emission transitions. The quantum efficiencies were also been estimated from emission decay measurements recorded for the (4)G5/2 level of Sm(3+) ions. From the measured emission cross-sections, branching ratios, strong photoluminescence features and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 1 mol% of Sm(3+) ions doped ZnAlBiB glasses are most suitable for the development of visible orange-red lasers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reddish-orange emission from Pr3+ doped zinc alumino bismuth borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamuda, Sk.; Swapna, K.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Sasikala, T.; Rama Moorthy, L.

    2013-11-01

    Praseodymium doped Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique and characterized by optical absorption and emission studies. The glassy nature of these glasses has been confirmed through XRD spectral measurements. From the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) and other radiative properties like transition probability (AR), radiative lifetimes (τR) and branching ratios (βR) have been evaluated. Emission spectra were measured for different concentrations of Pr3+ ions doped glasses by exciting the glasses at 445 nm. The intensity of Pr3+ emission spectra increases from 0.1 to 1 mol% and beyond 1 mol% concentration quenching is observed. The suitable concentration of Pr3+ ions in ZnAlBiB glasses to act as a good lasing material at reddish-orange wavelength (604 nm) region has been discussed by measuring the emission cross-sections for the intense emission transition 1D2→3H4. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were also evaluated from the emission spectra for all the glasses to understand the suitability of these materials for reddish-orange emission. From the measured emission cross-sections and CIE chromaticity co-ordinates, it was found that 1 mol% of Pr3+ is aptly suitable for the development of visible reddish-orange lasers.

  20. Structure and selected properties of high-aluminium Zn alloy with silicon addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zyska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations concerning the abrasive wear resistance, hardness, and thermal expansion of high-aluminium zinc alloys are presented. The examinations were carried out for five synthetic ZnAl28 alloys with variable silicon content ranging from 0.5% to 3.5%, and – for the purpose of comparison – for the standardised ZnAl28Cu4 alloy. It was found that silicon efficiently increases the tribological properties and decreases the coefficient of thermal expansion of zinc alloys. The most advantageous set of the examined properties is exhibited by the alloys containing over 2.5% Si. They are characterised by higher parameters as compared with the standardised alloy. Observations of microstructures reveal that silicon precipitates as a separate compact phase, and its morphology depends on t he Si content in the alloy. The performed examinations show that silicon can satisfactorily replace copper in high aluminium Zn alloys, thus eliminating the problem of dimensional instability of castings.

  1. Toxicity of Metals to a Freshwater Ostracod: Stenocypris major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shuhaimi-Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults of freshwater ostracod Stenocypris major (Crustacea, Candonidae were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni, iron (Fe, aluminium (Al, and manganese (Mn concentrations. Mortality was assessed, and median lethal times (LT50 and concentrations (LC50 were calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. LC50s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 25.2, 13.1, 1189.8, 526.2, 19743.7, 278.9, 3101.9, and 510.2 μg/L, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in S. major increases with exposure to increasing concentrations, and Cd was the most toxic to S. major, followed by Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Al, and Ni (Cd>Cu>Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Al>Ni. Comparison of LC50 values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater crustacean reveals that S. major is equally or more sensitive to metals than most other tested crustacean.

  2. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Ho [Naperville, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  3. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, M.R. [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, M.J.C. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratory of study in Science, DME, Federal University of Paraíba, Campus I, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, G.L., E-mail: guilherme_leo1@yahoo.com.br [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, J.B.L. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN, Campus I, 59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, L. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min. • The powders show high specific surface area. • ZAT{sub b}15 showed activity of 52.22% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel. - Abstract: Zinc aluminate is a material with high thermal stability and high mechanical strength that, owing to these properties, is used as a catalyst or support. In this work, zinc aluminate spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min at a low temperature (150 °C) without templates, using only Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O, Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, and urea as precursors and applied in the transesterification of soybean oil. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} had a cubic structure without secondary phases. The nitrogen adsorption measurements (BET) revealed a high surface area (266.57 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) for the nanopowder synthesized in 15 min. This powder showed activity of 52.22% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification.

  4. Avalanche criticality in thermal-driven martensitic transitions: the asymmetry of the forward and reverse transitions in shape-memory materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planes, Antoni; Vives, Eduard

    2017-08-01

    Martensitic transitions take place intermittently as a sequence of avalanches which are accompanied by the emission of acoustic waves. The study of this acoustic emission (AE) reveals the scale-free nature of the avalanches. In a number of shape memory materials undergoing a martensitic transition it has been found that, in spite of relatively low hysteresis, the dynamics of forward and reverse transitions are different, which may explain the fact that the AE activity is different in both forward and reverse transitions. The asymmetry could be a consequence of the fact that, while nucleation is required for the transition from the parent to martensitic phase to take place, reverse transition occurs by fast shrinkage of martensitic domains. We have analysed in detail the distribution of avalanches in cooling and heating runs in Fe-Pd and Cu-Zn-Al shape-memory alloys. In the former, the martensitic transition is weakly first order while it shows a significant first order character in the latter. We have found that in Fe-Pd the distributions are power law for the forward and reverse transitions characterized by the same critical exponents. For Cu-Zn-Al the distribution of avalanches is critical in forward transitions but exponentially damped in the reverse transition. It is suggested that this different behaviour could originate from the different dynamic mechanisms in forward and reverse transitions. This paper is dedicated to our friend Ekhard Salje in the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  5. Self-assembly of exfoliated layered double hydroxide and graphene nanosheets for electrochemical energy storage in zinc/nickel secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Yang, Zhanhong; Huang, Jianhang; Zeng, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (Zn-Al LDH) is exfoliated. Ambient temperature ion exchange and chemical exfoliation route have been developed to synthesize the exfoliated layered double hydroxide/graphene compounds (Exfoliated LDH/G). The as-prepared Exfoliated LDH/G nanocomposites demonstrate no obvious impurity and good morphology, being characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Here we intensively study the electrochemical performances of Exfoliated LDH/G and pure LDH electrodes for Zn-Ni secondary battery. It was found that the as-prepared Exfoliated LDH/G here exhibits higher and wide discharge voltage plateaus due to the well electrical conductivity and lower self-corrosion, which could promote charge-transfer of the exfoliated LDH. The preliminary results show that the Exfoliated LDH/G displays superior Zn-Ni secondary battery performance with outstanding reversible capacity, prominent cyclic performance (343 mA h g-1 after 1200 cycles at 1 C), highlighting the practicability of the self-assembly Exfoliated LDH/G for maximum anodic utilization of exfoliated LDH for power storage in Zn-Ni secondary battery.

  6. Organo-layered double hydroxides composite thin films deposited by laser techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Vlad, A., E-mail: angela.vlad@gmail.com [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Matei, A.; Dumitru, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest 030018 (Romania); Raditoiu, V.; Corobea, M.C. [National R.& D. Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., CP-35-274, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • PLD and MAPLE was successfully used to produce organo-layered double hydroxides. • The organic anions (dodecyl sulfate-DS) were intercalated in co-precipitation step. • Zn2.5Al-LDH (Zn/Al = 2.5) and Zn2.5Al-DS thin films obtained in this work could be suitable for further applications as hydrophobic surfaces. - Abstract: We used laser techniques to create hydrophobic thin films of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and organo-modified LDHs. A LDH based on Zn-Al with Zn{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} ratio of 2.5 was used as host material, while dodecyl sulfate (DS), which is an organic surfactant, acted as guest material. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) were employed for the growth of the films. The organic anions were intercalated in co-precipitation step. The powders were subsequently used either as materials for MAPLE, or they were pressed and used as targets for PLD. The surface topography of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the crystallographic structure of the powders and films was checked by X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopy was used to evidence DS interlayer intercalation, both for powders and the derived films. Contact angle measurements were performed in order to establish the wettability properties of the as-prepared thin films, in view of functionalization applications as hydrophobic surfaces, owing to the effect of DS intercalation.

  7. Layered double hydroxides as fillers in poly(l-lactide nanocomposites, obtained by in situ bulk polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Nogueira

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study in situ bulk polymerization of L-lactide filled with layered double hydroxides (LDH was investigated. Four different LDHs intercalated with two different organic anions (salicylate and sebacate were synthesized and characterized. After characterization, these synthetic layered compounds were used as fillers in poly(L-lactide (PLLA nanocomposites with two different fillers’s loadings (1 wt% and 2 wt%. PLLA and PLLA nanocomposites were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA, flexural testing and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results demonstrated that, compared to PLLA, the nanocomposite containing 1 wt% of Zn/Al salicylate transmitted less UVA and UVB light, while keeping a similar transparency in the visible region. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the nanocomposite with 1 wt% of Zn/Al salicylate exhibited the highest thermal stability. In general the flexural and dynamical mechanical properties were reduced in compassion to neat PLLA. DSC results, demonstrated that, compared to PLLA, all the nanocomposites exhibited lower glass transition temperature and melting temperature values.

  8. An investigation into the effects of different existing states of aluminum isopropoxide on copper-based catalysts for direct synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Wang, Peng; Bian, Zhongkai; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum isopropoxide (AIP) is a vital raw material to produce high surface area alumina catalyst, which is used for catalytic applications, such as hydrocracking, Fischer-Tropsch and STD (syngas to dimethyl ether) reactions. However, the different existing states have an effect on hydrolysis and condensation in the process of precursor preparation. The Cu/Zn/Al slurry catalysts were prepared by aluminum isopropoxide, which were liquid state, crystalline state and solid state, utilizing a complete liquid phase preparation technology. In the dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis reaction, the aluminum resource of crystalline state was prepared for slurry catalyst, which presented high CO conversion and DME selectivity of 54.32% and 69.74%, respectively. Characterization results indicated that different forms of AIP have the variant coordination numbers of Al-O and polymerization degrees, and the catalyst prepared by crystalline state consists amount of tetra-coordinated Al and few hexa-coordinated Al, which can exert different hydrolysis and condensation process compared with other aluminum sources, and finally it contributes to the strong interaction between active site copper species and Zn/Al species, confirming more Cu+ is responsible for the synthesis of DME in the slurry reactor.

  9. Corrosion resistance of zinc-based systems in NaCl environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal components in engineering, industry and agriculture are subjects of degradation process influenced by corrosion which result in changes of mechanical characteristics. The current trend of anticorrosion protection is aimed at inorganic metal zinc-based coatings, such as zinc dipping which can be improved by duplex protection. This paper deals with two types of corrosion protection of steel components by zinc coating, first of which is produced by hot dip galvanizing, the other by Zn-Al spray. Hot dip galvanizing was processed in working conditions; the Zn-Al coating was sprayed following the instructions of producer. It is a special aerosol with particles of Zn and Al sized approximately 5 µm. There have been processed the following tests: analysis of element structure, test of corrosion resistance in aggressive environment of salt spray according to ČSN ISO 9227, further measurement weight of applied coatings according to ČSN EN ISO 3892 and measurement of thickness of passivating coating. There was also made an analysis of coating tenacity on bending pin according to ČSN EN ISO 8401. Quality of applied coatings was evaluated following the metallographic scratch pattern.

  10. Graphene/zinc aluminum mixed metal oxides photo anode for CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiupeng; Zhu, Yatong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Sha; Liu, Dong; Tang, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Hongdi; Hou, Wanguo; Qi, Genggeng; Liu, Jianqiang

    2017-04-01

    In this study, graphene was used to enhance the photovoltaic performance of the CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The zinc aluminum mixed metal oxides (MMO) obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor and the graphene/MMO hybrid materials were used as photoanode of the CdS QDSSCs, respectively. Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the existence of graphene in the photoanodes. The incorporated graphene influenced the specific areas and improved the light harvesting, thus increasing the photogenerated electrons. The addition of graphene improves the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the QDSSCs, and the highest PCE of the QDSSCs with graphene/Zn-Al MMO photoanode reached 0.18%. Electrochemical impedance measurements indicated that graphene helped to increase the electron transfer rate in the graphene/Zn-Al MMO photoanode and reduce the charge recombination rate. This work highlights that graphene can act as a fast pathway for photogenerated electrons.

  11. Influence of divalent metal on the decomposition products of hydrotalcite-like ternary systems M{sup II}-Al-Cr (M{sup II} = Zn, Cd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.R.; Crespo, I.; Ulibarri, M.A.; Barriga, C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain); Rives, V. [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Fernandez, J.M., E-mail: um1feroj@uco.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LDHs M{sup II}-Al-Cr (M = Zn, Cd) with Cr in the layer or interlayer have been prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LDHs Zn-Al or Zn-Cr decompose by heating forming ZnO and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} or ZnO and ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LDHs Zn-Al-Cr give rise to the formation of ZnO and the mixed spinel ZnAl{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LDH Cd-Al-Cr shows the formation of CdO, CdCr{sub 2-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 4}, and (Al, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 3} mixed oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcination of the CdAl-CrO{sub 4} give rise to (Al, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 3} as the majority phase. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing M{sup II}, Al{sup III}, and Cr{sup III} in the brucite-like layers (M = Cd, Zn) with different starting Al/Cr molar ratios and nitrate/carbonate as the interlayer anion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method at a constant pH: Zn{sup II}-Al{sup III}-Cr{sup III}-CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} at pH = 10, and Cd{sup II}-Al{sup III}-Cr{sup III}-NO{sub 3}{sup -} at pH = 8. Two additional M{sup II},Al{sup III}-LDH samples (M = Cd, Zn) with chromate ions (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) in the interlayer have been prepared by ionic exchange at pH = 9 and 8, respectively, starting from M{sup II}-Al{sup III}-NO{sub 3}{sup -}. The samples have been characterised by absorption atomic spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their thermal stability has been assessed by DTA-TG and mass spectrometric analysis of the evolved gases. The PXRD patterns of the solids calcined at 800 Degree-Sign C show diffraction lines corresponding to ZnO and ZnAl{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 4} for the Zn-containing samples, and diffraction lines attributed to CdO and CdCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and (Al,Cr){sub 2}O{sub 3} for the Cd-containing ones. Additionally a minority oxide, Cd{sub 2}CrO{sub 5}, is observed to Cd{sup II}-Al{sup III

  12. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what

  13. Phase transitions during artificial ageing of segregated as-cast U–Mo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, Tércio Assunção, E-mail: tap@cdtn.br [CDTN/CNEN, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Soares Lameiras, Fernando [CDTN/CNEN, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cetlin, Paulo Roberto [Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa [CDTN/CNEN, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    non-lamellar constituent (NL3) in the high temperature ageing. The precipitation of oriented acicular or Widmanstätten γ′ platelets over a γ-phase matrix was observed for the hypereutectoid compositions of the U–Mo system, while the interdendritic regions with Mo contents close to the eutectoid composition were initially untransformed. This indicates a maximum in the γ stabilizing effect for the eutectoid composition, in opposition to the commonly accepted increased stabilizing effect for raised Mo additions.

  14. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Capture and Convert Carbon dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Y. Raskar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The uses of copper and zinc aluminates to capture and convert the CO2 to syn-gas were studied at higher temperatures. The samples of copper and zinc aluminates were prepared by solid-solid fusion method by calcining in air at 900 oC for 3 h. Those samples were characterized by acidity/alkalinity, surface area, XRD pattern, IR, SEM images and screening to capture CO2 at the different temperatures. The phases Cu2O, CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 were found to be in the samples of zinc and copper aluminates. Acidity and surface area of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates were found to be in the ranges from 0.063 to 9.37 mmol g-1 and 3.04 to 11.8 m2 g-1, respectively. The captured CO2 by the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 19.92 to 31.52 wt% for the temperature range 40 to 850 oC. The captured CO2 at 550 oC by variable Zn/Al and Cu/Al mol ratio from 0.5 to 6 of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 12.81 to 18.04 wt%. The reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc and copper aluminates was observed. The conversion of CO2 by methane over variable mol ratio of Cu/Al and Zn/Al in copper and zinc aluminates, respectively, at 500 oC showed the production of syn-gas by using the gas hourly space velocities (GHSV 12000, 12000 and 6000 ml. h-1. g-1 of helium, CO2 and methane. The conversions of CO2 by methane over the samples of zinc and copper aluminates were studied at different mol ratios of CO2 to methane.  © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 13rd May 2013; Revised: 8th November 2013; Accepted: 8th November 2013[How to Cite: Raskar, R.Y., Gaikwad, A.G. (2014. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Cap-ture and Convert Carbon Dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 1-15. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15

  15. Propagación in vitro de plantas adultas de Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae In vitro propagation of mature plants of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Yanira Rache Cardenal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un procedimiento de micropropagación de plantas adultas de Vaccinium meridionale utilizando como explantes primarios ápices caulinares. Durante la fase de establecimiento in vitro de explantes se estudió el efecto de los medios MS/3, WPM, AND y el propuesto por Kyte para Blueberry, suplementados con 2-iP más AIA ó BA más AIA. Durante la proliferación de microtallos se evaluó el efecto del medio MS/3 líquido, sólido y en doble fase (una fase líquida sobre una fase solidificada con agar, suplementados con 2-iP más AIA. El enraizamiento in vitro y ex vitro de microtallos y macollas se indujo utilizando auxinas y/o carbón activado y para el desarrollo de raíces se utilizó un sustrato enriquecido con materia orgánica. El endurecimiento de plántulas se realizó de manera simultánea con el proceso de desarrollo radical. Después de la fase de establecimiento, la media más alta, 4.5, yemas axilares desarrolladas por explante viable, se cuantificó en MS/3 suplementado con 59.05 µM de 2-iP más 17.13 µM de AIA. Durante la fase de proliferación de microtallos la media más alta, 7.25, se cuantificó en MS/3 en doble fase. Después de 60 días de endurecimiento el 88-100% de los microtallos enraizaron y reactivaron su crecimiento.Using stem apex as primary explants, a micropropagation protocol of Vaccinium meridionale was established. During establishment phase the effect of the MS/3, WPM, AND and Kyte media, supplemented with 2-iP plus IAA or BA plus IAA was studied. During microshoot proliferation the effect of MS/3 liquid, solid and double phase (the liquid phase in a solidified phase with agar supplemented with 2-iP plus IAA was evaluated. In vitro and ex vitro rooting of microshoots and microshoots was accomplished using auxines and/or activated charcoal; for root development a substratum with abundant organic matter was utilized. Plantlet hardening was achived simultaneously with the radical development process

  16. Machinability of clean thin-wall gray and ductile iron castings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Littleton, H.E.; Eleftheriou, E.; Griffin, R.D.; Dwyer, Z.B.; DelSorbo, C.; Sprague, J.

    1997-02-01

    First phase was to develop a laboratory technique for evaluating the machinability of gray and ductile iron; longer term goal is to learn how to modify the foundry process to produce castings meeting all specified mechanical properties while providing improved machining behavior. Microcarbides present in the irons were found to dominate the machinability of iron. Pearlitic irons with acceptable machinability contain 8.9 to 10.5 wt% microcarbides. The weight fraction microcarbides in the iron is influenced by carbide forming element concentrations, presence of elements that retard carbon diffusion, and cooling rate from the eutectic through the eutectoid temperature range. Tool wear rate increased at higher surface machining speeds and fraction microcarbides; all irons containing above 11.5% microcarbides had poor machinability. Graphite size, shape, distribution, etc. had a lesser effect on machinability. Reducing the addition of a foundry grade Ca and Al bearing 75% FeSi inoculant from 0.5 to 0.2% increased the tool life 100%. Inoculation test castings were also poured in a class 40 gray iron; laboratory analysis is currently underway. Exploratory studies were conducted to determine if tool force could be used to predict tool life: torque and feed forces were found to correlate with machinability.

  17. Model of Cu-Al-Fe-Ni Bronze Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarek B. P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the analysis of the current state of the knowledge shows that there is little information on the process of phase transformations that occur during the cooling Cu-Al-Fe-Ni hypo-eutectoid bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo and/or W, made additions individually or together, for the determination of: the type of crystallizing phases, crystallizing phases, order and place of their nucleation. On the basis of recorded using thermal and derivative analysis of thermal effects phases crystallization or their systems, analysis of the microstructure formed during crystallization - observed on the metallographic specimen casting ATD10-PŁ probe, analysis of the existing phase equilibrium diagrams forming elements tested Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze, with additions of Cr, Mo, W and/or Si developed an original model of crystallization and phase transformation in the solid state, the casting of high quality Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze comprising: crystallizing type phase, crystallizing phase sequence, place of nucleation.

  18. Refinement and fracture mechanisms of as-cast QT700-6 alloy by alloying method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-qiang Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The as-cast QT700-6 alloy was synthesized with addition of a certain amount of copper, nickel, niobium and stannum elements by alloying method in a medium frequency induction furnace, aiming at improving its strength and toughness. Microstructures of the as-cast QT700-6 alloy were observed using a scanning-electron microscope (SEM and the mechanical properties were investigated using a universal tensile test machine. Results indicate that the ratio of pearlite/ferrite is about 9:1 and the graphite size is less than 40 μm in diameter in the as-cast QT700-6 alloy. The predominant refinement mechanism is attributed to the formation of niobium carbides, which increases the heterogeneous nucleus and hinders the growth of graphite. Meanwhile, niobium carbides also exist around the grain boundaries, which improve the strength of the ductile iron. The tensile strength and elongation of the as-cast QT700-6 alloy reach over 700 MPa and 6%, respectively, when the addition amount of niobium is 0.8%. The addition of copper and nickel elements contributed to the decrease of eutectoid transformation temperature, resulting in the decrease of pearlite lamellar spacing (about 248 nm, which is also beneficial to enhancing the tensile strength. The main fracture mechanism is cleavage fracture with the appearance of a small amount of dimples.

  19. Evolution of hardness in ultrafine-grained metals processed by high-pressure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kawasaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The processing of metals through the application of high-pressure torsion (HPT provides the potential for achieving exceptional grain refinement in bulk metals. Numerous reports are now available demonstrating the application of HPT to a range of pure metals and simple alloys. In practice, excellent grain refinement is achieved using this processing technique with the average grain size often reduced to the true nano-scale range. Contrary to the significant grain refinement achieved in metals during HPT, the models of the hardness evolution are very different depending upon the material properties. For a better understanding of the material characteristics after conventional HPT processing, this report demonstrates the hardness evolutions in simple metals including high-purity Al, commercial purity aluminum Al-1050, ZK60A magnesium alloy and Zn-22% Al eutectoid alloy after processing by HPT. Separate models of hardness evolution are described with increasing equivalent strain by HPT. Moreover, a new approach for the use of HPT is demonstrated by synthesizing an Al–Mg metal system by processing two separate commercial metals of Al-1050 and ZK60A through conventional HPT processing at room temperature.

  20. Assessment of Effects of Si-Ca-P Biphasic Ceramic on the Osteogenic Differentiation of a Population of Multipotent Adult Human Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ros-Tárraga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new type of bioceramic with osteogenic properties, suitable for hard tissue regeneration, was synthesised. The ceramic was designed and obtained in the Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite subsystem. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectoid 28.39 wt % Nurse’s A-phase-71.61 wt % silicocarnotite invariant point. We report the effect of Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite ceramic on the capacity of multipotent adult human mesenchymal stem cells (ahMSCs cultured under experimental conditions, known to adhere, proliferate and differentiate into osteoblast lineage cells. The results at long-term culture (28 days on the material confirmed that the undifferentiated ahMSCs cultured and in contact with the material surface adhered, spread, proliferated, and produced a mineralised extracellular matrix on the studied ceramic, and finally acquired an osteoblastic phenotype. These findings indicate that it underwent an osteoblast differentiation process. All these findings were more significant than when cells were grown on plastic, in the presence and absence of this osteogenic supplement, and were more evident when this supplement was present in the growth medium (GM. The ceramic evaluated herein was bioactive, cytocompatible and capable of promoting the proliferation and differentiation of undifferentiated ahMSCs into osteoblasts, which may be important for bone integration into the clinical setting.

  1. Ancient Blacksmiths, The Iron Age, Damascus Steels, and Modern Metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    2000-09-11

    The history of iron and Damascus steels is described through the eyes of ancient blacksmiths. For example, evidence is presented that questions why the Iron Age could not have begun at about the same time as the early Bronze Age (i.e. approximately 7000 B.C.). It is also clear that ancient blacksmiths had enough information from their forging work, together with their observation of color changes during heating and their estimate of hardness by scratch tests, to have determined some key parts of the present-day iron-carbon phase diagram. The blacksmiths' greatest artistic accomplishments were the Damascus and Japanese steel swords. The Damascus sword was famous not only for its exceptional cutting edge and toughness, but also for its beautiful surface markings. Damascus steels are ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) that contain from 1.0 to 2.1%. carbon. The modern metallurgical understanding of UHCSs has revealed that remarkable properties can be obtained in these hypereutectoid steels. The results achieved in UHCSs are attributed to the ability to place the carbon, in excess of the eutectoid composition, to do useful work that enhances the high temperature processing of carbon steels and that improves the low and intermediate temperature mechanical properties.

  2. Austenite to ferrite transformation kinetics during continuous cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Militzer, M.; Pandi, R.; Hawbolt, E.B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Process Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The austenite decomposition has been investigated in a hypo-eutectoid plain carbon steel under continuous cooling conditions using a dilatometer and a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator. The experimental results were used to verify model calculations based on a fundamental approach for the dilute ternary systems Fe-C-Mn. The austenite to ferrite transformation start temperature can be predicted from a nucleation model for slow cooling rates. The formation of ferrite nuclei takes place with equilibrium composition on austenite grain boundaries. The nuclei are assumed to have a pill box shape in accordance with minimal interfacial energy. For higher cooling rates, early growth has to be taken into account to describe the transformation start. In contrast to nucleation, growth of the ferrite is characterized by paraequilibrium; i.e. only carbon can redistribute, whereas the diffusion of Mn is too slow to allow full equilibrium in the ternary system. However, Mn segregation to the moving ferrite-austenite interface has to be considered. The latter, in turn, exerts a solute drag effect on the boundary movement. Thus, growth kinetics is controlled by carbon diffusion in austenite modified by interfacial segregation of Mn. Employing a phenomenological segregation model, good agreement has been achieved with the measurements.

  3. Heat treatment of nitrided layer formed on X37CrMoV5-1 hot working tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciski, A.; Wach, P.; Tacikowski, J.; Babul, T.; Šuchmann, P.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the technology consisting of combination of the nitriding process with subsequent austenitizing at temperature above eutectoid temperature of the Fe-C system and further rapid cooling. Such treatment will cause formation of the martensite in the area of the primarily nitrided layer and the additional precipitation hardening by tempering of heat treated steel. The article shows that the heat treatment process of nitrided layer formed on X37CrMoV5-1 steel leads to strengthening of surface layer, the substrate and the core of nitrided part. Heat treatment of nitrided steel with the tempering in inert (nitrogen) or active (ammonia) atmosphere can increase the thickness of the layer formed by short-term nitriding process. After the nitriding process of X37CrMoV5-1 steel the nitrided layer had a thickness of about 160 μm, while a subsurface layer of iron nitrides had a thickness of 7 μm. After subsequent quenching and tempering processes, the nitrided layer undergoes additional diffusion and its thickness is increased to about 220 μm (inert atmosphere) or 280 μm (active atmosphere). If the tempering process is carried out in an inert atmosphere, the primarily formed layer of iron nitrides disappears. Tempering in an active atmosphere leads to forming of white layer with a thickness of 7 μm. Basic properties of nitrided layers formed in such way, like the hardness and the wear resistance, are presented.

  4. TO SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF SOFTENING HEAT TREATMENT FOR HIGH CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Efremenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. High chromium cast irons with austenitic matrix have low machinability. The aim of work is search of new energy-saving modes of preliminary softening heat treatment enhancing the machinability of castings by forming an optimum microstructure. Methodology. Metallographic analysis, hardness testing and machinability testing are applied. Findings. It was found out that high temperature annealing with continuous cooling yields to martensite-austenite matrix in cast iron 270Х15Г2Н1MPhT, which abruptly affects the machinability of cast iron. Significant improvement of machinability is achieved by forming of structure "ferrite + granular carbides" and by decline of hardness to 37-39 HRC in the case of two-stage isothermal annealing in the subcritical temperature range or by the use of quenching and tempering (two-step or cyclic. Originality. It was found that the formation of the optimal structure of the matrix and achievement of desired hardness level needed for improving machinability of high chromium cast iron containing 3 % austenite-forming elements, can be obtained: 1 due to pearlite original austenite followed by spherodization eutectoid carbides, and 2 by getting predominantly martensite structure followed by the decay of martensite and carbides coagulation at high-temperature tempering. Practical value. The new energy-saving schemes of softening heat treatment to ensure the growth of machinability of high chromium cast iron, alloyed by higher quantity of austenite forming elements, are proposed.

  5. Effect of quenching rate on martensitic transformation temperature in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys; Cu-Al-Ni keijo kioku gokin no maltensite hentai ondo ni oyobosu yakiire reikyakusokudo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaniwa, M.; Sugimoto, K.; Kamei, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Sugimoto, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-08-20

    Experiments were carried out for Cu-xAl-5Ni-2Mn-1Ti shape memory alloys (x= 11.45, 11.77, 11.88 mass%) in order to examine the effect of quenching rate on the transformation temperatures (Ms, Mf, As and Af). The quenching rate was varied from 5 to 1{times}10{sup 4} K/s by changing the temperature of quenching media. The transformation temperatures were determined by DSC measurements for all the samples quenched and are plotted as a faction of quenching rate. It was found that all the transformation temperatures decreased by about 10 K, when the quenching rate was increased 10 times as large as its initial value. The reason was explained by considering the degree of order in the beta-phase. The primary {alpha}- and {gamma}2-phases do not precipitate even during air-cooling on quenching in the alloys with 11.77 and 11.88%Al, being close to the eutectoid composition. Therefore, no remarkable change in martensitic transformation temperature with reducing quenching rate was observed in these alloys. In other words, it can be concluded that these alloys are suitable for heat treatments in practice, where the specimens are cooled more slowly. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Pearlite transformation in high carbon steels deformed in metastable austenite region; Jun`antei austenite iki de kakoshita kotansoko no pearlite hentai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daito, Y.; Aihara, K.; Nishizawa, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    Pearlite structure was discussed noticing particularly on the state of nucleus composition, for the case when high carbon steels mainly structured by pearlite was processed in metastable austenite region below the point A1 which is thought a non-recrystallized region. When the processing amount is increased in the metastable austenite region, the size of pearlite colonies decreased. This is because of increase in nucleus producing site as a result of the processing. Even with a steel of eutectoid carbon concentration of an equilibrium diagram, proeuctoid ferrite is produced if the processing is given in the metastable austenite region. Furthermore, the production amount of the proeuctoid ferrite increased with increasing processing amount. If the processing is given in the metastable austenite region, the region that becomes a single pearlite structure shifted to hypereuctoid carbon concentration side as the transformation temperature has fallen. The result of an experiment performed in carbon concentration at which the single pearlite structure is obtained agreed well with drive force equilibrium line of ferrite and cementite as calculated based on the Gibbs energy. 18 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Thermal stability of {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}facet terminated gold nanobelts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ying [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Milenkovic, Srdjan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); IMDEA Materials Institute, C/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hassel, Achim Walter, E-mail: hassel@elchem.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    A precise knowledge and understanding of the thermal stability of nanowires is a prerequisite for the reliable implementation of nanowire-based devices. Single crystalline Au nanobelts with {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}surface either in free standing arrays with identical crystallographic orientation or lying on the substrate were prepared by a combination of directional eutectoid decomposition followed by phase selective etching process. The thermal stability in the temperature range 500-700 Degree-Sign C of the obtained free standing and lying Au nanobelts were investigated in situ with a scanning electron microscope equipped with a high temperature stage. The results suggested that free standing Au nanobelts undergo morphological evolution in a different way compared with the substrate contacted lying Au nanobelts. The free standing Au nanobelts broke more easily and decayed into a chain of nanospheres following Rayleigh instability after the belt morphology changed into cylindrical wires; whereas the Au nanobelts lying on the substrate decayed into irregular particles. These findings clearly support a surface energy minimization driven mechanism. Only after transformation into a mainly {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}terminated structure formation of Rayleigh instabilities are observed.

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Joints of Titanium with Stainless Steel Performed using Nickel Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwed B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion brazing was performed between titanium (Grade 2 and stainless steel (X5CrNi18-10 using as a filler a nickel foil at the temperatures of 850, 900, 950 and 1000°C. The microstructure was investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray system (EDS. The structure of the joints on the titanium side was composed of the eutectoid mixture αTi+Ti2Ni and layers of intermetallic phases Ti2Ni, TiNi and TiNi3. The stainless steel-nickel interface is free from any reaction layer at 850°C, above this temperature thin layer of reaction appears. The microhardness measured across the joints reaches higher values than for titanium and stainless steel, and it achieves value from 260 to 446 HV. The highest shear strength (214 MPa was achieved for joints brazed at 900°C.

  9. Metallography and microstructure interpretation of some archaeological tin bronze vessels from Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudbashi, Omid, E-mail: o.oudbashi@aui.ac.ir [Department of Conservation of Historic Properties, Faculty of Conservation, Art University of Isfahan, Hakim Nezami Street, Sangtarashha Alley, P.O. Box 1744, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davami, Parviz, E-mail: pdavami@razi-foundation.com [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology/Razi Applied Science Foundation, No. 27, Fernan St., Shahid Ghasem Asghari Blvd., km 21 of Karadj Makhsous Road, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Archaeological excavations in western Iran have recently revealed a significant Luristan Bronzes collection from Sangtarashan archaeological site. The site and its bronze collection are dated to Iron Age II/III of western Iran (10th–7th century BC) according to archaeological research. Alloy composition, microstructure and manufacturing technique of some sheet metal vessels are determined to reveal metallurgical processes in western Iran in the first millennium BC. Experimental analyses were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Optical Microscopy/Metallography methods. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process of bronze vessels in Luristan. It proved that the samples have been manufactured with a binary copper–tin alloy with a variable tin content that may relates to the application of an uncontrolled procedure to make bronze alloy (e.g. co-smelting or cementation). The presence of elongated copper sulphide inclusions showed probable use of copper sulphide ores for metal production and smelting. Based on metallographic studies, a cycle of cold working and annealing was used to shape the bronze vessels. - Highlights: • Sangtarashan vessels are made by variable Cu-Sn alloys with some impurities. • Various compositions occurred due to applying uncontrolled smelting methods. • The microstructure represents thermo-mechanical process to shape bronze vessels. • In one case, the annealing didn’t remove the eutectoid remaining from casting. • The characteristics of the bronzes are similar to other Iron Age Luristan Bronzes.

  10. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  11. Effect of electrode and weld current on the physical and mechanical properties of cast iron welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamim, M.; Triyono, Diharjo, Kuncoro

    2017-01-01

    Metal casting industry will repair the products are defective. The repair process is often done using a Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). Preheat and post-weld heat treatment method can overcome the problem of welding cast iron. However, many of the local foundry industry does not use this method. The main problem of the method relates to the problem of cost and process. The results of testing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), gray cast iron welding seen to have an important problem in the PMZ and HAZ. Hard and brittle phase formations during solidification process and after solidification formation eutectoid is carbide and martensite. The formation of martensite and carbides is caused by the high carbon content of cast iron. Consumable electrode with a nickel base material used for the welding process without preheating and PWHT methods. Nickel as an austenite stabilizer can pick up the carbon, so that the hard phase PMZ area can be reduced. Variations electric current used to get good heat input in the welding area so that nickel can diffuse well.

  12. Superplastic Forming 40 Years and Still Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, A. J.

    2007-08-01

    In late 1964 Backofen, Turner & Avery, at MIT, published a paper in which they described the “extraordinary formability” exhibited when fine-grain zinc-aluminum eutectoid (Zn 22 Al) was subjected to bulge testing under appropriate conditions. They concluded their research findings with the following insightful comment “ even more appealing is the thought of applying to superplastic metals forming techniques borrowed from polymer and glass processing.” Since then their insightful thought has become a substantial reality with thousands of tons of metallic sheet materials now being superplastically formed each year. This paper reviews the significant advances that have taken place over the past 40 years including alloy developments, improved forming techniques and equipment, and an ever increasing number of commercial applications. Current and likely future trends are discussed including; applications in the aerospace and automotive markets, faster-forming techniques to improve productivity, the increasing importance of computer modeling and simulation in tool design and process optimization and new alloy developments including superplastic magnesium alloys.

  13. Bonding Cu to Al2O3 with Bi-B-Zn Oxide Glass Via Oxidation-Reduction Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiang; Li, Yufeng; Miao, Weiliang; Mai, Chengle; Li, Mingyu

    2017-09-01

    Bonding Cu on Al2O3 is a key and difficult technology applied in high-power semiconductor devices. A method proposed in this work investigates bonding with a kind of Bi-B-Zn oxide glass powder paste as a solder. Oxidation-reduction reactions between the Cu plate and the solder took place and generated Bi metal during the joining procedure. With an increase in the joining temperature, the tensile strength increased due to the increase of Bi metal formation. The Bi metal played an important role in joining Cu and Al2O3 because of its much better wettability on Cu than that of the oxides. A compound ZnAl2O4 was observed to form between the Al2O3 ceramic and oxide layer, which strengthened the bond.

  14. Desenvolvimento de um dispositivo para obtenção de monocristais de ligas à base de cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Matildes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the drawing, construction and optimization of a device, which can be used to obtain single crystals of different metallic materials with melting point from 550 to 1050 ºC. Components of ease obtaining and of low cost were used. The device was based on the modified Bridgman technique and it was used to obtain single crystals of copper-based alloys. The temperature axial profiles and a difference less then 1% in the temperature between the wall and the center of the ceramic tube in the critical region for obtaining single crystals of good quality indicated that the oven presents a good thermal stability. Single crystals of CuZnAl and CuAlAg alloys of good quality were growth and characterized using optical microscopy and Laüe X-ray back reflection.

  15. Preparation of ZnO-Al2O3 Particles in a Premixed Flame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Joakim Reimer; Johannessen, Tue; Wedel, Stig

    2000-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and alumina (Al2O3) particles are synthesized by the combustion of their volatilized acetylacetonate precursors in a premixed air-methane flame reactor. The particles are characterized by XRD, transmission electron microscopy, scanning mobility particle sizing and by measurement...... temperature and a decreasing precursor vapour pressure. The combustion of precursor mixtures leads to composite particles consisting of zinc aluminate ZnAl2O4 intermixed with either ZnO or Al2O3 phases. The zinc aluminate particles are dendritic aggregates, resembling the alumina particles, and are evidently...... synthesized to the full extent allowed by the overall precursor composition. The addition of even small amounts of alumina to ZnO increases the specific surface area of the composites significantly, for e.g. zinc aluminate particles to approximately 150 m2/g. The gas-to-particle conversion is initiated...

  16. Synthesis and physical properties of (Cu,M)Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}O{sub z} (M = C,Mg,Ni,Al,Zn,Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T.; Kashiwagi, H.; Miyashita, S.; Ichioka, N.; Tokiwa, K.; Iyo, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Agarwal, S.K.; Ihara, H.

    1999-11-01

    The authors have synthesized the single phase samples of Cu{sub x}C{sub 0.1}Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}O{sub z} (x = 0.2{approximately}0.9). Transport and magnetic measurements and iodometric titration analysis were carried out for these materials. From these results they discuss the correlation between {Tc}, the Hall number, copper valence and oxygen content. The effect of the substituted M ions on {Tc} in (CuC, M)-1234 (M = Ni,Zn,Al,Tl,Mg) is also discussed. They propose a unique selective carrier-doping mechanism in (Cu,C)- and (CuC, Mg)-1234 systems.

  17. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crăciunescu, Corneliu M., E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Mitelea, Ion, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Budău, Victor, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara (Romania); Ercuţa, Aurel [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara and Department of Physics, West University Timisoara (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  18. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajčičák Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

  19. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajčičák, Martin; Šuba, Roland

    2014-06-01

    The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

  20. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Ho [Naperville, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  1. Heat resistant magnesium alloys for automotive powertrain applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anyanwu, I.A.; Gokan, Y.; Nozawa, S.; Kamado, S.; Kojima, Y. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Takeda, S.; Ishida, T. [Ahresty Corp., Magnesium Products Mfg. Div., Tochigi (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The suitability of new Mg-Zn-Al-Ca-RE alloys for automotive power train applications are evaluated. Zinc and aluminum contents of the alloys were systematically varied in order to determine alloys with a combination of good diecasting characteristics and high heat resistance. Addition of large amounts of zinc to the alloys results in the formation of intermetallic compounds that crystallize at lower temperatures relative to the matrix, and consequently, fluidity is improved, but hot tearing occurs during diecasting. However, one of the new alloys, Mg-0.5%Zn-6%Al-1%Ca-3%RE alloy is found to exhibit good diecastability and comparable heat resistance with the conventional aluminum alloy, ADC12 that is currently used for diecasting of automotive powertrain parts. (orig.)

  2. A solid state NMR study of layered double hydroxides intercalated with para-amino salicylate, a tuberculosis drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicholai Daugaard; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2016-01-01

    ), elemental analysis and IR-spectroscopy to gain insight into the bulk and atomic level structure of these LDHs especially with a view to the purity of the LDH-PAS materials and the concentration of impurities. The intercalations of PAS in MgAl-, ZnAl-, and CaAl-LDH's were confirmed by 13C SSNMR and PXRD....... Moreover, 13C MAS NMR and infra-red spectroscopy show that PAS did not decompose during synthesis. Large amounts (20-41%) of amorphous aluminum impurities were detected in the structure using 27Al single pulse and 3QMAS NMR spectra, which in combination with 1H single and double quantum experiments also...

  3. Fabrication of nanocomposites by collagen templated synthesis of layered double hydroxides assisted by an acrylic silane coupling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanqing; Zhou, Yuming; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to control the fabrication of nanocomposites at the nanoscale interface by collagen templated synthesis of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) assisted by γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH570) with further treatment of graft polymerization. The results show that collagen directs the growth of LDHs into curved nanorods by length of 300 nm in perfect consistency with collagen chain in both the size and flexility under the essential hydrophobic environment on the solid surface provided by KH570. The nanorods are aggregated into thin curved platelets due to strong interaction between collagen molecules themselves and strong interaction between collagen and LDH sheets. By further treatment of graft polymerization, the adjacent curved platelets encircle into numerous hollows via chemical linkage, achieving polyporous nanocomposites. Nanohybrid materials with this structure are especially interesting for applications as biosensors or supported catalysis.

  4. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  5. Zinc oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasad

    2005-10-04

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided, wherein the sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents contain an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2 O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, containing a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  6. Process for preparing zinc oxide-based sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar [Cary, NC; Turk, Brian Scott [Durham, NC; Gupta, Raghubir Prasad [Durham, NC

    2011-06-07

    The disclosure relates to zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  7. Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Beverly S; Sharitz, Rebecca R; Coughlin, Daniel P

    2005-05-01

    Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands in each system contained Myriophyllum aquaticum and Nymphaea odorata; shallow wetlands contained Juncus effusus and Pontederia cordata. Shoot elemental concentrations differed between plants of deep and shallow wetlands, with higher Zn, Al, and Fe concentrations in plants in shallow wetlands and higher Na, Mn, and P concentrations in plants in deep wetlands. Root and shoot concentrations of most elements differed between species in each wetland type. Over two seasons, these four common wetland plants did help remediate acidic, metal-contaminated runoff from a coal storage pile.

  8. Emergent ferromagnetism in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires: Towards oxide spinterfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, G. Z.

    2013-07-08

    We report that room-temperature ferromagnetism emerges at the interface formed between ZnO nanowire core and Al2O3 shell although both constituents show mainly diamagnetism. The interface-based ferromagnetism can be further enhanced by annealing the ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires and activating the formation of ZnAl2O4 phase as a result of interfacial solid-state reaction. High-temperature measurements indicate that the magnetic order is thermally stable up to 750 K. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the annealing-induced jagged interfaces, and the extensive structural defects appear to be relevant to the emergent magnetism. Our study suggests that tailoring the spinterfaces in nanostructure-harnessed wide-band-gap oxides is an effective route towards engineered nanoscale architecture with enhanced magnetic properties.

  9. Synthesising methods of layered double hydroxides and its use in the fabrication of dye Sensitised solar cell (DSSC): A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Giphin; Saravanakumar, M. P.

    2017-11-01

    The layered double hydroxides (LDH) which are anionic clay substances comprising of stacked cationic layers and interlayer anions. The cationic sheets contain octahedral structure consisting the divalent and trivalent ions in the center and hydroxyl bunches in the corners, gathered by three bonding with the neighbouring octahedra on every side of the layer. The ratio between the quantity of cations and OH‑ ions is 2:1, so a positive charge shows up on the layer because of the presence of trivalent cations. The interlayer space gives the compensation anions and water molecules, assuring a balanced out layered structure. The LDH materials were successfully synthesised from magnesium, aluminium, zinc and chromium chloride salts utilizing the co-precipitation technique. A Zn-Al LDH was researched as a potential sorbent material. This article reviews the recent advances in the preparation and intercalation of layered double hydroxides and its application in the fabrication of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC).

  10. First and second harmonic generation of the XAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (X=Zn,Cd,Hg) defect chalcopyrite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Tarik, E-mail: tarik_ouahrani@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P.230,13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Ecole Preparatoire en Sciences et Techniques, Depertement de Physique EPST-T, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M), Universite de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Lasri, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P.230,13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Universite Dr Tahar Moulay de Saida, B.P. 138, Cite el Nasr, Saida 20000 (Algeria); Reshak, Ali H. [School of Complex systems, FFPW- South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Bouhemadou, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Bin-Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-09-15

    The chemical bonding of the ZnAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4}, CdAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and HgAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} defect chalcopyrites has been studied in the framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). The GW quasi-particle approximation is used to correct the DFT-underestimation of energy gap, and as a consequence the linear and nonlinear optical properties are significantly enhanced. The second harmonic generation (SHG) displays certain dependence with the ionicity degree decrease through the dependency of the SHG on the band gap. The occurrence of the AIM saddle point is characterized and some clarifying features in relationship with the density topology are exposed, which enable to understand the relation with the second harmonic generation effect.

  11. Impact of wastewater application on magnetic susceptibility in Terric Histosol soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Zofia; Alekseev, Andrey; Skic, Kamil; Brzezińska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we attempted to analyse the changes in magnetic susceptibility in Terric Histosol soil irrigated with municipal wastewater in a period of four years. Effects of different plants (poplar and willow), wastewater doses, depths, as well as the concentration of the elements and the total carbon content were tested. The study showed that systematic wastewater irrigation diminished magnetic susceptibility values in the top layer of soil. However, statistical analysis revealed that both doses of wastewater and growing plants did not have a significant impact on the magnetic susceptibility of obtained results. Magnetic susceptibility decreased significantly with the depth, in accordance with higher total carbon and lower content of magnetic particles. High correlation coefficients were found between magnetic susceptibility and Zn, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO content, whereas no correlation was observed for Cr, as well as for Pb.

  12. Heavy metal and metalloids intake risk assessment in the diet of a rural population living near a gold mine in the Peruvian Andes (Cajamarca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenys, Marta; Boix, Nuria; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Palma-Linares, Imma; Montserrat, Roser; Curto, Ariadna; Gomez-Catalan, Jesus; Ortiz, Pedro; Deza, Nilton; Llobet, Juan M

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the diet composition of a rural population near a gold mine in the Cajamarca district of Peru. The main consumed items by this population were tubers and cereals, and the mean energy intake (1990 kcal) was shown not to cover the recommended intake values for the male population. The concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Cr and, Cu in drinking water and food samples of items contributing to 91% of this diet (145 samples, 24 different items) were determined and used to calculate their daily intakes for risk assessment. The As, Cd and Pb daily intakes exceeded the limit values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), entailing serious concerns for the population's health. Moreover, the intake values of As and Pb were shown to be higher, the closer to the gold mine the studied population was. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of ground-state structures and order-disorder phase transitions in II-III spinel oxides: A combined cluster-expansion method and first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Atsuto; Yuge, Koretaka; Oba, Fumiyasu; Kuwabara, Akihide; Tanaka, Isao

    2006-05-01

    Ground-state structures of six II-III spinel oxides are predicted by combining the cluster expansion method and first principles calculations. The ground states of MgGa2O4 and MgIn2O4 are found to be inverse spinels with a tetragonal lattice, whereas those of MgAl2O4 , ZnAl2O4 , ZnGa2O4 , and ZnIn2O4 are normal spinels with a cubic lattice. Order-disorder transition behaviors are examined using Monte Carlo simulations. The order-disorder transition to exchange octahedral and tetrahedral cations takes place as commonly accepted. In inverse spinels, a new kind of transition to exchange II and III cations in octahedral sites can be recognized, which has not been reported experimentally. Their transition temperatures are evaluated.

  14. Theoretical explanation of the uniform compressibility behavior observed in oxide spinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, J. M.; Franco, R.; Martín Pendás, A.; Blanco, M. A.; Pueyo, L.; Pandey, Ravindra

    2001-05-01

    Simple algebraic equations show that the bulk compressibility in spinel-type compounds can be expressed by means of cation oxide polyhedral compressibilities and a term that accounts for the pressure effect on the internal oxygen position in the unit cell. The equations explain (i) the difference of compressibilities at octahedral and tetrahedral sites, (ii) why the macroscopic bulk modulus can be estimated as the average of these polyhedral bulk moduli, and (iii) the uniform behavior found in oxide spinels under hydrostatic pressure. Quantum-mechanical ab initio perturbed ion results on MgAl2O4, ZnAl2O4, ZnGa2O4, and MgGa2O4 direct spinels and on MgGa2O4 inverse spinel are reported to illustrate the interpretative capabilities of the proposed equations.

  15. Layered double hydroxide using hydrothermal treatment: morphology evolution, intercalation and release kinetics of diclofenac sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Mathew; Iyengar, Srividhya J.; Chakraborty, Jui; Ghosh, Swapankumar

    2017-11-01

    The present work demonstrates the possibilities of hydrothermal transformation of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanostructure by varying the synthetic conditions. The manipulation in washing step before hydrothermal treatment allows control over crystal morphologies, size and stability of their aqueous solutions. We examined the crystal growth process in the presence and the absence of extra ions during hydrothermal treatment and its dependence on the drug (diclofenac sodium (Dic-Na)) loading and release processes. Hexagonal plate-like crystals show sustained release with ˜90% of the drug from the matrix in a week, suggesting the applicability of LDH nanohybrids in sustained drug delivery systems. The fits to the release kinetics data indicated the drug release as a diffusion-controlled release process. LDH with rod-like morphology shows excellent colloidal stability in aqueous suspension, as studied by photon correlation spectroscopy.

  16. EFFECT OF ALUMINIUM AND MAGNESIUM ON THE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ZINC COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Klimek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the research on corrosion resistance of Zn-Al-Mg coatings with varying aluminium and magnesium content. Aluminium and magnesium were added directly to the zinc bath at 10:1 rate. There was found more than sixfold increase in corrosion resistance of zinc coatings with aluminium content at the level of 4% of weight and magnesium content at the level of 0.4% of weight. In contrast to the amounts applied in the literature, such content of these alloy additives in the zinc bath limits to a significant extent the amount of intermetallic phases in zinc coatings obtained from such baths. This, in consequence, results in high resistance to corrosion with simultaneous retention of high plasticity of these coatings.

  17. Application of multivariate statistical approach to identify heavy metal sources in bottom soil of the Seyhan River (Adana), Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, M Gurhan; Tumuklu, Ali; Sonmez, Mustafa; Erdag, Dilek Satir

    2010-05-01

    In this study, freshly deposited soils were sampled from the Seyhan River (Turkey) from the exit of the Seyhan Dam to the Adana exit. Heavy metal contents were measured with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Multivariate statistical approach is used to identify the sources of heavy metals and other elements in soil samples. Considering the size of anomalies, metals are ranked as Co>Pb>Cr>Zn>Al. Based on the hierarchical cluster analysis results, three clusters were observed. P, Mg, Ti, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Al, Si, and Nb form the first cluster, Zn, Sr, Pb, and Cr associated as the second cluster, and Ba and Co form the third cluster. Three factors computed from principal component analysis are explained with a cumulative variance of 95%. The first factor is defined with "high background lithogenic factor" Co, the second factor with "local industrial factor" Pb, Cr, Ba, and Mg, and the third factor with "natural factor" Cr and Pb.

  18. Biological evaluation of layered double hydroxides as efficient drug vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yan; Liu Dan; Chang Qing; Liu Dandan; Xia Ying; Liu Shuwen; Peng Nanfang; Yang Xu [Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, College of Life Science, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Ai Hanhua [College of Physical Science and Technology, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Xi Zhuge, E-mail: yangxu@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Tianjin Institutes of Health and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2010-03-12

    Recently there has been a rapid expansion of the development of bioinorganic hybrid systems for safe drug delivery. Layered double hydroxides (LDH), a variety of available inorganic matrix, possess great promise for this purpose. In this study, an oxidative stress biomarker system, including measurement of reactive oxygen species, glutathione content, endogenous nitric oxide, carbonyl content in proteins, DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks, was designed to evaluate the biocompatibility of different concentrations of nano-Zn/Al-LDH with a Hela cell line. The drug delivery activity of the LDH-folic-acid complex was also assessed. The resulting data clearly demonstrated that nano-LDH could be applied as a relatively safe drug vehicle with good delivery activity, but with the caveat that the effects of high dosages observed here should not be ignored when attempting to maximize therapeutic activity by increasing LDH concentration.

  19. Influence of stripping and cooling atmospheres on surface properties and corrosion of zinc galvanizing coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasakau, K.A., E-mail: kyasakau@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Giner, I. [Universität Paderborn, Fakultät NW—Department Chemie, Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Vree, C. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung, GmbH Division Surface Technology, Eisenhüttenstrasse 99, 38239 Salzgitter (Germany); Ozcan, O.; Grothe, R. [Universität Paderborn, Fakultät NW—Department Chemie, Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Oliveira, A. [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Grundmeier, G. [Universität Paderborn, Fakultät NW—Department Chemie, Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Ferreira, M.G.S. [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Zheludkevich, M.L. [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Corrosion and Surface Technology, Institute of Materials Research Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Stripping/cooling atmosphere affects surfaces chemical composition of Zn and Zn-Al-Mg galvanized coatings. • Higher peel forces of model adhesive films were obtained on zinc alloys samples prepared under nitrogen atmosphere. • Localized corrosion attack originates at grain boundaries on Zn galvanized coating. • Visible dissolution of MgZn{sub 2} phase was observed by in situ AFM only at binary eutectics and not at ternary ones. - Abstract: In this work the influence of stripping/cooling atmospheres used after withdrawal of steel sheet from Zn or Zn-alloy melt on surface properties of Zn (Z) and Zn-Al-Mg (ZM) hot-dip galvanizing coatings has been studied. The aim was to understand how the atmosphere (composed by nitrogen (N{sub 2}) or air) affects adhesion strength to model adhesive and corrosive behaviour of the galvanized substrates. It was shown that the surface chemical composition and Volta potential of the galvanizing coatings prepared under the air or nitrogen atmosphere are strongly influenced by the atmosphere. The surface chemistry Z and ZM surfaces prepared under N{sub 2} contained a higher content of metal atoms and a richer hydroxide density than the specimens prepared under air atmosphere as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The induced differences on the microstructure of the galvanized coatings played a key role on the local corrosion induced defects as observed by means of in situ Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Peel force tests performed on the substrates coated by model adhesive films indicate a higher adhesive strength to the surfaces prepared under nitrogen atmosphere. The obtained results have been discussed in terms of the microstructure and surface chemical composition of the galvanizing coatings.

  20. Mixed oxides derived from layered double hydroxides as novel catalysts for phenol photodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscasu, C. M.; Carja, G.; Mureseanu, M.; Zaharia, C.

    2017-08-01

    The removal of organic pollutants is nowadays a very challenging aspect of the environmental research. There are strong interests to develop novel semiconducting photocatalysts able to efficiently promote advanced oxidation reactions. The development of photocatalysts based on the mixtures of mixed oxides derived from layered double hydroxides (LDHs) - a family of naturally occurring anionic clays - might offer novel environmental-friendly solutions for the cost effective removal of organic pollutants. This work presents ZnO/ZnAl2O4, ZnO/Zn2TiO4 and ZnO/ZnCr2O4 as novel photocatalytic formulations for phenol degradation under UV irradiation. They were obtained by the controlled thermal treatment of the layered double hydroxides matrices (LDHs), as precursors materials, type ZnM-LDH (M = Al3+, Cr3+ or Ti4+). The LDHs were synthesized by the co-precipitation method at a constant pH. Controlled calcination at 650°C gives rise to solutions of mixed metal oxides. The structural and nanoarchitectonics characteristics of the studied catalysts were described by: XRD, SEM/TEM and TG/DTG techniques. Results show that in the photocatalytic process of the phenol degradation from aqueous solutions, ZnO/ZnCr2O4 and ZnO/ZnAl2O4 showed the best performance degrading ∼98% of phenol after 3.5 hs and 5 hs, respectively; while ZnO/Zn2TiO4 has degraded almost 80 % after 7.5 hs of UV irradiation. These results open new opportunities in the development of new cost effective photoresponsive formulations able to facilitate the photo-degradation of the organic pollution as “green” solution for removal of dangerous pollutants.

  1. Mechanical and microstructural behaviour during bonding of alumina to niobium by liquid state diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus R, J.; Ramirez R, M. I.; Verduzco M, J. A.; Zarate M, J., E-mail: jlruiz@umich.mx [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Instituto de Investigacion en Metalurgia y Materiales, Francisco Mujica s/n, 58000 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this work was to study various aspects of liquid state diffusion bonding of cylindrical samples of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and commercially pure niobium (99.7%) by brazing using a 25 μm thick 70/Cu-30/Zn (wt %) alloy as joining element. Initially, sintering of alumina powder was carried out in order to produce a 7 mm diameter samples at 1550 degrees C by 60 minutes. Joining experiments were carried out on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu-Zn/Nb/Cu-Zn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sandwich-like combinations at temperature of 920, 950 and 980 degrees C using vary holding times under Ar. The experimental results show a successful joining of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Nb at 950 and 980 degrees C, however not at 920 degrees C. Joining of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu-Zn/Nb/Cu-Zn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred by the formation of a homogeneous diffusion zone with no interfacial cracking or porosity at the interface. Scanning electron microscopy (Sem) micrographs show the layer formed in the reaction zone. It was observed that the width of the reaction zone increases with bonding temperature and time. Electron probe microanalysis (Epma) revealed that at any particular bonding temperature, Nb travel into the Cu-Zn joining element forming a circular precipitate phase near to the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic. Shears test evaluation show results vary from 57 to 127 MPa in samples joined at 980 degrees C and time vary from 10 to 35 minutes, respectively. (Author)

  2. High-Reliability Low-Ag-Content Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints for Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnawah, Dhafer Abdulameer; Said, Suhana Binti Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Che, Fa Xing

    2012-09-01

    Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloy is currently recognized as the standard lead-free solder alloy for packaging of interconnects in the electronics industry, and high- Ag-content SAC alloys are the most popular choice. However, this choice has been encumbered by the fragility of the solder joints that has been observed in drop testing as well as the high cost of the Ag itself. Therefore, low-Ag-content SAC alloy was considered as a solution for both issues. However, this approach may compromise the thermal-cycling performance of the solders. Therefore, to enhance the thermal-cycling reliability of low-Ag-content SAC alloys without sacrificing their drop-impact performance, alloying elements such as Mn, Ce, Ti, Bi, In, Sb, Ni, Zn, Al, Fe, and Co were selected as additions to these alloys. However, research reports related to these modified SAC alloys are limited. To address this paucity, the present study reviews the effect of these minor alloying elements on the solder joint reliability of low-Ag-content SAC alloys in terms of thermal cycling and drop impact. Addition of Mn, Ce, Bi, and Ni to low-Ag-content SAC solder effectively improves the thermal-cycling reliability of joints without sacrificing the drop-impact performance. Taking into consideration the improvement in the bulk alloy microstructure and mechanical properties, wetting properties, and growth suppression of the interface intermetallic compound (IMC) layers, addition of Ti, In, Sb, Zn, Al, Fe, and Co to low-Ag-content SAC solder has the potential to improve the thermal-cycling reliability of joints without sacrificing the drop-impact performance. Consequently, further investigations of both thermal-cycling and drop reliability of these modified solder joints must be carried out in future work.

  3. Contribution of archaeological analogs to the estimation of average corrosion rates and long term corrosion mechanisms of low carbon steel in soil; Apport des analogues archeologiques a l'estimation des vitesses moyennes et a l'etude des mecanismes de corrosion a tres long terme des aciers non allies dans les sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, D

    2003-11-15

    In the context of the French nuclear waste storage, a multi-barriers disposal is envisaged. Wastes could be put in metallic overpacks disposed in a clay soil. As these overpacks could be made of low carbon steel, it is important to understand the corrosion behaviour of this material in soil during period of several centuries. Indeed, it is necessary to consolidate the empirical data by a phenomenological approach. This includes laboratory experiments and modelling of the phenomenon which have to be validated and completed by the study of archaeological artefacts. This was the aim of this PhD-work. To this purpose, an analytical protocol has been elaborated: about forty archaeological artefacts coming from five dated sites (2. to 16. centuries) have been studied on cross section in order to observe on the same sample all the constituents of the system: metallic substrate/corrosion products/environment. The corrosion products are divided into two zones: the Dense Product Layer (DPL) in contact with the metal, and the Transformed Medium (TM) which are the corrosion products formed around soil minerals (quartz grains). The metallic substrate has been studied by the classical methods of materials science (optical and scanning electron microscope, energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopies). It has been verified that despite their heterogeneity of structure and composition, they are all hypo-eutectoids steels that can contain phosphorous until 0.5 wt%. The corrosion products have been analysed by local structural analytical methods as micro-diffraction under synchrotron radiation ({mu}XRD) and Raman micro-spectroscopy. These two complementary techniques and also the elemental composition analysis conducted to the characterisation of the corrosion forms. On the majority of the samples coming from four sites, the DPL are constituted by goethite including marbles of magnetite/maghemite. On the artefacts from the fifth site, a particular corrosion form has been

  4. A novel Fe–Cr–Nb matrix composite containing the TiB{sub 2} neutron absorber synthesized by mechanical alloying and final hot isostatic pressing (HIP) in the Ti-tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litwa, Przemysław [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Perkowski, Krzysztof [Department of Nanotechnology, Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Postępu 9, 02-676 Warsaw (Poland); Zasada, Dariusz [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Kobus, Izabela; Konopka, Gustaw [Department of Nanotechnology, Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Postępu 9, 02-676 Warsaw (Poland); Czujko, Tomasz [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Varin, Robert A., E-mail: robert.varin@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-07-25

    The Fe–Cr–Ti-Nb elemental powders were mechanically alloyed/ball milled with TiB{sub 2} and a small quantity of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic to synthesize a novel Fe-based alloy-ceramic powder composite that could be processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) for a perceived potential application as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors. After ball milling for the 30–80 h duration relatively uniform powders with micrometric sizes were produced. With increasing milling time a fraction of TiB{sub 2} particles became covered with the much softer Fe-based alloy which resulted in the formation of a characteristic “core-mantel” structure. For the final HIP-ing process the mechanically alloyed powders were initially uniaxially pressed into rod-shaped compacts and then cold isostatically pressed (CIP-ed). Subsequently, the rod-shaped compacts were placed in the Ti-tubing and subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150 °C/200 MPa pressure. The HIP-ing process resulted in the formation of the near-Ti and intermediate diffusional layers in the microstructure of HIP-ed samples which formed in accord with the Fe-Ti binary phase diagram. Those layers contain the phases such as α-Ti (HCP), the FeTi intermetallic and their hypo-eutectoid mixtures. In addition, needle-like particles were formed in both layers in accord with the Ti-B binary phase diagram. Nanohardness testing, using a Berkovich type diamond tip, shows that the nanohardness in the intermediate layer areas, corresponding to the composition of the hypo-eutectoid mixture of Ti-FeTi, equals 980.0 (±27.1) HV and correspondingly 1176.9 (±47.6) HV for the FeTi phase. The nanohardness in the sample's center in the areas with the fine mixture of Fe-based alloy and small TiB{sub 2} particles equals 1048.3 (±201.8) HV. The average microhardness of samples HIP-ed from powders milled for 30 and 80 h is 588 HV and 733 HV, respectively. - Highlights: • A Fe–Cr–Nb-based composite with TiB{sub 2} neutron

  5. Solid state phase transition and vapor pressure studies in ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wen-Ming

    The solid-state phase transitions in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO 3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) solid solutions and the equilibrium NH4NO3-KNO3 (AN-KN) phase diagram have been determined. The phase transitions and phase diagram were determined by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high temperature X-ray diffractometry. Samples of several different compositions were made for these analyses in a special "Dry Room" with very low humidity. In the X-ray diffraction experiments, the samples were heated on Pt-Rh strip and LaB6 or Si was added for internal calibration. Equilibrium phase diagram was also calculated by using the "FactSage" computer program. A single (AN III) phase region without any phase transitions between 293 to 373 K was observed for compositions between 5 to 25wt% KNO3 in NH4NO3 that is critical for air bag gas generators. The higher temperature KNO3 (KN I) phase has a wide stability range, from 100%KNO3 to 20%KNO3 solution. There is one eutectic, two eutectoids, and two peritectoids in this phase diagram. Two newly discovered solid-state phases were found in the mid-composition range of AN-KN solid solutions. Details of phase equilibria and lattice expansions during heating have been determined. Phase diagram calculations show a reasonable match of the phase boundaries. The total vapor pressures as well as the average molecular weights of pure ammonium nitrate and 16% KNO3 solid solution were measured at various temperatures by the torsion-Knudsen effusion method. The partial pressures of NH4NO3 (PNH4NO 3), NH3 (PNH3), and HNO3 (PHNO 3) have also been determined.

  6. TERMİT KAYNAĞI İLE BİRLEŞTİRİLEN BİR RAYIN KAYNAK BÖLGESİNDEKİ SERTLİK DAĞILIMI VE METALURJİK ÖZELLİKLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet MERİÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Demiryolu taşımacılığında konfor ve emniyete tesir eden faktörler arasında rayların döşenmesi önemli bir yer tutar. Uzun yıllardan beri bilinmekte olan termit kaynağı rayların çökmesini önler, trenin yoldan çıkmasına mani olur ve sarsıntısız bir yolculuk sağlar. Bununla birlikte rayların ve vagonların ömrünü uzatarak çeşitli ekonomik faydalar da temin eder. Bu çalışmada S 49 tipi St 70 çeliğinden imal edilmiş demiryolu rayları termit kaynağı ile birleştirilmiş olup, kaynak bölgesinin sertlik profili, çıkartılmış ve mikro yapısı incelenmiştir. İnceleme sonucunda çıkarılan sertlik profilinde ITAB (Isının Tesiri Altındaki Bölge'de maksimum sertlik değerleri kaynak bölgesinin hemen önünde de tesbit edilmiştir. Isıdan etkilenen bölgede, erime bölgesinin hemen önündeki sahada sertlik değeri 290 HB 5/750 iken, kaynak bölgesinde 260 HB ve ana yapıda ise 220 HB sertlik değerleri elde edilmiştir. Mikroyapı incelemesinde pro-eutectoid ferrit ile birlikte perlit ana yapı tesbit edilmiş, martersit oluşumuna rastlanılmamıştır.

  7. Hydrostatic Compression Behavior and High-Pressure Stabilized β-Phase in γ-Based Titanium Aluminide Intermetallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dieter Liss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium aluminides find application in modern light-weight, high-temperature turbines, such as aircraft engines, but suffer from poor plasticity during manufacturing and processing. Huge forging presses enable materials processing in the 10-GPa range, and hence, it is necessary to investigate the phase diagrams of candidate materials under these extreme conditions. Here, we report on an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study in a large-volume press of a modern (α2 + γ two-phase material, Ti-45Al-7.5Nb-0.25C, under pressures up to 9.6 GPa and temperatures up to 1686 K. At room temperature, the volume response to pressure is accommodated by the transformation γ → α2, rather than volumetric strain, expressed by the apparently high bulk moduli of both constituent phases. Crystallographic aspects, specifically lattice strain and atomic order, are discussed in detail. It is interesting to note that this transformation takes place despite an increase in atomic volume, which is due to the high ordering energy of γ. Upon heating under high pressure, both the eutectoid and γ-solvus transition temperatures are elevated, and a third, cubic β-phase is stabilized above 1350 K. Earlier research has shown that this β-phase is very ductile during plastic deformation, essential in near-conventional forging processes. Here, we were able to identify an ideal processing window for near-conventional forging, while the presence of the detrimental β-phase is not present under operating conditions. Novel processing routes can be defined from these findings.

  8. Fitful and protracted magma assembly leading to a giant eruption, Youngest Toba Tuff, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mary R; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2017-01-01

    The paroxysmal eruption of the 74 ka Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) of northern Sumatra produced an extraordinary 2800 km3 of non-welded to densely welded ignimbrite and co-ignimbrite ash-fall. We report insights into the duration of YTT magma assembly obtained from ion microprobe U-Th and U-Pb dates, including continuous age spectra over >50% of final zircon growth, for pumices and a welded tuff spanning the compositional range of the YTT. A relatively large subpopulation of zircon crystals nucleated before the penultimate caldera-related eruption at 501 ka, but most zircons yielded interior dates 100-300 ka thereafter. Zircon nucleation and growth was likely episodic and from diverse conditions over protracted time intervals of >100 to >500 ka. Final zircon growth is evident as thin rim plateaus that are in Th/U chemical equilibrium with hosts, and that give crystallization ages within tens of ka of eruption. The longevity and chemical characteristics of the YTT zircons, as well as evidence for intermittent zircon isolation and remobilization associated with magma recharge, is especially favored at the cool and wet eutectoid conditions that characterize at least half of the YTT, wherein heat fluxes could dissolve major phases but have only a minor effect on larger zircon crystals. Repeated magma recharge may have contributed to the development of compositional zoning in the YTT but, considered together with limited allanite, quartz, and other mineral dating and geospeedometry, regular perturbations to the magma reservoir over >400 ka did not lead to eruption until 74 ka ago.

  9. Investigation of phase transformations of U2.5Zr7.5Nb and U3Zr9Nb alloys aging at 600 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantagalli, Natalia Mattar; Tanure, Leandro Paulo de Almeida Reis; Braga, Daniel Martins; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Investigation has been made of the effects of high-temperature aging (600 deg C) on the phase transformations in the U2.5Zr7.5Nb and U3Zr9Nb alloys. These alloys have been produced with vacuum induction melting (VIM) furnace in cast ingots. The ingots were homogenized at 1000 deg C for 24 hours in vacuum of < 10{sup -4} torr, and cooled to room temperature at a rate of 3 deg C/min. Specimens from these homogeneous materials, cut in 3 mm high and 10 mm diameter, were reheated to {gamma} phase at 850 deg C, for 1 hour, and aging at 600 deg C at different times from 0.5 to 24 hours. The phases decomposition were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), metallographic, micro-probe analyze by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and microhardness methods. It was verified that the decomposition of the {delta} phase proceeds in two steps. The first is a discontinuous precipitation of a lamellar two-phase aggregate composed of alpha solid solution and a metastable gamma phase. The metastable gamma phase has a constant composition at given temperature. After longer annealing, it decomposes eutectoidally into the equilibrium ({alpha} + {delta}{sub 2}) phases mixture. During this process a modification of the original lamellar microstructure takes place. The obtained metastable phases of these alloys of different compositions were analyzed in relation to their constitution, heat treatability and micrographic features and the results confronted with available distinct uranium alloys data from literature. (author)

  10. Phase transformations of (Ca, Ti)-partially stabilized zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hon Yungshon; Shen Pouyan (Inst. of Materials Science and Engineering, Nation Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (Taiwan))

    1991-01-20

    The results of phase transformation and microstructural investigation of the ZrO{sub 2}-rich corner of the CaO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} system are reported. Samples of Ca-PSZ powder (where PSZ is partially stabilized zirconia) containing 10.8 mol.% CaO, had added to them 0-14 mol.% TiO{sub 2} (designated specimens 0T to 14T). The samples were sintered at 1600deg C for 6 h and studied by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Saturation of TiO{sub 2} in the cubic (c) zirconia was reached at a total TiO{sub 2} addition of about 4 mol.% at 1600deg C, whereas the solubility limit in tetragonal (t) zirconia was not reached in the composition range studied. The t-zirconia precipitates remained tweed in the cubic matrix for specimens 2T and 4T, but became lenticular with the (101) habit plane for specimens having a larger TiO{sub 2} content (e.g. 8T). The amount of t-zirconia increased with increasing TiO{sub 2} content at 1600deg C. The addition of TiO{sub 2} also enhanced the eutectoid decomposition of Ca-PSZ to form the PHI{sub 1}-phase (CaZr{sub 4}O{sub 9}). Calzirtite (Ca{sub 2}Zr{sub 5}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 16}) was precipitated from the shell of the zirconia grains in specimen 8T. (orig.).

  11. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~3500-3200 cal.yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal.yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~8000 to ~4980 cal.yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g(-1); (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios occurred from ~4980 to ~2470 cal.yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~4980-3700 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~3700-3500 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~3500-2800 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~2800-2470 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and

  12. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.martinez.cortizas@usc.es [Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Facultade de Bioloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); López-Merino, Lourdes, E-mail: lourdes.lopez-merino@brunel.ac.uk [Institute of Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University London, UB8 3PH Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Bindler, Richard, E-mail: richard.bindler@umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Mighall, Tim, E-mail: t.mighall@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Geography & Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF (United Kingdom); Kylander, Malin E., E-mail: malin.kylander@geo.su.se [Department of Geological Sciences and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~ 3500–3200 cal. yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (> 2100 cal. yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35–100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~ 8000 to ~ 4980 cal. yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g{sup −1}; {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios occurred from ~ 4980 to ~ 2470 cal. yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~ 4980–3700 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~ 3700–3500 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~ 3500–2800 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~ 2800–2470 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the

  13. Antifouling composites with self-adaptive controlled release based on an active compound intercalated into layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miaosen; Gu, Lianghua; Yang, Bin; Wang, Li; Sun, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jiyong; Zhang, Jinwei; Hou, Jian; Lin, Cunguo

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports a novel method to prepare the antifouling composites with properties of self-adaptive controlled release (defined as control the release rate autonomously and adaptively according to the change of environmental conditions) by intercalation of sodium paeonolsilate (PAS) into MgAl and ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) with the molar ratio (M2+/M3+) of 2:1 and 3:1, respectively. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirm the intercalation of PAS into the galleries of LDH. The controlled release behavior triggered by temperature for the PAS-LDH composites has been investigated, and the results show that the release rate of all PAS-LDH composites increases as the increase of temperature. However, the MgAl-PAS-LDH composites (Mg2Al-PAS-LDH and Mg3Al-PAS-LDH) exhibit the increased release rate of 0.21 ppm/°C from 15 to 30 °C in 3.5% NaCl solution, more than three times of the ZnAl-PAS-LDH composites (0.06 ppm/°C), owing to the confined microenvironment influenced by metal types in LDH layers. In addition, a possible diffusion-controlled process with surface diffusion, bulk diffusion and heterogeneous flat surface diffusion has been revealed via fitting four kinetic equations. Moreover, to verify the practical application of the PAS-LDH composites, a model coating denoted as Mg2Al-PAS-LDH coating was fabricated. The release result displays that the release rate increases or decreases as temperature altered at 15 and 25 °C alternately, indicating its self-adaptive controlled release behavior with temperature. Moreover, the superior resistance to the settlement of Ulva spores at 15 and 25 °C was observed for the Mg2Al-PAS-LDH coating, as a result of the controllable release of antifoulant. Therefore, this work provides a facile and effective method for the fabrication of antifouling composites with self-adaptive controlled release behavior in response to temperature, which can be used to prolong

  14. Controlling phase formation during aluminium/steel Nd:YAG laser brazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez, L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of fuel consumption of internal combustion motors, imposed by the new anti-pollution and energy saving laws may be attained by reducing the weight of vehicles, introducing, for example, aluminium sections into the main steel car-body. Laser brazing is a process which can be used to perform such a junction. The main problem of welding this kind of materials combination with conventional processes is the potential formation of inter-metallic phases, which reduces the good performance of the joint. Laser brazing allows a very good control of the thermal development of the joint, with a limited precipitation of these brittle phases. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study made with ZnAl-30 as filler metal. The study shows that the type of configuration used for the assembly has a particular influence on the formation of brittle phases and consequently on the mechanical performance of the joint.

    La reducción en el consumo de combustibles fósiles y las emergentes leyes mundiales anti-contaminación, obligan a prever una reducción en el peso de los vehículos de transporte. Esta condición se puede cumplir por ejemplo, introduciendo componentes de Aluminio en el cuerpo de la carrocería principal de acero de los mencionados vehículos. El principal problema que se presenta al realizar este tipo de ensamblaje es la formación de fases íntermetálicas frágiles que pueden comprometer el buen desenvolvimiento de la unión. La soldadura con rayo láser permite un buen control de calor aportado y una formación muy limitada de este tipo de fases. Este trabajo presenta los resultados preliminares de los estudios realizados en uniones soldadas con ZnAl-30 como material de aportación. El estudio muestra que el tipo de configuración utilizada para realizar la soldadura tiene una influencia importante sobre la posibilidad de formación de estas fases ínter-metálicas.

  15. Shape Memory Alloys (Part II: Classification, Production and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs have been extensively investigated because of their unique shape memory behaviour, i.e. their ability to recover their original shape they had before deformation. Shape memory effect is related to the thermoelastic martensitic transformation. Austenite to martensite phase transformation can be obtained by mechanical (loading and thermal methods (heating and cooling. Depending on thermomechanical conditions, SMAs demonstrate several thermomechanical phenomena, such as pseudoelasticity, superelasticity, shape memory effect (one-way and two-way and rubber-like behaviour. Numerous alloys show shape memory effect (NiTi-based alloys, Cu-based alloys, Fe-based alloys etc.. Nitinol (NiTi is the most popular and the most commonly used SMA due to its superior thermomechanical and thermoelectrical properties. NiTi alloys have greater shape memory strain and excellent corrosion resistance compared to Cu – based alloys. However, they are very costly. On the other hand, copper-based alloys (CuZn and CuAl based alloys are much less expensive, easier to manufacture and have a wider range of potential transformation temperatures. The characteristic transformation temperatures of martensitic transformation of CuAlNi alloys can lie between −200 and 200 °C, and these temperatures depend on Al and Ni content. Among the Cu – based SMAs, the most frequently applied are CuZnAl and CuAlNi alloys. Although CuZnAl alloys with better mechanical properties are the most popular among the Cu-based SMAs, they lack sufficient thermal stability, while CuAlNi shape memory alloys, in spite of their better thermal stability, have found only limited applications due to insufficient formability owing to the brittle γ2 precipitates. The most important disadvantage of polycrystalline CuAlNi alloys is a small reversible deformation (one-way shape memory effect: up to 4 %; two-way shape memory effect: only approximately 1.5 % due to intergranular

  16. Fatigue Crack Growth Fundamentals in Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ojha, A.; Patriarca, L.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, based on a regression of the crack tip displacements, the stress intensity range in fatigue is quantitatively determined for the shape memory alloy Ni2FeGa. The results are compared to the calculated stress intensity ranges with a micro-mechanical analysis accounting for the transformation-induced tractions. The effective stress intensity ranges obtained with both methods are in close agreement. Also, the fatigue crack closure levels were measured as 30 % of the maximum load using virtual extensometers along the crack flanks. This result is also in close agreement with the regression and micro-mechanical modeling findings. The current work pointed to the importance of elastic moduli changes and the residual transformation strains playing a role in the fatigue crack growth behavior. Additional simulations are conducted for two other important shape memory alloys, NiTi and CuZnAl, where the reductions in stress intensity range were found to be lower than Ni2FeGa.

  17. BIOMONITORAMENTO DE ELEMENTOS-TRAÇO EM AMOSTRAS DE SANGUE DE MORADORES DE ÁREA INDUSTRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metals exist in the environment resulting from natural and anthropogenic sources, according to a biogeochemical cycle under different physico-chemical forms. Differ from other toxic substances because they are not created nor destroyed by man, however, can influence its toxic potential through emissions to the environment and change in speciation or biochemical form of the element. It was conducted a cross-sectional study for determination of Pb, Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn, Al and As in samples of blood. It were analyzed 164 samples from occupationally non-exposed volunteers living in twelve locations at mesoregion industrial area, southern of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between February and October 2013. All people’s subjects aged 18-65 years. Hg and Cd showed elevated levels, which could lead to teratogenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic problems; and, in some cases, lead directly to the death. For Pb, Cu, Al, Zn and As concentrations, these were at levels consistent with human need. Living organisms require small amounts of some of these metals, the exception for Pb and Al. Due to the potential adverse effects caused by exposure to metals and only the existence of legislation for occupational monitoring, compared to data found, it is evident the need for monitoring programs surrounding the industrial regions population.

  18. Characterization of Mg/Al butt joints welded by gas tungsten arc filling with Zn–29.5Al–0.5Ti filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Hongyang; Liu, Liming, E-mail: liulm@dlut.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    The multivariate alloying design of a welding joint is used in the Mg to Al welding process. A Zn–29.5Al–0.5Ti alloy is added as filler metal in gas tungsten arc welding of Mg and Al alloy joint based on the analysis of Al and Mg alloy characteristics. The tensile strength, microstructure, and phase constitution of the weld seam are analyzed. The formation of brittle and hard Mg–Al intermetallic compounds is avoided because of the effects of Zn, Al, and Ti. The average tensile strength of the joint is 148 MPa. Al{sub 3}Ti is first precipitated and functions as the nucleus of heterogeneous nucleation during solidification. Moreover, the precipitated Al–MgZn{sub 2} hypoeutectic phase exhibited a feather-like structure, which enhances the property of the Mg–Al dissimilar joint. - Highlights: • Mg alloy AZ31B and Al alloy 6061 are butt welded by fusion welding. • The effect of Ti in filler metal is investigated. • The formation of Mg–Al intermetallic compounds is avoided.

  19. [Raman and infrared spectrograms of organic borate intercalated hydrotalcite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Yu; Bai, Zhi-Min; Zhao, Dong

    2013-03-01

    The pattern of X-ray diffraction, the Raman and infrared spectra of organic borate intercalated hydrotalcite were discussed. The well crystallized zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) intercalated by carbonate ions and borate ions were respectively prepared by co-precipitation method. Patterns of X-ray diffraction showed that the (003) reflection of borate-LDHs was sharp and symmetric and shifted to lower angle than that of carbonate-LDHs. The gallery height of borate-LDHs increased from 0. 28 nm to 0.42 nm after intercalation, indicating that interlayered carbonate ions were substituted by borate anions. The Raman and IR spectra showed that specific bands of carbonate ions in the borate-LDHs disappeared, but with the presence of B3O3(OH)4- X B4O5(OH)4(2-) and B(OH)4- in the interlayer galleries. The hydroxide interlayer anions had a significant influence on the band positions in Raman and infrared spectra of modes related to the hydroxyl group. Our results indicate that single phase and pure borate-pillared LDHs can be obtained using tributyl orthoborate as intercalating agents, and the change in the structure and nature of hydrotalcite can be detected precisely by Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Phosphor Dysprosium-Doped Layered Double Hydroxides Exchanged with Different Organic Functional Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ricardo Martínez Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The layers of a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were doped with Dy3+ cations. Among some compositions, the Zn2+ : Al3+ : Dy3+ molar ratio equal to 30 : 9 : 1 presented a single crystalline phase. Organic anions with carboxylic, amino, sulfate, or phosphate functional groups were intercalated as single layers between LDH layers as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectra of the nitrate intercalated LDH showed a wide emission band with strong intensity in the yellow region (around 574 nm, originated due to symmetry distortion of the octahedral coordination in dysprosium centers. Moreover, a broad red band emission was also detected apparently due to the presence of zinc oxide. The distorted symmetry of the dysprosium coordination environment, also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, was modified after the intercalation with phenyl phosphonate (PP, aspartate (Asp, adipate (Adip, and serinate (Ser anions; the emission as measured from PL spectra of these LDH was more intense in the blue region (ca. 486 nm, thus indicating an increase in symmetry of dysprosium octahedrons. The red emission band from zinc oxide kept the same intensity after intercalation of dodecyl sulfate (DDS. An additional emission of unknown origin at λ = 767 nm was present in all LDHs.

  1. Effect of industrial residue combinations on availability of elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brännvall, Evelina, E-mail: evelina.brannvall@ltu.se [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Zamora, Carles Belmonte [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Sjöblom, Rolf [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Tekedo AB, Spinnarvägen 10, 611 37 Nyköping (Sweden); Kumpiene, Jurate [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Beneficial combination of fly ash and biosolids. • Nutrient availability increase. • Potentially toxic element availability decrease. • Measured element availability was differed from the calculated leaching potential. - Abstract: Industrial residues, such as fly ashes and biosolids, contain elements (e.g., N, P, K, S, Ca and Zn) that make them a viable alternative for synthetic fertilizers in forestry and agriculture. However, the use of these materials is often limited due to the presence of potentially toxic substances. It is therefore necessary to assess and, when warranted, modify the chemical and physical form of these and similar waste materials before any advantages are taken of their beneficial properties. Biofuel fly ash, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, biosolids, peat, peat residues and gypsum board waste were combined in various proportions, and this resulted in increased leaching of N, P, S, Cu and Mn, but decreased leaching of Ca, K, Mg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Al, As and Pb. Chemical fractionation revealed that elements Ca, K, Mg, S and Mn were predominantly exchangeable, while the rest of the elements were less mobile. Cadmium was mostly exchangeable in MSWI fly ash, but less mobile in biofuel fly ash mixtures. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in the mixtures with fertilizers is considerably less attractive, due to the high levels of salts and exchangeable Cd.

  2. Production of biodiesel fuel by transesterification of different vegetable oils with methanol using Al₂O₃ modified MgZnO catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-03-01

    An active heterogeneous Al2O3 modified MgZnO (MgZnAlO) catalyst was prepared and the catalytic activity was investigated for the transesterification of different vegetable oils (refined palm oil, waste cooking palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil) with methanol to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis to ascertain its versatility. Effects of important reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on oil conversion were examined. Within the range of studied variability, the suitable transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 16:1, catalyst loading 3.32 wt.%, reaction time 6h, temperature 182°C), the oil conversion of 98% could be achieved with reference to coconut oil in a single stage. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for five cycles without significant deactivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon Dioxide reduction by non-equilibrium electrocatalysis plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouroux, J.; Cavadias, S.; Doubla, A.

    2011-03-01

    A possible strategy to increase the added value from CCS, is to consider it as a raw material for the production of liquid fuels, or chemical products. The most studied ways related to CO2 reduction, with formation of molecules such as CH3OH or syngas, is the reaction with H2 (exothermic reaction needing catalytic activation), or CH4 (endothermic reaction taking place at high temperature) with the use of a catalyst. The synthesis of CH3OH is performed on Lewis acid type sites (default of electrons) Cu/Zn/Al2O3. However the products of the reaction i.e. the water and methanol molecules, are very polar, resulting in a very low desorption rate. So in this reaction the key step is water desorption (Lewis basis). The increase of temperature in order to increase this desorption rate, leads to a cracking and the deposition of carbon in the catalyst, limiting its lifetime. Plasma driven catalysis allows firstly, a vibrational activation of CO2, H2 or CH4 through electron-molecule collisions, making easier their dissociation at low temperature and secondly expels water from the catalyst sites by supplying electrons (electropolarisation). The results show an increase of the yield in CH3OH with plasma and catalyst, confirming the action of the plasma. However energy consumption remains relatively high.

  4. Martensite transformation. ; Recent progress and perspectives. Martensite hentai. ; Saikin no shinpo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marukawa, K. (Hokkaido Inst. of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1991-11-20

    A seminar was held at Engineering Dept., Hokkaido Univ. in July, 1991 about martensite transformation. The lectures on the seminar are as follows: Bainite transformation in Cu-Zn-Al and Ag-An alloys'' (K. Kitazawa, Hokkaido Univ.) Overviews of the rate of transformation in these alloys, the experimental result of electron microscope observations, and examination on the transformation mechanism. Mechanism model of bainite transformation'' (K. Marukawa, Hokkaido Univ.) Results of experiments on bainite transformation in copper alloys. Dislocation texture and characteristics of iron-system shape memory alloy'' (Y. Inagaki et al, Steel Lab., NKK) The relation between the dislocation texture and storing characteristic of a newly developed shape memory alloy of stainless steel. Bainite texture and transformation mechanism of steel'' (M. Maki, Kyoto Univ.) Experimental data about Fe-M-C alloys. High-strength high-ductile steel plate utilizing retained austenite'' (N. Uchida et al, Nippon Steel Corp.)

  5. Encapsulation, solid-phases identification and leaching of toxic metals in cement systems modified by natural biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheras-Zubiate, M; Navarro-Blasco, I; Fernández, J M; Alvarez, J I

    2012-09-30

    Cement mortars loaded with Cr, Pb and Zn were modified by polymeric admixtures [chitosans with low (LMWCH), medium (MMWCH) and high (HMWCH) molecular weight and hydroxypropylchitosan (HPCH)]. The influence of the simultaneous presence of the heavy metal and the polymeric additive on the fresh properties (consistency, water retention and setting time) and on the compressive strength of the mortars was assessed. Leaching patterns as well as properties of the cement mortars were related to the heavy metals-bearing solid phases. Chitosan admixtures lessened the effect of the addition of Cr and Pb on the setting time. In all instances, chitosans improved the compressive strength of the Zn-bearing mortars yielding values as high as 15 N mm(-2). A newly reported Zn phase, dietrichite (ZnAl(2)(SO(4))(4)·22H(2)O) was identified under the presence of LMWCH: it was responsible for an improvement by 24% in Zn retention. Lead-bearing silicates, such as plumalsite (Pb(4)Al(2)(SiO(3))(7)), were also identified by XRD confirming that Pb was mainly retained as a part of the silicate network after Ca ion exchange. Also, the presence of polymer induced the appearance and stabilization of some Pb(IV) species. Finally, diverse chromate species were identified and related to the larger leaching values of Cr(VI). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Synthesis and Processing of Self-Healing Materials: A Lamellar Shape Memory Alloy in Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeeh, Bakr Mohamed; Fouad, Yasser

    Nontraditional self-healing alloy composite has been introduced to address the need for self-repairable high-strength structural materials. Cu-Zn/Al laminates are uniaxial hot pressed for either lamellar or particulate composite. A new bridging and stitching technique is introduced with crack mitigation via the synergetic effect of interfacial alloying elements. Low melting phase (LMP) induced structures of Al phase, Cr-Fe phase, and Al-Cu-Zn phase via alloy segregation. Microstructural and mechanical characterization is also established via scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and tensile testing. The interphase kinetic established with micro plasticity, metal flow, low melting phase, LMP and delocalized Al enriched zone and Cu enriched zone. The improvements in performance of self-healing interphase with SMA composite structure are due to heating of low melting phase induce crack closure, and crack mitigation via stitching and bridging mechanisms. Engineering material can be designed with multifunctionalities ranging from the macro- to Nano-scale to optimize performance while minimizing time and the need for extensive repair.

  7. Novel biohybrids of layered double hydroxide and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Hidouri, Slah; Namour, Philippe; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem

    2016-02-01

    The present work introduces new biohybrid materials involving layered double hydroxides (LDH) and biomolecule such as enzyme to produce bioinorganic system. Lactate dehydrogenase (Lac Deh) has been chosen as a model enzyme, being immobilized onto MgAl and ZnAl LDH materials via direct ion-exchange (adsorption) and co-precipitation methods. The immobilization efficiency was largely dependent upon the immobilization methods. A comparative study shows that the co-precipitation method favors the immobilization of great and tunable amount of enzyme. The structural behavior, chemical bonding composition and morphology of the resulting biohybrids were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The free and immobilized enzyme activity and kinetic parameters were also reported using UV-Visible spectroscopy. However, the modified LDH materials showed a decrease in crystallinity as compared to the unmodified LDH. The change in activity of the immobilized lactate dehydrogenase was considered to be due, to the reduced accessibility of substrate molecules to the active sites of the enzyme and the partial conformational change of the Lac Deh molecules as a result of the immobilization way. Finally, it was proven that there is a correlation between structure/microstructure and enzyme activity dependent on the immobilization process.

  8. Rice seed toxicity tests for organic and inorganic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.

    1994-01-01

    Plant seed toxicity tests can be used to evaluate hazardous waste sites and to assess toxicity of complex effluents and industrial chemicals. Conventional plant seed toxicity tests are performed using culture dishes containing filter paper. Some reports indicate that filter papers might interfere with the toxicity of inorganic substances. In this study, a plastic seed tray was used. Rice was used as the test species. A comparison of results in the literature and this study revealed that variation of test species, methods, exposure duration, and other factors may affect the test results. The results of this study showed that the order of decreasing toxicity of metal ions was Cu>Ag>Ni>Cd>Cr(VI)>Pb>Zn>Mn>NaF for rice. The test results were similar to those reported in the literature for lettuce Ag>Ni>Cd,Cu>Cr (VI)>Zn>Mn, millet Cu,Ni>Cd>Cr(VI)>Zn>Mn, and ryegrass Cu>Ni>Mn>>Pb>Cd>Zn> Al>Hg>Cr>Fe. The order of decreasing toxicity of organic herbicides was paraquat, 2,4-D>>glyphosate>bromacil.

  9. THE ROLE OF METAL ION ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF METAL ALUMINATES PREPARED BY IMPREGNATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Komeili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of MAl2O4 (M=Ni, Zn, and Cu aluminates were prepared by using impregnation method; the metal content of the products was ranged between 5wt% to 25wt%. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET surface area, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, and inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP. The specific surface areas of zinc, nickel and copper aluminates were in the ranges of 47-77m2/g, 63-87m2/g and 1.6-3m2/g, respectively. The surface acidity decreased in the order of CuAl2O4<< NiAl2O4< ZnAl2O4<< Al2O3. By increasing the amount of metals in the samples, the number of acidic sites decreased, but their strength did not significantly change. Ni-aluminates have fewer acidic sites than Zn-aluminates, particularly in strong acid sites

  10. Estimation by PLFA of microbial community structure associated with the rhizosphere of Lygeum spartum and Piptatherum miliaceum growing in semiarid mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Lucía; Gattinger, Andreas; Fliessbach, Andreas; Roldán, Antonio; Schloter, Michael; Caravaca, Fuensanta

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the microbial community composition and biomass associated with the rhizosphere of a perennial gramineous species (Lygeum spartum L.) with that of an annual (Piptatherum miliaceum L.), both growing in semiarid mine tailings. We also established their relationship with the contents of potentially toxic metals as well as with indicators of soil quality. The total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) amount was significantly higher in the rhizosphere soil of the annual species than in the rhizosphere soil of the perennial species. The fungal/bacterial PLFA ratio was significantly greater in the perennial species compared to the annual species. The fatty acid 16:1ω5c, the fungal/bacterial PLFA ratio and monounsaturated/saturated PLFA ratio were correlated negatively with the soluble contents of toxic metals. The cyc/prec (cy17:0 + cy19:0/16:1ω7 + 18:1ω7) ratio was correlated positively with the soluble contents of Pb, Zn, Al, Ni, Cd, and Cu. The results of the PLFA analysis for profiling microbial communities and their stress status of both the plant species indicate that perennial and annual gramineous species appear equally suitable for use in programmes of revegetation of semiarid mine tailings.

  11. Glycerin esterification of scum derived free fatty acids for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Xie, Qinglong; Ma, Huan; Liu, Yuhuan; Cheng, Yanling; Onuma, Nonso; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Scum is an oily waste stream of the wastewater treatment process that can be used to produce biodiesel. Combining acid hydrolysis and solvent extraction, a free fatty acid and acyl-glycerol rich product was produced. Free fatty acids (FFAs) present were converted to acyl-glycols via a high temperature (238°C) glycerin esterification process known as glycerolysis. The inorganic catalysts zinc aluminum oxide and sodium sulfate were tested during glycerolysis to compare the reaction kinetics of converting FFA to acyl-glycerols. It was concluded that the zinc-based catalyst increased the reaction rate significantly, from a "k" value of 2.57 (uncatalyzed) to 5.63, completing the reaction in 60min, half the time it took the uncatalyzed reaction (120min). Sodium sulfate's presence however slowed the reaction, resulting in a "k" value of 1.45, completing the reaction in 180min. Use of the external catalyst Zn-Al2O3 showed the greatest catalytic potential, but also assumes additional costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impregnação de catalisadores em suporte de espuma cerâmica de alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Falk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a impregnação de diferentes catalisadores na superfície de um material cerâmico de alumina. Para a confecção do material cerâmico, foi utilizada a rota de processamento de espumas cerâmicas pelo método da réplica, no qual uma esponja de poliuretano com porosidade de 60 ppi foi mergulhada em uma suspensão de alumina a fim de produzir uma cerâmica com a mesma morfologia que o material precursor. Inicialmente foram obtidas espumas cerâmicas de alumina com resistência mecânica média de 0,7 MPa e porosidade aparente de 80%.Três diferentes catalisadores (ZnAl2O4,ZnFe2O4 e Zn2SnO4 foram impregnados sobre esse suporte por meio do método dip coating.Os resultados mostraram que os catalisadores foram imobilizados sobre o suporte em baixas concentrações.

  13. Corrosion behavior of metals and alloys in marine-industrial environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariappan Natesan, Subbiah Selvaraj, Tharmakkannu Manickam and Gopalachari Venkatachari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with atmospheric corrosion to assess the degrading effects of air pollutants on ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys, which are mostly used as engineering materials. An exposure study was conducted in the Tuticorin port area located on the east coast of South India, in the Gulf of Mannar with Sri Lanka to the southeast. Common engineering materials, namely mild steel, galvanized iron, Zn, Al, Cu and Cu–Zn alloys (Cu–27Zn, Cu–30Zn and Cu–37Zn, were used in the investigation. The site was chosen where the metals are exposed to marine and industrial atmospheres. Seasonal 1 to 12 month corrosion losses of these metals and alloys were determined by a weight loss method. The weight losses showed strong corrosion of mild steel, galvanized iron, Cu and Zn and minor effect on Al and Cu–Zn alloys. Linear regression analysis was conducted to study the mechanism of corrosion. The composition of corrosion products formed on the metal surfaces was identified by x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  14. [Determination of mineral elements in soybean from different producing areas by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jie; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Liu, Wei; Tu, Zong-Cai; Li, Chu; Zhang, Wen-Qin

    2010-02-01

    Soybeans from Jiangxi, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Anhui were digested by nitric acid. The contents of mineral elements K, P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al, Zn, Mn and Na in four samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The differences between samples were determined by Duncan's multiple-range test, and evaluations were based on a significance level of P human body needs. The contents of K, P, Mg, Ca and Fe are higher than the others, and the order from high to low does not change with the producing area. The order of Mn, Zn, Al, Na varied with the producing area. Producting area does not affect the contents of elements K, P and Mg significantly (P > 0.05). It can be concluded that the demands for major mineral elements K, P and Mg are stable in the growth of soybeans with the same variety. However, producing area has a great influence on the contents of elements Al, Ca, Fe, Na, Mn and Zn in soybean (P soil and so on.

  15. Cu-Al spinel oxide as an efficient catalyst for methanol steam reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hongjuan; Hou, Xiaoning; Liu, Yajie; Qing, Shaojun; Gao, Zhixian

    2014-10-27

    Cu-Al spinel oxide, which contains a small portion of the CuO phase, has been successfully used in methanol steam reforming (MSR) without prereduction. The omission of prereduction not only avoids the copper sintering prior to the catalytic reaction, but also slows down the copper-sintering rate in MSR. During this process, the CuO phase can initiate MSR at a lower temperature, and CuAl2O4 releases active copper gradually. The catalyst CA2.5-900, calcined at 900 °C with n(Al)/n(Cu) = 2.5, has a higher CuAl2O4 content, higher BET surface area, and smaller CuAl2O4 crystal size. Its activity first increases and then decreases during MSR. Furthermore, both fresh and regenerated CA2.5-900 showed better catalytic performance than the commercial Cu-Zn-Al catalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. ARTICLE Effects of Current upon Electrochemical Catalytic Reforming of Anisole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jia-xing; Kan, Tao; Li, Xing-long; Ye, Tong-qi; Li, Quan-xin

    2010-12-01

    The reforming of anisole (as model compound of bio-oil) was performed over the NiCuZn-Al2O3 catalyst, using a recently-developed electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR). The influence of the current on the anisole reforming in the ECR process has been investigated. It was observed that anisole reforming was significantly enhanced by the current approached over the catalyst in the electrochemical catalytic process, which was due to the non-uniform temperature distribution in the catalytic bed and the role of the thermal electrons originating from the electrified wire. The maximum hydrogen yield of 88.7% with a carbon conversion of 98.3% was obtained through the ECR reforming of anisole at 700°C and 4 A. X-ray diffraction was employed to characterize catalyst features and their alterations in the anisole reforming. The apparent activation energy for the anisole reforming is calculated as 99.54 kJ/mol, which is higher than ethanol, acetic acid, and light fraction of bio-oil. It should owe to different physical and chemical properties and reforming mechanism for different hydrocarbons.

  17. Investigation of microstructural and physical characteristics of nano composite tin oxide-doped Al3+ in Zn2+ based composite coating by DAECD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawe, P. A. L.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    In other to overcome the devastating deterioration of mild steel in service, Zn-based embedded Al/SnO2 composite coatings have been considered as reinforcing alternative replacements to the more traditional deposition for improved surface properties by using Dual Anode Electrolytic Co-deposition (DAECD) technique from chloride bath. The structural characterization of the starting materials and deposited coating are evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) elemental analysis and atomic force microscope (AFM). The hardness behaviour, wear and intermetallic distribution was examined by diamond based microhardness tester, CETR reciprocating sliding test rig and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) respectively. The corrosion properties of the developed coating were examined in 3.5% NaCl. The microstructure of the deposited sample obtained at 7% SnO2, revealed fine-grains deposit of the Al/SnO2 on the mild steel surface. The results showed that the Al/SnO2 strengthening alloy plays a significant role in impelling the wear and corrosion behaviour of Zn-Al/SnO2 coatings in an aggressive saline environment. Interestingly Zn-30Al-7Sn-chloride showed the highest wear and improved corrosion resistance due to Al/SnO2 oxide passive film that forms during anodic polarization. This work established that co-deposition of mild steel with Al/SnO2 is auspicious in increasing the anti-wear and corrosion progression.

  18. Microstructure, Tensile Adhesion Strength and Thermal Shock Resistance of TBCs with Different Flame-Sprayed Bond Coat Materials Onto BMI Polyimide Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, H. R.; Salehi, M.; Shafyei, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) composed of different bond coats (Zn, Al, Cu-8Al and Cu-6Sn) with mullite top coats were flame-sprayed and air-plasma-sprayed, respectively, onto bismaleimide matrix composites. These polyimide matrix composites are of interest to replace PMR-15, due to concerns about the toxicity of the MDA monomer from which PMR-15 is made. The results showed that pores and cracks appeared at the bond coat/substrate interface for the Al-bonded TBC because of its high thermal conductivity and diffusivity resulting in transferring of high heat flux and temperature to the polymeric substrate during top coat deposition. The other TBC systems due to the lower conductivity and diffusivity of bonding layers could decrease the adverse thermal effect on the polymer substrate during top coat deposition and exhibited adhesive bond coat/substrate interfaces. The tensile adhesion test showed that the adhesion strength of the coatings to the substrate is inversely proportional to the level of residual stress in the coatings. However, the adhesion strength of Al bond-coated sample decreased strongly after mullite top coat deposition due to thermal damage at the bond coat/substrate interface. TBC system with the Cu-6Sn bond coat exhibited the best thermal shock resistance, while Al-bonded TBC showed the lowest. It was inferred that thermal mismatch stresses and oxidation of the bond coats were the main factors causing failure in the thermal shock test.

  19. Layered Double Hydroxides as Effective Adsorbents for U(VI and Toxic Heavy Metals Removal from Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Pshinko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacities of different synthesized Zn,Al-hydrotalcite-like adsorbents, including the initial carbonate [Zn4Al2(OH12]·CO3·8H2O and its forms intercalated with chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, and hexamethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (HMDTA and heat-treated form Zn4Al2O7, to adsorb uranium(VI and ions of toxic heavy metals have been compared. Metal sorption capacities of hydrotalcite-like adsorbents have been shown to correlate with the stability of their complexes with the mentioned chelating agents in a solution. The synthesized layered double hydroxides (LDHs containing chelating agents in the interlayer space are rather efficient for sorption purification of aqueous media free from U(VI irrespective of its forms of natural abundance (including water-soluble bi- and tricarbonate forms and from heavy metal ions. [Zn4Al2(OH12]·EDTA·nH2O is recommended for practical application as one of the most efficient and inexpensive synthetic adsorbents designed for recovery of both cationic and particularly important anionic forms of U(VI and other heavy metals from aqueous media. Carbonate forms of LDHs turned out to be most efficient for recovery of Cu(II from aqueous media with pH0≥7 owing to precipitation of Cu(II basic carbonates and Cu(II hydroxides. Chromate ions are efficiently adsorbed from water only by calcinated forms of LDHs.

  20. Zinc oxide-based current spreading layer behavior on the performance of P-side-up thin-film red light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ming-Chun; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Chen, Chi-Lu; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Horng, Ray-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Transparent conductive layers deposited on a GaP window layer were used to fabricate high-brightness p-side-up thin-film AlGaInP light emitting diodes (LEDs). Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZAO) with an Zn:Al cycle ratio of 20:1 were grown by atomic layer deposition for comparison. The ZAO thin films reduced the droop in the external quantum efficiencies of the LEDs as well as the junction temperature, which result in increases in the light output power and thermal stability of the LEDs. The efficiency droops of the LEDs with the ZnO and ZAO thin films were 41% and 15%, respectively. The junction temperature of the LED with the ZAO thin film can be reduced to 39.6 °C at an injection current of 700 mA, which is lower than that of the LED with the ZnO thin film (58.1 °C). The above results are promising for the development of ZAO thin films for applications in AlGaInP LEDs.

  1. Understanding the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elastocaloric Effect Through Experimentation and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Mañosa, Lluis; Vives, Eduard; Pryds, Nini

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents direct and indirect methods for studying the elastocaloric effect (eCE) in shape memory materials and its comparison. The eCE can be characterized by the adiabatic temperature change or the isothermal entropy change (both as a function of applied stress/strain). To get these quantities, the evaluation of the eCE can be done using either direct methods, where one measures (adiabatic) temperature changes or indirect methods where one can measure the stress-strain-temperature characteristics of the materials and from these deduce the adiabatic temperature and isothermal entropy changes. The former can be done using the basic thermodynamic relations, i.e. Maxwell relation and Clausius-Clapeyron equation. This paper further presents basic thermodynamic properties of shape memory materials, such as the adiabatic temperature change, isothermal entropy change and total entropy-temperature diagrams (all as a function of temperature and applied stress/strain) of two groups of materials (Ni-Ti and Cu-Zn-Al alloys) obtained using indirect methods through phenomenological modelling and Maxwell relation. In the last part of the paper, the basic definition of the efficiency of the elastocaloric thermodynamic cycle (coefficient of performance) is defined and discussed.

  2. Order and disorder around Cr(3+) in chromium doped persistent luminescent AB2O4 spinels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraju, Neelima; Priolkar, Kaustubh R; Gourier, Didier; Bessière, Aurélie; Viana, Bruno

    2015-04-28

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy technique is used to better understand the charging and decharging processes of the persistent luminescence in the Cr(3+)doped AB2O4 spinels (A = Zn, Mg and B = Ga and Al) with low photon energy excitation by visible light. Cr K edge XANES spectra have been simulated for different near neighbour environments around the Cr(3+) recombination centres and compared with the experimental curve. In the Cr(3+):ZnGa2O4 compound, the Cr(3+) local structure corresponds mostly to that of a normal spinel (∼70%), while the rest comprises of a distorted octahedral environment arising from cationic site inversion and a contribution from chromium clustering. This local structure is considerably different in Cr(3+):MgGa2O4 and Cr(3+):ZnAl2O4, where, for both cases, chromium clustering represents the main contribution. The strong correlation between the intensity of persistent luminescence and the percentage of Cr in clusters leads us to infer that the presence of Cr clusters is responsible for the decrease of the intensity of the visible light induced persistent luminescence in the Cr(3+) doped AB2O4 spinels.

  3. Insights into the synthesis of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles: Part 1. Optimization and controlled synthesis of chloride-intercalated LDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodi; Neuperger, Erica; Dey, Sandwip K

    2015-12-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles have excellent anion-intercalating property, and their potential as theranostic nanovectors is high. However, understanding of the control of the mean particle size (MPS) and achievement of monodispersed particle size distribution (PSD) remains elusive. Herein, with the aid of statistical design of experiments on a model system of Cl(-)-intercalated (Zn, Al)-LDH, controlled synthesis of single crystalline nanoparticles using the coprecipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment (HT) was achieved in three steps. First, a 2(4-1) design enabled the identification of influential parameters for MPS (i.e., salt concentration, molar ratio of carbonate to aluminum, solution addition rate, and interaction between salt concentration and stirring rate) and PSD (i.e., salt concentration and stirring rate), as well as the optimum coprecipitation conditions that result in a monodispersed PSD (i.e., low salt concentration and high stirring rate). Second, a preliminary explanation of the HT was suggested and the optimum HT conditions for obtaining ideal Gaussian PSD with chi-squared (χ(2))nanoparticles with MPS ∼200-500 nm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Thin-film photovoltaic cells: long-term metal(loid) leaching at their end-of-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Schäffer, Andreas; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Lenz, Markus

    2013-11-19

    The photovoltaic effect of thin-film copper indium gallium selenide cells (CIGS) is conferred by the latter elements. Organic photovoltaic cells (OPV), relying on organic light-absorbing molecules, also contain a variety of metals (e.g., Zn, Al, In, Sn, Ag). The environmental impact of such technologies is largely unknown, in particular when the physical integrity deteriorates upon end-of-life, possibly facilitating cell constituent leaching. This study analyzed long-term inorganic leaching from damaged OPV and CIGS into different model waters. Leachate concentrations were put into perspective by calculating the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) for several scenarios. Roof-top acidic rain runoff from CIGS was found to be the predominant emission source for metals and metalloids, with Cd released to such extents that PEC (173.4 μg Cd L(-1)) would considerably exceed acute toxicity concentrations for Daphnia magna . Other PEC for CIGS (9.9 mg Mo L(-1) and 9.4 μg Se L(-1)) were in the range of teratogenic effects. In contrast, OPV released little metals with calculated PEC being below even conservative drinking water guidelines. Time-resolved single-particle ICP-MS indicated that some metals (Zn, Mo, Ag) were in nanoparticulate form, raising nanotoxicity concerns. Leaching kinetics called for revision of existing standardized (accelerated) leaching protocols because long-term release was most relevant.

  5. Characteristics of electricity production by metallic and nonmetallic anodes immersed in mud sediment using sediment microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, N.; Cho, D.; Kwon, S.

    2015-09-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC), equipped with Zn, Al, Cu, Fe or graphite felt (GF) anode and marine sediment, was performed. Graphite felt was used as a common cathode. SMFC was single chambered and did not use any redox mediator. The aim of this work was to find efficient anodic material. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP), cell voltage, current density, power density, pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured for SMFC's performance. The order of maximum power density was 913 mWm-2 for Zn, 646 mWm-2 for Fe, 387.8 mWm-2 for Cu, 266 mWm-2 for Al, and 127 mWm-2 for GF. The current density over voltage was found to be strongly correlated one another in most metal electrodes but the graphite felt electrode, in which relatively weaker electricity was observed because of its biooriented mechanism. Metal corrosion reactions and/or a complicated microbial electron transfer mechanism acting around the anodic compartment may facilitate to generate electricity. We presume that more sophisticated selection of anodic material can lead to better performance in SMFC.

  6. Manufacturing of Open-Cell Zn-22Al-2Cu Alloy Foams by a Centrifugal-Replication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A.; Cruz, A.; Rivera, J. E.; Romero, J. A.; Suárez, M. A.; Gutiérrez, V. H.

    2018-01-01

    Centrifugal force was used to produce open-cell Zn-22Al-2Cu alloy foams by the replication method. Three different sizes (0.50, 0.69, and 0.95 mm) of NaCl spherical particles were used as space holders. A relatively low infiltration pressure was required to infiltrate completely the liquid metal into the three pore sizes, and it was determined based on the centrifugation system parameters. The infiltration pressure required was decreased when the diameter of the particle was increased. The porosity of the foam was increased from 58 to 63 pct, when the pore size was increased from 0.50 to 0.95 mm, while the relative density was decreased from 0.42 to 0.36. The NaCl preform was preheated to avoid the freezing and to keep the rheological properties of the melt. The centrifugal-replication method is a suitable technique for the fabrication of open-cell Zn-Al-Cu alloy foams with small pore size. The compressive mechanical properties of the open-cell Zn-22Al-2Cu foams increased when the pore size decreased.

  7. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of Ni-Al Montmorillonite-Like Phyllosilicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Ambroise

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the first hydrothermal synthesis in fluoride medium of Ni-Al montmorillonite-like phyllosilicates, in which the only metallic elements in the octahedral sheet are Ni and Al. X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirm that the synthesized samples are montmorillonite-like phyllosilicates having the expected chemical composition. The specific surface areas of the samples are relatively large (>100 m2 g−1 compared to naturally occurring montmorillonites. 29Si and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR indicate substitutions of Al for Si in the tetrahedral sheet. 19F NMR and Ni K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS local probes highlight a clustering of the metal elements and of the vacancies in the octahedral sheet of the samples. These Ni-Al phyllosilicates exhibit a higher local order than in previously synthesized Zn-Al phyllosilicates. Unlike natural montmorillonites, where the distribution of transition metal cations ensures a charge equilibrium allowing a stability of the framework, synthetic montmorillonites entail clustering and instability of the lattice when the content of divalent element in the octahedral sheet exceeds ca. 20%. Synthesis of Ni-Al montmorillonite-like phyllosilicates, was successfully achieved for the first time. These new synthetic materials may find potential applications as catalysts or as materials with magnetic, optical or staining properties.

  8. Luminescent characteristics of praseodymium-doped zinc aluminate powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Perez, C.D.; Garcia-Hipolito, M.; Alvarez-Fregoso, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, DF (Mexico); Alvarez-Perez, M.A. [Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, DF (Mexico); Ramos-Brito, F. [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos, DIDe, Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Av. De las Americas No. 2771 Nte. Col. Villa Universidad, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    In this research, we report the cathodoluminescence (CL) and preliminary photoluminescence (PL) properties of praseodymium-doped zinc aluminate powders. ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Pr powders were synthesized by a very simple chemical process. X-ray diffraction spectra indicated a cubic spinel crystalline structure with an average crystallite size of 15 nm. CL properties of the powders were studied as a function of the praseodymium concentration and electron-accelerating potential. In this case, all the cathodoluminescent emission spectra showed main peaks located at 494, 535, 611, 646, and 733 nm, which were associated to the electronic transitions {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 5}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 6}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}F{sub 2}, and {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}F{sub 4} of the Pr{sup 3+} ions, respectively. A quenching of the CL, with increasing doping concentration, was observed. Also, an increment on cathodoluminescent emission intensity was observed as the accelerating voltage increased. The PL emission spectrum showed similar characteristics to those of the CL spectra. The chemical composition of the powders, as determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy, is also reported. In addition, the surface morphology characteristics of the powders are shown. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Essential Role of Viscosity of SWCNT Inks in Homogeneous Conducting Film Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukobat, Radovan; Hayashi, Takuya; Matsuda, Takafumi; Sunaga, Motoo; Futamura, Ryusuke; Sakai, Toshio; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2016-07-12

    Newly developed inorganic single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) inks of the Zn/Al complex and colloidal silica give a quite homogeneous SWCNT film on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by the bar-coating method, whereas the surfactant-based SWCNT inks of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) cannot give a homogeneous film. The key properties of SWCNT inks were studied for the production of homogeneous SWCNT films. The contact angle and surface tension of the inorganic dispersant-based SWCNT inks were 70° and 72 mN m(-1), respectively, being close to those of water (71.5° and 71 mN m(-1)). The viscosity was significantly higher than that of water (0.90 mPa·s), consequently, providing sufficient wettability, spreadability, and slow drying of the ink on the substrate, leading to homogeneous film formation. On the other hand, the surfactant dispersant-aided SWCNT inks have the contact angle and surface tension twice lower than the inorganic dispersant-based SWCNT inks, guaranteeing better wettability and spreadability than the inorganic dispersant-based inks. However, the small viscosity close to that of water induces a heterogeneous flow of SWCNT ink on rapid drying, leading to inhomogeneous film formation.

  10. Influence of stripping and cooling atmospheres on surface properties and corrosion of zinc galvanizing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasakau, K. A.; Giner, I.; Vree, C.; Ozcan, O.; Grothe, R.; Oliveira, A.; Grundmeier, G.; Ferreira, M. G. S.; Zheludkevich, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the influence of stripping/cooling atmospheres used after withdrawal of steel sheet from Zn or Zn-alloy melt on surface properties of Zn (Z) and Zn-Al-Mg (ZM) hot-dip galvanizing coatings has been studied. The aim was to understand how the atmosphere (composed by nitrogen (N2) or air) affects adhesion strength to model adhesive and corrosive behaviour of the galvanized substrates. It was shown that the surface chemical composition and Volta potential of the galvanizing coatings prepared under the air or nitrogen atmosphere are strongly influenced by the atmosphere. The surface chemistry Z and ZM surfaces prepared under N2 contained a higher content of metal atoms and a richer hydroxide density than the specimens prepared under air atmosphere as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The induced differences on the microstructure of the galvanized coatings played a key role on the local corrosion induced defects as observed by means of in situ Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Peel force tests performed on the substrates coated by model adhesive films indicate a higher adhesive strength to the surfaces prepared under nitrogen atmosphere. The obtained results have been discussed in terms of the microstructure and surface chemical composition of the galvanizing coatings.

  11. Effect of preparation procedures on catalytic activity and selectivity of copper-based mixed oxides in selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia into nitrogen and water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska, Magdalena; Nocuń, Marek; Gołąbek, Kinga; Palkovits, Regina

    2017-11-01

    The selective oxidation of ammonia into nitrogen and water vapour (NH3-SCO) was studied over Cu-Mg(Zn)-Al-(Zr) mixed metal oxides, obtained by coprecipitation and their subsequent calcination. The effect of acid-base properties of Cu-Mg-Al-Ox on catalytic activity was investigated by changing the Mg/Al molar ratio. Other Cu-containing oxides were prepared by rehydration of calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds or thermal decomposition of metal nitrate precursors. XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, XPS, FTIR with adsorption of pyridine and CO as well as TEM techniques were used for catalysts characterization. The results of catalytic tests revealed a crucial role of easily reducible highly dispersed copper oxide species to obtain enhanced activity and N2 selectivity in NH3-SCO. The selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 (NH3-SCR) and in situ DRIFT of NH3 sorption indicated that NH3-SCO proceeds according to the internal selective catalytic reduction mechanism (i-SCR).

  12. Development of the integrated methanol fuel processor using micro-channel patterned devices and its performance for steam reforming of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jung Min [Department of Mineral Resources and Energy Engineering, Chonbuk Nat' l University, 664-14 Duckjin-dong, Duckjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 561-756 (Korea); Chang Byun, Young; Yeon Cho, Jun; Choe, Jaehoon [LG Chem, Ltd./Research Park, 104-1, Moonji-dong Yuseong-gu Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea); Ho Song, Kwang [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea)

    2007-12-15

    A plate-type integrated fuel processor consisting of three different micro-structured modules was developed for hydrogen production in a 150 W PEMFC system. This system includes a reformer with combustor, two heat exchangers, and an evaporator with a combustor. Methanol steam reforming was chosen as a means to produce hydrogen for the PEMFC system. This system could be operated without any external heat supply. Hydrogen was used as the initial combustion fuel during startup, while methanol was used later. Cu/Zn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were chosen for the steam reforming of methanol and the combustion, respectively, and coated on microchannel-patterned stainless steel sheets. The integrated system was operated consistently with 80% of methanol conversion at 300 {sup circle} C for 20 h without deactivation of the catalysts. The production rate on dry basis and the composition of hydrogen was 2.4NL-{sup -1} and ca 70%, respectively. Overall the thermal efficiency of this fuel processor based on the LHV was 56.7%. (author)

  13. Partitioning of heavy metals in sub-surface flow treatment wetlands receiving high-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, Ewa; Gajewska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The retention of heavy metals at two pilot-scale treatment wetlands (TWs), consisting of two vertical flow beds (VSSF) followed by a horizontal flow bed (HSSF) was studied. The TWs received high-strength wastewater: reject waters from sewage sludge centrifugation (RW) and landfill leachate (LL). The concentrations of the metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Pb, Cu, Cd, Co, and Ni were measured in treated wastewater, substrate of the beds and in plant material harvested from the beds (separately in above ground (ABG) parts and below ground (BG) parts). The TWs differed in metals retention. In the RW treating TW the metal removal efficiencies varied from 27% for Pb to over 97% for Fe and Al. In the LL treating system the concentrations of most metals decreased after VSSF-1 and VSSF-2 beds; however, in the outflow from the last (HSSF) bed, the concentrations of metals (apart from Al) increased again, probably due to the anaerobic conditions at the bed. A major removal pathway was sedimentation and adsorption onto soil substrate as well as precipitation and co-precipitation. In the LL treating facility the plants contained substantially higher metal concentrations in BG parts, while the upward movement of metals was restricted. In the RW treating facility the BG/ABG ratios were lower, indicating that metals were transported to shoots.

  14. THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN PLUTONIUM ALLOYS - PART I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, P A; Kaufman, L; Liu, Z; Zhou, S

    2004-08-18

    In this report we investigate order, stability, and phase transformations for a series of actinide-based alloys. The statics and kinetics of precipitation and ordering in this class of alloys are modeled with a scheme that couples fundamental information on the alloy energetics obtained from experimental and assessed thermo-chemical data to the CALPHAD approach commonly used in industry for designing alloys with engineering specificity with the help of the Thermo-Calc software application. The CALPHAD approach is applied to the study of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of Pu-based alloys, Pu-X, where X=Al, Fe, Ga. The assessment of the equilibrium phase diagrams in the whole range of alloy composition has been performed with the PARROT module of the Thermo-Calc application software. Predictions are made on the low temperature and Pu-rich side of the phase diagrams of Pu-Ga and Pu-Al for which controversy has been noted in the past. The validity of the assessed thermo-chemical database will be discussed by comparing predicted heats of transformation for pure Pu with measured values from differential scanning calorimetry analysis. An overall picture for the stability properties of Pu-Ga and Pu-Al that reconciles the results of past studies carried out on these alloys is proposed. Results on phase stability in the ternary Fe-Ga-Pu and Al-Fe-Pu alloys are discussed. The information collected in this study is then used to model metastability, long-term stability and aging for this class of alloys by coupling Thermo-Calc with DICTRA, a series of modules that allow the analysis of DIffusion Controlled TRAnsformations. Kinetics information is then summarized in so-called TTT (temperature-time-transformations) diagrams for the most relevant phases of actinide alloys. Specifically, results are presented on kinetics of phase transformations associated with the eutectoid-phase decomposition reaction occurring at low temperature, and with the martensitic transformation

  15. Composição mineral do produto comercial da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. Mineral composition of a commercial product from mate-herb (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Heinrichs

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de quantificar e avaliar a concentração mineral na matéria seca e na infusão de erva-mate tipo chimarrão, selecionaram-se três amostras comerciais, com ampla aceitação pelo consumidor, as quais foram amostradas com quatro repetições. Na industrialização da erva-mate tipo chimarrão, são utilizadas folhas, pecíolos e ramos finos, tendo uma composição aproximada de 30% ramos e 70% folhas, que são beneficiados para posterior comercialização. O preparo das amostras e as análises foram efetuadas no Laboratório de Nutrição Mineral de Plantas do Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP. Para determinação da composição mineral da matéria seca, as amostras foram moídas em moinho "tipo Willey", com posterior digestão e determinação dos teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Na e Pb. Para determinação dos elementos na infusão, utilizaram-se 70g de erva-mate para um litro de água desionizada a 80ºC, simulando-se a temperatura para chimarrão, mantendo-se até esfriar e posteriormente coando-se. Os elementos analisados na infusão foram os determinados na matéria seca e, além destes, Mo, Ba, Si e Sr, exceto Co. As leituras das concentrações foram realizadas através da espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma de argônio. Na matéria seca, os elementos que apresentaram maior destaque é a concentração são Mg e Mn. As maiores concentrações na infusão da erva-mate, em ordem decrescente, foram: K; Mg; S; Ca e P. Quanto à solubilidade do elemento, em relação a sua concentração na matéria seca foi a seguinte: B > S-SO4 > Zn > K > P > Mg =Mn > Cu > Cr, os demais apresentaram valores menores que 30%. A infusão da erva-mate apresenta altas concentrações de K, Mg e Mn (por ser um micronutriente, intermediárias de S, Ca e P, baixa de Al e zero de Cd e Pb.The mineral composition of three commercial mate products and of the infusions thereof were

  16. Chemical composition of gahnite and degree of pegmatitic fractionation in the Borborema Pegmatitic Province, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight R. Soares

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Gahnite electron probe microanalyses from three pegmatites (Mirador, Capoeira and Quintos of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in northeastern Brazil allowed to determine molar compositions ranging from 86.22 to 95.41 mol% gahnite (ZnAl2O4, 1.51 to 6.62 mol% hercynite (Fe2+Al2O4, 0.11 to 5.89 mol% spinel (MgAl2O4, 1.48 to 2.74 mol% galaxite (MnAl2O4, and Zn/FeTotal atomic ratios ranging from 11.53 to 60.87. These data compared with gahnite compositions from albite subtype pegmatites from Cap de Creus, Spain (Zn/FeTotal between 10 and 60 and from the source granite of the Separation Rapids pegmatite field, Ontario, Canada (Zn/FeTotal =3.5 indicate a high degree of fractionation of the studied pegmatites. This interpretation agrees with conclusions based on compositional data of tourmaline (vacancy in X-site 0.42 to 0.49, white mica (K/Rb between 8 and 33, feldspar (K/Rb between 8 and 109, garnet (Mn/(Mn+Fe2+between 0.93 and 0.97 and in Nb-Ta oxides (Mn/(Mn+Fe2+>0.5 in the same pegmatites.Análises via microssonda eletrônica de gahnita de três pegmatitos (Mirador, Capoeira e Quintos da Província Pegmatítica da Borborema, no Nordeste do Brasil, permitiram estabelecer uma composição molar variando entre 86,22 e 95,41 mol% de gahnita (ZnAl2O4, 1,51 e 6,62 mol% de hercinita (Fe2+Al2O4, 0,11 e 5,89 mol% de espinélio (MgAl2O4, 1,48 e 2,74 mol% de galaxita (MnAl2O4 e relação Zn/FeTotal variando entre 11,53 e 60,87. Estes dados comparados com os de gahnita dos pegmatitos subtipo albita de Cap de Creus, Espanha (Zn/FeTotal variando entre 10 e 60 e gahnita de fonte granítica do campo pegmatítico Separation Rapids, Ontário, Canadá (Zn/FeTotal = 3,5 indicam um alto grau de fracionamento dos pegmatitos estudados. Esta interpretação está de acordo com conclusões baseadas em dados de turmalina (vacância no sítio X variando entre 0,42 a 0,49, mica clara (K/Rb variando entre 8 e 33, feldspato (K/Rb variando entre 8 e 109, granada (Mn/(Mn+Fe2

  17. Spectroscopic properties and luminescence behavior of Nd3+ doped zinc alumino bismuth borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamuda, Sk.; Swapna, K.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Sasikala, T.; Pavani, K.; Rama Moorthy, L.

    2013-09-01

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses doped with different concentrations of neodymium are prepared by using the melt quenching technique to study their physical, absorption and luminescence properties to understand the lasing potentialities of these glasses. From the absorption spectra various spectroscopic parameters and Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters are evaluated. These JO parameters are used to calculate the transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR), and branching ratios (βR) for most of the fluorescent levels of Nd3+. The emission spectra recorded for these glasses gives three prominent transitions 4F3/2→4I9/2, 4F3/2→4I11/2 and 4F3/2→4I13/2 for which effective band widths (ΔλP) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σse) are evaluated. Branching ratios and stimulated emission cross-sections measured for all these glasses show that the 4F3/2→4I11/2 transition under investigation has the potential for laser applications. The intensity of Nd3+ emission spectra increases with increasing concentrations of Nd3+ up to 1 mol% and beyond 1 mol% the concentration quenching is observed. The high stimulated emission cross-section and branching ratios from the present glasses suggests their potential for infrared lasers. From the absorption and emission spectral studies it was found that, 1 mol% of Nd3+ ion concentration is optimum for Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate glasses to generate a strong laser emission at 1060 nm.

  18. Dopant-induced stabilization of rhombohedral LiMn O2 against Jahn-Teller distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.; Benedek, R.; Thackeray, M. M.

    2005-04-01

    Dopants introduced into layered LiMnO2 , a candidate cathode material for lithium batteries, tend to suppress the Jahn-Teller-effect-driven monoclinic distortion (symmetry C2/m ) in favor of the layered rhombohedral structure (R3¯m) , which has superior Li insertion/extraction cycling properties. First-principles calculations, within the Local-Spin-Density-Approximation Generalized-Gradient-Approximation (LSDA-GGA) framework, implemented in the VASP code, are performed for 3d transition-metal, as well as Mg, Zn, Al, and N dopants, in order to assess their relative effectiveness in stabilizing the R3¯m symmetry. At the concentration x=0.25 , the selected cation dopants (with the exception of Co and Fe) are found to adopt the same oxidation state (divalent or trivalent) in both monoclinic and rhombohedral structures. Transition metals earlier than Fe are trivalent, whereas those later than Co are divalent. Co in monoclinic LiMnO2 exhibits (stable) trivalent and (metastable) divalent states that are only narrowly different in energy. Fe is trivalent in the monoclinic structure, but is mixed valent in the rhombohedral structure. Divalent dopants (which oxidize a neighboring Mn to the [non-Jahn-Teller-active] 4+ oxidation state) promote rhombohedral structure stabilization to a greater extent than trivalent dopants. Within the class of divalent dopants, the filled shell systems Mg and Zn are more effective than those with partially filled eg shells. Within the class of trivalent dopants, those with partially filled t2g shells are more effective than those with filled or empty shells. Breathing mode (Q1) and Jahn-Teller active ( Q2 , Q3 ) phonon coordinates of transition metal octahedra are analyzed.

  19. Real condition high throughput screening of Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Catalysts for methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltes, C.; Vukojevic, S.; Schueth, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muehlheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Ternary Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were systematically prepared via the co-precipitation route under strict control of parameters such as pH, precipitation temperature and calcination temperature. All catalysts were tested with respect to their methanol activity in a 49-fold multitubular high-throughput experimentation setup under conditions similar to the commercial methanol production route, using a syngas mixture of CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. Statistically representative catalysts were chosen for more detailed structure and morphology analysis in order to study correlations between the catalyst ''preparation history'' and the methanol productivity. The highest catalyst performance was observed for catalysts obtained in the pH range from 6 to 8 at 70 C. XRD measurements allowed the ''grouping'' of catalysts based on their composition. It was found that a group of best-performance catalysts exhibited the characteristic XRD pattern of non-calcined Cu/Zn hydroxycarbonate residues, leading to the assumption that carbonate species in the final catalyst structure may enhance its productivity. Further investigations of these hydroxycarbonate containing catalysts gave more detailed insights into the dynamic aging process and its influence on the catalytic performance. Highest methanol activity was observed for catalysts aged between 20 and 60 minutes after an initial phase formation time. The optimum calcination temperature was found to be in the range from 250 to 300 C. Under these conditions the resulting Cu/Zn/Al hydroxycarbonates remained stable. Additionally, the syngas feed composition was varied under reaction conditions and correlated to catalytic activities. Highest methanol productivity over Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts was observed for the following gas concentrations; H{sub 2}: 50-60 %, CO: 30-40 % and CO{sub 2}: 5-10 % at 4.5 MPa and 245 C. (orig.)

  20. Short Review: Mitigation of Current Environmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Young

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol has become a widely used and globally distributed product. Methanol is very important due to the current depletion of fossil fuels. Industrially, methanol produced from the catalytic reaction of synthetic gas composed of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Methanol production has brought great attention due to carbon dioxide as the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. Combined of reducing CO2 emissions and supplying an alternative fuel source has created the idea of a carbon neutral cycle called “the methanol economy”. The best catalyst for the methanol economy would show a high CO2 conversion and high selectivity for methanol production. This paper investigates research focused on catalyst development for efficient methanol synthesis from hydrogenation of carbon dioxide through added various supports and additives such as silica, zirconium, and palladium. Catalysts that displayed the highest activity included a zirconia and silicon-titanium oxide promoted Cu/Zn/Al2O3 catalyst. Alternative method of catalyst preparation, include the oxalate-gel, solid-state reaction, co-precipitation and combustion method also investigated.  © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th October 2012; Revised: 7th February 2012; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Young, A., Lesmana, D., Dai, D.J., Wu, H.S. (2013. Short Review: Mitigation of Current En-vironmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 1-13. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13] | View in  |

  1. Treatment of real industrial wastewaters through nano-TiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 photocatalysis: case study of mining and kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2017-06-01

    High quantities of industrial wastewaters containing a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants are being directly discharged into the environment, sometimes without proper treatment. Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential improving the existing treatments or even develop new treatment solutions. In this study, nano-TiO2 or nano-Fe2O3 was used for the photocatalytic treatment of kraft pulp mill effluent and mining effluent. The experiments with the organic effluent lead to reduction percentages of 93.3%, 68.4% and 89.8%, for colour, aromatic compounds and chemical oxygen demand, respectively, when treated with nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/H2O2/UV, at pH 3.0. Significant removal of metals from the mining effluent was recorded but only for Zn, Al and Cd, the highest removal attained with 1.0 g L-1 of nano-TiO2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/UV. Regarding the toxicity of the organic effluent to Vibrio fischeri, it was reduced with the treatments combining the oxidant and the catalyst. However, for the inorganic effluent, the best reduction was achieved using 1.0 g L-1 of catalyst. In fact, the increase in dose of the catalyst, especially for nano-TiO2, enhanced toxicity reduction. Our results have shown that the use of these NMs seemed to be more effective in the organic effluent than in metal-rich effluent.

  2. Diverse Reactivity of ECp* (E = Al, Ga) toward Low-Coordinate Transition Metal Amides [TM(N(SiMe3)2)2] (TM = Fe, Co, Zn): Insertion, Cp* Transfer, and Orthometalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weßing, Jana; Göbel, Christoph; Weber, Birgit; Gemel, Christian; Fischer, Roland A

    2017-03-20

    The reactivity of the carbenoid group 13 metal ligands ECp* (E = Al, Ga) toward low valent transition metal complexes [TM(btsa)2] (TM = Fe, Co, Zn; btsa = bis(trimethylsilyl)amide) was investigated, revealing entirely different reaction patterns for E = Al and Ga. Treatment of [Co(btsa)2] with AlCp* yields [Cp*Co(μ-H)(Al(κ2-(CH2SiMe2)NSiMe3)(btsa))] (1) featuring an unusual heterometallic bicyclic structure that results from the insertion of AlCp* into the TM-N bond with concomitant ligand rearrangement including C-H activation at one amide ligand. For [Fe(btsa)2], complete ligand exchange gives FeCp*2, irrespective of the employed stoichiometric ratio of the reactants. In contrast, treatment of [TM(btsa)2] (TM = Fe, Co) with GaCp* forms the 1:1 and 1:2 adducts [(GaCp*)Co(btsa)2] (2) and [(GaCp*)2Fe(btsa)2] (3), respectively. The tendency of AlCp* to undergo Cp* transfer to the TM center appears to be dependent on the nature of the TM center: For [Zn(btsa)2], no Cp* transfer is observed on reaction with AlCp*; instead, the insertion product [Zn(Al(η2-Cp*)(btsa))2] (4) is formed. In the reaction of [Co(btsa)2] with the trivalent [Cp*AlH2], transfer of the amide ligands without further ligand rearrangement is observed, leading to [Co(μ-H)4(Al(η2-Cp*)(btsa))2] (5).

  3. Encapsulation, solid-phases identification and leaching of toxic metals in cement systems modified by natural biodegradable polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasheras-Zubiate, M.; Navarro-Blasco, I.; Fernandez, J.M. [Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Alvarez, J.I., E-mail: jalvarez@unav.es [Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speciation of Zn, Pb and Cr has been studied in chitosan-modified cement mortars. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal retention mechanisms have been clarified by newly identified crystalline forms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Native chitosan induced and stabilized newly characterized Pb (IV) species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietrichite is responsible for the Zn immobilization in the polymer-modified mortar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leaching of Zn decreased by 24% in the presence of low molecular weight chitosan. - Abstract: Cement mortars loaded with Cr, Pb and Zn were modified by polymeric admixtures [chitosans with low (LMWCH), medium (MMWCH) and high (HMWCH) molecular weight and hydroxypropylchitosan (HPCH)]. The influence of the simultaneous presence of the heavy metal and the polymeric additive on the fresh properties (consistency, water retention and setting time) and on the compressive strength of the mortars was assessed. Leaching patterns as well as properties of the cement mortars were related to the heavy metals-bearing solid phases. Chitosan admixtures lessened the effect of the addition of Cr and Pb on the setting time. In all instances, chitosans improved the compressive strength of the Zn-bearing mortars yielding values as high as 15 N mm{sup -2}. A newly reported Zn phase, dietrichite (ZnAl{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}{center_dot}22H{sub 2}O) was identified under the presence of LMWCH: it was responsible for an improvement by 24% in Zn retention. Lead-bearing silicates, such as plumalsite (Pb{sub 4}Al{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3}){sub 7}), were also identified by XRD confirming that Pb was mainly retained as a part of the silicate network after Ca ion exchange. Also, the presence of polymer induced the appearance and stabilization of some Pb(IV) species. Finally, diverse chromate species were identified and related to the larger leaching values of Cr(VI).

  4. ZnO dense nanowire array on a film structure in a single crystal domain texture for optical and photoelectrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Miao; Sato, Yukio; Kurniawan, Mario; Apostoluk, Aleksandra; Masenelli, Bruno; Maeda, Etsuo; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques

    2012-12-01

    A single crystal domain texture quality (a unique in-plane and out-of-plane crystalline orientation over a large area) ZnO nanostructure of a dense nanowire array on a thick film has been homogeneously synthesized on a-plane sapphire substrates over large areas through a one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The growth mechanism is clarified: a single crystal [0\\bar {2}1] oriented ZnAl2O4 buffer layer was formed at the ZnO film and the a-plane sapphire substrate interface via a diffusion reaction process during the CVD process, providing improved epitaxial conditions that enable the synthesis of the high crystalline quality ZnO nanowire array on a film structure. The high optoelectronic quality of the ZnO nanowire array on a film sample is evidenced by the free exitonic emissions in the low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. A carrier density of ˜1017 cm-3 with an n-type conductivity of the ZnO nanowire array on a film sample is obtained by electrochemical impedance analysis. Finally, the ZnO nanowire array on a film sample is demonstrated to be an ideal template for a further synthesis of a single crystal quality ZnO-ZnGa2O4 core-shell nanowire array on a film structure. The fabricated ZnO-ZnGa2O4 sample revealed an enhanced anticorrosive ability and photoelectrochemical performance when used as a photoanode in a photoelectrochemical water splitting application.

  5. Effect of Heat-Treatment and Composition on Structure and Luminescence Properties of Spinel-Type Solid Solution Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Kazuki; Hirano, Masanori

    2015-08-01

    The compositional dependence of the structure and properties of spinel-type solid solutions, Zn(A,Ga)2O4 was investigated by comparison with samples hydrothermally prepared and those after heat treatment at 1000 °C in air. Nanocrystalline spinel-type solid solutions in the whole composition range in the ZnAl2O4-ZnGa2O4 system were directly formed from the aqueous precursor solutions of ZnSO4, Al(NO3)3 and Ga(NO3)3 under hydrothermal conditions at 180 °C for 5 h in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. The incorporation of aluminum into the lattice, Zn(AlxGa1-x)2O4, resulted in lower crystallinity of the spinel. The relationship between the lattice parameter of as-prepared samples and the Al atomic ratio in the spinel composition was slightly apart from the ideal linear relationship that was obtained in the samples after heat treatment at 1000 °C. The optical band gap of both as-prepared solid solutions and those heat treated linearly increased from 4.1~4.2 to 5.25 eV by the incorporation of aluminum ion into the lattice, Zn(AlxGa1-x)2O4. Two main broad-band emission spectra centered at around 360 and 430 nm in the range of 300-600 nm were observed in the spinel solid solutions under excitation at 270 nm, thought their broad-band emission spectra and their peak wavelengths subtly changed depending on the composition and heat treatment.

  6. Recovery of metal values from zinc solder dross

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barakat, M.A.

    1999-07-01

    Zinc solder dross containing 14.8% Sn, 16.3% Pb, 0.41% Al and 64.5% Zn was leached with 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 45 C for 1 h. Zinc and aluminum went into solution, whereas lead and tin remained with the residue. Aluminum was selectively precipitated as calcium aluminum carbonate by treating the sulfate leachate with limestone at pH 4.8. Zinc sulfate solution was either evaporated to obtain zinc sulfate crystals or precipitated as basic zinc carbonate at pH 6.8. The undissolved lead and tin were leached with 5 M hot hydrochloric acid. The major part of lead chloride ({approx_equal} 73%) was separated by cooling the leached products down to room temperature. From the soluble fraction, tin was recovered as hydrated tin oxide by alkylation with caustic soda at pH 2,4, while the remaining lead was separated at pH 8.5 as lead hydroxide. A process flowsheet had been suggested which involved two-stage hydrometallurgical treatment. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency of the suggested method such as temperature, time, pH and acid: solid stoichiometric ratio were investigated. Results obtained revealed that the optimum leaching conditions were achieved by using 20 ml of 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} acid/g dross for 1 h at 45 C. Recovery efficiency of the metal salts was 99.1, 99.4, 99.6 and 99.5% for Zn, Al, Pb and Sn respectively. Recover efficiency was related to the solubility of the concerned salts under the given experimental conditions.

  7. The role of Al, Ba, and Cd dopant elements in tailoring the properties of c-axis oriented ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Dilawar [Department of Physics GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Center for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University Lahore, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Butt, M.Z., E-mail: mzakriabutt@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University Lahore, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Arif, Bilal [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Firat University, 23169 Elazig (Turkey); Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Firat University, 23169 Elazig (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-02-01

    Highly c-axis oriented un-doped ZnO and Al-, Ba-, and Cd-doped ZnO thin films were successfully deposited on glass substrate employing sol-gel spin coating method. XRD analysis showed that all thin films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along c-axis. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to study the morphology of thin films. The morphology consists of spherical and non-spherical shape grains. EDX analysis confirms the presence of O, Zn, Al, Ba, and Cd in the relevant thin films. The optical properties of thin films were studied using UV–Vis spectrometer. All thin films possess more than 85% optical transmittance in the visible region. Blue shift in optical band gap E{sub g} has been observed on doping with Al, whereas doping with Ba and Cd resulted in red shift of E{sub g}. Urbach energy E{sub u} of all doped ZnO thin films was found to have excellent correlation with their band gap energy E{sub g}. Moreover, E{sub g} increases while E{sub u} decreases on the increase in crystallite size D. Optical parameters E{sub g} and E{sub u} as well as structural parameters lattice strain and stacking fault probability also show excellent correlation with the B-factor or the mean-square amplitude of atomic vibrations of the dopant elements. Electrical conductivity measurement of the thin films was carried out using two-point probe method. The electrical conductivity was found to increase with the increase in crystallite orientation along c-axis.

  8. Treatment of mining acidic leachates with indigenous limestone, Zimapan Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labastida, I; Armienta, M A; Lara-Castro, R H; Aguayo, A; Cruz, O; Ceniceros, N

    2013-11-15

    An experimental study to evaluate the potential of using indigenous limestones in a passive system to treat acid mine drainage, at a mining zone of Mexico was carried out. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of four types of native rocks (KIT1, KIT2, KSS, QZ) showed distinct CaCO3 contents. Synthetic aqueous leachates from an old tailings impoundment had a pH of 2.18, 34 mg/L As, 705 mg/L Fetotal, and 3975 mg/L SO4(2-). To evaluate dissolution behavior of rocks, kinetic batch experiments with an acid Fe-rich solution were performed. Decaying kinetic constants adjusting H(+) concentration to a first order exponential process were: KIT1 (k = 2.89), KIT2 (k = 0.89) and KSS (k = 0.47). Infrared spectrum and XRD of precipitates showed schwertmannite formation. To determine As and heavy metals (Fe, Cd, Zn, Al) removal from the synthetic leachates, batch experiments using KIT1 were developed. Arsenic decreased from 34.00 mg/L to 0.04 mg/L, Fe and Al were totally removed, and concentrations of Zn and Cd decreased 88% and 91% respectively. Analyses by IR and SEM-EDS indicate that co-precipitation with Fe-Hydroxides formed upon leachate interaction with limestone is the main As removal process. Chamosite, identified by XRD may participate in the removal of Al, SiO2 and a fraction of Fe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metal-fluxes characterization at a catchment scale: Study of mixing processes and end-member analysis in the Meca River watershed (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, C. R.; Macías, F.; Olías, M.; López, R. Pérez; Nieto, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Fluxes of acidity and contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) sources to the receiving surface water bodies were studied in a mining-impacted watershed (Meca River, SW Spain) using a novel methodology based on the joint application of EMMA and MIX codes. The application of EMMA and elemental ratios allowed delimiting the end-members responsible for water quality variations at a catchment scale. The further application of MIX quantified the significant impact of AMD on the river quality; less than 10% of AMD relative contribution is enough to maintain acidic conditions during most of the year. The mixing model also provided information about the element mobility, distinguishing those elements with a quasi-conservative behavior (e.g., Cu, Zn, Al, Co or Ni) from those affected by mineral precipitation/dissolution (e.g., K, Si, Na, Sr, Ca, Fe, Pb, or As). Floods are the main driver of dissolved and, mainly particulate, contaminants in the catchment. Thus, the first rainfall events in November only accounted for 19% of the annual Meca flow but yielded between 26 and 43% of the net acidity and dissolved metal loads (mainly, Fe, As and Pb). Concerning particulate transport, around 332 tons of particulate Fe, 49 tons of Al, 0.79 tons of As and 0.37 tons of Pb were recorded during these first floods. The particulate As concentration can be up to 34 times higher than the dissolved one during floods and between 2 and 4 times higher for Fe, Pb and Cr. This integrated modeling approach could be a promising and useful tool to face future restoration plans in derelict mines worldwide. This approach would allow prioritizing remedial measures, achieving an environmental and cost-effective restoration of degraded areas.

  10. Theoretical study on the structural properties and relative stability of M(II)-Al layered double hydroxides based on a cluster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Wei, Min; Ma, Jing; Li, Feng; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2009-05-28

    The [M2Al(OH2)9(OH)4]3+ clusters (M = divalent cation Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, or Cd2+), which include the basic information of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) lattice structure with the most economical size, have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) to shed light on the structural properties and relative stability of M(II)-Al binary LDHs layers with a M2+/Al3+ ratio of 2. The geometric parameters (bond distance and bond angle), natural bond orbitals (NBO), stretching vibration frequencies of three-centered bridging OH groups (nu(O3-H)), as well as binding energy of the cluster model were systematically studied. It was found that the geometries and the nu(O3-H) frequency for the calculated clusters are remarkably influenced by the electronic structure of the divalent cations, such as valence electronic configuration, natural bond orbitals, natural charge transfer, and bond order. The calculated binding energies are in good agreement with the relative stability of the experimental results for the corresponding LDHs. The calculation results reveal that the 2Ni-Al cluster shows the highest stability among the open-shelled cation-containing clusters, while the stability of the 2Cu-Al cluster is the weakest; the 2Mg-Al and 2Zn-Al clusters are the most stable ones among the closed-shelled cation-containing clusters. These findings are in high accordance with the experimental results. Therefore, this work provides a detailed understanding of how the electronic structure of cations plays a more significant role in the structural properties and relative stability of the corresponding LDHs layers rather than ionic size.

  11. Characteristics of PM10 Chemical Source Profiles for Geological Dust from the South-West Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayong Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10 chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Be, Tl and Pb, nine ions (F−, Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, and carbon-containing species (organic carbon and elemental carbon were determined to construct these profiles. Individual source profiles were averaged and compared to quantify similarities and differences in chemical abundances using the profile-compositing method. Overall, the major components of PM10 in geological sources were crustal minerals and undefined fraction. Different chemical species could be used as tracers for various types of geological dust in the region that resulted from different anthropogenic influence. For example, elemental carbon, V and Zn could be used as tracers for urban paved road dust; Al, Si, K+ and NH4+ for agricultural soil; Al and Si for natural soil; and SO42− for urban resuspended dust. The enrichment factor analysis showed that Cu, Se, Sr and Ba were highly enriched by human activities in geological dust samples from south-west China. Elemental ratios were taken to highlight the features of geological dust from south-west China by comparing with northern urban fugitive dust, loess and desert samples. Low Si/Al and Fe/Al ratios can be used as markers to trace geological sources from southwestern China. High Pb/Al and Zn/Al ratios observed in urban areas demonstrated that urban geological dust was influenced seriously by non-crustal sources.

  12. Characterization of phthalocyanine functionalized quantum dots by dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler, and capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-García, Gonzalo; Oluwole, David O; Nxele, Siphesihle Robin; d'Orlyé, Fanny; Nyokong, Tebello; Bedioui, Fethi; Varenne, Anne

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we characterized different phtalocyanine-capped core/shell/shell quantum dots (QDs) in terms of stability, ζ-potential, and size at various pH and ionic strengths, by means of capillary electrophoresis (CE), and compared these results to the ones obtained by laser Doppler electrophoresis (LDE) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The effect of the phthalocyanine metallic center (Zn, Al, or In), the number (one or four), and nature of substituents (carboxyphenoxy- or sulfonated-) of functionalization on the phthalocyanine physicochemical properties were evaluated. Whereas QDs capped with zinc mono-carboxyphenoxy-phtalocyanine (ZnMCPPc-QDs) remained aggregated in the whole analyzed pH range, even at low ionic strength, QDs capped with zinc tetracarboxyphenoxy phtalocyanine (ZnTPPc-QDs) were easily dispersed in buffers at pH equal to or higher than 7.4. QDs capped with aluminum tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (AlTSPPc-QDs) and indium tetracarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanines (InTCPPc-QDs) were stable in aqueous suspension only at pH higher than 9.0 due to the presence of functional groups bound to the metallic center of the phthalocyanine. The ζ-potential values determined by CE for all the samples decreased when ionic strength increased, being well correlated with the aggregation of the nanoconjugates at elevated salt concentrations. The use of electrokinetic methodologies has provided insights into the colloidal stability of the photosensitizer-functionalized QDs in physiological relevant solutions and thereby, its usefulness for improving their design and applications for photodynamic therapy. Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration of the phthalocyanine capped QDs nanoconjugates and the capillary electrophoresis methods applied for size and ζ-potential characterization.

  13. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate, and effects of army smokes in the aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate, and terrestrial ecological effects of hexachloroethane obscurant smokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fellows, R.J.; Van Voris, P.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; McFadden, K.M.

    1989-09-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of hexachloroethane (HC) smoke were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on exposure scenarios, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of HC smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and two soil types. HC aerosols were generated in a controlled atmosphere wind tunnel by combustion of hexachloroethane mixtures prepared to simulate normal pot burn rates and conditions. The aerosol was characterized and used to expose plant, soil, and other test systems. Particle sizes of airborne HC ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 {mu}m mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), and particle size was affected by relative humidity over a range of 20% to 85%. Air concentrations employed ranged from 130 to 680 mg/m{sup 3}, depending on exposure scenario. Chlorocarbon concentrations within smokes, deposition rates for plant and soil surfaces, and persistence were determined. The fate of principal inorganic species (Zn, Al, and Cl) in a range of soils was assessed.

  14. Nanocompósitos poliméricos de polietileno de alta densidade contendo hidróxidos duplos lamelares intercalados com ânions derivados de corantes azo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Zimmermann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a síntese e caracterização de hidróxidos duplos lamelares (HDL de Zn/Al na razão molar 2:1, os quais foram intercalados com íons cloreto hidratados e ânions derivados dos corantes azo alaranjado de metila (AM e alaranjado II (AII. Após caracterização, os materiais foram utilizados como cargas em polietileno de alta densidade (PEAD e nanocompósitos foram preparados por extrusão e injeção, seguindo a norma ASTM D638-10. Os teores de cargas variaram de 0,1 até 2% (incluindo-se os sais de sódio dos corantes e os nanocompósitos homogêneos foram avaliados em relação as suas propriedades estruturais, térmicas e mecânicas. De modo geral, após a adição das cargas existe somente uma pequena influência na temperatura de fusão e cristalização do PEAD. Para os HDLs contendo o pigmento intercalado com o ânion do corante AM e sais de sódio de ambos os corantes, as propriedades mecânicas apresentaram leve aumento do módulo e tensão de ruptura e diminuição do alongamento em relação ao polímero puro e um comportamento inverso foi observado para o ânion AII, além do HDL contendo ânions cloreto hidratados.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Characterizations of Damping Properties of SMAs Composite for Vibration Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Bassani, P.; Tuissi, A.; Carnevale, M.; Lecis, N.; LoConte, A.; Previtali, B.

    2012-12-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are very interesting smart materials not only for their shape memory and superelastic effects but also because of their significant intrinsic damping capacity. The latter is exhibited upon martensitic transformations and especially in martensitic state. The combination of these SMA properties with the mechanical and the lightweight of fiberglass-reinforced polymer (FGRP) is a promising solution for manufacturing of innovative composites for vibration suppression in structural applications. CuZnAl sheets, after laser patterning, were embedded in a laminated composite between a thick FGRP core and two thin outer layers with the aim of maximizing the damping capacity of the beam for passive vibration suppression. The selected SMA Cu66Zn24Al10 at.% was prepared by vacuum induction melting; the ingot was subsequently hot-and-cold rolled down to 0.2 mm thickness tape. The choice of a copper alloy is related to some advantages in comparison with NiTiCu SMA alloys, which was tested for the similar presented application in a previous study: lower cost, higher storage modulus and consequently higher damping properties in martensitic state. The patterning of the SMA sheets was performed by means of a pulsed fiber laser. After the laser processing, the SMA sheets were heat treated to obtain the desired martensitic state at room temperature. The transformation temperatures were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The damping properties were determined, at room temperature, on full-scale sheet, using a universal testing machine (MTS), with cyclic tensile tests at different deformation amplitudes. Damping properties were also determined as a function of the temperature on miniature samples with a dynamical mechanical analyzer (DMA). Numerical modeling of the laminated composite, done with finite element method analysis and modal strain energy approaches, was performed to estimate the corresponding total damping capacity and then

  16. An Indigo Carmine-Based Hybrid Nanocomposite with Supramolecular Control of Dye Aggregation and Photobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana L; Gomes, Ana C; Pillinger, Martyn; Gonçalves, Isabel S; de Melo, J Sérgio Seixas

    2015-08-17

    Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing solely indigo carmine (IC) or 1-hexanesulfonate (HS) anions, or a mixture of the two with different HS/IC molar ratios, were prepared by the direct synthesis method and characterized by various techniques. Hydrotalcite-type phases were obtained with basal spacings of 17.6 Å for the LDH intercalated by IC (IC-LDH) and 18.2-18.3 Å for the other materials containing HS. From the basal spacing for IC-LDH and UV/Vis spectroscopic data, it is proposed that the dye molecules assemble within the interlayer galleries to form a J-type stacking arrangement. A comprehensive electronic spectral and photophysical study was undertaken for IC in solution and all materials, aiming to obtain a detailed characterization of the host-guest and guest-guest interactions. In solution (the solvent surrounded "isolated" molecule), IC presents a fast excited state proton transfer with rate constants of ∼1.2-1.4×10(11)  s(-1) , which is linked to the very efficient radiationless deactivation channel. In the solid state it is shown that incorporation of IC within the LDH decreases the level of aggregation, and that further addition of HS induces the appearance of isolated IC units within the LDH galleries. The indigo carmine-based nanocomposites reported constitute a step forward in the design of hybrid materials with tunable properties. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The importance of inversion disorder in the visible light induced persistent luminescence in Cr³⁺ doped AB₂O₄ (A = Zn or Mg and B = Ga or Al).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraju, Neelima; Priolkar, Kaustubh R; Gourier, Didier; Sharma, Suchinder K; Bessière, Aurélie; Viana, Bruno

    2015-01-21

    Cr(3+) doped spinel compounds AB2O4 with A = Zn, Mg and B = Ga, Al exhibit a long, near infrared persistent luminescence when excited with UV or X-rays. In addition, the persistent luminescence of ZnGa2O4, and to a lesser extent MgGa2O4, can also be induced by visible light excitation via (4)A2→(4)T2 transition of Cr(3+), which makes these compounds suitable as biomarkers for in vivo optical imaging of small animals. We correlate this peculiar optical property with the presence of antisite defects, which are present in ZnGa2O4 and MgGa2O4. By using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, associated with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical emission spectroscopy, it is shown that an increase in antisite defects concentration results in a decrease in the Cr-O bond length and the octahedral crystal field energy. A part of the defects occurs in the close environment of Cr(3+) ions, as shown by the increasing strain broadening of EPR and XAFS peaks observed upon increasing antisite disorder. It appears that ZnAl2O4, which exhibits the largest crystal field splitting of Cr(3+) and the smallest antisite disorder, does not show considerable persistent luminescence upon visible light excitation as compared to ZnGa2O4 and MgGa2O4. These results highlight the importance of Cr(3+) ions with neighboring antisite defects in the mechanism of persistent luminescence exhibited by Cr(3+) doped AB2O4 spinel compounds.

  18. Metal pollution across the upper delta plain wetlands and its adjacent shallow sea wetland, northeast of China: implications for the filtration functions of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Ding, Xigui; Zhao, Guangming; Yang, Shixiong; He, Lei; Wang, Jin; Pei, Shaofeng; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2017-12-12

    Grain size and concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and particulate metals (PMs) As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Fe, and Mn of 373 surface sediment samples, salinities in 67 surface water samples, were analyzed in various environments, including the upper delta plain wetlands (UDPW), its adjacent shallow sea wetland (SSW) in the Liaodong Bay, and river channels that are running through the Liaohe Delta, to evaluate the spatial distribution, transportation environmental dynamics of metals, and the provenance of metal pollution and assess the filtration functions of wetlands. The concentrations of PMs for UDPW were generally higher by a factor of ~ 10-22% compared with its analogues in SSW, suggesting the accumulation of PMs within the UDPW indicates that the UDPW systems are efficiently physical and chemical traps for PMs of anthropogenic sources by retaining and storing pollutants flowing into the sea. However, there was sever sewage irrigation-induced Cd pollution with a geo-accumulation index of 0.62-3.11 in an area of ~ 86 km2 of the adjacent shallow sea wetland, where large amount wetlands were historically moved for agriculture in the UDPW. Remarkably, the distributions of PMs were controlled by salinity-induced desorption and re-adsorption mechanisms and significantly dispersed the contamination coverage by the three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sedimentation processes that dominated by inputs of freshwater and ocean dynamics including NE-SW tidal currents and NE-E longshore drifts in the SSW of the Liaodong Bay. A high agreement between the UDPW and the SSW datasets in principal component analysis essentially reflects that the characteristics of PM sources in the SSW were actually inherited from that in the UDPW, with a much closer relationship among metals, organic matter, and fine particulates in SSW than that of UDPW, which was judged by their correlation coefficient range of 0.406-0.919 in SSW against those of 0.042-0.654 in UDPW.

  19. PET bottle use patterns and antimony migration into bottled water and soft drinks: the case of British and Nigerian bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukur, Aminu; Sharp, Liz; Stern, Ben; Tizaoui, Chedly; Benkreira, Hadj

    2012-04-01

    While antimony has been reported to migrate from PET bottles into contents, reports on bottled water and soft drinks usage and PET bottle reuse patterns are currently unavailable in the literature. Bottle use conditions and patterns are important determinants of antimony migration. In this work a survey assessing the pattern of bottle use and reuse in Britain and Nigeria was undertaken. The survey findings influenced the design of laboratory experiments that assessed the migration of antimony from PET bottles into water and soft drinks. Typical storage durations for bottled contents between purchase and opening for use were 7 days or less. However storage of up to one year was reported. Bottle reuse was high and similar for the two countries with reuse durations being higher in Nigeria. The antimony concentration in 32 PET bottle materials from Britain and Nigeria were similar and ranged between 177 and 310 mg kg(-1). For 47 freshly purchased British bottled contents antimony concentration ranged between 0.03 and 6.61 μg L(-1) with only one sample exceeding the EU acceptable limit. Concentrations of Cd, Ge, Zn, Al, Be, Ti, Co and Pb were also measured. At realistic temperatures of 40 and 60 °C antimony concentration in deionised water in bottles remained below the EU acceptable limit even after 48 h exposure. The limit was exceeded for most exposures at 80 °C. Concentration of antimony in some bottled contents exceeded the EU limit after 11 months of storage at room temperature. Bottle aging and increase in bottle volume were associated with decreased migration of antimony from bottles.

  20. Synthesis of protocatechuic acid–zinc/aluminium–layered double hydroxide nanocomposite as an anticancer nanodelivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barahuie, Farahnaz [Materials Synthesis and Characterisation Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hussein, Mohd Zobir, E-mail: mzobir@upm.edu.my [Materials Synthesis and Characterisation Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Gani, Shafinaz Abd [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Fakurazi, Sharida [Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zainal, Zulkarnain [Materials Synthesis and Characterisation Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-01-15

    Protocatechuic acid, an active anticancer agent, has been intercalated into Zn/Al–layered double hydroxide at Zn/Al=2) using two different preparation methods, co-precipitation and ion-exchange, which are labelled as PZAE and PZAC, respectively. The release of protocatechuate from the nanocomposites occurred in a controlled manner and was fitted satisfactorily to pseudo-second order kinetics. The basal spacing of the resulting nanocomposites PZAE and PZAC was 10.2 and 11.0 Å, respectively, indicating successful intercalation of protocatechuate anions into the interlayer galleries of Zn/Al–NO{sub 3}–LDH in a monolayer arrangement with angles of 24 and 33° from the z-axis in PZAE and PZAC, respectively. The formation of nanocomposites was further confirmed by a Fourier transform infrared study. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses indicated that the thermal stability of the intercalated protocatechuic acid was significantly enhanced compared to its free protocatechuic acid, and the drug content in the nanocomposites was estimated to be approximately 32.6% in PZAE and 29.2% in PZAC. Both PZAE and PZAC nanocomposites inhibit the growth of human cervical, liver and colorectal cancer cell lines and exhibit no toxic effects towards normal fibroblast 3T3 cell after 72 h of treatment. - Graphical abstract: Protocatechuate anions were arranged in monolayer mode with the angle of 24° for PZAE and 33° for PZAC from Z axis to maximize interaction between carboxylate groups and brucite-like layers. - Highlights: • Two methods gave nanocomposites with slightly different physico-chemical properties. • PZAE and PZAC have the potential to be used as a controlled release formulation. • The thermal stability of PA is markedly enhanced upon the intercalation process. • Higher cancer cell growth inhibition for PZAE and PZAC nanocomposites than for PA.

  1. Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingbo Liu

    2006-01-18

    The process of continuous galvanizing of rolled sheet steel includes immersion into a bath of molten zinc/aluminum alloy. The steel strip is dipped in the molten bath through a series of driving motors and rollers which control the speed and tension of the strip, with the ability to modify both the amount of coating applied to the steel as well as the thickness and width of the sheet being galvanized. There are three rolls used to guide the steel strip through the molten metal bath. The rolls that operate in the molten Zn/Al are subject to a severely corrosive environment and require frequent changing. The performance of this equipment, the metallic hardware submerged in the molten Zn/Al bath, is the focus of this research. The primary objective of this research is to extend the performance life of the metallic hardware components of molten Zn/Al pot hardware by an order of magnitude. Typical galvanizing operations experience downtimes on the order of every two weeks to change the metallic hardware submerged in the molten metal bath. This is an expensive process for industry which takes upwards of 3 days for a complete turn around to resume normal operation. Each roll bridle consists of a sink, stabilizer, and corrector roll with accompanying bearing components. The cost of the bridle rig with all components is as much as $25,000 dollars just for materials. These inefficiencies are of concern to the steel coating companies and serve as a potential market for many materials suppliers. This research effort served as a bridge between the market potential and industry need to provide an objective analytical and mechanistic approach to the problem of wear and corrosion of molten metal bath hardware in a continuous sheet galvanizing line. The approach of the investigators was to provide a means of testing and analysis that was both expeditious and cost effective. The consortium of researchers from West Virginia University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed

  2. The impact of damming on riverine fluxes to the ocean: A case study from Eastern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Oelkers, Eric H; Hardardottir, Jorunn; Gislason, Sigurdur Reynir

    2017-04-15

    Anthropogenic water management has extensively altered the world's river systems through impoundments and channel diversions to meet the human's need for water, energy and transportation. To illuminate the effect of such activities on the environment, this study describes the impact of the installation of the Kárahnjúkar Dam in Eastern Iceland on the transport of riverine dissolved- and particulate material to the ocean by the Jökulsá á Dal and the Lagarfljót rivers. This dam, completed in 2007, collects water into the 2.2 km 3 Hálslón reservoir and diverts water from the glacial Jökulsá á Dal river into the partially glaciated Lagarfljót lagoon via a headrace tunnel. The impact of the damming was evaluated by sampling water from both the Jökulsá á Dal and the Lagarfljót rivers over a 15 year period spanning from 1998 to 2013. The annual flux of most dissolved elements increased substantially due to the damming. The fluxes of dissolved Zn, Al, Co, Ti and Fe increased most by damming; these fluxes increased by 46-391%. These differences can be attributed to changed saturation states of common secondary minerals in the Jökulsá á Dal due to reduced discharge, increased residence time and dissolution of suspended material, and, to a lesser degree, reduced photosynthesis due to less transparency in the Lagarfljót lagoon. The removal of particulate material and thus decreasing adsorption potential in the Jökulsá á Dal is the likely reason for the Fe flux increase. In contrast, approximately 85% of the original riverine transported mass of particulate material is trapped by the dam; that which passes tends to be relatively fine grained, increasing the average specific surface area of that which continues to flow towards the ocean. Consequently, the particulate geometric surface area flux is decreased by only 50% due to the damming. The blooming of silica diatoms during the spring consumes dissolved silica from the coastal waters until it becomes

  3. Q-switched Nd:YAG/V:YAG microchip 1338 nm laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Škoda, Václav

    2017-12-01

    Q-switched microchip laser emitting radiation at wavelength 1338nm was tested as a radiation source for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). This laser used sandwich crystal which combined in one piece the cooling part (undoped YAG crystal 4mm long), the active laser part (Nd:YAG crystal 12mm long), and the saturable absorber (V:YAG crystal 0.7mm long). The diameter of this crystal was 5 mm. The microchip resonator consisted of dielectric mirrors directly deposited on the monolith crystal surfaces. The pump mirror (HT @ 808 nm, HR @ 1.3 ¹m) was placed on the undoped YAG part. The output coupler (R = 90% @ 1338 nm) was placed on the V:YAG part. The fibre-coupled 808nm pumping laser diode was operating in pulsed regime (rep. rate 250 Hz, pulse width 300 ¹s, pulse energy 6 mJ). Using this pumping, stable and high reproducible Q-switched pulses were generated at wavelength 1338 nm. Pulse length was 6.2 ns (FWHM) and the mean output power was 33mW. The single pulse energy and peak power was 0.13mJ and 21kW, respectively. Laser was operating in fundamental TEM00 mode. The laser radiation was focused on a tested sample using single plano-convex lens (focal length 75 mm). The focal spot radius was 40 ¹m. The corresponding peak-power density was 0.83GW/cm2. The laser induced break-down was successfully reached and corresponding laser-induced plasma spectra were recorded for set of metallic elements (Cu, Ag, Au, In, Zn, Al, Fe, Ni, Cr) and alloys (Sn-Pb solder, duralumin, stainless-steel, brass). To record the spectra, StellarNet BLACK-Comet concave grating CCD-based spectrometer was used without any special collimation optics. Thanks to used laser wavelength far from the detector sensitivity, no special filtering was needed to overcome the CCD dazzling. The constructed laser could significantly improve repletion-rate of up-to-date LIBS devices.

  4. Adsorption and revaporisation studies on iodine oxide aerosols deposited on containment surface materials in LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, S.; Foreman, M.R.StJ.; Ekberg, C. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A.; Tapper, U.; Lamminmaeki, S.; Jokiniemi, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    During a hypothetical severe nuclear accident, the radiation field will be very high in the nuclear reactor containment building. As a result gaseous radiolysis products will be formed. Elemental iodine can react in the gaseous phase with ozone to form solid iodine oxide aerosol particles (iodine oxide). Within the AIAS (Adsorption of Iodine oxide Aerosols on Surfaces) project the interactions of iodine oxide (IOx) aerosols with common containment surface materials were investigated. Common surface materials in Swedish and Finnish LWRs are Teknopox Aqua V A paint films and metal surfaces such as Cu, Zn, Al and SS, as well as Pt and Pd surfaces from hydrogen recombiners. Non-radioactive and {sup 131}I labelled iodine oxide aerosols were produced with the EXSI CONT facility from elemental iodine and ozone at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. The iodine oxide deposits were analysed with microscopic and spectroscopic measurement techniques to identify the kind of iodine oxide formed and if a chemical conversion on the different surface materials occurs. The revaporisation behaviour of the deposited iodine oxide aerosol particles from the different surface materials was studied under the influence of heat, humidity and gamma irradiation at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. Studies on the effects of humidity were performed using the FOMICAG facility, while heat and irradiation experiments were performed in a thermostated heating block and with a gammacell 22 having a dose rate of 14 kGy/h. The revaporisation losses were measured using a HPGe detector. The revaporisated {sup 131}I species from the surfaces were chemically tested for elemental iodine formation. The parameter dominating the degradation of the produced iodine oxide aerosols was humidity. Cu and Zn surfaces were found to react with iodine from the iodine oxide aerosols to form iodides, while no metal iodides were detected for Al and SS samples. Most of the iodine oxide aerosols are assumed to

  5. Development of analytical procedures for the determination of hexavalent chromium in corrosion prevention coatings used in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séby, F; Castetbon, A; Ortega, R; Guimon, C; Niveau, F; Barrois-Oudin, N; Garraud, H; Donard, O F X

    2008-05-01

    The European directive 2000/53/EC limits the use of Cr(VI) in vehicle manufacturing. Although a maximum of 2 g of Cr(VI) was authorised per vehicle for corrosion prevention coatings of key components, since July 2007 its use has been prohibited except for some particular applications. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop direct analytical procedures for Cr(VI) determination in the different steel coatings used for screws. Instead of working directly with screws, the optimisation of the procedures was carried out with metallic plates homogeneously coated to improve the data comparability. Extraction of Cr(VI) from the metallic parts was performed by sonication. Two extraction solutions were tested: a direct water extraction solution used in standard protocols and an ammonium/ammonia buffer solution at pH 8.9. The extracts were further analysed for Cr speciation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry or HPLC ICP mass spectrometry depending on the concentration level. When possible, the coatings were also directly analysed by solid speciation techniques (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure, XANES) for validation of the results. Very good results between the different analytical approaches were obtained for the sample of coating made up of a heated paint containing Zn, Al and Cr when using the extracting buffer solution at pH 8.9. After a repeated four-step extraction procedure on the same portion test, taking into account the depth of the surface layer reached, good agreement with XPS and XANES results was obtained. In contrast, for the coatings composed of an alkaline Zn layer where Cr(VI) and Cr(III) are deposited, only the extraction procedure using water allowed the detection of Cr(VI). To elucidate the Cr(VI) reduction during extraction at pH 8.9, the reactivity of Cr(VI) towards different species of Zn generally present in the

  6. DC-magnetron sputtering of ZnO:Al films on (00.1)Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates from slip-casting sintered ceramic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miccoli, I., E-mail: ilio.miccoli@unisalento.it [Photovoltaics R and D Lab, Alfa Impianti S.r.l., Via Baden Powell, I-73044 Galatone, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Innovazione, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Spampinato, R.; Marzo, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Innovazione, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Prete, P. [Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi del CNR, Unità di Lecce, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Lovergine, N. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Innovazione, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • ZnO:Al was DC-sputtered on sapphire >350 °C by slip-casting sintered AZO target. • Films are highly (00.1)-oriented, smooth and transparent in the NIR–visible range. • Films growth rate decreases with temperature, while their grain size increases. • A high temperature reduction for sticking coefficients of impinging species is proved. • We prove that Thornton model does not apply to high-temperature DC-sputtered ZnO. - Abstract: High (>350 °C) temperature DC-sputtering deposition of ZnO:Al thin films onto single-crystal (00.1) oriented Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sapphire) substrates is reported, using a ultrahigh-density, low-resistivity and low-cost composite ceramic target produced by slip-casting (pressureless) sintering of ZnO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (AZO) powders. The original combination of high-angle θ–2θ (Bragg–Brentano geometry) X-ray diffraction with low angle θ–2θ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) techniques allows us to define the AZO target composition and investigate the structural properties and surface/interface roughness of as-sputtered ZnO:Al films; besides, the growth dynamics of ZnO:Al is unambiguously determined. The target turned out composed of the sole wurtzite ZnO and spinel ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed highly (00.1)-oriented (epitaxial) ZnO:Al films, the material mean crystallite size being in the 13–20 nm range and increasing with temperature between 350 °C and 450 °C, while the film growth rate (determined via XRR measurements) decreases appreciably. XRR spectra also allowed to determine rms surface roughness <1 nm for present films and showed ZnO:Al density changes by only a few percent between 350 °C and 450 °C. The latter result disproves the often-adopted Thornton model for the description of the sputter-grown ZnO films and instead points out toward a reduction of the sticking coefficients of impinging species, as the main origin of film growth rate and grain size dependence

  7. Rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics: Structure-bonding-property relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, M. K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding property relationships. The work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe13-xSix system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides Re2-xFe4Si14-y and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi2: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb3Zn3.6Al7.4: Partially ordered structure of Tb3Zn3.6Al7.4 compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn39(CrxAl1-x)81

  8. Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Intermetallics: Structure-bonding-Property Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mi-Kyung [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Our explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding-property relationships. Our work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe13-xSix system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn13-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides RE2-xFe4Si14-y and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi2: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb3Zn3.6Al7.4: Partially ordered structure of Tb3.6Zn13-xAl7.4 compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn39(CrxAl1-x

  9. Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: a multiproxy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nieto-Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic Basin, near the Alboran Basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to fluvial-eolian oscillations, changes in redox conditions and paleocurrent intensity. Multivariate analyses allowed us to characterize three main groups of geochemical and mineralogical proxies determining the sedimentary record of this region. These three statistical groups were applied to reconstruct paleoclimate conditions at high resolution during the Late Holocene. An increase in riverine input (fluvial-derived elements – Rb/Al, Ba/Al, REE/Al, Si/Al, Ti/Al, Mg/Al and K/Al ratios, and a decrease in Saharan eolian input (Zr/Al ratio depict the Roman Humid Period and the Little Ice Age, while drier environmental conditions are recognized during the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, faster bottom currents and more energetic hydrodynamic conditions for the former periods are evidenced by enhanced sortable silt (10-63 μm and quartz content, and by better oxygenated bottom waters – as reflected by decreasing redox-sensitive elements (V/Al, Cr/Al, Ni/Al and Zn/Al ratios. In contrast, opposite paleoceanographic conditions are distinguished during the latter periods, i.e. the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Although no Ba excess was registered, other paleoproductivity indicators (total organic carbon content, Br/Al ratio, and organometallic ligands such as U and Cu display the highest values during the Roman Humid Period, and together with increasing preservation of organic matter, this period exhibits by far the most intense productivity of the last 4000 yr. Fluctuations in detrital input into the basin as the main process managing deposition, reflected by the

  10. Positive effect of Sc and Zr on globular microstructure formation in AA7075 thixoforming feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogal, Ł.; Dutkiewicz, J.; Lityńska-Dobrzańska, L.; Olszowska-Sobieraj, B.; Modigell, M.

    2011-05-01

    One of methods of obtaining a fine globular microstructure in a semi-solid range, necessary for thixoforming process, is modifiers additions. For this purpose 0.5 weight percent of modifying elements-scandium and zirconium-was added to 7075 alloy. The microstructure of such alloy consisted of homogeneously distributed globular grains of solid solution with the following chemical composition: Mg - 1.9%, Al - 91.6%, Cu - 1.0%, Zn - 5.5% (all in wt.%). Quantitative metallographic analysis showed that the average grain size was 23.5 μm, much smaller than in the alloy without additions and 3.08% volume fraction of precipitates in the form of a layer between spherical α(Al) grains. X-ray phase analysis of the 7075 alloy with Sc and Zr additions confirmed the dominant presence of aluminum solid solution and the intermetallic hexagonal phase MgZn2. Electron diffraction pattern confirmed location of η MgZn2 phase at the grain boundaries. EDS chemical analysis of the η MgZn2 phase showed following content of elements: Mg - 17.2%, Al - 20.4%, Cu - 27.8%, Zn - 34.6%. The larger amount of Cu and Al indicated non-stoichiometry of the η phase, which can be presented with a formula [Mg(Zn,Al,Cu)2]. Additionally, inside the aluminum solution, small, square-shaped precipitations enriched with Sc and Zr were observed. Electron diffraction pattern allowed identification of the precipitates as cubic Al3(Sc,Zr) phase. The average hardness of feedstock was 105 HV5. DSC analysis during heating of the alloy enabled the estimation of a solidus line, at temperature of 548° C and a liquidus line at temperature: 656° C. For cooling, the temperatures for solidus and liquidus were 545° C and 636° C respectively. Additionally, the relation of liquid phase as a function of temperature was determined. Measurements of rheological properties in the semi-solid range, using the Searl system indicated that an increase of a particle size leads to an observable decrease of viscosity during

  11. Urban and Suburban Influences on Water Chemistry in Washington DC: Impervious Surfaces and Urban Stream Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Petersen, E.

    2015-12-01

    Among the challenges facing urban rivers are water stormwater runoff problems and changing water chemistry, not only from air and water pollution sources, but also from altered geology with the development of "urban karst". Seventy five percent of the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. is urban or impervious. The Anacostia River experiences environmental challenges similar to those of other urban industrial rivers (heavy metal, PCB and PAH contamination). It also has Ca/Sr ratios above 200, and Na concentrations higher than Ca, and elevated ionic strength, all associated with extended chemical interaction with concrete. While these chemical characteristics have been documented in the urban areas within DC, they have not been examined in the largely suburban/mixed development tributaries of the Anacostia. Here we examine the base-flow geochemistry of the Anacostia River and its suburban tributaries (6 locations) over a year (November 2014- August 2015), concentrating on the following water chemistry variables: pH, hardness, SAR, alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Ba, Ni, total P, S, Sr, NO3-, NH4+, PO43-. NO3- and NH4+ were generally lowest in at all sites in January, but rose to between 0.5 and 2.4 mg/L in June, with highest NO3- concentrations in suburban areas. Na and Cl concentrations were 5x higher in suburban areas than urban areas during the winter months. Ca/Sr concentration ratios, were between 120 and 200 for suburban sites but increased as the sites became more urban (to a high of 240 for the most urban site). These trends have been observed in other urban streams, and correlate with percent impervious area. The data follow patterns expected for "urban stream syndrome" and dissolution of concrete. Suburban areas, with their relatively small streams, show greater winter salting effects than more urban areas down stream. Suburban areas also show higher NO3- (and occasionally higher NH4+) than urban areas except in winter. The data presented here

  12. Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Zhang, Xian; Goidanich, Sara; Le Bozec, Nathalie; Herting, Gunilla; Leygraf, Christofer

    2014-02-15

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn>Cu sheet>Cu15Zn>Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu2(OH)3Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2 (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O/Zn2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8·H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu2(OH)3Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Human health risks due to heavy metals through consumption of wild mushrooms from Macheke forest, Rail Block forest and Muganyi communal lands in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Ndumo, Tafungwa; Moyo, Mambo

    2015-12-01

    The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii (AL) and Cantharellus floridulus (CF) mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest (mining town), Macheke forest (commercial farming), and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The transfer factors, mushrooms-soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1.045 ± 0.028 to 7.568 ± 0.322, 0.025 ± 0.001 to 0.654 ± 0.005, and a maximum of 5.78 ± 0.31 mg/kg, respectively, in all the three sampling areas. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Rail Block forest (mining town) > Macheke forest (commercial farming) > Muganyi communal lands for the concentrations in both mushrooms and total concentration in their substrates. C. floridulus accumulated higher concentrations of Al, Zn, and Pb than A. loosii at each site under study. Zn in both AL and CF (Muganyi communal lands) and Pb in AL (Rail Block forest) were absorbed only from the soils, while other sources of contamination were involved elsewhere. The consumption of 300 g of fresh A. loosii and C. floridulus per day by children less than 16 kg harvested from Rail Block forest would cause health problems, while mushrooms from Macheke Forest and Muganyi communal lands were found to be safe for human consumption. Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. loosii and C. floridulus from Rail Block forest for they have significant levels of heavy metals compared to those from Macheke forest and Muganyi communal lands.

  14. ISOBUTANOL-METHANOL MIXTURES FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrique Iglesia

    1998-09-01

    Isobutanol is potential as a fuel additive or precursor to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Alkali-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} materials have been found to catalyze the formation of isobutanol from CO and H{sub 2} at temperatures (573-623 K) that allow their use in slurry reactors. Our studies focus on the mechanism and structural requirements for selective isobutanol synthesis on these types of catalysts. Alkali promoted Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2}, Cu/MgO/ZnO, and CuZnAlO{sub x} materials and their individual components Cu/MgO, MgO/CeO{sub 2}, MgO and CeO{sub 2} have been prepared for the use in kinetic studies of alcohol coupling reactions, in identification of reaction intermediates, and in isobutanol synthesis at high pressures. These samples were prepared by coprecipitation of mixed nitrate solutions with an aqueous solution of KOH (2M) and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (1M) at 338 K at a constant pH of 9, except for Cs-Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a pH of 7, in a well-stirred thermostated container. The precipitate was filtered, washed thoroughly with dioinized water at 303 K in order to remove residual K ions, and dried at 353 K overnight. Dried samples were calcined at 723 K, except for Cs-Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 623 K, for 4 h in order to form the corresponding mixed oxides. Alkali addition (K or Cs) was performed by incipient wetness using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (0.25 M) and CH{sub 3}COOCs (0.25 M) aqueous solutions. The crystallinity and phase structures of resulting materials were analyzed by powered X-ray diffraction.

  15. Optimization of pH in Ammonia, Heavy Metals, and Chlorophyll-a Removal by using Electric Arc Furnace Slag and Activated Carbon Cassava Peel

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    Zayadi Nabilah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater contain high concentrations of inorganic and organic pollutant and that could be toxic to aquatic life and may lead to toxic environment of the water bodies. The poolutants able to accumulate in living tissues, causing various illnesses. In this study, parameters that affected the removal of heavy metals, ammonia (NH4-N and chlorophyll-a were investigated in a synthetic water of mixed metals, NH4-N, and alga synthetic solution. The removal was strongly affected by pH by using activated carbon cassava peel (CPAC and Electric Arc Furnace Slag (EAFS as media For CPAC, optimum condition for removing heavy metals, NH4-N and chlorophyll-a can be achieved at pH 7.5 where removal up to 95% for heavy metals, 49.2% for NH4-N and 56.8% for chlorophylla. While for EAFS, the optimum condition for removing heavy metals, NH4-N and chlorophyll-a can be achieved at pH 7.5 where removal up to 93% for heavy metals, 77.7% for NH4-N and 80.7% for chlorophyll-a. In order to obtain the maximum removal of heavy metals, NH4-N and chlorophyll-a, two conditions obtaining CPAC and EAFS were considered. The optimum condition for removing heavy metals, NH4-N and chlorophyll-a by 1/3 CPAC + 2/3 EAFS was pH 7.5 as well where removal up to 95% for heavy metals, 86.2% for NH4-N and 90.9% for chlorophylla. By using 1/3 EAFS + 2/3 CPAC, the optimum removal of heavy metals, NH4-N and chlorophyll-a was at pH 7.5 where removal up to 96% for heavy metals, 80.7% for NH4-N and 86.4% for chlorophyll-a. This study highlighted that EAFS and CPAC peel are promising method in removing Zn, Al, Fe ions, NH4-N and chlorophyll-a from aqueous solution.

  16. Sea-level changes vs. organic productivity as controls on Early and Middle Devonian bioevents: Facies- and gamma-ray based sequence-stratigraphic correlation of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bábek, Ondřej; Faměra, Martin; Šimíček, Daniel; Weinerová, Hedvika; Hladil, Jindřich; Kalvoda, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    The Devonian marine stratigraphic record is characterized by a number of bioevents - overturns in pelagic and benthic faunal assemblages, which are associated with distinct changes in lithology. The coincidence of lithologic and biotic changes can be explained by the causal link between biotic evolution, carbonate production and relative sea-level changes. To gain insight into the sea-level history of Early and Middle Devonian bioevents (the Lochkovian/Pragian Event, Basal Zlíchovian E., Daleje E., and Choteč E.) we carried out a sequence-stratigraphic analysis of carbonate-dominated successions in the Prague Basin (peri-Gondwana), a classic area of Devonian bioevents. The study is based on a basin-wide correlation of facies and field gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) logs from 18 sections (Lochkovian to Eifelian), supported by element geochemistry and published biostratigraphic and carbon isotope data. Devonian carbonate deposition in the Prague Basin alternated between two end-member modes: an oligotrophic, homoclinal ramp (Praha and Daleje-Třebotov Formations) and a mesotrophic, distally steepened ramp (Lochkov, Zlíchov, and Choteč Formations). They show contrasting facies, particularly the absence/presence of gravity-flow deposits, allochem composition, U/Th ratios, and geochemical composition (productivity proxies such as P/Al, Si/Al, Zn/Al, TOC and stable carbon isotopes). The mesotrophic systems reflect an increased availability of nutrients on the shelf during the late Lochkovian, early Emsian (Zlíchovian), and Eifelian periods when sea surface temperature, pCO2, and silicate weathering rates were higher. The oligotrophic systems deposited during the Pragian-to-earliest Emsian and late Emsian (Dalejan) periods reflect reversed palaeoclimatic trends. We identified three depositional sequences (DS), DS1 (base of Pragian to early Emsian); DS2 (early Emsian to mid Emsian); and DS3 (mid Emsian to mid Eifelian). These sequences were integrated into a peri

  17. Chemical PM2.5 Speciation in Major Cities Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark; Liu, Yang; Martins, Vanderlei; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall

    2016-04-01

    We examined the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) across 13 globally dispersed urban locations (including Atlanta, Buenos Aires, Beijing, Manila, and Dhaka), as part of the Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN). At each site sampling was conducted over 4 to 24 months for the years 2013 to 2015. Analysis of filter samples revealed that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammonium sulfate ranged from 2 μg m-3 (Ilorin) to 17 μg m-3 (Kanpur). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 μg m-3 (Atlanta) to 6.7 μg m-3 (Kanpur). Effective black carbon ranged from 0.4 μg m-3 (Atlanta) to 5 μg m-3 (Dhaka and Kanpur). The all-site mean values of major PM2.5 constituents were ammonium sulfate (20 ± 10 %), crustal material (12 ± 6.5%), effective black carbon (10 ± 7.4 %), ammonium nitrate (3.7 ± 2.5%), sea salt (2.2 ± 1.5%), trace element oxides (0.9 ± 0.7 %), water (7.2 ± 3.0%) and residue materials (44 ± 24%). Based on the evaluation with collocated studies we treated residue material as mostly organic. Major ions generally agreed well with previous studies at the same urban locations (e.g. sulfate fractions agreed within 4% for eight out of 11 collocation comparisons). Enhanced crustal material (CM) concentrations with high Zn:Al ratios at large cities (e.g. Hanoi, Dhaka, Manila) imply significant anthropogenic CM contributions that deserve more attention. Detailed chemical speciation also aided our characterization of site-specific PM2.5 water retention. The expected water contribution to aerosols was calculated via the hygroscopicity parameter for each filter. Hourly PM2.5 at specified relative humidity (35%) was inferred from nephelometer measurements of light scatter at ambient relative humidity and 9-day filter measurements of PM2.5 mass. Our PM2.5 estimates compared favorably with a beta attenuation monitor (BAM) at the nearby US embassy in Beijing, with a coefficient of variation

  18. COMPOSIÇÃO MINERAL DE CULTIVARES DE ARROZ INTEGRAL, PARBOILIZADO E BRANCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. DENARDIN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O arroz é o principal alimento para mais da metade da população mundial; porém, sua contribuição em minerais é variável e relacionada ao processo de beneficiamento. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de tais processos nos teores de macro e microminerais em grãos de arroz integral, parboilizado e branco. Para tal, foram usados nove cultivares de arroz, provenientes do Instituto Rio Grandense do Arroz (safra 2002/2003. Os teores de Mg, K, P, Na, Mn e Zn foram significativamente maiores nos grãos integrais. A parboilização, ao contrário do esperado, não aumentou o conteúdo de todos os minerais, sendo que estes grãos, comparados aos brancos, tiveram menor teor de Mn e Zn. Além das diferenças entre os beneficiamentos, pôde-se observar variação entre cultivares, como por exemplo, nos teores de Fe e Zn, que variaram 223% (BR-IRGA 409 X IRGA 420 e 41% (IRGA 417 x IRGA 420, respectivamente, no arroz branco. Com isso, levanta-se a hipótese de que cultivares de arroz podem ser selecionados em função da presença de teores mais elevados de minerais, a fim de serem usados em estratégias específicas na prevenção e combate de várias doenças resultantes da ingestão insuficiente destes nutrientes.

  19. First determination of mineral composition of the leaf Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. used in human nourishment in the Midwest of Brazil and comparasion with dietary reference intakes for children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Henriques Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. is a leaf chicory and is grown as a leaf vegetable which usually has white-veined red or purple leaves and it belongs to the Asteraceae family. In several countries is consumed mainly as salad, but no studies on their elemental composition  has been done, principally in Brazil. Objective: The aim of present work was to measure the macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg and P and microelements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Al, Cd, Ni, Co and Si in the leaf Chicory used as human nourishment in the Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Method: Chemical digests of samples were prepared using HNO3 and H2O2 and then placed in the microwave digestion system. After digestion, the concentrations of the elements in Leaf Chicory were determined by the technique of Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP–OES, Thermo Scientific - iCAP 6000 Series. Results obtained of the concentrations of leaf chicory were compared with the dietary reference intakes. Results: Detected concentration of macroelements in leaf Chicory decreases in the order: K > P > Ca > Mg > Na. As well as the concentration of microelements decreases in the order: Fe > Al > Si > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd > Mo > Co. Leaf Chicory is excellent source of K, Ca, Mg, P, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn for children and adults. On the other hand, leaf chicory is not considered a source of sodium for children and adults. Concentration of K, Cr, Fe, and Al are above the limit recommended limit by FAO/WHO (1984 and others countries. Conclusions: Leaf Chicory has macro and microelements in ample amount; it can be used as an important part of people's diets. Since it not exceed allowable limits set by WHO and FAO, RDA/AI and UL. Competent organs have not evaluated concentrations of elements as Al, Cd, Ni, Co and Si in order to establish a tolerable upper intake level or RDA/AI for human. The lack of studies of adverse effects following

  20. A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated

  1. Natural pollution caused by the extremely acidic crater lake Kawah Ijen, East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, Ansje J; Bogaard, Thom A; Heikens, Alex; Hendriks, Martin R; Sumarti, Sri; Van Bergen, Manfred J; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Van Straalen, Nico M; Vroon, Pieter Z; Widianarko, Budi

    2005-01-01

    Lakes developing in volcano craters can become highly acidic through the influx of volcanic gases, yielding one of the chemically most extreme natural environments on earth. The Kawah Ijen crater lake in East Java (Indonesia) has a pH metal-polluted river Banyupahit (45 km). The lake has a significant impact on the river ecosystem as well as on a densely populated area downstream, where agricultural fields are irrigated with water with a pH between 2.5 and 3.5. The chemistry of the river water seemed to have changed over the past decade and the negative effect in the irrigation area increased. A multidisciplinary approach was used to investigate the altered situation and to get insight in the water chemistry and the hydrological processes influencing these alterations. Moreover, a first investigation of the effects of the low pH on ecosystem health and human health was performed. Water samples were taken at different sites along the river and in the irrigation area. Sampling for macroinvertebrates was performed at the same sites. Samples of soil and crop were taken in the irrigation area. All samples were analysed for metals (using ICP-AES) and other elements, and concentrations were compared to local and international standards. The river carries a very high load of SO4, NH4, PO4, Cl, F, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Al and other potentially toxic elements. Precipitation and discharge data over the period of 1980-2000 clearly show that the precipitation on the Ijen plateau influences water chemistry of the downstream river. Metal concentrations in the river water exceed the concentrations mentioned in Indonesian and international quality guidelines, even in the downstream river and the irrigation area. Some metal concentrations are extremely high, especially iron (up to 1,600 mg/l) and aluminium (up to 3,000 mg/l). The food-webs in the acidic parts of the river are highly underdeveloped. No invertebrates were present in the extremely acidic water and, at pH 2.3, only

  2. Chemical characterization of atmospheric dust from a weekly time series in the north Red Sea between 2006 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfstein, Adi; Teutsch, Nadya; Tirosh, Ofir; Shaked, Yeala; Rivlin, Tanya; Zipori, Assaf; Stein, Mordechai; Lazar, Boaz; Erel, Yigal

    2017-08-01

    loads originate from central and west Sahara and to a lesser extent from north Sahara. Low dust loads characterize the summer with limited compositional variability relative to winter-spring months. Summer dust is generally characterized by high K/Al (L1) ratios relative to late winter and spring. It is also relatively high in anthropogenic trace elements in the L0 and L1 fractions (e.g., Zn/Al, Pb/Al, Cr/Al, Ni/Al and V/Al), whereby back trajectories indicate the source of these components is primarily from south and east Europe. The total load (ng m-3) of anthropogenic trace elements however, remains higher during winter and spring, stemming from the overall significantly higher dust loads characterizing this time window. The temporal load patterns of important micronutrients such as Fe, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni and others in the bio-available phases (L0, L1) are not correlated with major nutrients or Chlorophyll-a sea surface concentrations, suggesting that the atmospheric dust plays a limited role in driving primary productivity in the oligotrophic surface waters of the Gulf of Aqaba. On a wider scale, the results provide unique chemical fingerprinting of Sahara-Arabian dust that can be applied to reconstruct past trends in dust loads recorded in deep-sea cores and other geological archives from this and other regions.

  3. Chemical composition of aerosol in the atmospheric surface layer of the East Antarctica coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Golobokova

    2016-01-01

    contributions of the continental and maritime factors to formation of the aerosol chemical composition revealed higher enrichment ratios for K+, Ca2+, SO4 2− (K = 3.6÷13.0. This reflects not only influence of the natural sources, but the intensity of human activities on the Antarctic continent as well. The elemental composition of solid aerosols was also analyzed. The largest concentrations were determined for Zn, Al and Fe. The ratio of concentration of the elements in both the soluble and insoluble phases of the aerosol showed that 84.1% of the total amount of the elements was contained in a water-insoluble state. Fractional relation between the element concentrations changed in different phases from 16 to 98%. High enrichment of the aerosol particles by Zn, Cu, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni,Se, As, Cd (the enrichment factors = 27÷26 445 had been revealed. The content of dominant chemical components (Na+, Cl−, Zn, Fe, factors and coefficients of the element enrichment in the aerosols as well as in fresh snow of the coastal zone of East Antarctica are indicative of the identity of sources where their composition is formed.

  4. Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.; Ring, Amanda; Ritchie, Yvonne; Stone, Emily; Walsh, Ainsley; Akoshile, Clement; Anh, Nguyen Xuan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Brook, Jeff; Qonitan, Fatimah D.; Dong, Jinlu; Griffith, Derek; He, Kebin; Holben, Brent N.; Kahn, Ralph; Lagrosas, Nofel; Lestari, Puji; Ma, Zongwei; Misra, Amit; Norford, Leslie K.; Quel, Eduardo J.; Salam, Abdus; Schichtel, Bret; Segev, Lior; Tripathi, Sachchida; Wang, Chien; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yuxuan; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark D.; Liu, Yang; Vanderlei Martins, J.; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall V.

    2016-08-01

    , India). Comparison of SPARTAN vs. coincident measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network at Mammoth Cave yielded a high degree of consistency for daily PM2.5 (r2 = 0.76, slope = 1.12), daily sulfate (r2 = 0.86, slope = 1.03), and mean fractions of all major PM2.5 components (within 6 %). Major ions generally agree well with previous studies at the same urban locations (e.g. sulfate fractions agree within 4 % for 8 out of 11 collocation comparisons). Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas (e.g. Singapore, Kanpur, Hanoi, and Dhaka) are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.The expected water contribution to aerosols is calculated via the hygroscopicity parameter κv for each filter. Mean aggregate values ranged from 0.15 (Ilorin) to 0.28 (Rehovot). The all-site parameter mean is 0.20 ± 0.04. Chemical composition and water retention in each filter measurement allows inference of hourly PM2.5 at 35 % relative humidity by merging with nephelometer measurements. These hourly PM2.5 estimates compare favourably with a beta attenuation monitor (MetOne) at the nearby US embassy in Beijing, with a coefficient of variation r2 = 0.67 (n = 3167), compared to r2 = 0.62 when κv was not considered. SPARTAN continues to provide an open-access database of PM2.5 compositional filter information and hourly mass collected from a global federation of instruments.

  5. The role of liquid-liquid immiscibility and crystal fractionation in the genesis of carbonatite magmas: insights from Kerimasi melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmics, Tibor; Zajacz, Zoltán; Mitchell, Roger H.; Szabó, Csaba; Wälle, Markus

    2015-02-01

    melt, whereas Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al, Sc, Ti, Hf and Zr are partitioned into the silicate melt. Potassium and Rb show no preferential partitioning. Kerimasi melt inclusions show that the immiscible calcic carbonate melt is strongly enriched in Sr, Ba, Pb, LREE, P, W, Mo and S relative to other trace elements. Comparison of our data with experimental results indicates that preferential partitioning of oxidized sulfur (as SO4 2-), Ca and P (as PO4 3-) into the carbonate melt may promote the partitioning of Nb, Ta, Pb and all REE, excluding Sc, into this phase. Therefore, it is suggested that P and S enrichment in calcic carbonate magmas promotes the genesis of REE-rich carbonatites by liquid immiscibility. Our study shows that changes in the partition coefficients of elements between minerals and the coexisting melts along the liquid line of descent are rather significant at Kerimasi. This is why, in addition to the REE, Nb, Ta and Zr are also enriched in Kerimasi calciocarbonatites. We consider significant amounts of apatite and perovskite precipitated from melilite-nephelinite-derived carbonate melt as igneous minerals can have high LREE, Nb and Zr contents relative to other carbonatite minerals.

  6. Investigating a hydrothermal venting scenario at the Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Matteo; Mazzini, Adriano; Sciarra, Alessandra; Hammed, Mohammed S.; Schmindt, Susanne T.; Suessenberger, Annette

    2017-04-01

    but it is a primary phase. Quartz is often rimmed by a phyllosilicate phase of the montmorillonite group, grew probably during the final phases of hydrothermal circulation. We also identified a Zn-Al-F-silicate, that we speculate may be hemimorphite, a typical low-T phase occurring in hydrothermal environments. In addition, zircon, rutile, quartz and microcline are easily recognized and halite, brushite, bornite and diopside are detected by XRD analysis. Considering the textural relationship between the minerals it can be inferred that the Ba-bearing K-feldspar was the first phase to crystallize while the euhedral sanidine grew afterwards. SEM images indicate the textural evidence of channeling implying that high-T fluids were flushing the system and inducing the precipitation of the minerals. The paragenesis and the petrographic structures of the identified mineralogical assemblages indicate circulation of high temperature fluids flushed from these vents towards the surface. This evidence is consistent with large-scale field observations and with a scenario envisaging the paleo-venting system focusing hydrothermal fluids at localities near the faulted zone.

  7. PROPRIEDADES FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DE RESÍDUOS AGROFLORESTAIS AMAZÔNICOS PARA USO COMO SUBSTRATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabele Domingues Soares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia, são produzidas anualmente grandes quantidades de resíduos agroflorestais, o que demanda pesquisas para avaliar a viabilidade técnica, econômica e ambiental desses materiais como, por exemplo, sua utilização como substrato na produção de mudas florestais. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar as propriedades físicas e químicas de materiais com potencial para substrato, como casca de amendoim, casca de arroz in natura, pó de serra semidecomposto, resíduo de açaí, casca de cupuaçu, casca de café, casca de coco verde e casca de castanha-do-brasil. Foram avaliados os teores totais de nitrogênio (N, Ca, K, P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, além do pH em água, densidade, capacidade de retenção de água (CRA e relação poro/sólido.  A casca de castanha apresentou os maiores valores na maioria das características avaliadas, exceto para a capacidade de retenção de água. O resíduo que apresentou as menores quantidades de nutrientes ou baixos valores das características físicas analisadas foi o pó de serra. Palavra-chave: produção de mudas, uso agrícola, Amazônia.   PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AMAZON AGROFORESTRY RESIDUES FOR USE AS SUBSTRATE ABSTRACT In the Amazon are produced annually large quantities of residues, which demand agroforestry research to assess the technical, economic and environmental viability of the agricultural use of these materials as, for example, a substrate for forest seedling production. The objective of this study was to determine physical and chemical properties of the following materials with potential for substrate: peanut husk, rice husk in natura, sawdust semidecomposed, açai residues, cupuassu bark, coffee husk, green coconut husk and bark of brown-of-brazil. Were evaluated total contents of N, K, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn; besides the pH in water, density, water retention capacity (CRA and the P/S ratio. The bark of brown-of-brazil presented the highest values for the majority of

  8. Tululite, Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36: a new Ca zincate-aluminate from combustion metamorphic marbles, central Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Hani N.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Nigmatulina, Elena N.; Goryainov, Sergei V.; Belogub, Elena V.; Clark, Ian D.

    2016-02-01

    Tululite (Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36 (the hypothetical end-member formula Ca14{Fe3+O6}[SiO4][Zn5Al9]O26) (IMA2014-065) is a new natural Ca zincate-aluminate, identified in medium-temperature (800-850 °C) combustion metamorphic (CM) spurrite-fluorellestadite marbles from central Jordan. The type locality (Tulul Al Hammam area) is situated in the northern part of the Siwaqa complex, the largest area of the "Mottled Zone" Formation in the Dead Sea region. The marbles originated from bitumen-rich chalky marine sediments of the Maastrichtian-Paleogene Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation, which have low clay content (and, consequently, low Al) and high Zn, Cd, and U enrichments. The bulk CM rocks derived from the low-Al protolith have unusually high (Zn + Cd)/Al ratios ( 0.2) and, as a result, a mineralogy with negligibly small percentages of Ca aluminates having low Ca:Al molar ratios (minerals of mayenite supergroup, Ca:Al = 6:7) common to most of calcareous CM rocks in the Mottled Zone. Instead, the mineral assemblage of the Zn-rich marbles contains tululite, with high Ca:Al = 2.55 molar ratios and Zn substituting for a large portion of Al (Zn:Al = 1.1). Tululite occurs in thin clusters as irregular grains with indented outlines (20-100 μm in size), having typical open-work textures associated with rock-forming calcite, fluorellestadite, spurrite, and accessory Zn-rich periclase, lime-monteponite solid solutions, calcium uranates, and zincite. Marbles also bear brownmillerite, dorrite, fluormayenite, high-fluorine Ca aluminate, and lakargiite. Secondary phases are brucite, gel-like calcium silicate hydrates and calcium silicate aluminate hydrates, including Zn- and U-bearing and Cd-rich compounds, Si-bearing hydrated compounds after calcium uranates, and basic Cd chlorides. The empirical formula of the holotype tululite (a mean of 32 analyses) is (Ca13.29Cd0.75)Σ14.04(Al5.46Zn5.20Fe3+ 2.23Si0.95Mn3+ 1.01Mg0.78P0.41)Σ16.04O36. Tululite is cubic, space

  9. Adsorption and revaporisation studies of thin iodine oxide and CsI aerosol deposits from containment surface materials in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, S.; Foreman, M.; Ekberg, C. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A.; Tapper, U.; Jokiniemi, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    During a severe nuclear accident released fission and radiolysis products can react with each other to form new species which might contribute to the volatile source term. Iodine will be released from UO2 fuel mainly in form as CsI aerosol particles and elemental iodine. Elemental iodine can react in gaseous phase with ozone to form solid iodine oxide aerosol particles (IOx). Within the AIAS-2 (Adsorption of Iodine Aerosols on Surfaces) project the interactions of IOx and CsI aerosols with common containment surface materials was investigated. Common surface materials in Swedish and Finnish LWRs are Teknopox Aqua V A paint films and metal surfaces such as Cu, Zn, Al and SS. Non-radioactive and {sup 131}I labelled aerosols were produced from a KI solution and ozone with a new facility designed and built at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. CsI aerosols were produced from a CsI solution with the same facility. A monolayer of the aerosols was deposited on the surfaces. The deposits were analysed with microscopic and spectroscopic measurement techniques to identify the chemical form of the deposits on the surfaces to identify if a chemical conversion on the different surface materials had occured. The revaporisation behaviour of the deposited aerosol particles from the different surface materials was studied under the influence of heat, humidity and gamma irradiation at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. Studies on the effects of humidity were performed using the FOMICAG facility, while heat and irradiation experiments were performed in a thermostated heating block and with a gammacell 22 with a dose rate of 14 kGy/h. The revaporisation losses were measured using a HPGe detector. The decomposition effect of the radiolysis product carbon monoxide was tested on IOx aerosols deposited on a glass fibre filter. Iodine oxide particles were produced at 50 deg. C, 100 deg. C and 120 deg. C and deposited on filter samples in order to study the chemical

  10. Avalanche dynamics of structural phase transitions in shape memory alloys by acoustic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Benno

    2009-09-24

    under an applied field. The application of a field leads to an alignment of the magnetic moments. The lowered disorder reduces the energy barriers, which leads to less acoustic activity and weaker signals. At fields higher than 2.5 kOe the acoustic activity is completely suppressed, which suggests an overall weakening of the first order character of the premartensitic transition. The amplitude and energy exponents of the material systems NiAl, FePd, and Ni{sub 2}MnGa (field-dependent) have been for the first time experimentally determined in this work. The amplitude exponents of NiAl and CuZnAl (3.1 {+-} 0.2) and of Ni{sub 2}MnGa and FePd (2.4 {+-} 0.2), determined in this work and reported in literature (see [22, 94, 139]), can be grouped into different classes. This reinforces the universality hypothesis [52] and the assumption that the symmetry of the product phase determines the universality class of the exponents [22]. Moreover, the results of this work suggest that further criteria, such as the degree of disorder or rate-dependent aging effects, should be taken into consideration as well. (orig.)

  11. SON68 glass dissolution driven by magnesium silicate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Godon, Nicole; Ayral, André; Gin, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    concentrations in solution for the experiment with 100 mg L-1 of Mg at t = 0, the most representative cases are 10% gel for the period between 3 h and 6 days, 30% for 3 h-10 days, and 50% for 3 h-16 days. Sampling losses are taken into account. All the results indicate that the magnesium phase which precipitated during the experiments had a Mg/Si molar ratio of about 0.2-0.4. Although the ratio was not exactly the same in each case, it is likely that the phase was of the same structural type. The Mg/Si ratio of 0.2-0.4 is low compared with the values above 0.6 expected for a phyllosilicate structure [22,25,26]. However, the structure of phyllosilicates can accommodate many elements, and it is possible that Mg was replaced in the structure by other elements of the system [22,25,26] such as Ni, Co, Zn, Al and Fe (these elements are present in the glass composition and their concentrations in solution are under the limits of quantification of ICP-AES). The precipitation kinetics: Mg cannot precipitate at a higher rate; in this case, adding Mg in solution would not accelerate the precipitation rate. The availability of Mg, which may be limited by the glass alteration rate and/or the gel dissolution rate; in this case, adding Mg in solution would accelerate the precipitation rate. The same two assumptions, but for another element than Mg incorporated in the structure of the secondary phase. Through other series of experiments [30], Advocat showed that the larger the quantity of Mg added to the composition of R7T7 and M7 glass (compensating the difference in composition by adjusting all the other elements) the greater the quantity of altered glass — probably because of a larger quantity of precipitated secondary phases. This raises another question: why did Mg contribute to a larger quantity of secondary phases in this case, although it was retained in the gel in Curti's experiments?A study published in 2012 by Thien et al. [29] provides answers, because it demonstrates two