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Sample records for eus-guided gold fiducial

  1. EUS-guided fiducial placement before targeted radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Julie; Abdel-Wahab, May; Ribeiro, Afonso

    2009-09-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy allows the delivery of precisely aimed radiation beams to tumors while minimizing radiation to adjacent normal tissue. This is particularly important in the prostate, a moving target whose positioning depends on the dynamics of its neighboring bladder and rectum. Targeted radiation therapy can be achieved by using implantable radiographic markers, or fiducials, which serve as reference points to accurately delineate tumors. To determine the feasibility and safety of placing fiducials in the prostate under linear array EUS guidance to facilitate targeted radiation therapy. Retrospective analysis of a prospective database. University of Miami Hospital and Clinics, a tertiary cancer referral center. Localized prostate cancer patients scheduled to undergo intensity-modulated radiation therapy. A total of 16 patients underwent EUS-guided fiducial placement to delineate the prostate before planned radiation therapy. Fiducial placement was successful in all patients (100%). A total of 71 gold markers were deployed in a 4-quadrant manner outlining the prostate. Seven of 16 patients had an additional fiducial placed to ensure adequate prostate delineation. Patients tolerated the procedure well with minimal discomfort. No complications developed from the procedure. Single-center experience, small sample size. EUS-guided placement of fiducials to facilitate image-guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer is a feasible alternative to transperineal or transrectal US approaches, thereby adding to the expanding list of indications for linear EUS. This procedure can be safely performed by endosonographers familiar with perirectal anatomy and transrectal FNA technique.

  2. Endoscopy/EUS-guided fiducial marker placement in patients with esophageal cancer: a comparative analysis of 3 types of markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, Melanie; van Hooft, Jeanin; Jin, Peng; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke M.; Alderliesten, Tanja; Hulshof, Maarten C.

    2015-01-01

    Markers placed at the borders of esophageal tumors are potentially useful to facilitate radiotherapy (RT) target delineation, which offers the possibility of image-guided RT. To evaluate and compare the feasibility and technical benefit of endoscopy/EUS-guided marker placement of 3 different types

  3. Microscopic Gold Particle-Based Fiducial Markers for Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Park, Soah; Kim, Jin Sung; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Shin, Jungwook; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sung Yong; Pyo, Hong Ryeol; Kim, Dae Yong M.D.; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the feasibility of using fiducial markers composed of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers as a means to overcome current problems with conventional macroscopic gold fiducial markers, such as dose reduction and artifact generation, in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We examined two types of gold particle fiducial marker interactions: that with diagnostic X-rays and with a therapeutic proton beam. That is, we qualitatively and quantitatively compared the radiographic visibility of conventional gold and gold particle fiducial markers and the CT artifacts and dose reduction associated with their use. Results: The gold particle fiducials could be easily distinguished from high-density structures, such as the pelvic bone, in diagnostic X-rays but were nearly transparent to a proton beam. The proton dose distribution was distorted <5% by the gold particle fiducials with a 4.9% normalized gold density; this was the case even in the worst configuration (i.e., parallel alignment with a single-direction proton beam). In addition, CT artifacts were dramatically reduced for the gold particle mixture. Conclusion: Mixtures of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers have excellent potential as fiducial markers for proton therapy for prostate cancer. These include good radiographic visibility, low distortion of the depth-dose distribution, and few CT artifacts.

  4. EUS-guided recanalization of complete gastrointestinal strictures

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    Miguel Martínez-Guillén

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Complete gastrointestinal strictures are a technically demanding problem. In this setting, an anterograde technique is associated with a high risk of complications and a combined anterograde-retrograde technique requires a prior ostomy. Our aim was to assess the outcome of a first case series for the management of complete gastrointestinal strictures using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS-guided puncture as a novel endoscopic approach. Patients and methods: This retrospective case-series describes four cases that were referred for treatment of complete benign gastrointestinal strictures, three upper and one lower. Recanalization was attempted with EUS-guided puncture using a 22G or 19G needle and contrast filling was visualized by fluoroscopy. Afterwards, a cystotome and/or a dilator balloon were used under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. A fully covered metal stent was placed in two cases, keeping the strictures open in order to prevent another stricture. Feasibility, adverse events, efficacy and the number of dilations required after recanalization were evaluated. Results: Technical and clinical success was achieved in three of the four cases (75%. A first dilation was performed using a dilator balloon in all successful cases and fully covered metal stents were used in two cases. These patients underwent a consecutive number of balloon dilatations (range 1-4 and all three were able to eat a soft diet. No adverse events were related to the EUS-guided approach. In the failed case with a long stricture (> 3 cm, an endoscopic rendezvous technique was attempted which caused a pneumothorax requiring a chest tube placement. Conclusion: EUS-guided recanalization, as a first approach in the treatment of complete digestive stricture, is a feasible and promising procedure that can help to avoid major surgery.

  5. EUS-Guided Needle-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutani, Manoop S; Koduru, Pramoda; Joshi, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    the gut, providing further diagnostic and staging information. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel endoscopic method that enables imaging at a subcellular level of resolution during endoscopy, allowing up to 1000-fold magnification of tissue and providing an optical biopsy. A new procedure...... that has been developed in the past few years is needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE), which involves a mini-CLE probe that can be passed through a 1 9-gauge needle during EUS-FNA. This enables the real-time visualization of tissue at a microscopic level, with the potential to further improve....... The aim of this article is to review the role of EUS-guided nCLE in modern endoscopy and its implications in molecular imaging....

  6. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Deprez, Pierre H; Jenssen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    For pancreatic solid lesions, ESGE recommends performing endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling as first-line procedure when a pathological diagnosis is required. Alternatively, percutaneous sampling may be considered in metastatic disease.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence.......In the case of negative or inconclusive results and a high degree of suspicion of malignant disease, ESGE suggests re-evaluating the pathology slides, repeating EUS-guided sampling, or surgery.Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.In patients with chronic pancreatitis associated with a pancreatic mass...... suggests performing EUS-guided sampling for the assessment of regional lymph nodes (LNs) in T1 (and, depending on local treatment policy, T2) adenocarcinoma and of lesions suspicious for metastasis such as distant LNs, left liver lobe lesions, and suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis.Weak recommendation...

  7. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumonceau, J-M; Polkowski, M; Larghi, A

    2011-01-01

    -positive cytopathological results and needle tract seeding are also discussed. The present Clinical Guideline describes the results of EUS-guided sampling in the different clinical settings, considers the role of this technique in patient management, and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use. A two-page...... executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. A separate Technical Guideline describes the general technique of EUS-guided sampling, particular techniques to maximize the diagnostic yield depending on the nature of the target lesion, and sample processing. The target readership...

  8. Diagnostic yield of EUS-guided FNA and cytology in suspected tubercular intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puri, Rajesh; Mangla, Rakhee; Eloubeidi, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy is a common diagnostic challenge faced by clinicians. In the absence of palpable peripheral nodes, tissue is usually obtained from the abdominal nodes by image-guided biopsy or surgery. We speculate that EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) avoids the morbidity of a laparotomy...

  9. Combined EUS-Guided Abdominal Cavity Drainage and Cystogastrostomy for the Ruptured Pancreatic Pseudocyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Nan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endoscopic-Ultrasonography- (EUS- guided puncture and drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst is currently one of the most widely accepted nonsurgical treatments. To date, this technique has only been used for pancreatic pseudocysts adhesive to the gastric wall. This study introduces the technique of EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage and additional EUS-guided peritoneal drainage for the ruptured pseudocyst. Methods. Transmural puncture and drainage of the cyst were performed with a 19 G needle, cystotome, and 10 Fr endoprosthesis. Intraperitoneal drainage was performed with a nasobiliary catheter when rupture of pseudocyst occurred. The entire procedure was guided by the echoendoscope. Results. A total of 21 patients, 8 men and 13 women, with a mean age of 36 years, were included in this prospective study. All of the pseudocysts were successfully drained by EUS. Peritoneal drainage was uneventfully performed in 4 patients. There were no severe complications. Complete pseudocyst resolution was established in all patients. Conclusion. The technique of EUS-guided transmural puncture and drainage, when combined with abdominal cavity drainage by a nasobiliary catheter, allows successful endoscopic management of pancreatic pseudocysts without adherence to gastric wall.

  10. Detection of fiducial gold markers for automatic on-line megavoltage position verification using a marker extraction kernel (MEK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen, A.; Lagendijk, J.; Hofman, P.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study automatic detection of implanted gold markers in megavoltage portal images for on-line position verification was investigated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A detection method for fiducial gold markers, consisting of a marker extraction kernel (MEK), was developed. The detection

  11. Determination of optimal fiducial marker across image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) modalities: visibility and artifact analysis of gold, carbon, and polymer fiducial markers.

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    Handsfield, Lydia L; Yue, Ning J; Zhou, Jinghao; Chen, Ting; Goyal, Sharad

    2012-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visibility and artifact created by gold, carbon, and polymer fiducial markers in a simple phantom across computed tomography (CT), kilovoltage (kV), and megavoltage (MV) linear accelerator imaging and MV tomotherapy imaging. Three types of fiducial markers (gold, carbon, and polymer) were investigated for their visibility and artifacts in images acquired with various modalities and with different imaging parameters (kV, mAs, slice thickness). The imaging modalities include kV CT, 2D linac-based kilovoltage and megavoltage X-ray imaging systems, kV cone-beam CT, and normal and fine tomotherapy imaging. The images were acquired on a phantom constructed using Superflab bolus in which markers of each type were inserted into the center layer. The visibility and artifacts produced by each marker were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. All tested markers could be identified clearly on the acquired CT and linac-based kV images; gold markers demonstrated the highest contrast. On the CT images, gold markers produced a significant artifact, while no artifacts were observed with polymer markers. Only gold markers were visible when using linac-based MV and tomotherapy imaging. For linac-based kV images, the contrast increased with kV and mAs values for all the markers, with the gold being the most pronounced. On CT images, the contrast increased with kV for the gold markers, while decreasing for the polymer and carbon marker. With the bolus phantom used, we found that when kV imaging-based treatment verification equipment is available, polymer and carbon markers may be the preferred choice for target localization and patient treatment positioning verification due to less image artifacts. If MV imaging will be the sole modality for positioning verification, it may be necessary to use gold markers despite the artifacts they create on the simulation CT images.

  12. Visibility and artifacts of gold fiducial markers used for image guided radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer on MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurney-Champion, Oliver J.; Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Houweling, Antonetta C.; Klaassen, Remy; van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Stoker, Jaap; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Nederveen, Aart J.; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    In radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer, tumor alignment prior to each treatment fraction is improved when intratumoral gold fiducial markers (from here onwards: markers), which are visible on computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT, are used. Visibility of these markers on magnetic resonance

  13. Gold sputtered fiducial markers for combined secondary ion mass spectrometry and MALDI imaging of tissue samples.

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    Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Škrášková, Karolina; Flinders, Bryn; Pelicon, Primož; Heeren, Ron M A

    2014-07-15

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a label free technique capable of providing simultaneous identification and localization of biomolecules. A multimodal approach is required that allows for the study of the complexity of biological tissue samples to overcome the limitations of a single MSI technique. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allows for high spatial resolution imaging while matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI) offers a significantly wider mass range. The combination of coregistered SIMS and MALDI images results in detailed and unique biomolecular information. In this Technical Note, we describe how gold sputtered/implanted fiducial markers (FM) are created and can be used to ensure a proper overlay and coregistration of the two-dimensional images provided by the two MSI modalities.

  14. Histopathologic Consideration of Fiducial Gold Markers Inserted for Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy Against Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Mikado; Yamazaki, Koichi; Kubota, Kanako C.; Itoh, Tomoo; Onimaru, Rikiya; Cho, Yasushi; Hida, Yasuhiro; Kaga, Kichizo; Onodera, Yuya; Ogura, Shigeaki; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Internal fiducial gold markers, safely inserted with bronchoscopy, have been used in real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy for lung cancer. We investigated the histopathologic findings at several points after the insertion of the gold markers. Methods and Materials: Sixteen gold markers were inserted for preoperative marking in 7 patients who subsequently underwent partial resection of tumors by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery within 7 days. Results: Fibrotic changes and hyperplasia of type 2 pneumocytes around the markers were seen 5 or 7 days after insertion, and fibrin exudation without fibrosis was detected 1 or 2 days after insertion. Conclusions: Because fibroblastic changes start approximately 5 days after gold marker insertion, real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy should be started >5 days after gold marker insertion

  15. Evaluation of a new endoscopic ultrasound-guided multi-fiducial delivery system: a prospective non-survival study in a live porcine model.

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    Draganov, Peter V; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya; Wagh, Mihir S

    2013-11-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is an excellent tool for implanting fiducials for gastrointestinal malignancies, but a dedicated delivery system for EUS-guided fiducial placement is not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of a new dedicated EUS-guided multi-fiducial delivery system. This was a prospective live porcine study using prototype 22-G EUS needles preloaded with four fiducials. Primary outcomes were technical success and accuracy of fiducial placement. Secondary outcomes were ease of passage of delivery system, ease of deployment, EUS visualization of the needle, visual appearance of fiducials on EUS, fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT) scans, time taken for fiducial placement and adverse events. Outcomes were scored on a predetermined 5-point Likert scale (1 = best, 5 = worst). Fiducial deployment was successful in 43 out of 45 needles (95.6%). All 172 fiducials (43 needles, four fiducials each)were successfully deployed on target. Fiducial placement accuracy score was 1.30 ± 0.64. All needles passed with ease (score 1.0 ± 0.0). Ease of fiducial deployment score was 1.85 ± 1.02. Mean scores for EUS visualization of the needle and fiducial were 1.02 ± 0.15 and 2.10 ± 0.91, respectively. Fluoroscopic and CT visualization of fiducials was excellent. Time for placement of four fiducials was <1 min (0.86 ± 0.50 min). No adverse events were seen. The new EUS-guided multi-fiducial delivery system provided quick, easy, and accurate fiducial deployment without adverse events. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  16. Radiosensitizer-eluting nanocoatings on gold fiducials for biological in-situ image-guided radio therapy (BIS-IGRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagesha, D K; Tada, D B; Stambaugh, C K K; Gultepe, E; Jost, E; Levy, C O; Sridhar, S [Electronic Materials Research Institute and Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Cormack, R; Makrigiorgos, G M, E-mail: s.sridhar@neu.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-10-21

    Image-guided radiation treatments (IGRT) routinely utilize radio-opaque implantable devices, such as fiducials or brachytherapy spacers, for improved spatial accuracy. The therapeutic efficiency of IGRT can be further enhanced by biological in situ dose painting (BIS-IGRT) of radiosensitizers through localized delivery within the tumor using gold fiducial markers that have been coated with nanoporous polymer matrices loaded with nanoparticles (NPs). In this work, two approaches were studied: (i) a free drug release system consisting of Doxorubicin (Dox), a hydrophilic drug, loaded into a non-degradable polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coating and (ii) poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs loaded with fluorescent Coumarin-6, serving as a model for a hydrophobic drug, in a biodegradable chitosan matrix. Temporal release kinetics measurements in buffer were carried out using fluorescence spectroscopy. In the first case of free Dox release, an initial release within the first few hours was followed by a sustained release over the course of the next 3 months. In the second platform, release of NPs and the free drug was controlled by the degradation rate of the chitosan matrix and PLGA. The results show that dosage and rate of release of these radiosensitizers coated on gold fiducials for IGRT can be precisely tailored to achieve the desired release profile for radiation therapy of cancer.

  17. Radiosensitizer-eluting nanocoatings on gold fiducials for biological in-situ image-guided radio therapy (BIS-IGRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagesha, D. K.; Tada, D. B.; Stambaugh, C. K. K.; Gultepe, E.; Jost, E.; Levy, C. O.; Cormack, R.; Makrigiorgos, G. M.; Sridhar, S.

    2010-10-01

    Image-guided radiation treatments (IGRT) routinely utilize radio-opaque implantable devices, such as fiducials or brachytherapy spacers, for improved spatial accuracy. The therapeutic efficiency of IGRT can be further enhanced by biological in situ dose painting (BIS-IGRT) of radiosensitizers through localized delivery within the tumor using gold fiducial markers that have been coated with nanoporous polymer matrices loaded with nanoparticles (NPs). In this work, two approaches were studied: (i) a free drug release system consisting of Doxorubicin (Dox), a hydrophilic drug, loaded into a non-degradable polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coating and (ii) poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs loaded with fluorescent Coumarin-6, serving as a model for a hydrophobic drug, in a biodegradable chitosan matrix. Temporal release kinetics measurements in buffer were carried out using fluorescence spectroscopy. In the first case of free Dox release, an initial release within the first few hours was followed by a sustained release over the course of the next 3 months. In the second platform, release of NPs and the free drug was controlled by the degradation rate of the chitosan matrix and PLGA. The results show that dosage and rate of release of these radiosensitizers coated on gold fiducials for IGRT can be precisely tailored to achieve the desired release profile for radiation therapy of cancer.

  18. Comparison of transhepatic and extrahepatic routes for EUS-guided rendezvous procedure for distal CBD obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Vinay; Bhandari, Suryaprakash; Bapat, Mukta; Joshi, Nitin; Vivekanandarajah, Suhirdan; Maydeo, Amit

    2013-04-01

    EUS-guided rendezvous procedure (EUS-RV) can be done by the transhepatic (TH) or the extrahepatic (EH) route. There is no data on the preferred access route when both routes are available. To compare the success, complications, and duration of hospitalization for patients undergoing EUS-RV by the TH or the EH route. Patients with distal common bile duct (CBD) obstruction, who failed selective cannulation, underwent EUS-RV by the TH route through the stomach or the EH route through the duodenum. A total of 35 patients were analysed (17 TH, 18 EH). The mean procedure time was significantly longer for the TH group (34.4 vs. 25.7 min; p = 0.0004). There was no difference in the technical success (94.1 vs. 100%). However, the TH group had a higher incidence of post-procedure pain (44.1 vs. 5.5%; p = 0.017), bile leak (11.7 vs. 0; p = 0.228), and air under diaphragm (11.7 vs. 0; p = 0.228). All bile leaks were small and managed conservatively. Duration of hospitalization was significantly higher for the TH group (2.52 vs. 0.17 days; p = 0.015). EUS-RV has similar success rate by the TH or the EH route. However, the TH route has higher post-procedure pain, longer procedure time, and longer duration of hospitalization. The EH route should be preferred for EUS-RV in patients with distal CBD obstruction when both access routes are technically feasible.

  19. Single-operator EUS-guided cholangiopancreatography for difficult pancreaticobiliary access (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Brian C; Chen, Yang K; Fukami, Norio; Shah, Raj J

    2009-09-01

    When conventional ERCP methods fail because of periampullary or ductal obstruction, EUS-guided cholangiopancreatography (EUS-CP) may aid in pancreaticobiliary access. To report our experience when using single-operator EUS-CP. An academic tertiary-referral center. Consecutive patients undergoing EUS-CP were prospectively identified. These patients had undergone failed attempt(s) at therapeutic ERCP. A data sheet was used to record indications, reasons for failed ERCP, EUS-CP visualization of the duct of interest, transpapillary or transenteric intervention, clinical follow-up, and complications. Technical success was decompression of the duct of interest. Clinical success was resolution of jaundice or a > or = 50% reduction in pain or narcotics, as applicable. Between February 2003 and June 2007, EUS-CP was attempted in 20 patients (11 men, 9 women; mean [SD] age 58 +/- 14.9 years). Indications included jaundice (n = 8), biliary stones (n = 3), chronic pancreatitis (n = 6), acute pancreatitis (n = 2), and papillary stenosis (n = 1). Reasons for failed ERCP included periampullary mass (n = 8), intradiverticular papillae (n = 4), and pancreatic duct (PD) stricture (n = 7) or stone (n = 1). Technical success was achieved in 18 of 20 patients (90%). Biliary decompression was obtained in 11 of 12 patients (92%) (7 transpapillary and 4 transenteric-transcholedochal). Pancreatic decompression was obtained in 7 of 8 patients (88%) (3 transpapillary, 4 transgastric). On follow-up, clinical improvement was noted in 15 of 20 patients (70%). For treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis, pain scores decreased by a mean of 1.75 (P = .18). Complications (in 2 of 20 [10%]) included perforation (n = 1) and respiratory failure (n = 1). A single-center nonrandomized observational study with a small patient population. At our academic referral center, single-operator EUS-CP provided decompression of obstructed ducts and may be performed after a failed attempt at

  20. Assessment of complications of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, D; Palazzo, L; Arotçarena, R; Dancour, A; Aubert, A; Hammel, P; Amaris, J; Ruszniewski, P

    2001-04-01

    EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) permits both morphologic and cytologic analysis of lesions within or adjacent to the GI tract. Despite increasing use of this technique, the safety and overall complication rates remain poorly defined. During a period of 20 months, 322 consecutive patients underwent EUS-FNA in 2 centers. All procedures were performed with the patients under general anesthesia. All complications (including local complications resulting from endoscopy/aspiration or clinical complications after the procedure) were evaluated. Potential risk factors for the development of complications were also analyzed including site and nature of the lesion, presence of portal hypertension, and number of needle passes. A total of 345 lesions were aspirated in 322 patients. EUS-FNA involved the pancreas in 248 cases. Pancreatic lesions included solid (134) and cystic (114) types, which required a mean of 2.5 and 1.4 needle passes, respectively. Complications were observed in 4 (1.2%) patients after aspiration of pancreatic cystic lesions (acute pancreatitis, n = 3; aspiration pneumonia, n = 1) and all cases of pancreatitis resulted from FNA of lesions in the head/uncinate process. No complications resulted from FNA of solid pancreatic lesions. Complications were not observed after FNA of lymph nodes (n = 62) and one case of aspiration pneumonia was observed after FNA of a stromal tumor. EUS-FNA was performed without complication in 16 patients (5%) with portal hypertension. The number of needle passes was not predictive of complications. Because the overall risk of complications from EUS-FNA was relatively low (1.6%) with no severe or fatal incidents and although the risk appears slightly higher than that for standard EUS alone, the safety of EUS-FNA appears acceptable based on this analysis from an experienced center.

  1. Microscopic findings in EUS-guided fine needle (SharkCore) biopsies with type 1 and type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Joergensen, Maiken Thyregod; Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2017-01-01

    ). EUS fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology is usually not sufficient for the diagnosis of AIP, but may sometimes contain tissue microfragments. Another approach is EUS-guided histological fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB), using needles such as the SharkCore or ProCore needle. Published data regarding...... EUS-guided SharkCore FNB for the diagnosis of AIP are lacking. We aimed to describe our histological findings in one type 1 and two type 2 AIP patients who underwent EUS SharkCore FNB. The EUS-FNBs of two patients fulfilled the histological level 2 ICDC for type 1 AIP or type 2 AIP. The EUS-FNB of one...... patient fulfilled the histological level 1 ICDC for type 2 AIP. The tissue cylinders and fragments measured 55, 28 and 17 mm in total. At least histological level 2 ICDC were fulfilled in all cases, and our findings regarding the utility of EUS SharkCore FNB for the diagnosis of AIP are therefore...

  2. Technical aspects of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Technical Guideline - March 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Jenssen, Christian; Kaye, Philip; Carrara, Silvia; Deprez, Pierre; Gines, Angels; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Eisendrath, Pierre; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Arcidiacono, Paolo; Barthet, Marc; Bastos, Pedro; Fornelli, Adele; Napoleon, Bertrand; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Seicean, Andrada; Larghi, Alberto; Hassan, Cesare; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    For routine EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and lymph nodes (LNs) ESGE recommends 25G or 22G needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation); fine needle aspiration (FNA) and fine needle biopsy (FNB) needles are equally recommended (high quality evidence, strong recommendation).When the primary aim of sampling is to obtain a core tissue specimen, ESGE suggests using 19G FNA or FNB needles or 22G FNB needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE recommends using 10-mL syringe suction for EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and LNs with 25G or 22G FNA needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation) and other types of needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). ESGE suggests neutralizing residual negative pressure in the needle before withdrawing the needle from the target lesion (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE does not recommend for or against using the needle stylet for EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and LNs with FNA needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation) and suggests using the needle stylet for EUS-guided sampling with FNB needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE suggests fanning the needle throughout the lesion when sampling solid masses and LNs (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE equally recommends EUS-guided sampling with or without on-site cytologic evaluation (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). When on-site cytologic evaluation is unavailable, ESGE suggests performance of three to four needle passes with an FNA needle or two to three passes with an FNB needle (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).For diagnostic sampling of pancreatic cystic lesions without a solid component, ESGE suggests emptying the cyst with a single pass of a 22G or 19G needle (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). For pancreatic cystic lesions with a solid component, ESGE suggests sampling of the solid component using the same technique as in the

  3. Combined use of EUS-guided FNA and immunocytochemical stains discloses metastatic and unusual diseases in the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy of unknown etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A Eloubeidi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: EUS-guided FNA with additional ancillary studies is useful in disclosing metastatic ML from a variety of neoplasms. Due to its safety and accuracy profile, it should be considered the test of choice in evaluating abnormal ML in appropriately selected patients.

  4. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline - Updated January 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Deprez, Pierre H; Jenssen, Christian; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Larghi, Alberto; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Arcidiacono, Paolo G; Bastos, Pedro; Carrara, Silvia; Czakó, László; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Fockens, Paul; Ginès, Àngels; Havre, Roald F; Hassan, Cesare; Vilmann, Peter; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Polkowski, Marcin

    2017-07-01

    For pancreatic solid lesions, ESGE recommends performing endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling as first-line procedure when a pathological diagnosis is required. Alternatively, percutaneous sampling may be considered in metastatic disease.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence.In the case of negative or inconclusive results and a high degree of suspicion of malignant disease, ESGE suggests re-evaluating the pathology slides, repeating EUS-guided sampling, or surgery.Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.In patients with chronic pancreatitis associated with a pancreatic mass, EUS-guided sampling results that do not confirm cancer should be interpreted with caution.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence.For pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs), ESGE recommends EUS-guided sampling for biochemical analyses plus cytopathological examination if a precise diagnosis may change patient management, except for lesions ≤ 10 mm in diameter with no high risk stigmata. If the volume of PCL aspirate is small, it is recommended that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level determination be done as the first analysis.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence.For esophageal cancer, ESGE suggests performing EUS-guided sampling for the assessment of regional lymph nodes (LNs) in T1 (and, depending on local treatment policy, T2) adenocarcinoma and of lesions suspicious for metastasis such as distant LNs, left liver lobe lesions, and suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis.Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.For lymphadenopathy of unknown origin, ESGE recommends performing EUS-guided (or alternatively endobronchial ultrasound [EBUS]-guided) sampling if the pathological result is likely to affect patient management and no superficial lymphadenopathy is easily accessible.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence.In the case of solid liver masses suspicious for metastasis, ESGE suggests performing EUS-guided sampling if the pathological result is likely

  5. Evaluation of an automatic MR-based gold fiducial marker localisation method for MR-only prostate radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, Matteo; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.; Zijlstra, Frank; Sikkes, Gonda G.; de Boer, Hans C. J.; Meijer, Gert J.; Kerkmeijer, Linda G. W.; Viergever, Max A.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Seevinck, Peter R.

    2017-10-01

    An MR-only radiotherapy planning (RTP) workflow would reduce the cost, radiation exposure and uncertainties introduced by CT-MRI registrations. In the case of prostate treatment, one of the remaining challenges currently holding back the implementation of an RTP workflow is the MR-based localisation of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers (FMs), which is crucial for accurate patient positioning. Currently, MR-based FM localisation is clinically performed manually. This is sub-optimal, as manual interaction increases the workload. Attempts to perform automatic FM detection often rely on being able to detect signal voids induced by the FMs in magnitude images. However, signal voids may not always be sufficiently specific, hampering accurate and robust automatic FM localisation. Here, we present an approach that aims at automatic MR-based FM localisation. This method is based on template matching using a library of simulated complex-valued templates, and exploiting the behaviour of the complex MR signal in the vicinity of the FM. Clinical evaluation was performed on seventeen prostate cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy treatment. Automatic MR-based FM localisation was compared to manual MR-based and semi-automatic CT-based localisation (the current gold standard) in terms of detection rate and the spatial accuracy and precision of localisation. The proposed method correctly detected all three FMs in 15/17 patients. The spatial accuracy (mean) and precision (STD) were 0.9 mm and 0.5 mm respectively, which is below the voxel size of 1.1 × 1.1 × 1.2 mm3 and comparable to MR-based manual localisation. FM localisation failed (3/51 FMs) in the presence of bleeding or calcifications in the direct vicinity of the FM. The method was found to be spatially accurate and precise, which is essential for clinical use. To overcome any missed detection, we envision the use of the proposed method along with verification by an observer. This will result in a

  6. Registration accuracy and possible migration of internal fiducial gold marker implanted in prostate and liver treated with real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy (RTRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Harabayashi, Toru; Shimizu, Tadashi; Kodama, Yoshihisa; Endo, Hideho; Onimaru, Rikiya; Nishioka, Seiko; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have developed a linear accelerator synchronized with a fluoroscopic real-time tumor-tracking system to reduce errors due to setup and organ motion. In the real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy (RTRT) system, the accuracy of tumor tracking depends on the registration of the marker's coordinates. The registration accuracy and possible migration of the internal fiducial gold marker implanted into prostate and liver was investigated. Materials and methods: Internal fiducial gold markers were implanted in 14 patients with prostate cancer and four patients with liver tumors. Computed tomography (CT) was carried out as a part of treatment planning in the 18 patients. A total of 72 follow-up CT scans were taken. We calculated the relative relationship between the coordinates of the center of mass (CM) of the organs and those of the marker. The discrepancy in the CM coordinates during a follow-up CT compared to those recorded during the planning CT was used to study possible marker migration. Results: The standard deviation (SD) of interobserver variations in the CM coordinates was within 2.0 and 0.4 mm for the organ and the marker, respectively, in seven observers. Assuming that organs do not shrink, grow, or rotate, the maximum SD of migration error in each direction was estimated to be less than 2.5 and 2.0 mm for liver and prostate, respectively. There was no correlation between the marker position and the time after implantation. Conclusion: The degree of possible migration of the internal fiducial marker was within the limits of accuracy of the CT measurement. Most of the marker movement can be attributed to the measurement uncertainty, which also influences registration in actual treatment planning. Thus, even with the gold marker and RTRT system, a planning target volume margin should be used to account for registration uncertainty

  7. A Multicenter comparative trial of a novel EUS-guided core biopsy needle (SharkCore™) with the 22-gauge needle in patients with solid pancreatic mass lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Mariam; Siddiqui, Ali A; Kowalski, Thomas E; Loren, David E; Khalid, Ammara; Soomro, Ayesha; Mazhar, Syed M; Yoo, Joseph; Hasan, Raza; Yalamanchili, Silpa; Tarangelo, Nicholas; Taylor, Linda J; Adler, Douglas G

    2018-01-01

    The ability to obtain adequate tissue of solid pancreatic lesions by EUS-guided remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics and safety of EUS-FNA for evaluating solid pancreatic lesions using the standard 22-gauge needle versus a novel EUS biopsy needle. This was a multicenter retrospective study of EUS-guided sampling of solid pancreatic lesions between 2009 and 2015. Patients underwent EUS-guided sampling with a 22-gauge SharkCore (SC) needle or a standard 22-gauge FNA needle. Technical success, performance characteristics of EUS-FNA, the number of needle passes required to obtain a diagnosis, diagnostic accuracy, and complications were compared. A total of 1088 patients (mean age = 66 years; 49% female) with pancreatic masses underwent EUS-guided sampling with a 22-gauge SC needle (n = 115) or a standard 22-gauge FNA needle (n = 973). Technical success was 100%. The frequency of obtaining an adequate cytology by EUS-FNA was similar when using the SC and the standard needle (94.1% vs. 92.7%, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA for tissue diagnosis were not significantly different between two needles. Adequate sample collection leading to a definite diagnosis was achieved by the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd pass in 73%, 92%, and 98% of procedures using the SC needle and 20%, 37%, and 94% procedures using the standard needle (P < 0.001), respectively. The median number of passes to obtain a tissue diagnosis using the SC needle was significantly less as compared to the standard needle (1 and 3, respectively; P< 0.001). The EUS SC biopsy needle is safe and technically feasible for EUS-FNA of solid pancreatic mass lesions. Preliminary results suggest that the SC needle has a diagnostic yield similar to the standard EUS needle and significantly reduces the number of needle passes required to obtain a tissue diagnosis.

  8. Visibility and artifacts of gold fiducial markers used for image guided radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney-Champion, Oliver J.; Lens, Eelco; Horst, Astrid van der; Houweling, Antonetta C.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan; Klaassen, Remy; Hooft, Jeanin E. van; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer, tumor alignment prior to each treatment fraction is improved when intratumoral gold fiducial markers (from here onwards: markers), which are visible on computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT, are used. Visibility of these markers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might improve image registration between CT and magnetic resonance (MR) images for tumor delineation purposes. However, concomitant image artifacts induced by markers are undesirable. The extent of visibility and artifact size depend on MRI-sequence parameters. The authors’ goal was to determine for various markers their potential to be visible and to generate artifacts, using measures that are independent of the MRI-sequence parameters. Methods: The authors selected ten different markers suitable for endoscopic placement in the pancreas and placed them into a phantom. The markers varied in diameter (0.28–0.6 mm), shape, and iron content (0%–0.5%). For each marker, the authors calculated T 2 ∗ -maps and ΔB 0 -maps using MRI measurements. A decrease in relaxation time T 2 ∗ can cause signal voids, associated with visibility, while a change in the magnetic field B 0 can cause signal shifts, which are associated with artifacts. These shifts inhibit accurate tumor delineation. As a measure for potential visibility, the authors used the volume of low T 2 ∗ , i.e., the volume for which T 2 ∗ differed from the background by >15 ms. As a measure for potential artifacts, the authors used the volume for which |ΔB 0 | > 9.4 × 10 −8 T (4 Hz). To test whether there is a correlation between visibility and artifact size, the authors calculated the Spearman’s correlation coefficient (R s ) between the volume of low T 2 ∗ and the volume of high |ΔB 0 |. The authors compared the maps with images obtained using a clinical MR-sequence. Finally, for the best visible marker as well as the marker that showed the smallest artifact, the authors

  9. Endoscopic gold fiducial marker placement into the bladder wall to optimize radiotherapy targeting for bladder-preserving management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: feasibility and initial outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice M Garcia

    Full Text Available Bladder radiotherapy is a management option for carefully selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, the inability to visualize the tumor site during treatment and normal bladder movement limits targeting accuracy and increases collateral radiation. A means to accurately and reliably target the bladder during radiotherapy is needed.Eighteen consecutive patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T1-T4 elected bladder-preserving treatment with maximal transurethral resection (TUR, radiation and concurrent chemotherapy. All underwent endoscopic placement of 24-K gold fiducial markers modified with micro-tines (70 [2.9×0.9 mm.]; 19 [2.1×0.7 mm. into healthy submucosa 5-10 mm. from the resection margin, using custom-made coaxial needles. Marker migration was assessed for with intra-op bladder-filling cystogram and measurement of distance between markers. Set-up error and marker retention through completion of radiotherapy was confirmed by on-table portal imaging.Between 1/2007 and 7/2012, a total of 89 markers (3-5 per tumor site were placed into 18 patients of mean age 73.6 years. Two patients elected cystectomy before starting treatment; 16/18 completed chemo-radiotherapy. All (100% markers were visible with all on-table (portal, cone-beam CT, fluoroscopy, plain-film, and CT-scan imaging. In two patients, 1 of 4 markers placed at the tumor site fell-out (voided during the second half of radiotherapy. All other markers (80/82, 98% were present through the end of radio-therapy. No intraoperative (e.g. uncontrolled bleeding, collateral injury or post-operative complications (e.g. stone formation, urinary tract infection, post-TUR hematuria >48 hours occurred. Use of micro-tined fiducial tumor-site markers afforded a 2 to 6-fold reduction in bladder-area targeted with high-dose radiation.Placement of the micro-tined fiducial markers into the bladder was feasible and associated with excellent retention-rate and no complications

  10. SU-F-T-660: Evaluating the Benefit of Using Dual-Function Fiducial Markers for In-Situ Delivery of Radiosenistizing Gold Nanoparticles During Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMansour, S; Chin, J; Sajo, E; Ngwa, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dual-function fiducials loaded with radiosensitizers, like gold nanoparticles (GNP), offer an innovative approach for ensuring geometric accuracy during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and significantly increasing therapeutic efficacy due to controlled in-situ release of the radiosensitizers. This study retrospectively investigates the dosimetric benefit of using up to two such dual-function fiducial markers instead of traditional single function fiducials during IGRT. Methods: A computational code was developed to investigate the dosimetric benefit for 10 real patient tumor volumes of up to 6.5 cm diameter. The intra-tumoral space-time biodistribution of the GNP was modeled as in previous studies based on Fick’s second law. The corresponding dose-enhancement for each tumor voxel due to the GNP was also calculated for clinical 6MV beam configurations. Various loading concentrations (25–50 mg/g) were studied, as a function of GNP size, to determine potential for clinically significant dose enhancement. The time between initial implantation of dual-function fiducials to the beginning of radiotherapy was assumed to be 14 days as typical for many clinics. Results: A single dual-function fiducial could achieve at least a DEF of 1.2 for patients with tumors less than 1.4 cm diameter after 14 days. Replacing two single function fiducials with dual-function ones at the same locations achieved at least the required minimal DEF for tumors that are 2 cm diameter in 3 patients. The results also revealed dosimetrically better fiducial locations which could enable significant DEF when using one or two dual function fiducials. 2 nm sizes showed the most feasibility. Conclusion: The results highlight the potential of tumor sub-volume radiation boosting using GNP released from fiducials, and the ability to customize the DEF throughout the tumor by using two dual-function fiducials, varying the initial concentration and nanoparticle size. The results demonstrate

  11. SU-F-T-660: Evaluating the Benefit of Using Dual-Function Fiducial Markers for In-Situ Delivery of Radiosenistizing Gold Nanoparticles During Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlMansour, S; Chin, J; Sajo, E; Ngwa, W [University Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dual-function fiducials loaded with radiosensitizers, like gold nanoparticles (GNP), offer an innovative approach for ensuring geometric accuracy during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and significantly increasing therapeutic efficacy due to controlled in-situ release of the radiosensitizers. This study retrospectively investigates the dosimetric benefit of using up to two such dual-function fiducial markers instead of traditional single function fiducials during IGRT. Methods: A computational code was developed to investigate the dosimetric benefit for 10 real patient tumor volumes of up to 6.5 cm diameter. The intra-tumoral space-time biodistribution of the GNP was modeled as in previous studies based on Fick’s second law. The corresponding dose-enhancement for each tumor voxel due to the GNP was also calculated for clinical 6MV beam configurations. Various loading concentrations (25–50 mg/g) were studied, as a function of GNP size, to determine potential for clinically significant dose enhancement. The time between initial implantation of dual-function fiducials to the beginning of radiotherapy was assumed to be 14 days as typical for many clinics. Results: A single dual-function fiducial could achieve at least a DEF of 1.2 for patients with tumors less than 1.4 cm diameter after 14 days. Replacing two single function fiducials with dual-function ones at the same locations achieved at least the required minimal DEF for tumors that are 2 cm diameter in 3 patients. The results also revealed dosimetrically better fiducial locations which could enable significant DEF when using one or two dual function fiducials. 2 nm sizes showed the most feasibility. Conclusion: The results highlight the potential of tumor sub-volume radiation boosting using GNP released from fiducials, and the ability to customize the DEF throughout the tumor by using two dual-function fiducials, varying the initial concentration and nanoparticle size. The results demonstrate

  12. Identifying indications for percutaneous (PTC) vs. endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)- guided "rendezvous" procedure in biliary obstruction and incomplete endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J G; Finkelmeier, F; Friedrich-Rust, M; Kronenberger, B; Trojan, J; Zeuzem, S; Sarrazin, C

    2014-10-01

    The variety of rendezvous (RV) procedures has recently been extended by EUS- and PTCD-guided procedures as a complementary means to conventional ERCP. We have identified indication criteria and the potential of biliary PTCD-guided vs. EUS-guided RV. Consecutive patients with bile duct obstruction who underwent RV were included. In all, ERCP alone was unable to achieve treatment success. Indication, technical success, and outcome in PTCD- vs. EUS-guided RV were retrospectively compared to identify criteria that indicate preference of RV technique. Site of obstruction, clinical scenario (stenosis with abscess vs. no abscess) and reason for previous failure of ERC were evaluated. In 32 patients, three different indications for RV procedures were identified: First, a one-step access to assist in failed ERCP (type 1, intra-ductal RV); second, temporary drainage for prolonged treatment of complex biliary disease (type 2, intra-ductal RV), and drainage of cholangio-abscess with re-establishing bile outflow (type 3, intra-abscess RV). Indication of PTCD- vs. EUS-guided rendezvous was competitive in type 1, but exclusive in favor of PTCD in types 2 and 3. The site of biliary obstruction indicated the anatomic location of RV procedures. This classification may help to define inclusion criteria for prospective studies on biliary RV procedures. Choice of therapeutic strategy depends on the anatomic location of the biliary obstruction and the type of the biliary lesion. PTCD-guided RV might improve outcome in cholangio-abscess. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. EUS-guided gastroenterostomy is comparable to enteral stenting with fewer re-interventions in malignant gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-I; Itoi, Takao; Baron, Todd H; Nieto, Jose; Haito-Chavez, Yamile; Grimm, Ian S; Ismail, Amr; Ngamruenphong, Saowanee; Bukhari, Majidah; Hajiyeva, Gulara; Alawad, Ahmad S; Kumbhari, Vivek; Khashab, Mouen A

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic enteral stenting (ES) in malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is limited by high rates of stent obstruction. EUS-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) is a novel procedure that potentially offers sustained patency without tumor ingrowth/overgrowth. The aim of this study is to compare EUS-GE with ES in terms of (1) symptom recurrence and need for re-intervention, (2) technical success (proper stent positioning as determined via endoscopy and fluoroscopy), (3) clinical success (ability to tolerate oral intake without vomiting), and (4) procedure-related adverse events (AEs). Multicenter retrospective study of all consecutive patients who underwent either EUS-GE at four centers between 2013 and 2015 or ES at one center between 2008 and 2010. A total of 82 patients (mean age 66-years ± 13.5 and 40.2% female) were identified: 30 in EUS-GE and 52 in ES. Technical and clinical success was not significantly different: 86.7% EUS-GE versus 94.2% ES (p = 0.2) and 83.3% EUS-GE versus 67.3% ES (p = 0.12), respectively. Symptom recurrence and need for re-intervention, however, was significantly lower in the EUS-GE group (4.0 vs. 28.6%, (p = 0.015). Post-procedure mean length of hospitalization was comparable at 11.3 days ± 6.6 for EUS-GE versus 9.5 days ± 8.3 for ES (p = 0.3). Rates and severity of AEs (as per the ASGE lexicon) were also similar (16.7 vs. 11.5%, p = 0.5). On multivariable analysis, ES was independently associated with need for re-intervention (OR 12.8, p = 0.027). EUS-GE may be ideal for malignant GOO with comparable effectiveness and safety to ES while being associated with fewer symptom recurrence and requirements for re-intervention.

  14. Clinical outcomes of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) with gold fiducial vaginal cuff markers for high-risk endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroe, Alan T.; Peddada, Anuj V.; Pikaart, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To report two year clinical outcomes of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to the vaginal cuff and pelvic lymph nodes in a series of high-risk endometrial cancer patients. Methods . Twenty-six consecutive high-risk endometrial cancer patients requiring adjuvant radiation to the vaginal cuff and regional lymph nodes were treated with vaginal cuff fiducial-based IGRT. Seventeen (65%) received sequential chemotherapy, most commonly with a sandwich technique. Brachytherapy followed external radiation in 11 patients to a median dose of 18 Gy in 3 fractions. The median external beam dose delivered was 47.5 Gy in 25 fractions. Results. All 656 fractions were successfully imaged and treated. The median overall translational shift required for correction was 9.1 mm (standard deviation, 5.2 mm) relative to clinical set-up with skin tattoos. Shifts of 1 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2 cm or greater were performed in 43%, 14%, and 4% of patients, respectively. Acute grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity occurred in eight patients (30%) and grade 3 toxicity occurred in one. At two years, there have been no local or regional failures and actuarial overall survival is 95%. Conclusion. Daily image guidance for high-risk endometrial cancer results in a low incidence of acute GI/genitourinary (GU) toxicity with uncompromised tumor control at two years. Vaginal cuff translations can be substantial and may possibly result in underdosing if not properly considered

  15. Clinical outcomes of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) with gold fiducial vaginal cuff markers for high-risk endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Alan T.; Peddada, Anuj V. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Penrose Cancer Center, Colorado Springs (United States); Pikaart, Dirk [Dept. of Gynecologic Oncology, Penrose Cancer Center, Colorado Springs (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Objective. To report two year clinical outcomes of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to the vaginal cuff and pelvic lymph nodes in a series of high-risk endometrial cancer patients. Methods . Twenty-six consecutive high-risk endometrial cancer patients requiring adjuvant radiation to the vaginal cuff and regional lymph nodes were treated with vaginal cuff fiducial-based IGRT. Seventeen (65%) received sequential chemotherapy, most commonly with a sandwich technique. Brachytherapy followed external radiation in 11 patients to a median dose of 18 Gy in 3 fractions. The median external beam dose delivered was 47.5 Gy in 25 fractions. Results. All 656 fractions were successfully imaged and treated. The median overall translational shift required for correction was 9.1 mm (standard deviation, 5.2 mm) relative to clinical set-up with skin tattoos. Shifts of 1 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2 cm or greater were performed in 43%, 14%, and 4% of patients, respectively. Acute grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity occurred in eight patients (30%) and grade 3 toxicity occurred in one. At two years, there have been no local or regional failures and actuarial overall survival is 95%. Conclusion. Daily image guidance for high-risk endometrial cancer results in a low incidence of acute GI/genitourinary (GU) toxicity with uncompromised tumor control at two years. Vaginal cuff translations can be substantial and may possibly result in underdosing if not properly considered.

  16. LCLS Undulator Fiducialization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    This note presents the LCLS undulator fiducialization plan. The undulators will be fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at SLAC. The note begins by summarizing the requirements for the fiducialization. A brief discussion of the measurement equipment is presented, followed by the methods used to perform the fiducialization and check the results. This is followed by the detailed fiducialization plan in which each step is enumerated. Finally, the measurement results and data storage format are presented.

  17. Initial experience with a novel EUS-guided core biopsy needle (SharkCore): results of a large North American multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Christopher J.; Kolb, Jennifer M.; Benias, Petros C.; Shah, Hiral; Shah, Shashin; Haluszka, Oleh; Maranki, Jennifer; Sharzehi, Kaveh; Lam, Eric; Gordon, Stuart R.; Hyder, Sarah M.; Kaimakliotis, Pavlos Z.; Allaparthi, Satya B.; Gress, Frank G.; Sethi, Amrita; Shah, Ashish R.; Nieto, Jose; Kaul, Vivek; Kothari, Shivangi; Kothari, Truptesh H.; Ho, Sammy; Izzy, Manhal J.; Sharma, Neil R.; Watson, Rabindra R.; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Pleskow, Douglas K.; Berzin, Tyler M.; Sawhney, Mandeep; Aljahdi, Emad; Ryou, Marvin; Wong, Clarence K.; Gupta, Parantap; Yang, Dennis; Gonzalez, Susana; Adler, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: The ability to safely and effectively obtain sufficient tissue for pathologic evaluation by using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guidance remains a challenge. Novel designs in EUS needles may provide for improved ability to obtain such core biopsies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of core biopsy specimens obtained using a novel EUS needle specifically designed to obtain core biopsies. Patients and methods: Multicenter retrospective review of all EUS-guided fine-needle biopsies obtained using a novel biopsy needle (SharkCore FNB needle, Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland). Data regarding patient demographics, lesion type/location, technical parameters, and diagnostic yield was obtained. Results: A total of 250 lesions were biopsied in 226 patients (Median age 66 years; 113 (50 %) male). Median size of all lesions (mm): 26 (2 – 150). Overall, a cytologic diagnosis was rendered in 81 % specimens with a median number of 3 passes. When rapid onsite cytologic evaluation (ROSE) was used, cytologic diagnostic yield was 126/149 (85 %) with a median number of 3 passes; without ROSE, cytologic diagnostic yield was 31/45 (69 %, P = 0.03) with a median number of 3 passes. Overall, a pathologic diagnosis was rendered in 130/147 (88 %) specimens with a median number of 2 passes. Pathologic diagnostic yield for specific lesion types: pancreas 70/81 (86 %), subepithelial lesion 13/15 (87 %), lymph node 26/28 (93 %). Ten patients (10/226, 4 %) experienced adverse events: 4 acute pancreatitis, 5 pain, 1 fever/cholangitis. Conclusions: Initial experience with a novel EUS core biopsy needle demonstrates excellent pathologic diagnostic yield with a minimum number of passes. PMID:27652304

  18. Evaluation of a novel, hybrid model (Mumbai EUS II) for stepwise teaching and training in EUS-guided biliary drainage and rendezvous procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Vinay; Itoi, Takao; Pausawasdi, Nonthalee; Khashab, Mouen A; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Sun, Siyu; Park, Do Hyun; Iwashita, Takuji; Teoh, Anthony Y B; Maydeo, Amit P; Ho, Khek Yu

    2017-11-01

    EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) and rendezvous (EUS-RV) are acceptable rescue options for patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, there are limited training opportunities at most centers owing to low case volumes. The existing models do not replicate the difficulties encountered during EUS-BD. We aimed to develop and validate a model for stepwise learning of EUS-BD and EUS-RV, which replicates the actual EUS-BD procedures.  A hybrid model was created utilizing pig esophagus and stomach, with a synthetic duodenum and biliary system. The model was objectively assessed on a grade of 1 - 4 by two experts. Twenty-eight trainees were given initial training with didactic lectures and live procedures. This was followed by hands-on training in EUS-BD and EUS-RV on the hybrid model. Trainees were assessed for objective criteria of technical difficulties.  Both the experts graded the model as very good or above for all parameters. All trainees could complete the requisite steps of EUS-BD and EUS-RV in a mean time of 11 minutes (8 - 18 minutes). Thirty-six technical difficulties were noted during the training (wrong scope position, 13; incorrect duct puncture, 12; guidewire related problems, 11). Technical difficulties peaked for EUS-RV, followed by hepaticogastrostomy (HGS) and choledochoduodenostomy (CDS) (20, 9, and 7, P  = 0.001). At 10 days follow-up, nine of 28 trainees had successfully performed three EUS-RV and seven EUS-BD procedures independently.  The Mumbai EUS II hybrid model replicates situations encountered during EUS-RV and EUS-BD. Stepwise mentoring improves the chances of success in EUS-RV and EUS-BD procedures.

  19. High and low negative pressure suction techniques in EUS-guided fine-needle tissue acquisition by using 25-gauge needles: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Taiki; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Ichiro; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Katanuma, Akio; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Doi, Shinpei; Yamada, Reiko; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2014-12-01

    EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) has a high diagnostic accuracy for pancreatic diseases. However, although most reports have typically focused on cytology, histological tissue quality has rarely been investigated. The effectiveness of EUS-FNA combined with high negative pressure (HNP) suction was recently indicated for tissue acquisition, but has not thus far been tested in a prospective, randomized clinical trial. To evaluate the adequacy of EUS-FNA with HNP for the histological diagnosis of pancreatic lesions by using 25-gauge needles. Prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled crossover trial. Seven tertiary referral centers. Patients referred for EUS-FNA of pancreatic solid lesions. From July 2011 to April 2012, 90 patients underwent EUS-FNA of pancreatic solid masses by using normal negative pressure (NNP) and HNP with 2 respective passes. The order of the passes was randomized, and the sample adequacy, quality, and histology were evaluated by a single expert pathologist. EUS-FNA by using NNP and HNP. The adequacy of tissue acquisition and the accuracy of histological diagnoses made by using the EUS-FNA technique with HNP. We found that 72.2% (65/90) and 90% (81/90) of the specimens obtained using NNP and HNP, respectively, were adequate for histological diagnosis (P = .0003, McNemar test). For 73.3% (66/90) and 82.2% (74/90) of the specimens obtained by using NNP and HNP, respectively, an accurate diagnosis was achieved (P = .06, McNemar test). Pancreatitis developed in 1 patient after this procedure, which subsided with conservative therapy. This was a single-blinded, crossover study. Biopsy procedures that combine the EUS-FNA with HNP techniques are superior to EUS-FNA with NNP procedures for tissue acquisition. ( UMIN000005939.). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. EUS-guided portal pressure gradient measurement with a novel 25-gauge needle device versus standard transjugular approach: a comparison animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jason Y; Samarasena, Jason B; Tsujino, Takeshi; Chang, Kenneth J

    2016-08-01

    Portal hypertension (PH) is a serious adverse event of liver cirrhosis. The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) accurately reflects the degree of PH and is the single best prognostic factor in liver disease. Currently, portal pressure gradient (PPG) measurement is performed at interventional radiology (IR) with a standard transjugular approach requiring radiation and intravenous contrast. The aim of this study was to develop a novel EUS-guided system using a 25G FNA needle and compact manometer to directly measure PPG and to evaluate its performance and clinical feasibility. Experiments were performed in 3 swine that were under general anesthesia. Manometry was performed in venous (baseline and PH) and arterial (aorta) systems. The PH model was created by rapid Dextran-40 infusion peripherally. Under EUS guidance a 25G FNA needle with attached manometer was used to puncture (transgastric-transhepatic approach) and measure pressures in the portal vein, right hepatic vein (RHV), inferior vena cava (IVC), and aorta. With the IR approach, RHV (free and wedged), IVC, and aorta pressure were measured with an occlusion balloon. Pressure correlation was divided into 3 groups; low pressure (baseline), medium pressure (noncirrhotic portal hypertensive model), and high pressure (arterial). Correlation between the 2 methods of measurement was charted in scatter plots, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) was calculated. EUS identification, access, and manometry was successful in all targeted vessels. There was excellent correlation (R, .985-.99) between EUS and IR methods in all pressure ranges. No adverse event occurred. This novel technique of EUS-PPG measurement using a 25G needle and novel manometer was feasible and demonstrated excellent correlation with the standard transjugular method throughout low, medium, and high pressure ranges. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Evaluation of a novel, hybrid model (Mumbai EUS II) for stepwise teaching and training in EUS-guided biliary drainage and rendezvous procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Vinay; Itoi, Takao; Pausawasdi, Nonthalee; Khashab, Mouen A.; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Sun, Siyu; Park, Do Hyun; Iwashita, Takuji; Teoh, Anthony Y. B.; Maydeo, Amit P.; Ho, Khek Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims  EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) and rendezvous (EUS-RV) are acceptable rescue options for patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, there are limited training opportunities at most centers owing to low case volumes. The existing models do not replicate the difficulties encountered during EUS-BD. We aimed to develop and validate a model for stepwise learning of EUS-BD and EUS-RV, which replicates the actual EUS-BD procedures. Methods  A hybrid model was created utilizing pig esophagus and stomach, with a synthetic duodenum and biliary system. The model was objectively assessed on a grade of 1 – 4 by two experts. Twenty-eight trainees were given initial training with didactic lectures and live procedures. This was followed by hands-on training in EUS-BD and EUS-RV on the hybrid model. Trainees were assessed for objective criteria of technical difficulties. Results  Both the experts graded the model as very good or above for all parameters. All trainees could complete the requisite steps of EUS-BD and EUS-RV in a mean time of 11 minutes (8 – 18 minutes). Thirty-six technical difficulties were noted during the training (wrong scope position, 13; incorrect duct puncture, 12; guidewire related problems, 11). Technical difficulties peaked for EUS-RV, followed by hepaticogastrostomy (HGS) and choledochoduodenostomy (CDS) (20, 9, and 7, P  = 0.001). At 10 days follow-up, nine of 28 trainees had successfully performed three EUS-RV and seven EUS-BD procedures independently. Conclusions  The Mumbai EUS II hybrid model replicates situations encountered during EUS-RV and EUS-BD. Stepwise mentoring improves the chances of success in EUS-RV and EUS-BD procedures. PMID:29250585

  2. Fluorescence cytology with 5-aminolevulinic acid in EUS-guided FNA as a method for differentiating between malignant and benign lesions (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Uchida, Kazushige; Shimatani, Masaaki; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kato, Kota; Ohe, Chisato; Uemura, Yoshiko; Kaibori, Masaki; Kwon, A-Hon; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) has been increasingly performed to obtain specimens for the pathological evaluation of patients with GI and pancreaticobiliary masses as well as lymphadenopathies of unknown origin. Photodynamic diagnosis by using 5-aminolebulinic acid (ALA) has been reported to be useful for enabling the visual differentiation between malignant and normal tissue in various cancers. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fluorescence cytology with ALA in EUS-FNA. A prospective study. A single center. A total of 28 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA for the pathological diagnosis of a pancreaticobiliary mass lesion or intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy of unknown origin. Patients were orally administered ALA 3 to 6 hours before EUS-FNA. The sample was obtained via EUS-FNA for fluorescence cytology and conventional cytology. A single gastroenterologist performed the fluorescence cytology by using fluorescence microscopy after the procedure, independently of the conventional cytology by pathologists. The accuracy of fluorescence cytology with ALA in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions by comparing the results of fluorescence cytology with the final diagnosis. Of the 28 patients included in the study, 22 were considered as having malignant lesions and 6 patients as having benign lesions. Fluorescence cytology could correctly discriminate between benign and malignant lesions in all patients. Therefore, both the sensitivity and specificity of fluorescence cytology were 100% in our study. Fluorescence cytology was performed by only 1 gastroenterologist with a small number of patients. Fluorescence cytology with ALA in EUS-FNA may be an effective and simple method for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality of Life after post-prostatectomy intensity modulated radiation therapy to the prostate bed with or without the use of gold fiducial markers for image guidance or higher total radiotherapy doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuodeh, Yazan A; Naghavi, Arash O; Juan, Tzu-Hua; Ma, Zhenjun; Wilder, Richard B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate quality of life (QoL) after post-prostatectomy intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the "adjuvant" setting starting within 4 months of radical prostatectomy for adverse features; and "salvage" setting for a PSA≥0.2ng/mL. Retrospective review of 130 patients who underwent IMRT to the prostate bed±gold fiducial marker placement for image guidance to 64.8-72.0Gy (median, 70.2Gy) between 2004 and 2013. Higher doses were defined as 70.2-72.0Gy and lower doses were defined as 64.8-68.4Gy. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was given to 4/48 (8%) adjuvant patients and 9/82 (11%) salvage patients. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26-bowel (EPIC-26-bowel) questionnaires were used to assess urinary, sexual, and bowel QoL, respectively. Median follow-up was 46 months. There were better urinary (p=0.03) and sexual (p=0.002) QoL scores with adjuvant IMRT relative to salvage IMRT. The use of prostate bed fiducial markers did not significantly affect urinary, sexual, or bowel QoL (p=0.39, p=0.49, and p=0.40, respectively). Higher total radiotherapy doses did not significantly affect urinary, sexual, or bowel QoL (p=0.21, p=0.61, and p=0.36, respectively). There was no significant change in urinary, sexual, and bowel sexual QoL with post-prostatectomy IMRT regardless of whether prostate bed fiducial markers or higher total radiotherapy doses were used. QoL with IMRT in the present study compares favorably with prior reports for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  4. Multimodality guidance for accurate bronchoscopic insertion of fiducial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfort, Daniel P; Siva, Shankar; Kron, Tomas; Chee, Raphael R; Ruben, Jeremy D; Ball, David L; Irving, Louis B

    2015-02-01

    Fiducial markers act as visible surrogates of tumor position during image-guided radiotherapy. Marker placement has been attempted percutaneously but is associated with high rates of pneumothorax and chest drain placement. Patients undergoing radical radiation treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer underwent bronchoscopic implantation of gold fiducials using radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) with virtual bronchoscopy and fluoroscopic guidance to achieve tumor localization and placement within/adjacent to peripheral lung tumors. For tumors not localized using radial EBUS, fiducial placement was achieved by electromagnetic navigation to the vicinity of the tumor. Eighteen fiducials were placed to mark 16 lesions in 15 patients. In nine patients (60%), fiducials were implanted at the time of diagnostic bronchoscopy. No procedural complications occurred. EBUS localization allowed marker implantation within the target lesion in 12 cases. In four lesions, electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy-guided implantation achieved a median fiducial-lesion distance of 6 mm (mean 12 mm). No marker migration occurred after the implantation of two-band markers; however, early migration was observed in two of eight (25%) of the smaller linear fiducials. No migration during the course of radiation therapy was observed. Fiducial marker placement is easily and safely performed bronchoscopically, including at the time of diagnostic bronchoscopy. Marker geometry appears important in stability of bronchoscopically inserted fiducials. Future studies are required to confirm the optimal marker size, geometry, and spatial relationship with the target lesion.

  5. LCLS Undulator Tuning And Fiducialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Zachary; Kaplounenko, Vsevolod; Levashov, Yury; Weidemann, Achim

    2007-01-01

    The LCLS project at SLAC requires 40 undulators: 33 in the beam line, 6 spares, and one reference undulator. A new facility was constructed at SLAC for tuning and fiducializing the undulators. The throughput of the facility must be approximately one undulator per week. The undulator tuning has been partially automated. Fiducialization techniques have been devised. The new facility, the tuning techniques, and the fiducialization techniques will be discussed

  6. Quantification and comparison of visibility and image artifacts of a new liquid fiducial marker in a lung phantom for image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherman Rydhög, Jonas, E-mail: per.jonas.scherman.rydhoeg@regionh.dk; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, 3994, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Irming Jølck, Rasmus; Andresen, Thomas Lars [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Center for Nanomedicine and Theranostics, Technical University of Denmark, Building 423, Kongens Lyngby 2800 (Denmark)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A new biodegradable liquid fiducial marker was devised to allow for easy insertion in lung tumors using thin needles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visibility of the liquid fiducial markers for image-guided radiation therapy and compare to existing solid fiducial markers and to one existing liquid fiducial marker currently commercially available. Methods: Fiducial marker visibility was quantified in terms of contrast to noise ratio (CNR) on planar kilovoltage x-ray images in a thorax phantom for different concentrations of the radio-opaque component of the new liquid fiducial marker, four solid fiducial markers, and one existing liquid fiducial marker. Additionally, the image artifacts produced on computer tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) of all fiducial markers were quantified. Results: The authors found that the new liquid fiducial marker with the highest concentration of the radio-opaque component had a CNR > 2.05 for 62/63 exposures, which compared favorably to the existing solid fiducial markers and to the existing liquid fiducial marker evaluated. On CT and CBCT, the new liquid fiducial marker with the highest concentration produced lower streaking index artifact (30 and 14, respectively) than the solid gold markers (113 and 20, respectively) and the existing liquid fiducial marker (39 and 20, respectively). The size of the image artifact was larger for all of the liquid fiducial markers compared to the solid fiducial markers because of their larger physical size. Conclusions: The visibility and the image artifacts produced by the new liquid fiducial markers were comparable to existing solid fiducial markers and the existing liquid fiducial marker. The authors conclude that the new liquid fiducial marker represents an alternative to the fiducial markers tested.

  7. The Magnet Fiducialization Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    Magnets in accelerator beamlines have, for the most part, been made with ferromagnetic poles and traditionally these pole surfaces have been used as the references for external alignment aids, tooling balls, CERN sockets and so on. This practice assumes that the magnetic field is well-defined by the poles (which fails in the presence of saturation). It also fails in the case of superconducting magnets, which have no tangible poles. Other difficulties are well-known to those working in the field: the poles of an iron dipole magnet are never perfectly flat, or perfectly parallel. Where, then, is the magnetic mid-plane? The corresponding problem for iron quadrupoles, sextupoles etc, is that there is no unique inscribed circle that is tangent to more than three of these poles. The magnetic axis is then difficult to define. The greater the precision that is sought in the alignment, the more apparent these problems become. The answer, I believe, is to use magnetic field measurements to establish the references. Most magnets undergo some magnetic measurement before use--they certainly should--and so the opportunity is there to combine fiducialization with magnetic field definition. A substantial part of the Final Focus Test Beam program at SLAC will address this problem. Meanwhile I would like to use the work of some other SLAC colleagues to illustrate one approach. As part of the installation of the new SLD detector at the Linear Collider, a pair of superconducting triplet quadrupoles will be added as the final focusing elements before the detector. Fiducials (tooling balls) on the outside of the cryostats are referenced to the magnetic axis of the quads in a set-up as shown in Fig. 1. The probe P is a small rotating coil in a warm-bore insert in the quadrupole. Its center of rotation, X p , Y p , can be found by a transit focused on an illuminated target attached to the coil, (see Fig. 2). Analysis of the dipole component of the coil output in a local PC gives the

  8. Using fiducial markers in the prostate bed in postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy improves accuracy over surgical clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, I; Carrier, J-F; Beauchemin, M-C; Béliveau-Nadeau, D; Delouya, G; Taussky, D

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the stability of fiducial markers in the prostate bed and compared their use to surgical clips. In this study, 3-4 gold fiducial markers were transrectally implanted in the prostate bed of 14 patients. The stability of the fiducial markers position (fiducial markers fixity) over an EBRT course was assessed. Furthermore, the advantages of the fiducial markers compared to the surgical clips were assessed and the interobserver variation between the two technologies was compared. The mean fiducial marker migration during a course of EBRT was small with 1.2 mm (SD ± 0.8 mm). Compared to fiducial markers, the matches with surgical clips were mismatched ≥ 2 mm in 68% of treatments. This discrepancy of > 2 mm was on average 3.7 ± 1.3 mm. There was less interobserver variability for matching of fiducial markers (0.8 ± 0.7 mm) than for surgical clips (2.0 ± 1.6 mm). Fiducial markers showed less interobserver variability in matching and less variation in position than surgical clips. Fiducial markers could ultimately help in reducing treatment margins.

  9. Fiducial inference - A Neyman-Pearson interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, D; VonderLinden, W; Dose,; Fischer, R; Preuss, R

    1999-01-01

    Fisher's fiducial argument is a tool for deriving inferences in the form of a probability distribution on the parameter space, not based on Bayes's Theorem. Lindley established that in exceptional situations fiducial inferences coincide with posterior distributions; in the other situations fiducial

  10. Assessment of prostatic fiducial marker introduction: patient morbidity, staff satisfaction and improved treatment field placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Simon; Lehman, Margot; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet; Glyde, Alan; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Nicol, David

    2011-01-01

    Increased accuracy when using fiducial markers for prostate localisation is well documented. This project aimed to establish the improvement in accuracy when using gold markers for daily prostate localisation, to assess patient satisfaction and morbidity from the transrectal implantation of gold seed markers and establish staff attitudes towards the newly introduced processes. Twenty patients with prostate cancer had three gold seeds implanted into the base, apex and central zone of the prostate transrectally using ultrasound guidance. Surveys were conducted to assess staff and patient satisfaction with the process of gold seed localisation. The gold markers were used to localise the prostate on a daily basis using megavoltage electronic portal imaging. Measurements were taken to establish the increase in accuracy when using gold fiducial markers compared with using the surrounding bony anatomy. Inter-fraction motion (1 standard deviation (SD)) of the fiducial markers was 2.20, 4.28 and 4.27 mm in the LR, SI and AP directions, respectively. Intra-fraction prostate motion (1 SD) was measured as 0.8 mm LR, 1.1 mm SI and 2.0 mm AP. The patient survey showed that the insertion and associated side effects were acceptable, with 5% of patients stating that the seed insertion was worse than the prostate biopsy, and 23.1% of patients experienced short duration (1–2 days) haematuria. The staff survey showed that daily online image guidance was achievable without affecting patient throughput. Thirty percent of treatment staff believed that performing online daily localisation did not add any extra time to a standard treatment, and the remaining 70% thought that the added time was minimal (2–4 min). Gold fiducial markers are an accurate, reliable and tolerable method of daily prostate localisation.

  11. Percutaneous fiducial marker placement prior to stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Kengo; Shimohira, Masashi; Murai, Taro; Nishimura, Junichi; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Hashizume, Takuya; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our initial experience with a gold flexible linear fiducial marker and to evaluate the safety and technical and clinical efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy using this marker for malignant liver tumors. Between July 2012 and February 2015, 18 patients underwent percutaneous fiducial marker placement before stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors. We evaluated the technical and clinical success rates of the procedure and the associated complications. Technical success was defined as successful placement of the fiducial marker at the target site, and clinical success was defined as the completion of stereotactic body radiotherapy without the marker dropping out of position. All 18 fiducial markers were placed successfully, so the technical success rate was 100% (18/18). All 18 patients were able to undergo stereotactic body radiotherapy without marker migration. Thus, the clinical success rate was 100% (18/18). Slight pneumothorax occurred as a minor complication in one case. No major complications such as coil migration or bleeding were observed. The examined percutaneous fiducial marker was safely placed in the liver and appeared to be useful for stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors

  12. MRI-alone radiation therapy planning for prostate cancer: Automatic fiducial marker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Mitra, Jhimli; Rivest-Hénault, David; Fazlollahi, Amir; Fripp, Jurgen; Dowling, Jason A.; Stanwell, Peter; Pichler, Peter; Sun, Jidi; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of radiation therapy treatment planning using substitute computed tomography (sCT) generated from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) has been demonstrated by a number of research groups. One challenge with an MRI-alone workflow is the accurate identification of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers, which are frequently used for prostate localization prior to each dose delivery fraction. This paper investigates a template-matching approach for the detection of these seeds in MRI. Methods: Two different gradient echo T1 and T2* weighted MRI sequences were acquired from fifteen prostate cancer patients and evaluated for seed detection. For training, seed templates from manual contours were selected in a spectral clustering manifold learning framework. This aids in clustering “similar” gold fiducial markers together. The marker with the minimum distance to a cluster centroid was selected as the representative template of that cluster during training. During testing, Gaussian mixture modeling followed by a Markovian model was used in automatic detection of the probable candidates. The probable candidates were rigidly registered to the templates identified from spectral clustering, and a similarity metric is computed for ranking and detection. Results: A fiducial detection accuracy of 95% was obtained compared to manual observations. Expert radiation therapist observers were able to correctly identify all three implanted seeds on 11 of the 15 scans (the proposed method correctly identified all seeds on 10 of the 15). Conclusions: An novel automatic framework for gold fiducial marker detection in MRI is proposed and evaluated with detection accuracies comparable to manual detection. When radiation therapists are unable to determine the seed location in MRI, they refer back to the planning CT (only available in the existing clinical framework); similarly, an automatic quality control is built into the automatic software to ensure that all gold

  13. MRI-alone radiation therapy planning for prostate cancer: Automatic fiducial marker detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, Soumya, E-mail: soumya.ghose@case.edu; Mitra, Jhimli [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, The Australian e-Health & Research Centre, Herston, QLD 4029 (Australia); Rivest-Hénault, David; Fazlollahi, Amir; Fripp, Jurgen; Dowling, Jason A. [CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, The Australian e-Health & Research Centre, Herston, QLD 4029 (Australia); Stanwell, Peter [School of health sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Pichler, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cavalry Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2298 (Australia); Sun, Jidi; Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Cavalry Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2298 (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of radiation therapy treatment planning using substitute computed tomography (sCT) generated from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) has been demonstrated by a number of research groups. One challenge with an MRI-alone workflow is the accurate identification of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers, which are frequently used for prostate localization prior to each dose delivery fraction. This paper investigates a template-matching approach for the detection of these seeds in MRI. Methods: Two different gradient echo T1 and T2* weighted MRI sequences were acquired from fifteen prostate cancer patients and evaluated for seed detection. For training, seed templates from manual contours were selected in a spectral clustering manifold learning framework. This aids in clustering “similar” gold fiducial markers together. The marker with the minimum distance to a cluster centroid was selected as the representative template of that cluster during training. During testing, Gaussian mixture modeling followed by a Markovian model was used in automatic detection of the probable candidates. The probable candidates were rigidly registered to the templates identified from spectral clustering, and a similarity metric is computed for ranking and detection. Results: A fiducial detection accuracy of 95% was obtained compared to manual observations. Expert radiation therapist observers were able to correctly identify all three implanted seeds on 11 of the 15 scans (the proposed method correctly identified all seeds on 10 of the 15). Conclusions: An novel automatic framework for gold fiducial marker detection in MRI is proposed and evaluated with detection accuracies comparable to manual detection. When radiation therapists are unable to determine the seed location in MRI, they refer back to the planning CT (only available in the existing clinical framework); similarly, an automatic quality control is built into the automatic software to ensure that all gold

  14. On a laser beam fiducial line application for metrological purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, V.; Budagov, J.; Lyablin, M.; Rusakovich, N.; Sisakyan, A.; Topilin, N.; Khubua, J.; Lasseur, C.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of a collimated one-mode laser beam used as a fiducial line is considered. The technology of an 'extended' laser beam formation and application for a much extended fiducial line is proposed

  15. Technical note: a tool for determining rotational tilt axis with or without fiducial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Atsuko; Fujigaya, Takumi; Itoh, Masayuki; Taguchi, Takahisa; Takano, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    Virtually all reliable TEM tomographic reconstructions in life science depend upon cross-correlating successive images in a tilt-stack, and then using gold nanobeads as fiducial markers for determining the relative image rotation axis. Although the rotational tilt angle is one of the essential parameters affecting the quality of tomographic reconstructions, little is discussed about its determination. We provide here a simple tool based on the property of Fast Fourier Transformation for determining this rotation axis offset angle. Our method uses two publicly-available software packages (IMOD and ImageJ), and can be used on any TEM-based image stack, which is useful for images with poor bead distribution or situations where such beads are not visible. We illustrate this procedure with two different biological samples, one of which is a plunge frozen cryo-sample with fiducials and the other an epon-embedded thin section without fiducials. Prior knowledge of the rotational tilt angle facilitates further processing tomograms. With cross-correlation and the FFT-obtained rotational tilt angle, we reconstructed tomograms, of which the cross-section did not show "arc" distortion. This tool could be easily incorporated into any software for the alignment with or without fiducials.

  16. Prostatic fiducial markers implantation by transrectal ultrasound for adaptive image guided radiotherapy in localized cancer: 7-years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Lacetera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: we present our 7-years’ experience with fiducial gold markers inserted before Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT focusing on our echo-guided technique reporting early and late complications. Material and methods: 78 prostate cancer (PCA patients who underwent fiducial markers placement for adaptive IGRT (period 2007-2014 were selected. Mean patient age was 75 years (range 60-81, mean PSA 7.8 ng/ml (range 3.1-10, clinical stage < T3, mean Gleason Score 6.4 (range 6-7. We recorded early and late complications. Maximum distance between the Clinical Target Volume (CTV and Planning Target Volume (PTV was assessed for each direction and the mean PTV reduction was estimated. Results: we describe in details our echo-guided technique of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers insertion prior to adaptative IGRT. We report rare early toxicity (5-7% grade 1-2, a mean PTV reduction of 37% and a very low late toxicity (only 3.4% bladder G3 and 8% rectal G2 side effects. Conclusion: Our technique of fiducial gold markers implantation for adaptative IGRT is safe and well-tolerated and it resulted helpful to reduce CTV-PTV margin in all cases; the effects on clinical practice seem significant in terms of late toxicity but further investigations are needed with longer follow-up.

  17. SU-F-P-30: Clinical Assessment of Auto Beam-Hold Triggered by Fiducial Localization During Prostate RapidArc Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, P; Chen, Q [Flower Hospital, Sylvania, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the clinical efficacy of auto beam hold during prostate RapidArc delivery, triggered by fiducial localization on kV imaging with a Varian True Beam. Methods: Prostate patients with four gold fiducials were candidates in this study. Daily setup was accomplished by aligning to fiducials using orthogonal kV imaging. During RapidArc delivery, a kV image was automatically acquired with a momentary beam hold every 60 degrees of gantry rotation. The position of each fiducial was identified by a search algorithm and compared to a predetermined 1.4 cm diameter target area. Treatment continued if all the fiducials were within the target area. If any fiducial was outside the target area the beam hold was not released, and the operators determined if the patient needed re-alignment using the daily setup method. Results: Four patients were initially selected. For three patients, the auto beam hold performed seamlessly. In one instance, the system correctly identified misaligned fiducials, stopped treatment, and the patient was re-positioned. The fourth patient had a prosthetic hip which sometimes blocked the fiducials and caused the fiducial search algorithm to fail. The auto beam hold was disabled for this patient and the therapists manually monitored the fiducial positions during treatment. Average delivery time for a 2-arc fraction was increased by 59 seconds. Phantom studies indicated the dose discrepancy related to multiple beam holds is <0.1%. For a plan with 43 fractions, the additional imaging increased dose by an estimated 68 cGy. Conclusion: Automated intrafraction kV imaging can effectively perform auto beam holds due to patient movement, with the exception of prosthetic hip patients. The additional imaging dose and delivery time are clinically acceptable. It may be a cost-effective alternative to Calypso in RapidArc prostate patient delivery. Further study is warranted to explore its feasibility under various clinical conditions.

  18. SU-E-J-37: Feasibility of Utilizing Carbon Fiducials to Increase Localization Accuracy of Lumpectomy Cavity for Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Hieken, T; Mutter, R; Park, S; Yan, E; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy of lumpectomy cavity for partial breast irradiation (PBI). Methods Carbon fiducials were placed intraoperatively in the lumpectomy cavity following resection of breast cancer in 11 patients. The patients were scheduled to receive whole breast irradiation (WBI) with a boost or 3D-conformal PBI. WBI patients were initially setup to skin tattoos using lasers, followed by orthogonal kV on-board-imaging (OBI) matching to bone per clinical practice. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was acquired weekly for offline review. For the boost component of WBI and PBI, patients were setup with lasers, followed by OBI matching to fiducials, with final alignment by CBCT matching to fiducials. Using carbon fiducials as a surrogate for the lumpectomy cavity and CBCT matching to fiducials as the gold standard, setup uncertainties to lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials, and CBCT breast were compared. Results Minimal imaging artifacts were introduced by fiducials on the planning CT and CBCT. The fiducials were sufficiently visible on OBI for online localization. The mean magnitude and standard deviation of setup errors were 8.4mm ± 5.3 mm (n=84), 7.3mm ± 3.7mm (n=87), 2.2mm ± 1.6mm (n=40) and 4.8mm ± 2.6mm (n=87), for lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials and CBCT breast tissue, respectively. Significant migration occurred in one of 39 implanted fiducials in a patient with a large postoperative seroma. Conclusion OBI carbon fiducial-based setup can improve localization accuracy with minimal imaging artifacts. With increased localization accuracy, setup uncertainties can be reduced from 8mm using OBI bone matching to 3mm using OBI fiducial matching for PBI treatment. This work demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy to the lumpectomy cavity for PBI. This may be particularly attractive for localization in the setting of proton therapy and other scenarios

  19. SU-E-J-37: Feasibility of Utilizing Carbon Fiducials to Increase Localization Accuracy of Lumpectomy Cavity for Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Hieken, T; Mutter, R; Park, S; Yan, E; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy of lumpectomy cavity for partial breast irradiation (PBI). Methods Carbon fiducials were placed intraoperatively in the lumpectomy cavity following resection of breast cancer in 11 patients. The patients were scheduled to receive whole breast irradiation (WBI) with a boost or 3D-conformal PBI. WBI patients were initially setup to skin tattoos using lasers, followed by orthogonal kV on-board-imaging (OBI) matching to bone per clinical practice. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was acquired weekly for offline review. For the boost component of WBI and PBI, patients were setup with lasers, followed by OBI matching to fiducials, with final alignment by CBCT matching to fiducials. Using carbon fiducials as a surrogate for the lumpectomy cavity and CBCT matching to fiducials as the gold standard, setup uncertainties to lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials, and CBCT breast were compared. Results Minimal imaging artifacts were introduced by fiducials on the planning CT and CBCT. The fiducials were sufficiently visible on OBI for online localization. The mean magnitude and standard deviation of setup errors were 8.4mm ± 5.3 mm (n=84), 7.3mm ± 3.7mm (n=87), 2.2mm ± 1.6mm (n=40) and 4.8mm ± 2.6mm (n=87), for lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials and CBCT breast tissue, respectively. Significant migration occurred in one of 39 implanted fiducials in a patient with a large postoperative seroma. Conclusion OBI carbon fiducial-based setup can improve localization accuracy with minimal imaging artifacts. With increased localization accuracy, setup uncertainties can be reduced from 8mm using OBI bone matching to 3mm using OBI fiducial matching for PBI treatment. This work demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy to the lumpectomy cavity for PBI. This may be particularly attractive for localization in the setting of proton therapy and other scenarios

  20. Daily online localization using implanted fiducial markers and its impact on planning target volume for carcinoma prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Robin; Nangia, Sapna; Chufal, Kundan S; Ghosh, D; Kaul, Rakesh; Sharma, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study was to assess prostate motion on daily basis with respect to setup and to compare the shifts based on bony anatomy and gold fiducial markers. Gold fiducial markers were inserted in prostate under U/S guidance and daily portal images were taken and compared with digitally reconstructed images, both using bony landmarks and fiducial markers as reference. A dose of 2 MU was given for two orthogonal images daily. The mean and standard deviation of displacement using gold seeds and bone were calculated. Systematic and random errors were generated. The planning target volume (PTV) was calculated using the Van Herk formula. A total of 180 portal images from 10 patients were studied. The mean displacement along x, y and z axes was 1.67 mm, 3.58 mm, and 1.76 mm using fiducial markers and 2.12 mm, 3.47 mm, and 2.09 mm using bony landmarks, respectively. The mean internal organ motion was 1.23 mm (+1.45), 3.11 mm (+2.69 mm); and 1.87 mm (+1.67 mm) along x, y and z axes, respectively. The PTV to account for prostate motion if daily matching was not done was 4.64 mm, 10.41 mm and 4.40 mm along lateral, superoinferior, and anteroposterior directions, respectively. If bony landmarks were used for daily matching, margins of 3.61 mm, 7.31 mm, and 4.72 mm in lateral, superoinferior, and anteroposterior directions should be added to the clinical target volume. Daily alignment using gold fiducial markers is an effective method of localizing prostate displacement. It provides the option of reducing margins, thus limiting normal tissue toxicity and allowing the possibility of dose escalation for better long-term control.

  1. Alternative fiducial markers for Vero real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy: A phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Chul; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of potential fiducial markers consisting of various materials in a Vero real-time tumor-tracking (RTTT) system. In order to determine the applicability of fiducial markers for the Vero RTTT system, we tested various markers consisting of 8 kinds of material (titanium, stainless steel, high-carbon steel, pure steel, copper, silver, tantalum, and gold) with various diameters ranging from 0.3 mm to 1.6 mm and a length of 5 mm. Additionally, a commercial gold coil marker (Visicoil™, IBA dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) of diameter 0.5 mm and length 1 cm was included for evaluation. The radiologic visibility on kV fluoroscopy/kV CT scan images of the fiducial markers was evaluated. The detectability on the RTTT system was tested using a two-dimensional moving phantom (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany), producing sinusoidal motion. The target center's accuracy was evaluated by calculating the deviation of the position of a metal sphere from the center on the dose profile. Dose profiles were measured using Gafchromic EBT2 films (International Specialty Products, NJ, USA). All markers were visible on kV fluoroscopy/kV CT while markers with atomic number ≥ 25.7 were detectable on the Vero RTTT system. All the detected markers showed excellent geometric accuracy.

  2. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  3. Using fiducial markers in the prostate bed in postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy improves accuracy over surgical clips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, I.; Carrier, J.F.; Beauchemin, M.C.; Beliveau-Nadeau, D.; Delouya, G.; Taussky, D. [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hopital Notre-Dame, Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this work was to assess the stability of fiducial markers in the prostate bed and compared their use to surgical clips. In this study, 3-4 gold fiducial markers were transrectally implanted in the prostate bed of 14 patients. The stability of the fiducial markers position (fiducial markers fixity) over an EBRT course was assessed. Furthermore, the advantages of the fiducial markers compared to the surgical clips were assessed and the interobserver variation between the two technologies was compared. The mean fiducial marker migration during a course of EBRT was small with 1.2 mm (SD ± 0.8 mm). Compared to fiducial markers, the matches with surgical clips were mismatched ≥ 2 mm in 68 % of treatments. This discrepancy of > 2 mm was on average 3.7 ± 1.3 mm. There was less interobserver variability for matching of fiducial markers (0.8 ± 0.7 mm) than for surgical clips (2.0 ± 1.6 mm). Fiducial markers showed less interobserver variability in matching and less variation in position than surgical clips. Fiducial markers could ultimately help in reducing treatment margins. (orig.) [German] Es wurde die Stabilitaet von Goldmarkern im Prostatabett untersucht und ihr Nutzen mit dem von Operationsklammern verglichen. Bei 14 untersuchten Patienten wurden 3-4 Goldmarker transrektal in das Prostatabett eingesetzt. Waehrend der Bestrahlung wurde die Stabilitaet der Position der Marker gemessen. Ferner wurden die Vorteile der Goldmarker mit denen der Operationsklammern sowie die Interbeobachtervariation bei beiden verglichen. Die Migration der Goldmarker im Prostatabett war waehrend der Bestrahlung mit einem Durchschnitt von 1,2 mm (Standardabweichung ± 0,8 mm) klein. Wenn man das ''matching'' von Operationsklammern mit dem ''matching'' von Goldmarkern vergleicht, so gab es in 68 % der Bestrahlungen eine Diskrepanz von > 2 mm (durchschnittlich 3,7 ± 1,3 mm). Die Interbeobachtervariation war fuer den Gebrauch von

  4. Dosimetric adaptive IMRT driven by fiducial points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crijns, Wouter; Van Herck, Hans; Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Haustermans, Karin; Slagmolen, Pieter; Maes, Frederik; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy have become standard treatments but are more sensitive to anatomical variations than 3D conformal techniques. To correct for inter- and intrafraction anatomical variations, fast and easy to implement methods are needed. Here, the authors propose a full dosimetric IMRT correction that finds a compromise in-between basic repositioning (the current clinical practice) and full replanning. It simplifies replanning by avoiding a recontouring step and a full dose calculation. It surpasses repositioning by updating the preoptimized fluence and monitor units (MU) using a limited number of fiducial points and a pretreatment (CB)CT. To adapt the fluence the fiducial points were projected in the beam's eye view (BEV). To adapt the MUs, point dose calculation towards the same fiducial points were performed. The proposed method is intrinsically fast and robust, and simple to understand for operators, because of the use of only four fiducial points and the beam data based point dose calculations. Methods: To perform our dosimetric adaptation, two fluence corrections in the BEV are combined with two MU correction steps along the beam's path. (1) A transformation of the fluence map such that it is realigned with the current target geometry. (2) A correction for an unintended scaling of the penumbra margin when the treatment beams scale to the current target size. (3) A correction for the target depth relative to the body contour and (4) a correction for the target distance to the source. The impact of the correction strategy and its individual components was evaluated by simulations on a virtual prostate phantom. This heterogeneous reference phantom was systematically subjected to population based prostate transformations to simulate interfraction variations. Additionally, a patient example illustrated the clinical practice. The correction strategy was evaluated using both dosimetric

  5. Intraprostatic fiducials for image guidance: Workflow implications in a single linac department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, Mark; See, Andrew; Rolfo, Aldo; Medwell, Steve; Joon, Michael Lim; Joon, Daryl Lim; Martin, Jarad; Khoo, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy and implications on workflow of an online correction electronic portal imaging (EPI) protocol utilising bony anatomy in the online environment and an assessment of three implanted gold seed fiducial markers in the offline environment. This paper summarises an initial trial to establish the range of systematic and random errors present in patient set-up for both bony anatomy and fiducial markers, and to calculate optimal clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins. The impact of the introduction of such a technique was also assessed in terms of impact on workflow and resource management in a single machine unit (SMU). Methods and materials: Pre treatment electronic portal images (EPIs) were acquired and bony anatomy was matched with CT derived digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Intervention in field placement was made if field placement fell outside the range of 4 mm on any of the orthogonal axes. In the offline environment the position of the implanted gold seed fiducials was aligned with that of the DRRs. An analysis of set-up error, total error and internal organ motion was then undertaken, with full statistical analysis of systematic and random errors. Results: Eleven patients completed treatment as specified, with 1006 EPIs available for analysis. Treatment times were in the order of 10.4 min. Set-up errors were in the order of 2.7 mm right-left, 2.4 mm sup-inf and 1.6 mm ant-pst. These were reduced to 1.2 mm, 0.7 mm and 0.9 mm respectively utilising an online correction protocol. However there was minimal impact on total error and internal organ motion. Using the data obtained in both the online and offline environments optimal CTV-PTV margins were calculated for correcting to bone, correcting to gold seed fiducials and also the possibility of EPI malfunction. Conclusions: Daily targeting of the prostate is both technically feasible and can be carried out in an efficient and accurate manner. An

  6. A Fiducial Approach to Extremes and Multiple Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandler, Damian V.

    2010-01-01

    Generalized fiducial inference is a powerful tool for many difficult problems. Based on an extension of R. A. Fisher's work, we used generalized fiducial inference for two extreme value problems and a multiple comparison procedure. The first extreme value problem is dealing with the generalized Pareto distribution. The generalized Pareto…

  7. Automated Identification of Fiducial Points on 3D Torso Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas M. Kawale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast reconstruction is an important part of the breast cancer treatment process for many women. Recently, 2D and 3D images have been used by plastic surgeons for evaluating surgical outcomes. Distances between different fiducial points are frequently used as quantitative measures for characterizing breast morphology. Fiducial points can be directly marked on subjects for direct anthropometry, or can be manually marked on images. This paper introduces novel algorithms to automate the identification of fiducial points in 3D images. Automating the process will make measurements of breast morphology more reliable, reducing the inter- and intra-observer bias. Algorithms to identify three fiducial points, the nipples, sternal notch, and umbilicus, are described. The algorithms used for localization of these fiducial points are formulated using a combination of surface curvature and 2D color information. Comparison of the 3D coordinates of automatically detected fiducial points and those identified manually, and geodesic distances between the fiducial points are used to validate algorithm performance. The algorithms reliably identified the location of all three of the fiducial points. We dedicate this article to our late colleague and friend, Dr. Elisabeth K. Beahm. Elisabeth was both a talented plastic surgeon and physician-scientist; we deeply miss her insight and her fellowship.

  8. Assessment of prostate motion during radiotherapy using fiducial markers and CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, J.; Salhani, D.; Yang, H.; Deshaies, Y.; Raymond, Y.; Malone, S.; Esche, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess changes in prostate position during a course of pelvic radiotherapy for prostate cancer using fiducial markers and sequential planning CT scans. Methods and Materials: Three gold seeds are implanted in the apex, base and posterior aspect of the prostate under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance prior to initial simulation. In addition, treatment planning CT scans with 5 mm slices through the prostate are obtained at 0 and 40 Gy. Patients are scanned, simulated and treated with full bladder and are positioned using a standard foam leg support from the knees to the ankles. Prostate movement is assessed by two independent methods: [1] Localization of the fiducial markers using orthogonal simulator films taken just prior to the initial and boost stages of treatment and [2] a three-dimensional reconstruction methodology using CT datasets again obtained prior to the initial and boost stages. In both cases, rigid-body transformations of selected bony landmarks were used to eliminate patient movement between simulations and CT scans. For CT reconstruction, high order polynomial extrapolation and Chebychev multi-domain interpolation methods are employed to determine the coordinates of the fiducial markers. Prostatic movement, between initial and boost imaging, is estimated from the variance of the position of the corresponding seeds. Results: At present, seed data is available for sixty (60) patients. An additional nineteen (19) patients were excluded because of suspected seed migration > 3.0 mm or a localization uncertainty > 1.5 mm. The range of movement seen in the lateral direction is -0.25 to 0.48 cm (mean: 0.11, SD: 0.15), in the cranio-caudal direction -1.57 to 0.64 cm (mean: 0.59 SD: 0.48), and in the antero-posterior direction -1.91 to .47 cm (mean: 0.53, SD: 0.39). Results disclosed 53% of the patients with a caudal shift of the prostate > 0.5 cm and 10% > 1.0 cm. Further, 60% of the patients showed a posterior shift > 0.5 cm and 27% > 1.0 cm. CT

  9. Planning and implementing an implanted fiducial programme for prostate cancer radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.; Owen, R.; Laferlita, M.; Fox, C.; Foroudi, F.; Tai, K. H.; Styles, C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Using implanted gold seeds as fiducial markers to verify the position of the prostate in radiation therapy is well accepted and is becoming the standard of practice and requirement for international multicentre trials. In 2006 the decision was made at the Peter MacCallum Caner Centre (Peter Mac) to plan for and implement this process as standard clinical practice for radical dose prostate treatments (74-78 Gy). Before this, programme verification of field placement for prostate cancer radiation treatment was routinely carried out using regular off-line electronic portal imaging with matching of bony anatomy. A small multidisciplinary team investigated and assisted in the implementation of this new practice across the Peter Mac sites at East Melbourne and our three satellite centres. Issues considered included seed size, number and position in the prostate, implant equipment, imaging equipment and procedure and consent and information forms. The use of a custom made fiducial pack, comprehensive patient information and a daily on-line imaging process was implemented. The experience of the first 28 patients at Peter Mac from January 2007 to May 2007 inclusive is reported on.

  10. Monte Carlo simulations of the dosimetric impact of radiopaque fiducial markers for proton radiotherapy of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne; Fontenot, Jonas; Koch, Nicholas; Dong, Lei; Lee, Andrew; Zheng, Yuanshui; Waters, Laurie; Mohan, Radhe

    2007-06-01

    Many clinical studies have demonstrated that implanted radiopaque fiducial markers improve targeting accuracy in external-beam radiotherapy, but little is known about the dose perturbations these markers may cause in patients receiving proton radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine what types of implantable markers are visible in setup radiographs and, at the same time, perturb the therapeutic proton dose to the prostate by less than 10%. The radiographic visibility of the markers was assessed by visual inspection of lateral setup radiographs of a pelvic phantom using a kilovoltage x-ray imaging system. The fiducial-induced perturbations in the proton dose were estimated with Monte Carlo simulations. The influence of marker material, size, placement depth and orientation within the pelvis was examined. The radiographic tests confirmed that gold and stainless steel markers were clearly visible and that titanium markers were not. The Monte Carlo simulations revealed that titanium and stainless steel markers minimally perturbed the proton beam, but gold markers cast unacceptably large dose shadows. A 0.9 mm diameter, 3.1 mm long cylindrical stainless steel marker provides good radiographic visibility yet perturbs the proton dose distribution in the prostate by less than 8% when using a parallel opposed lateral beam arrangement.

  11. Deformation of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles Relative to Intraprostatic Fiducial Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Mutanga, Theodore F.; Incrocci, Luca; Kirkels, Wim J.; Vasquez Osorio, Eliana M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Boer, Hans C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the residual geometric uncertainties after on-line corrections with intraprostatic fiducial markers, this study analyzed the deformation of the prostate and, in particular, the seminal vesicles relative to such markers. Patients and Methods: A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and three repeat CT scans were obtained for 21 prostate cancer patients who had had three to four cylindrical gold markers placed. The prostate and whole seminal vesicles (clinical target volume [CTV]) were delineated on each scan at a slice thickness of 1.5 mm. Rigid body transformations (translation and rotation) mapping the markers onto the planning scan positions were obtained. The translation only (T only ) or both translation and rotation were applied to the delineated CTVs. Next, the residue CTV surface displacements were determined using nonrigid registration of the delineated contours. For translation and rotation of the CTV, the residues represented deformation; for T only , the residues stemmed from deformation and rotation. T only represented the residues for most currently applied on-line protocols. The patient and population statistics of the CTV surface displacements were calculated. The intraobserver delineation variation was similarly quantified using repeat delineations for all patients and corrected for. Results: The largest CTV deformations were observed at the anterior and posterior side of the seminal vesicles (population average standard deviation ≤3 mm). Prostate deformation was small (standard deviation ≤1 mm). The increase in these deviations when neglecting rotation (T only ) was small. Conclusion: Although prostate deformation with respect to implanted fiducial markers was small, the corresponding deformation of the seminal vesicles was considerable. Adding marker-based rotational corrections to on-line translation corrections provided a limited reduction in the estimated planning margins

  12. A Fiducial Reference Stie for Satellite Altimetry in Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Bojkov, Bojan; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonqueres, Jean-Damien; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system.This work sets the ground for the establishment of a Fiducial Reference Site for ESA satellite altimetry in Gavdos and West Crete, Greece. It will consistently and reliably determine (a) absolute altimeter biases and their drifts; (b) relative bias among diverse missions; but also (c) continuously and independently connect different missions, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any satellite altimeter measurements to known, controlled and absolute reference signals with different techniques, processes and instrumentation.

  13. Urethral catheterization facilitates preradiation fiducial marker placement in postprostatectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher; Costa, Joseph; Mandia, Stephen; Henderson, Randal; Marino, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy

    2012-05-01

    Surgical absence of the prostate can make placement of fiducial markers difficult, because anatomic landmarks are distorted and there is a paucity of substantial tissue to hold fast the markers. We describe a method for improving the accuracy of fiducial marker placement for the purpose of salvage or adjuvant external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer in patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy. To assist with identification of the urethrovesical junction and to facilitate placement of the markers, a Foley catheter was placed and the balloon was inflated. Gentle traction on the catheter seated the balloon at the bladder neck to echographically define the anatomy of the urethrovesical junction. Next, a rectal ultrasound probe was inserted into the rectum, allowing visualization of the region of the urethrovesical junction. Fiducial markers were then placed bilaterally in the detrusor muscle at the bladder neck or in the periurethral tissue using the applicator needle. The treating radiation oncologist verified that marker placement was suitable for assisting with radiation therapy in all cases. Preradiation pelvic imaging verified that markers were not in the bladder or urethral lumen, and there were no patient complaints of voiding out the markers with urination.

  14. WE-AB-303-05: Breathing Motion of Liver Segments From Fiducial Tracking During Robotic Radiosurgery and Comparison with 4D-CT-Derived Fiducial Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J; Pantarotto, J; Nair, V; Cook, G; Plourde, M; Vandervoort, E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify respiratory-induced motion of liver segments using the positions of implanted fiducials during robotic radiosurgery. This study also compared fiducial motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) maximum intensity projections (MIP) with motion derived from imaging during treatment. Methods: Forty-two consecutive liver patients treated with liver ablative radiotherapy were accrued to an ethics approved retrospective study. The liver segment in which each fiducial resided was identified. Fiducial positions throughout each treatment fraction were determined using orthogonal kilovoltage images. Any data due to patient repositioning or motion was removed. Mean fiducial positions were calculated. Fiducial positions beyond two standard deviations of the mean were discarded and remaining positions were fit to a line segment using least squares minimization (LSM). For eight patients, fiducial motion was derived from 4D-CT MIPs by calculating the CT number weighted mean position of the fiducial on each slice and fitting a line segment to these points using LSM. Treatment derived fiducial trajectories were corrected for patient rotation and compared to MIP derived trajectories. Results: The mean total magnitude of fiducial motion across all liver segments in left-right, anteroposterior, and superoinferior (SI) directions were 3.0 ± 0.2 mm, 9.3 ± 0.4 mm, and 20.5 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. Differences in per-segment mean fiducial motion were found with SI motion ranging from 12.6 ± 0.8 mm to 22.6 ± 0.9 mm for segments 3 and 8, respectively. Large, varied differences between treatment and MIP derived motion at simulation were found with the mean difference for SI motion being 2.6 mm (10.8 mm standard deviation). Conclusion: The magnitude of liver fiducial motion was found to differ by liver segment. MIP derived liver fiducial motion differed from motion observed during treatment, implying that 4D-CTs may not accurately capture the

  15. Robust fluoroscopic tracking of fiducial markers: exploiting the spatial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rui; Sharp, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Two new fluoroscopic fiducial tracking methods that exploit the spatial relationship among the multiple implanted fiducial to achieve fast, accurate and robust tracking are proposed in this paper. The spatial relationship between multiple implanted markers are modeled as Gaussian distributions of their pairwise distances over time. The means and standard deviations of these distances are learned from training sequences, and pairwise distances that deviate from these learned distributions are assigned a low spatial matching score. The spatial constraints are incorporated in two different algorithms: a stochastic tracking method and a detection based method. In the stochastic method, hypotheses of the ‘true’ fiducial position are sampled from a pre-trained respiration motion model. Each hypothesis is assigned an importance value based on image matching score and spatial matching score. Learning the parameters of the motion model is needed in addition to learning the distribution parameters of the pairwise distances in the proposed stochastic tracking approach. In the detection based method, a set of possible marker locations are identified by using a template matching based fiducial detector. The best location is obtained by optimizing the image matching score and spatial matching score through non-serial dynamic programming. In this detection based approach, there is no need to learn the respiration motion model. The two proposed algorithms are compared with a recent work using a multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithm which is denoted by MHT, Tang et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 4081–98). Phantom experiments were performed using fluoroscopic videos captured with known motion relative to an anthropomorphic phantom. The patient experiments were performed using a retrospective study of 16 fluoroscopic videos of liver cancer patients with implanted fiducials. For the motion phantom data sets, the detection based approach has the smallest tracking error (

  16. Line fiducial material and thickness considerations for ultrasound calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Golafsoun; McLeod, A. J.; Baxter, John S. H.; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Peters, Terry M.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound calibration is a necessary procedure in many image-guided interventions, relating the position of tools and anatomical structures in the ultrasound image to a common coordinate system. This is a necessary component of augmented reality environments in image-guided interventions as it allows for a 3D visualization where other surgical tools outside the imaging plane can be found. Accuracy of ultrasound calibration fundamentally affects the total accuracy of this interventional guidance system. Many ultrasound calibration procedures have been proposed based on a variety of phantom materials and geometries. These differences lead to differences in representation of the phantom on the ultrasound image which subsequently affect the ability to accurately and automatically segment the phantom. For example, taut wires are commonly used as line fiducials in ultrasound calibration. However, at large depths or oblique angles, the fiducials appear blurred and smeared in ultrasound images making it hard to localize their cross-section with the ultrasound image plane. Intuitively, larger diameter phantoms with lower echogenicity are more accurately segmented in ultrasound images in comparison to highly reflective thin phantoms. In this work, an evaluation of a variety of calibration phantoms with different geometrical and material properties for the phantomless calibration procedure was performed. The phantoms used in this study include braided wire, plastic straws, and polyvinyl alcohol cryogel tubes with different diameters. Conventional B-mode and synthetic aperture images of the phantoms at different positions were obtained. The phantoms were automatically segmented from the ultrasound images using an ellipse fitting algorithm, the centroid of which is subsequently used as a fiducial for calibration. Calibration accuracy was evaluated for these procedures based on the leave-one-out target registration error. It was shown that larger diameter phantoms with lower

  17. Evaluation of different fiducial markers for image-guided radiotherapy and particle therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermehl, Daniel; Henkner, Katrin; Ecker, Swantje; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2013-07-01

    Modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques are widely used in the irradiation of moving organs. A crucial step in ensuring the correct position of a target structure directly before or during treatment is daily image guidance by computed tomography (CT) or X-ray radiography (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT). Therefore, combinations of modern irradiation devices and imaging, such as on-board imaging (OBI) with X-rays, or in-room CT such as the tomotherapy system, have been developed. Moreover, combinations of linear accelerators and in-room CT-scanners have been designed. IGRT is of special interest in hypofractionated and radiosurgical treatments where high single doses are applied in the proximity of critical organs at risk. Radiographically visible markers in or in close proximity to the target structure may help to reproduce the position during RT and could therefore be used as external surrogates for motion monitoring. Criteria sought for fiducial markers are (i) visibility in the radiologic modalities involved in radiotherapeutic treatment planning and image guidance, such as CT and kilovoltage (kV) OBI), (ii) low production of imaging artifacts, and (iii) low perturbation of the therapeutic dose to the target volume. Photon interaction with interstitial markers has been shown to be not as important as in particle therapy, where interaction of the particle beam, especially with metal markers, can have a significant impact on treatment. This applies especially with a scanned ion beam. Recently we commenced patient recruitment at our institution within the PROMETHEUS trial, which evaluates a hypofractionation regime, starting with 4 x 10 Gy (RBE), for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work is, therefore, to evaluate potential implantable fiducial markers for enabling precise patient and thus organ positioning in scanned ion beams. To transfer existing knowledge of marker application from photon to particle therapy, we used a range of commercially

  18. Effects of line fiducial parameters and beamforming on ultrasound calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Golafsoun; Baxter, John S H; McLeod, A Jonathan; Peters, Terry M; Chen, Elvis C S

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided interventions are often enhanced via integration with an augmented reality environment, a necessary component of which is US calibration. Calibration requires the segmentation of fiducials, i.e., a phantom, in US images. Fiducial localization error (FLE) can decrease US calibration accuracy, which fundamentally affects the total accuracy of the interventional guidance system. Here, we investigate the effects of US image reconstruction techniques as well as phantom material and geometry on US calibration. It was shown that the FLE was reduced by 29% with synthetic transmit aperture imaging compared with conventional B-mode imaging in a Z-bar calibration, resulting in a 10% reduction of calibration error. In addition, an evaluation of a variety of calibration phantoms with different geometrical and material properties was performed. The phantoms included braided wire, plastic straws, and polyvinyl alcohol cryogel tubes with different diameters. It was shown that these properties have a significant effect on calibration error, which is a variable based on US beamforming techniques. These results would have important implications for calibration procedures and their feasibility in the context of image-guided procedures.

  19. Tracking the dynamic seroma cavity using fiducial markers in patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using 3D conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad; Kearney, Thomas; Kirstein, Laurie; Chen Sining

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to perform an analysis of the changes in the dynamic seroma cavity based on fiducial markers in early stage breast cancer patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods: A prospective, single arm trial was designed to investigate the utility of gold fiducial markers in image guided APBI using 3D-CRT. At the time of lumpectomy, four to six suture-type gold fiducial markers were sutured to the walls of the cavity. Patients were treated with a fractionation scheme consisting of 15 fractions with a fractional dose of 333 cGy. Treatment design and planning followed NSABP/RTOG B-39 guidelines. During radiation treatment, daily kV imaging was performed and the markers were localized and tracked. The change in distance between fiducial markers was analyzed based on the planning CT and daily kV images. Results: Thirty-four patients were simulated at an average of 28 days after surgery, and started the treatment on an average of 39 days after surgery. The average intermarker distance (AiMD) between fiducial markers was strongly correlated to seroma volume. The average reduction in AiMD was 19.1% (range 0.0%–41.4%) and 10.8% (range 0.0%–35.6%) for all the patients between simulation and completion of radiotherapy, and between simulation and beginning of radiotherapy, respectively. The change of AiMD fits an exponential function with a half-life of seroma shrinkage. The average half-life for seroma shrinkage was 15 days. After accounting for the reduction which started to occur after surgery through CT simulation and treatment, radiation was found to have minimal impact on the distance change over the treatment course. Conclusions: Using the marker distance change as a surrogate for seroma volume, it appears that the seroma cavity experiences an exponential reduction in size. The change in seroma size has implications in the size

  20. Evaluation of an infrared camera and X-ray system using implanted fiducials in patients with lung tumors for gated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willoughby, Twyla R.; Forbes, Alan R.; Buchholz, Daniel; Langen, Katja M.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Zeidan, Omar A.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the initial clinical use of a commercially available system to deliver gated treatment using implanted fiducials, in-room kV X-rays, and an infrared camera tracking system. Methods and Materials: ExacTrac Adaptive Gating from BrainLab is a localization system using infrared cameras and X-rays. Gating signals are the patient's breathing pattern obtained from infrared reflectors on the patient. kV X-rays of an implanted fiducial are synchronized to the breathing pattern. After localization and shift of the patient to isocenter, the breathing pattern is used to gate Radiation. Feasibility tests included localization accuracy, radiation output constancy, and dose distributions with gating. Clinical experience is reported on treatment of patients with small lung lesions. Results: Localization accuracy of a moving target with gating was 1.7 mm. Dose constancy measurements showed insignificant change in output with gating. Improvements of dose distributions on moving targets improved with gating. Eleven patients with lung lesions were implanted with 20 mm x 0.7 mm gold coil (Visicoil). The implanted fiducial was used to localize and treat the patients with gating. Treatment planning and repeat computed tomographic scans showed that the change in center of gross target volume (GTV) to implanted marker averaged 2.47 mm due in part to asymmetric tumor shrinkage. Conclusion: ExacTrac Adaptive Gating has been used to treat lung lesions. Initial system evaluation verified its accuracy and usability. Implanted fiducials are visible in X-rays and did not migrate

  1. Sub-pixel localisation of passive micro-coil fiducial markers in interventional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Marc; McRobbie, Donald; Elhawary, Haytham; Tse, Zion T H; Lamperth, Michael; Young, Ian

    2009-04-01

    Electromechanical devices enable increased accuracy in surgical procedures, and the recent development of MRI-compatible mechatronics permits the use of MRI for real-time image guidance. Integrated imaging of resonant micro-coil fiducials provides an accurate method of tracking devices in a scanner with increased flexibility compared to gradient tracking. Here we report on the ability of ten different image-processing algorithms to track micro-coil fiducials with sub-pixel accuracy. Five algorithms: maximum pixel, barycentric weighting, linear interpolation, quadratic fitting and Gaussian fitting were applied both directly to the pixel intensity matrix and to the cross-correlation matrix obtained by 2D convolution with a reference image. Using images of a 3 mm fiducial marker and a pixel size of 1.1 mm, intensity linear interpolation, which calculates the position of the fiducial centre by interpolating the pixel data to find the fiducial edges, was found to give the best performance for minimal computing power; a maximum error of 0.22 mm was observed in fiducial localisation for displacements up to 40 mm. The inherent standard deviation of fiducial localisation was 0.04 mm. This work enables greater accuracy to be achieved in passive fiducial tracking.

  2. A fast fiducial marker tracking model for fully automatic alignment in electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin

    2017-10-20

    Automatic alignment, especially fiducial marker-based alignment, has become increasingly important due to the high demand of subtomogram averaging and the rapid development of large-field electron microscopy. Among the alignment steps, fiducial marker tracking is a crucial one that determines the quality of the final alignment. Yet, it is still a challenging problem to track the fiducial markers accurately and effectively in a fully automatic manner.In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient scheme for fiducial marker tracking. Firstly, we theoretically prove the upper bound of the transformation deviation of aligning the positions of fiducial markers on two micrographs by affine transformation. Secondly, we design an automatic algorithm based on the Gaussian mixture model to accelerate the procedure of fiducial marker tracking. Thirdly, we propose a divide-and-conquer strategy against lens distortions to ensure the reliability of our scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt that theoretically relates the projection model with the tracking model. The real-world experimental results further support our theoretical bound and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm. This work facilitates the fully automatic tracking for datasets with a massive number of fiducial markers.The C/C ++ source code that implements the fast fiducial marker tracking is available at https://github.com/icthrm/gmm-marker-tracking. Markerauto 1.6 version or later (also integrated in the AuTom platform at http://ear.ict.ac.cn/) offers a complete implementation for fast alignment, in which fast fiducial marker tracking is available by the

  3. A fast fiducial marker tracking model for fully automatic alignment in electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Renmin; Zhang, Fa; Gao, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Automatic alignment, especially fiducial marker-based alignment, has become increasingly important due to the high demand of subtomogram averaging and the rapid development of large-field electron microscopy. Among the alignment steps, fiducial marker tracking is a crucial one that determines the quality of the final alignment. Yet, it is still a challenging problem to track the fiducial markers accurately and effectively in a fully automatic manner. In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient scheme for fiducial marker tracking. Firstly, we theoretically prove the upper bound of the transformation deviation of aligning the positions of fiducial markers on two micrographs by affine transformation. Secondly, we design an automatic algorithm based on the Gaussian mixture model to accelerate the procedure of fiducial marker tracking. Thirdly, we propose a divide-and-conquer strategy against lens distortions to ensure the reliability of our scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt that theoretically relates the projection model with the tracking model. The real-world experimental results further support our theoretical bound and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm. This work facilitates the fully automatic tracking for datasets with a massive number of fiducial markers. The C/C ++ source code that implements the fast fiducial marker tracking is available at https://github.com/icthrm/gmm-marker-tracking. Markerauto 1.6 version or later (also integrated in the AuTom platform at http://ear.ict.ac.cn/) offers a complete implementation for fast alignment, in which fast fiducial marker tracking is available by the '-t' option. xin.gao@kaust.edu.sa. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Impact of Concurrent Androgen Deprivation on Fiducial Marker Migration in External-beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, David A.; Carrier, Jean-Francois; Beauchemin, Marie-Claude; Nguyen, Thu Van; Beliveau-Nadeau, Dominic [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Taussky, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.taussky.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the extent of gold fiducial marker (FM) migration in patients treated for prostate cancer with concurrent androgen deprivation and external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Three or 4 gold FMs were implanted in 37 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in conjunction with 70-78 Gy. Androgen deprivation therapy was started a median of 3.9 months before EBRT (range, 0.3-12.5 months). To establish the extent of FM migration, the distance between each FM was calculated for 5-8 treatments once per week throughout the EBRT course. For each treatment, the distance between FMs was compared with the distance from the digitally reconstructed radiographs generated from the planning CT. A total of 281 treatments were analyzed. Results: The average daily migration was 0.8 {+-} 0.3 mm, with distances ranging from 0.2 mm-2.6 mm. Two of the 281 assessed treatments (0.7%) showed migrations >2 mm. No correlation between FM migration and patient weight or time delay between ADT and start of EBRT was found. There was no correlation between the extent of FM migration and prostate volume. Conclusion: This is the largest report of implanted FM migration in patients receiving concomitant ADT. Only 0.7% of the 281 treatments studied had significant marker migrations (>2 mm) throughout the course of EBRT. Consequently, the use of implanted FMs in these patients enables accurate monitoring of prostate gland position during treatment.

  5. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  6. Fiducial-based monocular 3D displacement measurement of breakwater armour unit models.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vieira, R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fiducial-based approach to monitoring the movement of breakwater armour units in a model hall environment. Target symbols with known dimensions are attached to the physical models, allowing the recovery of three...

  7. Quantification and comparison of visibility and image artifacts of a new liquid fiducial marker in a lung phantom for image-guided radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydhög, Jonas Scherman; Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : A new biodegradable liquid fiducial marker was devised to allow for easy insertion in lung tumors using thin needles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visibility of the liquid fiducial markers for image-guided radiation therapy and compare to existing solid fiducial markers...... and to one existing liquid fiducial marker currently commercially available. Methods : Fiducial marker visibility was quantified in terms of contrast to noise ratio (CNR) on planar kilovoltage x-ray images in a thorax phantom for different concentrations of the radio-opaque component of the new liquid...... physical size. Conclusions : The visibility and the image artifacts produced by the new liquid fiducial markers were comparable to existing solid fiducial markers and the existing liquid fiducial marker. The authors conclude that the new liquid fiducial marker represents an alternative to the fiducial...

  8. Extended DBI massive gravity with generalized fiducial metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chullaphan, Tossaporn [The Institute for Fundamental Study, Naresuan University,Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Udon Thani Rajabhat University,Udon Thani 41000 (Thailand); Tannukij, Lunchakorn [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University,Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Wongjun, Pitayuth [The Institute for Fundamental Study, Naresuan University,Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education,Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-06-05

    We consider an extended model of DBI massive gravity by generalizing the fiducial metric to be an induced metric on the brane corresponding to a domain wall moving in five-dimensional Schwarzschild-Anti-de Sitter spacetime. The model admits all solutions of FLRW metric including flat, closed and open geometries while the original one does not. The background solutions can be divided into two branches namely self-accelerating branch and normal branch. For the self-accelerating branch, the graviton mass plays the role of cosmological constant to drive the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is found that the number degrees of freedom of gravitational sector is not correct similar to the original DBI massive gravity. There are only two propagating degrees of freedom from tensor modes. For normal branch, we restrict our attention to a particular class of the solutions which provides an accelerated expansion of the universe. It is found that the number of degrees of freedom in the model is correct. However, at least one of them is ghost degree of freedom which always present at small scale implying that the theory is not stable.

  9. FIDUCIAL STELLAR POPULATION SEQUENCES FOR THE VJKS PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasseur, Crystal M.; VandenBerg, Don A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Casagrande, Luca; Bono, Giuseppe; Dall'Ora, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained broadband near-infrared photometry for seven Galactic star clusters (M 92, M 15, M 13, M 5, NGC 1851, M 71, and NGC 6791) using the WIRCam wide-field imager on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, supplemented by images of NGC 1851 taken with HAWK-I on the Very Large Telescope. In addition, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) observations of the [Fe/H] ∼0.0 open cluster M 67 were added to the cluster database. From the resultant (V - J) - V and (V - K S ) - V color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), fiducial sequences spanning the range in metallicity, -2.4 ∼ eff relations. The models are able to reproduce the entire CMDs of clusters more metal rich than [Fe/H] ∼-1.4 quite well, on the assumption of the same reddenings and distance moduli that yield good fits of the same isochrones to Johnson-Cousins BV(RI) C photometry. However, the predicted giant branches become systematically redder than the observed RGBs as the cluster metallicity decreases. Possible explanations for these discrepancies are discussed.

  10. ECG fiducial point extraction using switching Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, Mahsa; Ghahjaverestan, Nasim Montazeri; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B; Jutten, Christian

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for extracting fiducial points (FPs) of the beats in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals using switching Kalman filter (SKF). In this method, according to McSharry's model, ECG waveforms (P-wave, QRS complex and T-wave) are modeled with Gaussian functions and ECG baselines are modeled with first order auto regressive models. In the proposed method, a discrete state variable called "switch" is considered that affects only the observation equations. We denote a mode as a specific observation equation and switch changes between 7 modes and corresponds to different segments of an ECG beat. At each time instant, the probability of each mode is calculated and compared among two consecutive modes and a path is estimated, which shows the relation of each part of the ECG signal to the mode with the maximum probability. ECG FPs are found from the estimated path. For performance evaluation, the Physionet QT database is used and the proposed method is compared with methods based on wavelet transform, partially collapsed Gibbs sampler (PCGS) and extended Kalman filter. For our proposed method, the mean error and the root mean square error across all FPs are 2 ms (i.e. less than one sample) and 14 ms, respectively. These errors are significantly smaller than those obtained using other methods. The proposed method achieves lesser RMSE and smaller variability with respect to others. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Implantation and Stability of Metallic Fiducials Within Pulmonary Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Forbes, Alan; Willoughby, Twyla R. M.S.; Wallace, Karen; Manon, Rafael R.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Herrera, Luis; Johnston, Alan; Herran, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report and describe implantation techniques and stability of metallic fiducials in lung lesions to be treated with external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing radiation therapy for small early-stage lung cancer underwent implantation with small metallic markers. Implantation was either transcutaneous under computed tomographic (CT) or fluoroscopic guidance or transbronchial with the superDimension/Bronchus system (radiofrequency signal-based bronchoscopy guidance related to CT images). Results: Implantation was performed transcutaneously in 15 patients and transbronchially in 8 patients. Pneumothorax occurred with eight of the 15 transcutaneous implants, six of which required chest tube placement. None of the patients who underwent transbronchial implantation developed pneumothorax. Successfully inserted markers were all usable during gated image-guided radiotherapy. Marker stability was determined by observing the variation in gross target volume (GTV) centroid relative to the marker on repeated CT scans. Average three-dimensional variation in the GTV center relative to the marker was 2.6 ± 1.3 (SD) mm, and the largest variation along any anatomic axis for any patient was <5 mm. Average GTV volume decrease during the observation period was 34% ± 23%. Gross tumor volumes do not appear to shrink uniformly about the center of the tumor, but rather the tumor shapes deform substantially throughout treatment. Conclusions: Transbronchial marker placement is less invasive than transcutaneous placement, which is associated with high pneumothorax rates. Although marker geometry can be affected by tumor shrinkage, implanted markers are stable within tumors throughout the treatment duration regardless of implantation method

  12. Transarterial Fiducial Marker Placement for Image-guided Proton Therapy for Malignant Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Kengo, E-mail: yesterday.is.yesterday@gmail.com; Shimohira, Masashi, E-mail: mshimohira@gmail.com [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sasaki, Shigeru, E-mail: ssasaki916@yahoo.co.jp; Iwata, Hiromitsu, E-mail: h-iwa-ncu@nifty.com; Nishikawa, Hiroko, E-mail: piroko1018@gmail.com; Ogino, Hiroyuki, E-mail: oginogio@gmail.com; Hara, Masaki, E-mail: mhara@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Nagoya City West Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center (Japan); Hashizume, Takuya, E-mail: tky300@gmail.com; Shibamoto, Yuta, E-mail: yshiba@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze the technical and clinical success rates and safety of transarterial fiducial marker placement for image-guided proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.Methods and MaterialsFifty-five patients underwent this procedure as an interventional treatment. Five patients had 2 tumors, and 4 tumors required 2 markers each, so the total number of procedures was 64. The 60 tumors consisted of 46 hepatocellular carcinomas and 14 liver metastases. Five-mm-long straight microcoils of 0.018 inches in diameter were used as fiducial markers and placed in appropriate positions for each tumor. We assessed the technical and clinical success rates of transarterial fiducial marker placement, as well as the complications associated with it. Technical success was defined as the successful delivery and placement of the fiducial coil, and clinical success was defined as the completion of proton therapy.ResultsAll 64 fiducial coils were successfully installed, so the technical success rate was 100 % (64/64). Fifty-four patients underwent proton therapy without coil migration. In one patient, proton therapy was not performed because of obstructive jaundice due to bile duct invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the clinical success rate was 98 % (54/55). Slight bleeding was observed in one case, but it was stopped immediately and then observed. None of the patients developed hepatic infarctions due to fiducial marker migration.ConclusionTransarterial fiducial marker placement appears to be a useful and safe procedure for proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.

  13. Transarterial Fiducial Marker Placement for Image-guided Proton Therapy for Malignant Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Kengo; Shimohira, Masashi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Nishikawa, Hiroko; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Hara, Masaki; Hashizume, Takuya; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze the technical and clinical success rates and safety of transarterial fiducial marker placement for image-guided proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.Methods and MaterialsFifty-five patients underwent this procedure as an interventional treatment. Five patients had 2 tumors, and 4 tumors required 2 markers each, so the total number of procedures was 64. The 60 tumors consisted of 46 hepatocellular carcinomas and 14 liver metastases. Five-mm-long straight microcoils of 0.018 inches in diameter were used as fiducial markers and placed in appropriate positions for each tumor. We assessed the technical and clinical success rates of transarterial fiducial marker placement, as well as the complications associated with it. Technical success was defined as the successful delivery and placement of the fiducial coil, and clinical success was defined as the completion of proton therapy.ResultsAll 64 fiducial coils were successfully installed, so the technical success rate was 100 % (64/64). Fifty-four patients underwent proton therapy without coil migration. In one patient, proton therapy was not performed because of obstructive jaundice due to bile duct invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the clinical success rate was 98 % (54/55). Slight bleeding was observed in one case, but it was stopped immediately and then observed. None of the patients developed hepatic infarctions due to fiducial marker migration.ConclusionTransarterial fiducial marker placement appears to be a useful and safe procedure for proton therapy for malignant liver tumors

  14. Novel Technique for Hepatic Fiducial Marker Placement for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarraya, Hajer; Chalayer, Chloé; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Bonodeau, Francois; Lacornerie, Thomas; Mirabel, Xavier; Boulanger, Thomas; Taieb, Sophie; Kramar, Andrew; Lartigau, Eric; Ceugnart, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report experience with fiducial marker insertion and describe an advantageous, novel technique for fiducial placement in the liver for stereotactic body radiation therapy with respiratory tracking. Methods and Materials: We implanted 1444 fiducials (single: 834; linked: 610) in 328 patients with 424 hepatic lesions. Two methods of implantation were compared: the standard method (631 single fiducials) performed on 153 patients from May 2007 to May 2010, and the cube method (813 fiducials: 610 linked/203 single) applied to 175 patients from April 2010 to March 2013. The standard method involved implanting a single marker at a time. The novel technique entailed implanting 2 pairs of linked markers when possible in a way to occupy the perpendicular edges of a cube containing the tumor inside. Results: Mean duration of the cube method was shorter than the standard method (46 vs 61 minutes; P<.0001). Median numbers of skin and subcapsular entries were significantly smaller with the cube method (2 vs 4, P<.0001, and 2 vs 4, P<.0001, respectively). The rate of overall complications (total, major, and minor) was significantly lower in the cube method group compared with the standard method group (5.7% vs 13.7%; P=.013). Major complications occurred while using single markers only. The success rate was 98.9% for the cube method and 99.3% for the standard method. Conclusions: We propose a new technique of hepatic fiducial implantation that makes use of linked fiducials and involves fewer skin entries and shorter time of implantation. The technique is less complication-prone and is migration-resistant

  15. Comparison of registration accuracy of skin- and bone-implanted fiducials for frameless stereotaxis of the brain: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, Mario; Gross, Jeffrey D; Ammirati, Giuseppe; Dugan, Sharon

    2002-08-01

    The registration accuracy of skin- and bone-implanted fiducials using a frameless stereotactic system were analyzed prospectively.Twenty-eight patients underwent resection of intra-axial neoplasmas after both skin- and bone-implantable fiducial markers were placed. Both sets of fiducials were independently co-registered to a magnetic resonance imaging data set acquired preoperatively using the ISG Viewing Wandtrade mark. Root mean square errors were recorded as an objective measure of registration accuracy of the two types of fiducials.Root mean square errors of bone-implanted fiducials registration were lower than those of skin fiducials; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.206).The registration accuracy of skin- and bone-implanted fiducials appears to be similar. Still, bone-implanted fiducials may be advantageous compared to skin fiducials when re-registration of the patient-image space is desired intraoperatively such as during major drift in the patient's position or after surgical repositioning.

  16. EUS-guided gastroenterostomy in management of benign gastric outlet obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-I; James, Theodore; Agarwal, Amol; Baron, Todd H.; Itoi, Takao; Kunda, Rastislav; Nieto, Jose; Bukhari, Majidah; Gutierrez, Olaya Brewer; Sanaei, Omid; Moran, Robert; Fayad, Lea; Khashab, Mouen A.

    2018-01-01

    Background and study aims  Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) in malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) appears to be promising; however, its role in benign GOO is unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical efficacy and safety of EUS-GE in benign GOO. Patients and methods  This was an international retrospective series involving 5 tertiary centers. Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-GE between 1/2013 – 10/2016 for benign GOO were included. The primary endpoint was the rate of clinical success defined as ability to tolerate oral intake without vomiting. Secondary endpoints included technical success and rate of adverse events (AE). Results  Overall, 26 patients (46.2 % female; mean age 57.7 ± 13.9 years) underwent EUS-GE for benign GOO due to strictures from chronic pancreatitis (n = 11), surgical anastomosis (n = 6), peptic ulcer disease (n = 5), acute pancreatitis (n = 1), superior mesentery artery syndrome (n = 1), caustic injury (n = 1), and hematoma (n = 1). Technical success was achieved in 96.2 %. Dilation of the lumen apposing metal stent was performed in 13/25 (52 %) with a mean maximum diameter of 14.6 ± 1.0 mm. Mean procedure time was 44.6 ± 26.1 min. Clinical success was observed in 84.0 % with a mean time to oral intake of 1.4 ± 1.9 days and a median follow-up of 176.5 (IQR: 47 – 445.75) days. Rate of unplanned re-intervention was 4.8 %. 3 AE were noted including 2 misdeployed stents and 1 gastric leak needing surgical intervention following elective GE stent removal. Conclusions  EUS-GE is a promising treatment for benign GOO. Larger and prospective data are needed to further validate this novel endoscopic technique in treating benign GOO of various etiologies. PMID:29527559

  17. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part IV - EUS-guided Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, C; Hocke, M; Fusaroli, P

    2016-01-01

    The fourth part of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound describes general aspects of endoscopic ultrasound-guided diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and assesses the evidence for endoscopic ultrasound......-guided sampling. Endoscopic ultrasound combines the most advanced high-resolution ultrasound imaging of lesions within the wall and in the vicinity of the gastrointestinal tract and safe and effective fine needle based tissue acquisition from these lesions. The guideline addresses the indications......-guided sampling as well as for safe performance. Additionally, the guideline deals with the principles and reliability of cytopathological reporting in endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling (long version)....

  18. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part IV - EUS-guided interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, C; Hocke, M; Fusaroli, P

    2016-01-01

    -guided sampling. Endoscopic ultrasound combines the most advanced high-resolution ultrasound imaging of lesions within the wall and in the vicinity of the gastrointestinal tract and safe and effective fine needle-based tissue acquisition from these lesions. The guideline addresses the indications...

  19. Tips to overcome technical challenges in EUS-guided tissue acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Peter; Seicean, Andrada; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    . The endosonographic technique can be improved when several tips and tricks useful to overcome challenges of FNA are known. Technical challenges of FNA are related to the characteristics of the lesion and its surroundings, sonographic imaging, and limitations related to the needle. Several tips and tricks necessary...

  20. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part v - EUS-Guided Therapeutic Interventions (short version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, P; Jenssen, C.; Hocke, Martine

    2016-01-01

    The fifth section of the Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS) of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) assesses the evidence for all the categories of endoscopic ultrasound-guided treatment reported to date. Celiac plexus neurolysis...

  1. Bilateral adrenal gland enlargement secondary to histoplasmosis mimicking adrenal metastases: diagnosis with EUS-guided FNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloubeidi, Mohamad A; Luz, Leticia P; Crowe, David R; Snowden, Cindi; Morgan, Desiree E; Arnoletti, Pablo J

    2010-05-01

    While adrenal gland histoplasmosis has been previously diagnosed by fine needle aspiration utilizing the percutaneous approach, EUS-FNA has not been employed in the diagnosis of this infection affecting both adrenal glands. We report a patient with massive bilateral adrenal enlargement due to histoplasmosis that was diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Trans-duodenal and trans-gastric fine needle aspiration biopsy of both adrenal glands was performed. Rapid onsite cytopathologic evaluation (ROSE) revealed epithelioid histiocytes, singly and in clusters consistent with granulomas. Apparent intracytoplasmic inclusions suggestive of organisms were visible. A Gomori Methenamine Silver stain (GMS) revealed abundant small intracellular budding yeasts, morphologically consistent with Histoplasma; the patient was admitted for amphotericin B intravenous infusion. His fever abated on the second day after amphotericin B was started. His urine Histoplasma antigen was positive. Fungal cultures from both adrenal EUS-FNA samples grew Histoplasma capsulatum. After a one week hospital stay, he was discharged home on itraconazole 200 mg po bid for one year. Four months after initiation of treatment, his urine Histoplasma antigen was undetectable. Nine months after initial diagnosis, the patient regained his energy level, and returned to work with complete resolution of his initial symptoms. This case highlights that EUS-FNA with ROSE can be a highly effective tool in the diagnosis of uncommon infections of the adrenal glands.

  2. EUS-guided FNA of a portal vein thrombus in hepatocellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portal vein thrombosis is a relatively rare but well-known complication of cirrhosis that has a prevalence of between 1% and 5.7%. On the contrary, in case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is a much more frequent complication. In this paper, we presented three cases that had liver cirrhosis, mass and portal vein ...

  3. A Prospective Comparison of EUS-Guided FNA Using 25-Gauge and 22-Gauge Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazu, Hiroo; Uchiyama, Yujiro; Kakutani, Hiroshi; Ikeda, kei-ichi; Sumiyama, Kazuki; Kaise, Mitsuru; Omar, Salem; Ang, Tiing Leong; Tajiri, Hisao

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims. There are limited data on the differences in diagnostic yield between 25-gauge and 22-gauge EUS-FNA needles. This prospective study compared the difference in diagnostic yield between a 22-gauge and a 25-gauge needle when performing EUS-FNA. Methods. Forty-three patients with intraluminal or extraluminal mass lesions and/or lymphadenopathy were enrolled prospectively. EUS-FNA was performed for each mass lesion using both 25- and 22-gauge needles. The differences in accuracy rate, scoring of needle visibility, ease of puncture and quantity of obtained specimen were evaluated. Results. The overall accuracy of 22- and 25-gauge needle was similar at 81% and 76% respectively (N.S). Likewise the visibility scores of both needles were also similar. Overall the quantity of specimen obtained higher with the 22-gauge needle (score: 1.64 vs. P < .001). However the 25-gauge needle was significantly superior to the 22-gauge needle in terms of ease of puncture (score: 1.9 vs. 1.29, P < .001) and in the quantity of specimen in the context of pancreatic mass EUS-FNA (score: 1.8 vs. 1.58, P < .05). Conclusion. The 22-gauge and 25-gauge needles have similar overall diagnostic yield. The 25-gauge needle appeared superior in the subset of patients with hard lesions and pancreatic masses. PMID:19997511

  4. A Prospective Comparison of EUS-Guided FNA Using 25-Gauge and 22-Gauge Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Imazu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. There are limited data on the differences in diagnostic yield between 25-gauge and 22-gauge EUS-FNA needles. This prospective study compared the difference in diagnostic yield between a 22-gauge and a 25-gauge needle when performing EUS-FNA. Methods. Forty-three patients with intraluminal or extraluminal mass lesions and/or lymphadenopathy were enrolled prospectively. EUS-FNA was performed for each mass lesion using both 25- and 22-gauge needles. The differences in accuracy rate, scoring of needle visibility, ease of puncture and quantity of obtained specimen were evaluated. Results. The overall accuracy of 22- and 25-gauge needle was similar at 81% and 76% respectively (N.S. Likewise the visibility scores of both needles were also similar. Overall the quantity of specimen obtained higher with the 22-gauge needle (score: 1.64 vs. P<.001. However the 25-gauge needle was significantly superior to the 22-gauge needle in terms of ease of puncture (score: 1.9 vs. 1.29, P<.001 and in the quantity of specimen in the context of pancreatic mass EUS-FNA (score: 1.8 vs. 1.58, P<.05. Conclusion. The 22-gauge and 25-gauge needles have similar overall diagnostic yield. The 25-gauge needle appeared superior in the subset of patients with hard lesions and pancreatic masses.

  5. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumonceau, J-M; Polkowski, M; Larghi, A

    2011-01-01

    -TCB), of submucosal tumors, diffuse esophageal/gastric wall thickening, pancreatic solid masses and cystic-appearing lesions, mediastinal lesions unrelated to lung or esophageal cancer, cancer of the esophagus, stomach, and rectum, lymph nodes of unknown origin, adrenal gland masses, and focal liver lesions. False...

  6. Sample positioning in neutron diffraction experiments using a multi-material fiducial marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marais, D., E-mail: Deon.Marais@necsa.co.za [Research and Development Division, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) SOC Limited, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Venter, A.M., E-mail: Andrew.Venter@necsa.co.za [Research and Development Division, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) SOC Limited, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology, North-West University, Mahikeng 2790 (South Africa); Markgraaff, J., E-mail: Johan.Markgraaff@nwu.ac.za [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); James, J., E-mail: Jon.James@open.ac.uk [Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK76AA England (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    An alternative sample positioning method is reported for use in conjunction with sample positioning and experiment planning software systems deployed on some neutron diffraction strain scanners. In this approach, the spherical fiducial markers and location trackers used with optical metrology hardware are replaced with a specifically designed multi-material fiducial marker that requires one diffraction measurement. In a blind setting, the marker position can be determined within an accuracy of ±164 µm with respect to the instrument gauge volume. The scheme is based on a pre-determined relationship that links the diffracted peak intensity to the absolute positioning of the fiducial marker with respect to the instrument gauge volume. Two methods for establishing the linking relationship are presented, respectively based on fitting multi-dimensional quadratic functions and a cross-correlation artificial neural network.

  7. Sample positioning in neutron diffraction experiments using a multi-material fiducial marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, D.; Venter, A. M.; Markgraaff, J.; James, J.

    2017-01-01

    An alternative sample positioning method is reported for use in conjunction with sample positioning and experiment planning software systems deployed on some neutron diffraction strain scanners. In this approach, the spherical fiducial markers and location trackers used with optical metrology hardware are replaced with a specifically designed multi-material fiducial marker that requires one diffraction measurement. In a blind setting, the marker position can be determined within an accuracy of ±164 μm with respect to the instrument gauge volume. The scheme is based on a pre-determined relationship that links the diffracted peak intensity to the absolute positioning of the fiducial marker with respect to the instrument gauge volume. Two methods for establishing the linking relationship are presented, respectively based on fitting multi-dimensional quadratic functions and a cross-correlation artificial neural network.

  8. Gold Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Barro; Sanjay P. Misra

    2013-01-01

    From 1836 to 2011, the average real rate of price change for gold in the United States is 1.1% per year and the standard deviation is 13.1%, implying a one-standard-deviation confidence band for the mean of (0.1%, 2.1%). The covariances of gold's real rate of price change with consumption and GDP growth rates are small and statistically insignificantly different from zero. These negligible covariances suggest that gold's expected real rate of return--which includes an unobserved dividend yiel...

  9. SU-G-BRA-07: An Innovative Fiducial-Less Tracking Method for Radiation Treatment of Abdominal Tumors by Diaphragm Disparity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, D; Zhao, W [University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida (United States); Wu, X [Biophysics Research Institute of America, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of tracking abdominal tumors without the use of gold fiducial markers Methods: In this simulation study, an abdominal 4DCT dataset, acquired previously and containing 8 phases of the breathing cycle, was used as the testing data. Two sets of DRR images (45 and 135 degrees) were generated for each phase. Three anatomical points along the lung-diaphragm interface on each of the Digital Reconstructed Radiograph(DRR) images were identified by cross-correlation. The gallbladder, which simulates the tumor, was contoured for each phase of the breathing cycle and the corresponding centroid values serve as the measured center of the tumor. A linear model was created to correlate the diaphragm’s disparity of the three identified anatomical points with the center of the tumor. To verify the established linear model, we sequentially removed one phase of the data (i.e., 3 anatomical points and the corresponding tumor center) and created new linear models with the remaining 7 phases. Then we substituted the eliminated phase data (disparities of the 3 anatomical points) into the corresponding model to compare model-generated tumor center and the measured tumor center. Results: The maximum difference between the modeled and the measured centroid values across the 8 phases were 0.72, 0.29 and 0.30 pixels in the x, y and z directions respectively, which yielded a maximum mean-squared-error value of 0.75 pixels. The outcomes of the verification process, by eliminating each phase, produced mean-squared-errors ranging from 0.41 to 1.28 pixels. Conclusion: Gold fiducial markers, requiring surgical procedures to be implanted, are conventionally used in radiation therapy. The present work shows the feasibility of a fiducial-less tracking method for localizing abdominal tumors. Through developed diaphragm disparity analysis, the established linear model was verified with clinically accepted errors. The tracking method in real time under different

  10. Liquid fiducial marker applicability in proton therapy of locally advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherman Rydhög, Jonas; Perrin, Rosalind; Jølck, Rasmus Irming

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: We investigated the clinical applicability of a novel liquid fiducial marker (LFM) for image-guided pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton therapy (PBSPT) of locally advanced lung cancer (LALC). Materials and methods: The relative proton stopping power (RSP) of the LFM was calcu......Background and purpose: We investigated the clinical applicability of a novel liquid fiducial marker (LFM) for image-guided pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton therapy (PBSPT) of locally advanced lung cancer (LALC). Materials and methods: The relative proton stopping power (RSP) of the LFM...

  11. Optical fiducial timing system for X-ray streak cameras with aluminum coated optical fiber ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, David G.; Campbell, E. Michael; MacGowan, Brian J.; Medecki, Hector

    1988-01-01

    An optical fiducial timing system is provided for use with interdependent groups of X-ray streak cameras (18). The aluminum coated (80) ends of optical fibers (78) are positioned with the photocathodes (20, 60, 70) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). The other ends of the optical fibers (78) are placed together in a bundled array (90). A fiducial optical signal (96), that is comprised of 2.omega. or 1.omega. laser light, after introduction to the bundled array (90), travels to the aluminum coated (82) optical fiber ends and ejects quantities of electrons (84) that are recorded on the data recording media (52) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). Since both 2.omega. and 1.omega. laser light can travel long distances in optical fiber with only a slight attenuation, the initial arial power density of the fiducial optical signal (96) is well below the damage threshold of the fused silica or other material that comprises the optical fibers (78, 90). Thus the fiducial timing system can be repeatably used over long durations of time.

  12. A nonparametric fiducial interval for the Youden index in multi-state diagnostic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterton, Katherine A; Schubert, Christine M

    2016-01-15

    The Youden index is a commonly employed metric to characterize the performance of a diagnostic test at its optimal point. For tests with three or more outcome classes, the Youden index has been extended; however, there are limited methods to compute a confidence interval (CI) about its value. Often, outcome classes are assumed to be normally distributed, which facilitates computational formulas for the CI bounds; however, many scenarios exist for which these assumptions cannot be made. In addition, many of these existing CI methods do not work well for small sample sizes. We propose a method to compute a nonparametric interval about the Youden index utilizing the fiducial argument. This fiducial interval ensures that CI coverage is met regardless of sample size, underlying distributional assumptions, or use of a complex classifier for diagnosis. Two alternate fiducial intervals are also considered. A simulation was conducted, which demonstrates the coverage and interval length for the proposed methods. Comparisons were made using no distributional assumptions on the outcome classes and for when outcomes were assumed to be normally distributed. In general, coverage probability was consistently met, and interval length was reasonable. The proposed fiducial method was also demonstrated in data examining biomarkers in subjects to predict diagnostic stages ranging from normal kidney function to chronic allograph nephropathy. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Creating a distortion characterisation dataset for visual band cameras using fiducial markers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jermy, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available . This will allow other researchers to perform the same steps and create better algorithms to accurately locate fiducial markers and calibrate cameras. A second dataset that can be used to assess the accuracy of the stereo vision of two calibrated cameras is also...

  14. Liquid fiducial marker performance during radiotherapy of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydhög, Jonas Scherman; Mortensen, Steen Riisgaard; Larsen, Klaus Richter

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the positional and structural stability of a long-term biodegradable liquid fiducial marker (BioXmark) for radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced lung cancer. Markers were injected via endoscopic- or endobronchial ultrasound in lymph nodes and reachable primary tumours. Marker...

  15. Gold Museum

    OpenAIRE

    Efraín Sánchez Cabra

    2003-01-01

    On 22 december 1939, the Banco de la República, the Central Bank of Colombia, purchased a 23.5 centimetres high pre-Columbian gold arte fact weighing 777·7 grams that was to become the Gold M useum's foundation stone. Described as a Quimbaya poporo, it is a masterpiece of pre-Hispanic goldwork, an object of beauty whose brightly burnished body and neck, crowned with four sphere-like or naments, rest on an exquisite cast metal tiligree base and which seems to ftoat in a space of its own. The b...

  16. Effect of Gold Marker Seeds on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Murshed, E-mail: Murshed.Hossain@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schirmer, Timo [Global MR Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Munich (Germany); Richardson, Theresa; Chen, Lili; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Ma Changming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance stereoscopic imaging (MRSI) of the prostate is an emerging technique that may enhance targeting and assessment in radiotherapy. Current practices in radiotherapy invariably involve image guidance. Gold seed fiducial markers are often used to perform daily prostate localization. If MRSI is to be used in targeting prostate cancer and therapy assessment, the impact of gold seeds on MRSI must be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of gold seeds on the quality of MRSI data acquired in phantom experiments. Methods and Materials: A cylindrical plastic phantom with a spherical cavity 10 centimeters in diameter wss filled with water solution containing choline, creatine, and citrate. A gold seed fiducial marker was put near the center of the phantom mounted on a plastic stem. Spectra were acquired at 1.5 Tesla by use of a clinical MRSI sequence. The ratios of choline + creatine to citrate (CC/Ci) were compared in the presence and absence of gold seeds. Spectra in the vicinity of the gold seed were analyzed. Results: The maximum coefficient of variation of CC/Ci induced by the gold seed was found to be 10% in phantom experiments at 1.5 T. Conclusion: MRSI can be used in prostate radiotherapy in the presence of gold seed markers. Gold seeds cause small effects (in the order of the standard deviation) on the ratio of the metabolite's CC/Ci in the phantom study done on a 1.5-T scanner. It is expected that gold seed markers will have similar negligible effect on spectra from prostate patients. The maximum of 10% of variation in CC/Ci found in the phantom study also sets a limit on the threshold accuracy of CC/Ci values for deciding whether the tissue characterized by a local spectrum is considered malignant and whether it is a candidate for local boost in radiotherapy dose.

  17. Effect of Gold Marker Seeds on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Murshed; Schirmer, Timo; Richardson, Theresa; Chen, Lili; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Ma Changming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance stereoscopic imaging (MRSI) of the prostate is an emerging technique that may enhance targeting and assessment in radiotherapy. Current practices in radiotherapy invariably involve image guidance. Gold seed fiducial markers are often used to perform daily prostate localization. If MRSI is to be used in targeting prostate cancer and therapy assessment, the impact of gold seeds on MRSI must be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of gold seeds on the quality of MRSI data acquired in phantom experiments. Methods and Materials: A cylindrical plastic phantom with a spherical cavity 10 centimeters in diameter wss filled with water solution containing choline, creatine, and citrate. A gold seed fiducial marker was put near the center of the phantom mounted on a plastic stem. Spectra were acquired at 1.5 Tesla by use of a clinical MRSI sequence. The ratios of choline + creatine to citrate (CC/Ci) were compared in the presence and absence of gold seeds. Spectra in the vicinity of the gold seed were analyzed. Results: The maximum coefficient of variation of CC/Ci induced by the gold seed was found to be 10% in phantom experiments at 1.5 T. Conclusion: MRSI can be used in prostate radiotherapy in the presence of gold seed markers. Gold seeds cause small effects (in the order of the standard deviation) on the ratio of the metabolite's CC/Ci in the phantom study done on a 1.5-T scanner. It is expected that gold seed markers will have similar negligible effect on spectra from prostate patients. The maximum of 10% of variation in CC/Ci found in the phantom study also sets a limit on the threshold accuracy of CC/Ci values for deciding whether the tissue characterized by a local spectrum is considered malignant and whether it is a candidate for local boost in radiotherapy dose.

  18. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  19. Preclinical investigation for developing injectable fiducial markers using a mixture of BaSO{sub 4} and biodegradable polymer for proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Hee [Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Gil, Moon Soo; Lee, Doo Sung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Chemical Engineering, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Youngyih, E-mail: youngyih@skku.edu, E-mail: Hee.ro.Park@samsung.com; Park, Hee Chul, E-mail: youngyih@skku.edu, E-mail: Hee.ro.Park@samsung.com; Yu, Jeong Il; Noh, Jae Myoung; Cho, Jun Sang; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Jason W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Kim, Hye Yeong; Shin, Eun Hyuk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the use of mixture of BaSO{sub 4} and biodegradable polymer as an injectable nonmetallic fiducial marker to reduce artifacts in x-ray images, decrease the absorbed dose distortion in proton therapy, and replace permanent metal markers. Methods: Two samples were made with 90 wt. % polymer phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and 10 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} (B1) or 20 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} (B2). Two animal models (mice and rats) were used. To test the injectability and in vivo gelation, a volume of 200 μl at a pH 5.8 were injected into the Sprague-Dawley rats. After sacrificing the rats over time, the authors checked the gel morphology. Detectability of the markers in the x-ray images was tested for two sizes (diameters of 1 and 2 mm) for B1 and B2. Four samples were injected into BALB/C mice. The polymer mixed with BaSO{sub 4} transform from SOL at 20 °C with a pH of 6.0 to GEL in the living body at 37 °C with a pH of 7.4, so the size of the fiducial marker could be controlled by adjusting the injected volume. The detectability of the BaSO{sub 4} marker was measured in x-ray images of cone beam CT (CBCT), on-board imager [anterior–posterior (AP), lateral], and fluoroscopy (AP, lateral) using a Novalis-TX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) repeatedly over 4 months. The volume, HU, and artifacts for the markers were measured in the CBCT images. Artifacts were compared to those of gold marker by analyzing the HU distribution. The dose distortion in proton therapy was computed by using a Monte Carlo (MC) code. A cylindrical shaped marker (diameter: 1 or 2 mm, length: 3 mm) made of gold, stainless-steel [304], titanium, and 20 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} was positioned at the center of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) in parallel or perpendicular to the beam entrance. The dose distortion was measured on the depth dose profile across the markers. Results: Transformation to GEL and the biodegradation were verified. All BaSO{sub 4} markers

  20. A fiducial detection algorithm for real-time image guided IMRT based on simultaneous MV and kV imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weihua; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Louis; Wiersma, Rodney; Xing, Lei

    2008-08-01

    The advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as 3DCRT and IMRT is limited by intrafraction organ motion. A new approach to gain near real-time 3D positions of internally implanted fiducial markers is to analyze simultaneous onboard kV beam and treatment MV beam images (from fluoroscopic or electronic portal image devices). Before we can use this real-time image guidance for clinical 3DCRT and IMRT treatments, four outstanding issues need to be addressed. (1) How will fiducial motion blur the image and hinder tracking fiducials? kV and MV images are acquired while the tumor is moving at various speeds. We find that a fiducial can be successfully detected at a maximum linear speed of 1.6 cm/s. (2) How does MV beam scattering affect kV imaging? We investigate this by varying MV field size and kV source to imager distance, and find that common treatment MV beams do not hinder fiducial detection in simultaneous kV images. (3) How can one detect fiducials on images from 3DCRT and IMRT treatment beams when the MV fields are modified by a multileaf collimator (MLC)? The presented analysis is capable of segmenting a MV field from the blocking MLC and detecting visible fiducials. This enables the calculation of nearly real-time 3D positions of markers during a real treatment. (4) Is the analysis fast enough to track fiducials in nearly real time? Multiple methods are adopted to predict marker positions and reduce search regions. The average detection time per frame for three markers in a 1024 x 768 image was reduced to 0.1 s or less. Solving these four issues paves the way to tracking moving fiducial markers throughout a 3DCRT or IMRT treatment. Altogether, these four studies demonstrate that our algorithm can track fiducials in real time, on degraded kV images (MV scatter), in rapidly moving tumors (fiducial blurring), and even provide useful information in the case when some fiducials are blocked from view by the MLC. This technique can provide a gating signal or

  1. Evaluation of usability both oblique verification for inserted fiducial marker of prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Koon Joo; Lee, Jung Jin; Kim, Sung Gi; Lim, Hyun Sil; Kim, Wan Sun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Su Man [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The way check the movement of the fiducial marker insertion in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. However the existing methods of fiducial marker verification process difficult to identify the specific location of the marker behind the femur and pelvic bone. So to study the evaluation of maker match with using kilo voltage (KV) X-ray by On-board imager to both oblique verification method. Five patients were selected for rectal ballooning and inserted fiducial marker. Compare the position of the fiducial marker of reference plan 2D/2D Anterior/Posterior verification method and 2D/2D both oblique verification method. So to measurement the shift score of X, Y, Z (axis) and measure exposure dose given to patients and compare matching time. 2 dimensional OBI KV X-ray imaging using two-dimensional matching image are orthogonal, so locating fiducial marker matching clear and useful DRR (digital reconstruction radiography) OBI source angle (45 degrees/315 degrees) matching most useful. 2D/2D both oblique verification method was able to see clearly marker behind the pelvic bone. Also matching time can be reduced accordingly. According to the method of each matching results for each patient in each treatment fraction, X, Y, and Z axis the Mean value±SD (standard deviation) is X axis (AP/LAT: 0.4±1.67, OBLIQUE: 0.4±1.82) mm, Y axis (AP/LAT: 0.7±1.73, OBLIQUE: 0.2±1.77) mm, Z axis (AP/LAT: 0.8±1.94, OBLIQUE:1.5±2.8) mm. In addition, the KV X-ray source dose radiation exposure given to the patient taking average when AP/LAT matching is (0.1/2.1) cGY, when 315 degrees/45 degrees matching is (0.27/0.26) cg. In conclusion for inserted fiducial marker of prostate cancer patients 2D/2D both oblique matching method is more accurate verification than 2D/2D AP/LAT matching method. Also the matching time less than the 2D/2D AP/LAT matching method. Taken as the amount of radiation exposure to patients less than was possible. Suggest would improve the treatment quality

  2. Cardiac embolization of an implanted fiducial marker for hepatic stereotactic body radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessey Hooman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In liver stereotactic body radiotherapy, reduction of normal tissue irradiation requires daily image guidance. This is typically accomplished by imaging a surrogate to the tumor. The surrogate is often an implanted metal fiducial marker. There are few reports addressing the specific risks of hepatic fiducial marker implantation. These risks are assumed to be similar to percutaneous liver biopsies which are associated with a 1-4% complication rate - almost always pain or bleeding. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of such a fiducial marker migrating to the heart. Case presentation An 81-year-old Caucasian man (5 years post-gastrectomy for a gastric adenocarcinoma was referred post-second line palliative chemotherapy for radiotherapy of an isolated liver metastasis. It was decided to proceed with treatment and platinum fiducials were chosen for radiation targeting. Under local anesthesia, three Nester embolization coils (Cook Medical Inc., Bloomington, IN, USA were implanted under computed tomography guidance. Before the placement of each coil, the location of the tip of the delivery needle was confirmed by computed tomography imaging. During the procedure, the third coil unexpectedly migrated through the hepatic vein to the inferior vena cava and lodged at the junction of the vena cava and the right atrium. The patient remained asymptomatic. He was immediately referred to angiography for extraction of the coil. Using fluoroscopic guidance, an EN Snare Retrieval System (Hatch Medical L.L.C., Snellville, GA, USA was introduced through a jugular catheter; it successfully grasped the coil and the coil was removed. The patient was kept overnight for observation and no immediate or delayed complications were encountered due to the migration or retrieval of the coil. He subsequently went on to be treated using the remaining fiducials. Conclusion Implanted fiducial markers are increasingly used for stereotactic

  3. 4D cone-beam CT imaging for guidance in radiation therapy: setup verification by use of implanted fiducial markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; van Wieringen, Niek; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Bel, Arjan; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    The use of 4D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fiducial markers for guidance during radiation therapy of mobile tumors is challenging due to the trade-off between image quality, imaging dose, and scanning time. We aimed to investigate the visibility of markers and the feasibility of marker-based 4D registration and manual respiration-induced marker motion quantification for different CBCT acquisition settings. A dynamic thorax phantom and a patient with implanted gold markers were included. For both the phantom and patient, the peak-to-peak amplitude of marker motion in the cranial-caudal direction ranged from 5.3 to 14.0 mm, which did not affect the marker visibility and the associated marker-based registration feasibility. While using a medium field of view (FOV) and the same total imaging dose as is applied for 3D CBCT scanning in our clinic, it was feasible to attain an improved marker visibility by reducing the imaging dose per projection and increasing the number of projection images. For a small FOV with a shorter rotation arc but similar total imaging dose, streak artifacts were reduced due to using a smaller sampling angle. Additionally, the use of a small FOV allowed reducing total imaging dose and scanning time (~2.5 min) without losing the marker visibility. In conclusion, by using 4D CBCT with identical or lower imaging dose and a reduced gantry speed, it is feasible to attain sufficient marker visibility for marker-based 4D setup verification. Moreover, regardless of the settings, manual marker motion quantification can achieve a high accuracy with the error <1.2 mm.

  4. Conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: contribution of pelvic immobilization and new fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Oozeer, R.; Le Thanh, H.; Chauvet, B.; Toy, B.J.; Reboul, F.

    1997-01-01

    To reduce errors in the positioning of patients treated with external conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, we evaluated both the use of an immobilization device and new fiducial markers. The immobilization device consisted of an individual mold made of polyurethane foam. Two sets of skin markers located on the anterior tibial surfaces were used to identify the pelvic isocenter. The patient's position was evaluated by orthogonal port film which were then compared with the original simulation film. Results are presented with respect to orthogonal axes. Comparison with classic procedures without immobilization showed that use of the mold and new fiducial markers led to a decrease in set-up errors which were less than 5 mm. With the use of an immobilization device and optimized techniques for patients' positioning, conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer is more accurate. (authors)

  5. Clinical Introduction of a Novel Liquid Fiducial Marker for Breathing Adapted Radiotherapy of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydhog, Jonas Scherman

    .g. the heart and the lungs. Breathing adaptation and fiducial markers are tools which can increase precision in lung cancer radiotherapy. The primary aim of this thesis was to evaluate a novel liquid fiducial marker in both a pre-clinical and a clinical setting. The marker was tested rigorously for visibility......, possible dose perturbation and volumetric changes. We found that the liquid fiducial marker was an excellent alternative to solid fiducial markers. It showed small dose perturbations in proton therapy, was volumetrically stable during several weeks of radiotherapy and functioned well as a surrogate...... for the tumour position in lung cancer patients. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential benefit of a breathing adaptation technique, where patients hold their breath during treatment delivery. We found that this technique reduced both tumour motion and doses to risk organs. Finally, we investigated...

  6. Development and clinical evaluation of automatic fiducial detection for tumor tracking in cine megavoltage images during volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcona, Juan Diego; Li Ruijiang; Mok, Edward; Hancock, Steven; Xing Lei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time tracking of implanted fiducials in cine megavoltage (MV) imaging during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery is complicated due to the inherent low contrast of MV images and potential blockage of dynamic leaves configurations. The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically practical autodetection algorithm for motion management during VMAT. Methods: The expected field-specific segments and the planned fiducial position from the Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) treatment planning system were projected onto the MV images. The fiducials were enhanced by applying a Laplacian of Gaussian filter in the spatial domain for each image, with a blob-shaped object as the impulse response. The search of implanted fiducials was then performed on a region of interest centered on the projection of the fiducial when it was within an open field including the case when it was close to the field edge or partially occluded by the leaves. A universal template formula was proposed for template matching and normalized cross correlation was employed for its simplicity and computational efficiency. The search region for every image was adaptively updated through a prediction model that employed the 3D position of the fiducial estimated from the localized positions in previous images. This prediction model allowed the actual fiducial position to be tracked dynamically and was used to initialize the search region. The artifacts caused by electronic interference during the acquisition were effectively removed. A score map was computed by combining both morphological information and image intensity. The pixel location with the highest score was selected as the detected fiducial position. The sets of cine MV images taken during treatment were analyzed with in-house developed software written in MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA). Five prostate patients were analyzed to assess the algorithm performance by measuring their positioning

  7. Development and evaluation of automatic registration system for multi-range fiducials applied to augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake; Yang, Shoufeng; Yan, Weida; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an automatic registration system was developed that can measure 3 dimensional position and orientation of multi-range fiducials automatically using a camera, laser range finder and motion bases connected to a computer. Result of the experimental evaluation shows that the measurement takes about 50 seconds per marker and RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of the position and orientation measurement are 3.5 mm and 1.2 degrees respectively. (author)

  8. Development of wide area tracking method for augmented reality using multi-range fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake; Fujino, Hidenori; Yan, Weida; Yang, Shoufeng; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    A new fiducial marker for augmented reality was designed along with a method that recognizes the markers captured by a camera and calculates the relative position and orientation between the markers and the camera. These markers can be used at both long and short distances without increasing the number of markers pasted in the environment. Results of the experimental evaluation show that the new marker can be used in a larger area than circular markers and more stably than square markers. (author)

  9. Orthogonal Rings, Fiducial Markers, and Overlay Accuracy When Image Fusion is Used for EVAR Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutouzi, G; Sandström, C; Roos, H; Henrikson, O; Leonhardt, H; Falkenberg, M

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of orthogonal rings, fiducial markers, and overlay accuracy when image fusion is used for endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). This was a prospective single centre study. In 19 patients undergoing standard EVAR, 3D image fusion was used for intra-operative guidance. Renal arteries and targeted stent graft positions were marked with rings orthogonal to the respective centre lines from pre-operative computed tomography (CT). Radiopaque reference objects attached to the back of the patient were used as fiducial markers to detect patient movement intra-operatively. Automatic 3D-3D registration of the pre-operative CT with an intra-operative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as well as 3D-3D registration after manual alignment of nearby vertebrae were evaluated. Registration was defined as being sufficient for EVAR guidance if the deviation of the origin of the lower renal artery was less than 3 mm. For final overlay registration, the renal arteries were manually aligned using aortic calcification and vessel outlines. The accuracy of the overlay before stent graft deployment was evaluated using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as direct comparison. Fiducial markers helped in detecting misalignment caused by patient movement during the procedure. Use of automatic intensity based registration alone was insufficient for EVAR guidance. Manual registration based on vertebrae L1-L2 was sufficient in 7/19 patients (37%). Using the final adjusted registration as overlay, the median alignment error of the lower renal artery marking at pre-deployment DSA was 2 mm (0-5) sideways and 2 mm (0-9) longitudinally, mostly in a caudal direction. 3D image fusion can facilitate intra-operative guidance during EVAR. Orthogonal rings and fiducial markers are useful for visualization and overlay correction. However, the accuracy of the overlaid 3D image is not always ideal and further technical development is needed. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery

  10. Research of time fiducial and imaging VISAR laser for Shenguang-III laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhenguo; Tian, Xiaocheng; Zhou, Dandan; Zhu, Na; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Mingzhong; Xu, Dangpeng; Dang, Zhao; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo; Wang, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Time fiducial laser is an important tool for the precise measurement in high energy density physics experiments. The VISAR probe laser is also vital for shock wave diagnostics in ICF experiments. Here, time fiducial laser and VISAR light were generated from one source on SG-III laser facility. After generated from a 1064-nm DFB laser, the laser is modulated by an amplitude modulator driven by 10 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator. Using time division multiplexing technology, the ten-pulse time fiducial laser and the 20-ns VISAR pulse were split by a 1×2 multiplexer and then chosen by two acoustic optic modulators. Using the technique, cost of the system was reduced. The technologies adopted in the system also include pulse polarization stabilization, high precision fiber coupling and energy transmission. The time fiducial laser generated synchronized 12-beam 2ω and 4-beam 3ω laser, providing important reference marks for different detectors and making it convenient for the analysis of diagnostic data. After being amplified by fiber amplifiers and Nd:YAG rod amplifiers, the VISAR laser pulse was frequency-converted to 532-nm pulse by a thermally controlled LBO crystal with final output energy larger than 20 mJ. Finally, the green light was coupled into a 1-mm core diameter, multimode fused silica optical fiber and propagated to the imaging VISAR. The VISAR laser has been used in the VISAR diagnostic physics experiments. Shock wave loading and slowdown processes were measured. Function to measure velocity history of shock wave front movement in different kinds of materials was added to the SG-III laser facility.

  11. Planning target volume margins for prostate radiotherapy using daily electronic portal imaging and implanted fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarsgard, David; Cadman, Pat; El-Gayed, Ali; Pearcey, Robert; Tai, Patricia; Pervez, Nadeem; Wu, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Fiducial markers and daily electronic portal imaging (EPI) can reduce the risk of geographic miss in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to estimate CTV to PTV margin requirements, without and with the use of this image guidance strategy. 46 patients underwent placement of 3 radio-opaque fiducial markers prior to prostate RT. Daily pre-treatment EPIs were taken, and isocenter placement errors were corrected if they were ≥ 3 mm along the left-right or superior-inferior axes, and/or ≥ 2 mm along the anterior-posterior axis. During-treatment EPIs were then obtained to estimate intra-fraction motion. Without image guidance, margins of 0.57 cm, 0.79 cm and 0.77 cm, along the left-right, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior axes respectively, are required to give 95% probability of complete CTV coverage each day. With the above image guidance strategy, these margins can be reduced to 0.36 cm, 0.37 cm and 0.37 cm respectively. Correction of all isocenter placement errors, regardless of size, would permit minimal additional reduction in margins. Image guidance, using implanted fiducial markers and daily EPI, permits the use of narrower PTV margins without compromising coverage of the target, in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer

  12. MR-guided stereotactic neurosurgery-comparison of fiducial-based and anatomical landmark transformation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsche, S; Sauner, D; Maarouf, M; Hoevels, M; Luyken, K; Schulte, O; Lackner, K; Sturm, V; Treuer, H

    2004-01-01

    For application in magnetic resonance (MR) guided stereotactic neurosurgery, two methods for transformation of MR-image coordinates in stereotactic, frame-based coordinates exist: the direct stereotactic fiducial-based transformation method and the indirect anatomical landmark method. In contrast to direct stereotactic MR transformation, indirect transformation is based on anatomical landmark coregistration of stereotactic computerized tomography and non-stereotactic MR images. In a patient study, both transformation methods have been investigated with visual inspection and mutual information analysis. Comparison was done for our standard imaging protocol, including t2-weighted spin-echo as well as contrast enhanced t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. For t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, both methods showed almost similar and satisfying performance with a small, but significant advantage for fiducial-based transformation. In contrast, for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with more geometric distortions due to field inhomogenities and gradient nonlinearity than t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, mainly caused by a reduced bandwidth per pixel, anatomical landmark transformation delivered markedly better results. Here, fiducial-based transformation yielded results which are intolerable for stereotactic neurosurgery. Mean Euclidian distances between both transformation methods were 0.96 mm for t2-weighted spin-echo and 1.67 mm for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. Maximum deviations were 1.72 mm and 3.06 mm, respectively

  13. SU-E-T-507: Interfractional Variation of Fiducial Marker Position During HDR Brachytherapy with Cervical Interstitial Needle Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S; Kim, R; Benhabib, S; Araujo, J; Burnett, L; Duan, J; Popple, R; Wu, X; Cardan, R; Brezovich, I [UniversityAlabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: HDR brachytherapy using interstitial needle template for cervical cancer is commonly delivered in 4-5 fractions. Routine verification of needle positions before each fraction is often based on radiographic imaging of implanted fiducial markers. The current study evaluated interfractional displacement of implanted fiducial markers using CT images. Methods: 9 sequential patients with cervical interstitial needle implants were evaluated. The superior and inferior borders of the target volumes were defined by fiducial markers in planning CT. The implant position was verified with kV orthogonal images before each fraction. A second CT was acquired prior 3rd fraction (one or 2 days post planning CT). Distances from inferior and superior fiducial markers to pubic symphysis plane (perpendicular to vaginal obtulator)were measured. Distance from needle tip of a reference needle (next to the inferior marker) to the pubic symphysis plane was also determined. The difference in fiducial marker distance or needle tip distance between planning CT and CT prior 3rd fraction were measured to assess markers migration and needle displacement. Results: The mean inferior marker displacement was 4.5 mm and ranged 0.9 to 11.3 mm. The mean superior marker displacement was 2.7 mm and ranged 0 to 10.4 mm. There was a good association between inferior and superior marker displacement (r=0.95). Mean averaged inferior and superior marker displacement was 3.3 mm and ranged from 0.1 to 10.9 mm, with a standard deviation of 3.2 mm. The mean needle displacement was 5.6 mm and ranged 0.2 to 15.6 mm. Needle displacements were reduced (p<0.05) after adjusting according to needle-to-fiducials distance. Conclusion: There were small fiducial marker displacements between HDR fractions. Our study suggests a target margin of 9.7 mm to cover interfractional marker displacements (in 95% cases) for pretreatment verification based on radiographic imaging.

  14. Combined kV and MV imaging for real-time tracking of implanted fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, R. D.; Mao Weihua; Xing, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of intrafraction organ motion, target localization uncertainty can greatly hamper the advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). To minimize the adverse dosimetric effect caused by tumor motion, a real-time knowledge of the tumor position is required throughout the beam delivery process. The recent integration of onboard kV diagnostic imaging together with MV electronic portal imaging devices on linear accelerators can allow for real-time three-dimensional (3D) tumor position monitoring during a treatment delivery. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a near real-time 3D internal fiducial tracking system based on the combined use of kV and MV imaging. A commercially available radiotherapy system equipped with both kV and MV imaging systems was used in this work. A hardware video frame grabber was used to capture both kV and MV video streams simultaneously through independent video channels at 30 frames per second. The fiducial locations were extracted from the kV and MV images using a software tool. The geometric tracking capabilities of the system were evaluated using a pelvic phantom with embedded fiducials placed on a moveable stage. The maximum tracking speed of the kV/MV system is approximately 9 Hz, which is primarily limited by the frame rate of the MV imager. The geometric accuracy of the system is found to be on the order of less than 1 mm in all three spatial dimensions. The technique requires minimal hardware modification and is potentially useful for image-guided radiation therapy systems

  15. Minimizing fiducial localization error using sphere-based registration in jaw tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Amir H; Hannam, Alan G; Stavness, Ian K; Fels, Sidney

    2018-02-08

    Some of the jaw tracking methods may be limited in terms of their accuracy or clinical applicability. This article introduces the sphere-based registration method to minimize the fiducial (reference landmark) localization error (FLE) in tracking and coregistration of physical and virtual dental models, to enable an effective clinical analysis of the patient's masticatory functions. In this method, spheres (registration fiducials) are placed on the corresponding polygonal concavities of the physical and virtual dental models based on the geometrical principle that establishes a unique spatial position for a sphere inside an infinite trihedron. The experiments in this study were implemented using an optical system which tracked active tracking markers connected to the upper and lower dental casts. The accuracy of the tracking workflow was confirmed in vitro, based on comparing virtually calculated interocclusal regions of close proximity against the physical interocclusal impressions. The target registration error of the tracking was estimated based on the leave-one-sphere-out method to be the sum of the error of the sensors, i.e., the FLE was negligible. Moreover, based on a user study, the FLE of the proposed method was confirmed to be 5 and 10 times smaller than the FLE of conventional fiducial selections on the physical and virtual models, respectively. The proposed tracking method is non-invasive and appears to be sufficiently accurate. To conclude, the proposed registration and tracking principles can be extended to track any biomedical and non-biomedical geometries that contain polygonal concavities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The use of virtual fiducials in image-guided kidney surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Courtenay; Ong, Rowena; Simpson, Amber; Clark, Peter; Herrell, S. D.; Galloway, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The alignment of image-space to physical-space lies at the heart of all image-guided procedures. In intracranial surgery, point-based registrations can be used with either skin-affixed or bone-implanted extrinsic objects called fiducial markers. The advantages of point-based registration techniques are that they are robust, fast, and have a well developed mathematical foundation for the assessment of registration quality. In abdominal image-guided procedures such techniques have not been successful. It is difficult to accurately locate sufficient homologous intrinsic points in imagespace and physical-space, and the implantation of extrinsic fiducial markers would constitute "surgery before the surgery." Image-space to physical-space registration for abdominal organs has therefore been dominated by surfacebased registration techniques which are iterative, prone to local minima, sensitive to initial pose, and sensitive to percentage coverage of the physical surface. In our work in image-guided kidney surgery we have developed a composite approach using "virtual fiducials." In an open kidney surgery, the perirenal fat is removed and the surface of the kidney is dotted using a surgical marker. A laser range scanner (LRS) is used to obtain a surface representation and matching high definition photograph. A surface to surface registration is performed using a modified iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. The dots are extracted from the high definition image and assigned the three dimensional values from the LRS pixels over which they lie. As the surgery proceeds, we can then use point-based registrations to re-register the spaces and track deformations due to vascular clamping and surgical tractions.

  17. Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters Using Anti-fiducial Charged Current Events in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, Matthew Levy [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Abstract The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) obse rves the disappearance of muon neutrinos as they propagate in the long baseline Neutri nos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam. MINOS consists of two detectors. The near detector sam ples the initial composition of the beam. The far detector, 735 km away, looks for an energy-d ependent deficit in the neutrino spectrum. This energy-dependent deficit is interpreted as q uantum mechanical oscillations be- tween neutrino flavors. A measurement is made of the effective two-neutrino mixing parameters Δ m 2 ≈ Δ m 2 23 and sin 2 2 θ ≈ sin 2 2 θ 23 . The primary MINOS analysis uses charged current events in the fiducial volume of the far detector. This analysis uses the roughly equal-sized sample of events that fails the fiducial cut, consisting of interact ions outside the fiducial region of the detector and in the surrounding rock. These events provide a n independent and complementary measurement, albeit weaker due to incomplete reconstructi on of the events. This analysis reports on an exposure of 7 . 25 × 10 20 protons-on-target. Due to poor energy resolution, the meas urement of sin 2 2 θ is much weaker than established results, but the measuremen t of sin 2 2 θ > 0 . 56 at 90% confidence is consistent with the accepted value. The measur ement of Δ m 2 is much stronger. Assuming sin 2 2 θ = 1 , Δ m 2 = (2 . 20 ± 0 . 18[stat] ± 0 . 14[syst]) × 10 - -3 eV 2 .

  18. Gold in Modern Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryshkevych Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the role of gold in modern economy. It analyses dynamics and modern state of the gold market. It studies volumes of contracts in exchange and off-exchange markets. In order to reveal changes of key features of the gold market, it focuses on the study of gold demand volumes, studies volumes and geographical changes in the world gold mining, and analyses volumes of monetary gold of central banks and its share in gold and currency reserves. It analyses price fluctuations in the gold market during 1968 – 2013 and identifies main factors that determine the gold price. It identifies interconnection between the state of the gold market and financial markets of countries. The study showed that namely geopolitical and economic instability restricts the spectrum of financial assets for investing and gold is not only a safe investment object but also a profitable one.

  19. Use of cranial surface anatomic fiducials for interactive image-guided navigation in the temporal bone: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Foley, K T; Robertson, J H; Shea, J J

    1997-04-01

    Because of the intricate anatomy of the temporal bone, we examined the feasibility and reliability of cranial surface anatomic fiducials to register computed tomographic images of the temporal bone by using a frameless image-guided system. One-millimeter thick computed tomographic slices and the smallest possible field of view were used to register 10 dry and 10 fresh temporal bones from cadavers. The fiducials used for registration included the umbo of the tympanic membrane, emissary foramina, the asterion, various sutures, the tip of the mastoid process, and Henle's spine. Mean initial fiducial registration error ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 mm, and was reduced to 0.5 and 0.4 mm for the dry cranial and cadaveric studies, respectively, by eliminating or reregistering inexact fiducials. Mean target localization error ranged from 0.91 to 2.44 mm for superficial structures of the temporal bone in the dry cranial specimens and from 0.71 to 1.52 mm for deep structures such as the facial nerve, semicircular canals and ossicles in the cadaveric study. Interactive image-guided navigation in the temporal bone is possible with registration of cranial surface anatomic fiducials. It may be useful to the neurosurgeon and otologist in identifying critical anatomic structures of the temporal bone encountered during the translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthine presigmoid, and suboccipital approaches.

  20. Consequences of fiducial marker error on three-dimensional computer animation of the temporomandibular joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, J. Ken, III; Boston, J. Robert; Rudy, Thomas E.; Greco, Carol M.; Zaki, Hussein S.

    2001-05-01

    Jaw motion has been used to diagnose jaw pain patients, and we have developed a 3D computer animation technique to study jaw motion. A customized dental clutch was worn during motion, and its consistent and rigid placement was a concern. The experimental protocol involved mandibular movements (vertical opening) and MR imaging. The clutch contained three motion markers used to collect kinematic data and four MR markers used as fiducial markers in the MR images. Fiducial marker misplacement was mimicked by analytically perturbing the position of the MR markers +/- 2, +/- 4, and +/- 6 degrees in the three anatomical planes. The percent difference between the original and perturbed MR marker position was calculated for kinematic parameters. The maximum difference across all perturbations for axial rotation, coronal rotation, sagittal rotation, axial translation, coronal translation, and sagittal translation were 176.85%, 191.84%, 0.64%, 9.76%, 80.75%, and 8.30%, respectively, for perturbing all MR markers, and 86.47%, 93.44%, 0.23%, 7.08%, 42.64%, and 13.64%, respectively, for perturbing one MR marker. The parameters representing movement in the sagittal plane, the dominant plane in vertical opening, were determined to be reasonably robust, while secondary movements in the axial and coronal planes were not considered robust.

  1. Magnetic measurement, fiducialization and alignment of large dipoles for the MIT-Bates SHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkhondeh, M.; Dow, K.A.; Sapp, W.W.; Zumbro, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The South Hall Ring (SHR) lattice uses sixteen large dipoles originally designed for the Princeton-Pennsylvania Accelerator. These 3.6m long, 30 ton dipoles have bend radii of over 9 meters and gaps of only 7.6cm. The requirement that the four dipoles be powered in series, as well as other restrictions, resulted in magnetic and mechanical alignment tolerances which are very demanding for magnets of this size and shape. Two independent methods were used for measurement of the field integral along the design orbit. Field integrals were measured on all dipoles using a long coil excited by ramping the field. On four dipoles, the integrals were also measured using Hall probes moving along the design orbit. The techniques and results will be presented. The fiducialization of these dipoles was accomplished using precision-machined fixtures and the SLAC computer-aided Industrial Measurement System. Position corrections due to different measured effective lengths of these magnets will be discussed, and details of fiducialization and alignment will be presented

  2. Comparison of respiratory surrogates for gated lung radiotherapy without internal fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korreman, S.; Mostafavi, H.; Le, Q.T.; Boyer, A.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to compare the ability of two respiratory surrogates to mimic actual lung tumor motion during audio coaching. The investigation employed video clips acquired after patients had had fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors to be used for image-guided stereoscopic radiotherapy. The positions of the markers in the clips were measured within the video frames and used as the standard for tumor volume motion. An external marker was tracked optically during the fluoroscopic acquisitions. An image correlation technique was developed to compute a gating signal from the fluoroscopic images. The correlation gating trace was similar to the optical gating trace in the phase regions of the respiratory cycle used for gating. A cross correlation analysis and comparison of the external optical marker gating with internal fluoroscopic gating was performed. The fluoroscopic image correlation surrogate was found to be superior to the external optical surrogate in the AP-views in four out of six cases. In one of the remaining two cases, the two surrogates performed comparably, while in the last case, the external fiducial trace performed best. It was concluded that fluoroscopic gating based on correlation of native image features in the fluoroscopic images will be adequate for respiratory gating

  3. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...... value maximization forces the manager of high type to extract the gold.The implications are three-fold. First, all managers (except the lowest type) extract the gold too soon compared to the first-best policy of leaving the gold in the mine forever. Second, a manager of high type extracts the gold......  Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...

  4. Usability of 2D/2D Match for Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) of Prostate Cancer with Fiducial Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sun Myung; Song, Heung Kwon; Back, Geum Mun; Yang, Oh Nam

    2010-01-01

    To study the efficacy of marker match with using kilovoltage (KV) X-ray among multiple image guidance that referring tree fiducial marker in radiation therapy for prostate cancer patients. KV two-dimentional images (anterior-posterior, right-left) and cone-beam CT volumetric images were acquired after setup for patients with three fiducial markers. Compare the position of the fiducial marker of reference plan computed tomography (CT) and of KV, CBCT images; then decide the shift score of X, Y, and Z. This study executed 5 times on 10 patients and analyzed the shift value. In the radiation therapy using fiducial marker, The function of marker match showed the same direction tendency as the CBCT, and showed X, Y, Z difference of about 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8 (unit: mm). Comparing to this, the result of shift value using 2D marker match showed less than 1.0 mm difference. The function of marker match is considered more useful in time-wise and effective dose rather than CBCT. Therefore, Both methods are used to treat patients for prostate cancer.

  5. Quantification of respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion using fiducial markers and four-dimensional computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Peng; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; de Jong, Rianne; van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Bel, Arjan; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Respiration-induced tumor motion is an important geometrical uncertainty in esophageal cancer radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify this motion using fiducial markers and four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Twenty esophageal cancer patients underwent endoscopy-guided

  6. ZZ production at the LHC: Fiducial cross sections and distributions in NNLO QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Grazzini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider QCD radiative corrections to the production of four charged leptons in the ZZ signal region at the LHC. We report on the complete calculation of the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO corrections to this process in QCD perturbation theory. Numerical results are presented for s=8 TeV, using typical selection cuts applied by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations. The NNLO corrections increase the NLO fiducial cross section by about 15%, and they have a relatively small impact on the shape of the considered kinematical distributions. In the case of the ΔΦ distribution of the two Z candidates, the computed corrections improve the agreement of the theoretical prediction with the CMS data.

  7. Multivariate analysis for the estimation of target localization errors in fiducial marker-based radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Masanori [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: m-nkmr@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Akimoto, Mami; Ueki, Nami; Yamada, Masahiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Tanabe, Hiroaki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Kokubo, Masaki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe 650-0047, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Itoh, Akio [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the target localization error (TLE) in terms of the distance between the target and the localization point estimated from the surrogates (|TMD|), the average of respiratory motion for the surrogates and the target (|aRM|), and the number of fiducial markers used for estimating the target (n). Methods: This study enrolled 17 lung cancer patients who subsequently underwent four fractions of real-time tumor tracking irradiation. Four or five fiducial markers were implanted around the lung tumor. The three-dimensional (3D) distance between the tumor and markers was at maximum 58.7 mm. One of the markers was used as the target (P{sub t}), and those markers with a 3D |TMD{sub n}| ≤ 58.7 mm at end-exhalation were then selected. The estimated target position (P{sub e}) was calculated from a localization point consisting of one to three markers except P{sub t}. Respiratory motion for P{sub t} and P{sub e} was defined as the root mean square of each displacement, and |aRM| was calculated from the mean value. TLE was defined as the root mean square of each difference between P{sub t} and P{sub e} during the monitoring of each fraction. These procedures were performed repeatedly using the remaining markers. To provide the best guidance on the answer with n and |TMD|, fiducial markers with a 3D |aRM ≥ 10 mm were selected. Finally, a total of 205, 282, and 76 TLEs that fulfilled the 3D |TMD| and 3D |aRM| criteria were obtained for n = 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was used to evaluate TLE as a function of |TMD| and |aRM| in each n. Results: |TMD| for n = 1 was larger than that for n = 3. Moreover, |aRM| was almost constant for all n, indicating a similar scale for the marker’s motion near the lung tumor. MRA showed that |aRM| in the left–right direction was the major cause of TLE; however, the contribution made little difference to the 3D TLE because of the small amount of motion in the left–right direction. The TLE

  8. Indoor localization using pedestrian dead reckoning updated with RFID-based fiducials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Samuel; Connell, Sean; Milligan, Ian; Austin, Daniel; Hayes, Tamara L; Chiang, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We describe a low-cost wearable system that tracks the location of individuals indoors using commonly available inertial navigation sensors fused with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags placed around the smart environment. While conventional pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) calculated with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is susceptible to sensor drift inaccuracies, the proposed wearable prototype fuses the drift-sensitive IMU with a RFID tag reader. Passive RFID tags placed throughout the smart-building then act as fiducial markers that update the physical locations of each user, thereby correcting positional errors and sensor inaccuracy. Experimental measurements taken for a 55 m × 20 m 2D floor space indicate an over 1200% improvement in average error rate of the proposed RFID-fused system over dead reckoning alone.

  9. Fully automatic segmentation of arbitrarily shaped fiducial markers in cone-beam CT projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertholet, Jenny; Wan, Hanlin; Toftegaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Radio-opaque fiducial markers of different shapes are often implanted in or near abdominal or thoracic tumors to act as surrogates for the tumor position during radiotherapy. They can be used for real-time treatment adaptation, but this requires a robust, automatic segmentation method able...... to handle arbitrarily shaped markers in a rotational imaging geometry such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection images and intra-treatment images. In this study, we propose a fully automatic dynamic programming (DP) assisted template-based (TB) segmentation method. Based on an initial DP...... segmentation, the DPTB algorithm generates and uses a 3D marker model to create 2D templates at any projection angle. The 2D templates are used to segment the marker position as the position with highest normalized cross-correlation in a search area centered at the DP segmented position. The accuracy of the DP...

  10. The use of fiducial markers in image-guided radiotherapy for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, Joseph; Hamilton, Chris; Glance, Simon; Chandran, Sujievvan; Vaughan, Rhys

    2013-01-01

    The use of fiducial markers (FM) in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) to increase treatment precision is emerging for upper gastrointestinal malignancies. To our knowledge there is no data beyond technical reports for the use of FMs in IGRT for gastric cancers in the current literature. We report a case of an 89-year old gentleman with localised gastric cancer who was deemed unfit for surgery and chemotherapy. He had FMs inserted endoscopically around the tumour via ultrasound guidance and received radiotherapy with a high-dose palliative intent via a two-phase technique to 54Gy in 30 fractions with IGRT. The use of FMs allowed confidence in tumour delineation and together with IGRT enabled precise and safe delivery of a higher dose. The patient tolerated the treatment without significant toxicity and had no evidence of residual or recurrent tumour 12months following radiotherapy. The use of FMs with IGRT in upper gastrointestinal malignancies warrants further collaborative studies.

  11. Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Freilich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT for bladder cancer.Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol.Results Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06. In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol.Conclusions Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost.

  12. Respiration induced fiducial motion tracking in ultrasound using an extended SFA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kunlin; Bednarz, Bryan; Smith, L. S.; Foo, Thomas K. F.; Patwardhan, Kedar A.

    2015-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays an essential role in the management of cancers. The precision of the treatment delivery process in chest and abdominal cancers is often impeded by respiration induced tumor positional variations, which are accounted for by using larger therapeutic margins around the tumor volume leading to sub-optimal treatment deliveries and risk to healthy tissue. Real-time tracking of tumor motion during RT will help reduce unnecessary margin area and benefit cancer patients by allowing the treatment volume to closely match the positional variation of the tumor volume over time. In this work, we propose a fast approach which enables transferring the pre-estimated target (e.g. tumor) motion extracted from ultrasound (US) image sequences in training stage (e.g. before RT) to online data in real-time (e.g. acquired during RT). The method is based on extracting feature points of the target object, exploiting low-dimensional description of the feature motion through slow feature analysis, and finding the most similar image frame from training data for estimating current/online object location. The approach is evaluated on two 2D + time and one 3D + time US acquisitions. The locations of six annotated fiducials are used for designing experiments and validating tracking accuracy. The average fiducial distance between expert's annotation and the location extracted from our indexed training frame is 1.9+/-0.5mm. Adding a fast template matching procedure within a small search range reduces the distance to 1.4+/-0.4mm. The tracking time per frame is on the order of millisecond, which is below the frame acquisition time.

  13. Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freilich, Jessica M.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Shi, Ellen J.; Hunt, Dylan C.; Gupta, Shilpa; Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richard.wilder@moffitt.org [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder cancer; Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost) on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06). In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol: Conclusions: Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost. (author)

  14. A new fiducial marker for Image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer: Clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Holmberg, Mats; Hoejkjaer Larsen, Erik; Fabrin, Knud; Fisker, Rune V.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A new fiducial marker for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) based on a removable prostate stent made of Ni Ti has been developed during two previous clinical feasibility studies. The marker is currently being evaluated for IGRT treatment in a third clinical study. Method. The new marker is used to co-register MR and planning CT scans with high accuracy in the region around the prostate. The co-registered MR-CT volumes are used for delineation of GTV before planning. In each treatment session the IGRT system is used to position the patient before treatment. The IGRT system use a stereo pair of kV images matched to corresponding Digital Reconstructed Radiograms (DRR) from the planning CT scan. The match is done using mutual gray scale information. The pair of DRR's for positioning is created in the IGRT system with a threshold in the Look Up Table (LUT). The resulting match provides the necessary shift in couch coordinates to position the stent with an accuracy of 1-2 mm within the planned position. Results. At the present time 39 patients have received the new marker. Of the 39 one has migrated to the bladder. Deviations of more than 5 mm between CTV outlined on CT and MR are seen in several cases and in anterior-posterior (AP), left-right (LR) and cranial-caudal (CC) directions. Intra-fraction translation movements up to +/- 3 mm are seen as well. As the stent is also clearly visible on images taken with high voltage x-rays using electronic portal images devices (EPID), the positioning has been verified independently of the IGRT system. Discussion. The preliminary result of an on going clinical study of a Ni Ti prostate stent, potentially a new fiducial marker for image guided radiotherapy, looks promising. The risk of migration appears to be much lower compared to previous designs

  15. Multiple ECG Fiducial Points-Based Random Binary Sequence Generation for Securing Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guanglou; Fang, Gengfa; Shankaran, Rajan; Orgun, Mehmet A; Zhou, Jie; Qiao, Li; Saleem, Kashif

    2017-05-01

    Generating random binary sequences (BSes) is a fundamental requirement in cryptography. A BS is a sequence of N bits, and each bit has a value of 0 or 1. For securing sensors within wireless body area networks (WBANs), electrocardiogram (ECG)-based BS generation methods have been widely investigated in which interpulse intervals (IPIs) from each heartbeat cycle are processed to produce BSes. Using these IPI-based methods to generate a 128-bit BS in real time normally takes around half a minute. In order to improve the time efficiency of such methods, this paper presents an ECG multiple fiducial-points based binary sequence generation (MFBSG) algorithm. The technique of discrete wavelet transforms is employed to detect arrival time of these fiducial points, such as P, Q, R, S, and T peaks. Time intervals between them, including RR, RQ, RS, RP, and RT intervals, are then calculated based on this arrival time, and are used as ECG features to generate random BSes with low latency. According to our analysis on real ECG data, these ECG feature values exhibit the property of randomness and, thus, can be utilized to generate random BSes. Compared with the schemes that solely rely on IPIs to generate BSes, this MFBSG algorithm uses five feature values from one heart beat cycle, and can be up to five times faster than the solely IPI-based methods. So, it achieves a design goal of low latency. According to our analysis, the complexity of the algorithm is comparable to that of fast Fourier transforms. These randomly generated ECG BSes can be used as security keys for encryption or authentication in a WBAN system.

  16. Comparison of submucosal tunneling biopsy versus EUS-guided FNA for gastric subepithelial lesions: a prospective study with crossover design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Nishimoto, Naoki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Matsunaga, Tae; Chiyo, Taiga; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Fujita, Koji; Kato, Kiyohito; Kamada, Hideki; Oryu, Makoto; Tsutsui, Kunihiko; Iwama, Hisakazu; Haba, Reiji; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims  Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) for gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions (SELs) has limited diagnostic accuracy due to technical problems and small lesion size. We previously reported a novel submucosal tunneling biopsy (STB) technique for sampling SELs. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic ability and safety of STB compared to that of FNA for SELs. Patients and methods  The study was a non-randomized, prospective comparative study with crossover design in patients with endoluminal gastric SELs. Forty-three patients, including 29 cases with lesions < 2 cm were enrolled. A crossover design with 2 intervention stages (Group A: FNA followed by STB for 23 SELs, Group B: STB followed by FNA for 20 SELs) was implemented. The primary outcome was the diagnostic yield (DY). Secondary outcomes were technical success rate, procedure time, complication rate, and sample quality. Results  The DY of STB was significantly higher than that of FNA (100 % vs. 34.8 %; P  < 0.0001) in group A, including 100 % in overall STB. The technical success rate of STB was significantly higher than that of FNA (100 % vs. 56.5 %; P  = 0.0006), whereas the median procedure time of STB was significantly longer than that of FNA (37 minutes vs. 18 minutes; P  < 0.0001). The median specimen area of STB samples was markedly larger than that of FNA samples (5.54 mm 2 vs. 0.69 mm 2 ; P  < 0.001). No complications occurred in either method. Conclusions  STB had significantly superior diagnostic ability and a more adequate sample quality than FNA for endoluminal gastric SELs, indicating the suitability of STB for small SELs. Clinical trial registration: UMIN 000006754 PMID:28782002

  17. Successful Endoscopic Treatment of Severe Pancreaticojejunostomy Strictures by Puncturing the Anastomotic Site with an EUS-guided Guidewire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tatsuhide; Kanno, Atsushi; Masamune, Atsushi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Hongo, Seiji; Yoshida, Naoki; Nakano, Eriko; Miura, Shin; Hamada, Shin; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Kume, Kiyoshi; Hirota, Morihisa; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2017-01-01

    Pancreaticojejunostomy stricture (PJS) is a late complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy. The endoscopic treatment of PJS is very challenging due to the difficulty of locating the small anastomotic site and passing the stricture using a guidewire. We herein report two cases of severe PJS. These patients could not be treated using only double-balloon endoscopy or endoscopic ultrasound-guided puncture of the main pancreatic duct because of severe stenosis at the anastomotic site. However, we could treat them by the rendezvous technique using the rigid part of the guidewire to penetrate PJS. This method was useful and safe for treating severe PJS. PMID:29151507

  18. Skin contact with gold and gold alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapson, W S

    1985-08-01

    3 types of reaction to gold merit discussion. First, there is the effect known as black dermographism, in which stroking with certain metals immediately produces well-defined black lines on the skin. Some gold alloys are amongst such metals. The evidence indicates that the effect is the result of impregnation of the skin with black metallic particles generated by mechanical abrasion of the metal by contaminants of the skin. There is no positive and unequivocal evidence of the ability of metals to mark uncontaminated skin so rapidly that it is possible to write upon it. Secondly there are the 2 related phenomena of the wear of gold jewelry, and the susceptibility to certain individuals to blackening of the skin where it is in contact with such jewelry. The occurrence of smudge, as it is often called, is not very common, but is brought to the attention of most jewelers from time to time. In extreme cases it may make it embarrassing for the person concerned to wear metallic jewelry. It would appear as if gold smudge also results mainly from mechanical abrasion of jewelry, though this may be aided and/or supplemented in some instances by corrosion of gold or gold alloy induced by certain components of the sweat. Finally, there is the question of true allergic responses to contact of the skin with gold and its alloys. Judging from the very few cases which have been recorded, such responses are extremely rare. Some recent observations on the reactions of metallic gold with amino acids and of reaction to contact of the skin with gold on the part of rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing gold therapy, are, however, relevant in this connection.

  19. Gold in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Many plants have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in plants

  20. Assessment of a daily online implanted fiducial marker-guided prostate radiotherapy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, P B; Dahl, K; Ebert, M A; White, M; Wratten, C; Ostwald, P; Pichler, P; Denham, J W

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether intrafraction prostate motion can affect the accuracy of online prostate positioning using implanted fiducial markers and to determine the effect of prostate rotations on the accuracy of the software-predicted set-up correction shifts. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts before treatment. Verification images were also acquired during treatment to assess whether intrafraction motion had occurred. A limitation of the online image registration software is that it does not allow for in-plane prostate rotations (evident on lateral portal images) when aligning marker positions. The accuracy of couch shifts was assessed by repeating the registration measurements with separate software that incorporates full in-plane prostate rotations. Additional treatment time required for online positioning was also measured. For the patient group, the overall postalignment systematic prostate errors were less than 1.5 mm (1 standard deviation) in all directions (range 0.2-3.9 mm). The random prostate errors ranged from 0.8 to 3.3 mm (1 standard deviation). One patient exhibited intrafraction prostate motion, resulting in a postalignment prostate set-up error of more than 10 mm for one fraction. In 14 of 35 fractions, the postalignment prostate set-up error was greater than 5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction for this patient. Maximum prostate rotations measured from the lateral images varied from 2 degrees to 20 degrees for the patients. The differences between set-up shifts determined by the online software without in-plane rotations to align markers, and with rotations applied, was less than 1 mm (root mean square), with a maximum difference of 4.1 mm. Intrafraction prostate motion was found to reduce the effectiveness of the online set-up for one of the patients. A larger study is required

  1. Fluoroscopic tracking of multiple implanted fiducial markers using multiple object tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoli; Sharp, Greg C; Jiang, Steve B

    2007-01-01

    When treating mobile tumors using techniques such as beam gating or beam tracking, precise localization of tumor position is required, which is often realized by fluoroscopically tracking implanted fiducial markers. Multiple markers placed inside or near a tumor are often preferred to a single marker for the sake of accuracy. In this work, we propose a marker tracking system that can track multiple markers simultaneously, without confusing them, and that is also robust enough to continue tracking even when the markers are moving behind bony anatomy. The integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS), developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), was used to take fluoroscopy videos for marker tracking. The tracking system integrates marker detection with a multiple object tracking process, inspired by the multiple hypothesis marker tracking (MHT) process. It also utilizes breathing pattern information to help tracking. Four criteria are used to identify tracking failure, and when tracking failure occurs, the system can immediately inform the user. (In the clinical environment, the system would immediately disable the treatment beam.) In this paper, two liver patients with implanted fiducial markers were studied, and the studies were performed retrospectively to assess the effectiveness of the new tracking system. For both patients, LAT and AP fluoroscopic videos were studied. In order to better test the proposed tracking system, artificial markers were added around the real markers to disturb the tracking of the real markers. The performance of the proposed system was compared to that of a conventional tracking system (one that did not use multiple object tracking). The performance of the new system was also investigated with and without consideration of the breathing pattern information. We found that the conventional tracking system can easily miss tracking markers in the presence of artificial markers, and it cannot detect the tracking failures. On the

  2. Clinical outcome of fiducial-less CyberKnife radiosurgery for stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Hye; Song, Si Yeol; Cho, Byung Chul; Kwak, Jung Won; Jung, Nuri Hyun; Kim, Su Ssan; Choi, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin Hong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Je, Hyoung Uk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Sik [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Uiversity of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the treatment results in early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients who have undergone fiducial-less CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS). From June 2011 to November 2013, 58 patients underwent CKRS at Asan Medical Center for stage I lung cancer. After excluding 14 patients, we retrospectively reviewed the records of the remaining 44 patients. All analyses were performed using SPSS ver. 21. The median age at diagnosis was 75 years. Most patients had inoperable primary lung cancer with a poor pulmonary function test with comorbidity or old age. The clinical stage was IA in 30 patients (68.2%), IB in 14 (31.8%). The mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (range, 1.2 to 4.8 cm), and the tumor was smaller than 2 cm in 12 patients (27.3%). The radiation dose given was 48-60 Gy in 3-4 fractions. In a median follow-up of 23.1 months, local recurrence occurred in three patients (2-year local recurrence-free survival rate, 90.4%) and distant metastasis occurred in 13 patients. All patients tolerated the radiosurgery well, only two patients developing grade 3 dyspnea. The most common complications were radiation-induced fibrosis and pneumonitis. Eight patients died due to cancer progression. The results showed that fiducial-less CKRS shows comparable local tumor control and survival rates to those of LINAC-based SABR or CKRS with a fiducial marker. Thus, fiducial-less CKRS using Xsight lung tracking system can be effectively and safely performed for patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer without any risk of procedure-related complication.

  3. Measurement of fiducial, differential and production cross sections in the H to gamma gamma decay channel with ATLAS (YSF talk)

    CERN Document Server

    Menary, Stephen Burns; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The production, simplified template (STXS), fiducial and differential cross section measurements are presented in the $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ channel using $36.1~\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the ATLAS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\text{TeV}$. Limits are placed on the strengths of several dimension-6 effective Lagrangian terms using the Strongly Interacting Light Higgs (SILH) basis.

  4. Gold induced apoptsis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Introduction   Cancer cells are highly thermo sensitive. On the basis of an article in Nature the idea arose, for a new non-invasive thermotherapy technique, based on radio frequency inductive heating of nano gold particles in an MR-scanner. Thermotherapy is getting considerably attention...... at the moment, especially in the fields of lasers, they though have some problems concerning the placement of the tumor in the human body. Local heating by MR has tremendous advance in comparison too lasers. The first step is to validate the hypothesis of the inductive heating of the gold nano particles trough...... in silico methods are here proposed for apoptosis studies and for AMG studies.   Methods   MR - heating of high concentration micrometer gold and low concentration nano gold.   CSLM of ethidum bromide stained cell lines, with and witout gold and automated image processing.   AMG gold uptake study...

  5. Fake Magnets, Real Physics: Using touch tables with fiducials to create interactive experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, J. B.; Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Interactive Learning at the Space Science Institute has been producing space weather related activities for both museums and online for over a decade (see, for instance, www.spaceweathercenter.org). Recently we have begun exploring the possibilities of augmented reality as a mechanism for letting visitors explore magnetic fields, charged particle motion, and related space weather topics. Using a Microsoft Surface touch table, NCIL@SSI has developed several activities that incorporate magnet "fiducials"... objects shaped like recognizable magnets (bar, horseshoe, etc.) that when placed on the table are recognized by the computer. In this way visitors can place a magnet, then see the associated magnetic field drawn out on the table. And given a magnet (which could be the Earth) and a field, they can touch the screen to launch charged particles in to the field. We believe that this combination of physical objects and simulated physics provides a compelling new opportunity for topics such as space weather, where the necessary prior knowledge (e.g., the behavior of magnetic fields and charged particles) are not well understood, or even easily accessible, for the average visitor. We will be reporting both on the software and educational strategies reflected in it, as well as testing which is being performed at the NCAR visitor center in Boulder Colorado and the Hatfield Visitor Center in Oregon by NCIL's Director of Learning Research and Evaluation. This work is funded by the National Science Foundation.

  6. Objective assessment of the aesthetic outcomes of breast cancer treatment: toward automatic localization of fiducial points on digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udpa, Nitin; Sampat, Mehul P.; Kim, Min Soon; Reece, Gregory P.; Markey, Mia K.

    2007-03-01

    The contemporary goals of breast cancer treatment are not limited to cure but include maximizing quality of life. All breast cancer treatment can adversely affect breast appearance. Developing objective, quantifiable methods to assess breast appearance is important to understand the impact of deformity on patient quality of life, guide selection of current treatments, and make rational treatment advances. A few measures of aesthetic properties such as symmetry have been developed. They are computed from the distances between manually identified fiducial points on digital photographs. However, this is time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-observer variability. The purpose of this study is to investigate methods for automatic localization of fiducial points on anterior-posterior digital photographs taken to document the outcomes of breast reconstruction. Particular emphasis is placed on automatic localization of the nipple complex since the most widely used aesthetic measure, the Breast Retraction Assessment, quantifies the symmetry of nipple locations. The nipple complexes are automatically localized using normalized cross-correlation with a template bank of variants of Gaussian and Laplacian of Gaussian filters. A probability map of likely nipple locations determined from the image database is used to reduce the number of false positive detections from the matched filter operation. The accuracy of the nipple detection was evaluated relative to markings made by three human observers. The impact of using the fiducial point locations as identified by the automatic method, as opposed to the manual method, on the calculation of the Breast Retraction Assessment was also evaluated.

  7. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorke, Ellen, E-mail: yorke@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Xiong, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Han, Qian [Department of Radiotherapy, Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou (China); Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Results: Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (range, −11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Conclusions: Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable.

  8. Daily online bony correction is required for prostate patients without fiducial markers or soft-tissue imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M L; Vial, P; Wiltshire, K L; Bell, L J; Blome, S; Kerestes, Z; Morgan, G W; O'Driscoll, D; Shakespeare, T P; Eade, T N

    2011-09-01

    To compare online position verification strategies with offline correction protocols for patients undergoing definitive prostate radiotherapy. We analysed 50 patients with implanted fiducial markers undergoing curative prostate radiation treatment, all of whom underwent daily kilovoltage imaging using an on-board imager. For each treatment, patients were set-up initially with skin tattoos and in-room lasers. Orthogonal on-board imager images were acquired and the couch shift to match both bony anatomy and the fiducial markers recorded. The set-up error using skin tattoos and offline bone correction was compared with online bone correction. The fiducial markers were used as the reference. Data from 1923 fractions were analysed. The systematic error was ≤1 mm for all protocols. The average random error was 2-3mm for online bony correction and 3-5mm for skin tattoos or offline-bone. Online-bone showed a significant improvement compared with offline-bone in the number of patients with >5mm set-up errors for >10% (P20% (Pmarkers or daily soft-tissue imaging. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Respiratory-Gated Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Adjacent to the Gastrointestinal Tract without Fiducial Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miu Mizuhata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been reported, but insertion of fiducial markers in the liver is usually required. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of respiratory-gated PBT without fiducial markers for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract. From March 2011 to December 2015 at our institution, 40 patients were evaluated (median age, 72 years; range, 38–87 years. All patients underwent PBT at a dose of 60 to 80 cobalt gray equivalents (CGE in 20 to 38 fractions. The median follow-up period was 19.9 months (range, 1.2–72.3 months. The median tumor size was 36.5 mm (range, 11–124 mm. Kaplan–Meier estimates of the 2-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local tumor control rates were 76%, 60%, and 94%, respectively. One patient (2.5% developed a grade 3 gastric ulcer and one (2.5% developed grade 3 ascites retention; none of the remaining patients developed grade >3 toxicities (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 4.0.. This study indicates that PBT without fiducial markers achieves good local control without severe treatment-related toxicity of the gastrointestinal tract for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash University, Physics Department (Australia)

    1998-12-15

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed.

  11. Gold and uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.S.; Davidson, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A process for extracting gold and uranium from an ore containing them both comprising the steps of pulping the finely comminuted ore with a suitable cyanide solution at an alkaline pH, acidifying the pulp for uranium dissolution, adding carbon activated for gold recovery to the pulp at a suitable stage, separating the loaded activated carbon from the pulp, and recovering gold from the activated carbon and uranium from solution

  12. Magnetism in nanocrystalline gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuboltsev, Vladimir; Savin, Alexander; Pirojenko, Alexandre; Räisänen, Jyrki

    2013-08-27

    While bulk gold is well known to be diamagnetic, there is a growing body of convincing experimental and theoretical work indicating that nanostructured gold can be imparted with unconventional magnetic properties. Bridging the current gap in experimental study of magnetism in bare gold nanomaterials, we report here on magnetism in gold nanocrystalline films produced by cluster deposition in the aggregate form that can be considered as a crossover state between a nanocluster and a continuous film. We demonstrate ferromagnetic-like hysteretic magnetization with temperature dependence indicative of spin-glass-like behavior and find this to be consistent with theoretical predictions, available in the literature, based on first-principles calculations.

  13. Forming Disk Galaxies in Wet Major Mergers. I. Three Fiducial Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassoula, E.; Rodionov, S. A.; Peschken, N.; Lambert, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    Using three fiducial N-body+SPH simulations, we follow the merging of two disk galaxies that each have a hot gaseous halo component, and examine whether the merger remnant can be a spiral galaxy. The stellar progenitor disks are destroyed by violent relaxation during the merging and most of their stars form a classical bulge, while the remaining stars, as well as stars born during the merging times, form a thick disk and its bar. A new stellar disk forms subsequently and gradually in the remnant from the gas accreted mainly from the halo. It is vertically thin and well extended in its equatorial plane. A bar starts forming before the disk is fully in place, which is contrary to what is assumed in idealized simulations of isolated bar-forming galaxies, and has morphological features such as ansae and boxy/peanut bulges. Stars of different ages populate different parts of the box/peanut. A disky pseudobulge also forms, so that by the end of the simulation all three types of bulges coexist. The oldest stars are found in the classical bulge, followed by those of the thick disk, then by those in the thin disk. The youngest stars are in the spiral arms and the disky pseudobulge. The disk surface density profiles are of type II (exponential with downbending); the circular velocity curves are flat and show that the disks are submaximum in these examples: two clearly so and one near-borderline between maximum and submaximum. On average, only roughly between 10% and 20% of the stellar mass is in the classical bulge of the final models, I.e., much less than in previous simulations.

  14. Fully automatic segmentation of arbitrarily shaped fiducial markers in cone-beam CT projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, J; Wan, H; Toftegaard, J; Schmidt, M L; Chotard, F; Parikh, P J; Poulsen, P R

    2017-02-21

    Radio-opaque fiducial markers of different shapes are often implanted in or near abdominal or thoracic tumors to act as surrogates for the tumor position during radiotherapy. They can be used for real-time treatment adaptation, but this requires a robust, automatic segmentation method able to handle arbitrarily shaped markers in a rotational imaging geometry such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection images and intra-treatment images. In this study, we propose a fully automatic dynamic programming (DP) assisted template-based (TB) segmentation method. Based on an initial DP segmentation, the DPTB algorithm generates and uses a 3D marker model to create 2D templates at any projection angle. The 2D templates are used to segment the marker position as the position with highest normalized cross-correlation in a search area centered at the DP segmented position. The accuracy of the DP algorithm and the new DPTB algorithm was quantified as the 2D segmentation error (pixels) compared to a manual ground truth segmentation for 97 markers in the projection images of CBCT scans of 40 patients. Also the fraction of wrong segmentations, defined as 2D errors larger than 5 pixels, was calculated. The mean 2D segmentation error of DP was reduced from 4.1 pixels to 3.0 pixels by DPTB, while the fraction of wrong segmentations was reduced from 17.4% to 6.8%. DPTB allowed rejection of uncertain segmentations as deemed by a low normalized cross-correlation coefficient and contrast-to-noise ratio. For a rejection rate of 9.97%, the sensitivity in detecting wrong segmentations was 67% and the specificity was 94%. The accepted segmentations had a mean segmentation error of 1.8 pixels and 2.5% wrong segmentations.

  15. TU-E-BRA-03: Real-Time Fiducial Detection and Prostate Movement Assessment with Cine MV Images in RapidArc Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendariz, J Azcona; Li, R; Mok, E; Xing, L

    2012-06-01

    To develop an algorithm for detection of metallic fiducial markers in cine MV images, and to assess the prostate movement during RapidArc treatment. A Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (LINAC) was used to deliver RapidArc treatment for prostate patients. Cine images were acquired with the onboard electronic portal imaging device (EPID) using the MV therapeutic beam. Three metallic fiducial markers were implanted inside the prostate. To detect the fiducial position, we explicitly account for the possible marker blockage by MLC during beam modulation. If the marker is not blocked, we employ the planning coordinates of the marker centroids projected onto the cine MV images and perform template matching in the vicinity of its projection to localize the actual position of the marker. Displacements of the fiducial markers are assessed by comparing the actual and planned positions. We analyzed ∼280 cine MV images acquired during a 55-sec RapidArc treatment for a prostate patient. The three markers were visible in about 46%, 52%, and 48% of the images, and at least one fiducial was visible during almost entire treatment (97% of the time). The marker detection algorithm agrees well with manual detection (< 0.2 mm). The mean displacement for each fiducial was 0.40 ± 0.42, 0.27 ± 0.29, and 0.46 ± 0.34 mm. The maximum displacement was 2.33, 1.75, and 2.23 mm. An algorithm for automatic detection of fiducial markers in cine MV images has been developed. The prostate movement during a RapidArc treatment has been analyzed for a patient with implanted markers. Accurate target positioning is achieved at all times during treatment. In light of the random nature of intrafraction prostate motion, this work represents an important step toward real-time image-guided prostate radiation therapy. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  17. Technique of Injection of Hyaluronic Acid as a Prostatic Spacer and Fiducials Before Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissier, Romain; Udrescu, Corina; Rebillard, Xavier; Terrier, Jean-Etienne; Faix, Antoine; Chapet, Olivier; Azria, David; Devonec, Marian; Paparel, Philippe; Ruffion, Alain

    2017-01-01

    To describe a technique combining the implantation of fiducials and a prostatic spacer (hyaluronic acid [HA]) to decrease the rectal toxicity after an image-guided external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with hypofractionation for prostate cancer and to assess the tolerance and the learning curve of the procedure. Thirty patients with prostate cancer at low or intermediate risk were included in a phase II trial: image-guided EBRT of 62 Gy in 20 fractions of 3.1 Gy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A transrectal implantation of 3 fiducials and transperineal injection of 10 cc of HA (NASHA gel spacer, Q-Med AB, Uppsala, Sweden) between the rectum and the prostate was performed by 1 operator. The thickness of HA was measured at 10 points on magnetic resonance imaging to establish a quality score of the injection (maximum score = 10) and determine the learning curve of the procedure. The quality score increased from patients 1-10, 11-20, to 21-30 with respective median scores: 7 [2-10], 5 [4-7], and 8 [3-10]. The average thicknesses of HA between the base, middle part, and apex of the prostate and the rectum were the following: 15.1 mm [6.4-29], 9.8 mm [5-21.2], and 9.9 mm [3.2-21.5]. The injection of the HA induced a median pain score of 4 [1-8] and no residual pain at mid-long term. Creating an interface between the rectum and the prostate and the implantation of fiducials were feasible under local anesthesia with a short learning curve and could become a standard procedure before a hypofractionated EBRT for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A line fiducial method for geometric calibration of cone-beam CT systems with diverse scan trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. W.; Ketcha, M. D.; Capostagno, S.; Martin, A.; Uneri, A.; Goerres, J.; De Silva, T.; Reaungamornrat, S.; Han, R.; Manbachi, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Vogt, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Modern cone-beam CT systems, especially C-arms, are capable of diverse source-detector orbits. However, geometric calibration of these systems using conventional configurations of spherical fiducials (BBs) may be challenged for novel source-detector orbits and system geometries. In part, this is because the BB configurations are designed with careful forethought regarding the intended orbit so that BB marker projections do not overlap in projection views. Examples include helical arrangements of BBs (Rougee et al 1993 Proc. SPIE 1897 161-9) such that markers do not overlap in projections acquired from a circular orbit and circular arrangements of BBs (Cho et al 2005 Med. Phys. 32 968-83). As a more general alternative, this work proposes a calibration method based on an array of line-shaped, radio-opaque wire segments. With this method, geometric parameter estimation is accomplished by relating the 3D line equations representing the wires to the 2D line equations of their projections. The use of line fiducials simplifies many challenges with fiducial recognition and extraction in an orbit-independent manner. For example, their projections can overlap only mildly, for any gantry pose, as long as the wires are mutually non-coplanar in 3D. The method was tested in application to circular and non-circular trajectories in simulation and in real orbits executed using a mobile C-arm prototype for cone-beam CT. Results indicated high calibration accuracy, as measured by forward and backprojection/triangulation error metrics. Triangulation errors on the order of microns and backprojected ray deviations uniformly less than 0.2 mm were observed in both real and simulated orbits. Mean forward projection errors less than 0.1 mm were observed in a comprehensive sweep of different C-arm gantry angulations. Finally, successful integration of the method into a CT imaging chain was demonstrated in head phantom scans.

  19. Real-time automatic fiducial marker tracking in low contrast cine-MV images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wei-Yang; Lin, Shu-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Chang; Liou, Shu-Cheng; Nath, Ravinder; Liu Wu

    2013-01-01

    standard deviations of the results from the 6 researchers are 2.3 and 2.6 pixels. The proposed framework takes about 128 ms to detect four markers in the first MV images and about 23 ms to track these markers in each of the subsequent images. Conclusions: The unified framework for tracking of multiple markers presented here can achieve marker detection accuracy similar to manual detection even in low-contrast cine-MV images. It can cope with shape deformations of fiducial markers at different gantry angles. The fast processing speed reduces the image processing portion of the system latency, therefore can improve the performance of real-time motion compensation.

  20. Feasibility of hydrogel fiducial markers for in vivo proton range verification using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jongmin; Alqathami, Mamdooh; Kerr, Matthew; Cho, Sang Hyun; Campbell, Patrick; Wang, Min; Mawlawi, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatible/biodegradable hydrogel polymers were immersed in 18 O-enriched water and 16 O-water to create 18 O-water hydrogels and 16 O-water hydrogels. In both cases, the hydrogels were made of ∼91 wt% water and ∼9 wt% polymer. In addition, 5–8 μm Zn powder was suspended in 16 O-water and 18 O-enriched water and cross-linked with hydrogel polymers to create Zn/ 16 O-water hydrogels (30/70 wt%, ∼9 wt% polymer) and Zn/ 18 O-water hydrogels (10/90 wt%), respectively. A block of extra-firm ‘wet’ tofu (12.3  ×  8.8  ×  4.9 cm, ρ  ≈  1.05 g cm −3 ) immersed in water was injected with Zn/ 16 O-water hydrogels (0.9 ml each) at four different depths using an 18-gauge needle. Similarly, Zn/ 18 O-water hydrogels (0.9 ml) were injected into a second tofu phantom. As a reference, both 16 O-water hydrogels (1.8 ml) and 18 O-water hydrogels (0.9 ml) in Petri dishes were irradiated in a ‘dry’ environment. The hydrogels in the wet tofu phantoms and dry Petri dishes were scanned via CT and images were used for treatment planning. Then, they were positioned at the proton distal dose fall-off region and irradiated (2 Gy) followed by PET/CT imaging. Notably high PET signals were observed only in 18 O-water hydrogels in the dry environment. The visibility of the Zn/ 16 O-water hydrogels injected into the tofu phantom was outstanding in CT images, but these hydrogels provided no noticeable PET signals. The visibility of the Zn/ 18 O-water hydrogels in the wet tofu were excellent on CT and moderate on PET; however, the PET signals were weaker than those in the dry environment, possibly owing to 18 O-water leaching out. The hydrogel markers studied here could be used to develop universal PET/CT fiducial markers. Their PET visibility (attributed more to activated 18 O-water than Zn) after proton irradiation can be used for proton therapy/range verification. More investigation is needed to slow down the leaching of 18 O

  1. Axially chiral allenyl gold complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alice; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2014-09-17

    Unprecedented allenyl gold complexes have been achieved starting from triphenylpropargylphosphonium bromide. Two different coordination modes of the allene isomer of triphenylphosphoniumpropargylide to gold have been found depending on the gold oxidation state. Bromo-, pentafluorophenyl-, and triphenylphosphine-gold(I) allenyl complexes were prepared in which the α carbon coordinates to the gold(I) center. A chiral pentafluorophenyl-gold(III) allenyl complex with the gold atoms coordinated to the γ carbon was also prepared. All the complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction showing the characteristic distances for a C═C═C unit.

  2. High Retention and Safety of Percutaneously Implanted Endovascular Embolization Coils as Fiducial Markers for Image-Guided Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Pulmonary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Julian C.; Yu Yao; Rao, Aarti K.; Dieterich, Sonja; Maxim, Peter G.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Diehn, Maximilian; Sze, Daniel Y.; Kothary, Nishita; Loo, Billy W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the retention rates of two types of implanted fiducial markers for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) of pulmonary tumors, smooth cylindrical gold 'seed' markers ('seeds') and platinum endovascular embolization coils ('coils'), and to compare the complication rates associated with the respective implantation procedures. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the retention of percutaneously implanted markers in 54 consecutive patients between January 2004 and June 2009. A total of 270 markers (129 seeds, 141 coils) were implanted in or around 60 pulmonary tumors over 59 procedures. Markers were implanted using a percutaneous approach under computed tomography (CT) guidance. Postimplantation and follow-up imaging studies were analyzed to score marker retention relative to the number of markers implanted. Markers remaining near the tumor were scored as retained. Markers in a distant location (e.g., pleural space) were scored as lost. CT imaging artifacts near markers were quantified on radiation therapy planning scans. Results: Immediately after implantation, 140 of 141 coils (99.3%) were retained, compared to 110 of 129 seeds (85.3%); the difference was highly significant (p < 0.0001). Of the total number of lost markers, 45% were reported lost during implantation, but 55% were lost immediately afterwards. No additional markers were lost on longer-term follow-up. Implanted lesions were peripherally located for both seeds (mean distance, 0.33 cm from pleural surface) and coils (0.34 cm) (p = 0.96). Incidences of all pneumothorax (including asymptomatic) and pneumothorax requiring chest tube placement were lower in implantation of coils (23% and 3%, respectively) vs. seeds (54% and 29%, respectively; p = 0.02 and 0.01). The degree of CT artifact was similar between marker types. Conclusions: Retention of CT-guided percutaneously implanted coils is significantly better than that of seed markers. Furthermore, implanting coils is at

  3. Gold nanoprobes for theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Book-Newell, Brittany; Sethu, Palaniappan; Rao, Madhusudhana; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoprobes have become attractive diagnostic and therapeutic agents in medicine and life sciences research owing to their reproducible synthesis with atomic level precision, unique physical and chemical properties, versatility of their morphologies, flexibility in functionalization, ease of targeting, efficiency in drug delivery and opportunities for multimodal therapy. This review highlights some of the recent advances and the potential for gold nanoprobes in theranostics. PMID:22122586

  4. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  5. Influence of different breathing maneuvers on internal and external organ motion: Use of fiducial markers in dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, Christian; Zimmermann, Hendrik; Fink, Christian; Umathum, Reiner; Schoebinger, Max; Huber, Peter; Zuna, Ivan; Debus, Juergen; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Semmler, Wolfhard; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bock, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate, with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and a fiducial marker, the influence of different breathing maneuvers on internal organ and external chest wall motion. Methods and materials: Lung and chest wall motion of 16 healthy subjects (13 male, 3 female) were examined with real-time trueFISP (true fast imaging with steady-state precession) dMRI and a small inductively coupled marker coil on either the abdomen or thorax. Three different breathing maneuvers were performed (predominantly 'abdominal breathing,' 'thoracic breathing,' and unspecific 'normal breathing'). The craniocaudal (CC), anteroposterior (AP), and mediolateral (ML) lung distances were correlated (linear regression coefficient) with marker coil position during forced and quiet breathing. Results: Differences of the CC distance between maximum forced inspiration and expiration were significant between abdominal and thoracic breathing (p < 0.05). The correlation between CC distance and coil position was best for forced abdominal breathing and a marker coil in the abdominal position (r 0.89 ± 0.04); for AP and ML distance, forced thoracic breathing and a coil in the thoracic position was best (r = 0.84 ± 0.03 and 0.82 ± 0.03, respectively). In quiet breathing, a lower correlation was found. Conclusion: A fiducial marker coil external to the thorax in combination with dMRI is a new technique to yield quantitative information on the correlation of internal organ and external chest wall motion. Correlations are highly dependent on the breathing maneuver

  6. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using diatoms-silica-gold and EPS-gold bionanocomposite formation

    OpenAIRE

    Schröfel, Adam; Kratošová, Gabriela; Bohunická, Markéta; Dobročka, Edmund; Vávra, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Novel synthesis of gold nanoparticles, EPS-gold, and silica-gold bionanocomposites by biologically driven processes employing two diatom strains (Navicula atomus, Diadesmis gallica) is described. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction analysis (SAED) revealed a presence of gold nanoparticles in the experimental solutions of the diatom culture mixed with tetrachloroaureate. Nature of the gold nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron m...

  7. SU-F-J-137: Intrafractional Change of the Relationship Between Internal Fiducials and External Breathing Signal in Pancreatic Cancer Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, N; Murphy, J; Simpson, D; Cervino, L [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The use of respiratory gating for management of breathing motion during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) relies on a consistent relationship between the breathing signal and the actual position of the internal target. This relationship was investigated in patients treated for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Four patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing SBRT that had implanted fiducials in the tumor were included in this study. Treatment plans were generated based on the exhale phases (30–70%) from the pre-treatment 4DCT. The margin between the internal target volume (ITV) and the planning target volume was three mm. After patient setup using cone-beam CT, simultaneous fluoroscopic imaging and breathing motion monitoring were used during at least three breathing cycles to verify the fiducial position and to optimize the gating window. After treatment, fluoroscopic images were acquired for verification purposes and exported for retrospective analyses. Fiducial positions were determined using a template-matching algorithm. For each dataset, we established a linear relationship between the fiducial position and the anterior-posterior (AP) breathing signal. The relationships before and after treatment were compared and the dose distribution impact evaluated. Results: Seven pre- and post-treatment fluoroscopic pairs were available for fiducial position analyses in the superior-inferior (SI) and left-right (LR) directions, and five in the AP direction. Time between image acquisitions was typically six to eight minutes. An average absolute change of 1.2±0.7 mm (range: 0.1–1.7) of the SI fiducial position relative to the external signal was found. Corresponding numbers for the LR and AP fiducial positions were 0.9±1.0 mm (range: 0.2–3.0) and 0.5±0.4 mm (range: 0.2–1.2), respectively. The dose distribution impact was small in both the ITV and organs-at-risk. Conclusion: The relationship change between fiducial position and external breathing

  8. SU-F-J-137: Intrafractional Change of the Relationship Between Internal Fiducials and External Breathing Signal in Pancreatic Cancer Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, N; Murphy, J; Simpson, D; Cervino, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The use of respiratory gating for management of breathing motion during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) relies on a consistent relationship between the breathing signal and the actual position of the internal target. This relationship was investigated in patients treated for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Four patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing SBRT that had implanted fiducials in the tumor were included in this study. Treatment plans were generated based on the exhale phases (30–70%) from the pre-treatment 4DCT. The margin between the internal target volume (ITV) and the planning target volume was three mm. After patient setup using cone-beam CT, simultaneous fluoroscopic imaging and breathing motion monitoring were used during at least three breathing cycles to verify the fiducial position and to optimize the gating window. After treatment, fluoroscopic images were acquired for verification purposes and exported for retrospective analyses. Fiducial positions were determined using a template-matching algorithm. For each dataset, we established a linear relationship between the fiducial position and the anterior-posterior (AP) breathing signal. The relationships before and after treatment were compared and the dose distribution impact evaluated. Results: Seven pre- and post-treatment fluoroscopic pairs were available for fiducial position analyses in the superior-inferior (SI) and left-right (LR) directions, and five in the AP direction. Time between image acquisitions was typically six to eight minutes. An average absolute change of 1.2±0.7 mm (range: 0.1–1.7) of the SI fiducial position relative to the external signal was found. Corresponding numbers for the LR and AP fiducial positions were 0.9±1.0 mm (range: 0.2–3.0) and 0.5±0.4 mm (range: 0.2–1.2), respectively. The dose distribution impact was small in both the ITV and organs-at-risk. Conclusion: The relationship change between fiducial position and external breathing

  9. Retrospective analysis of prostate cancer patients with implanted gold markers using off-line and adaptive therapy protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Balter, James M.; Lam, Kwok L.; Sandler, Howard M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of applying adaptive and off-line setup correction models to bony anatomy and gold fiducial markers implanted in the prostate, relative to daily alignment to skin tattoos and daily on-line corrections of the implanted gold markers. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with implanted gold fiducial markers were treated using a daily on-line setup correction protocol. The patients' positions were aligned to skin tattoos and two orthogonal diagnostic digital radiographs were obtained before treatment each day. These radiographs were compared with digitally reconstructed radiographs to obtain the translational setup errors of the bony anatomy and gold markers. The adaptive, no-action-level and shrinking-action-level off-line protocols were retrospectively applied to the bony anatomy to determine the change in the setup errors of the gold markers. The protocols were also applied to the gold markers directly to determine the residual setup errors. Results: The percentage of remaining fractions that the gold markers fell within the adaptive margins constructed with 1.5σ' (estimated random variation) after 5, 10, and 15 measurement fractions was 74%, 88%, and 93% for the prone patients and 55%, 77%, and 93% for the supine patients, respectively. Using 2σ', the percentage after 5, 10, and 15 measurements was 85%, 95%, and 97% for the prone patients and 68%, 87%, and 99% for the supine patients, respectively. The average initial three-dimensional (3D) setup error of the gold markers was 0.92 cm for the prone patients and 0.70 cm for the supine patients. Application of the no-action-level protocol to bony anatomy with N m = 3 days resulted in significant benefit to 4 of 10 patients, but 3 were significantly worse. The residual average 3D setup error of the gold markers was 1.14 cm and 0.51 cm for the prone and supine patients, respectively. When applied directly to the gold markers with N m = 3 days, 5 patients benefited and

  10. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  11. Interfractional Position Variation of Pancreatic Tumors Quantified Using Intratumoral Fiducial Markers and Daily Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, Astrid van der, E-mail: a.vanderhorst@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wognum, Silvia; Dávila Fajardo, Raquel; Jong, Rianne de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hooft, Jeanin E. van; Fockens, Paul [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantify interfractional pancreatic position variation using fiducial markers visible on daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. In addition, we analyzed possible migration of the markers to investigate their suitability for tumor localization. Methods and Materials: For 13 pancreatic cancer patients with implanted Visicoil markers, CBCT scans were obtained before 17 to 25 fractions (300 CBCTs in total). Image registration with the reference CT was used to determine the displacement of the 2 to 3 markers relative to bony anatomy and to each other. We analyzed the distance between marker pairs as a function of time to identify marker registration error (SD of linear fit residuals) and possible marker migration. For each patient, we determined the mean displacement of markers relative to the reference CT (systematic position error) and the spread in displacements (random position error). From this, we calculated the group systematic error, Σ, and group random error, σ. Results: Marker pair distances showed slight trends with time (range, −0.14 to 0.14 mm/day), possibly due to tissue deformation, but no shifts that would indicate marker migration. The mean SD of the fit residuals was 0.8 mm. We found large interfractional position variations, with for 116 of 300 (39%) fractions a 3-dimensional vector displacement of >10 mm. The spread in displacement varied significantly (P<.01) between patients, from a vector range of 9.1 mm to one of 24.6 mm. For the patient group, Σ was 3.8, 6.6, and 3.5 mm; and σ was 3.6, 4.7 and 2.5 mm, in left–right, superior–inferior, and anterior–posterior directions, respectively. Conclusions: We found large systematic displacements of the fiducial markers relative to bony anatomy, in addition to wide distributions of displacement. These results for interfractional position variation confirm the potential benefit of using fiducial markers rather than bony anatomy for daily online

  12. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  13. Rushing for gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

    2009-01-01

    African rural dwellers have faced depressed economic prospects for several decades. Now, in a number of mineral-rich countries, multiple discoveries of gold and precious stones have attracted large numbers of prospective small-scale miners. While their 'rush' to, and activities within, mining sites...... are increasingly being noted, there is little analysis of miners' mobility patterns and material outcomes. In this article, on the basis of a sample survey and interviews at two gold-mining sites in Tanzania, we probe when and why miners leave one site in favour of another. Our findings indicate that movement...

  14. Interfractional variability of respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion quantified using fiducial markers and four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Peng; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; van Wieringen, Niek; Bel, Arjan; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the interfractional variability of respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion using fiducial markers and four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) and assess if a 4D-CT is sufficient for predicting the motion during the treatment. Twenty-four patients with 63 markers

  15. Robust augmented reality registration method for localization of solid organs' tumors using CT-derived virtual biomechanical model and fluorescent fiducials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong-Ho; Haouchine, Nazim; Soares, Renato; Klymchenko, Andrey; Andreiuk, Bohdan; Marques, Bruno; Shabat, Galyna; Piechaud, Thierry; Diana, Michele; Cotin, Stéphane; Marescaux, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is the fusion of computer-generated and real-time images. AR can be used in surgery as a navigation tool, by creating a patient-specific virtual model through 3D software manipulation of DICOM imaging (e.g., CT scan). The virtual model can be superimposed to real-time images enabling transparency visualization of internal anatomy and accurate localization of tumors. However, the 3D model is rigid and does not take into account inner structures' deformations. We present a concept of automated AR registration, while the organs undergo deformation during surgical manipulation, based on finite element modeling (FEM) coupled with optical imaging of fluorescent surface fiducials. Two 10 × 1 mm wires (pseudo-tumors) and six 10 × 0.9 mm fluorescent fiducials were placed in ex vivo porcine kidneys (n = 10). Biomechanical FEM-based models were generated from CT scan. Kidneys were deformed and the shape changes were identified by tracking the fiducials, using a near-infrared optical system. The changes were registered automatically with the virtual model, which was deformed accordingly. Accuracy of prediction of pseudo-tumors' location was evaluated with a CT scan in the deformed status (ground truth). In vivo: fluorescent fiducials were inserted under ultrasound guidance in the kidney of one pig, followed by a CT scan. The FEM-based virtual model was superimposed on laparoscopic images by automatic registration of the fiducials. Biomechanical models were successfully generated and accurately superimposed on optical images. The mean measured distance between the estimated tumor by biomechanical propagation and the scanned tumor (ground truth) was 0.84 ± 0.42 mm. All fiducials were successfully placed in in vivo kidney and well visualized in near-infrared mode enabling accurate automatic registration of the virtual model on the laparoscopic images. Our preliminary experiments showed the potential of a biomechanical model with fluorescent

  16. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  17. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  18. Digging for Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2012-01-01

    In the case of higher education, the hills are more like mountains of data that "we're accumulating at a ferocious rate," according to Gerry McCartney, CIO of Purdue University (Indiana). "Every higher education institution has this data, but it just sits there like gold in the ground," complains McCartney. Big Data and the new tools people are…

  19. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...

  20. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-01-01

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  1. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  2. SU-E-J-64: Feasibility Study of Surgical Clips for Fiducial Tracking in CyberKnife System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H; Yoon, J; Lee, E; Cho, S; Park, K; Choi, W; Baek, J; Keum, K; Koom, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the ability of CyberKnife to track surgical clips used as fiducial markers. Methods: The Octavius 1000SRS detector and solid water (RW3) slab phantom were used with motion platform to evaluate the study. The RW3 slab phantom was set up to measure the dose distribution from coronal plane. It consists of 9 plates and the thickness of each plate is 10mm. Among them, one plate was attached with 3 surgical clips, which are orthogonally positioned on outer region of array. The length of attached clip was represented as 1cm on planning CT. The clip plate was placed on the 1000SRS detector and 3 slabs were stacked up on the plate to build the measuring depth. Below the detector, 5 slabs were set. The two-axis motion platform was programmed with 1D sinusoidal movement (20mm peak-to-peak, 3s period) toward superior/inferior and left/right directions to simulate target motion. During delivery, two clips were extracted by two X-ray imagers, which led to translational error correction only. Synchrony was also used for dynamic tracking. After the irradiation, the measured dose distribution of coronal plane was compared with the planar dose distribution calculated by the CyberKnife treatment planning system (Multiplan) for cross verification. The results were assessed by comparing the absolute Gamma (γ) index. Results: The dose distributions measured by the 1000SRS detector were in good agreements with those calculated by Multiplan. In the dosimetric comparison using γ-function criteria based on the distance-to-agreement of 3mm and the local dose difference of 3%, the passing rate with γ- parameter ≤1 was 91% in coronal plane. Conclusion: The surgical clips can be considered as new fiducials for robotic radiosurgery delivery by considering the target margin with less than 5mm

  3. ECG denoising and fiducial point extraction using an extended Kalman filtering framework with linear and nonlinear phase observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, Mahsa; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B; Jutten, Christian; Armoundas, Antonis A; Sayadi, Omid

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we propose an efficient method for denoising and extracting fiducial point (FP) of ECG signals. The method is based on a nonlinear dynamic model which uses Gaussian functions to model ECG waveforms. For estimating the model parameters, we use an extended Kalman filter (EKF). In this framework called EKF25, all the parameters of Gaussian functions as well as the ECG waveforms (P-wave, QRS complex and T-wave) in the ECG dynamical model, are considered as state variables. In this paper, the dynamic time warping method is used to estimate the nonlinear ECG phase observation. We compare this new approach with linear phase observation models. Using linear and nonlinear EKF25 for ECG denoising and nonlinear EKF25 for fiducial point extraction and ECG interval analysis are the main contributions of this paper. Performance comparison with other EKF-based techniques shows that the proposed method results in higher output SNR with an average SNR improvement of 12 dB for an input SNR of -8 dB. To evaluate the FP extraction performance, we compare the proposed method with a method based on partially collapsed Gibbs sampler and an established EKF-based method. The mean absolute error and the root mean square error of all FPs, across all databases are 14 ms and 22 ms, respectively, for our proposed method, with an advantage when using a nonlinear phase observation. These errors are significantly smaller than errors obtained with other methods. For ECG interval analysis, with an absolute mean error and a root mean square error of about 22 ms and 29 ms, the proposed method achieves better accuracy and smaller variability with respect to other methods.

  4. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 23 - Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate, Silver, and Platinum Industry...—Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate... in any assay for quality of a karat gold industry product include springs, posts, and separable backs...

  5. Moessbauerspectroscopy on Gold Ruby Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslbeck, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the chemical states of gold and the physical mechanisms of the growing process of the particles under the influence of additional ingredients like tin, lead, antimony and selenium before, during and after the colouring process are investigated by using the Moessbauer spectroscopy on 197 Au, 119 Sn and 121 Sb, optical spectroscopy and X-ray-diffraction. Gold in an unnealed, colourless state of the glasses consists of monovalent forming linear bonds to two neighbouring oxygen atoms. The Lamb-Moessbauer factor of these gold oxide bondings is observed as 0.095 at 4.2 K. The gold in it's oxide state transforms to gold particles with a diameter of 3 nm to 60 nm. The size of the gold particles is quite definable within the optical spectra and certain sizes are also discernable within the Moessbauer spectra. One component of the Moessbauer spectra is assigned to the surface layer of the gold particles. By comparing this surface component with the amount of the bulk metallic core, one can calculate the size of the gold particles. In the Moessbauer spectra of the colourless glass one also can find parts of bulk metallic gold. Investigations with X-ray diffraction show that these are gold particles with a diameter of 100 nm to 300 nm and therefore have no additional colouring effect within the visible spectrum. The Moessbauer spectra on gold of the remelt glasses are similar to those which have been measured on the initial colourless glasses

  6. For the love of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Gold is found in minute quantities and gold mining generates enormous amounts of waste materials and long history of environmental destruction: mercury in tailing, eroded land, and acid mine drainage are legacies of the past. The problem has become worse in recent years in North America, Australia, the Amazon basin, Philippines. This paper describes the economics of gold and the changes in the world economy which has precipitated the new gold rushes. Current technology uses a cyanide solution for leaching small amounts of gold from tons of waste, and mercury remains a toxic waste of gold mining. Both short and long term results of gold mining, on the environment and on indiginous populations are described

  7. Gold Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironava, Tatsiana

    Over the last two decades gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used for many scientific applications and have attracted attention due to the specific chemical, electronic and optical size dependent properties that make them very promising agents in many fields such as medicine, imagine techniques and electronics. More specifically, biocompatible gold nanoparticles have a huge potential for use as the contrast augmentation agent in X-ray Computed Tomography and Photo Acoustic Tomography for early tumor diagnostic as well these nanoparticles are extensively researched for enhancing the targeted cancer treatment effectiveness such as photo-thermal and radiotherapy. In most biomedical applications biocompatible gold nanoparticles are labeled with specific tumor or other pathology targeting antibodies and used for site specific drug delivery. However, even though gold nanoparticles poses very high level of anti cancer properties, the question of their cytotoxicity ones they are released in normal tissue has to be researched. Moreover, the huge amount of industrially produced gold nanoparticles raises the question of these particles being a health hazard, since the penetration is fairly easy for the "nano" size substances. This study focuses on the effect of AuNPs on a human skin tissue, since it is fall in both categories -- the side effects for biomedical applications and industrial workers and users' exposure during production and handling. Therefore, in the present project, gold nanoparticles stabilized with the biocompatible agent citric acid were generated and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxic effect of AuNPs release to healthy skin tissue was modeled on 3 different cell types: human keratinocytes, human dermal fibroblasts, and human adipose derived stromal (ADS) cells. The AuNPs localization inside the cell was found to be cell type dependent. Overall cytotoxicity was found to be dependent

  8. The RHIC gold rush

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, T

    2003-01-01

    Physicists are colliding gold nuclei to recreate the fireball that existed in the very early universe, and they may have found evidence for quark-gluon plasma. What happens to ordinary matter as you heat it to higher and higher temperatures, or compress it to greater and greater densities? This simple question underpins a major effort to create extreme conditions in the lab, which has recently taken the shape of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This machine has been colliding gold nuclei since 2000, and has produced tantalizing hints that a new state of matter - the quark-gluon plasma - is created in the reactions. But it has also sparked surprises that are sending researchers back to the drawing board. (U.K.)

  9. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  10. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  11. Direct evidence of oxidized gold on supported gold catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L; Wu, N Q; Yang, J H; Qu, F; Johnson, D L; Kung, M C; Kung, H H; Dravid, V P

    2005-03-10

    Supported gold catalysts have drawn worldwide interest due to the novel properties and potential applications in industries. However, the origin of the catalytic activity in gold nanoparticles is still not well understood. In this study, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) has been applied to investigate the nature of gold in Au (1.3 wt %)/gamma-Al2O3 and Au (2.8 wt %)/TiO2 catalysts prepared by the deposition-precipitation method. The SIMS spectrum of the supported gold catalysts presented AuO-, AuO2-, and AuOH- ion clusters. These measurements show direct evidence for oxidized gold on supported gold catalysts and may be helpful to gaining better understanding of the origin of the catalytic activity.

  12. Comparison of prostate set-up accuracy and margins with off-line bony anatomy corrections and online implanted fiducial-based corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, P B; Dahl, K; Ebert, M A; Wratten, C; White, M; Denham, J W

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine prostate set-up accuracy and set-up margins with off-line bony anatomy-based imaging protocols, compared with online implanted fiducial marker-based imaging with daily corrections. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Pretreatment orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts and verification images were acquired during treatment to measure residual set-up error. The prostate set-up errors that would result from skin marker set-up, off-line bony anatomy-based protocols and online fiducial marker-based corrections were determined. Set-up margins were calculated for each set-up technique using the percentage of encompassed isocentres and a margin recipe. The prostate systematic set-up errors in the medial-lateral, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions for skin marker set-up were 2.2, 3.6 and 4.5 mm (1 standard deviation). For our bony anatomy-based off-line protocol the prostate systematic set-up errors were 1.6, 2.5 and 4.4 mm. For the online fiducial based set-up the results were 0.5, 1.4 and 1.4 mm. A prostate systematic error of 10.2 mm was uncorrected by the off-line bone protocol in one patient. Set-up margins calculated to encompass 98% of prostate set-up shifts were 11-14 mm with bone off-line set-up and 4-7 mm with online fiducial markers. Margins from the van Herk margin recipe were generally 1-2 mm smaller. Bony anatomy-based set-up protocols improve the group prostate set-up error compared with skin marks; however, large prostate systematic errors can remain undetected or systematic errors increased for individual patients. The margin required for set-up errors was found to be 10-15 mm unless implanted fiducial markers are available for treatment guidance.

  13. Comparison of prostate set-up accuracy and margins with off-line bony anatomy corrections and online implanted fiducial-based corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P. B.; Dahl, K.; Ebert, M. A.; Wratten, C.; White, M.; Denham, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to determine prostate set-up accuracy and set-up margins with off-line bony anatomy-based imaging protocols, compared with online implanted fiducial marker-based imaging with daily corrections. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Pretreatment orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts and verification images were acquired during treatment to measure residual set-up error. The prostate set-up errors that would result from skin marker set-up, off-line bony anatomy-based protocols and online fiducial marker-based corrections were determined. Set-up margins were calculated for each set-up technique using the percentage of encompassed isocentres land a margin recipe. The prostate systematic set-up errors in the medial-lateral, superior-inferior and anterior-I posterior directions for skin marker set-up were 2.2, 3.6 and 4.5 mm (1 standard deviation). For our bony anatomy-I based off-line protocol the prostate systematic set-up errors were 1.6, 2.5 and 4.4 mm. For the online fiducial based set-up the results were 0.5, 1.4 and 1.4 mm. A prostate systematic error of 10.2 mm was uncorrected by the off-line bone protocol in one patient. Set-up margins calculated to encompass 98% of prostate set-up shifts were 111-14 mm with bone off-line set-up and 4-7 mm with online fiducial markers. Margins from the van Herk margin I recipe were generally 1-2 mm smaller. Bony anatomy-based set-up protocols improve the group prostate set-up error compared with skin marks; however, large prostate systematic errors can remain undetected or systematic (errors increased for individual patients. The margin required for set-up errors was found to be 10-15 mm unless I implanted fiducial markers are available for treatment guidance.

  14. Validation of deformable image registration algorithms on CT images of ex vivo porcine bladders with fiducial markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wognum, S., E-mail: s.wognum@gmail.com; Heethuis, S. E.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rosario, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The spatial accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) is important in the implementation of image guided adaptive radiotherapy techniques for cancer in the pelvic region. Validation of algorithms is best performed on phantoms with fiducial markers undergoing controlled large deformations. Excised porcine bladders, exhibiting similar filling and voiding behavior as human bladders, provide such an environment. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial accuracy of different DIR algorithms on CT images ofex vivo porcine bladders with radiopaque fiducial markers applied to the outer surface, for a range of bladder volumes, using various accuracy metrics. Methods: Five excised porcine bladders with a grid of 30–40 radiopaque fiducial markers attached to the outer wall were suspended inside a water-filled phantom. The bladder was filled with a controlled amount of water with added contrast medium for a range of filling volumes (100–400 ml in steps of 50 ml) using a luer lock syringe, and CT scans were acquired at each filling volume. DIR was performed for each data set, with the 100 ml bladder as the reference image. Six intensity-based algorithms (optical flow or demons-based) implemented in theMATLAB platform DIRART, a b-spline algorithm implemented in the commercial software package VelocityAI, and a structure-based algorithm (Symmetric Thin Plate Spline Robust Point Matching) were validated, using adequate parameter settings according to values previously published. The resulting deformation vector field from each registration was applied to the contoured bladder structures and to the marker coordinates for spatial error calculation. The quality of the algorithms was assessed by comparing the different error metrics across the different algorithms, and by comparing the effect of deformation magnitude (bladder volume difference) per algorithm, using the Independent Samples Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The authors found good structure

  15. Validation of deformable image registration algorithms on CT images of ex vivo porcine bladders with fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wognum, S.; Heethuis, S. E.; Bel, A.; Rosario, T.; Hoogeman, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The spatial accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) is important in the implementation of image guided adaptive radiotherapy techniques for cancer in the pelvic region. Validation of algorithms is best performed on phantoms with fiducial markers undergoing controlled large deformations. Excised porcine bladders, exhibiting similar filling and voiding behavior as human bladders, provide such an environment. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial accuracy of different DIR algorithms on CT images ofex vivo porcine bladders with radiopaque fiducial markers applied to the outer surface, for a range of bladder volumes, using various accuracy metrics. Methods: Five excised porcine bladders with a grid of 30–40 radiopaque fiducial markers attached to the outer wall were suspended inside a water-filled phantom. The bladder was filled with a controlled amount of water with added contrast medium for a range of filling volumes (100–400 ml in steps of 50 ml) using a luer lock syringe, and CT scans were acquired at each filling volume. DIR was performed for each data set, with the 100 ml bladder as the reference image. Six intensity-based algorithms (optical flow or demons-based) implemented in theMATLAB platform DIRART, a b-spline algorithm implemented in the commercial software package VelocityAI, and a structure-based algorithm (Symmetric Thin Plate Spline Robust Point Matching) were validated, using adequate parameter settings according to values previously published. The resulting deformation vector field from each registration was applied to the contoured bladder structures and to the marker coordinates for spatial error calculation. The quality of the algorithms was assessed by comparing the different error metrics across the different algorithms, and by comparing the effect of deformation magnitude (bladder volume difference) per algorithm, using the Independent Samples Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The authors found good structure

  16. Gold--a controversial sensitizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    of clinical relevance, i.e., causing or aggravating a contact dermatitis. In this paper, these steps are discussed with regard to gold. With our present knowledge of contact allergy-allergic contact dermatitis, we do not recommend including gold sodium thiosulfate in the standard series. It should be applied......Until recently, gold allergy was considered to be extremely rare. Gold has been used and worshipped for thousands of years without any obvious complaints of skin problems, either in those participating in mining and other ways of prospecting, or in those wearing jewellery. When studies on contact...... allergy to gold sodium thiosulfate were published at the beginning of the 1990s, the allergic nature of the reported positive patch test reactions to gold was questioned. The major argument for such questioning was the lack of demonstrable clinical relevance in most positive reactors. A major reason...

  17. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be properly fabricated to deliver the cargo into the targeted cells through effective endocytosis. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the selective penetration of gold nanoparticles into immune cells. The interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cell receptors is discussed. As distinct from other published reviews, we present a summary of the immunological properties of gold nanoparticles. This review also summarizes what is known about the application of gold nanoparticles as an antigen carrier and adjuvant in immunization for the preparation of antibodies in vivo . For each of the above topics, the basic principles, recent advances, and current challenges are discussed. Thus, this review presents a detailed analysis of data on interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cells. Emphasis is placed on the systematization of data over production of antibodies by using gold nanoparticles and adjuvant properties of gold nanoparticles. Specifically, we start our discussion with current data on interaction of various gold nanoparticles with immune cells. The next section describes existing technologies to improve production of antibodies in vivo by using gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific ligands. Finally, we describe what is known about adjuvant properties of bare gold or functionalized nanoparticles. In the Conclusion section, we present a short summary of reported data and some challenges and perspectives.

  18. Bats, cyanide, and gold mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    Although the boom days of prospectors and gold nuggets are long gone, modern technology enables gold to continue to be extracted from ore. Unfortunately, the extraction method has often been disastrous for bats and other wildlife, an issue I first became aware of in early 1989. Phone calls from Drs. Merlin Tuttle and Elizabeth Pierson, a BCI member and bat researcher from Berkeley, California, alerted me that bats were dying from apparent cyanide poisoning at gold mines in the western United States.

  19. Propagation and stability characteristics of a 500-m-long laser-based fiducial line for high-precision alignment of long-distance linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Masanori; Telada, Souichi; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2013-09-01

    A laser-based alignment system with a He-Ne laser has been newly developed in order to precisely align accelerator units at the KEKB injector linac. The laser beam was first implemented as a 500-m-long fiducial straight line for alignment measurements. We experimentally investigated the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam passing through laser pipes in vacuum. The pointing stability at the last fiducial point was successfully obtained with the transverse displacements of ±40 μm level in one standard deviation by applying a feedback control. This pointing stability corresponds to an angle of ±0.08 μrad. This report contains a detailed description of the experimental investigation for the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam in the laser-based alignment system for long-distance linear accelerators.

  20. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D. [University of Lubumbashi, Zaire, Gecamines Metallurgical Research Centre, Likasi, Zaire, c/o Gecamines Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-15

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  1. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied

  2. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  3. Determining gold content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for determining the gold content of a material, comprises irradiating a body of the material with neutrons and determining the intensity of γ-rays having an energy of 279 keV arising from the reaction 179 Au(nn') 179 Au → 279 keV. The apparatus has means for conveying the materials past an assembly, which has a neutron source, which does not produce neutrons having sufficient energy to excite fast neutron reactions in non-auriferous constituents. (author)

  4. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in... EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general. Gold coins, and gold certificates of the type issued before January 30, 1934, are exchangeable, as provided...

  5. Measurements of fiducial and differential cross sections for Higgs boson production in the diphoton decay channel at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; 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Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horii, Yasuyuki; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Struebig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-09-19

    Measurements of fiducial and differential cross sections are presented for Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV. The analysis is performed in the $H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$ decay channel using 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is extracted using a fit to the diphoton invariant mass spectrum assuming that the width of the resonance is much smaller than the experimental resolution. The signal yields are corrected for the effects of detector inefficiency and resolution. The $pp\\rightarrow H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$ fiducial cross section is measured to be $43.2 \\pm 9.4 (stat) {}^{+3.2}_{-2.9} (syst) \\pm 1.2 (lumi)$ fb for a Higgs boson of mass 125.4 GeV decaying to two isolated photons that have transverse momentum greater than 35% and 25% of the diphoton invariant mass and each with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.37. Four additional fiducial cross sections and two cross-sectio...

  6. Determination of Gold from Gold Matrix of North Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research paper presents analytical results of Au, Mn and V concentrations of some Nigerian gold ores using two techniques: epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fourteen samples were collected from gold fields of North Western Nigeria, prepared separately to a ...

  7. 22G versus 25G biopsy needles for EUS-guided tissue sampling of solid pancreatic masses: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Sik; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Noh, Dong Hyo; Park, Joo Kyung; Lee, Kyu Taek; Lee, Jong Kyun; Jang, Kee-Taek

    2017-12-01

    No comparative study of 22-gauge biopsy needles (PC22) and 25-gauge biopsy needles (PC25) has been conducted. We prospectively compared the diagnostic accuracy of PC22 and PC25 in patients with pancreatic and peripancreatic solid masses. We conducted a randomized noninferiority clinical study from January 2013 to May 2014 at Samsung Medical Center. A cytological and histological specimen of each pass was analyzed separately by an experienced pathologist. The primary outcome was to assess the diagnostic accuracy using the PC22 or PC25. Secondary outcomes included the optimal number of passes for adequate diagnosis, core specimen yield, sample adequacy, and complication rates. Diagnostic accuracy of combining cytology with histology in three cumulative passes was 97.1% (100/103) for the PC22 and 91.3% (94/103) for the PC25 group. Thus, noninferiority of PC25 to PC22 was not shown with a 10% noninferiority margin (difference, -5.8%; 95% CI, -12.1 to -0.5%). In a pairwise comparison with each needle type, two passes was non-inferior to three passes in the PC22 (96.1% vs. 97.1%; difference, -0.97%; 95% CI -6.63 to 4.69%) but noninferiority of two passes to three passes was not shown in the PC25 group (87.4% vs. 91.3%; difference, -3.88%; 95% CI, -13.5 to 5.7%). Non-inferiority of PC25 to PC22 diagnostic accuracy was not observed for solid pancreatic or peripancreatic masses without on-site cytology. PC22 may be a more ideal device because only two PC22 needle passes was sufficient to establish an adequate diagnosis, whereas PC25 required three or more needle passes.

  8. Clinical impact of EUS elastography followed by contrast-enhanced EUS in patients with focal pancreatic masses and negative EUS-guided FNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iordache, Sevastiţa; Costache, Mădălin Ionuţ; Popescu, Carmen Florina

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: It is well known that endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has a high sensitivity (over 85%) and specificity (100%) for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The aim of the study was to establish a EUS based clinical diagnostic algorithm in patients with pancreatic masses...

  9. Activation analysis in gold industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear techniques and methods were, are, and will be very important for many fields of science, agriculture, industry, etc. Among other examples one can remember role of the nuclear medicine (radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic methods) or semiconductors (communication, computing, information, etc.) which industrial production has been on initial stage based on activation analysis. One of very illustrative examples is application of nuclear methods in gold industry. This is given by favorable nuclear properties of gold. Uzbekistan is one of the main producers of gold. Open-cast mining and hydro metallurgic extraction (using leaching by cyanide and sorption by ion-exchange resin) is the mostly used technology. The typical gold ores are sulfide and contain elevated concentration of As and Sb. That needs special technology of gold extraction. Importance of gold for Uzbekistan economy is a reason why for many years there are carried out studies concerning to gold production. These studies include also nuclear methods and their results are successfully used in gold industry. The present paper gives a brief overview for period of 25 years. For many reasons most of these studies were not published before completely. Despite some results are obtained decades ago we decided to present the overview as an example how nuclear methods can cover requirements of the whole process. We are trying to sort these studies according to methods and applications

  10. Accuracy of Ultrasound-Based (BAT) Prostate-Repositioning: A Three-Dimensional On-Line Fiducial-Based Assessment With Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Koehler, Frederick Marc; Kuepper, Beate; Wolff, Dirk; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Mai, Sabine; Hesser, Juergen; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of ultrasound-based repositioning (BAT) before prostate radiation with fiducial-based three-dimensional matching with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients and Methods: Fifty-four positionings in 8 patients with 125 I seeds/intraprostatic calcifications as fiducials were evaluated. Patients were initially positioned according to skin marks and after this according to bony structures based on CBCT. Prostate position correction was then performed with BAT. Residual error after repositioning based on skin marks, bony anatomy, and BAT was estimated by a second CBCT based on user-independent automatic fiducial registration. Results: Overall mean value (MV ± SD) residual error after BAT based on fiducial registration by CBCT was 0.7 ± 1.7 mm in x (group systematic error [M] = 0.5 mm; SD of systematic error [Σ] = 0.8 mm; SD of random error [σ] = 1.4 mm), 0.9 ± 3.3 mm in y (M = 0.5 mm, Σ = 2.2 mm, σ = 2.8 mm), and -1.7 ± 3.4 mm in z (M = -1.7 mm, Σ = 2.3 mm, σ = 3.0 mm) directions, whereas residual error relative to positioning based on skin marks was 2.1 ± 4.6 mm in x (M = 2.6 mm, Σ = 3.3 mm, σ = 3.9 mm), -4.8 ± 8.5 mm in y (M = -4.4 mm, Σ = 3.7 mm, σ = 6.7 mm), and -5.2 ± 3.6 mm in z (M = -4.8 mm, Σ = 1.7 mm, σ = 3.5mm) directions and relative to positioning based on bony anatomy was 0 ± 1.8 mm in x (M = 0.2 mm, Σ = 0.9 mm, σ = 1.1 mm), -3.5 ± 6.8 mm in y (M = -3.0 mm, Σ = 1.8 mm, σ = 3.7 mm), and -1.9 ± 5.2 mm in z (M = -2.0 mm, Σ = 1.3 mm, σ = 4.0 mm) directions. Conclusions: BAT improved the daily repositioning accuracy over skin marks or even bony anatomy. The results obtained with BAT are within the precision of extracranial stereotactic procedures and represent values that can be achieved with several users with different education levels. If sonographic visibility is insufficient, CBCT or kV/MV portal imaging with implanted fiducials are recommended

  11. Image quality of four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography obtained at various gantry rotation speeds for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy with fiducial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Araki, Fujio; Maruyama, Masato; Yonemura, Keisuke; Nakaguchi, Yuji; Kai, Yudai; Toya, Ryo

    2018-01-01

    In this study, qualities of 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) images obtained using various gantry rotation speeds (GRSs) for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with fiducial markers were quantitatively evaluated. Abdominal phantom containing a fiducial marker was moved along a sinusoidal waveform, and 4D-CBCT images were acquired with GRSs of 50-200° min -1 . We obtained the 4D-CBCT projection data from six patients who underwent liver SBRT and generated 4D-CBCT images at GRSs of 67-200° min -1 , by varying the number of projection data points. The image quality was evaluated based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and structural similarity index (SSIM). The fiducial marker positions with different GRSs were compared with the setup values and a reference position in the phantom and clinical studies, respectively. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) were calculated relative to the reference positions. In the phantom study, the mean SNR, CNR, and SSIM decreased from 37.6 to 10.1, from 39.8 to 10.1, and from 0.9 to 0.7, respectively, as the GRS increased from 50 to 200° min -1 . The fiducial marker positions were within 2.0 mm at all GRSs. Similarly, in the clinical study, the mean SNR, CNR, and SSIM decreased from 50.4 to 13.7, from 24.2 to 6.0, and from 0.92 to 0.73, respectively. The mean RMSEs were 2.0, 2.1, and 3.6 mm for the GRSs of 67, 100, and 200° min -1 , respectively. We conclude that GRSs of 67 and 85° min -1 yield images of acceptable quality for 4D-CBCT in liver SBRT with fiducial markers. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of MRI visibility and artifacts at 3T of liquid fiducial marker in a pancreas tissue-mimicking phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Sergej; Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Troost, Esther Gera Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    marker with volumes of 25-100 mu L showing no correlation with the magnitude of artifact. The solid markers showed a strong nonlinear correlation between magnitude of visibility and artifact, whereas the solid marker consisting of a gold-iron alloy induced the strongest artifacts.Conclusion: The liquid...

  13. Stealing the Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, S G

    2005-01-01

    Stealing the Gold presents a survey of some of the most exciting topics in condensed matter physics today, from the perspective of the pioneering work of Sam Edwards. Original articles from leaders in the field, including several Nobel laureates, highlight the historical development as well as new and emerging areas. This book would be of interest to graduate students and researchers in condensed matter physics, statistical physics and theoretical physics. Over the course of nearly half a century, Sam Edwards has led the field of condensed matter physics in new directions, ranging from the electronic and statistical properties of disordered materials to the mechanical properties of granular materials. Along the way he has provided seminal contributions to fluid mechanics, polymer science, surface science and statistical mechanics. This volume celebrates the immense scope of his influence by presenting a collection of original articles by recognized leaders in theoretical physics, including two Nobel laureates and a Fields medalist, which describe the genesis, evolution and future prospects of the various sub-fields of condensed matter theory, along with reprints of a selection of Edwards' seminal papers that helped give birth to the subject. Stealing the Gold, Edwards' favourite caricature of the relationship between theoretical physicists and nature, will be of singular interest to graduate students looking for an overview of some of the most exciting areas of theoretical physics, as well as to researchers in condensed matter physics looking for a comprehensive, broad and uniquely incisive snapshot of their subject at the dawn of the 21st century. (book review)

  14. Potentials and Limitations of Guiding Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Set-Up on Liver-Implanted Fiducial Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderink, Wouter; Mendez Romero, Alejandra; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Boer, Hans de; Levendag, Peter; Heijmen, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the potentials and limitations of guiding liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) set-up on liver-implanted fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients undergoing compression-supported SBRT in a stereotactic body frame received fluoroscopy at treatment preparation and before each treatment fraction. In fluoroscopic videos we localized the markers and diaphragm tip at expiration and the spine (measurements on free-breathing and abdominal compression). Day-to-day displacements, rotations (markers only), and deformations were determined. Marker guidance was compared to conventional set-up strategies in treatment set-up simulations. Results: For compression, day-to-day motion of markers with respect to their centers of mass (COM) was σ = 0.9 mm (random error SD), Σ = 0.4 mm (systematic error SD), and o and 7.2 o were observed. For markers not surrounding the tumor, e.g., 5 cm between respective COMs, these changes could effect residual tumor set-up errors up to 8.4 mm, 1.1 mm median (deformations), and 3.1 mm to 6.3 mm (rotations). Compression did not systematically contribute to deformations and rotations, since similar results were observed for free-breathing. Conclusions: If markers can be implanted near and around the tumor, residual set-up errors by marker guidance are small compared to those of conventional set-up methods, allowing high-precision tumor radiation set-up. However, substantial errors may result if markers are not implanted precisely, requiring further research to obtain adequate safety margins.

  15. Migration of intraprostatic fiducial markers and its influence on the matching quality in external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delouya, Guila; Carrier, Jean-Francois; Beliveau-Nadeau, Dominic; Donath, David; Taussky, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of fiducial marker (FM) migration on the matching quality in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: The position of FMs were identified using on-board kV imaging (OBI) and their 3-D position established using an in-house reconstruction algorithm for 31 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma. To carry out the match, the positions were overlaid on the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) generated from the planning CT. The distance between each FM was calculated for seven treatments throughout the EBRT course. Four radiotherapy technologists were asked to independently perform and rate the match from OBI to DRR which was then correlated to the extent of FM migration. Results: All the matches were rated by at least three radiotherapy technologists as 'very easy' ('easy' subgroup) for 24 patients (77%), while the other seven patients had their match rated less than 'very easy' and considered the 'not easy' subgroup. The average daily FM migration was 0.93 ± 0.34 mm for the 'easy' subgroup vs. 1.82 ± 0.75 mm for the latter. An average migration >2 mm was seen in five/seven patients in the 'not easy' subgroup as compared to none in the 'easy' subgroup. There was a trend towards less FM migration and better matching if the planning CT was done later than the day of the FM implant (p = 0.093). Conclusions: FM migration >2 mm predicts for a more difficult matching process; PTV margins might have to be adjusted or the planning CT repeated.

  16. Shape evolution of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. Q.; Liang, W. S.; Geng, C. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The tetraoctylammonium bromide-stabilized gold nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated. The shape evolution of these nanoparticles under different annealing temperatures has been investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. After an annealing at 100 o C for 30 min, the average diameters of the gold nanoparticles change a little. However, the shapes of gold nanoparticles change drastically, and facets appear in most nanoparticles. After an annealing at 200 o C for 30 min, not only the size but also the shape changes a lot. After an annealing at 300 o C for 30 min, two or more gold nanoparticles coalesce into bigger ones. In addition, because of the presence of Cu grid during the annealing, some gold particles become the nucleation sites of Cu 2 O nanocubes, which possess a microstructure of gold-particle core/Cu 2 O shell. These Au/Cu 2 O heterostructure nanocubes can only be formed at a relatively high temperature (≥300 o C). The results can provide some insights on controlling the shapes of gold nanoparticles.

  17. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  18. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  19. Grafting of Gold Nanoparticles on Glass Using Sputtered Gold Interlayers

    OpenAIRE

    Kvítek, Ondřej; Hendrych, Robin; Kolská, Zdeňka; Švorčík, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Three-step preparation of nanostructured Au layer on glass substrate is described. The procedure starts with sputtered gold interlayer, followed by grafting with dithiols and final coverage with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Successful binding of dithiols on the sputtered Au film was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. AuNPs bound to the surface were observed using atomic force microscopy. Both single nanoparticles and their aggregates were observed. UV-Vis spectra show b...

  20. 41 CFR 101-45.002 - Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Gold. 101-45.002 Section... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.002 Gold. (a) Gold will be sold in accordance with this section and part 102-38 of the Federal Management Regulation. (b) Sales of gold shall be processed to— (1) Use the sealed bid...

  1. Size fraction assaying of gold bearing rocks (for gold extraction) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method has been developed for processing and extraction of gold from gold bearing rocks for use by small-scale gold miners in Ghana. The methodology involved crushing of gold bearing hard rocks to fine particles to form a composite sample and screening at a range of sizes. Gold distribution in the composite ...

  2. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  3. Gold, currencies and market efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2016-05-01

    Gold and currency markets form a unique pair with specific interactions and dynamics. We focus on the efficiency ranking of gold markets with respect to the currency of purchase. By utilizing the Efficiency Index (EI) based on fractal dimension, approximate entropy and long-term memory on a wide portfolio of 142 gold price series for different currencies, we construct the efficiency ranking based on the extended EI methodology we provide. Rather unexpected results are uncovered as the gold prices in major currencies lay among the least efficient ones whereas very minor currencies are among the most efficient ones. We argue that such counterintuitive results can be partly attributed to a unique period of examination (2011-2014) characteristic by quantitative easing and rather unorthodox monetary policies together with the investigated illegal collusion of major foreign exchange market participants, as well as some other factors discussed in some detail.

  4. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-08-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644K, a glass transition temperature of 401K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ˜350Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry.

  5. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2014-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds derived from cellulose, hemicelluloses, and woody biomass extractives. Since gold catalysts possess high stability under oxidative conditions, selective oxidation reactions were discussed more thoroughly than other critical reactions such as partial hydrogenation, acetalization, and isomerization. The influence of reaction conditions, the role of the catalyst, and the advantages and disadvantages of using gold are pre...

  6. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Dykman, Lev A.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be...

  7. High-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer using daily fiducial marker-based position verification: acute and late toxicity in 331 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M; Dehnad, Homan; Gils, Carla H van; Boeken Kruger, Arto E; Heide, Uulke A van der; Vulpen, Marco van

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and late toxicity after high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with fiducial marker-based position verification for prostate cancer. Between 2001 and 2004, 331 patients with prostate cancer received 76 Gy in 35 fractions using IMRT combined with fiducial marker-based position verification. The symptoms before treatment (pre-treatment) and weekly during treatment (acute toxicity) were scored using the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). The goal was to score late toxicity according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) scale with a follow-up time of at least three years. Twenty-two percent of the patients experienced pre-treatment grade ≥ 2 genitourinary (GU) complaints and 2% experienced grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. Acute grade 2 GU and GI toxicity occurred in 47% and 30%, respectively. Only 3% of the patients developed acute grade 3 GU and no grade ≥ 3 GI toxicity occurred. After a mean follow-up time of 47 months with a minimum of 31 months for all patients, the incidence of late grade 2 GU and GI toxicity was 21% and 9%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 GU and GI toxicity rates were 4% and 1%, respectively, including one patient with a rectal fistula and one patient with a severe hemorrhagic cystitis (both grade 4). In conclusion, high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker-based position verification is well tolerated. The low grade ≥ 3 toxicity allows further dose escalation if the same dose constraints for the organs at risk will be used

  8. Goldenphilicity: Luminescent gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansores, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the solids and molecules different types of bonds are presented depending on the involved atoms, covalent bonds are common among elements of open shell, where more bond orbitals are filled than anti bond orbitals. It is expected that ionic bonds among closed shell atoms which have charges of opposite sign. Bonds type Van der Waals are presented among molecules which have a bipolar moment. It would not be expected bonds among zero charge species, or more generally with the same nominal charge and in any case the attractive forces would be very small. In fact it is expected that two metallic cations to be repelled each other. There recently is evidence that in organic or organometallic compounds could exist attractive interactions between two cations of the d 8 -d 10 -s 2 families. These bonds are weak but stronger than those of Van der Waals. They are compared with the hydrogen bonds. In this work it was reviewed some examples in which the goldenphilicity plays an important role in the luminescence that the gold complexes present. Examples of mono, bi and trinuclear and the structures that these organometallic compounds could take are examined. (Author)

  9. Three-dimensional conformal setup (3D-CSU) of patients using the coordinate system provided by three internal fiducial markers and two orthogonal diagnostic X-ray systems in the treatment room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirato, Hiroki; Oita, Masataka; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Shinichi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Uegaki, Shinji; Watanabe, Yoshiharu; Kato, Norio; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To test the accuracy of a system for correcting for the rotational error of the clinical target volume (CTV) without having to reposition the patient using three fiducial markers and two orthogonal fluoroscopic images. We call this system 'three-dimensional conformal setup' (3D-CSU). Methods and materials: Three 2.0-mm gold markers are inserted into or adjacent to the CTV. On the treatment couch, the actual positions of the three markers are calculated based on two orthogonal fluoroscopies crossing at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. Discrepancy of the actual coordinates of gravity center of three markers from its planned coordinates is calculated. Translational setup error is corrected by adjustment of the treatment couch. The rotation angles (α, β, γ) of the coordinates of the actual CTV relative to the planned CTV are calculated around the lateral (x), craniocaudal (y), and anteroposterior (z) axes of the planned CTV. The angles of the gantry head, collimator, and treatment couch of the linear accelerator are adjusted according to the rotation of the actual coordinates of the tumor in relation to the planned coordinates. We have measured the accuracy of 3D-CSU using a static cubic phantom. Results: The gravity center of the phantom was corrected within 0.9 ± 0.3 mm (mean ± SD), 0.4 ± 0.2 mm, and 0.6 ± 0.2 mm for the rotation of the phantom from 0-30 degrees around the x, y, and z axes, respectively, every 5 degrees. Dose distribution was shown to be consistent with the planned dose distribution every 10 degrees of the rotation from 0-30 degrees. The mean rotational error after 3D-CSU was -0.4 ± 0.4 (mean ± SD), -0.2 ± 0.4, and 0.0 ± 0.5 degrees around the x, y, and z axis, respectively, for the rotation from 0-90 degrees. Conclusions: Phantom studies showed that 3D-CSU is useful for performing rotational correction of the target volume without correcting the position of the patient on the treatment couch. The 3D-CSU will be clinically

  10. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggon, Krishan

    2007-01-01

    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  11. Intraprostatic fiducials for localization of the prostate gland: Monitoring intermarker distances during radiation therapy to test for marker stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Forbes, Alan; Wagner, Thomas; Maach, Mourad; Langen, Katja M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The use of intraprostatic fiducials as surrogates for prostate gland position assumes that the markers are rigidly positioned within the prostate. To test this assumption, the intermarker distances (IMD) of implanted markers was monitored during the full course of radiation therapy to determine marker stability within the prostate gland. Methods and Materials The analysis is performed on 56 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A total of 168 markers (3 markers per patient) were implanted. Two high-resolution X-rays were acquired before treatment delivery to visualize the position of the implanted markers. A total of 2,037 daily alignments were performed on the 56 cases (average: 36 alignments per patient). Each pair of X-ray images allows the computation of the 3 IMDs. A total of 6,111 IMDs were available for analysis. To study variations in marker position, daily IMDs were compared with the IMD that was observed during the first alignment. We defined the variation in the IMD as the important measure of intrinsic marker position variation. The standard deviation (SD) of IMD variations was studied as a measure of the extent of marker position variation. Particular attention was given to cases in which significant intermarker variations were observed. Results The average directional variation of all IMDs (± SD) was -0.31 (±1.41) mm. The average absolute variation of all IMDs (± SD) was 1.01 (±1.03) mm. The largest observed variation in IMD was 10.2 mm. Among the individual 56 patients, the SDs of the IMD variations were computed and found to range from 0.4 to 4.2 mm. In 54 of the 56 patients (96%), the variations of all 3 IMDs had SD of 4.0 mm or less, which indicates little variation in the relative position of the markers. Only in 2 patients did any of the IMDs vary, with SD that exceeded 4.0 mm, which indicated noticeable and consistent marker-position variation. The maximum observed SD in the IMD variation was 4.2 mm. In each of

  12. Structure and bonding in gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in chemical applications of 197 Au Moessbauer spectroscopy are reviewed. For gold(I) and gold(III), systematic variations in isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are seen as the ligands are changed; the effects of change in coordination number of the gold atoms are also systematic. Data for gold(II) systems involving gold-gold bonds lie between those for corresponding gold(I) and gold(III) materials, showing a small increase in isomer shift and a larger increase in quadrupole splitting as the oxidation state decreases; these trends are explained in terms of the structures. Data for mixed-metal cluster compounds are much more sensitive to structural effects than in homonuclear clusters. Both sets of data show systematic changes with increase in the number of metal atoms to which the gold atom is bound. The connectivity also influences the recoil-free fraction. (orig.)

  13. Gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and gold nanopore (AuNPore) catalysts in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takale, Balaram S; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2014-04-07

    Organic synthesis using gold has gained tremendous attention in last few years, especially heterogeneous gold catalysis based on gold nanoparticles has made its place in almost all organic reactions, because of the robust and green nature of gold catalysts. In this context, gold nanopore (AuNPore) with a 3D metal framework is giving a new dimension to heterogeneous gold catalysts. Interestingly, AuNPore chemistry is proving better than gold nanoparticles based chemistry. In this review, along with recent advances, major discoveries in heterogeneous gold catalysis are discussed.

  14. Grafting of Gold Nanoparticles on Glass Using Sputtered Gold Interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Kvítek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-step preparation of nanostructured Au layer on glass substrate is described. The procedure starts with sputtered gold interlayer, followed by grafting with dithiols and final coverage with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Successful binding of dithiols on the sputtered Au film was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. AuNPs bound to the surface were observed using atomic force microscopy. Both single nanoparticles and their aggregates were observed. UV-Vis spectra show broadening of surface plasmon resonance peak after AuNPs binding caused by aggregation of AuNPs on the sample surface. Zeta potential measurements suggest that a large part of the dithiol molecules are preferentially bound to the gold interlayer via both –SH groups.

  15. Surface Chemistry of Gold Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Nathan D; Lin, Wayne; Hinman, Joshua G; Dennison, Jordan M; Vartanian, Ariane M; Abadeer, Nardine S; Grzincic, Elissa M; Jacob, Lisa M; Li, Ji; Murphy, Catherine J

    2016-10-04

    Gold nanorods have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique optical properties, and they have the potential to greatly impact many areas of science and technology. Understanding the structure and chemical makeup of their surfaces as well as how to tailor them is of paramount importance in the development of their successful applications. This Feature Article reviews the current understanding of the surface chemistry of as-synthesized gold nanorods, methods of tailoring the surface chemistry of gold nanorods with various inorganic and organic coatings/ligands, and the techniques employed to characterize ligands on the surface of gold nanorods as well as the associated measurement challenges. Specifically, we address the challenges of determining how thick the ligand shell is, how many ligands per nanorod are present on the surface, and where the ligands are located in regiospecific and mixed-ligand systems. We conclude with an outlook on the development of the surface chemistry of gold nanorods leading to the development of a synthetic nanoparticle surface chemistry toolbox analogous to that of synthetic organic chemistry and natural product synthesis.

  16. Phage based green chemistry for gold ion reduction and gold retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Magdiel I; Xie, Jianping; Leong, David T

    2014-01-22

    The gold mining industry has taken its toll on the environment, triggering the development of more environmentally benign processes to alleviate the waste load release. Here, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophages (phages) for biosorption and bioreduction of gold ions from aqueous solution, which potentially can be applied to remediate gold ions from gold mining waste effluent. Phage has shown a remarkably efficient sorption of gold ions with a maximum gold adsorption capacity of 571 mg gold/g dry weight phage. The product of this phage mediated process is gold nanocrystals with the size of 30-630 nm. Biosorption and bioreduction processes are mediated by the ionic and covalent interaction between gold ions and the reducing groups on the phage protein coat. The strategy offers a simple, ecofriendly and feasible option to recover of gold ions to form readily recoverable products of gold nanoparticles within 24 h.

  17. Gold nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Silva, Andressa A. da; Leal, Jessica; Batista, Jorge G.S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    In our laboratory has been growing the interest in studying gold nanoparticles and for this reason, the aim of this work is report the first results of the effect of chitosan as stabilizer in gold nanoparticle formulation. AuNPs were synthesized by reducing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) using NaBH 4 or gamma irradiation (25kGy) as reduction agent. The chitosan (3 mol L -1 ) was added at 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mL. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their physical stability was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer over one week during storage at room temperature. Absorption measurements indicated that the plasmon resonance wavelength appears at a wavelength around 530 nm. Has been observed that Chitosan in such quantities were not effective in stabilizing the AuNPs. (author)

  18. New Trends in Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites

  19. Nanobubble trouble on gold surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Kuhle, A.; Garnaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    When analyzing surfaces related to biosensors with in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), the existence of nanobubbles called for our attention. The bubbles seem to form spontaneously when gold surfaces are immersed in clean water and are probably a general phenomenon at water-solid interfaces....... Besides from giving rise to undesired effects in, for example, biosensors, nanobubbles can also cause artifacts in AFM imaging. We have observed nanobubbles on unmodified gold surfaces, immersed in clean water, using standard silicon AFM probes. Nanobubbles can be made to disappear from contact mode AFM...

  20. A Novel Strategy for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticle Self Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Jyoti; Lal, Sumit; van Veen, Henk A.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle self assemblies are one-dimensional structures of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticle self assemblies exhibit unique physical properties and find applications in the development of biosensors. Methodologies currently available for lab-scale and commercial synthesis of gold

  1. The geology of the gold deposits of Prestea gold belt of Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the geology of the gold deposits along the Prestea gold belt of Ghana to assist exploration work for new orebodies along the belt. Prestea district is the third largest gold producer in West Africa after Obuasi and Tarkwa districts (over 250 metric tonnes Au during the last century). The gold deposits are ...

  2. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Phototherapy for Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; He, Y.; Xin, J.; Wang, S.; Xu, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles exhibit very unique physiochemical and optical properties, which now are extensively studied in range of medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In particular, gold nanoparticles show promise in the advancement of cancer treatments. This review will provide insights into the four different cancer treatments such as photothermal therapy, gold nanoparticle-aided photodynamic therapy, gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy, and their use as drug carrier. We also discuss the mechanism of every method and the adverse effects and its limitations

  3. Daily Prostate Volume and Position Monitoring Using Implanted Gold Markers and On-Board Imaging during Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kašaová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate prostate volume changes and prostate motions during radiotherapy. Methods: In 2010, twenty-five patients were treated for prostate cancer by external beam radiotherapy with implanted fiducial markers. Coordinates of three gold markers on kilovoltage images were calculated daily. Volume changes in target structure were observed through changes in intermarker distances. Differences in patient position between laser-tattoo alignment and gold marker localization were evaluated. Intrafraction motion was assessed by measuring marker displacement on kilovoltage images acquired before and after fraction delivery. Results: Prostate shrinkage was observed in 60% of patients. The average shrinkage was 7% of the prostate’s initial volume. Corrections after laser-tattoo alignment remained mostly below 1 cm. The difference between marker centroid position on the actual images and the planning images was 2 ± 1 mm on average. The extension of intrafraction movements was 7.6 ± 0.2 mm on average. Conclusions: In our retrospective study, the possibility for prostate volume changes during radiotherapy was revealed. Intrafraction movements turned out to be the limiting factor in safety margin reduction.

  4. Lamellar multilayer hexadecylaniline-modified gold nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organization of hexadecylaniline (HDA)-modified colloidal gold particles at the air-water interface and the formation thereafter of lamellar, multilayer films of gold nanoparticles by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique is described in this paper. Formation of HDA-capped gold nanoparticles is accomplished by a simple biphasic ...

  5. Lamellar multilayer hexadecylaniline-modified gold nanoparticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organization of hexadecylaniline (HDA)-modified colloidal gold particles at the air-water interface and the formation thereafter of lamellar, multilayer films of gold nanoparticles by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique is described in this paper. Formation of HDA-capped gold nanoparticles is accomplished by a simple biphasic ...

  6. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  7. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov

    2014-01-01

    There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  8. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...

  9. [Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Azospirillum brasilense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriashina, M A; Vetchinkina, E P; Burov, A M; Ponomareva, E G; Nikitina, V E

    2014-01-01

    Plant-associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Azospirillum brasilense were shown to reduce the gold of chloroauric acid to elemental gold, resulting in formation of gold nanoparicles. Extracellular phenoloxidizing enzymes (laccases and Mn peroxidases) were shown to participate in reduction of Au+3 (HAuCl4) to Au(0). Transmission electron microscopy revealed accumulation of colloidal gold nanoparticles of diverse shape in the culture liquid of A. brasilense strains Sp245 and Sp7. The size of the electron-dense nanospheres was 5 to 50 nm, and the size of nanoprisms varied from 5 to 300 nm. The tentative mechanism responsible for formation of gold nanoparticles is discussed.

  10. Ultrasonic inspection of fake gold jewelry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad; Sani, Suhairy; Shofri, Faris Syazwan bin Mohd; Harun, Mohd.; Omar, Norlaili Binti

    2018-01-01

    Hollow jewelry made from combination of gold and other material was found in the market. At the outside it is made of gold and the inside layer is made of other material. X-ray fluorescent method cannot detect the inside material that was covered by gold. This paper explained the experimental result of ultrasonic inspection of fake gold used for jewelry. The ultrasonic pulse echo contact method was used to measure longitudinal wave velocity in the gold jewelry. The results of measurements are explained and discussed.

  11. Surface vertical deposition for gold nanoparticle film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, J J; Qiu, F S; Chen, G D; Reeves, M E

    2003-01-01

    In this rapid communication, we present the surface vertical deposition (SVD) method to synthesize the gold nanoparticle films. Under conditions where the surface of the gold nanoparticle suspension descends slowly by evaporation, the gold nanoparticles in the solid-liquid-gas junction of the suspension aggregate together on the substrate by the force of solid and liquid interface. When the surface properties of the substrate and colloidal nanoparticle suspension define for the SVD, the density of gold nanoparticles in the thin film made by SVD only depends on the descending velocity of the suspension surface and on the concentration of the gold nanoparticle suspension. (rapid communication)

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Endovascular Fiducial Marker Insertion for CyberKnife Stereotactic Radiation Therapy Planning in Early-Stage Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeon, Mikael; Thibault, Florence; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Gorgos, Andrei-Bogdan; Soulez, Gilles; Filion, Edith; Therasse, Eric

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular fiducial markers (EVFMs) for CyberKnife stereotactic radiation therapy (RT) of malignant lung neoplasms in patients with contraindications to percutaneous fiducial marker (PTFM) placement. Between January 2011 and December 2013, 15 patients (7 men and 8 women) aged 59-87 years (mean, 73 y) underwent EVFM placement and 109 patients (54 men and 55 women) aged 55-92 years (mean, 73 y) underwent 114 PTFM placements. All patients who received EVFMs had contraindications to PTFM insertion. Complications were recorded for all 129 procedures. Proportions of markers used for CyberKnife stereotactic RT planning and distance between markers and tumor were assessed in all 15 patients in the EVFM group and in 15 randomly selected patients in the PTFM group. Sixty-two EVFMs and 56 PTFMs were inserted in the groups of 15 patients. CyberKnife stereotactic RT was not performed in 2 EVFM recipients (8 EVFMs) and 1 PTFM recipient (4 PTFMs). CyberKnife stereotactic RT was planned with the use of 39 of 54 EVFMs (72%) in 13 patients and 37 of 52 PTFMs (71%) in 14 patients. Mean distances between the tumor and EVFMs and PTFMs were 5.5 mm and 2.7 mm, respectively (P = .0152). No complications occurred in the EVFM group. In the PTFM group, 60 of 114 patients (52.6%) had small or moderate pneumothoraxes, 13 (11.4%) had chest tubes inserted, and 5 (4.4%) had self-limiting hemoptysis. EVFM is feasible and safe, and may therefore offer an alternative when patients are not candidates for percutaneous marker placement. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gold and not so real gold in Medieval treatises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrenka Bogovic-Zeskoski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evidence diverse materials and processes used by artisans (and alchemists required to synthesize a visually viable replacement for gold. The emphasis of the research is upon the production of mosaic gold or porporina, a pigment that has survived into modern times, which was used as ink and as paint. Base metals, mostly tin, but also alloys were used both into foils coated with glazes and varnishes and as pigment. The research focuses upon recipes documented in treatises dating from Antiquity to the late Medieval period (ca. 1500 and an attempt is made to answer two questions. In the first place, why was there a need for a surrogate? Secondly, why are there so few tangible examples detected on surviving artifacts? In conclusion, an argument is offered pointing out that, although much can be learned by scientific examination of artifacts, textual analysis is equally important and necessary to unravel mysteries of ancient technologies

  14. Nanotoxicity of gold and gold-cobalt nanoalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, E; Khalil, W K B; Emam, A N; Mohamed, M B; Rao, K V

    2012-05-21

    Nanotoxicology test of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and gold-cobalt (Au-Co) nanoalloy is an important step in their safety evaluation for biomedical applications. The Au and Au-Co NPs were prepared by reducing the metal ions using sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping material. The average size and shape of the nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Cobalt presence in the nanoalloy was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, and the magnetic properties of these particles were determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The Gold and gold-cobalt NPs of average size 15 ± 1.5 nm were administered orally to mice with a dose of 80, 160, and 320 mg/kg per body weight (bw) using gavages. Samples were collected after 7 and 14 days of the treatment. The results indicated that the Au-Co NPs were able to induce significant alteration in the tumor-initiating genes associated with an increase of micronuclei (MNs) formation and generation of DNA adduct (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) as well as a reduction in the glutathione peroxidase activity. This action of Au-Co NPs was observed using 160 and 320 mg/kg bw at both time intervals. However, Au NPs had much lower effects than Au-Co NPs on alteration in the tumor-initiating genes, frequency of MNs, and generation of 8-OHdG as well as glutathione peroxidase activity except with the highest dose of Au NPs. This study suggests that the potential to cause in vivo genetic and antioxidant enzyme alterations due to the treatment by Au-Co nanoalloy may be attributed to the increase in oxidative stress in mice.

  15. CMS Industries awarded gold, crystal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CMS collaboration honoured 10 of its top suppliers in the seventh annual awards ceremony The representatives of the firms that recieved the CMS Gold and Crystal Awards stand with their awards after the ceremony. The seventh annual CMS Awards ceremony was held on Monday 13 March to recognize the industries that have made substantial contributions to the construction of the collaboration's detector. Nine international firms received Gold Awards, and General Tecnica of Italy received the prestigious Crystal Award. Representatives from the companies attended the ceremony during the plenary session of CMS week. 'The role of CERN, its machines and experiments, beyond particle physics is to push the development of equipment technologies related to high-energy physics,'said CMS Awards Coordinator Domenico Campi. 'All of these industries must go beyond the technologies that are currently available.' Without the involvement of good companies over the years, the construction of the CMS detector wouldn't be possible...

  16. Byzantine gold coins and jewellery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddy, A.; La Niece, S.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the dating of Byzantine gold coinage. The results of such a study are of fundamental importance for the study of the economic history of the later Byzantine Empire and they are also of importance for the historian of technology when studying the composition of the contemporary Byzantine jewellery. Although Carbon-14 dating cannot be used as a method af dating, historians can still benefit from the analysis of the alloy of which the antiquity is made, as this is sometimes characteristic of the period in which it was used. A number of pieces of Byzantine jewellery has been analysed by x-ray fluorescence analysis, after first gently abrading a small area of the surface of the gold with the carborundum paper in an inconspicious position on the back or side of the object. A table is given on the results of this analysis

  17. Distribution and composition of gold in porphyry gold systems: example from the Biely Vrch deposit, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koděra, Peter; Kozák, Jaroslav; Brčeková, Jana; Chovan, Martin; Lexa, Jaroslav; Jánošík, Michal; Biroň, Adrián; Uhlík, Peter; Bakos, František

    2018-03-01

    The Biely Vrch deposit in the Western Carpathians is assigned to the shallow, sulfide-poor porphyry gold deposit type and has an exceptionally low Cu/Au ratio. According to 3-D geochemical models, there is a limited spatial correlation between Au and Cu due to the primary introduction of gold by a salt melt and Cu by low-density vapor. Despite a rough spatial correlation of gold grades with quartz stockwork intensity, gold is hosted mostly by altered rock, exclusively in native form. Three main gold mineral assemblages were recognized here. In the deepest parts of the system, the K- and Ca-Na silicate gold assemblage is associated with minerals of high-temperature alteration (plagioclase, K-feldspar, actinolite), with gold grades and fineness depending on depth and potassium content of the host rock: K-silicate alteration hosts the lowest fineness gold ( 914), whereas Ca-Na silicate alteration has the highest ( 983). The intermediate argillic gold assemblage is the most widespread, with gold hosted mainly by chlorite, illite, smectite, and interstratified illite-chlorite-smectite minerals. The gold fineness is mostly variable (875-990) and inherited from the former gold mineral assemblages. The latest advanced argillic gold assemblage has its gold mostly in kaolinite. The extremely high fineness ( 994) results from gold remobilization by late-stage aqueous magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Uncommon bonanza-grade appears where the earlier gold mineral assemblages were further enriched by this remobilized gold. Primary precipitation of gold occurred during ascent and cooling of salt melts at 450 to 309 °C, mostly during retrograde quartz solubility.

  18. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications**

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabalak, Sara E.; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4. The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where ...

  19. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars

    OpenAIRE

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O.; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 108 to 26.8 × 108 M−1cm−1. Measured values correl...

  20. Gold, currencies and market efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 449, č. 1 (2016), s. 27-34 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Efficient market hypothesis, * Gold * Currencies, * Fractal dimension * Entropy * Long-Term memory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kristoufek-0455876.pdf

  1. Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

    A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

  2. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine Marya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  3. Jabiluka gold-uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Jabiluka gold-uranium deposit, 230km east of Darwin in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, was discovered by Pancontinental Mining Limited in 1971. Jabiluka, with reserves in excess of 200,000 tonnes of contained U 3 O 8 in two deposits 500 metres apart, is the world's largest high grade uranium deposit and also contains nearly 12 tonnes of gold. It is proposed that only the larger deposit, Jabiluka II will be mined - by underground extraction methods, and that 275,000 tonnes of ore per year will be mined and processed to produce 1,500 tonnes of U 3 O 8 and up to 30,000 oz of gold. The revenue from the uranium sales is estimated to be of the order of A$100 million per year at A$30/lb. By the end of 1982 all necessary mining and environmental approvals had been obtained and significant marketing progress made. With the Australian Labor Party winning Commonwealth Government in the 1983 election, Pancontinental's permission to seek sales contracts was withdrawn and development of the Jabiluka deposit ceased. Jabiluka remains undeveloped - awaiting a change in Australian Government policy on uranium. figs., maps

  4. Quantification and Prediction of Bulk Gold Fineness at Placer Gold Mines: A New Zealand Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Craw

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the bulk Au fineness (Au parts per thousand of the bullion from a placer gold mine in southern New Zealand. The compositions of doré bars produced approximately every 10 days over nearly three years is compared to the range of compositions of gold particles which have been extracted. Silver is the principal impurity in the gold, and the doré bars contained 2–3 wt % Ag over the period examined. At the scale of a typical individual 0.5 mm gold particle, there are three different types of gold: an Ag-bearing core (2–9 wt % Ag, a 10–50 µm wide Ag-poor rim (typically <1 wt % Ag, and micron scale overgrowth gold (0% Ag. The overgrowths are volumetrically negligible, and the average Ag content of a gold particle is controlled principally by the proportions of core and rim gold. The rims have been formed by recrystallisation of deformed core gold, with associated leaching of the Ag from the recrystallised gold. The volumetric proportion of cores has decreased with increasing flattening of gold particles, and highly flattened and folded flakes have little or no remnant cores. The bulk Au fineness of doré bars from the mine has decreased from ~980 to ~970 as the mine progressed upstream in a Pleistocene paleochannel because the upstream gold has been less flattened than the downstream gold.

  5. CO extrusion in homogeneous gold catalysis: reactivity of gold acyl species generated through water addition to gold vinylidenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Janina; Stößer, Tim; Rudolph, Matthias; Rominger, Frank; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2015-01-26

    Herein, we describe a new gold-catalyzed decarbonylative indene synthesis. Synergistic σ,π-activation of diyne substrates leads to gold vinylidene intermediates, which upon addition of water are transformed into gold acyl species, a type of organogold compound hitherto only scarcely reported. The latter are shown to undergo extrusion of CO, an elementary step completely unknown for homogeneous gold catalysis. By tuning the electronic and steric properties of the starting diyne systems, this new reactivity could be exploited for the synthesis of indene derivatives in high yields. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Application of Gold Nanoparticles to Paint Colorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hideo

    Metal nanoparticles possess unique properties that they do not exhibit in their bulk states. One of these properties is the color due to surface plasmon resonance. Gold nanoparticles appear red. This color has been utilized in glass for a long long time. In recent years, highly concentrated pastes of gold and silver nanoparticles have been successfully produced by using a special type of protective polymer and a mild reductant. The paste of gold nanoparticles can be used for paint and other materials as red colorants. In this article,application examples of gold nanoparticles as colorant are introduced. Recently, methods for producing bimetal nanoparticles such as gold/silver and gold/copper have been developed. These nanoparticles allow colors from yellow to green to be created. These methods and colors they produce are also described in this article.

  7. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin XIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9558

  8. Fabrication of Gold Nanoparticles Doped DVB Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yu; Luo Xuan; Fan Yongheng; Zhang Qingjun; Ren Hongbo; Xiao Lei

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of gold nanoparticles doped low density DVB foams was researched, which can be used as ICF target materials. By high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) method, gold nanoparticles doped low density DVB foams were prepared, with gold nanoparticles dissolved in inner phase. The results show that the content of Au in the gold nanoparticles doped DVB foam is 3. 19%, the axial direction density of the foam is uniform which indicates none evident settlement of gold nanoparticles. SEM tests show that the gold doped DVB polymer foams have open-celled structure and very uniform aperture, and the average pore size is about 1 μm, which is much smaller than that of pure DVB foams. EDX test shows that Au disperses uniformly in the foams. (authors)

  9. Recovery of carrier-free gold-195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iofa, B.Z.; Ivanova, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is known that gold(III) is readily extracted from nitric acid solutions with ethers. The authors have studied extraction of trace amounts of gold(III) from nitric acid solutions with diethyl and diisopropyl ethers in the presence of significant excess of Pt(IV). Distribution coefficients of gold(III) were measured radiometrically using carrier-free gold-195 or spectrophotometrically in the presence of platinum(IV). Very high coefficients of gold separation from platinum may be achieved. Preliminary experiments have shown that zinc-65 was not extracted with ethers from nitric acid solutions. As an extraction system, the authors have chosen the system 10 M HNO 3 -diisopropyl ether. After model experiments, the authors have performed recovery of carrier-free gold-195 from a real platinum target irradiated with protons in a cyclotron

  10. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by recurring attacks of neuroinflammation leading to neuronal death. Immune-suppressing gold salts are used for treating connective tissue diseases; however, side effects occur from systemic spread of gold ions. This is limited...... by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study...... investigates the anti-inflammatory properties of metallic gold/HA on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf-α), Interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, Il-10, Colony-stimulating factor (Csf)-v2, Metallothionein (Mt)-1/2, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 in cultured J774 macrophages...

  11. Physiological investigation of gold nanorods toward watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yujie; Li, Junli; Ren, Hongxuan; Huang, Jin; Yuan, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity and oxidant stress of the gold nanorods toward watermelon, and hence give a quantitative risk assessment of both seeds and plants phase. The seed germination, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the contents of soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been measured while the plant roots were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the gold nanorods significantly promoted the root elongation. Furthermore, the results on the enzymes activities of plant indicated that oxidative stress happened in the plant treated with gold nanorods. However, the gold nanorods resulted in the phytotoxicity toward plant especially at high concentration. The TEM images of the plant roots with and without the treatment of gold nanorods showed the significant different size of starch granules. In conclusion, significant physiological changes of plant occurred after treatment with the gold nanorods.

  12. Glyco-gold nanoparticles: synthesis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Compostella, Federica; Pitirollo, Olimpia; Silvestri, Alessandro; Polito, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Glyco-gold nanoparticles combine in a single entity the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles with the biological activity of carbohydrates. The result is an exciting nanosystem, able to mimic the natural multivalent presentation of saccharide moieties and to exploit the peculiar optical properties of the metallic core. In this review, we present recent advances on glyco-gold nanoparticle applications in different biological fields, highlighting the key parameters which inspire the glyco ...

  13. Glyco-gold nanoparticles: synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Compostella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glyco-gold nanoparticles combine in a single entity the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles with the biological activity of carbohydrates. The result is an exciting nanosystem, able to mimic the natural multivalent presentation of saccharide moieties and to exploit the peculiar optical properties of the metallic core. In this review, we present recent advances on glyco-gold nanoparticle applications in different biological fields, highlighting the key parameters which inspire the glyco nanoparticle design.

  14. Gold, fiat money and price stability

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Bordo; Robert Dittmar; William T. Gavin

    2006-01-01

    The classical gold standard has long been associated with long-run price stability. But short-run price variability led critics of the gold standard to propose reforms that look much like modern versions of price-path targeting. This paper uses a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model to examine price dynamics under alternative policy regimes. In the model, an inflation target provides more short-run price stability than does the gold standard and, although it introduces a unit root int...

  15. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  16. Shape-Controlled Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Shankar, S. S.; Bhargava, S.; Sastry, M. Synthesis of Gold Nanospheres and Nanotriangles by the Turkevich Approach. Journal of Nanoscience and...Accounts of Chemical Research 2008, 41, 1587–1595. 22. Sun, Y.; Xia, Y. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Gold And Silver Nanoparticles. Science...N.; Griep, M. H.; and Karna, S. P. Chemical vs. Sonochemical Synthesis and Characterization of Silver , Gold, and Hybrid Nanoparticles; ARL-TR-5764

  17. Coal gold agglomeration: an innovative approach to the recovery of gold in environmentally sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, N.C.; Hughes-Narborough, C.; Willey, G. [Davy (Stockton) Ltd., Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Coal Gold Agglomeration (CGA) was developed by BP Minerals and involves the selective recovery of oleophilic gold particles from an aqueous slurry into coal-oil agglomerates. These agglomerates are allowed to build up to a high gold loading and are then separated from the slurry. The loaded agglomerates are burned and the gold is finally recovered from the ash residue by dissolution and precipitation or by direct smelting. 6 figs.

  18. BioXmark for high-precision radiotherapy in an orthotopic pancreatic tumor mouse model. Experiences with a liquid fiducial marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobiasch, S. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Munich (Germany); Kampfer, S. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Technical University of Munich (TUM), Physics Department, Garching (Germany); Burkhardt, R.; Wilkens, J.J. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany); Technical University of Munich (TUM), Physics Department, Garching (Germany); Schilling, D.; Schmid, T.E. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany); Combs, S.E. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany); Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Munich (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    High-precision radiotherapy (RT) requires precise positioning, particularly with high single doses. Fiducial markers in combination with onboard imaging are excellent tools to support this. The purpose of this study is to establish a pancreatic cancer mouse model for high-precision image-guided RT (IGRT) using the liquid fiducial marker BioXmark (Nanovi, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark). In an animal-based cancer model, different volumes of BioXmark (10-50 μl), application forms, and imaging modalities - cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) incorporated in either the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) or the small-animal micro-CT Scanner (SkyScan; Bruker, Brussels, Belgium) - as well as subsequent RT with the SARRP system were analyzed to derive recommendations for BioXmark. Even small volumes (10 μl) of BioXmark could be detected by CBCT (SARRP and Skyscan). Larger volumes (50 μl) led to hardening artefacts. The position of BioXmark was monitored at least weekly by CBCT and was stable over 4 months. BioXmark was shown to be well tolerated; no changes in physical condition or toxic side effects were observed in comparison to control mice. BioXmark enabled an exact fusion with the original treatment plan with less hardening artefacts, and minimized the application of contrast agent for fractionated RT. An orthotopic pancreatic tumor mouse model was established for high-precision IGRT using a fiducial marker. BioXmark was successfully tested and provides the perfect basis for improved imaging in high-precision RT. BioXmark enables a unique application method and optimal targeted precision in fractionated RT. Therefore, preclinical trials evaluating novel fractionation regimens and/or combination treatment with high-end RT can be performed. (orig.) [German] Die Hochpraezisionsstrahlentherapie (RT) erfordert insbesondere bei hohen Einzeldosen eine exakte Lagerung. Marker in Kombination mit integrierten Bildgebungsverfahren koennen dies optimal gewaehrleisten

  19. Chemistry of Oligonucleotibe-Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letsinger, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Conjugates prepared by immobilizing thiol-terminated oligonucleotides onto gold nanoparticles from stable colloidal solutions in aqueous media The oligo nucleotides can serve as linkers to organize...

  20. Gold nano-particles fixed on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsch, Christian; Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Kracker, Michael; Rüssel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We produced wear resistant gold–ruby coatings on amorphous substrates. ► Thin sputtered gold layers were covered by or embedded in silica coatings. ► Annealing above T g of the substrate glass led to the formation of gold nano particles. ► A 1 1 1-texture of the gold particles is observed via XRD and EBSD. ► EBSD-patterns can be acquired from crystals covered by a thin layer of glass. - Abstract: A simple process for producing wear resistant gold nano-particle coatings on transparent substrates is proposed. Soda-lime-silica glasses were sputtered with gold and subsequently coated with SiO 2 using a combustion chemical vapor deposition technique. Some samples were first coated with silica, sputtered with gold and then coated with a second layer of silica. The samples were annealed for 20 min at either 550 or 600 °C. This resulted in the formation of round, well separated gold nano-particles with sizes from 15 to 200 nm. The color of the coated glass was equivalent to that of gold–ruby glasses. Silica/gold/silica coatings annealed at 600 °C for 20 min were strongly adherent and scratch resistant. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to describe the crystal orientations of the embedded particles. The gold particles are preferably oriented with their (1 1 1) planes perpendicular to the surface.

  1. CO oxidation on gold nanoparticles: Theoretical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remediakis, Ioannis; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of our theoretical results regarding CO oxidation on both oxide-supported and isolated gold nanoparticles. Using Density Functional Theory we have studied the adsorption of molecules and the oxidation reaction of CO on gold clusters. Low-coordinated sites on the gold...... nanoparticles can adsorb small inorganic molecules such as O2 and CO, and the presence of these sites is the key factor for the catalytic properties of supported gold nanoclusters. Other contributions, induced by the presence of the support, can provide parallel channels for the reaction and modulate the final...

  2. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    , is to handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...... influxes of prospectors competing for a very limited area. This paper charts significant gold rush events in the mineral industry in recent decades and uses preliminary data on the areas impacted by these gold rushes to argue that many mineral tenure systems should be modified in order to be better able...

  3. Gold Cleaning Methods for Electrochemical Detection Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Tenje, Maria; Heiskanen, Arto

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates methods for obtaining reliably clean gold film surfaces. Nine gold cleaning methods are investigated here: UV ozone photoreactor; potassium hydroxide-hydrogen peroxide; potassium hydroxide potential sweep; sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide; sulfuric acid potential cycling......-ray photo-electron spectroscopy are used to characterize surface cleanliness. A low peak-current potential-difference and charge transfer resistance indicates a cleaner surface, as does a higher percentage of elemental gold on the electrode surface. The potassium hydroxide potential sweep method is found...... to leave the gold surface the cleanest overall....

  4. Nuclear excitation in muonic gold

    CERN Document Server

    Robert Tissot, B; Debrunner, P; Engfer, R; Link, R; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Walter, H K

    1973-01-01

    Energies and intensities of muonic X-rays in gold were measured at the CERN muon channel with an experimental set-up as described by Backe et al. (1972). The 2p-1s and 3d-2p transitions could only be analysed taking into account beside the static quadrupole interaction a dynamical hyperfine interaction of the 2p states, which leads to an excitation of the first four nuclear levels. The dynamical hyperfine interaction was calculated using the core excitation model (de Shalit, (1961)). (0 refs).

  5. Metallogeny of gold in the Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, G.; Sundblad, K.

    1990-12-01

    Gold occurs in a number of different ore types in the Fennoscandian Shield ranging in age from Late Archean to Late Proterozoic. Until recently, the metal was exploited primarily as a byproduct in volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits but during the 1980s more gold mines have been opened than during any other episode in the mining history of northern Europe. The occurrence of gold in the Fennoscandian Shield is reviewed in the context of the major tectonostratigraphic units: 1. In the Karelian Province, gold is hosted by greenstone belts of the Archean basement complex e.g. at Ilomantsi, eastern Finland. Greenstone belts of the Nordkalott Province, which are interpreted as part of an Early Proterozoic cover sequence, contain gold deposits associated with copper (Bidjovagge, Saattopora and Pahtohavare). Gold is also associated with cobalt in the metasomatically altered Early Proterozoic cover in north-eastern Finland (Meurastuksenaho and Juomasuo). 2. In the Svecofennian Domain, the major gold deposits were generated during the emplacement of 1.92 1.87 Ga old accretional magmatism. These deposits occur in the northeastern part of the Svecofennian Domain, close to the Archean-Proterozoic boundary. They comprise two major types: (a) the porphyry-type and shear-zone gold hosted by tonalite at Tallberg, Laivakangas, Kopsa and Osikonmäki; (b) as a component of volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits (e.g. Holmtjärn, Boliden and Pyhäsalmi). Other types are: (c) gold-bearing quartz-alumina alteration zones formed during the 1.92 1.87 Ga magmatic period (Enåsen); (d) gold in massive sulphide and iron ore deposits in Bergslagen. 3. Gold associated with 1.84 1.54 Ga granites has been reported from several sites in the Shield, including quartz veins and contact-metasomatic deposits. In addition, shear-zone-related gold deposits post-dating these granites have been identified in southeastern Sweden (Ädelfors). 4. In the Sveconorwegian Domain, the gold deposits at Bleka

  6. Geochemical methodology for gold prospect ion in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenber, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work is about the history of gold prospection in Uruguay. In this study there are considered the geochemical aspects, the gold performance, the applicability to mining prospection and the gold prospection aluvionar

  7. Gold emissivities for hydrocode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, C.; Wagon, F.; Galmiche, D.; Loiseau, P.; Dattolo, E.; Babonneau, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiom model [M. Busquet, Phys Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] is designed to provide a radiative-hydrodynamic code with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) data efficiently by using LTE tables. Comparison with benchmark data [M. Klapisch and A. Bar-Shalom, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 687 (1997)] has shown Radiom to be inaccurate far from LTE and for heavy ions. In particular, the emissivity was found to be strongly underestimated. A recent algorithm, Gondor [C. Bowen and P. Kaiser, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 81, 85 (2003)], was introduced to improve the gold non-LTE ionization and corresponding opacity. It relies on fitting the collisional ionization rate to reproduce benchmark data given by the Averroes superconfiguration code [O. Peyrusse, J. Phys. B 33, 4303 (2000)]. Gondor is extended here to gold emissivity calculations, with two simple modifications of the two-level atom line source function used by Radiom: (a) a larger collisional excitation rate and (b) the addition of a Planckian source term, fitted to spectrally integrated Averroes emissivity data. This approach improves the agreement between experiments and hydrodynamic simulations

  8. Paper Money but a Gold Debt. Italy in the Gold Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Tattara; or consequences)

    2002-01-01

    During the 52 years between the Unification of the Kingdom of Italy and World War 1, the lira was legally convertible into metal for a limited period of time. Although not formally committed to gold, the lira exchange towards the gold standard countries proved remarkably stable, \\223shadowing\\224 gold. It is widely claimed that being one of the successful members of the gold standard circle entailed a number of advantages. If the lira was closely linked to gold, suggesting that there was only...

  9. Lamellar multilayer hexadecylaniline-modified gold nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008,. India e-mail: ... to the Brust method for the synthesis of hydrophobized gold nanoparticles.33 This process essentially consists of .... due to rearrangement of the gold nanoparticles within domains (and reorganization of the domains themselves) on ...

  10. Dress Images on Gold-foil Figures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Andersson Strand, Eva Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    From the Late Iron Age settlement Sorte Muld on Bornholm both gold foil figures with depictions of costumes and textile tools can tell about textile production.......From the Late Iron Age settlement Sorte Muld on Bornholm both gold foil figures with depictions of costumes and textile tools can tell about textile production....

  11. Nonlinear optical studies of single gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Meindert Alexander van

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are spherical clusters of gold atoms, with diameters typically between 1 and 100 nanometers. The applications of these particles are rather diverse, from optical labels for biological experiments to data carrier for optical data storage. The goal of my project was to develop new

  12. Computational approaches to homogeneous gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faza, Olalla Nieto; López, Carlos Silva

    2015-01-01

    Homogenous gold catalysis has been exploding for the last decade at an outstanding pace. The best described reactivity of Au(I) and Au(III) species is based on gold's properties as a soft Lewis acid, but new reactivity patterns have recently emerged which further expand the range of transformations achievable using gold catalysis, with examples of dual gold activation, hydrogenation reactions, or Au(I)/Au(III) catalytic cycles.In this scenario, to develop fully all these new possibilities, the use of computational tools to understand at an atomistic level of detail the complete role of gold as a catalyst is unavoidable. In this work we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the available benchmark works on methodological options to study homogenous gold catalysis in the hope that this effort can help guide the choice of method in future mechanistic studies involving gold complexes. This is relevant because a representative number of current mechanistic studies still use methods which have been reported as inappropriate and dangerously inaccurate for this chemistry.Together with this, we describe a number of recent mechanistic studies where computational chemistry has provided relevant insights into non-conventional reaction paths, unexpected selectivities or novel reactivity, which illustrate the complexity behind gold-mediated organic chemistry.

  13. Geochemistry of hydrothermal gold deposits: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Zhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral assemblages formed during hydrothermal alteration reflect the geochemical composition of ore-forming fluids. Gold is mainly transported in solution as Au–Cl and Au–S complexes. The change of physicochemical conditions such as temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and sulfur fugacity are effective mechanisms for gold precipitation. Gold tends to be concentrated in the vapor phase of fluids at high temperatures and pressures. Au–As and Au–Sb associations are common in gold deposit. Native antimony and/or arsenic – native gold assemblages may precipitate from hydrothermal fluids with low sulfur fugacity. Hydrothermal fluids forming epithermal gold deposits are Au-saturated in most cases, whereas fluids of Carlin-type are Au-undersaturated. Quasi-steady As-bearing pyrite extracts solid solution Au from hydrothermal fluids through absorption. The capability of As-bearing pyrite to absorb Au from under-saturated fluid is the key to the formation of large-scale Carlin-type deposits. With increasing new data, studies on the geochemistry of gold deposits can be used to trace the origin of ore-forming fluids, the source of gold, and the transporting form of Au and other ore-forming elements, such as Si, S, F, Cl, As and Ag.

  14. Gold - Old Drug with New Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Gavino; Gerosa, Clara; Fanni, Daniela; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Nurchi, Valeria M

    2018-01-01

    Research into gold-based drugs for a range of human diseases has seen a revival in recent years. This article reviews the most important applications of gold products in different fields of human pathology. Au(I) and Au(III) compounds have been re-introduced in clinical practice for targeting the cellular components involved in the onset and progression of viral and parasitic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. After some brief historical notes, this article takes into account the applications of gold compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and also in tuberculosis and in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. The use of gold containing drugs in the cure of cancer are then considered, with special emphasis to the use of nanoparticles and to the photo-thermal cancer therapy. The use of colloidal gold in diagnostics, introduced in the last decade is widely discussed. As a last point a survey on the adverse effects and on the toxicity of the various gold derivatives in use in medicine is presented. In this review, we described the surprisingly broad spectrum of possible uses of gold in diagnostics and in therapeutic approaches to multiple human diseases, ranging from degenerative to infectious diseases, and to cancer. In particular, gold nanoparticles appear as attractive elements in modern clinical medicine, combining high therapeutic properties, high selectivity in targeting cancer cells and low toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods

  16. Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which...

  17. Spherical aggregates composed of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C-C; Kuo, P-L; Cheng, Y-C

    2009-01-01

    Alkylated triethylenetetramine (C12E3) was synthesized and used as both a reductant in the preparation of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl 4 and a stabilizer in the subsequent self-assembly of the gold nanoparticles. In acidic aqueous solution, spherical aggregates (with a diameter of about 202 ± 22 nm) of gold nanoparticles (with the mean diameter of ∼18.7 nm) were formed. The anion-induced ammonium adsorption of the alkylated amines on the gold nanoparticles was considered to provide the electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance between the gold nanoparticles, which constituted the barrier that prevented the individual particles from coagulating. However, as the amino groups became deprotonated with increasing pH, the ammonium adsorption was weakened, and the amino groups were desorbed from the gold surface, resulting in discrete gold particles. The results indicate that the morphology of the reduced gold nanoparticles is controllable through pH-'tunable' aggregation under the mediation of the amino groups of alkylated amine to create spherical microstructures.

  18. Photogrammetry-Based Head Digitization for Rapid and Accurate Localization of EEG Electrodes and MEG Fiducial Markers Using a Single Digital SLR Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausner, Tommy; Dalal, Sarang S; Crespo-García, Maité

    2017-01-01

    The performance of EEG source reconstruction has benefited from the increasing use of advanced head modeling techniques that take advantage of MRI together with the precise positions of the recording electrodes. The prevailing technique for registering EEG electrode coordinates involves electromagnetic digitization. However, the procedure adds several minutes to experiment preparation and typical digitizers may not be accurate enough for optimal source reconstruction performance (Dalal et al., 2014). Here, we present a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective alternative method to register EEG electrode positions, using a single digital SLR camera, photogrammetry software, and computer vision techniques implemented in our open-source toolbox, janus3D . Our approach uses photogrammetry to construct 3D models from multiple photographs of the participant's head wearing the EEG electrode cap. Electrodes are detected automatically or semi-automatically using a template. The rigid facial features from these photo-based models are then surface-matched to MRI-based head reconstructions to facilitate coregistration to MRI space. This method yields a final electrode coregistration error of 0.8 mm, while a standard technique using an electromagnetic digitizer yielded an error of 6.1 mm. The technique furthermore reduces preparation time, and could be extended to a multi-camera array, which would make the procedure virtually instantaneous. In addition to EEG, the technique could likewise capture the position of the fiducial markers used in magnetoencephalography systems to register head position.

  19. The ν-cleus experiment: a gram-scale fiducial-volume cryogenic detector for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, R.; Rothe, J.; Angloher, G.; Hauff, D.; Mancuso, M.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Bento, A. [Universidade de Coimbra, CIUC, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Guetlein, A.; Kluck, H.; Schieck, J. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Oberauer, L.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss a small-scale experiment, called ν-cleus, for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering by probing nuclear-recoil energies down to the 10 eV regime. The detector consists of low-threshold CaWO{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} calorimeter arrays with a total mass of about 10 g and several cryogenic veto detectors operated at millikelvin temperatures. Realizing a fiducial volume and a multi-element target, the detector enables active discrimination of γ, neutron and surface backgrounds. A first prototype Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} device, operated above ground in a setup without shielding, has achieved an energy threshold of ∝20 eV and further improvements are in reach. A sensitivity study for the detection of coherent neutrino scattering at nuclear power plants shows a unique discovery potential (5 σ) within a measuring time of

  20. DESY Measurements of fiducial differential cross sections for Higgs boson production in the diphoton decay channel at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Filipuzzi, Marco; Schleper, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, measurements of fiducial differential cross sections are presented for Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 8 TeV. The analysis is performed in the H → γγ decay channel using 20.3 fb−1 of data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is extracted using a fit to the diphoton invariant mass spectrum, then the signal yields are corrected for the effects of detector inefficiency and resolution. Differential cross sections are presented as a function of variables related to the charged particles and the jet activity produced in the Higgs boson events. The observables considered are derived from the N -jettiness inclusive event-shape and build from track and jet information. These observables are sensitive to the distribution of the radiation in the event. Combining jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity information the variables $\\tau_1$ and $\\sum_i \\tau_i$ are defined. These observables can be used as ...

  1. Measurements of fiducial differential cross sections for Higgs boson production in the diphoton decay channel at √(s)=8 TeV with ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipuzzi, Marco

    2016-12-01

    In this thesis, measurements of fiducial differential cross sections are presented for Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=8 TeV. The analysis is performed in the H→γγ decay channel using 20.3 fb -1 of data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is extracted using a fit to the diphoton invariant mass spectrum, then the signal yields are corrected for the effects of detector inefficiency and resolution. Differential cross sections are presented as a function of variables related to the charged particles and the jet activity produced in the Higgs boson events. The observables considered are derived from the N-jettiness inclusive event-shape and build from track and jet information. These observables are sensitive to the distribution of the radiation in the event. Combining jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity information the variables τ 1 and Σ i τ i are defined. These observables can be used as jet vetoes and their cross sections are theoretically well-controlled. The observed spectra are statistically limited but broadly in line with the theoretical expectations.

  2. Measurement of differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for Higgs boson production in the four-lepton decay channel in pp collisions at √{s}=7 and 8 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.

    2016-04-01

    Integrated fiducial cross sections for the production of four leptons via the H → 4 ℓ decays ( ℓ = e, μ) are measured in pp collisions at √{s}=7 and 8TeV. Measurements are performed with data corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb-1 at 7TeV, and 19.7 fb-1 at 8 TeV, collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Differential cross sections are measured using the 8 TeV data, and are determined as functions of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the four-lepton system, accompanying jet multiplicity, transverse momentum of the leading jet, and difference in rapidity between the Higgs boson candidate and the leading jet. A measurement of the Z → 4 ℓ cross section, and its ratio to the H → 4 ℓ cross section is also performed. All cross sections are measured within a fiducial phase space defined by the requirements on lepton kinematics and event topology. The integrated H → 4 ℓ fiducial cross section is measured to be 0. 56 - 0.44 + 0.67 (stat) - 0.06 + 0.21 (syst) fb at 7 TeV, and 1. 11 - 0.35 + 0.41 (stat) - 0.10 + 0.14 (syst) fb at 8 TeV. The measurements are found to be compatible with theoretical calculations based on the standard model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Measurement of differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for Higgs boson production in the four-lepton decay channel in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 and 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elkafrawy, Tamer; Mohamed, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-04-01

    Differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for the production of four leptons via the $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell$ decays ($\\ell = \\mathrm{e}$, $\\mu$) are measured in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 and 8 TeV. Measurements are performed with data corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb$^{-1}$ at 7 TeV, and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ at 8 TeV, collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Differential cross sections are determined as functions of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the four-lepton system, accompanying jet multiplicity, transverse momentum of the leading jet, and difference in rapidity between the Higgs boson candidate and the leading jet. A measurement of the $ \\mathrm{Z} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ cross section, and its ratio to the $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ cross section is also performed. All cross sections are measured within a fiducial phase space defined by the requirements on lepton kinematics and event topology. The integrated $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ fiducial cr...

  4. Measurement of the Inclusive and Fiducial Cross-Section of Single Top-Quark $t$-Channel Events in $pp$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This note presents the measurement of a $t$-channel single top-quark production fiducial cross-section in the lepton+jets channel with 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of 8 TeV data using a neural-network discriminant. Events are selected by requiring exactly two jets, where one of the jets is required to be $b$-tagged. Signal events from $t$-channel single top-quark processes are enhanced using a neural-network discriminant based on final-state observables. The $t$-channel production cross-section in the fiducial region is obtained from a binned maximum-likelihood fit to the neural-network discriminant. A fiducial cross-section quoted within the detector acceptance of $\\sigma_{\\rm fid} = 3.37 \\pm 0.05 \\, (\\mathrm{stat.}) \\pm 0.47 \\, (\\mathrm{syst.}) \\pm 0.09 \\, (\\mathrm{lumi.})~\\text{pb}$ is obtained. The total inclusive $t$-channel cross-section is calculated using the acceptance predicted by various Monte Carlo generators. If the acceptance from the aMC@NLO+Herwig event generator is used, a value of $\\sigma_t = 82.6 \\pm 1.2...

  5. Measurement of fiducial, differential and production cross sections in the $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ decay channel with 13.3 fb$^{-1}$ of 13 TeV proton-proton collision data with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This note presents preliminary measurements of the Higgs boson properties measured in the $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ decay channel using 13.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data taken at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 13 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Fiducial and differential cross section measurements are presented in a variety of phase space regions and as a function of several kinematic variables. The fiducial cross section is measured to be $ \\sigma_{\\rm fid} = 43.2 \\pm 14.9\\, ({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 4.9 \\, ({\\rm syst.})\\,\\mathrm{fb}$ for a Higgs boson of mass 125.09 GeV decaying to two isolated photons that have transverse momentum greater than 35% and 25% of the diphoton invariant mass and each with absolute pseudorapidity $|\\eta|<2.37$, excluding the region $1.37 < |\\eta|<1.52$. The Standard Model prediction for the same fiducial region is $62.8 \\, ^{+3.4}_{-4.4}\\,$fb. Finally, production cross section measurements for a Higgs boson rapidity $|y_H|<$ 2.5 and in the full phase space are presented for gluon f...

  6. Gold 100: proceedings of the international conference on gold. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, C.E.; King, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of Gold 100 have been published in three separate volumes. The first deals with the mining of gold, the second with the extractive metallurgy of gold, and the third with industrial uses of gold. In this second volume, the papers on extractive metallurgy presented at the Conference reflect most of the problems that are currently of significant technical interest to the industry. This volume is divided in six main parts covering plant design, carbon-in-pulp technology, refractory gold, new technology, grinding and concentration, and leaching. The part on new technology includes papers on x-ray fluorescence analyzers, Moessbauer spectroscopy and leaching processes for uranium, while the part on grinding and concentration includes papers on nuclear and radiotracer techniques for the recovery of gold as well as various flotation parameters in the flotation behaviour of gold and uranium

  7. Synthesis of camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhimin; Liu Zhiguo; Zu Yuangang; Fu Yujie; Zhao Chunjian; Zhao Xiuhua; Meng Ronghua; Tan Shengnan

    2010-01-01

    Camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials have been synthesized by the sodium borohydride reduction method under a strong basic condition. The obtained gold nanomaterials have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The camptothecin-loaded gold colloidal solution was very stable and can be stored for more than two months at room temperature without obvious changes. The color of the colloidal solution can change from wine red to purple and blue during the acidifying process. It was revealed that the release of camptothecin and the aggregation of gold nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the solution pH. The present study implied that the gold nanomaterials can be used as the potential carrier for CPT delivery.

  8. Optical constant of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, D. I.; Fedyanin, D. Yu; Arsenin, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of metal-based devices is limited by ohmic losses in the metal, which are determined by electron scattering. The structural properties of gold thin films also play an important role in the film quality, which may affect its' optical properties and the overall capability of the dev......The performance of metal-based devices is limited by ohmic losses in the metal, which are determined by electron scattering. The structural properties of gold thin films also play an important role in the film quality, which may affect its' optical properties and the overall capability...... and spectroscopic ellipsometry, the structural morphology and optical properties of polycrystalline gold thin films (fabricated by e-beam deposition at a low sputtering rate smooth gold) in the thickness range of 20 - 200 nm. By extracting the real and imaginary dielectric function and the Drude parameter...... predicts optical losses based on structure of the gold films....

  9. The interaction of gold with gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar-cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments designed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions have yielded several interesting results. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are also explained by invoking this mechanism.

  10. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement

  11. Gold Liquid Crystals in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bardají

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the first gold liquid crystal was described in 1986, much effort has been done to prepare new compounds bearing this property. The review deals with the last results obtained in this new century. Gold(I has a strong affinity to give linear co-ordination and metal-metal interactions, which produce a rich supramolecular chemistry, and can promote the behavior as liquid crystal. Therefore, most liquid crystals are based on rod-like gold(I compounds, while gold(III liquid crystals are scarce. Calamitic and discotic mesogens have been reported, as well as chiral liquid crystals. Weak interactions such as H-bonds have also been used to obtain gold mesogens. Some of them exhibit additional properties, such as color, luminescence, and chirality. Luminescence has been reported, not only in the solid state or in solution, but also in the mesophase. This is relevant for applications in LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes, information storage, and sensors.

  12. Carbonate hosted gold deposit in Tasmania, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadi, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: This study uses elemental and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with gold from Henty and Beaconsfield in Tasmania, Australia, to illustrate source of gold-bearing fluids, salinity, temperature and dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonate. The Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are located in northern and western Tasmania respectively. Gold mineralisation in Beaconsfield occurs within the quartz-carbonate Tasmania Reef (Lower to Middle Palaeozoic sequence, Hills, 1998). The Henty gold mine is located at the base of the Cambrian Tyndall Group (volcano-sedimentary succession, White and McPhie, 1996) close to Henty Fault. Gold in carbonate samples from Henty ranges from 7.7 to 9360 ppm and in Beaconsfield ranges from 0.01 to 434 ppm. The amount of carbonate in samples from Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines varies from approximately 24 to 99.8%. Bivariate plot of Ca relative to total amounts of Mg, Fe and Mn illustrates that the major carbonate minerals at Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are magnesian ankerite and calcite. The difference in carbonate mineralogy, at Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines, is attributed to the composition of fluids responsible for carbonate alteration. Gold and magnesium in Beaconsfield ankerite are derived from the leaching of Cambrian ultramafic rocks during the Devonian by the passage of meteoric fluids through tectonically affected Ordovician carbonates (Rao and Adabi, 1999). The total concentration of Fe and Mn are low (0.5 to 2%) in Henty and high (1 to 17.5%) in Beaconsfield ankerite, possibly due to oxidising conditions at Henty and reducing conditions at Beaconsfield gold mines during gold mineralisation. Variation of Sr values between Beaconsfield ankerite and Henty calcite is related to dissolution of limestone that increase Sr concentrations in gold mineralising fluids. Na values in both Beaconsfield (20 to 1100 ppm) and Henty carbonates (25 to 1650 ppm) suggest low salinity fluids responsible for gold

  13. Gold nanoparticles: generation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.

    2013-07-01

    In this presentation we report the reduction of Au 3+ through chemical and free radical (e solv - ) reactions both in non-aqueous and aqueous media. In chemical reduction, the spectral nature in ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) systems was different. The band intensity of gold nanoparticles was lower in AA system. While in free radical reaction, the yield of nanoparticles was pure i.e. free from excess reactants. Under the study 60-200 nm size nanoparticles were generated, which are inert to oxygen. Using pulse radiolysis technique, the initial rate for e solv - reaction with Au 3+ was determined to be 7.6 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 . (author)

  14. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-07-30

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 10 8 to 26.8 × 10 8 M -1 cm -1 . Measured values correlate with those obtained from theoretical models of the NStars using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which we use to simulate the extinction spectra of the nanostars. Finally, because NStars are typically used in biological applications, we conjugate DNA and antibodies to the NStars and calculate the footprint of the bound biomolecules.

  15. Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN, and Au(OHx, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching.

  16. Coal-gold agglomeration: an alternative separation process in gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcil, A.; Wu, X.Q.; Aksay, E.K. [Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Considering the increasing environmental concerns and the potential for small gold deposits to be exploited in the future, the uses of environmentally friendly processes are essential. Recent developments point to the potential for greatly increased plant performance through a separation process that combines the cyanide and flotation processes. In addition, this kind of alternative treatment processes to the traditional gold recovery processes may reduce the environmental risks of present small-scale gold mining. Gold recovery processes that applied to different types of gold bearing ore deposits show that the type of deposits plays an important role for the selection of mineral processing technologies in the production of gold and other precious metals. In the last 25 years, different alternative processes have been investigated on gold deposits located in areas where environmental issues are a great concern. In 1988, gold particles were first recovered by successful pilot trial of coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) process in Australia. The current paper reviews the importance of CGA in the production of gold ore and identifies areas for further development work.

  17. Gold Leaching Characteristics and Intensification of a High S and As-Bearing Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-bin; Liu, Xiao-liang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Qian; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yan

    Some high sulfur and arsenic-bearing gold concentrate has a gold leaching rate less than 80% by oxidation roasting-pickling-cyanidation process. The characteristics and intensification of gold leaching were studied systemically. By combining chemical composition and phase analysis, the low gold leaching rate was found to lie in the capsulation of gold by iron-containing phases including iron oxides, arsenopyrite and pyrite. 96.66% of gold in the industrial leaching residue was capsulated and 95.88% of the capsulated turned out to be in the iron-containing phases. The results of laboratory pickling-cyanidation experiments on the calcine and industrial leaching residue presented further demonstration for the fact that gold capsulated in the iron-containing phases was hard to be leached. However, the gold cyanide leaching rate of calcine could be raised over 95% by a reduction roasting-pickling pretreatment which played such a significant role in exposing the capsulated gold that gold leaching was intensified remarkably.

  18. The giant Jiaodong gold province: The key to a unified model for orogenic gold deposits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Groves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the term orogenic gold deposit has been widely accepted for all gold-only lode-gold deposits, with the exception of Carlin-type deposits and rare intrusion-related gold systems, there has been continuing debate on their genesis. Early syngenetic models and hydrothermal models dominated by meteoric fluids are now clearly unacceptable. Magmatic-hydrothermal models fail to explain the genesis of orogenic gold deposits because of the lack of consistent spatially – associated granitic intrusions and inconsistent temporal relationships. The most plausible, and widely accepted, models involve metamorphic fluids, but the source of these fluids is hotly debated. Sources within deeper segments of the supracrustal successions hosting the deposits, the underlying continental crust, and subducted oceanic lithosphere and its overlying sediment wedge all have their proponents. The orogenic gold deposits of the giant Jiaodong gold province of China, in the delaminated North China Craton, contain ca. 120 Ma gold deposits in Precambrian crust that was metamorphosed over 2000 million years prior to gold mineralization. The only realistic source of fluid and gold is a subducted oceanic slab with its overlying sulfide-rich sedimentary package, or the associated mantle wedge. This could be viewed as an exception to a general metamorphic model where orogenic gold has been derived during greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism of supracrustal rocks: basaltic rocks in the Precambrian and sedimentary rocks in the Phanerozoic. Alternatively, if a holistic view is taken, Jiaodong can be considered the key orogenic gold province for a unified model in which gold is derived from late-orogenic metamorphic devolatilization of stalled subduction slabs and oceanic sediments throughout Earth history. The latter model satisfies all geological, geochronological, isotopic and geochemical constraints but the precise mechanisms of auriferous fluid release, like many

  19. Gold nanoparticles produced in a microalga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangpipat, Tiyaporn; Beattie, Isabel R.; Chisti, Yusuf; Haverkamp, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient biological route to production of gold nanoparticles which allows the nanoparticles to be easily recovered remains elusive. Live cells of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris were incubated with a solution of gold chloride and harvested by centrifugation. Nanoparticles inside intact cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy and confirmed to be metallic gold by synchrotron based X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These intracellular gold nanoparticles were 40–60 nm in diameter. At a concentration of 1.4% Au in the alga, a better than 97% recovery of the gold from solution was achieved. A maximum of 4.2% Au in the alga was obtained. Exposure of C. vulgaris to solutions containing dissolved salts of palladium, ruthenium, and rhodium also resulted in the production of the corresponding nanoparticles within the cells. These were surmised to be also metallic, but were produced at a much lower intracellular concentration than achieved with gold. Iridium was apparently toxic to the alga. No nanoparticles were observed using platinum solutions. C. vulgaris provides a possible route to large scale production of gold nanoparticles.

  20. Gel Electrophoresis of Gold-DNA Nanoconjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pellegrino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold-DNA conjugates were investigated in detail by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis study based on 1200 gels. A controlled number of single-stranded DNA of different length was attached specifically via thiol-Au bonds to phosphine-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles. Alternatively, the surface of the gold particles was saturated with single stranded DNA of different length either specifically via thiol-Au bonds or by nonspecific adsorption. From the experimentally determined electrophoretic mobilities, estimates for the effective diameters of the gold-DNA conjugates were derived by applying two different data treatment approaches. The first method is based on making a calibration curve for the relation between effective diameters and mobilities with gold nanoparticles of known diameter. The second method is based on Ferguson analysis which uses gold nanoparticles of known diameter as reference database. Our study shows that effective diameters derived from gel electrophoresis measurements are affected with a high error bar as the determined values strongly depend on the method of evaluation, though relative changes in size upon binding of molecules can be detected with high precision. Furthermore, in this study, the specific attachment of DNA via gold-thiol bonds to Au nanoparticles is compared to nonspecific adsorption of DNA. Also, the maximum number of DNA molecules that can be bound per particle was determined.

  1. Nature vs. nurture: gold perpetuates "stemness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P; Deb, Kaushik Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Adult tissues contain quiescent reservoirs of multipotent somatic stem cells and pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells (ELSCs). Credited with regenerative properties gold is used across both -contemporary and -ancient medicines. Here, we show that gold exerted these effects by enhancing the pool of pluripotent ELSC while improving their stemness. We used hESCs as an in-vitro model to understand if gold could enhance self-renewal and pluripotency. Swarna-bhasma (SB), an ancient Indian gold microparticulate (41.1 nm), preparation, reduced spontaneous-differentiation, improved self-renewal, pluripotency and proliferation of hESCs. Colloidal gold-nanoparticles (GNP) (15.59 nm) were tested to confirm that the observations were attributable to nanoparticulate-gold. SB and GNP exposure: maintained -stemness, -karyotypic stability, enhanced pluripotency till day-12, increased average colony-sizes, and reduced the number of autonomously-derived differentiated FGFR1 positive fibroblast-niche-cells/colony. Particulate-gold induced upregulation of FGFR1 and IGF2 expression, and decrease in IGF1 secretion indicates IGF1/2 mediated support for enhanced pluripotency and self-renewal in hESCs.

  2. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs

  3. NUCLEATION STUDIES OF GOLD ON CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SOBRI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest has grown in developing non-toxic electrolytes for gold electrodeposition to replace the conventional cyanide-based bath for long term sustainability of gold electroplating. A solution containing thiosulphate and sulphite has been developed specially for microelectronics applications. However, at the end of the electrodeposition process, the spent electrolyte can contain a significant amount of gold in solution. This study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of gold recovery from a spent thiosulphate-sulphite electrolyte. We have used flat-plate glassy carbon and graphite electrodes to study the mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth of gold deposition from the spent electrolyte. It was found that at the early stages of reduction process, the deposition of gold on glassy carbon exhibits an instantaneous nucleation of non-overlapping particles. At longer times, the particles begin to overlap and the deposition follows a classic progressive nucleation phenomenon. On the other hand, deposition of gold on graphite does not follow the classical nucleation phenomena.

  4. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs.

  5. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.

  6. The giant Kalgoorlie Gold Field revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Mary Vielreicher

    2016-05-01

    Direct timing constraints on gold mineralization indicate that Fimiston- and Mt Charlotte-style mineralization formed within a relative short period of time around 2.64 Ga, and, as such, support a model of progressive deformation of a rheologically heterogeneous rock package late in the structural history. Fluid characteristics, combined with the structural, metamorphic and absolute timing, support description of gold mineralization at the Golden Mile as orogenic and mesozonal, and this allows direct correlation with orogenic gold deposits worldwide, which classically formed during accretion along convergent margins throughout Earth history.

  7. Integer conductance quantization of gold atomic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurui, Yoshihiko; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Okamoto, Masakuni; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2008-04-01

    Using a transmission electron microscope combined with a scanning tunneling microscope, we find that a gold (111) or (001) atomic sheet is formed between two gold electrodes. Simultaneous conductance measurements indicate a value in the vicinity of G0 ( =2e2/h : conductance quantum), 2G0 , 3G0 , and 4G0 . Each quantum number is equal to the number of atomic strands. First-principle calculations suggest that the atomic sheet should be deformed to explain this rule. It is likely that the gold atomic sheet is stabilized by an increment of the nonlocal bond because of the deformation.

  8. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshuo; He, Dawei; Zhang, Xiqing; Duan, Jiahua; Wu, Hongpeng; Xu, Haiteng; Wang, Yongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Single sheets of functionalized graphene oxide are derived through chemical exfoliation of natural flake graphite. We present an effective synthetic method of graphene-gold nanoparticles hybrid nanocomposites. AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) was used to measure the thickness of the individual GO nanosheet. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy was used to verify the attachment of oxygen functionalities on the surface of graphene oxide. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) data revealed the average diameters of the gold colloids and characterized the composite particles situation. Absorption spectroscopy showed that before and after synthesis the gold particle size did not change. Our studies indicate that the hybrid is potential substrates for catalysts and biosensors.

  9. Gold nanoparticles extraction from dielectric scattering background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Wang, Jingxin

    2014-11-01

    The unique advantages such as brightness, non-photobleaching, good bio-compatibility make gold nanoparticles desirable labels and play important roles in biotech and related research and applications. Distinguishing gold nanoparticles from other dielectric scattering particles is of more importance, especially in bio-tracing and imaging. The enhancement image results from the localized surface plasmon resonance associated with gold nanopartilces makes themselves distinguishable from other dielectric particles, based on which, we propose a dual-wavelength detection method by employing a high sensitive cross-polarization microscopy.

  10. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs

  11. Gold Photoluminescence: Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Kim Hjælm; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes...... and dimensions of gold nanoparticles influences the GSPR wavelength and polarization characteristics, thereby allowing us to enhance and spectrally mold the plasmon-assisted PL while simultaneously controlling its polarization. In order to understand the underlying physics behind the plasmon-enhanced PL, we...

  12. Morphology of gold nanoparticles synthesized by filamentous cyanobacteria from gold(I)-thiosulfate and gold(III)--chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengke, Maggy F; Fleet, Michael E; Southam, Gordon

    2006-03-14

    Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485, a filamentous cyanobacterium, has been reacted with aqueous Au(S(2)O(3))(2)(3)(-) and AuCl(4)(-) solutions ( approximately 400-550 mg/L Au) at 25-100 degrees C for up to 1 month and at 200 degrees C for 1 day. The interaction of cyanobacteria with aqueous Au(S(2)O(3))(2)(3)(-) promoted the precipitation of cubic (100) gold nanoparticles (gold sulfide within cells and encrusted on the cyanobacteria, whereas reaction with AuCl(4)(-) resulted in the precipitation of octahedral (111) gold platelets ( approximately 1-10 microm) in solutions and nanoparticles of gold (SIMS on (111) faces of the octahedral platelets were predominantly Cl and CN, with smaller amounts of C(2)H and CNO.

  13. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A

    2009-01-01

    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  14. Coal-oil gold agglomeration assisted flotation to recover gold from refractory ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, A.; Yue, C.

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the applicability of coal-oil gold agglomeration (CGA) assisted flotation to recover gold from a refractory ore. The ore with the grade of 2-5 g/t was tested with the CGA-flotation process in six different size fractions from 38 to 300 urn using different collector types and dosages. In addition, the flotation without CGA was performed under the same condition for comparison. The results showed that the higher gold grade and recovery were achieved by applying the CGA-flotation, compared with the flotation without CGA. More than 20-60 times grade increase from the head grade was obtained with CGA-flotation. The elemental analysis of gold and sulphur explained their relationship with gold recovery. The results well indicated the applicability of CGA to upgrade the refractory gold ore.

  15. Three-phase Interstellar Medium in Galaxies Resolving Evolution with Star Formation and Supernova Feedback (TIGRESS): Algorithms, Fiducial Model, and Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2017-09-01

    We introduce TIGRESS, a novel framework for multi-physics numerical simulations of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) implemented in the Athena MHD code. The algorithms of TIGRESS are designed to spatially and temporally resolve key physical features, including: (1) the gravitational collapse and ongoing accretion of gas that leads to star formation in clusters; (2) the explosions of supernovae (SNe), both near their progenitor birth sites and from runaway OB stars, with time delays relative to star formation determined by population synthesis; (3) explicit evolution of SN remnants prior to the onset of cooling, which leads to the creation of the hot ISM; (4) photoelectric heating of the warm and cold phases of the ISM that tracks the time-dependent ambient FUV field from the young cluster population; (5) large-scale galactic differential rotation, which leads to epicyclic motion and shears out overdense structures, limiting large-scale gravitational collapse; (6) accurate evolution of magnetic fields, which can be important for vertical support of the ISM disk as well as angular momentum transport. We present tests of the newly implemented physics modules, and demonstrate application of TIGRESS in a fiducial model representing the solar neighborhood environment. We use a resolution study to demonstrate convergence and evaluate the minimum resolution {{Δ }}x required to correctly recover several ISM properties, including the star formation rate, wind mass-loss rate, disk scale height, turbulent and Alfvénic velocity dispersions, and volume fractions of warm and hot phases. For the solar neighborhood model, all these ISM properties are converged at {{Δ }}x≤slant 8 {pc}.

  16. Effective one step-iterative fiducial marker-based compensation for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm cone-beam CT scanning of knees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Berger, Martin; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    We previously introduced three different fiducial marker-based correction methods (2D projection shifting, 2D projection warping, and 3D image warping) for patients' involuntary motion in the lower body during weight-bearing Carm CT scanning. The 3D warping method performed better than 2D methods since it could more accurately take into account the lower body motion in 3D. However, as the 3D warping method applies different rotational and translational movement to the reconstructed image for each projection frame, distance-related weightings were slightly twisted and thus result in overlaying background noise over the entire image. In order to suppress background noise and artifacts (e.g. metallic marker-caused streaks), the 3D warping method has been improved by incorporating bilateral filtering and a Landwebertype iteration in one step. A series of projection images of five healthy volunteers standing at various flexion angles were acquired using a C-arm cone-beam CT system with a flat panel. A horizontal scanning trajectory of the C-arm was calibrated to generate projection matrices. Using the projection matrices, the static reference marker coordinates in 3D were estimated and used for the improved 3D warping method. The improved 3D warping method effectively reduced background noise down below the noise level of 2D methods and also eliminated metal-generated streaks. Thus, improved visibility of soft tissue structures (e.g. fat and muscle) was achieved while maintaining sharp edges at bone-tissue interfaces. Any high resolution weight-bearing cone-beam CT system can apply this method for motion compensation.

  17. Accuracy of an infrared marker-based patient positioning system (ExacTrac®) for stereotactic body radiotherapy in localizing the planned isocenter using fiducial markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Rodríguez, María de los Ángeles; Hernández-Bojórquez, Mariana; Martínez-Gómez, Alma Angélica; Contreras-Pérez, Agustín; Negrete-Hernández, Ingrid Mireya; Hernández-Oviedo, Jorge Omar; Mitsoura, Eleni; Santiago-Concha, Bernardino Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) requires a controlled immobilization and position monitoring of patient and target. The purpose of this work is to analyze the performance of the imaging system ExacTrac® (ETX) using infrared and fiducial markers. Materials and methods: In order to assure the accuracy of isocenter localization, a Quality Assurance procedure was applied using an infrared marker-based positioning system. Scans were acquired of an inhouse-agar gel and solid water phantom with infrared spheres. In the inner part of the phantom, three reference markers were delineated as reference and one pellet was place internally; which was assigned as the isocenter. The iPlan® RT Dose treatment planning system. Images were exported to the ETX console. Images were acquired with the ETX to check the correctness of the isocenter placement. Adjustments were made in 6D the reference markers were used to fuse the images. Couch shifts were registered. The procedure was repeated for verification purposes. Results: The data recorded of the verifications in translational and rotational movements showed averaged 3D spatial uncertainties of 0.31 ± 0.42 mm respectively 0.82° ± 0.46° in the phantom and the first correction of these uncertainties were of 1.51 ± 1.14 mm respectively and 1.37° ± 0.61°. Conclusions: This study shows a high accuracy and repeatability in positioning the selected isocenter. The ETX-system for verifying the treatment isocenter position has the ability to monitor the tracing position of interest, making it possible to be used for SBRT positioning within uncertainty ≤1mm.

  18. Accuracy of an infrared marker-based patient positioning system (ExacTrac®) for stereotactic body radiotherapy in localizing the planned isocenter using fiducial markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes-Rodríguez, María de los Ángeles, E-mail: angy24538@yahoo.com; Mitsoura, Eleni [Medical Physics Graduate Programme, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan esquina Jesús Carranza Colonia Moderna de la Cruz, C.P. 50180, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Hernández-Bojórquez, Mariana; Martínez-Gómez, Alma Angélica; Contreras-Pérez, Agustín; Negrete-Hernández, Ingrid Mireya; Hernández-Oviedo, Jorge Omar; Santiago-Concha, Bernardino Gabriel [Centro de Cáncer ABC, The American British Cowdray Medical Center I.A.P. (CMABC), Calle Sur 136, no. 116, Colonia las Américas, C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) requires a controlled immobilization and position monitoring of patient and target. The purpose of this work is to analyze the performance of the imaging system ExacTrac® (ETX) using infrared and fiducial markers. Materials and methods: In order to assure the accuracy of isocenter localization, a Quality Assurance procedure was applied using an infrared marker-based positioning system. Scans were acquired of an inhouse-agar gel and solid water phantom with infrared spheres. In the inner part of the phantom, three reference markers were delineated as reference and one pellet was place internally; which was assigned as the isocenter. The iPlan® RT Dose treatment planning system. Images were exported to the ETX console. Images were acquired with the ETX to check the correctness of the isocenter placement. Adjustments were made in 6D the reference markers were used to fuse the images. Couch shifts were registered. The procedure was repeated for verification purposes. Results: The data recorded of the verifications in translational and rotational movements showed averaged 3D spatial uncertainties of 0.31 ± 0.42 mm respectively 0.82° ± 0.46° in the phantom and the first correction of these uncertainties were of 1.51 ± 1.14 mm respectively and 1.37° ± 0.61°. Conclusions: This study shows a high accuracy and repeatability in positioning the selected isocenter. The ETX-system for verifying the treatment isocenter position has the ability to monitor the tracing position of interest, making it possible to be used for SBRT positioning within uncertainty ≤1mm.

  19. Nanoporous gold: a new gold catalyst with tunable properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittstock, Arne; Wichmann, Andre; Biener, Jürgen; Bäumer, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous gold (np-Au) represents a novel nanostructured bulk material with very interesting perspectives in heterogeneous catalysis. Its monolithic porous structure and the absence of a support or other stabilizing agents opens up unprecedented possibilities to tune structure and surface chemistry in order to adapt the material to specific catalytic applications. We investigated three of these tuning options in more detail: change of the porosity by annealing, increase of activity by the deposition of oxides and change of activity and selectivity by bimetallic effects. As an example for the latter case, the effect of Ag impurities will be discussed. The presence and concentration of Ag can be correlated to the availability of active oxygen. While for the oxidation of CO the activity of the catalyst can be significantly enhanced when increasing the content of Ag, we show for the oxidation of methanol that the selectivity is shifted from partial to total oxidation. In a second set of experiments, two different metal-oxides were deposited on np-Au, praseodymia and titania. In both cases, the surface chemistry changed significantly. The activity of the catalyst for oxidation of CO was increased by up to one order of magnitude after modification. Finally, we used adsorbate controlled coarsening to tune the structure of np-Au. In this way, even gradients in the pore- and ligament size could be induced, taking advantage of mass transport phenomena.

  20. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and one...

  1. A study on gold detection in Wenyu gold mine with XRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liuchun

    1988-01-01

    A portable X ray fluorescence analyzer was used for detecting fluorcescent X rays from the elements associated with gold ores. Fe, As and Ni were chosen to be the indicator elements to analyse rock samples in Wenyu gold mine. Optimum indicators were determined, and it had proved to be successful to detect gold indirectly by measuring the yields of characteristic X rays of the elements. The method provided also valuable information on geology mapping and deposits forming environment

  2. Effective PEGylation of gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, F.; Friedrich, W.; Hoppe, K.; Vossmeyer, T.; Weller, H.; Lange, H.

    2016-03-01

    Standard procedures to coat gold nanorods (AuNR) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based ligands are not reliable and high PEG-grafting densities are not achieved. In this work, the ligand exchange of AuNR with PEGMUA, a tailored PEG-ligand bearing a C10 alkylene spacer, is studied. PEGMUA provides AuNR with very high stability against oxidative etching with cyanide. This etching reaction is utilized to study the ligand exchange in detail. Ligand exchange is faster, less ligand consuming and more reproducible with assisting chloroform extraction. Compared to PEG ligands commonly used, PEGMUA provides much higher colloidal and chemical stability. Further analyses based on NMR-, IR- and UV/Vis-spectroscopy reveal that significantly higher PEG-grafting densities, up to ~3 nm-2, are obtained with PEGMUA. This demonstrates how the molecular structure of the PEG ligand can be used to dramatically improve the ligand exchange and to synthesize PEGylated AuNR with high chemical and colloidal stability and high PEG grafting densities. Such AuNR are especially interesting for applications in nanomedicine.Standard procedures to coat gold nanorods (AuNR) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based ligands are not reliable and high PEG-grafting densities are not achieved. In this work, the ligand exchange of AuNR with PEGMUA, a tailored PEG-ligand bearing a C10 alkylene spacer, is studied. PEGMUA provides AuNR with very high stability against oxidative etching with cyanide. This etching reaction is utilized to study the ligand exchange in detail. Ligand exchange is faster, less ligand consuming and more reproducible with assisting chloroform extraction. Compared to PEG ligands commonly used, PEGMUA provides much higher colloidal and chemical stability. Further analyses based on NMR-, IR- and UV/Vis-spectroscopy reveal that significantly higher PEG-grafting densities, up to ~3 nm-2, are obtained with PEGMUA. This demonstrates how the molecular structure of the PEG ligand can be used to

  3. Electrocatalytic glucose oxidation at gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film prepared from oppositely charged nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Celebanska, Anna; Nogala, Wojciech; Sashuk, Volodymyr; Chernyaeva, Olga; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticulate film electrodes were prepared by layer-by-layer method from oppositely charged nanoparticles. • Positively charged nanoparticles play dominant role in glucose oxidation in alkaline solution. • Gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film electrodes exhibit similar glucose oxidation current and onset potential. - Abstract: Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose was studied at nanoparticulate gold and gold-carbon film electrodes. These electrodes were prepared by a layer-by-layer method without application of any linker molecules. Gold nanoparticles were stabilized by undecane thiols functionalized by trimethyl ammonium or carboxylate groups, whereas the carbon nanoparticles were covered by phenylsulfonate functionalities. The gold nanoparticulate electrodes were characterized by UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and voltammetry, before and after heat-treatment. Heat-treatment facilitates the aggregation of the nanoparticles and affects the structure of the film. The comparison of the results obtained with film electrodes prepared from gold nanoparticles with the same charge and with gold-carbon nanoparticulate electrodes, proved that positively charged nanoparticles are responsible for the high electrocatalytic activity, whereas negatively charged ones act rather as a linker of the film

  4. Novel Catalysis by Gold: A Modern Alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Masatake

    Gold has long been neglected as a catalyst because of its chemical inertness. However, when gold is deposited as nanoparticles on carbon and polymer materials as well as on base metal oxides and hydroxides, it exhibits unique catalytic properties for many reactions such as CO oxidation at a temperature as low as 200 K, gas phase direct epoxidation of propylene, and aerobic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid. The structure-catalytic activity correlations are discussed with emphasis on the contact structure, support selection, and the size control of gold particles. Gold clusters with diameters smaller than 2 nm are expected to exhibit novel properties in catalysis, optics, and electronics depending on the size (number of atoms), shape, and the electronic and chemical interaction with the support materials. The above achievements and attempts can be regarded as a modern alchemy that creates valuables by means of the noblest element with little practical use.

  5. A new route to gold nanoflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Ferenc; Henning, Ricky; Sarhan, Radwan M.; Prietzel, Claudia; Bargheer, Matias; Koetz, Joachim

    2018-05-01

    Catanionic vesicles spontaneously formed by mixing the anionic surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as a reducing medium to produce gold clusters, which are embedded and well-ordered into the template phase. The gold clusters can be used as seeds in the growth process that follows by adding ascorbic acid as a mild reducing component. When the ascorbic acid was added very slowly in an ice bath round-edged gold nanoflowers were produced. When the same experiments were performed at room temperature in the presence of Ag+ ions, sharp-edged nanoflowers could be synthesized. The mechanism of nanoparticle formation can be understood to be a non-diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process of preordered gold nanoparticles embedded in catanionic vesicle fragments. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments show an excellent enhancement factor of 1.7 · 105 for the nanoflowers deposited on a silicon wafer.

  6. Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    such as gold and silver, that exhibit metallic properties and provide advantages in device performance, design flexibility, fabrication, integration, and tunability. This review explores different material classes for plasmonic and metamaterial applications, such as conventional semiconductors, transparent...

  7. Adsorption-induced restructuring of gold nanochains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    The chemical properties of single-atomic chains of gold atoms are investigated using density functional calculations. The nanochains are shown to be unusually chemically active with strong chemisorption of oxygen atoms and carbon monoxide. The chemisorption energies vary significantly with the st......The chemical properties of single-atomic chains of gold atoms are investigated using density functional calculations. The nanochains are shown to be unusually chemically active with strong chemisorption of oxygen atoms and carbon monoxide. The chemisorption energies vary significantly...... with the strain/stress conditions for the chain. Oxygen atoms are found to energetically prefer to get incorporated into a chain forming a new type of gold-oxygen nanochain with a conductance of one quantum unit. We suggest that the long bond lengths observed in electron microscopy investigations of gold chains...

  8. Synthesis method of asymmetric gold particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Bong-Hyun; Murata, Michael; Hahm, Eunil; Lee, Luke P

    2017-06-07

    Asymmetric particles can exhibit unique properties. However, reported synthesis methods for asymmetric particles hinder their application because these methods have a limited scale and lack the ability to afford particles of varied shapes. Herein, we report a novel synthetic method which has the potential to produce large quantities of asymmetric particles. Asymmetric rose-shaped gold particles were fabricated as a proof of concept experiment. First, silica nanoparticles (NPs) were bound to a hydrophobic micro-sized polymer containing 2-chlorotritylchloride linkers (2-CTC resin). Then, half-planar gold particles with rose-shaped and polyhedral structures were prepared on the silica particles on the 2-CTC resin. Particle size was controlled by the concentration of the gold source. The asymmetric particles were easily cleaved from the resin without aggregation. We confirmed that gold was grown on the silica NPs. This facile method for synthesizing asymmetric particles has great potential for materials science.

  9. Gold in the past, today and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with gold, which is described as a chemical element. Special attention is paid to its physical-chemical properties and, furthermore, where or in what form it can be found in nature. We discuss the role it has played through history and we inform how gold has been developed to the level it has reached today’s value. Still more, when gold is broken into nanoparticles, this form could be highly useful for a wide range of processes, including general nanotechnology, electronics manufacturing and the synthesizing of different functional materials. It is important that we know that gold is also used in industry in many engineering applications (contacts in micro-electronics and medicine (dental alloys, implants.

  10. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  11. The gold standard as a rule

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Bordo; Finn E. Kydland

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the monetary rule followed by a number of key countries, especially England and to a lesser extent the U. S., before 1914 represented a commitment technology preventing the monetary authorities from changing planned future policy. The experiences of these major countries suggest that the gold standard was intended as a contingent rule. By that, we mean, that the authorities could temporarily abandon the fixed price of gold during a wartime emergency on the understa...

  12. Neutron microtomography of voids in gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Trtik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilot attempt of the neutron microtomography of voids in gold carried out using the Neutron Microscope instrument is presented in the paper. The paper demonstrates that neutron microtomography provides viable alternative to X-ray imaging for the assessment of porosity in high atomic number materials. The model sample based on gold with artificially induced void system reveals segmented porosity with 5.4 micrometres voxel size and the spatial resolution close to 10 micrometres.

  13. Uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Golynko, Z.Sh.

    1981-01-01

    The process of uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores in the South Africa is considered. Flowsheets of reprocessing gold-uranium conglomerates, pile processing and uranium extraction from the ores are presented. Continuous counter flow ion-exchange process of uranium extraction using strong-active or weak-active resins is noted to be the most perspective and economical one. The ion-exchange uranium separation with the succeeding extraction is also the perspective one.

  14. Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repan, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which then was ca...... then was captured using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the obtained dark field images are used to set up COMSOL simulations corresponding to actual structures....

  15. The Modern Monetary System and Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Rubtsov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the nature of modern money, analyzes the mechanism of its creation, showing that it is basically generated by credit and the principle of partial bank reserve. The article draws comparative parallels between trade money based on gold and contemporary, credit money; the author quotes leading bankers and finance experts on the need for partial return to the principles of functioning of the gold standard as the most effective institute of regulating the monetary system in society.

  16. Synthesis of radioactive gold nanoparticle in surfactant medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadesh Mandal

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis of radioactive gold nanoparticle in surfactant medium. Proton irradiated stable 197 Au and radioactive 198 Au were simultaneously used for production of radioactive gold nanoparticle. Face centered cubic gold nanoparticles with size of 4-50 nm were found in proton irradiated gold foil. However, the size of nanoparticle varies with pH using both stable and radioactive gold. (author)

  17. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabalak, Sara E.; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4. The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where the optical attenuation caused by blood and soft tissue is essentially negligible. They are also biocompatible and present a well-established surface for easy functionalization. We have tailored the scattering and absorption cross-sections of Au nanocages for use in optical coherence tomography and photothermal treatment, respectively. Our preliminary studies show greatly improved spectroscopic image contrast for tissue phantoms containing Au nanocages. Our most recent results also demonstrate the photothermal destruction of breast cancer cells in vitro by using immuno-targeted Au nanocages as an effective photo-thermal transducer. These experiments suggest that Au nanocages may be a new class of nanometer-sized agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:18648528

  18. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabalak, Sara E; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2007-10-17

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl(4). The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where the optical attenuation caused by blood and soft tissue is essentially negligible. They are also biocompatible and present a well-established surface for easy functionalization. We have tailored the scattering and absorption cross-sections of Au nanocages for use in optical coherence tomography and photothermal treatment, respectively. Our preliminary studies show greatly improved spectroscopic image contrast for tissue phantoms containing Au nanocages. Our most recent results also demonstrate the photothermal destruction of breast cancer cells in vitro by using immuno-targeted Au nanocages as an effective photo-thermal transducer. These experiments suggest that Au nanocages may be a new class of nanometer-sized agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Metal enhanced fluorescence with gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Shaina LaRissa Strating

    A novel hybrid nanocomposite of Au nanoparticle-modified silicon nanowire was developed for surface enhanced fluorescence applications. The designed nanocomposite contained a silicon nanowire, gold nanoparticles and a silica layer doped with dye molecules. The hybrid nanomaterial was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), fluorescence measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the gold nanoparticles were uniformly adhered on the silicon nanowires and covered by a thin silica layer. The nanostructure exhibited strong capacity for surface enhanced fluorescence. Different enhancement factors were obtained by changing synthetic conditions. The second goal of the project was to determine if the shape of gold nanoparticles affects the extent of its fluorescence enhancement under constant external factors. Two shapes of gold nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by SEM, STEM, zeta potential and absorbance measurements. Then they were coated with fluorescent dye-doped silica and the fluorescence intensity was measured and compared to the pure fluorescent dye. Gold nanorods enhanced fluorescence more than gold nanostars and that the fluorescent dye Alexafluor 700 showed a greater fluorescence intensity change in the presence of nanoparticles than methylene blue.

  20. Milan's 1879 and 1882 gold coins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the exhausting wars against Turkey, Prince Milan Obrenović decided to mint larger denominations of silver and gold coins. The decision on minting these coins was explained by the fact that for the purpose of foreign payments, the expensive foreign money will no longer have to be purchased, given that the Serbian money will be recognized at its nominal value outside Serbia as well. The Law on the Serbian National Money confirmed by Prince Milan on December 10th 1878 introduced new types of metal coins into the monetary system of Serbia: 10 and 20 dinars in gold, 5 dinars in silver, and 2 paras in copper. All these coins were minted in 1879, except for the 10-dinar gold coin, minted when Prince Milan became the King, bearing the inscription of 1882. There were only 50,000 pieces of the 20-dinar gold coins minted, and it was legal tender in the Principality and Kingdom of Serbia, as well as in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for full 52 years. In 1882 there were 500,000 pieces of 10-dinar gold coins and 200,000 pieces of 20-dinar gold coins minted. They were named Milandors, and were used as official legal tender until June 28th 1931.

  1. Photochemical synthesis of polygonal gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.-C.; Chen, Y.-C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to generate gold nanoparticles capable of absorbing near infrared light (NIR) radiation through a photochemical reaction. This approach does not require the use of either surfactants or polymers, reducing the difficulties that may arise in further chemical modifications for the gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles with either triangular or hexagonal shapes were generated using the photo-reduction method, mixing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate with sodium oxalate, a reducing agent, in aqueous solution under illumination of a mercury lamp (λ max = 306 nm) for more than 10 min. The size of the gold nanoparticles varies from 25 to 200 nm, which mainly depends on the duration of light illumination and the concentration of sodium oxalate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the presence of the gold nanoparticles in aqueous solutions can effectively elevate the temperature of the solutions under irradiation of NIR light (808 nm) within a few minutes. The gold nanoparticles can be potentially used as suitable photothermal agents for hyperthermia

  2. Study on Sumbawa gold recovery using centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdana, A. D.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.; Bendiyasa, I. M.; Prijambada, I. D.; Hamada, F.; Sachiko, T.

    2018-01-01

    The Artisanal Small Gold Mining in Sumbawa has been processing gold with mercury (Hg), which poses a serious threat to the mining and global environment. One method of gold processing that does not use mercury is by gravity method. Before processing the ore first performed an analysis of Mineragraphy and analysis of compound with XRD. Mineragraphy results show that gold is associated with chalcopyrite and covelite and is a single particle (native) on size 58.8 μm, 117 μm up to 294 μm. characterization with XRD shows that the Sumbawa Gold Ore is composed of quartz, pyrite, pyroxene, and sericite compounds. Sentrifugation is one of separation equipment of gravity method to increase concentrate based on difference of specific gravity. The optimum concentration result is influenced by several variables, such as water flow rate and particle size. In this present research, the range of flow rate is 5 lpm and 10 lpm, the particle size - 100 + 200 mesh and -200 +300 mesh. Gold concentration in concentrate is measured by EDX. The result shows that the optimum condition is obtained at a separation with flow rate 5 lpm and a particle size of -100 + 200 mesh.

  3. Analysis on the Impact of the Fluctuation of the International Gold Prices on the Chinese Gold Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share and Comex gold futures are chosen to form the sample, for the purpose of analysing the impact of the fluctuation of the international gold prices on the gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share. Using the methods of unit root test, Granger causality test, VAR model, and impulse response function, this paper has analysed the relationship between the price change of the international gold futures and the price fluctuation of gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen comprehensively. The results suggest the fluctuation of the international gold futures has a strong influence on the domestic futures.

  4. Gold grade distribution within an epithermal quartz vein system, Kestanelik, NW Turkey: implications for gold exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyuz, Nilay; Shipton, Zoe; Gulyuz, Erhan; Lord, Richard; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Kuscu, İlkay

    2017-04-01

    Vein-hosted gold deposits contribute a large part to the global gold production. Discovery of these deposits mainly include drilling of hundreds of holes, collecting thousands of soil and rock samples and some geophysical surveys which are expensive and time consuming. Understanding the structures hosting the veins and the variations in gold concentrations within the veins is crucial to constrain a more economic exploration program. The main aim of this study is to investigate the gold grade distribution in the mineralized quartz veins of a well exposed epithermal gold deposit hosted by Paleozoic schist and Eocene quartz-feldspar-hornblende porphyry in Lapseki, NW Turkey. We have constructed 3D architecture of the vein surfaces by mapping their outcrop geometries using a highly sensitive Trimble GPS, collecting detailed field data, well-logs and geochemistry data from 396 drill holes (255 diamond cut and 141 reverse circulation holes). Modelling was performed in MOVE Structural Modelling and Analysis software granted by Midland Valley's Academic Software Initiative, and GIS application softwares Global Mapper and Esri-ArcGIS. We envisaged that while fluid entering the conduit ascents, a sudden thickness increase in the conduit would lead to a drop in the fluid pressure causing boiling (the most dominant gold precipitation mechanism) and associated gold precipitation. Regression analysis was performed between the orthogonal thickness values and gold grades of each vein, and statistical analyses were performed to see if the gold is concentrated at specific structural positions along dip. Gold grades in the alteration zones were compared to those in the adjacent veins to understand the degree of mineralization in alteration zones. A possible correlation was also examined between the host rock type and the gold grades in the veins. These studies indicated that gold grades are elevated in the adjacent alteration zones where high gold grades exist in the veins. Schist

  5. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  6. Knowledge-driven GIS modeling technique for gold exploration, Bulghah gold mine area, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Madani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to generate a favorability map for gold exploration at the Bulghah gold mine area using integration of geo-datasets within a GIS environment. Spatial data analyses and integration of different geo-datasets are carried out based on knowledge-driven and weighting technique. The integration process involves the weighting and scoring of different layers affecting the gold mineralization at the study area using the index overlay method within PCI Geomatica environment. Generation of the binary predictor maps for lithology, lineaments, faults and favorable contacts precede the construction of the favorability map. About 100 m buffer zones are generated for favorable contacts, lineaments and major faults layers. Internal weighting is assigned to each layer based on favorability for gold mineralization. The scores for lithology, major faults, lineaments and favorable contacts layers in the constructed favorability map are 50%, 25%, 10% and 15%, respectively. Final favorability map for the Bulghah gold mine area shows the recording of two new sites for gold mineralization located at the northern and southern extensions of tonalite–diorite intrusions. The northern new site is now exploited for gold from the Bulghah North mine. The southern new site is narrow and small; its rocks resemble those of the Bulghah gold mine.

  7. Tectonic setting of Late Cenozoic gold mineralization in the gold belt of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deruyter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Gold Belt of Costa Rica is a northwest-elongated zone 15 km wide by 120 km long containing numerous auriferous quartz veins and pyritic silicified patterns upon which abundant small mines are developed. Gold veins are related principally to northeast-southwest and north-south striking, steeply dipping faults. Higher grade ore and thicker veins invariably occur at intersections of these fracture orientations, indicating simultaneous opening at the time of gold introduction. Restriction of gold veins to the northwest-trending arc of Miocene Aguacate Group andesite volcanic rocks, a product of Cocos Plate subduction, suggested approximately coeval formation, but recognition by the writer of the important role played by 2-5 m.y. old altered, gold mineralized rhyolite dikes intruded along north-south gold vein structures and intimately involved with high grade ores at the Esperanza Mine and Rio Chiquito prospect, for example, suggest a much younger period of fracturing and gold introduction. The rhyolite intrusions are more brittle and stockwork mineralized than andesite host rocks and form bulk tonnage gold targets. Initiation of right-lateral movement along the north-south Panama Fracture Zone at 5 m.y.a. within the pattern of northeastward Cocos Plate subduction may have tapped rhyolites from subvolcanic magma chambers into new faults.

  8. Gold and gold-copper nanoparticles in 2-propanol: A radiation chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    The studies on the reduction of Au 3+ to gold nanoparticles in presence and absence of Cu 2+ under deoxygenated conditions in 2-propanol by radiolytic method have been carried out. On γ-radiolysis, preliminary yellow colored solution of Au 3+ changed to purple color owing to gold nanoparticles formation, which exhibits an absorption peak at around 540 nm. In the presence of Cu 2+ , absorption of gold-copper nanoparticles, which was also produced during γ-radiolysis, was red shifted in contrast to the system containing no Cu 2+ . Under DLS studies the sizes of gold nanoparticles in the absence and the presence of Cu 2+ were found to be larger (>400 nm). However, in presence of polyethylene glycol, a stabilizer the nanoparticle sizes became smaller, sizes measured for gold and gold-copper nanoparticles are 40 and 140 nm, respectively. Moreover, the change in UV-vis spectra in the Cu 2+ and Au 3+ mixed system highlights the formation of gold-copper nanoparticles in core-shell type arrangement. - Highlights: → Present radiation chemical study highlights high reactivity of Au ·2+ with Cu 2+ . → Absorption of gold-copper nanoparticles is blue shifted as compared to copper nanoparticles. → Change in UV-vis spectra with dose emphasizes core-shell type arrangement of Au-Cu nanoparticles.

  9. Gold Nanoparticles Obtained by Bio-precipitation from Gold(III) Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Tiemann, K.J.; Gamez, G.; Dokken, K.; Tehuacanero, S.; Jose-Yacaman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of metal nanoparticles has shown to be very important in recent industrial applications. Currently gold nanoparticles are being produced by physical methods such as evaporation. Biological processes may be an alternative to physical methods for the production of gold nanoparticles. Alfalfa biomass has shown to be effective at passively binding and reducing gold from solutions containing gold(III) ions and resulting in the formation of gold(0) nanoparticles. High resolution microscopy has shown that five different types of gold particles are present after reaction with gold(III) ions with alfalfa biomass. These particles include: fcc tetrahedral, hexagonal platelet, icosahedral multiple twinned, decahedral multiple twinned, and irregular shaped particles. Further analysis on the frequency of distribution has shown that icosahedral and irregular particles are more frequently formed. In addition, the larger particles observed may be formed through the coalescence of smaller particles. Through modification of the chemical parameters, more uniform particle size distribution may be obtained by the alfalfa bio-reduction of gold(III) from solution

  10. Genesis of uranium-gold pyritic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The ancient pyritic ore conglomerates have a common origin best exemplified by the Witwatersrand deposits. All contain detrital pyrite and uraninite, which are unstable in modern oxygenated environments and were deposited in a reducing atmosphere. The Rand reefs are not similar to modern gold placers. Placers result from the near incapacity of streams and currents to transport coarse gold. Placers as rich as Rand reef occur only in narrow paystreaks within 15 kilometers of a coarse-gold source. The board dispersion of gold in the reefs is due to solution transport of metal complexed as aurous sulfide, leached anoxygenically from crustal rocks, probably from sea-floor basalt, and precipitated by a slow reaction driven by the radioactive decay of detrital uraninite. Radiolysis of water on shallow marine unconformities resulted in diffusion of hydrogen to the atmosphere and a slight excess of hydroxyl free radical in the reef environment. The mild oxidizing tendency slowly dissolved uranium, precipitated gold, and oxygenated thucholite. These actions define a maturing process. A uraninite placer accumulating on an unconformity becomes progressively converted to a gold reef with little residual uraninite. The most mature reefs tend to grade toward the thucholite-seam type, very thin but exceedingly rich in gold. A combination of chemical attack and physical reworking accounts for the general thinness of mature reefs. Pyrite, like uraninite, decreases in abundance with increasing maturity; buffering by pyrite moderated the oxidative depletion of uranium. Where pyrite was scanty or absent, uraninite was completely dissolved by the effects of radiolysis and no ore formed

  11. Gold leaf counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a gold leaf 100 nm thin film is used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The traditional method of hammering gold foil to obtain a thin gold leaf, which requires only small amounts of gold, was employed. The gold leaf was then attached to the substrate using an adhesive to produce the gold electrode. The proposed approach for fabricating counter electrodes is demonstrated to be facile and cost-effective, as opposed to existing techniques. Compared with electrodes prepared with gold foil and sputtered gold, the gold leaf counter electrode demonstrates higher catalytic activity with a cobalt-complex electrolyte and higher cell efficiency. The origin of the improved performance was investigated by surface morphology examination (scanning electron microscopy), various electrochemical analyses (cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), and crystalline analysis (X-ray diffractometry).

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations on the melting of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhiwei; Feng, Haijun; Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics is employed to study the melting of bulk gold and gold nanoparticles. PCFF, Sutton-Chen and COMPASS force fields are adopted to study the melting point of bulk gold and we find out that the Sutton-Chen force field is the most accurate model in predicting the melting point of bulk gold. Consequently, the Sutton-Chen force field is applied to study the melting points of spherical gold nanoparticles with different diameters. Variations of diffusion coefficient, potential energy and translational order parameter with temperature are analyzed. The simulated melting points of gold nanoparticles are between 615∼1115 K, which are much lower than that of bulk gold (1336 K). As the diameter of gold nanoparticle drops, the melting point also descends. The melting mechanism is also analyzed for gold nanoparticles.

  13. Moessbauer study of the chemical state of gold in gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.E.; Marion, P.H.; Regnard, J.-R.

    1986-01-01

    Information on the chemical state of gold in gold ores has been obtained by 197 Au Moessbauer spectroscopy in cases where the state of this element cannot be determined by such standard methods as optical or electron microscopy. Ore concentrates consisting mainly of pyrite or arsenopyrite and roasted ore and matte samples were studied. The results yielded directly the respective amounts of metallic and chemically bound gold. Unless the gold is metallic, its chemical state in the ores turns out to be different from that in the minerals studied so far as reference materials. The chemical processes taking place during various treatments of the ores, such as roasting or leaching, can also be followed by Moessbauer spectroscopy. It is hoped that Moessbauer spectroscopy will eventually facilitate the development of more efficient methods of gold extraction

  14. WE-EF-303-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION: Hydrogel Fiducial Markers for In-Vivo Proton Therapy and Range Verifications Using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J; Cho, S; Campbell, P; Wang, M; Zubarev, E; Alqathami, M; Mawlawi, O; Li, H; Sahoo, N; Kerr, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Currently there are no clinically used techniques for in-vivo proton treatment/range verification. Our aim was to develop patient implantable markers that can be visualized in CT/x-ray for treatment-planning/beam-positioning, and also in PET for proton treatment/range verification. Methods: Biocompatible/biodegradable hydrogel polymers were immersed in O18-enriched water and O16 water, respectively to create O18-water hydrogels (0.5 cm3) and O16-water hydrogels (1 cm3) (both >99% water and <1% polymer). Also, 5–8 µm Zn powder was suspended in O16 water and O18-enriched water and cross-linked with hydrogel polymers to create Zn/16O-water hydrogels (30%/70% mass ratio, <1% polymer) and Zn/18O-water hydrogels (10%/90%). A block of extra-firm “wet” tofu (12.3×8.8×4.9 cm, ρ = 1) immersed in water was injected with Zn/O16-water hydrogels (0.9 cm3 each) at four different depths using an 18 gauge needle. Similarly, Zn/18O-water hydrogels (0.9 cm3) were injected in a different tofu phantom. As a reference, both 16O-water and O18-water hydrogels in petri-dishes were irradiated in a “dry” environment. The hydrogels in the “wet” tofu phantoms and “dry” petri-dishes were CT-scanned and treatment-planned. Then, they were positioned at the proton distal dose fall-off region and irradiated (2 Gy) followed by PET/CT imaging. Results: Significantly high PET signals were observed only at O18-water hydrogels in the “dry” environment. Zn/O16-water hydrogels injected in the tofu phantom showed outstanding CT visibility but provided no noticeable PET signals. Zn/O18-water hydrogels in the “wet” tofu showed excellent CT visibility and moderate PET visibility, however, weaker PET signals than the “dry” environment possibly due to O18-water leaching out. Conclusion: The developed hydrogel markers can be used as universal fiducial markers due to their CT/PET/MRI/US visibility. Their PET visibility (possibly contributed more by activated O18-water

  15. WE-EF-303-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION: Hydrogel Fiducial Markers for In-Vivo Proton Therapy and Range Verifications Using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J; Cho, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Campbell, P [Augmenix, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Wang, M; Zubarev, E [Rice University, Houston, TX - Texas (United States); Alqathami, M; Mawlawi, O [MD Anderson Cancer Ctr., Houston, TX (United States); Li, H [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sahoo, N [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kerr, M [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (TX) (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Currently there are no clinically used techniques for in-vivo proton treatment/range verification. Our aim was to develop patient implantable markers that can be visualized in CT/x-ray for treatment-planning/beam-positioning, and also in PET for proton treatment/range verification. Methods: Biocompatible/biodegradable hydrogel polymers were immersed in O18-enriched water and O16 water, respectively to create O18-water hydrogels (0.5 cm3) and O16-water hydrogels (1 cm3) (both >99% water and <1% polymer). Also, 5–8 µm Zn powder was suspended in O16 water and O18-enriched water and cross-linked with hydrogel polymers to create Zn/16O-water hydrogels (30%/70% mass ratio, <1% polymer) and Zn/18O-water hydrogels (10%/90%). A block of extra-firm “wet” tofu (12.3×8.8×4.9 cm, ρ{sup =}1) immersed in water was injected with Zn/O16-water hydrogels (0.9 cm3 each) at four different depths using an 18 gauge needle. Similarly, Zn/18O-water hydrogels (0.9 cm3) were injected in a different tofu phantom. As a reference, both 16O-water and O18-water hydrogels in petri-dishes were irradiated in a “dry” environment. The hydrogels in the “wet” tofu phantoms and “dry” petri-dishes were CT-scanned and treatment-planned. Then, they were positioned at the proton distal dose fall-off region and irradiated (2 Gy) followed by PET/CT imaging. Results: Significantly high PET signals were observed only at O18-water hydrogels in the “dry” environment. Zn/O16-water hydrogels injected in the tofu phantom showed outstanding CT visibility but provided no noticeable PET signals. Zn/O18-water hydrogels in the “wet” tofu showed excellent CT visibility and moderate PET visibility, however, weaker PET signals than the “dry” environment possibly due to O18-water leaching out. Conclusion: The developed hydrogel markers can be used as universal fiducial markers due to their CT/PET/MRI/US visibility. Their PET visibility (possibly contributed more by activated O18

  16. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver–gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li Zian; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Silver, gold, and silver–gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15–25 nm), gold (5–6 nm), and silver–gold (50:50; 10–12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver–gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver–gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver–gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5–20 μg mL −1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  17. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Joerg; Ristig, Simon [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Greulich, Christina [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Li Zian; Farle, Michael [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Koeller, Manfred [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Epple, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.epple@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 {mu}g mL{sup -1} induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  18. Precision fiducialization of transport components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.; Bressler, V.E.; Cobb, J.K.; Jensen, D.R.; Ruland, R.E.; Walz, H.V.; Williams, S.H.

    1992-03-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a transport line designed to test both concept and advanced technology for application to future linear colliders. It is currently under construction at SLAC in the central beam line. Most of the quadrupoles of the FFTB have ab initio alignment tolerances of less than 30 microns, if the planned for beam based alignment tuning procedure is to converge. For such placement tolerances to have any meaning requires that the coordinates of the effective centers, seen by the beam particles, be tansferred to tooling (that can be reached by mechanical or optical alignment methods) located on the outside of the components to comparable or better values. We have constructed an apparatus that simultaneously locates to micron tolerances, the effective magnetic center of fussing lenses, as well as the electrical center of beam position monitors (BPM) imbedded therein, and once located, for transferring these coordinates to specially mounted tooling frames that supported the external retroreflectors used in a laser tracker based alignment of the beam line. Details of construction as well as experimental results from the method are presented

  19. Statistical inference via fiducial methods

    OpenAIRE

    Salomé, Diemer

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis the attention is restricted to inductive reasoning using a mathematical probability model. A statistical procedure prescribes, for every theoretically possible set of data, the inference about the unknown of interest. ... Zie: Summary

  20. Radiofrequency Heating Pathways for Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C. B.; McCoy, R. S.; Ackerson, B. J.; Collins, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    This feature article reviews the thermal dissipation of nanoscopic gold under radiofrequency (RF) irradiation. It also presents previously unpublished data addressing obscure aspects of this phenomenon. While applications in biology motivated initial investigation of RF heating of gold nanoparticles, recent controversy concerning whether thermal effects can be attributed to nanoscopic gold highlight the need to understand the involved mechanism or mechanisms of heating. Both the nature of the particle and the nature of the RF field influence heating. Aspects of nanoparticle chemistry and physics, including the hydrodynamic diameter of the particle, the oxidation state and related magnetism of the core, and the chemical nature of the ligand shell may all strongly influence to what extent a nanoparticle heats in an RF field. Aspects of RF include: power, frequency and antenna designs that emphasize relative strength of magnetic or electric fields, and also influence the extent to which a gold nanoparticle heats in RF. These nanoparticle and RF properties are analysed in the context of three heating mechanisms proposed to explain gold nanoparticle heating in an RF field. This article also makes a critical analysis of the existing literature in the context of the nanoparticle preparations, RF structure, and suggested mechanisms in previously reported experiments. PMID:24962620

  1. The fcc structure isomerization in gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Shengli; Liao, Lingwen; Li, Man-Bo; Yao, Chuanhao; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Hongwei; Li, Jin; Deng, Haiteng; Li, Lingling; Wu, Zhikun

    2017-10-12

    Structural isomerization is an important concept in organic chemistry and it is recently found to be applicable to thiolated gold nanoparticles. However, to the best of our knowledge, the isomerization with the kernel structure of the cluster changed while maintaining fcc packing was not previously found. Here, we report such a structural isomerization by synthesizing a novel gold nanocluster and solving its atomic structure. The as-obtained novel gold nanocluster Au 52 (PET) 32 (PET = phenylethanethiolate) has completely the same Au/S molar ratio as a well-known gold nanocluster Au 52 (TBBT) 32 (TBBT = 4-tert-butyl-benzenethiolate) but an essentially different fcc structure. As a result of fcc structure isomerization, Au 52 (PET) 32 has remarkably different UV/vis/NIR absorption from Au 52 (TBBT) 32 . Another interesting finding in this work is that the kernel of Au 52 (PET) 32 has high-indexed (311)-like facets, which is not previously reported in the structures of gold nanoclusters to the best of our knowledge.

  2. Engineered Gold Nanoparticles and Plant Adaptation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-09-01

    Use of metal nanoparticles in biological system has recently been recognised although little is known about their possible effects on plant growth and development. Nanoparticles accumulation, translocation, growth response and stress modulation in plant system is not well understood. Plants exposed to gold and gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to exhibit both positive and negative effects. Their growth and yield vary from species to species. Cytoxicity of engineered gold nanoparticles depends on the concentration, particle size and shape. They exhibit increase in vegetative growth and yield of fruit/seed at lower concentration and decrease them at higher concentration. Studies have shown that the gold nanoparticles exposure has improved free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant enzymatic activities and alter micro RNAs expression that regulate different morphological, physiological and metabolic processes in plants. These modulations lead to improved plant growth and yields. Prior to the use of gold nanoparticles, it has been suggested that its cost may be calculated to see if it is economically feasible.

  3. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli

    2008-01-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated

  4. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  5. Precipitation of lamellar gold nanocrystals in molten polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, M.; Carotenuto, G.

    2016-05-01

    Non-aggregated lamellar gold crystals with regular shape (triangles, squares, pentagons, etc.) have been produced by thermal decomposition of gold chloride (AuCl) molecules in molten amorphous polymers (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Such covalent inorganic gold salt is high soluble into non-polar polymers and it thermally decomposes at temperatures compatible with the polymer thermal stability, producing gold atoms and chlorine radicals. At the end of the gold precipitation process, the polymer matrix resulted chemically modified because of the partial cross-linking process due to the gold atom formation reaction.

  6. Protracted elimination of gold nanoparticles from mouse liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadauskas, Evaldas; Wallin, Håkan; Stoltenberg, Meredin

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims at revealing the fate of 40-nm gold nanoparticles after intravenous injections. The gold nanoparticles were traced histochemically with light and transmission electron microscopy using autometallographic (AMG) staining, and the gold content in the liver was determined......% fall in the gold content over the observed 6 months, the AMG finding of a significant reduction in the stained area of the liver sections and number of macrophages loaded with gold nanoparticles reveals that over time an increasing part of the total amount of gold nanoparticles in the liver...

  7. Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramall, N. E.; Stoker, C. R.; Price, P. B.; Coates, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mattioda, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    to in situ processes. 4) Temperature and Oxygen Sensors: The ambient temperature will be recorded as well as the presence of oxygen. Oxygen presence can be measured using a fluorescence quenching fiber optic probe to avoid interference from other gases. We forsee that this technology will enable experiments including studies of gene transfer, microbial habitat, in situ stratigraphy and hydrological processes. In addition, though designed to scan borehole walls, GOLD could be used to scan core samples as they are recovered for rapid quantification and analysis in order to discover samples of particular interest that could then be prioritized for more in-depth, traditional analysis.

  8. Bayesian integration of networks without gold standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weile, Jochen; James, Katherine; Hallinan, Jennifer; Cockell, Simon J; Lord, Phillip; Wipat, Anil; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2012-06-01

    Biological experiments give insight into networks of processes inside a cell, but are subject to error and uncertainty. However, due to the overlap between the large number of experiments reported in public databases it is possible to assess the chances of individual observations being correct. In order to do so, existing methods rely on high-quality 'gold standard' reference networks, but such reference networks are not always available. We present a novel algorithm for computing the probability of network interactions that operates without gold standard reference data. We show that our algorithm outperforms existing gold standard-based methods. Finally, we apply the new algorithm to a large collection of genetic interaction and protein-protein interaction experiments. The integrated dataset and a reference implementation of the algorithm as a plug-in for the Ondex data integration framework are available for download at http://bio-nexus.ncl.ac.uk/projects/nogold/

  9. Gold nanocrystals with DNA-directed morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingyi; Huh, June; Park, Wounjhang; Lee, Luke P; Kwon, Young Jik; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-09-16

    Precise control over the structure of metal nanomaterials is important for developing advanced nanobiotechnology. Assembly methods of nanoparticles into structured blocks have been widely demonstrated recently. However, synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures remains challenging. Here we show a directed crystallization of gold by a single DNA molecular regulator in a sequence-independent manner and its applications in three-dimensional topological controls of crystalline nanostructures. We anchor DNA onto gold nanoseed with various alignments to form gold nanocrystals with defined topologies. Some topologies are asymmetric including pushpin-, star- and biconcave disk-like structures, as well as more complex jellyfish- and flower-like structures. The approach of employing DNA enables the solution-based synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures in a desired direction, and expands the current tools available for designing and synthesizing feature-rich nanomaterials for future translational biotechnology.

  10. Optical properties of spherical gold mesoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evlyukhin, A. B.; Kuznetsov, A. I.; Novikov, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Optical properties of spherical gold particles with diameters of 150-650 nm (mesoparticles) are studied by reflectance spectroscopy. Particles are fabricated by laser-induced transfer of metallic droplets onto metal and dielectric substrates. Contributions of higher multipoles (beyond the quadrup......Optical properties of spherical gold particles with diameters of 150-650 nm (mesoparticles) are studied by reflectance spectroscopy. Particles are fabricated by laser-induced transfer of metallic droplets onto metal and dielectric substrates. Contributions of higher multipoles (beyond...... results obtained in homogeneous environment is demonstrated. Multipole resonance features in the experimental reflection spectra of particles located on a gold substrate, in the wavelength range of 500-1000 nm, are discussed and theoretically analyzed on the basis of finite-difference time...

  11. Cancer nanotechnology: emerging role of gold nanoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudgus, Rachel A; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata

    2011-12-01

    Over the last few decades, the study of nanotechnology has grown exponentially. Nanotechnology bridges science, engineering and technology; it continues to expand in definition as well as practice. One sub-set of nanotechnology is bionanotechnology, this will be the focus of this review. Currently, bionanotechnology is being studied and exploited for utility within medicinal imaging, diagnosis and therapy in regard to cancer. Cancer is a world-wide health problem and the implication rate as well as the death rate increase year to year. However promising work is being done with gold nanoparticles for detection, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery therapy. Gold nanoparticles can be synthesized in various shapes and sizes, which directly correlates to the color; they can also be manipulated to carry various antibody, protein, plasmid, DNA or small molecule drug. Herein we summarize some of the very influential research being done in the field of Cancer Nanotechnology with an emphasis on gold nanoparticles.

  12. Reversible multi polyelectrolyte layers on gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoumessi Lekeufack, Diane; Brioude, Arnaud; Lalatonne, Yoann; Motte, Laurence; Coleman, Anthony W.; Miele, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles surface can be easily modified by different molecules such as polyelectrolytes. In a typical multilayer system made of polyethyleneimine and poly(styrene sulfonate)sodium alternated layers around gold nanoparticles, we have evaluated the interactions between the different layers and the relative strength of interfacial properties. By means of UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopies, we have shown that due to its amine functionalities, the bonding of polyethyleneimine to gold particles is stronger than the one implied with the sulfonate anion in the PSS inducing a clean removal of this latter after the last polyethyleneimine deposition. Considering that polyethyleneimine is cytotoxic and that only weak covalent bonds are concerned in polyelectrolyte multilayer, this last point is of main importance since external degradation thus exposing polyethyleneimine sub-layer of multilayer films to in vivo tissue cells can occur by many ways.

  13. Gold Veins near Great Falls, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John Calvin; Reed, John C.

    1969-01-01

    Small deposits of native gold are present along an anastomosing system of quartz veins and shear zones just east of Great Falls, Montgomery County, Md. The deposits were discovered in 1861 and were worked sporadically until 1951, yielding more than 5,000 ounces of gold. The vein system and the principal veins within it strike a few degrees west of north, at an appreciable angle to foliation and fold axial planes in enclosing rocks of the Wissahickon Formation of late Precambrian (?) age. The veins cut granitic rocks of Devonian or pre-Devonian age and may be as young as Triassic. Further development of the deposits is unlikely under present economic conditions because of their generally low gold content and because much of the vein system lies on park property, but study of the Great Falls vein system may be useful in the search for similar deposits elsewhere in the Appalachian Piedmont.

  14. Preparation of radioactive colloidal gold 198Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarosano, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation with simple equipment of radioactive colloidal gold of particle size about approximately 300 A from seed colloid stabilized by gelatine is described. Some physico-chemical parameters which can affect the process of formation of these colloidal particles are analysed; particle size has been meassured with an electron microscope. The colloid stability has been studied as a function of dilution, age and pH. Nucleation and growth of radioactive colloidal gold have been studied using spectrophotometry. Absorption spectra of the two ones are presented and compared. Quality control of the production process is verified through measurement of parameters, such as radioactive and radiochemical purity and biological distribution in laboratorial animals. This distribution was evalusted for rats injected endovenously with the gold colloidal solution.(Author) [pt

  15. Free gold recovery by coal-oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotze, W.; Petersen, F.W. [Cape Technikon Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-02-01

    The gold mining industry has mainly relied upon the use of highly polluting chemicals, such as mercury and cyanide to recover gold from its ores. The Coal Gold Agglomeration (CGA) process was developed some years ago and has the advantage in that gold is recovered by a procedure which has little or no negative impact on the environment. A gold ore containing liberated gold particles is contacted with coal-oil agglomerates, whereby the gold is recovered into the coal/oil phase. Laboratory scale batch tests were performed on an artificial mixture gold slurry and gold recoveries of up to 85% were found under optimized conditions. By recycling the coal/oil phase, it was found that the gold loading onto the agglomerates was increased. Tests performed on an industrial ore yielded slightly lower gold recoveries, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis on the coal/oil phase showed that minerals other than gold were recovered into this phase. A comparative study was conducted whereby the CGA process was compared to mercury amalgamation. Gold recoveries obtained through amalgamation were 15% lower than by the agglomeration process, which indicates that this process can be considered favourably as an alternative to amalgamation. 16 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Contact allergy to gold in patients with gold-plated intracoronary stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedman, C; Tillman, C; Gustavsson, C G; Möller, H; Frennby, B; Bruze, M

    2005-04-01

    An increasingly common and effective method for the treatment of atherosclerotic disease in the coronary arteries is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stenting. The stents are made of different metals. An increased rate of restenosis when using gold-plated stents has been shown. Contact allergy to gold is common in many countries. Recently, a study has shown an increased rate of contact allergy to nickel among patients with restenosis and a nickel-containing stent. The aims of our study were to investigate whether there was an increased rate of contact allergy to gold among patients with gold-plated stents and if this increased the risk of restenosis. 22 patients who had received a gold-plated stent were patch tested. An age- and sex-matched population of 88 patients, previously patch tested because of a suspected contact dermatitis, served as controls. In the stent group, 10/22 (45.5%) had a contact allergy to gold, in the control group 18/88 (20.5%); the difference is statistically significant (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference regarding frequency of restenosis. Our study indicates that there is a risk of sensitizing the patient when implanting a gold-plated stent. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate whether there is an increased risk of restenosis.

  17. Size fraction assaying of gold bearing rocks (for gold extraction) by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Dampare, S.B.; Addo, M.A.; Osae, S.; Adotey, D.K.; Adomako, D.

    2005-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for processing and extraction of gold from gold bearing rocks for use by small-scale gold miners in Ghana. The methodology involved crushing of gold bearing hard rocks to fine particles to form a composite sample and screening at a range of sizes. Gold distribution in the composite sample was determined as a function of particle size by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The concentrations of gold for the corresponding particle sizes were 16.4 ± 0.17mg/kg for sizes <63μm; 161± 0.75 mg/kg for 63 - 125 μm, 0.53 + 0.03 mg/kg for 125 - 250 μm, 4.66± 0.07 mg/kg for 250 - 355 μm, 1.55 ± 0.06 for 355 - 425 μm, 0.80 ± 0.008 mg/kg for 425 -1000 μm, and 1.27 + 0.05 mg/kg for 1000-2000 μm. The average gold content in a 7.127 kg composite sample based on particle size found to be 3.08 mg/kg. (au)

  18. Measurement of the inclusive and fiducial $t\\bar{t}$ production cross-sections in the lepton+jets channel in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahmani, Marzieh; Bahrasemani, Sina; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Bandyopadhyay, Anjishnu; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barkeloo, Jason Tyler Colt; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Beck, Helge Christoph; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Bergsten, Laura Jean; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Betti, Alessandra; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Bruno, Salvatore; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; C-Q, Changqiao; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cai, Huacheng; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrá, Sonia; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casha, Albert Francis; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, David; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgeniya; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioară, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czekierda, Sabina; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'eramo, Louis; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Daneri, Maria Florencia; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davis, Douglas; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Dickinson, Jennet; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dulsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Förster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; García Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Geß{}ner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonski, Julia; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Holzbock, Michael; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Chiao-ying; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Thomas; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McNicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Ng, Sam Yanwing; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olsson, Joakim; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Peri, Francesco; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Forrest Hays; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggi, Riccardo; Poggioli, Luc; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Pohl, David-leon; Pokharel, Ishan; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Portillo Quintero, Dilia María; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potti, Harish; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rashid, Tasneem; Raspopov, Sergii; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ripellino, Giulia; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Roy, Debarati; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Rüttinger, Elias Michael; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sampsonidou, Despoina; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sano, Yuta; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schenck, Ferdinand; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Šfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherman, Alexander David; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Søgaard, Andreas; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Sopczak, Andre; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Sottocornola, Simone; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, D M S; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Tahirovic, Elvedin; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeda, Kosuke; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Lo\\"ic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Furelos, David; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakamiya, Kotaro; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Sebastian Mario; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Weston, Thomas; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Anton; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Woods, Natasha Lee; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Xu, Tairan; Xu, Wenhao; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamane, Fumiya; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The inclusive and fiducial $t\\bar{t}$ production cross-sections are measured in the lepton+jets channel using 20.2 fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Major systematic uncertainties due to the modelling of the jet energy scale and $b$-tagging efficiency are constrained by separating selected events into three disjoint regions. In order to reduce systematic uncertainties on the most important background, the W+jets process is modelled using Z+jets events in a data-based approach. The inclusive $t\\bar{t}$ cross-section is measured with a precision of 5.7% to be $\\sigma_{\\text{inc}}(t\\bar{t})$ = 248.3 $\\pm$ 0.7 (stat.) $\\pm$ 12.8 (syst.) $\\pm$ 4.7 (lumi.) pb, assuming a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV. The result is in agreement with the Standard Model prediction. The cross-section is also measured in a phase space close to that of the selected data. The fiducial cross-section is $\\sigma_{\\text{fid}}(t\\bar{t})$ = 48.8 $\\pm$ 0.1 (...

  19. Fiducial and differential cross sections of Higgs boson production measured in the four-lepton decay channel in pp collisions at s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of fiducial and differential cross sections of Higgs boson production in the H→ZZ⁎→4ℓ decay channel are presented. The cross sections are determined within a fiducial phase space and corrected for detection efficiency and resolution effects. They are based on 20.3 fb−1 of pp collision data, produced at s=8 TeV centre-of-mass energy at the LHC and recorded by the ATLAS detector. The differential measurements are performed in bins of transverse momentum and rapidity of the four-lepton system, the invariant mass of the subleading lepton pair and the decay angle of the leading lepton pair with respect to the beam line in the four-lepton rest frame, as well as the number of jets and the transverse momentum of the leading jet. The measured cross sections are compared to selected theoretical calculations of the Standard Model expectations. No significant deviation from any of the tested predictions is found.

  20. Fiducial, total and differential cross-section measurements oft-channel single top-quark production inppcollisions at 8 TeV using data collected by the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adachi, S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Verzini, M J Alconada; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Ali, B; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alshehri, A A; Alstaty, M; Gonzalez, B Alvarez; Piqueras, D Álvarez; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Coutinho, Y Amaral; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Santos, S P Amor Dos; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antel, C; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antrim, D J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Bella, L Aperio; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Bajic, M; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisits, M-S; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Navarro, L Barranco; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Bell, A S; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Noccioli, E Benhar; Benitez, J; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Kuutmann, E Bergeaas; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bylund, O Bessidskaia; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethani, A; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bielski, R; Biesuz, N V; Biglietti, M; De Mendizabal, J Bilbao; Billoud, T R V; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bisanz, T; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blue, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Boerner, D; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bokan, P; Bold, T; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Bortfeldt, J; Bortoletto, D; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Sola, J D Bossio; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Madden, W D Breaden; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Broughton, J H; de Renstrom, P A Bruckman; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, L S; Brunt, B H; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryant, P; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burger, A M; Burghgrave, B; Burka, K; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Burr, J T P; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Urbán, S Cabrera; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Callea, G; Caloba, L P

    2017-01-01

    Detailed measurements of t -channel single top-quark production are presented. They use 20.2 fb[Formula: see text] of data collected by the ATLAS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the LHC. Total, fiducial and differential cross-sections are measured for both top-quark and top-antiquark production. The fiducial cross-section is measured with a precision of 5.8% (top quark) and 7.8% (top antiquark), respectively. The total cross-sections are measured to be [Formula: see text] for top-quark production and [Formula: see text] for top-antiquark production, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction. In addition, the ratio of top-quark to top-antiquark production cross-sections is determined to be [Formula: see text]. The differential cross-sections as a function of the transverse momentum and rapidity of both the top quark and the top antiquark are measured at both the parton and particle levels. The transverse momentum and rapidity differential cross-sections of the accompanying jet from the t -channel scattering are measured at particle level. All measurements are compared to various Monte Carlo predictions as well as to fixed-order QCD calculations where available.

  1. Measurement of fiducial differential cross sections of gluon-fusion production of Higgs bosons decaying to WW *→eνμν with the ATLAS detector at s = 8 $$ \\sqrt{s}=8 $$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.;