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Sample records for eus-guided gold fiducial

  1. Endoscopy/EUS-guided fiducial marker placement in patients with esophageal cancer: a comparative analysis of 3 types of markers.

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    Machiels, Melanie; van Hooft, Jeanin; Jin, Peng; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; van Laarhoven, Hanneke M; Alderliesten, Tanja; Hulshof, Maarten C

    2015-10-01

    Markers placed at the borders of esophageal tumors are potentially useful to facilitate radiotherapy (RT) target delineation, which offers the possibility of image-guided RT. To evaluate and compare the feasibility and technical benefit of endoscopy/EUS-guided marker placement of 3 different types of markers in patients with esophageal cancer referred for RT. Prospective, single-center, feasibility and comparative study. Tertiary-care medical center. Thirty patients with esophageal cancer who were referred for RT. Patients underwent endoscopy/EUS-guided implantation of 1 type of marker. A solid gold marker (SM) with fixed dimensions, a flexible coil-shaped gold marker (FM) with hand-cut length (2-10 mm), and a radiopaque hydrogel marker (HG) were used. Technical feasibility and adverse events were registered. CT scans and cone-beam CT scans (CBCT) acquired during RT were analyzed to determine and compare the visibility and continuous clear visibility of the implanted markers. Technical feasibility, technical benefit, and adverse events of 3 types of markers. A total of 101 markers were placed in 30 patients. Implantation was technically feasible in all patients without grade 3 to 4 adverse events. Two patients with asymptomatic mediastinitis and one with asymptomatic pneumothorax were seen. Visibility on CT scan of all 3 types of implanted markers was adequate for target delineation. Eighty percent of FMs remained continuously visible over the treatment period on CBCT, significantly better than SMs (63%) and HGs (11%) (P = .015). When we selected FMs ≥5 mm, 90.5% remained visible on CBCT between implantation and the end of RT. Single-center, nonrandomized design. Endoscopy/EUS-guided fiducial marker placement for esophageal cancer is both safe and feasible and can be used for target volume delineation purposes on CT. Our results imply a significant advantage of FMs over SMs and HGs, regarding visibility and continuous clear visibility over the treatment period

  2. EUS-guided biliary rendezvous using a short hydrophilic guidewire.

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    Dhir, Vinay; Kwek, Boon Eu Andrew; Bhandari, Suryaprakash; Bapat, Mukta; Maydeo, Amit

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: EUS-guided rendezvous technique for biliary access requires expert manipulation of the guidewire across the downstream stricture or papilla. Published literature reports usage of the long-wire system to prevent loss of wire during scope exchange. We studied the efficacy of using a short hydrophilic guidewire in EUS-guided rendezvous. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care referral centre. 15 patients underwent EUS-guided biliary rendezvous with short wire. EUS-guided transduodenal/transgastric puncture of the biliary system was performed, followed by anterograde placement of a hydrophilic short-wire (260 cm) across the downstream stricture and/or papilla. Retrograde access was then achieved by retrieving the trans-papillary wire, followed by standard ERCP intervention. Main outcome measurements were rates of procedural success and complications. RESULTS: EUS-guided biliary rendezvous was successful in 14 patients (93.3%). Failure was seen in one patient due to a tight malignant biliary stricture. One patient had peri-choledochal bile tracking which did not require any specific treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Short-wire system in EUS-guided biliary rendezvous is highly effective and safe. It is a useful salvage procedure for biliary cannulation in patients with accessible papilla.

  3. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumonceau, J-M; Polkowski, M; Larghi, A

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a combined publication that expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology, including EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and EUS-guided trucut biopsy (EU...

  4. Microscopic Gold Particle-Based Fiducial Markers for Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Park, Soah; Kim, Jin Sung; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Shin, Jungwook; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sung Yong; Pyo, Hong Ryeol; Kim, Dae Yong M.D.; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the feasibility of using fiducial markers composed of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers as a means to overcome current problems with conventional macroscopic gold fiducial markers, such as dose reduction and artifact generation, in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We examined two types of gold particle fiducial marker interactions: that with diagnostic X-rays and with a therapeutic proton beam. That is, we qualitatively and quantitatively compared the radiographic visibility of conventional gold and gold particle fiducial markers and the CT artifacts and dose reduction associated with their use. Results: The gold particle fiducials could be easily distinguished from high-density structures, such as the pelvic bone, in diagnostic X-rays but were nearly transparent to a proton beam. The proton dose distribution was distorted <5% by the gold particle fiducials with a 4.9% normalized gold density; this was the case even in the worst configuration (i.e., parallel alignment with a single-direction proton beam). In addition, CT artifacts were dramatically reduced for the gold particle mixture. Conclusion: Mixtures of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers have excellent potential as fiducial markers for proton therapy for prostate cancer. These include good radiographic visibility, low distortion of the depth-dose distribution, and few CT artifacts.

  5. EUS-guided recanalization of complete gastrointestinal strictures

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    Miguel Martínez-Guillén

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Complete gastrointestinal strictures are a technically demanding problem. In this setting, an anterograde technique is associated with a high risk of complications and a combined anterograde-retrograde technique requires a prior ostomy. Our aim was to assess the outcome of a first case series for the management of complete gastrointestinal strictures using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS-guided puncture as a novel endoscopic approach. Patients and methods: This retrospective case-series describes four cases that were referred for treatment of complete benign gastrointestinal strictures, three upper and one lower. Recanalization was attempted with EUS-guided puncture using a 22G or 19G needle and contrast filling was visualized by fluoroscopy. Afterwards, a cystotome and/or a dilator balloon were used under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. A fully covered metal stent was placed in two cases, keeping the strictures open in order to prevent another stricture. Feasibility, adverse events, efficacy and the number of dilations required after recanalization were evaluated. Results: Technical and clinical success was achieved in three of the four cases (75%. A first dilation was performed using a dilator balloon in all successful cases and fully covered metal stents were used in two cases. These patients underwent a consecutive number of balloon dilatations (range 1-4 and all three were able to eat a soft diet. No adverse events were related to the EUS-guided approach. In the failed case with a long stricture (> 3 cm, an endoscopic rendezvous technique was attempted which caused a pneumothorax requiring a chest tube placement. Conclusion: EUS-guided recanalization, as a first approach in the treatment of complete digestive stricture, is a feasible and promising procedure that can help to avoid major surgery.

  6. EUS-Guided Vascular Procedures: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Bokun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS is continuously stepping into the therapeutic arena, simultaneously evolving in different directions, such as the management of pancreatic and biliary diseases, celiac neurolysis, delivering local intratumoral therapy, and EUS-guided endosurgery. EUS-guided vascular procedures are also challenging, considering the variety of vascular pathology, proximity of the vascular structures to the GI tract wall, high resolution, and real-time guidance offering an attractive access route and precise delivery of the intervention. The literature on vascular therapeutic EUS demonstrates techniques for the management of upper GI variceal and nonvariceal bleeding, pseudoaneurysms, and coiling and embolization procedures, as well as the creation of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. The paucity of studies, diversity of study designs, and the number of animal model studies hamper a systematic approach to the conclusion and decision making important to clinicians and healthcare policy makers. Nevertheless, theoretical benefits and findings up to date concerning technical feasibility, efficacy, and safety of the procedures drive further research and development in this rather young therapeutic arena.

  7. EUS-Guided Needle-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutani, Manoop S; Koduru, Pramoda; Joshi, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an excellent tool for imaging the gastrointestinal tract, as well as surrounding structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care for the tissue sampling of a variety of masses and lymph nodes within and around...... the gut, providing further diagnostic and staging information. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel endoscopic method that enables imaging at a subcellular level of resolution during endoscopy, allowing up to 1000-fold magnification of tissue and providing an optical biopsy. A new procedure...... that has been developed in the past few years is needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE), which involves a mini-CLE probe that can be passed through a 1 9-gauge needle during EUS-FNA. This enables the real-time visualization of tissue at a microscopic level, with the potential to further improve...

  8. Prospective evaluation of EUS-guided fine needle biopsy in pancreatic mass lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M H; Fristrup, C W; Detlefsen, S

    2018-01-01

    Background and study aim : Due to the scarcity of specific data on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle biopsies (SharkCore) FNB in the evaluation of pancreatic lesions, we performed a prospective study of the diagnostic performance of EUS SharkCore FNB in patients with pancreatic lesions...

  9. Diagnostic yield of EUS-guided FNA and cytology in suspected tubercular intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puri, Rajesh; Mangla, Rakhee; Eloubeidi, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy is a common diagnostic challenge faced by clinicians. In the absence of palpable peripheral nodes, tissue is usually obtained from the abdominal nodes by image-guided biopsy or surgery. We speculate that EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) avoids the morbidity of a laparotomy...

  10. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Deprez, Pierre H; Jenssen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    For pancreatic solid lesions, ESGE recommends performing endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling as first-line procedure when a pathological diagnosis is required. Alternatively, percutaneous sampling may be considered in metastatic disease.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence.In ...

  11. Comparison of EUS-guided rendezvous and precut papillotomy techniques for biliary access (with videos).

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    Dhir, Vinay; Bhandari, Suryaprakash; Bapat, Mukta; Maydeo, Amit

    2012-02-01

    Precut papillotomy after failed bile duct cannulation is associated with an increased risk of pancreatitis. EUS-guided rendezvous drainage is a novel alternative technique, but there are no data comparing this approach with precut papillotomy. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of EUS-guided rendezvous drainage of the bile duct and compare its outcome with that of precut papillotomy. Retrospective study. Tertiary care referral center. Consecutive patients with distal bile duct obstruction, in whom selective cannulation of the bile duct at ERCP failed after 5 attempts with a guidewire and sphincterotome, underwent an EUS-guided rendezvous procedure. The outcomes were compared with those in a historical cohort of patients who underwent precut papillotomy. Patients in whom selective cannulation failed underwent EUS-guided rendezvous drainage by use of the short wire technique or precut papillotomy by use of the Erlangen papillotome. At EUS, after the extrahepatic bile duct was punctured with a 19-gauge needle, a hydrophilic angled-tip guidewire 260 cm long was passed in an antegrade manner across the papilla into the duodenum. The echoendoscope was then exchanged for a duodenoscope, which was introduced alongside the EUS-placed guidewire. The transpapillary guidewire was retrieved through its biopsy channel, and accessories were passed over the wire to perform the requisite endotherapy. Comparison of the rates of technical success and complications between patients treated by the EUS-guided rendezvous and those treated by precut papillotomy techniques. Treatment success was defined as completion of the requisite endotherapy in one treatment session. Treatment success was significantly higher for the EUS-guided rendezvous (57/58 patients) than for those undergoing precut papillotomy technique (130/144 patients) (98.3% vs 90.3%; P = .03). There was no significant difference in the rate of procedural complications between the EUS and precut papillotomy techniques (3

  12. Pancreatic duct drainage using EUS-guided rendezvous technique for stenotic pancreaticojejunostomy.

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    Takikawa, Tetsuya; Kanno, Atsushi; Masamune, Atsushi; Hamada, Shin; Nakano, Eriko; Miura, Shin; Ariga, Hiroyuki; Unno, Jun; Kume, Kiyoshi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Katayose, Yu; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-08-21

    The patient was a 30-year-old female who had undergone excision of the extrahepatic bile duct and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy for congenital biliary dilatation at the age of 7. Thereafter, she suffered from recurrent acute pancreatitis due to pancreaticobiliary maljunction and received subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. She developed a pancreatic fistula and an intra-abdominal abscess after the operation. These complications were improved by percutaneous abscess drainage and antibiotic therapy. However, upper abdominal discomfort and the elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes persisted due to stenosis from the pancreaticojejunostomy. Because we could not accomplish dilation of the stenosis by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, we tried an endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) guided rendezvous technique for pancreatic duct drainage. After transgastric puncture of the pancreatic duct using an EUS-fine needle aspiration needle, the guidewire was inserted into the pancreatic duct and finally reached to the jejunum through the stenotic anastomosis. We changed the echoendoscope to an oblique-viewing endoscope, then grasped the guidewire and withdrew it through the scope. The stenosis of the pancreaticojejunostomy was dilated up to 4 mm, and a pancreatic stent was put in place. Though the pancreatic stent was removed after three months, the patient remained symptom-free. Pancreatic duct drainage using an EUS-guided rendezvous technique was useful for the treatment of a stenotic pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  13. Histopathologic Consideration of Fiducial Gold Markers Inserted for Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy Against Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Mikado; Yamazaki, Koichi; Kubota, Kanako C.; Itoh, Tomoo; Onimaru, Rikiya; Cho, Yasushi; Hida, Yasuhiro; Kaga, Kichizo; Onodera, Yuya; Ogura, Shigeaki; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Internal fiducial gold markers, safely inserted with bronchoscopy, have been used in real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy for lung cancer. We investigated the histopathologic findings at several points after the insertion of the gold markers. Methods and Materials: Sixteen gold markers were inserted for preoperative marking in 7 patients who subsequently underwent partial resection of tumors by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery within 7 days. Results: Fibrotic changes and hyperplasia of type 2 pneumocytes around the markers were seen 5 or 7 days after insertion, and fibrin exudation without fibrosis was detected 1 or 2 days after insertion. Conclusions: Because fibroblastic changes start approximately 5 days after gold marker insertion, real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy should be started >5 days after gold marker insertion

  14. Dose reduction in LDR brachytherapy by implanted prostate gold fiducial markers.

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    Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Lutgens, Ludy; Murrer, Lars; Afsharpour, Hossein; de Haas-Kock, Danielle; Visser, Peter; van Gils, Francis; Verhaegen, Frank

    2012-03-01

    The dosimetric impact of gold fiducial markers (FM) implanted prior to external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer on low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy seed implants performed in the context of combined therapy was investigated. A virtual water phantom was designed containing a single FM. Single and multi source scenarios were investigated by performing Monte Carlo dose calculations, along with the influence of varying orientation and distance of the FM with respect to the sources. Three prostate cancer patients treated with LDR brachytherapy for a recurrence following external beam radiotherapy with implanted FM were studied as surrogate cases to combined therapy. FM and brachytherapy seeds were identified on post implant CT scans and Monte Carlo dose calculations were performed with and without FM. The dosimetric impact of the FM was evaluated by quantifying the amplitude of dose shadows and the volume of cold spots. D(90) was reported based on the post implant CT prostate contour. Large shadows are observed in the single source-FM scenarios. As expected from geometric considerations, the shadows are dependent on source-FM distance and orientation. Large dose reductions are observed at the distal side of FM, while at the proximal side a dose enhancement is observed. In multisource scenarios, the importance of shadows appears mitigated, although FM at the periphery of the seed distribution caused underdosage (LDR brachytherapy seed implant dose distributions. Therefore, reduced tumor control could be expected from FM implanted in tumors, although our results are too limited to draw conclusions regarding clinical significance.

  15. Spectral CT with metal artifacts reduction software for improvement of tumor visibility in the vicinity of gold fiducial markers.

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    Brook, Olga R; Gourtsoyianni, Sofia; Brook, Alexander; Mahadevan, Anand; Wilcox, Carol; Raptopoulos, Vassilios

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate spectral computed tomography (CT) with metal artifacts reduction software (MARS) for reduction of metal artifacts associated with gold fiducial seeds. Thirteen consecutive patients with 37 fiducial seeds implanted for radiation therapy of abdominal lesions were included in this HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved prospective study. Six patients were women (46%) and seven were men (54%). The mean age was 61.1 years (median, 58 years; range, 29-78 years). Spectral imaging was used for arterial phase CT. Images were reconstructed with and without MARS in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. Two radiologists independently reviewed reconstructions and selected the best image, graded the visibility of the tumor, and assessed the amount of artifacts in all planes. A linear-weighted κ statistic and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess interobserver variability. Histogram analysis with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for objective evaluation of artifacts reduction. Fiducial seeds were placed in pancreas (n = 5), liver (n = 7), periportal lymph nodes (n = 1), and gallbladder bed (n = 1). MARS-reconstructed images received a better grade than those with standard reconstruction in 60% and 65% of patients by the first and second radiologist, respectively. Tumor visibility was graded higher with standard versus MARS reconstruction (grade, 3.7 ± 1.0 vs 2.8 ± 1.1; P = .001). Reduction of blooming was noted on MARS-reconstructed images (P = .01). Amount of artifacts, for both any and near field, was significantly smaller on sagittal and coronal MARS-reconstructed images than on standard reconstructions (P MARS-reconstructed images than on standard reconstructions (P MARS than with standard reconstruction in 35 of 37 patients (P MARS improved tumor visibility in the vicinity of gold fiducial seeds.

  16. Microscopic findings in EUS-guided fine needle (SharkCore) biopsies with type 1 and type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Joergensen, Maiken Thyregod; Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2017-01-01

    The International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria (ICDC) for the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) include the histological criterion that is based on either pancreatic core needle biopsies (CNBs) or surgical specimens. However, CNBs are difficult to obtain by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS......). EUS fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology is usually not sufficient for the diagnosis of AIP, but may sometimes contain tissue microfragments. Another approach is EUS-guided histological fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB), using needles such as the SharkCore or ProCore needle. Published data regarding...... EUS-guided SharkCore FNB for the diagnosis of AIP are lacking. We aimed to describe our histological findings in one type 1 and two type 2 AIP patients who underwent EUS SharkCore FNB. The EUS-FNBs of two patients fulfilled the histological level 2 ICDC for type 1 AIP or type 2 AIP. The EUS-FNB of one...

  17. Comparison of transhepatic and extrahepatic routes for EUS-guided rendezvous procedure for distal CBD obstruction.

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    Dhir, Vinay; Bhandari, Suryaprakash; Bapat, Mukta; Joshi, Nitin; Vivekanandarajah, Suhirdan; Maydeo, Amit

    2013-04-01

    EUS-guided rendezvous procedure (EUS-RV) can be done by the transhepatic (TH) or the extrahepatic (EH) route. There is no data on the preferred access route when both routes are available. To compare the success, complications, and duration of hospitalization for patients undergoing EUS-RV by the TH or the EH route. Patients with distal common bile duct (CBD) obstruction, who failed selective cannulation, underwent EUS-RV by the TH route through the stomach or the EH route through the duodenum. A total of 35 patients were analysed (17 TH, 18 EH). The mean procedure time was significantly longer for the TH group (34.4 vs. 25.7 min; p = 0.0004). There was no difference in the technical success (94.1 vs. 100%). However, the TH group had a higher incidence of post-procedure pain (44.1 vs. 5.5%; p = 0.017), bile leak (11.7 vs. 0; p = 0.228), and air under diaphragm (11.7 vs. 0; p = 0.228). All bile leaks were small and managed conservatively. Duration of hospitalization was significantly higher for the TH group (2.52 vs. 0.17 days; p = 0.015). EUS-RV has similar success rate by the TH or the EH route. However, the TH route has higher post-procedure pain, longer procedure time, and longer duration of hospitalization. The EH route should be preferred for EUS-RV in patients with distal CBD obstruction when both access routes are technically feasible.

  18. Single-operator EUS-guided cholangiopancreatography for difficult pancreaticobiliary access (with video).

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    Brauer, Brian C; Chen, Yang K; Fukami, Norio; Shah, Raj J

    2009-09-01

    When conventional ERCP methods fail because of periampullary or ductal obstruction, EUS-guided cholangiopancreatography (EUS-CP) may aid in pancreaticobiliary access. To report our experience when using single-operator EUS-CP. An academic tertiary-referral center. Consecutive patients undergoing EUS-CP were prospectively identified. These patients had undergone failed attempt(s) at therapeutic ERCP. A data sheet was used to record indications, reasons for failed ERCP, EUS-CP visualization of the duct of interest, transpapillary or transenteric intervention, clinical follow-up, and complications. Technical success was decompression of the duct of interest. Clinical success was resolution of jaundice or a > or = 50% reduction in pain or narcotics, as applicable. Between February 2003 and June 2007, EUS-CP was attempted in 20 patients (11 men, 9 women; mean [SD] age 58 +/- 14.9 years). Indications included jaundice (n = 8), biliary stones (n = 3), chronic pancreatitis (n = 6), acute pancreatitis (n = 2), and papillary stenosis (n = 1). Reasons for failed ERCP included periampullary mass (n = 8), intradiverticular papillae (n = 4), and pancreatic duct (PD) stricture (n = 7) or stone (n = 1). Technical success was achieved in 18 of 20 patients (90%). Biliary decompression was obtained in 11 of 12 patients (92%) (7 transpapillary and 4 transenteric-transcholedochal). Pancreatic decompression was obtained in 7 of 8 patients (88%) (3 transpapillary, 4 transgastric). On follow-up, clinical improvement was noted in 15 of 20 patients (70%). For treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis, pain scores decreased by a mean of 1.75 (P = .18). Complications (in 2 of 20 [10%]) included perforation (n = 1) and respiratory failure (n = 1). A single-center nonrandomized observational study with a small patient population. At our academic referral center, single-operator EUS-CP provided decompression of obstructed ducts and may be performed after a failed attempt at

  19. Technical aspects of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Technical Guideline - March 2017.

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    Polkowski, Marcin; Jenssen, Christian; Kaye, Philip; Carrara, Silvia; Deprez, Pierre; Gines, Angels; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Eisendrath, Pierre; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Arcidiacono, Paolo; Barthet, Marc; Bastos, Pedro; Fornelli, Adele; Napoleon, Bertrand; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Seicean, Andrada; Larghi, Alberto; Hassan, Cesare; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    For routine EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and lymph nodes (LNs) ESGE recommends 25G or 22G needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation); fine needle aspiration (FNA) and fine needle biopsy (FNB) needles are equally recommended (high quality evidence, strong recommendation).When the primary aim of sampling is to obtain a core tissue specimen, ESGE suggests using 19G FNA or FNB needles or 22G FNB needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE recommends using 10-mL syringe suction for EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and LNs with 25G or 22G FNA needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation) and other types of needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). ESGE suggests neutralizing residual negative pressure in the needle before withdrawing the needle from the target lesion (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE does not recommend for or against using the needle stylet for EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and LNs with FNA needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation) and suggests using the needle stylet for EUS-guided sampling with FNB needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE suggests fanning the needle throughout the lesion when sampling solid masses and LNs (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE equally recommends EUS-guided sampling with or without on-site cytologic evaluation (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). When on-site cytologic evaluation is unavailable, ESGE suggests performance of three to four needle passes with an FNA needle or two to three passes with an FNB needle (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).For diagnostic sampling of pancreatic cystic lesions without a solid component, ESGE suggests emptying the cyst with a single pass of a 22G or 19G needle (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). For pancreatic cystic lesions with a solid component, ESGE suggests sampling of the solid component using the same technique as in the

  20. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline - Updated January 2017.

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    Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Deprez, Pierre H; Jenssen, Christian; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Larghi, Alberto; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Arcidiacono, Paolo G; Bastos, Pedro; Carrara, Silvia; Czakó, László; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Fockens, Paul; Ginès, Àngels; Havre, Roald F; Hassan, Cesare; Vilmann, Peter; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Polkowski, Marcin

    2017-07-01

    For pancreatic solid lesions, ESGE recommends performing endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling as first-line procedure when a pathological diagnosis is required. Alternatively, percutaneous sampling may be considered in metastatic disease.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence.In the case of negative or inconclusive results and a high degree of suspicion of malignant disease, ESGE suggests re-evaluating the pathology slides, repeating EUS-guided sampling, or surgery.Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.In patients with chronic pancreatitis associated with a pancreatic mass, EUS-guided sampling results that do not confirm cancer should be interpreted with caution.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence.For pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs), ESGE recommends EUS-guided sampling for biochemical analyses plus cytopathological examination if a precise diagnosis may change patient management, except for lesions ≤ 10 mm in diameter with no high risk stigmata. If the volume of PCL aspirate is small, it is recommended that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level determination be done as the first analysis.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence.For esophageal cancer, ESGE suggests performing EUS-guided sampling for the assessment of regional lymph nodes (LNs) in T1 (and, depending on local treatment policy, T2) adenocarcinoma and of lesions suspicious for metastasis such as distant LNs, left liver lobe lesions, and suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis.Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.For lymphadenopathy of unknown origin, ESGE recommends performing EUS-guided (or alternatively endobronchial ultrasound [EBUS]-guided) sampling if the pathological result is likely to affect patient management and no superficial lymphadenopathy is easily accessible.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence.In the case of solid liver masses suspicious for metastasis, ESGE suggests performing EUS-guided sampling if the pathological result is likely

  1. Improving Positioning in High-Dose Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Safety and Visibility of Frequently Used Gold Fiducial Markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonteyne, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.fonteyne@uzgent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Ost, Piet [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Villeirs, Geert [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Oosterlinck, Willem [Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Impens, Aline; De Gersem, Werner; De Wagter, Carlos; De Meerleer, Gert [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The use of gold fiducial markers (GFMs) for prostate positioning in high-dose radiotherapy is gaining interest. The purpose of this study was to compare five GFMs regarding feasibility of ultrasound-based implantation in the prostate and intraprostatic lesion (IPL); toxicity; visibility on transabdominal ultrasound (TU) and cone-beam CT (CBCT); reliability of automatic, soft tissue, and GFM-based CBCT patient positioning by comparing manual and automatic fusion CBCT. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients were included. Pain and toxicity were scored after implantation and high-dose radiotherapy. Fisher exact test was used to evaluate the correlation of patients' characteristics and prostatitis. Positioning was evaluated on TU and kilovoltage CBCT images. CBCT fusion was performed automatically (Elekta XVI technology, release 3.5.1 b27, based on grey values) and manually on soft tissue and GFMs. Pearson correlation statistics and Bland-Altman evaluation were used. Five GFMs were compared. Results: Twenty percent of the patients developed prostatitis despite antibiotic prophylaxis. Cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with prostatitis. The visualization of all GFMs on TU was disappointing. Consequently we cannot recommend the use of these GFMs for TU-based prostate positioning. For all GFMs, there was only fair to poor linear correlation between automatic and manual CBCT images, indicating that even when GFMs are used, an operator evaluation is imperative. However, when GFMs were analyzed individually, a moderate to very strong correlation between automatic and manual positioning was found for larger GFMs in all directions. Conclusion: The incidence of prostatitis in our series was high. Further research is imperative to define the ideal preparation protocol preimplantation and to select patients. Automatic fusion is more reliable with larger GFMs at the cost of more scatter. The stability of all GFMs was proven.

  2. Evaluation of an automatic MR-based gold fiducial marker localisation method for MR-only prostate radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, Matteo; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.; Zijlstra, Frank; Sikkes, Gonda G.; de Boer, Hans C. J.; Meijer, Gert J.; Kerkmeijer, Linda G. W.; Viergever, Max A.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Seevinck, Peter R.

    2017-10-01

    An MR-only radiotherapy planning (RTP) workflow would reduce the cost, radiation exposure and uncertainties introduced by CT-MRI registrations. In the case of prostate treatment, one of the remaining challenges currently holding back the implementation of an RTP workflow is the MR-based localisation of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers (FMs), which is crucial for accurate patient positioning. Currently, MR-based FM localisation is clinically performed manually. This is sub-optimal, as manual interaction increases the workload. Attempts to perform automatic FM detection often rely on being able to detect signal voids induced by the FMs in magnitude images. However, signal voids may not always be sufficiently specific, hampering accurate and robust automatic FM localisation. Here, we present an approach that aims at automatic MR-based FM localisation. This method is based on template matching using a library of simulated complex-valued templates, and exploiting the behaviour of the complex MR signal in the vicinity of the FM. Clinical evaluation was performed on seventeen prostate cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy treatment. Automatic MR-based FM localisation was compared to manual MR-based and semi-automatic CT-based localisation (the current gold standard) in terms of detection rate and the spatial accuracy and precision of localisation. The proposed method correctly detected all three FMs in 15/17 patients. The spatial accuracy (mean) and precision (STD) were 0.9 mm and 0.5 mm respectively, which is below the voxel size of 1.1 × 1.1 × 1.2 mm3 and comparable to MR-based manual localisation. FM localisation failed (3/51 FMs) in the presence of bleeding or calcifications in the direct vicinity of the FM. The method was found to be spatially accurate and precise, which is essential for clinical use. To overcome any missed detection, we envision the use of the proposed method along with verification by an observer. This will result in a

  3. Evaluation of an automatic MR-based gold fiducial marker localisation method for MR-only prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, Matteo; van den Berg, Cornelis A T; Zijlstra, Frank; Sikkes, Gonda G; de Boer, Hans C J; Meijer, Gert J; Kerkmeijer, Linda G W; Viergever, Max A; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Seevinck, Peter R

    2017-10-03

    An MR-only radiotherapy planning (RTP) workflow would reduce the cost, radiation exposure and uncertainties introduced by CT-MRI registrations. In the case of prostate treatment, one of the remaining challenges currently holding back the implementation of an RTP workflow is the MR-based localisation of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers (FMs), which is crucial for accurate patient positioning. Currently, MR-based FM localisation is clinically performed manually. This is sub-optimal, as manual interaction increases the workload. Attempts to perform automatic FM detection often rely on being able to detect signal voids induced by the FMs in magnitude images. However, signal voids may not always be sufficiently specific, hampering accurate and robust automatic FM localisation. Here, we present an approach that aims at automatic MR-based FM localisation. This method is based on template matching using a library of simulated complex-valued templates, and exploiting the behaviour of the complex MR signal in the vicinity of the FM. Clinical evaluation was performed on seventeen prostate cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy treatment. Automatic MR-based FM localisation was compared to manual MR-based and semi-automatic CT-based localisation (the current gold standard) in terms of detection rate and the spatial accuracy and precision of localisation. The proposed method correctly detected all three FMs in 15/17 patients. The spatial accuracy (mean) and precision (STD) were 0.9 mm and 0.5 mm respectively, which is below the voxel size of [Formula: see text] mm 3 and comparable to MR-based manual localisation. FM localisation failed (3/51 FMs) in the presence of bleeding or calcifications in the direct vicinity of the FM. The method was found to be spatially accurate and precise, which is essential for clinical use. To overcome any missed detection, we envision the use of the proposed method along with verification by an observer. This will result in a

  4. Registration accuracy and possible migration of internal fiducial gold marker implanted in prostate and liver treated with real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy (RTRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Harabayashi, Toru; Shimizu, Tadashi; Kodama, Yoshihisa; Endo, Hideho; Onimaru, Rikiya; Nishioka, Seiko; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have developed a linear accelerator synchronized with a fluoroscopic real-time tumor-tracking system to reduce errors due to setup and organ motion. In the real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy (RTRT) system, the accuracy of tumor tracking depends on the registration of the marker's coordinates. The registration accuracy and possible migration of the internal fiducial gold marker implanted into prostate and liver was investigated. Materials and methods: Internal fiducial gold markers were implanted in 14 patients with prostate cancer and four patients with liver tumors. Computed tomography (CT) was carried out as a part of treatment planning in the 18 patients. A total of 72 follow-up CT scans were taken. We calculated the relative relationship between the coordinates of the center of mass (CM) of the organs and those of the marker. The discrepancy in the CM coordinates during a follow-up CT compared to those recorded during the planning CT was used to study possible marker migration. Results: The standard deviation (SD) of interobserver variations in the CM coordinates was within 2.0 and 0.4 mm for the organ and the marker, respectively, in seven observers. Assuming that organs do not shrink, grow, or rotate, the maximum SD of migration error in each direction was estimated to be less than 2.5 and 2.0 mm for liver and prostate, respectively. There was no correlation between the marker position and the time after implantation. Conclusion: The degree of possible migration of the internal fiducial marker was within the limits of accuracy of the CT measurement. Most of the marker movement can be attributed to the measurement uncertainty, which also influences registration in actual treatment planning. Thus, even with the gold marker and RTRT system, a planning target volume margin should be used to account for registration uncertainty

  5. Visibility and artifacts of gold fiducial markers used for image guided radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney-Champion, Oliver J.; Lens, Eelco; Horst, Astrid van der; Houweling, Antonetta C.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan; Klaassen, Remy; Hooft, Jeanin E. van; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer, tumor alignment prior to each treatment fraction is improved when intratumoral gold fiducial markers (from here onwards: markers), which are visible on computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT, are used. Visibility of these markers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might improve image registration between CT and magnetic resonance (MR) images for tumor delineation purposes. However, concomitant image artifacts induced by markers are undesirable. The extent of visibility and artifact size depend on MRI-sequence parameters. The authors’ goal was to determine for various markers their potential to be visible and to generate artifacts, using measures that are independent of the MRI-sequence parameters. Methods: The authors selected ten different markers suitable for endoscopic placement in the pancreas and placed them into a phantom. The markers varied in diameter (0.28–0.6 mm), shape, and iron content (0%–0.5%). For each marker, the authors calculated T 2 ∗ -maps and ΔB 0 -maps using MRI measurements. A decrease in relaxation time T 2 ∗ can cause signal voids, associated with visibility, while a change in the magnetic field B 0 can cause signal shifts, which are associated with artifacts. These shifts inhibit accurate tumor delineation. As a measure for potential visibility, the authors used the volume of low T 2 ∗ , i.e., the volume for which T 2 ∗ differed from the background by >15 ms. As a measure for potential artifacts, the authors used the volume for which |ΔB 0 | > 9.4 × 10 −8 T (4 Hz). To test whether there is a correlation between visibility and artifact size, the authors calculated the Spearman’s correlation coefficient (R s ) between the volume of low T 2 ∗ and the volume of high |ΔB 0 |. The authors compared the maps with images obtained using a clinical MR-sequence. Finally, for the best visible marker as well as the marker that showed the smallest artifact, the authors

  6. EUS-guided rendezvous for difficult biliary cannulation using a standardized algorithm: a multicenter prospective pilot study (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Takuji; Yasuda, Ichiro; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Keisuke; Ando, Nobuhiro; Doi, Shinpei; Nakashima, Masanori; Uemura, Shinya; Mabuchi, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Masahito

    2016-02-01

    Biliary cannulation is necessary in therapeutic ERCP for biliary disorders. EUS-guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) can salvage failed cannulation. Our aim was to determine the safety and efficacy of EUS-RV by using a standardized algorithm with regard to the endoscope position in a prospective study. EUS-RV was attempted after failed cannulation in 20 patients. In a standardized approach, extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cannulation was preferentially attempted from the second portion of the duodenum (D2) followed by additional approaches to the EHBD from the duodenal bulb (D1) or to the intrahepatic bile duct from the stomach, if necessary. A guidewire was placed in an antegrade fashion into the duodenum. After the guidewire was placed, the endoscope was exchanged for a duodenoscope to complete the cannulation. The bile duct was accessed from the D2 in 10 patients, but from the D1 in 5 patients and the stomach in 4 patients because of no dilation or tumor invasion at the distal EHBD. In the remaining patient, biliary puncture was not attempted due to the presence of collateral vessels. The guidewire was successfully manipulated in 80% of patients: 100% (10/10) with the D2 approach and 66.7% (6/9) with other approaches. The overall success rate was 80% (16/20). Failed EUS-RV was salvaged with a percutaneous approach in 2 patients, repeat ERCP in 1 patient, and conservative management in 1 patient. Minor adverse events occurred in 15% of patients (3/20). EUS-RV is a safe and effective salvage method. Using EUS-RV to approach the EHBD from the D2 may improve success rates. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying indications for percutaneous (PTC) vs. endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)- guided "rendezvous" procedure in biliary obstruction and incomplete endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J G; Finkelmeier, F; Friedrich-Rust, M; Kronenberger, B; Trojan, J; Zeuzem, S; Sarrazin, C

    2014-10-01

    The variety of rendezvous (RV) procedures has recently been extended by EUS- and PTCD-guided procedures as a complementary means to conventional ERCP. We have identified indication criteria and the potential of biliary PTCD-guided vs. EUS-guided RV. Consecutive patients with bile duct obstruction who underwent RV were included. In all, ERCP alone was unable to achieve treatment success. Indication, technical success, and outcome in PTCD- vs. EUS-guided RV were retrospectively compared to identify criteria that indicate preference of RV technique. Site of obstruction, clinical scenario (stenosis with abscess vs. no abscess) and reason for previous failure of ERC were evaluated. In 32 patients, three different indications for RV procedures were identified: First, a one-step access to assist in failed ERCP (type 1, intra-ductal RV); second, temporary drainage for prolonged treatment of complex biliary disease (type 2, intra-ductal RV), and drainage of cholangio-abscess with re-establishing bile outflow (type 3, intra-abscess RV). Indication of PTCD- vs. EUS-guided rendezvous was competitive in type 1, but exclusive in favor of PTCD in types 2 and 3. The site of biliary obstruction indicated the anatomic location of RV procedures. This classification may help to define inclusion criteria for prospective studies on biliary RV procedures. Choice of therapeutic strategy depends on the anatomic location of the biliary obstruction and the type of the biliary lesion. PTCD-guided RV might improve outcome in cholangio-abscess. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. SU-F-T-660: Evaluating the Benefit of Using Dual-Function Fiducial Markers for In-Situ Delivery of Radiosenistizing Gold Nanoparticles During Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlMansour, S; Chin, J; Sajo, E; Ngwa, W [University Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dual-function fiducials loaded with radiosensitizers, like gold nanoparticles (GNP), offer an innovative approach for ensuring geometric accuracy during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and significantly increasing therapeutic efficacy due to controlled in-situ release of the radiosensitizers. This study retrospectively investigates the dosimetric benefit of using up to two such dual-function fiducial markers instead of traditional single function fiducials during IGRT. Methods: A computational code was developed to investigate the dosimetric benefit for 10 real patient tumor volumes of up to 6.5 cm diameter. The intra-tumoral space-time biodistribution of the GNP was modeled as in previous studies based on Fick’s second law. The corresponding dose-enhancement for each tumor voxel due to the GNP was also calculated for clinical 6MV beam configurations. Various loading concentrations (25–50 mg/g) were studied, as a function of GNP size, to determine potential for clinically significant dose enhancement. The time between initial implantation of dual-function fiducials to the beginning of radiotherapy was assumed to be 14 days as typical for many clinics. Results: A single dual-function fiducial could achieve at least a DEF of 1.2 for patients with tumors less than 1.4 cm diameter after 14 days. Replacing two single function fiducials with dual-function ones at the same locations achieved at least the required minimal DEF for tumors that are 2 cm diameter in 3 patients. The results also revealed dosimetrically better fiducial locations which could enable significant DEF when using one or two dual function fiducials. 2 nm sizes showed the most feasibility. Conclusion: The results highlight the potential of tumor sub-volume radiation boosting using GNP released from fiducials, and the ability to customize the DEF throughout the tumor by using two dual-function fiducials, varying the initial concentration and nanoparticle size. The results demonstrate

  9. SU-F-T-660: Evaluating the Benefit of Using Dual-Function Fiducial Markers for In-Situ Delivery of Radiosenistizing Gold Nanoparticles During Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMansour, S; Chin, J; Sajo, E; Ngwa, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dual-function fiducials loaded with radiosensitizers, like gold nanoparticles (GNP), offer an innovative approach for ensuring geometric accuracy during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and significantly increasing therapeutic efficacy due to controlled in-situ release of the radiosensitizers. This study retrospectively investigates the dosimetric benefit of using up to two such dual-function fiducial markers instead of traditional single function fiducials during IGRT. Methods: A computational code was developed to investigate the dosimetric benefit for 10 real patient tumor volumes of up to 6.5 cm diameter. The intra-tumoral space-time biodistribution of the GNP was modeled as in previous studies based on Fick’s second law. The corresponding dose-enhancement for each tumor voxel due to the GNP was also calculated for clinical 6MV beam configurations. Various loading concentrations (25–50 mg/g) were studied, as a function of GNP size, to determine potential for clinically significant dose enhancement. The time between initial implantation of dual-function fiducials to the beginning of radiotherapy was assumed to be 14 days as typical for many clinics. Results: A single dual-function fiducial could achieve at least a DEF of 1.2 for patients with tumors less than 1.4 cm diameter after 14 days. Replacing two single function fiducials with dual-function ones at the same locations achieved at least the required minimal DEF for tumors that are 2 cm diameter in 3 patients. The results also revealed dosimetrically better fiducial locations which could enable significant DEF when using one or two dual function fiducials. 2 nm sizes showed the most feasibility. Conclusion: The results highlight the potential of tumor sub-volume radiation boosting using GNP released from fiducials, and the ability to customize the DEF throughout the tumor by using two dual-function fiducials, varying the initial concentration and nanoparticle size. The results demonstrate

  10. Clinical outcomes of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) with gold fiducial vaginal cuff markers for high-risk endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Alan T.; Peddada, Anuj V. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Penrose Cancer Center, Colorado Springs (United States); Pikaart, Dirk [Dept. of Gynecologic Oncology, Penrose Cancer Center, Colorado Springs (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Objective. To report two year clinical outcomes of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to the vaginal cuff and pelvic lymph nodes in a series of high-risk endometrial cancer patients. Methods . Twenty-six consecutive high-risk endometrial cancer patients requiring adjuvant radiation to the vaginal cuff and regional lymph nodes were treated with vaginal cuff fiducial-based IGRT. Seventeen (65%) received sequential chemotherapy, most commonly with a sandwich technique. Brachytherapy followed external radiation in 11 patients to a median dose of 18 Gy in 3 fractions. The median external beam dose delivered was 47.5 Gy in 25 fractions. Results. All 656 fractions were successfully imaged and treated. The median overall translational shift required for correction was 9.1 mm (standard deviation, 5.2 mm) relative to clinical set-up with skin tattoos. Shifts of 1 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2 cm or greater were performed in 43%, 14%, and 4% of patients, respectively. Acute grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity occurred in eight patients (30%) and grade 3 toxicity occurred in one. At two years, there have been no local or regional failures and actuarial overall survival is 95%. Conclusion. Daily image guidance for high-risk endometrial cancer results in a low incidence of acute GI/genitourinary (GU) toxicity with uncompromised tumor control at two years. Vaginal cuff translations can be substantial and may possibly result in underdosing if not properly considered.

  11. Clinical outcomes of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) with gold fiducial vaginal cuff markers for high-risk endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroe, Alan T.; Peddada, Anuj V.; Pikaart, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To report two year clinical outcomes of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to the vaginal cuff and pelvic lymph nodes in a series of high-risk endometrial cancer patients. Methods . Twenty-six consecutive high-risk endometrial cancer patients requiring adjuvant radiation to the vaginal cuff and regional lymph nodes were treated with vaginal cuff fiducial-based IGRT. Seventeen (65%) received sequential chemotherapy, most commonly with a sandwich technique. Brachytherapy followed external radiation in 11 patients to a median dose of 18 Gy in 3 fractions. The median external beam dose delivered was 47.5 Gy in 25 fractions. Results. All 656 fractions were successfully imaged and treated. The median overall translational shift required for correction was 9.1 mm (standard deviation, 5.2 mm) relative to clinical set-up with skin tattoos. Shifts of 1 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2 cm or greater were performed in 43%, 14%, and 4% of patients, respectively. Acute grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity occurred in eight patients (30%) and grade 3 toxicity occurred in one. At two years, there have been no local or regional failures and actuarial overall survival is 95%. Conclusion. Daily image guidance for high-risk endometrial cancer results in a low incidence of acute GI/genitourinary (GU) toxicity with uncompromised tumor control at two years. Vaginal cuff translations can be substantial and may possibly result in underdosing if not properly considered

  12. Novel ex vivo model for hands-on teaching of and training in EUS-guided biliary drainage: creation of "Mumbai EUS" stereolithography/3D printing bile duct prototype (with videos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhir, Vinay; Itoi, Takao; Fockens, Paul; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Khashab, Mouen A.; Seo, Dong Wan; Yang, Ai Ming; Lawrence, Khek Yu; Maydeo, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has emerged as an alternative rescue method in patients with failed ERCP. Opportunities for teaching and training are limited because of a low case volume at most centers. Objective: To evaluate a stereolithography/3-dimensional (3D) printing bile

  13. EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections using a novel lumen-apposing metal stent on an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system : a large retrospective study (with video)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinninella, Emanuele; Kunda, Rastislav; Dollhopf, Markus; Sanchez-Yague, Andres; Will, Uwe; Tarantino, Ilaria; Gornals Soler, Joan; Ullrich, Sebastian; Meining, Alexander; Esteban, Josè Miguel; Enz, Thomas; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Vleggaar, FP; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent incorporated in an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system for EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) recently has become available. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and clinical effectiveness of

  14. Evaluation of a novel, hybrid model (Mumbai EUS II) for stepwise teaching and training in EUS-guided biliary drainage and rendezvous procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Vinay; Itoi, Takao; Pausawasdi, Nonthalee; Khashab, Mouen A.; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Sun, Siyu; Park, Do Hyun; Iwashita, Takuji; Teoh, Anthony Y. B.; Maydeo, Amit P.; Ho, Khek Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims  EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) and rendezvous (EUS-RV) are acceptable rescue options for patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, there are limited training opportunities at most centers owing to low case volumes. The existing models do not replicate the difficulties encountered during EUS-BD. We aimed to develop and validate a model for stepwise learning of EUS-BD and EUS-RV, which replicates the actual EUS-BD procedures. Methods  A hybrid model was created utilizing pig esophagus and stomach, with a synthetic duodenum and biliary system. The model was objectively assessed on a grade of 1 – 4 by two experts. Twenty-eight trainees were given initial training with didactic lectures and live procedures. This was followed by hands-on training in EUS-BD and EUS-RV on the hybrid model. Trainees were assessed for objective criteria of technical difficulties. Results  Both the experts graded the model as very good or above for all parameters. All trainees could complete the requisite steps of EUS-BD and EUS-RV in a mean time of 11 minutes (8 – 18 minutes). Thirty-six technical difficulties were noted during the training (wrong scope position, 13; incorrect duct puncture, 12; guidewire related problems, 11). Technical difficulties peaked for EUS-RV, followed by hepaticogastrostomy (HGS) and choledochoduodenostomy (CDS) (20, 9, and 7, P  = 0.001). At 10 days follow-up, nine of 28 trainees had successfully performed three EUS-RV and seven EUS-BD procedures independently. Conclusions  The Mumbai EUS II hybrid model replicates situations encountered during EUS-RV and EUS-BD. Stepwise mentoring improves the chances of success in EUS-RV and EUS-BD procedures. PMID:29250585

  15. EUS-guided biliary drainage by using a standardized approach for malignant biliary obstruction: rendezvous versus direct transluminal techniques (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashab, Mouen A; Valeshabad, Ali Kord; Modayil, Rani; Widmer, Jessica; Saxena, Payal; Idrees, Mehak; Iqbal, Shahzad; Kalloo, Anthony N; Stavropoulos, Stavros N

    2013-11-01

    EUS-guided biliary drainage (EGBD) can be performed via direct transluminal or rendezvous techniques. It is unknown how both techniques compare in terms of efficacy and adverse events. To describe outcomes of EGBD performed by using a standardized approach and compare outcomes of rendezvous and transluminal techniques. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Two tertiary-care centers. Consecutive jaundiced patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction who underwent EGBD after failed ERCP between July 2006 and December 2012 were included. EGBD by using a standardized algorithm. Technical success, clinical success, and adverse events. During the study period, 35 patients underwent EGBD (rendezvous n = 13, transluminal n = 20). Technical success was achieved in 33 patients (94%), and clinical success was attained in 32 of 33 patients (97.0%). The mean postprocedure bilirubin level was 1.38 mg/dL in the rendezvous group and 1.33 mg/dL in the transluminal group (P = .88). Similarly, length of hospital stay was not different between groups (P = .23). There was no significant difference in adverse event rate between rendezvous and transluminal groups (15.4% vs 10%; P = .64). Long-term outcomes were comparable between groups, with 1 stent migration in the rendezvous group at 62 days and 1 stent occlusion in the transluminal group at 42 days after EGBD. Retrospective analysis, small number of patients, and selection bias. EGBD is safe and effective when the described standardized approach is used. Stent occlusion is not common during long-term follow-up. Both rendezvous and direct transluminal techniques seem to be equally effective and safe. The latter approach is a reasonable alternative to rendezvous EGBD. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of a novel, hybrid model (Mumbai EUS II) for stepwise teaching and training in EUS-guided biliary drainage and rendezvous procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Vinay; Itoi, Takao; Pausawasdi, Nonthalee; Khashab, Mouen A; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Sun, Siyu; Park, Do Hyun; Iwashita, Takuji; Teoh, Anthony Y B; Maydeo, Amit P; Ho, Khek Yu

    2017-11-01

    EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) and rendezvous (EUS-RV) are acceptable rescue options for patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, there are limited training opportunities at most centers owing to low case volumes. The existing models do not replicate the difficulties encountered during EUS-BD. We aimed to develop and validate a model for stepwise learning of EUS-BD and EUS-RV, which replicates the actual EUS-BD procedures.  A hybrid model was created utilizing pig esophagus and stomach, with a synthetic duodenum and biliary system. The model was objectively assessed on a grade of 1 - 4 by two experts. Twenty-eight trainees were given initial training with didactic lectures and live procedures. This was followed by hands-on training in EUS-BD and EUS-RV on the hybrid model. Trainees were assessed for objective criteria of technical difficulties.  Both the experts graded the model as very good or above for all parameters. All trainees could complete the requisite steps of EUS-BD and EUS-RV in a mean time of 11 minutes (8 - 18 minutes). Thirty-six technical difficulties were noted during the training (wrong scope position, 13; incorrect duct puncture, 12; guidewire related problems, 11). Technical difficulties peaked for EUS-RV, followed by hepaticogastrostomy (HGS) and choledochoduodenostomy (CDS) (20, 9, and 7, P  = 0.001). At 10 days follow-up, nine of 28 trainees had successfully performed three EUS-RV and seven EUS-BD procedures independently.  The Mumbai EUS II hybrid model replicates situations encountered during EUS-RV and EUS-BD. Stepwise mentoring improves the chances of success in EUS-RV and EUS-BD procedures.

  17. Fluorescence cytology with 5-aminolevulinic acid in EUS-guided FNA as a method for differentiating between malignant and benign lesions (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Uchida, Kazushige; Shimatani, Masaaki; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kato, Kota; Ohe, Chisato; Uemura, Yoshiko; Kaibori, Masaki; Kwon, A-Hon; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) has been increasingly performed to obtain specimens for the pathological evaluation of patients with GI and pancreaticobiliary masses as well as lymphadenopathies of unknown origin. Photodynamic diagnosis by using 5-aminolebulinic acid (ALA) has been reported to be useful for enabling the visual differentiation between malignant and normal tissue in various cancers. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fluorescence cytology with ALA in EUS-FNA. A prospective study. A single center. A total of 28 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA for the pathological diagnosis of a pancreaticobiliary mass lesion or intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy of unknown origin. Patients were orally administered ALA 3 to 6 hours before EUS-FNA. The sample was obtained via EUS-FNA for fluorescence cytology and conventional cytology. A single gastroenterologist performed the fluorescence cytology by using fluorescence microscopy after the procedure, independently of the conventional cytology by pathologists. The accuracy of fluorescence cytology with ALA in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions by comparing the results of fluorescence cytology with the final diagnosis. Of the 28 patients included in the study, 22 were considered as having malignant lesions and 6 patients as having benign lesions. Fluorescence cytology could correctly discriminate between benign and malignant lesions in all patients. Therefore, both the sensitivity and specificity of fluorescence cytology were 100% in our study. Fluorescence cytology was performed by only 1 gastroenterologist with a small number of patients. Fluorescence cytology with ALA in EUS-FNA may be an effective and simple method for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An international multicenter study comparing EUS-guided pancreatic duct drainage with enteroscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde pancreatography after Whipple surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-I; Levy, Michael J; Moreels, Tom G; Hajijeva, Gulara; Will, Uwe; Artifon, Everson L; Hara, Kazuo; Kitano, Masayuki; Topazian, Mark; Abu Dayyeh, Barham; Reichel, Andreas; Vilela, Tiago; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Haito-Chavez, Yamile; Bukhari, Majidah; Okolo, Patrick; Kumbhari, Vivek; Ismail, Amr; Khashab, Mouen A

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic management of post-Whipple pancreatic adverse events (AEs) with enteroscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (e-ERP) is associated with high failure rates. EUS-guided pancreatic duct drainage (EUS-PDD) has shown promising results; however, no comparative data have been done for these 2 modalities. The goal of this study is to compare EUS-PDD with e-ERP in terms of technical success (PDD through dilation/stent), clinical success (improvement/resolution of pancreatic-type symptoms), and AE rates in patients with post-Whipple anatomy. This is an international multicenter comparative retrospective study at 7 tertiary centers (2 United States, 2 European, 2 Asian, and 1 South American). All consecutive patients who underwent EUS-PDD or e-ERP between January 2010 and August 2015 were included. In total, 66 patients (mean age, 57 years; 48% women) and 75 procedures were identified with 40 in EUS-PDD and 35 in e-ERP. Technical success was achieved in 92.5% of procedures in the EUS-PDD group compared with 20% of procedures in the e-ERP group (OR, 49.3; P procedures in the EUS-PDD group compared with 23.1% in the e-ERP group (OR, 23.3; P Procedure time and length of stay were not significantly different between the 2 groups. EUS-PDD is superior to e-ERP in post-Whipple anatomy in terms of efficacy with acceptable safety. As such, EUS-PDD should be considered as a potential first-line treatment in post-pancreaticoduodenectomy anatomy when necessary expertise is available. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections using a novel lumen-apposing metal stent on an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system: a large retrospective study (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinninella, Emanuele; Kunda, Rastislav; Dollhopf, Markus; Sanchez-Yague, Andres; Will, Uwe; Tarantino, Ilaria; Gornals Soler, Joan; Ullrich, Sebastian; Meining, Alexander; Esteban, Josè Miguel; Enz, Thomas; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Vleggaar, Frank; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    A lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent incorporated in an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system for EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) recently has become available. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and clinical effectiveness of this newly developed device in this clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with PFCs who underwent EUS-guided drainage using the study device in 13 European centers. Ninety-three patients with PFCs (80% with complex collections) underwent drainage using the study device. Penetration of the PFC was accomplished directly with the study device in 74.2% of patients, and successful stent placement was accomplished in all but 1 patient, mostly without fluoroscopic assistance. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) was carried out in 31 of 52 cases (59.6%) of walled-off necrosis and in 2 of 4 cases (50%) of acute peripancreatic fluid collection. Complete resolution of the PFC was obtained in 86 cases (92.5%), with no recurrence during follow-up. Treatment failure occurred in 6 patients because of persistent infection requiring surgery (n = 3), perforation and massive bleeding caused by the nasocystic drainage catheter (NCDC) (n = 2), and the need for a larger opening to extract large necrotic tissue pieces (n = 1). Major adverse events occurred in 5 patients (perforation and massive bleeding caused by the NCDC in 2 patients, 1 pneumoperitoneum and 1 stent dislodgement during DEN, and 1 postdrainage infection) and were mostly not related to the drainage procedure. EUS-guided drainage with the electrocautery-enhanced delivery system is a safe, easy to perform, and a highly effective minimally invasive treatment modality for PFCs. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification and comparison of visibility and image artifacts of a new liquid fiducial marker in a lung phantom for image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherman Rydhög, Jonas, E-mail: per.jonas.scherman.rydhoeg@regionh.dk; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, 3994, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Irming Jølck, Rasmus; Andresen, Thomas Lars [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Center for Nanomedicine and Theranostics, Technical University of Denmark, Building 423, Kongens Lyngby 2800 (Denmark)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A new biodegradable liquid fiducial marker was devised to allow for easy insertion in lung tumors using thin needles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visibility of the liquid fiducial markers for image-guided radiation therapy and compare to existing solid fiducial markers and to one existing liquid fiducial marker currently commercially available. Methods: Fiducial marker visibility was quantified in terms of contrast to noise ratio (CNR) on planar kilovoltage x-ray images in a thorax phantom for different concentrations of the radio-opaque component of the new liquid fiducial marker, four solid fiducial markers, and one existing liquid fiducial marker. Additionally, the image artifacts produced on computer tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) of all fiducial markers were quantified. Results: The authors found that the new liquid fiducial marker with the highest concentration of the radio-opaque component had a CNR > 2.05 for 62/63 exposures, which compared favorably to the existing solid fiducial markers and to the existing liquid fiducial marker evaluated. On CT and CBCT, the new liquid fiducial marker with the highest concentration produced lower streaking index artifact (30 and 14, respectively) than the solid gold markers (113 and 20, respectively) and the existing liquid fiducial marker (39 and 20, respectively). The size of the image artifact was larger for all of the liquid fiducial markers compared to the solid fiducial markers because of their larger physical size. Conclusions: The visibility and the image artifacts produced by the new liquid fiducial markers were comparable to existing solid fiducial markers and the existing liquid fiducial marker. The authors conclude that the new liquid fiducial marker represents an alternative to the fiducial markers tested.

  1. Improvement in Interobserver Accuracy in Delineation of the Lumpectomy Cavity Using Fiducial Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Talha; Chen Ting; Khan, Atif; Yue, Ning J.; Kearney, Thomas; Cohler, Alan; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, whether the presence of gold fiducial markers would improve the inter- and intraphysician accuracy in the delineation of the surgical cavity compared with a matched group of patients who did not receive gold fiducial markers in the setting of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Planning CT images of 22 lumpectomy cavities were reviewed in a cohort of 22 patients; 11 patients received four to six gold fiducial markers placed at the time of surgery. Three physicians categorized the seroma cavity according to cavity visualization score criteria and delineated each of the 22 seroma cavities and the clinical target volume. Distance between centers of mass, percentage overlap, and average surface distance for all patients were assessed. Results: The mean seroma volume was 36.9 cm 3 and 34.2 cm 3 for fiducial patients and non-fiducial patients, respectively (p = ns). Fiducial markers improved the mean cavity visualization score, to 3.6 ± 1.0 from 2.5 ± 1.3 (p < 0.05). The mean distance between centers of mass, average surface distance, and percentage overlap for the seroma and clinical target volume were significantly improved in the fiducial marker patients as compared with the non-fiducial marker patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The placement of gold fiducial markers placed at the time of lumpectomy improves interphysician identification and delineation of the seroma cavity and clinical target volume. This has implications in radiotherapy treatment planning for accelerated partial-breast irradiation and for boost after whole-breast irradiation.

  2. Fiducial inference - A Neyman-Pearson interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, D; VonderLinden, W; Dose,; Fischer, R; Preuss, R

    1999-01-01

    Fisher's fiducial argument is a tool for deriving inferences in the form of a probability distribution on the parameter space, not based on Bayes's Theorem. Lindley established that in exceptional situations fiducial inferences coincide with posterior distributions; in the other situations fiducial

  3. Assessment of prostatic fiducial marker introduction: patient morbidity, staff satisfaction and improved treatment field placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Simon; Lehman, Margot; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet; Glyde, Alan; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Nicol, David

    2011-01-01

    Increased accuracy when using fiducial markers for prostate localisation is well documented. This project aimed to establish the improvement in accuracy when using gold markers for daily prostate localisation, to assess patient satisfaction and morbidity from the transrectal implantation of gold seed markers and establish staff attitudes towards the newly introduced processes. Twenty patients with prostate cancer had three gold seeds implanted into the base, apex and central zone of the prostate transrectally using ultrasound guidance. Surveys were conducted to assess staff and patient satisfaction with the process of gold seed localisation. The gold markers were used to localise the prostate on a daily basis using megavoltage electronic portal imaging. Measurements were taken to establish the increase in accuracy when using gold fiducial markers compared with using the surrounding bony anatomy. Inter-fraction motion (1 standard deviation (SD)) of the fiducial markers was 2.20, 4.28 and 4.27 mm in the LR, SI and AP directions, respectively. Intra-fraction prostate motion (1 SD) was measured as 0.8 mm LR, 1.1 mm SI and 2.0 mm AP. The patient survey showed that the insertion and associated side effects were acceptable, with 5% of patients stating that the seed insertion was worse than the prostate biopsy, and 23.1% of patients experienced short duration (1–2 days) haematuria. The staff survey showed that daily online image guidance was achievable without affecting patient throughput. Thirty percent of treatment staff believed that performing online daily localisation did not add any extra time to a standard treatment, and the remaining 70% thought that the added time was minimal (2–4 min). Gold fiducial markers are an accurate, reliable and tolerable method of daily prostate localisation.

  4. Clinical Usefulness of Implanted Fiducial Markers for Hypofractionated Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Min; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Woo Joo; Yoon, Jin Han; Kim, Tae Hyo; Kim, Soo Dong; Yun, Seong Guk

    2011-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of implanted fiducial markers in the setup of hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients by comparing a fiducial marker matched setup with a pelvic bone match. Four prostate cancer patients treated with definitive hypofractionated radiotherapy between September 2009 and August 2010 were enrolled in this study. Three gold fiducial markers were implanted into the prostate and through the rectum under ultrasound guidance around a week before radiotherapy. Glycerin enemas were given prior to each radiotherapy planning CT and every radiotherapy session. Hypofractionated radiotherapy was planned for a total dose of 59.5 Gy in daily 3.5 Gy with using the Novalis system. Orthogonal kV X-rays were taken before radiotherapy. Treatment positions were adjusted according to the results from the fusion of the fiducial markers on digitally reconstructed radiographs of a radiotherapy plan with those on orthogonal kV X-rays. When the difference in the coordinates from the fiducial marker fusion was less than 1 mm, the patient position was approved for radiotherapy. A virtual bone matching was carried out at the fiducial marker matched position, and then a setup difference between the fiducial marker matching and bone matching was evaluated. Three patients received a planned 17-fractionated radiotherapy and the rest underwent 16 fractionations. The setup error of the fiducial marker matching was 0.94±0.62 mm (range, 0.09 to 3.01 mm; median, 0.81 mm), and the means of the lateral, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior errors were 0.39±0.34 mm, 0.46±0.34 mm, and 0.57±0.59 mm, respectively. The setup error of the pelvic bony matching was 3.15±2.03 mm (range, 0.25 to 8.23 mm; median, 2.95 mm), and the error of craniocaudal direction (2.29±1.95 mm) was significantly larger than those of anteroposterior (1.73±1.31 mm) and lateral directions (0.45±0.37 mm), respectively (p< 0.05). Incidences of over 3 mm and 5 mm in setup difference among the

  5. Magnet Fiducialization with Coordinate Measuring Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedsam, H.; Oren, W.; Pietryka, M.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    One of the fundamental alignment problems encountered when building a particle accelerator is the transfer of a component's magnetic centerline position to external fiducials. This operation, dubbed fiducialization, is critical because it can contribute significantly to the alignment error budget. The fiducialization process requires two measurements: (1) from magnetic centerline to mechanical centerline, and (2) from mechanical centerline to external fiducials. This paper will focus on methods for observing the second measurement. Two Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) examples are presented. The object of magnet fiducialization is to relate the magnet-defined beamline position to exterior reference surfaces. To be useful for later component alignment, this relationship must be established in a manner consistent with overall positioning tolerances. The error budget for the SLC's ± 100 (micro)m component to component alignment tolerance is as follows: magnetic centerline to mechanical centerline--σ = ±30 (micro)m; mechanical centerline to fiducial marks--σ = ±50 (micro)m; and fiducial marks to adjacent components--σ = ±80 (micro)m; the TOTAL σ = ±100 (micro)m. The offset between the mechanical and magnetic centerlines of well-known magnets is generally smaller than the ±30 (micro)m measurement tolerance. It is commonly assumed to be zero without measurement. When this tiny value must be measured, extreme care is necessary to avoid obscuring the offset with measurement tool registration errors. In contrast, the mechanical centerline to fiducial measurement must be performed on every magnet. The 50 (micro)m tolerance for this operation is only slightly larger and pushes conventional surveying technology to its limit

  6. Magnet Fiducialization with Coordinate Measuring Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedsam, H.; Oren, W.; Pietryka, M.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    One of the fundamental alignment problems encountered when building a particle accelerator is the transfer of a component's magnetic centerline position to external fiducials. This operation, dubbed fiducialization, is critical because it can contribute significantly to the alignment error budget. The fiducialization process requires two measurements: (1) from magnetic centerline to mechanical centerline, and (2) from mechanical centerline to external fiducials. This paper will focus on methods for observing the second measurement. Two Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) examples are presented. The object of magnet fiducialization is to relate the magnet-defined beamline position to exterior reference surfaces. To be useful for later component alignment, this relationship must be established in a manner consistent with overall positioning tolerances. The error budget for the SLC's {+-} 100 {micro}m component to component alignment tolerance is as follows: magnetic centerline to mechanical centerline--{sigma} = {+-}30 {micro}m; mechanical centerline to fiducial marks--{sigma} = {+-}50 {micro}m; and fiducial marks to adjacent components--{sigma} = {+-}80 {micro}m; the TOTAL {sigma} = {+-}100 {micro}m. The offset between the mechanical and magnetic centerlines of well-known magnets is generally smaller than the {+-}30 {micro}m measurement tolerance. It is commonly assumed to be zero without measurement. When this tiny value must be measured, extreme care is necessary to avoid obscuring the offset with measurement tool registration errors. In contrast, the mechanical centerline to fiducial measurement must be performed on every magnet. The 50 {micro}m tolerance for this operation is only slightly larger and pushes conventional surveying technology to its limit.

  7. Percutaneous fiducial marker placement prior to stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Kengo; Shimohira, Masashi; Murai, Taro; Nishimura, Junichi; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Hashizume, Takuya; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our initial experience with a gold flexible linear fiducial marker and to evaluate the safety and technical and clinical efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy using this marker for malignant liver tumors. Between July 2012 and February 2015, 18 patients underwent percutaneous fiducial marker placement before stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors. We evaluated the technical and clinical success rates of the procedure and the associated complications. Technical success was defined as successful placement of the fiducial marker at the target site, and clinical success was defined as the completion of stereotactic body radiotherapy without the marker dropping out of position. All 18 fiducial markers were placed successfully, so the technical success rate was 100% (18/18). All 18 patients were able to undergo stereotactic body radiotherapy without marker migration. Thus, the clinical success rate was 100% (18/18). Slight pneumothorax occurred as a minor complication in one case. No major complications such as coil migration or bleeding were observed. The examined percutaneous fiducial marker was safely placed in the liver and appeared to be useful for stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors

  8. MRI-alone radiation therapy planning for prostate cancer: Automatic fiducial marker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Mitra, Jhimli; Rivest-Hénault, David; Fazlollahi, Amir; Fripp, Jurgen; Dowling, Jason A.; Stanwell, Peter; Pichler, Peter; Sun, Jidi; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of radiation therapy treatment planning using substitute computed tomography (sCT) generated from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) has been demonstrated by a number of research groups. One challenge with an MRI-alone workflow is the accurate identification of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers, which are frequently used for prostate localization prior to each dose delivery fraction. This paper investigates a template-matching approach for the detection of these seeds in MRI. Methods: Two different gradient echo T1 and T2* weighted MRI sequences were acquired from fifteen prostate cancer patients and evaluated for seed detection. For training, seed templates from manual contours were selected in a spectral clustering manifold learning framework. This aids in clustering “similar” gold fiducial markers together. The marker with the minimum distance to a cluster centroid was selected as the representative template of that cluster during training. During testing, Gaussian mixture modeling followed by a Markovian model was used in automatic detection of the probable candidates. The probable candidates were rigidly registered to the templates identified from spectral clustering, and a similarity metric is computed for ranking and detection. Results: A fiducial detection accuracy of 95% was obtained compared to manual observations. Expert radiation therapist observers were able to correctly identify all three implanted seeds on 11 of the 15 scans (the proposed method correctly identified all seeds on 10 of the 15). Conclusions: An novel automatic framework for gold fiducial marker detection in MRI is proposed and evaluated with detection accuracies comparable to manual detection. When radiation therapists are unable to determine the seed location in MRI, they refer back to the planning CT (only available in the existing clinical framework); similarly, an automatic quality control is built into the automatic software to ensure that all gold

  9. MRI-alone radiation therapy planning for prostate cancer: Automatic fiducial marker detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, Soumya, E-mail: soumya.ghose@case.edu; Mitra, Jhimli [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, The Australian e-Health & Research Centre, Herston, QLD 4029 (Australia); Rivest-Hénault, David; Fazlollahi, Amir; Fripp, Jurgen; Dowling, Jason A. [CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, The Australian e-Health & Research Centre, Herston, QLD 4029 (Australia); Stanwell, Peter [School of health sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Pichler, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cavalry Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2298 (Australia); Sun, Jidi; Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Cavalry Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2298 (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of radiation therapy treatment planning using substitute computed tomography (sCT) generated from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) has been demonstrated by a number of research groups. One challenge with an MRI-alone workflow is the accurate identification of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers, which are frequently used for prostate localization prior to each dose delivery fraction. This paper investigates a template-matching approach for the detection of these seeds in MRI. Methods: Two different gradient echo T1 and T2* weighted MRI sequences were acquired from fifteen prostate cancer patients and evaluated for seed detection. For training, seed templates from manual contours were selected in a spectral clustering manifold learning framework. This aids in clustering “similar” gold fiducial markers together. The marker with the minimum distance to a cluster centroid was selected as the representative template of that cluster during training. During testing, Gaussian mixture modeling followed by a Markovian model was used in automatic detection of the probable candidates. The probable candidates were rigidly registered to the templates identified from spectral clustering, and a similarity metric is computed for ranking and detection. Results: A fiducial detection accuracy of 95% was obtained compared to manual observations. Expert radiation therapist observers were able to correctly identify all three implanted seeds on 11 of the 15 scans (the proposed method correctly identified all seeds on 10 of the 15). Conclusions: An novel automatic framework for gold fiducial marker detection in MRI is proposed and evaluated with detection accuracies comparable to manual detection. When radiation therapists are unable to determine the seed location in MRI, they refer back to the planning CT (only available in the existing clinical framework); similarly, an automatic quality control is built into the automatic software to ensure that all gold

  10. Sucrose acetate isobutyrate-based nanogels as liquid fiducial tissue markers with potential use in image guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Linda Maria; Schaarup-Jensen, Henrik; Jølck, Rasmus Irming

    The poster presents the development of a liquid fiducial tissue marker based on sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) and uniform, coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The PNIPAM-coated AuNP-SAIB gel provided high CT contrast and high in vivo stability and was assessed to be a suitable tissue marker f...

  11. Clinical results from first use of prostate stent as fiducial for radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane (Dept. of Medical Physics, Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)), e-mail: jhc@rn.dk; Holmberg, Mats (Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)); Larsen, Erik Hoejkjaer; Fabrin, Knud (Dept. of Urology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)); Fisker, Rune V. (Dept. of Radiology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    Purpose. A clinical feasibility study using a removable prostate stent as fiducial for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of localized prostate cancer (PC). Material and methods. The study included patients with local or locally advanced PC. The clinical target volume (CTV) was outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images co-registered to planning computer tomography (CT) images. Daily online IGRT was delivered using the stent as fiducial. Risk of migration was estimated using multiple MR. Acute urinary toxicity was scored using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Late gastro-intestinal (GI) and genito-urinary (GU) toxicity was scored using the Radio Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, biochemical failure (BF) was defined as an elevation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) above nadir plus 2 ng/ml after radiotherapy. Results. One hundred men were enrolled in the study. Ninety completed radiotherapy with the stent as fiducial. No migration of the stent was seen, but three cases of dislocation of the stent to the bladder were observed. Acute urinary toxicity based on IPSS was comparable to toxicity in patients who had gold markers (GM) as fiducials. Removal of the stent was associated with a high frequency of urinary retention. Late GI and GU toxicity and BF were comparable to those of other studies, but longer observation time is needed. Conclusions. This study reports the first clinical results of using a prostate stent as fiducial. No migration of the stent observed. Dislocation of the stent to the urinary bladder was observed in three cases, requiring removal of the stent and insertion of a new fiducial. Acute toxicity during radiotherapy evaluated from IPSS was comparable to toxicity in patients with GM. Removal of the stent was associated with a high frequency of post procedural urinary retention. Late toxicity and BF were comparable to those of other studies, though longer observation time is needed

  12. Clinical results from first use of prostate stent as fiducial for radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Holmberg, Mats; Larsen, Erik Hoejkjaer; Fabrin, Knud; Fisker, Rune V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. A clinical feasibility study using a removable prostate stent as fiducial for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of localized prostate cancer (PC). Material and methods. The study included patients with local or locally advanced PC. The clinical target volume (CTV) was outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images co-registered to planning computer tomography (CT) images. Daily online IGRT was delivered using the stent as fiducial. Risk of migration was estimated using multiple MR. Acute urinary toxicity was scored using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Late gastro-intestinal (GI) and genito-urinary (GU) toxicity was scored using the Radio Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, biochemical failure (BF) was defined as an elevation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) above nadir plus 2 ng/ml after radiotherapy. Results. One hundred men were enrolled in the study. Ninety completed radiotherapy with the stent as fiducial. No migration of the stent was seen, but three cases of dislocation of the stent to the bladder were observed. Acute urinary toxicity based on IPSS was comparable to toxicity in patients who had gold markers (GM) as fiducials. Removal of the stent was associated with a high frequency of urinary retention. Late GI and GU toxicity and BF were comparable to those of other studies, but longer observation time is needed. Conclusions. This study reports the first clinical results of using a prostate stent as fiducial. No migration of the stent observed. Dislocation of the stent to the urinary bladder was observed in three cases, requiring removal of the stent and insertion of a new fiducial. Acute toxicity during radiotherapy evaluated from IPSS was comparable to toxicity in patients with GM. Removal of the stent was associated with a high frequency of post procedural urinary retention. Late toxicity and BF were comparable to those of other studies, though longer observation time is needed

  13. Clinical results from first use of prostate stent as fiducial for radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Holmberg, Mats; Larsen, Erik Hoejkjaer; Fabrin, Knud; Fisker, Rune V

    2011-05-01

    A clinical feasibility study using a removable prostate stent as fiducial for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of localized prostate cancer (PC). The study included patients with local or locally advanced PC. The clinical target volume (CTV) was outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images co-registered to planning computer tomography (CT) images. Daily online IGRT was delivered using the stent as fiducial. Risk of migration was estimated using multiple MR. Acute urinary toxicity was scored using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Late gastro-intestinal (GI) and genito-urinary (GU) toxicity was scored using the Radio Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, biochemical failure (BF) was defined as an elevation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) above nadir plus 2 ng/ml after radiotherapy. One hundred men were enrolled in the study. Ninety completed radiotherapy with the stent as fiducial. No migration of the stent was seen, but three cases of dislocation of the stent to the bladder were observed. Acute urinary toxicity based on IPSS was comparable to toxicity in patients who had gold markers (GM) as fiducials. Removal of the stent was associated with a high frequency of urinary retention. Late GI and GU toxicity and BF were comparable to those of other studies, but longer observation time is needed. This study reports the first clinical results of using a prostate stent as fiducial. No migration of the stent observed. Dislocation of the stent to the urinary bladder was observed in three cases, requiring removal of the stent and insertion of a new fiducial. Acute toxicity during radiotherapy evaluated from IPSS was comparable to toxicity in patients with GM. Removal of the stent was associated with a high frequency of post procedural urinary retention. Late toxicity and BF were comparable to those of other studies, though longer observation time is needed.

  14. On a laser beam fiducial line application for metrological purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, V.; Budagov, J.; Lyablin, M.; Rusakovich, N.; Sisakyan, A.; Topilin, N.; Khubua, J.; Lasseur, C.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of a collimated one-mode laser beam used as a fiducial line is considered. The technology of an 'extended' laser beam formation and application for a much extended fiducial line is proposed

  15. SU-F-P-30: Clinical Assessment of Auto Beam-Hold Triggered by Fiducial Localization During Prostate RapidArc Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, P; Chen, Q [Flower Hospital, Sylvania, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the clinical efficacy of auto beam hold during prostate RapidArc delivery, triggered by fiducial localization on kV imaging with a Varian True Beam. Methods: Prostate patients with four gold fiducials were candidates in this study. Daily setup was accomplished by aligning to fiducials using orthogonal kV imaging. During RapidArc delivery, a kV image was automatically acquired with a momentary beam hold every 60 degrees of gantry rotation. The position of each fiducial was identified by a search algorithm and compared to a predetermined 1.4 cm diameter target area. Treatment continued if all the fiducials were within the target area. If any fiducial was outside the target area the beam hold was not released, and the operators determined if the patient needed re-alignment using the daily setup method. Results: Four patients were initially selected. For three patients, the auto beam hold performed seamlessly. In one instance, the system correctly identified misaligned fiducials, stopped treatment, and the patient was re-positioned. The fourth patient had a prosthetic hip which sometimes blocked the fiducials and caused the fiducial search algorithm to fail. The auto beam hold was disabled for this patient and the therapists manually monitored the fiducial positions during treatment. Average delivery time for a 2-arc fraction was increased by 59 seconds. Phantom studies indicated the dose discrepancy related to multiple beam holds is <0.1%. For a plan with 43 fractions, the additional imaging increased dose by an estimated 68 cGy. Conclusion: Automated intrafraction kV imaging can effectively perform auto beam holds due to patient movement, with the exception of prosthetic hip patients. The additional imaging dose and delivery time are clinically acceptable. It may be a cost-effective alternative to Calypso in RapidArc prostate patient delivery. Further study is warranted to explore its feasibility under various clinical conditions.

  16. SU-F-P-30: Clinical Assessment of Auto Beam-Hold Triggered by Fiducial Localization During Prostate RapidArc Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, P; Chen, Q

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical efficacy of auto beam hold during prostate RapidArc delivery, triggered by fiducial localization on kV imaging with a Varian True Beam. Methods: Prostate patients with four gold fiducials were candidates in this study. Daily setup was accomplished by aligning to fiducials using orthogonal kV imaging. During RapidArc delivery, a kV image was automatically acquired with a momentary beam hold every 60 degrees of gantry rotation. The position of each fiducial was identified by a search algorithm and compared to a predetermined 1.4 cm diameter target area. Treatment continued if all the fiducials were within the target area. If any fiducial was outside the target area the beam hold was not released, and the operators determined if the patient needed re-alignment using the daily setup method. Results: Four patients were initially selected. For three patients, the auto beam hold performed seamlessly. In one instance, the system correctly identified misaligned fiducials, stopped treatment, and the patient was re-positioned. The fourth patient had a prosthetic hip which sometimes blocked the fiducials and caused the fiducial search algorithm to fail. The auto beam hold was disabled for this patient and the therapists manually monitored the fiducial positions during treatment. Average delivery time for a 2-arc fraction was increased by 59 seconds. Phantom studies indicated the dose discrepancy related to multiple beam holds is <0.1%. For a plan with 43 fractions, the additional imaging increased dose by an estimated 68 cGy. Conclusion: Automated intrafraction kV imaging can effectively perform auto beam holds due to patient movement, with the exception of prosthetic hip patients. The additional imaging dose and delivery time are clinically acceptable. It may be a cost-effective alternative to Calypso in RapidArc prostate patient delivery. Further study is warranted to explore its feasibility under various clinical conditions.

  17. SU-E-J-37: Feasibility of Utilizing Carbon Fiducials to Increase Localization Accuracy of Lumpectomy Cavity for Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Hieken, T; Mutter, R; Park, S; Yan, E; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy of lumpectomy cavity for partial breast irradiation (PBI). Methods Carbon fiducials were placed intraoperatively in the lumpectomy cavity following resection of breast cancer in 11 patients. The patients were scheduled to receive whole breast irradiation (WBI) with a boost or 3D-conformal PBI. WBI patients were initially setup to skin tattoos using lasers, followed by orthogonal kV on-board-imaging (OBI) matching to bone per clinical practice. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was acquired weekly for offline review. For the boost component of WBI and PBI, patients were setup with lasers, followed by OBI matching to fiducials, with final alignment by CBCT matching to fiducials. Using carbon fiducials as a surrogate for the lumpectomy cavity and CBCT matching to fiducials as the gold standard, setup uncertainties to lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials, and CBCT breast were compared. Results Minimal imaging artifacts were introduced by fiducials on the planning CT and CBCT. The fiducials were sufficiently visible on OBI for online localization. The mean magnitude and standard deviation of setup errors were 8.4mm ± 5.3 mm (n=84), 7.3mm ± 3.7mm (n=87), 2.2mm ± 1.6mm (n=40) and 4.8mm ± 2.6mm (n=87), for lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials and CBCT breast tissue, respectively. Significant migration occurred in one of 39 implanted fiducials in a patient with a large postoperative seroma. Conclusion OBI carbon fiducial-based setup can improve localization accuracy with minimal imaging artifacts. With increased localization accuracy, setup uncertainties can be reduced from 8mm using OBI bone matching to 3mm using OBI fiducial matching for PBI treatment. This work demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy to the lumpectomy cavity for PBI. This may be particularly attractive for localization in the setting of proton therapy and other scenarios

  18. SU-E-J-37: Feasibility of Utilizing Carbon Fiducials to Increase Localization Accuracy of Lumpectomy Cavity for Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Hieken, T; Mutter, R; Park, S; Yan, E; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy of lumpectomy cavity for partial breast irradiation (PBI). Methods Carbon fiducials were placed intraoperatively in the lumpectomy cavity following resection of breast cancer in 11 patients. The patients were scheduled to receive whole breast irradiation (WBI) with a boost or 3D-conformal PBI. WBI patients were initially setup to skin tattoos using lasers, followed by orthogonal kV on-board-imaging (OBI) matching to bone per clinical practice. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was acquired weekly for offline review. For the boost component of WBI and PBI, patients were setup with lasers, followed by OBI matching to fiducials, with final alignment by CBCT matching to fiducials. Using carbon fiducials as a surrogate for the lumpectomy cavity and CBCT matching to fiducials as the gold standard, setup uncertainties to lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials, and CBCT breast were compared. Results Minimal imaging artifacts were introduced by fiducials on the planning CT and CBCT. The fiducials were sufficiently visible on OBI for online localization. The mean magnitude and standard deviation of setup errors were 8.4mm ± 5.3 mm (n=84), 7.3mm ± 3.7mm (n=87), 2.2mm ± 1.6mm (n=40) and 4.8mm ± 2.6mm (n=87), for lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials and CBCT breast tissue, respectively. Significant migration occurred in one of 39 implanted fiducials in a patient with a large postoperative seroma. Conclusion OBI carbon fiducial-based setup can improve localization accuracy with minimal imaging artifacts. With increased localization accuracy, setup uncertainties can be reduced from 8mm using OBI bone matching to 3mm using OBI fiducial matching for PBI treatment. This work demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy to the lumpectomy cavity for PBI. This may be particularly attractive for localization in the setting of proton therapy and other scenarios

  19. Daily online localization using implanted fiducial markers and its impact on planning target volume for carcinoma prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Robin; Nangia, Sapna; Chufal, Kundan S; Ghosh, D; Kaul, Rakesh; Sharma, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study was to assess prostate motion on daily basis with respect to setup and to compare the shifts based on bony anatomy and gold fiducial markers. Gold fiducial markers were inserted in prostate under U/S guidance and daily portal images were taken and compared with digitally reconstructed images, both using bony landmarks and fiducial markers as reference. A dose of 2 MU was given for two orthogonal images daily. The mean and standard deviation of displacement using gold seeds and bone were calculated. Systematic and random errors were generated. The planning target volume (PTV) was calculated using the Van Herk formula. A total of 180 portal images from 10 patients were studied. The mean displacement along x, y and z axes was 1.67 mm, 3.58 mm, and 1.76 mm using fiducial markers and 2.12 mm, 3.47 mm, and 2.09 mm using bony landmarks, respectively. The mean internal organ motion was 1.23 mm (+1.45), 3.11 mm (+2.69 mm); and 1.87 mm (+1.67 mm) along x, y and z axes, respectively. The PTV to account for prostate motion if daily matching was not done was 4.64 mm, 10.41 mm and 4.40 mm along lateral, superoinferior, and anteroposterior directions, respectively. If bony landmarks were used for daily matching, margins of 3.61 mm, 7.31 mm, and 4.72 mm in lateral, superoinferior, and anteroposterior directions should be added to the clinical target volume. Daily alignment using gold fiducial markers is an effective method of localizing prostate displacement. It provides the option of reducing margins, thus limiting normal tissue toxicity and allowing the possibility of dose escalation for better long-term control.

  20. Alternative fiducial markers for Vero real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy: A phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Chul; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of potential fiducial markers consisting of various materials in a Vero real-time tumor-tracking (RTTT) system. In order to determine the applicability of fiducial markers for the Vero RTTT system, we tested various markers consisting of 8 kinds of material (titanium, stainless steel, high-carbon steel, pure steel, copper, silver, tantalum, and gold) with various diameters ranging from 0.3 mm to 1.6 mm and a length of 5 mm. Additionally, a commercial gold coil marker (Visicoil™, IBA dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) of diameter 0.5 mm and length 1 cm was included for evaluation. The radiologic visibility on kV fluoroscopy/kV CT scan images of the fiducial markers was evaluated. The detectability on the RTTT system was tested using a two-dimensional moving phantom (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany), producing sinusoidal motion. The target center's accuracy was evaluated by calculating the deviation of the position of a metal sphere from the center on the dose profile. Dose profiles were measured using Gafchromic EBT2 films (International Specialty Products, NJ, USA). All markers were visible on kV fluoroscopy/kV CT while markers with atomic number ≥ 25.7 were detectable on the Vero RTTT system. All the detected markers showed excellent geometric accuracy.

  1. Global Geodesy Using GPS Without Fiducial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Michael B.; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1994-01-01

    Global Positioning System, GPS, used to make global geodetic measurements without use of fiducial site coordinates. Baseline lengths and geocentric radii for each site determined without having to fix any site coordinates. Given n globally distributed sites, n baseline lengths and n geocentric radii form polyhedron with each site at vertex and with geocenter at intersection of all radii. Geodetic information derived from structure of polyhedron and its change with time. Approach applied to any global geodetic technique.

  2. Dosimetric adaptive IMRT driven by fiducial points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crijns, Wouter; Van Herck, Hans; Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Haustermans, Karin; Slagmolen, Pieter; Maes, Frederik; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy have become standard treatments but are more sensitive to anatomical variations than 3D conformal techniques. To correct for inter- and intrafraction anatomical variations, fast and easy to implement methods are needed. Here, the authors propose a full dosimetric IMRT correction that finds a compromise in-between basic repositioning (the current clinical practice) and full replanning. It simplifies replanning by avoiding a recontouring step and a full dose calculation. It surpasses repositioning by updating the preoptimized fluence and monitor units (MU) using a limited number of fiducial points and a pretreatment (CB)CT. To adapt the fluence the fiducial points were projected in the beam's eye view (BEV). To adapt the MUs, point dose calculation towards the same fiducial points were performed. The proposed method is intrinsically fast and robust, and simple to understand for operators, because of the use of only four fiducial points and the beam data based point dose calculations. Methods: To perform our dosimetric adaptation, two fluence corrections in the BEV are combined with two MU correction steps along the beam's path. (1) A transformation of the fluence map such that it is realigned with the current target geometry. (2) A correction for an unintended scaling of the penumbra margin when the treatment beams scale to the current target size. (3) A correction for the target depth relative to the body contour and (4) a correction for the target distance to the source. The impact of the correction strategy and its individual components was evaluated by simulations on a virtual prostate phantom. This heterogeneous reference phantom was systematically subjected to population based prostate transformations to simulate interfraction variations. Additionally, a patient example illustrated the clinical practice. The correction strategy was evaluated using both dosimetric

  3. Dosimetric adaptive IMRT driven by fiducial points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crijns, Wouter, E-mail: wouter.crijns@uzleuven.be [Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van Herck, Hans [Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) – PSI, Center for the Processing of Speech and Images, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Haustermans, Karin [Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Slagmolen, Pieter [Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) – PSI, Center for the Processing of Speech and Images, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); iMinds-KU Leuven Medical IT Department, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Maes, Frederik [Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) – PSI, Center for the Processing of Speech and Images, KU Leuven and iMinds, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Department of Oncology, MRC-CR-UK Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy have become standard treatments but are more sensitive to anatomical variations than 3D conformal techniques. To correct for inter- and intrafraction anatomical variations, fast and easy to implement methods are needed. Here, the authors propose a full dosimetric IMRT correction that finds a compromise in-between basic repositioning (the current clinical practice) and full replanning. It simplifies replanning by avoiding a recontouring step and a full dose calculation. It surpasses repositioning by updating the preoptimized fluence and monitor units (MU) using a limited number of fiducial points and a pretreatment (CB)CT. To adapt the fluence the fiducial points were projected in the beam's eye view (BEV). To adapt the MUs, point dose calculation towards the same fiducial points were performed. The proposed method is intrinsically fast and robust, and simple to understand for operators, because of the use of only four fiducial points and the beam data based point dose calculations. Methods: To perform our dosimetric adaptation, two fluence corrections in the BEV are combined with two MU correction steps along the beam's path. (1) A transformation of the fluence map such that it is realigned with the current target geometry. (2) A correction for an unintended scaling of the penumbra margin when the treatment beams scale to the current target size. (3) A correction for the target depth relative to the body contour and (4) a correction for the target distance to the source. The impact of the correction strategy and its individual components was evaluated by simulations on a virtual prostate phantom. This heterogeneous reference phantom was systematically subjected to population based prostate transformations to simulate interfraction variations. Additionally, a patient example illustrated the clinical practice. The correction strategy was evaluated using both dosimetric

  4. Intraprostatic fiducials for image guidance: Workflow implications in a single linac department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, Mark; See, Andrew; Rolfo, Aldo; Medwell, Steve; Joon, Michael Lim; Joon, Daryl Lim; Martin, Jarad; Khoo, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy and implications on workflow of an online correction electronic portal imaging (EPI) protocol utilising bony anatomy in the online environment and an assessment of three implanted gold seed fiducial markers in the offline environment. This paper summarises an initial trial to establish the range of systematic and random errors present in patient set-up for both bony anatomy and fiducial markers, and to calculate optimal clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins. The impact of the introduction of such a technique was also assessed in terms of impact on workflow and resource management in a single machine unit (SMU). Methods and materials: Pre treatment electronic portal images (EPIs) were acquired and bony anatomy was matched with CT derived digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Intervention in field placement was made if field placement fell outside the range of 4 mm on any of the orthogonal axes. In the offline environment the position of the implanted gold seed fiducials was aligned with that of the DRRs. An analysis of set-up error, total error and internal organ motion was then undertaken, with full statistical analysis of systematic and random errors. Results: Eleven patients completed treatment as specified, with 1006 EPIs available for analysis. Treatment times were in the order of 10.4 min. Set-up errors were in the order of 2.7 mm right-left, 2.4 mm sup-inf and 1.6 mm ant-pst. These were reduced to 1.2 mm, 0.7 mm and 0.9 mm respectively utilising an online correction protocol. However there was minimal impact on total error and internal organ motion. Using the data obtained in both the online and offline environments optimal CTV-PTV margins were calculated for correcting to bone, correcting to gold seed fiducials and also the possibility of EPI malfunction. Conclusions: Daily targeting of the prostate is both technically feasible and can be carried out in an efficient and accurate manner. An

  5. Automated Identification of Fiducial Points on 3D Torso Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas M. Kawale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast reconstruction is an important part of the breast cancer treatment process for many women. Recently, 2D and 3D images have been used by plastic surgeons for evaluating surgical outcomes. Distances between different fiducial points are frequently used as quantitative measures for characterizing breast morphology. Fiducial points can be directly marked on subjects for direct anthropometry, or can be manually marked on images. This paper introduces novel algorithms to automate the identification of fiducial points in 3D images. Automating the process will make measurements of breast morphology more reliable, reducing the inter- and intra-observer bias. Algorithms to identify three fiducial points, the nipples, sternal notch, and umbilicus, are described. The algorithms used for localization of these fiducial points are formulated using a combination of surface curvature and 2D color information. Comparison of the 3D coordinates of automatically detected fiducial points and those identified manually, and geodesic distances between the fiducial points are used to validate algorithm performance. The algorithms reliably identified the location of all three of the fiducial points. We dedicate this article to our late colleague and friend, Dr. Elisabeth K. Beahm. Elisabeth was both a talented plastic surgeon and physician-scientist; we deeply miss her insight and her fellowship.

  6. A Fiducial Approach to Extremes and Multiple Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandler, Damian V.

    2010-01-01

    Generalized fiducial inference is a powerful tool for many difficult problems. Based on an extension of R. A. Fisher's work, we used generalized fiducial inference for two extreme value problems and a multiple comparison procedure. The first extreme value problem is dealing with the generalized Pareto distribution. The generalized Pareto…

  7. Visibility of solid and liquid fiducial markers used for image-guided radiation therapy on optical coherence tomography: an esophageal phantom study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvehgaran, Pouya; Alderliesten, Tanja; Weda, Jelmer J. A.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Faber, Dirk J.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; van Herk, Marcel B.; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is used in operable and inoperable esophageal cancer patients. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fiducial marker placement allows improved translation of the disease extent on endoscopy to computed tomography (CT) images used for RT planning and enables image-guided RT. However, microscopic tumor extent at the time of RT planning is unknown. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution (10-30µm) imaging modality with the potential for accurately determining the longitudinal disease extent. Visibility of fiducial markers on OCT is crucial for integrating OCT findings with the RT planning CT. We investigated the visibility on OCT (NinePoint Medical, Inc.) of 13 commercially available solid (Visicoil, Gold Anchor, Flexicoil, Polymark, and QLRAD) and liquid (BioXmark, Lipiodol, and Hydrogel) fiducial markers of different diameter. We designed and manufactured a set of dedicated Silicone-based esophageal phantoms to perform imaging in a controlled environment. The esophageal phantoms consist of several layers with different TiO2 concentrations to simulate the scattering properties of a typical healthy human esophagus. Markers were placed at various depths (0.5, 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0mm). OCT imaging allowed detection of all fiducial markers and phantom layers. The signal to background ratio was 6-fold higher for the solid fiducial markers than the liquid fiducial markers, yet OCT was capable of visualizing all 13 fiducial markers at all investigated depths. We conclude that RT fiducial markers can be visualized with OCT. This allows integration of OCT findings with CT for image-guided RT.

  8. Comparison between skin-mounted fiducials and bone-implanted fiducials for image-guided neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Jennifer; Harris, Steven S.; Stefansic, James D.; Sillay, Karl; Galloway, Robert L., Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Point-based registration for image-guided neurosurgery has become the industry standard. While the use of intrinsic points is appealing because of its retrospective nature, affixing extrinsic objects to the head prior to scanning has been demonstrated to provide much more accurate registrations. Points of reference between image space and physical space are called fiducials. The extrinsic objects which generate those points are fiducial markers. The markers can be broken down into two classifications: skin-mounted and bone-implanted. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages. Skin-mounted fiducials require simply sticking them on the patient in locations suggested by the manufacturer, however, they can move with tractions placed on the skin, fall off and perhaps the most dangerous problem, they can be replaced by the patient. Bone implanted markers being rigidly affixed to the skull do not present such problems. However, a minor surgical intervention (analogous to dental work) must be performed to implant the markers prior to surgery. Therefore marker type and use has become a decision point for image-guided surgery. We have performed a series of experiments in an attempt to better quantify aspects of the two types of markers so that better informed decisions can be made. We have created a phantom composed of a full-size plastic skull [Wards Scientific Supply] with a 500 ml bag of saline placed in the brain cavity. The skull was then sealed. A skin mimicking material, DragonSkinTM [SmoothOn Company] was painted onto the surface and allowed to dry. Skin mounted fiducials [Medtronic-SNT] and bone-implanted markers [Z-Kat]were placed on the phantom. In addition, three additional bone-implanted markers were placed (two on the base of the skull and one in the eye socket for use as targets). The markers were imaged in CT and 4 MRI sequences (T1-weighted, T2 weighted, SPGR, and a functional series.) The markers were also located in physical space using an Optotrak

  9. SU-F-J-43: Positional Variation of Implanted Fiducial Markers Over the Course of Image Guided Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S; Jacob, R; Popple, R; Wu, X; Cardan, R; Brezovich, I [University Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Pancreas is a soft-tissue organ, implanted fiducials can change positions due to migration or tissue deformation. This study quantified positional variation of fiducials in IGRT for pancreatic cancer. Methods: 20 patients had at least 3 gold fiducials implanted in pancreas under EUS guidance. Patients had 4D-CT simulation for gated treatment. Daily gated OBI kV images (Turebeam) were used for positional alignment with fiducials for total of 25 or 28 fractions. Relative distances among 3 fiducials (d{sub 1–} {sub 2}, d{sub 1–3}, d{sub 2–3}) were measured from 4D-CT end-of-expiration phase bin; and from gated kV images in first, mid, and last fraction (n=180). Results: The median duration between implant and simulation was 11 (range 0–41) days. The median duration between simulation and first fraction was 17 (range 8–24) days. The median relative distance was 12 (range 4–78) mm for d{sub 1–2}, 24 (range 6–80) mm for d{sub 1–3}, and 19 (range 5–63) mm for d{sub 2–3}. The median deviation was 1 mm for d{sub 1–2}, d{sub 1–3}, d{sub 2–3} between simulation and first fraction, first and mid fraction, mid and last fraction (n=180). Two patients (10%) had deviation >= 5 mm (5, 11 mm) between simulation and first fraction. One patient (5%) had deviation >= 5 mm (11 mm) between first and mid fraction. No patient (0%) had deviation >= 5 mm between mid and last fraction. In all 3 cases with deviation >=5 mm, only one fiducial was significantly deviated. No clear evidence that deviation size was associated with time interval between implant and first fraction. Conclusion: Implanted gold fiducials were quite stable over time in their relative positions in pancreas. Our data suggested at least 3 fiducials are needed. In cases that one fiducial was significantly deviated in daily kV images, this fiducial should be excluded in image guidance.

  10. Assessment of prostate motion during radiotherapy using fiducial markers and CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, J.; Salhani, D.; Yang, H.; Deshaies, Y.; Raymond, Y.; Malone, S.; Esche, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess changes in prostate position during a course of pelvic radiotherapy for prostate cancer using fiducial markers and sequential planning CT scans. Methods and Materials: Three gold seeds are implanted in the apex, base and posterior aspect of the prostate under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance prior to initial simulation. In addition, treatment planning CT scans with 5 mm slices through the prostate are obtained at 0 and 40 Gy. Patients are scanned, simulated and treated with full bladder and are positioned using a standard foam leg support from the knees to the ankles. Prostate movement is assessed by two independent methods: [1] Localization of the fiducial markers using orthogonal simulator films taken just prior to the initial and boost stages of treatment and [2] a three-dimensional reconstruction methodology using CT datasets again obtained prior to the initial and boost stages. In both cases, rigid-body transformations of selected bony landmarks were used to eliminate patient movement between simulations and CT scans. For CT reconstruction, high order polynomial extrapolation and Chebychev multi-domain interpolation methods are employed to determine the coordinates of the fiducial markers. Prostatic movement, between initial and boost imaging, is estimated from the variance of the position of the corresponding seeds. Results: At present, seed data is available for sixty (60) patients. An additional nineteen (19) patients were excluded because of suspected seed migration > 3.0 mm or a localization uncertainty > 1.5 mm. The range of movement seen in the lateral direction is -0.25 to 0.48 cm (mean: 0.11, SD: 0.15), in the cranio-caudal direction -1.57 to 0.64 cm (mean: 0.59 SD: 0.48), and in the antero-posterior direction -1.91 to .47 cm (mean: 0.53, SD: 0.39). Results disclosed 53% of the patients with a caudal shift of the prostate > 0.5 cm and 10% > 1.0 cm. Further, 60% of the patients showed a posterior shift > 0.5 cm and 27% > 1.0 cm. CT

  11. Effects of line fiducial parameters and beamforming on ultrasound calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Ameri, Golafsoun; Baxter, John S. H.; McLeod, A. Jonathan; Peters, Terry M.; Chen, Elvis C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided interventions are often enhanced via integration with an augmented reality environment, a necessary component of which is US calibration. Calibration requires the segmentation of fiducials, i.e., a phantom, in US images. Fiducial localization error (FLE) can decrease US calibration accuracy, which fundamentally affects the total accuracy of the interventional guidance system. Here, we investigate the effects of US image reconstruction techniques as well as phantom mater...

  12. Fiducial-based registration with a touchable region model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungmin; Kazanzides, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Image-guided surgery requires registration between an image coordinate system and an intraoperative coordinate system that is typically referenced to a tracking device. In fiducial-based registration methods, this is achieved by localizing points (fiducials) in each coordinate system. Often, both localizations are performed manually, first by picking a fiducial point in the image and then by using a hand-held tracked pointer to physically touch the corresponding fiducial on the patient. These manual procedures introduce localization error that is user-dependent and can significantly decrease registration accuracy. Thus, there is a need for a registration method that is tolerant of imprecise fiducial localization in the preoperative and intraoperative phases. We propose the iterative closest touchable point (ICTP) registration framework, which uses model-based localization and a touchable region model. This method consists of three stages: (1) fiducial marker localization in image space, using a fiducial marker model, (2) initial registration with paired-point registration, and (3) fine registration based on the iterative closest point method. We perform phantom experiments with a fiducial marker design that is commonly used in neurosurgery. The results demonstrate that ICTP can provide accuracy improvements compared to the standard paired-point registration method that is widely used for surgical navigation and surgical robot systems, especially in cases where the surgeon introduces large localization errors. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the effect of the surgeon's localization performance on the accuracy of registration, thereby producing more consistent and less user-dependent registration outcomes.

  13. Planning and implementing an implanted fiducial programme for prostate cancer radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.; Owen, R.; Laferlita, M.; Fox, C.; Foroudi, F.; Tai, K. H.; Styles, C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Using implanted gold seeds as fiducial markers to verify the position of the prostate in radiation therapy is well accepted and is becoming the standard of practice and requirement for international multicentre trials. In 2006 the decision was made at the Peter MacCallum Caner Centre (Peter Mac) to plan for and implement this process as standard clinical practice for radical dose prostate treatments (74-78 Gy). Before this, programme verification of field placement for prostate cancer radiation treatment was routinely carried out using regular off-line electronic portal imaging with matching of bony anatomy. A small multidisciplinary team investigated and assisted in the implementation of this new practice across the Peter Mac sites at East Melbourne and our three satellite centres. Issues considered included seed size, number and position in the prostate, implant equipment, imaging equipment and procedure and consent and information forms. The use of a custom made fiducial pack, comprehensive patient information and a daily on-line imaging process was implemented. The experience of the first 28 patients at Peter Mac from January 2007 to May 2007 inclusive is reported on.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of the dosimetric impact of radiopaque fiducial markers for proton radiotherapy of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne; Fontenot, Jonas; Koch, Nicholas; Dong, Lei; Lee, Andrew; Zheng, Yuanshui; Waters, Laurie; Mohan, Radhe

    2007-06-01

    Many clinical studies have demonstrated that implanted radiopaque fiducial markers improve targeting accuracy in external-beam radiotherapy, but little is known about the dose perturbations these markers may cause in patients receiving proton radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine what types of implantable markers are visible in setup radiographs and, at the same time, perturb the therapeutic proton dose to the prostate by less than 10%. The radiographic visibility of the markers was assessed by visual inspection of lateral setup radiographs of a pelvic phantom using a kilovoltage x-ray imaging system. The fiducial-induced perturbations in the proton dose were estimated with Monte Carlo simulations. The influence of marker material, size, placement depth and orientation within the pelvis was examined. The radiographic tests confirmed that gold and stainless steel markers were clearly visible and that titanium markers were not. The Monte Carlo simulations revealed that titanium and stainless steel markers minimally perturbed the proton beam, but gold markers cast unacceptably large dose shadows. A 0.9 mm diameter, 3.1 mm long cylindrical stainless steel marker provides good radiographic visibility yet perturbs the proton dose distribution in the prostate by less than 8% when using a parallel opposed lateral beam arrangement.

  15. Limited Role for Biliary Stent as Surrogate Fiducial Marker in Pancreatic Cancer: Stent and Intratumoral Fiducials Compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, Astrid van der, E-mail: a.vanderhorst@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lens, Eelco; Wognum, Silvia; Jong, Rianne de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hooft, Jeanin E. van [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Because of low soft-tissue contrast of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), fiducial markers are often used for radiation therapy patient setup verification. For pancreatic cancer patients, biliary stents have been suggested as surrogate fiducials. Using intratumoral fiducials as standard for tumor position, this study aims to quantify the suitability of biliary stents for measuring interfractional and respiratory-induced position variations of pancreatic tumors. Methods and Materials: Eleven pancreatic cancer patients with intratumoral fiducials and a biliary stent were included in this study. Daily CBCT scans (243 in total) were registered with a reference CT scan, based on bony anatomy, on fiducial markers, and on the biliary stent, respectively. We analyzed the differences in tumor position (ie, markers center-of-mass position) among these 3 registrations. In addition, we measured for 9 patients the magnitude of respiratory-induced motion (MM) of the markers and of the stent on 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and determined the difference between these 2 magnitudes (ΔMM). Results: The stent indicated tumor position better than bony anatomy in 67% of fractions; the absolute difference between the markers and stent registration was >5 mm in 46% of fractions and >10 mm in 20% of fractions. Large PTV margins (superior-inferior direction, >19 mm) would be needed to account for this interfractional position variability. On 4DCT, we found in superior-inferior direction a mean ΔMM of 0.5 mm (range, –2.6 to 4.2 mm). Conclusions: For respiratory-induced motion, the mean ΔMM is small, but for individual patients the absolute difference can be >4 mm. For interfractional position variations, a stent is, on average, a better surrogate fiducial than bony anatomy, but large PTV margins would still be required. Therefore, intratumoral fiducials are recommended for online setup verification for all pancreatic patients scheduled for radiation therapy, including

  16. Deformation of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles Relative to Intraprostatic Fiducial Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Mutanga, Theodore F.; Incrocci, Luca; Kirkels, Wim J.; Vasquez Osorio, Eliana M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Boer, Hans C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the residual geometric uncertainties after on-line corrections with intraprostatic fiducial markers, this study analyzed the deformation of the prostate and, in particular, the seminal vesicles relative to such markers. Patients and Methods: A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and three repeat CT scans were obtained for 21 prostate cancer patients who had had three to four cylindrical gold markers placed. The prostate and whole seminal vesicles (clinical target volume [CTV]) were delineated on each scan at a slice thickness of 1.5 mm. Rigid body transformations (translation and rotation) mapping the markers onto the planning scan positions were obtained. The translation only (T only ) or both translation and rotation were applied to the delineated CTVs. Next, the residue CTV surface displacements were determined using nonrigid registration of the delineated contours. For translation and rotation of the CTV, the residues represented deformation; for T only , the residues stemmed from deformation and rotation. T only represented the residues for most currently applied on-line protocols. The patient and population statistics of the CTV surface displacements were calculated. The intraobserver delineation variation was similarly quantified using repeat delineations for all patients and corrected for. Results: The largest CTV deformations were observed at the anterior and posterior side of the seminal vesicles (population average standard deviation ≤3 mm). Prostate deformation was small (standard deviation ≤1 mm). The increase in these deviations when neglecting rotation (T only ) was small. Conclusion: Although prostate deformation with respect to implanted fiducial markers was small, the corresponding deformation of the seminal vesicles was considerable. Adding marker-based rotational corrections to on-line translation corrections provided a limited reduction in the estimated planning margins

  17. A Fiducial Reference Stie for Satellite Altimetry in Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Bojkov, Bojan; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonqueres, Jean-Damien; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system.This work sets the ground for the establishment of a Fiducial Reference Site for ESA satellite altimetry in Gavdos and West Crete, Greece. It will consistently and reliably determine (a) absolute altimeter biases and their drifts; (b) relative bias among diverse missions; but also (c) continuously and independently connect different missions, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any satellite altimeter measurements to known, controlled and absolute reference signals with different techniques, processes and instrumentation.

  18. Urethral catheterization facilitates preradiation fiducial marker placement in postprostatectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher; Costa, Joseph; Mandia, Stephen; Henderson, Randal; Marino, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy

    2012-05-01

    Surgical absence of the prostate can make placement of fiducial markers difficult, because anatomic landmarks are distorted and there is a paucity of substantial tissue to hold fast the markers. We describe a method for improving the accuracy of fiducial marker placement for the purpose of salvage or adjuvant external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer in patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy. To assist with identification of the urethrovesical junction and to facilitate placement of the markers, a Foley catheter was placed and the balloon was inflated. Gentle traction on the catheter seated the balloon at the bladder neck to echographically define the anatomy of the urethrovesical junction. Next, a rectal ultrasound probe was inserted into the rectum, allowing visualization of the region of the urethrovesical junction. Fiducial markers were then placed bilaterally in the detrusor muscle at the bladder neck or in the periurethral tissue using the applicator needle. The treating radiation oncologist verified that marker placement was suitable for assisting with radiation therapy in all cases. Preradiation pelvic imaging verified that markers were not in the bladder or urethral lumen, and there were no patient complaints of voiding out the markers with urination.

  19. WE-AB-303-05: Breathing Motion of Liver Segments From Fiducial Tracking During Robotic Radiosurgery and Comparison with 4D-CT-Derived Fiducial Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J; Pantarotto, J; Nair, V; Cook, G; Plourde, M; Vandervoort, E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify respiratory-induced motion of liver segments using the positions of implanted fiducials during robotic radiosurgery. This study also compared fiducial motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) maximum intensity projections (MIP) with motion derived from imaging during treatment. Methods: Forty-two consecutive liver patients treated with liver ablative radiotherapy were accrued to an ethics approved retrospective study. The liver segment in which each fiducial resided was identified. Fiducial positions throughout each treatment fraction were determined using orthogonal kilovoltage images. Any data due to patient repositioning or motion was removed. Mean fiducial positions were calculated. Fiducial positions beyond two standard deviations of the mean were discarded and remaining positions were fit to a line segment using least squares minimization (LSM). For eight patients, fiducial motion was derived from 4D-CT MIPs by calculating the CT number weighted mean position of the fiducial on each slice and fitting a line segment to these points using LSM. Treatment derived fiducial trajectories were corrected for patient rotation and compared to MIP derived trajectories. Results: The mean total magnitude of fiducial motion across all liver segments in left-right, anteroposterior, and superoinferior (SI) directions were 3.0 ± 0.2 mm, 9.3 ± 0.4 mm, and 20.5 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. Differences in per-segment mean fiducial motion were found with SI motion ranging from 12.6 ± 0.8 mm to 22.6 ± 0.9 mm for segments 3 and 8, respectively. Large, varied differences between treatment and MIP derived motion at simulation were found with the mean difference for SI motion being 2.6 mm (10.8 mm standard deviation). Conclusion: The magnitude of liver fiducial motion was found to differ by liver segment. MIP derived liver fiducial motion differed from motion observed during treatment, implying that 4D-CTs may not accurately capture the

  20. WE-AB-303-05: Breathing Motion of Liver Segments From Fiducial Tracking During Robotic Radiosurgery and Comparison with 4D-CT-Derived Fiducial Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J; Pantarotto, J; Nair, V; Cook, G; Plourde, M; Vandervoort, E [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify respiratory-induced motion of liver segments using the positions of implanted fiducials during robotic radiosurgery. This study also compared fiducial motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) maximum intensity projections (MIP) with motion derived from imaging during treatment. Methods: Forty-two consecutive liver patients treated with liver ablative radiotherapy were accrued to an ethics approved retrospective study. The liver segment in which each fiducial resided was identified. Fiducial positions throughout each treatment fraction were determined using orthogonal kilovoltage images. Any data due to patient repositioning or motion was removed. Mean fiducial positions were calculated. Fiducial positions beyond two standard deviations of the mean were discarded and remaining positions were fit to a line segment using least squares minimization (LSM). For eight patients, fiducial motion was derived from 4D-CT MIPs by calculating the CT number weighted mean position of the fiducial on each slice and fitting a line segment to these points using LSM. Treatment derived fiducial trajectories were corrected for patient rotation and compared to MIP derived trajectories. Results: The mean total magnitude of fiducial motion across all liver segments in left-right, anteroposterior, and superoinferior (SI) directions were 3.0 ± 0.2 mm, 9.3 ± 0.4 mm, and 20.5 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. Differences in per-segment mean fiducial motion were found with SI motion ranging from 12.6 ± 0.8 mm to 22.6 ± 0.9 mm for segments 3 and 8, respectively. Large, varied differences between treatment and MIP derived motion at simulation were found with the mean difference for SI motion being 2.6 mm (10.8 mm standard deviation). Conclusion: The magnitude of liver fiducial motion was found to differ by liver segment. MIP derived liver fiducial motion differed from motion observed during treatment, implying that 4D-CTs may not accurately capture the

  1. Robust fluoroscopic tracking of fiducial markers: exploiting the spatial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rui; Sharp, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Two new fluoroscopic fiducial tracking methods that exploit the spatial relationship among the multiple implanted fiducial to achieve fast, accurate and robust tracking are proposed in this paper. The spatial relationship between multiple implanted markers are modeled as Gaussian distributions of their pairwise distances over time. The means and standard deviations of these distances are learned from training sequences, and pairwise distances that deviate from these learned distributions are assigned a low spatial matching score. The spatial constraints are incorporated in two different algorithms: a stochastic tracking method and a detection based method. In the stochastic method, hypotheses of the ‘true’ fiducial position are sampled from a pre-trained respiration motion model. Each hypothesis is assigned an importance value based on image matching score and spatial matching score. Learning the parameters of the motion model is needed in addition to learning the distribution parameters of the pairwise distances in the proposed stochastic tracking approach. In the detection based method, a set of possible marker locations are identified by using a template matching based fiducial detector. The best location is obtained by optimizing the image matching score and spatial matching score through non-serial dynamic programming. In this detection based approach, there is no need to learn the respiration motion model. The two proposed algorithms are compared with a recent work using a multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithm which is denoted by MHT, Tang et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 4081–98). Phantom experiments were performed using fluoroscopic videos captured with known motion relative to an anthropomorphic phantom. The patient experiments were performed using a retrospective study of 16 fluoroscopic videos of liver cancer patients with implanted fiducials. For the motion phantom data sets, the detection based approach has the smallest tracking error (

  2. Line fiducial material and thickness considerations for ultrasound calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Golafsoun; McLeod, A. J.; Baxter, John S. H.; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Peters, Terry M.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound calibration is a necessary procedure in many image-guided interventions, relating the position of tools and anatomical structures in the ultrasound image to a common coordinate system. This is a necessary component of augmented reality environments in image-guided interventions as it allows for a 3D visualization where other surgical tools outside the imaging plane can be found. Accuracy of ultrasound calibration fundamentally affects the total accuracy of this interventional guidance system. Many ultrasound calibration procedures have been proposed based on a variety of phantom materials and geometries. These differences lead to differences in representation of the phantom on the ultrasound image which subsequently affect the ability to accurately and automatically segment the phantom. For example, taut wires are commonly used as line fiducials in ultrasound calibration. However, at large depths or oblique angles, the fiducials appear blurred and smeared in ultrasound images making it hard to localize their cross-section with the ultrasound image plane. Intuitively, larger diameter phantoms with lower echogenicity are more accurately segmented in ultrasound images in comparison to highly reflective thin phantoms. In this work, an evaluation of a variety of calibration phantoms with different geometrical and material properties for the phantomless calibration procedure was performed. The phantoms used in this study include braided wire, plastic straws, and polyvinyl alcohol cryogel tubes with different diameters. Conventional B-mode and synthetic aperture images of the phantoms at different positions were obtained. The phantoms were automatically segmented from the ultrasound images using an ellipse fitting algorithm, the centroid of which is subsequently used as a fiducial for calibration. Calibration accuracy was evaluated for these procedures based on the leave-one-out target registration error. It was shown that larger diameter phantoms with lower

  3. Infections after fiducial marker implantation for prostate radiotherapy: are we underestimating the risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Jasmin; Baker, Katie; Sridharan, Swetha; Greer, Peter; Wratten, Chris; Capp, Anne; Gallagher, Sarah; Martin, Jarad

    2015-01-01

    The use of gold fiducial markers (FM) for prostate image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is standard practice. Published literature suggests low rates of serious infection following this procedure of 0-1.3%, but this may be an underestimate. We aim to report on the infection incidence and severity associated with the use of transrectally implanted intraprostatic gold FM. Three hundred and fifty-nine patients who underwent transrectal FM insertion between January 2012 and December 2013 were assessed retrospectively via a self-reported questionnaire. All had standard oral fluoroquinolone antibiotic prophylaxis. The patients were asked about infective symptoms and the treatment received including antibiotics and/or related hospital admissions. Potential infective events were confirmed through medical records. 285 patients (79.4%) completed the questionnaire. 77 (27.0%) patients experienced increased urinary frequency and dysuria, and 33 patients (11.6%) reported episodes of chills and fevers after the procedure. 22 patients (7.7%) reported receiving antibiotics for urinary infection and eight patients (2.8%) reported hospital admission for urosepsis related to the procedure. The overall rate of symptomatic infection with FM implantation in this study is 7.7%, with one third requiring hospital admission. This exceeds the reported rates in other FM implantation series, but is in keeping with the larger prostate biopsy literature. Given the higher than expected complication rate, a risk-adaptive approach may be helpful. Where higher accuracy is important such as stereotactic prostate radiotherapy, the benefits of FM may still outweigh the risks. For others, a non-invasive approach for prostate IGRT such as cone-beam CT could be considered. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0347-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  4. Effects of line fiducial parameters and beamforming on ultrasound calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Golafsoun; Baxter, John S H; McLeod, A Jonathan; Peters, Terry M; Chen, Elvis C S

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided interventions are often enhanced via integration with an augmented reality environment, a necessary component of which is US calibration. Calibration requires the segmentation of fiducials, i.e., a phantom, in US images. Fiducial localization error (FLE) can decrease US calibration accuracy, which fundamentally affects the total accuracy of the interventional guidance system. Here, we investigate the effects of US image reconstruction techniques as well as phantom material and geometry on US calibration. It was shown that the FLE was reduced by 29% with synthetic transmit aperture imaging compared with conventional B-mode imaging in a Z-bar calibration, resulting in a 10% reduction of calibration error. In addition, an evaluation of a variety of calibration phantoms with different geometrical and material properties was performed. The phantoms included braided wire, plastic straws, and polyvinyl alcohol cryogel tubes with different diameters. It was shown that these properties have a significant effect on calibration error, which is a variable based on US beamforming techniques. These results would have important implications for calibration procedures and their feasibility in the context of image-guided procedures.

  5. Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Bebu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT, and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates.

  6. Evaluation of an infrared camera and X-ray system using implanted fiducials in patients with lung tumors for gated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willoughby, Twyla R.; Forbes, Alan R.; Buchholz, Daniel; Langen, Katja M.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Zeidan, Omar A.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the initial clinical use of a commercially available system to deliver gated treatment using implanted fiducials, in-room kV X-rays, and an infrared camera tracking system. Methods and Materials: ExacTrac Adaptive Gating from BrainLab is a localization system using infrared cameras and X-rays. Gating signals are the patient's breathing pattern obtained from infrared reflectors on the patient. kV X-rays of an implanted fiducial are synchronized to the breathing pattern. After localization and shift of the patient to isocenter, the breathing pattern is used to gate Radiation. Feasibility tests included localization accuracy, radiation output constancy, and dose distributions with gating. Clinical experience is reported on treatment of patients with small lung lesions. Results: Localization accuracy of a moving target with gating was 1.7 mm. Dose constancy measurements showed insignificant change in output with gating. Improvements of dose distributions on moving targets improved with gating. Eleven patients with lung lesions were implanted with 20 mm x 0.7 mm gold coil (Visicoil). The implanted fiducial was used to localize and treat the patients with gating. Treatment planning and repeat computed tomographic scans showed that the change in center of gross target volume (GTV) to implanted marker averaged 2.47 mm due in part to asymmetric tumor shrinkage. Conclusion: ExacTrac Adaptive Gating has been used to treat lung lesions. Initial system evaluation verified its accuracy and usability. Implanted fiducials are visible in X-rays and did not migrate

  7. Quantification and comparison of visibility and image artifacts of a new liquid fiducial marker in a lung phantom for image-guided radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydhög, Jonas Scherman; Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    fiducial marker, four solid fiducial markers, and one existing liquid fiducial marker. Additionally, the image artifacts produced on computer tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) of all fiducial markers were quantified. Results : The authors found that the new liquid fiducial marker with the highest...... concentration of the radio-opaque component had a CNR > 2.05 for 62/63 exposures, which compared favorably to the existing solid fiducial markers and to the existing liquid fiducial marker evaluated. On CT and CBCT, the new liquid fiducial marker with the highest concentration produced lower streaking index...

  8. Method comparison of ultrasound and kilovoltage x-ray fiducial marker imaging for prostate radiotherapy targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Clifton David; Jr, Charles R Thomas; Schwartz, Scott; Golden, Nanalei; Ting, Joe; Wong, Adrian; Erdogmus, Deniz; Scarbrough, Todd J

    2006-01-01

    Several measurement techniques have been developed to address the capability for target volume reduction via target localization in image-guided radiotherapy; among these have been ultrasound (US) and fiducial marker (FM) software-assisted localization. In order to assess interchangeability between methods, US and FM localization were compared using established techniques for determination of agreement between measurement methods when a 'gold-standard' comparator does not exist, after performing both techniques daily on a sequential series of patients. At least 3 days prior to CT simulation, four gold seeds were placed within the prostate. FM software-assisted localization utilized the ExacTrac X-Ray 6D (BrainLab AG, Germany) kVp x-ray image acquisition system to determine prostate position; US prostate targeting was performed on each patient using the SonArray (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Patients were aligned daily using laser alignment of skin marks. Directional shifts were then calculated by each respective system in the X, Y and Z dimensions before each daily treatment fraction, previous to any treatment or couch adjustment, as well as a composite vector of displacement. Directional shift agreement in each axis was compared using Altman-Bland limits of agreement, Lin's concordance coefficient with Partik's grading schema, and Deming orthogonal bias-weighted correlation methodology. 1019 software-assisted shifts were suggested by US and FM in 39 patients. The 95% limits of agreement in X, Y and Z axes were ±9.4 mm, ±11.3 mm and ±13.4, respectively. Three-dimensionally, measurements agreed within 13.4 mm in 95% of all paired measures. In all axes, concordance was graded as 'poor' or 'unacceptable'. Deming regression detected proportional bias in both directional axes and three-dimensional vectors. Our data suggest substantial differences between US and FM image-guided measures and subsequent suggested directional shifts. Analysis reveals that the vast majority of

  9. The significance test controversy revisited the fiducial Bayesian alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoutre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book is not only to revisit the “significance test controversy,”but also to provide a conceptually sounder alternative. As such, it presents a Bayesian framework for a new approach to analyzing and interpreting experimental data. It also prepares students and researchers for reporting on experimental results. Normative aspects: The main views of statistical tests are revisited and the philosophies of Fisher, Neyman-Pearson and Jeffrey are discussed in detail. Descriptive aspects: The misuses of Null Hypothesis Significance Tests are reconsidered in light of Jeffreys’ Bayesian conceptions concerning the role of statistical inference in experimental investigations. Prescriptive aspects: The current effect size and confidence interval reporting practices are presented and seriously questioned. Methodological aspects are carefully discussed and fiducial Bayesian methods are proposed as a more suitable alternative for reporting on experimental results. In closing, basic routine procedures...

  10. Effects of rotation and systematic occlusion on fiducial marker recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagitov Artur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiducial marker systems consist of patterns that are placed in environment for miscellaneous applications and are further automatically detected with cameras. A variety of applications determines the criteria, which characterize qualitative properties of a marker and include such evaluation benchmarks as resilience to occlusion, distance to a marker, false positive and false negative rates, sensitivity to illumination, and others. The paper compares existing ARTag, AprilTag, and CALTag systems utilizing a high fidelity camera, which is a main vision sensor of a full-size Russian humanoid robot AR-601M. In experiments the comparison of the three marker systems reliability and detection rate in occlusions of various types and intensities was verified. Finally, a preferable for AR-601M robot visual applications marker system was selected.

  11. Injectable Colloidal Gold for Use in Intrafractional 2D Image-Guided Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Rydhog, Jonas S.; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2015-01-01

    radio-opacity, which allows for marker-based image guidance in 2D and 3D X-ray imaging during radiation therapy. This is achieved by surface-engineering gold nanoparticles to be highly compatible with a carbohydrate-based gelation matrix. The new fiducial marker is investigated in mice where...

  12. A fast fiducial marker tracking model for fully automatic alignment in electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin; Zhang, Fa; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Automatic alignment, especially fiducial marker-based alignment, has become increasingly important due to the high demand of subtomogram averaging and the rapid development of large-field electron microscopy. Among the alignment steps, fiducial marker tracking is a crucial one that determines the quality of the final alignment. Yet, it is still a challenging problem to track the fiducial markers accurately and effectively in a fully automatic manner.In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient scheme for fiducial marker tracking. Firstly, we theoretically prove the upper bound of the transformation deviation of aligning the positions of fiducial markers on two micrographs by affine transformation. Secondly, we design an automatic algorithm based on the Gaussian mixture model to accelerate the procedure of fiducial marker tracking. Thirdly, we propose a divide-and-conquer strategy against lens distortions to ensure the reliability of our scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt that theoretically relates the projection model with the tracking model. The real-world experimental results further support our theoretical bound and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm. This work facilitates the fully automatic tracking for datasets with a massive number of fiducial markers.The C/C ++ source code that implements the fast fiducial marker tracking is available at https://github.com/icthrm/gmm-marker-tracking. Markerauto 1.6 version or later (also integrated in the AuTom platform at http://ear.ict.ac.cn/) offers a complete implementation for fast alignment, in which fast fiducial marker tracking is available by the

  13. A fast fiducial marker tracking model for fully automatic alignment in electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin

    2017-10-20

    Automatic alignment, especially fiducial marker-based alignment, has become increasingly important due to the high demand of subtomogram averaging and the rapid development of large-field electron microscopy. Among the alignment steps, fiducial marker tracking is a crucial one that determines the quality of the final alignment. Yet, it is still a challenging problem to track the fiducial markers accurately and effectively in a fully automatic manner.In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient scheme for fiducial marker tracking. Firstly, we theoretically prove the upper bound of the transformation deviation of aligning the positions of fiducial markers on two micrographs by affine transformation. Secondly, we design an automatic algorithm based on the Gaussian mixture model to accelerate the procedure of fiducial marker tracking. Thirdly, we propose a divide-and-conquer strategy against lens distortions to ensure the reliability of our scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt that theoretically relates the projection model with the tracking model. The real-world experimental results further support our theoretical bound and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm. This work facilitates the fully automatic tracking for datasets with a massive number of fiducial markers.The C/C ++ source code that implements the fast fiducial marker tracking is available at https://github.com/icthrm/gmm-marker-tracking. Markerauto 1.6 version or later (also integrated in the AuTom platform at http://ear.ict.ac.cn/) offers a complete implementation for fast alignment, in which fast fiducial marker tracking is available by the

  14. Fiducialization of the small-aperture quadrupoles based on the vibrating wire method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baichuan, E-mail: wangbaichuan@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology), Xi' an 710024 (China); Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zheng, Shuxin, E-mail: zhengsx@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu, Lin; Du, Changtong; Xing, Qingzi [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhongming; Qiu, Mengtong [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology), Xi' an 710024 (China); Wang, Xuewu [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-03-11

    A fiducialization method based on vibrating wire is described dedicated to the problem of locating the magnetic center relative to external fiducials for the small-aperture quadrupoles. The advantage of this method is that the measurement of the wire position, which may be the main error source, is no longer needed. The position of the magnetic center can be directly obtained by measuring the position shift of the magnet fiducials. This method has been validated on small Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs). Experiments have confirmed its feasibility of measuring PMQs with good repeatability of about 10 μm, and shown its high sensitivity as well as convenience.

  15. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  16. Insertion and fixation of fiducial markers for setup and tracking of lung tumors in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Mikado; Yamazaki, Koichi; Shirato, Hiroki; Onimaru, Rikiya; Fujino, Masaharu; Shimizu, Shinichi; Harada, Toshiyuki; Ogura, Shigeaki; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Internal 1.5-mm fiducial markers were used in real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RT) for lung cancer. The fixation rate of the markers using the bronchial insertion technique, reliability of the setup using markers around the target volume, dislocation of the markers after real-time tumor-tracking RT, and long-term toxicity of marker insertion were investigated. Methods and Materials: Between July 2000 and April 2004, 154 gold markers were inserted into 57 patients with peripheral lung cancer. The distances between the implanted markers in 198 measurements in 71 setups in 11 patients were measured using two sets of orthogonal diagnostic X-ray images of the real-time tumor-tracking RT system. The distance between the markers and the chest wall was also measured in a transaxial CT image on 186 occasions in 48 patients during treatment planning and during follow-up. The median treatment time was 6 days (range, 4-14 days). Results: In 115 (75%) of the 154 inserted markers, the gold marker was detected throughout the treatment period. In 122 markers detected at CT planning, 115 (94%) were detected until the end of treatment. The variation in the distances between the implanted markers was within ±2 mm in 95% and ±1 mm in 80% during treatment. The variation in the distances between the implanted markers was >2 mm in at least one direction in 9% of the setups for which reexamination with a CT scan was indicated. The fixation rate in the left upper lobe was lower than in the other lobes. A statistically significant relationship was found between a shorter distance between the markers and the chest wall and the fixation rate, suggesting that the markers in the smaller bronchial lumens fixed better than those in the larger lumens. A learning curve among the endoscopists was suggested in the fixation rate. The distance between the markers and the chest wall changed significantly within a median of 44 days (range, 16-181 days) after treatment. Conclusion: The

  17. Fiducial-based monocular 3D displacement measurement of breakwater armour unit models.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vieira, R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fiducial-based approach to monitoring the movement of breakwater armour units in a model hall environment. Target symbols with known dimensions are attached to the physical models, allowing the recovery of three...

  18. Extended DBI massive gravity with generalized fiducial metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullaphan, Tossaporn; Tannukij, Lunchakorn; Wongjun, Pitayuth

    2015-06-01

    We consider an extended model of DBI massive gravity by generalizing the fiducial metric to be an induced metric on the brane corresponding to a domain wall moving in five-dimensional Schwarzschild-Anti-de Sitter spacetime. The model admits all solutions of FLRW metric including flat, closed and open geometries while the original one does not. The background solutions can be divided into two branches namely self-accelerating branch and normal branch. For the self-accelerating branch, the graviton mass plays the role of cosmological constant to drive the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is found that the number degrees of freedom of gravitational sector is not correct similar to the original DBI massive gravity. There are only two propagating degrees of freedom from tensor modes. For normal branch, we restrict our attention to a particular class of the solutions which provides an accelerated expansion of the universe. It is found that the number of degrees of freedom in the model is correct. However, at least one of them is ghost degree of freedom which always present at small scale implying that the theory is not stable.

  19. Extended DBI massive gravity with generalized fiducial metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chullaphan, Tossaporn; Tannukij, Lunchakorn; Wongjun, Pitayuth

    2015-01-01

    We consider an extended model of DBI massive gravity by generalizing the fiducial metric to be an induced metric on the brane corresponding to a domain wall moving in five-dimensional Schwarzschild-Anti-de Sitter spacetime. The model admits all solutions of FLRW metric including flat, closed and open geometries while the original one does not. The background solutions can be divided into two branches namely self-accelerating branch and normal branch. For the self-accelerating branch, the graviton mass plays the role of cosmological constant to drive the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is found that the number degrees of freedom of gravitational sector is not correct similar to the original DBI massive gravity. There are only two propagating degrees of freedom from tensor modes. For normal branch, we restrict our attention to a particular class of the solutions which provides an accelerated expansion of the universe. It is found that the number of degrees of freedom in the model is correct. However, at least one of them is ghost degree of freedom which always present at small scale implying that the theory is not stable.

  20. ECG fiducial point extraction using switching Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, Mahsa; Ghahjaverestan, Nasim Montazeri; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B; Jutten, Christian

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for extracting fiducial points (FPs) of the beats in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals using switching Kalman filter (SKF). In this method, according to McSharry's model, ECG waveforms (P-wave, QRS complex and T-wave) are modeled with Gaussian functions and ECG baselines are modeled with first order auto regressive models. In the proposed method, a discrete state variable called "switch" is considered that affects only the observation equations. We denote a mode as a specific observation equation and switch changes between 7 modes and corresponds to different segments of an ECG beat. At each time instant, the probability of each mode is calculated and compared among two consecutive modes and a path is estimated, which shows the relation of each part of the ECG signal to the mode with the maximum probability. ECG FPs are found from the estimated path. For performance evaluation, the Physionet QT database is used and the proposed method is compared with methods based on wavelet transform, partially collapsed Gibbs sampler (PCGS) and extended Kalman filter. For our proposed method, the mean error and the root mean square error across all FPs are 2 ms (i.e. less than one sample) and 14 ms, respectively. These errors are significantly smaller than those obtained using other methods. The proposed method achieves lesser RMSE and smaller variability with respect to others. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A fiducial skull marker for precise MRI-based stereotaxic surgery in large animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Bech, Johannes; Tvilling, Laura; Zaer, Hamed; Orlowski, Dariusz; Fitting, Lise Moberg; Ziedler, Dora; Geneser, Michael; Sangill, Ryan; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bjarkam, Carsten Reidies; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

    2017-06-15

    Stereotaxic neurosurgery in large animals is used widely in different sophisticated models, where precision is becoming more crucial as desired anatomical target regions are becoming smaller. Individually calculated coordinates are necessary in large animal models with cortical and subcortical anatomical differences. We present a convenient method to make an MRI-visible skull fiducial for 3D MRI-based stereotaxic procedures in larger experimental animals. Plastic screws were filled with either copper-sulfate solution or MRI-visible paste from a commercially available cranial head marker. The screw fiducials were inserted in the animal skulls and T1 weighted MRI was performed allowing identification of the inserted skull marker. Both types of fiducial markers were clearly visible on the MRÍs. This allows high precision in the stereotaxic space. The use of skull bone based fiducial markers gives high precision for both targeting and evaluation of stereotaxic systems. There are no metal artifacts and the fiducial is easily removed after surgery. The fiducial marker can be used as a very precise reference point, either for direct targeting or in evaluation of other stereotaxic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Fiducial Marker Implantation for CyberKnife Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Hong, Seong; Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Park, Hyun Jeong; Chang, Yun Woo; Chang, A Ram [Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Seok Beom [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and technical success rate of an ultrasound-guided fiducial marker implantation in preparation for CyberKnife radiation therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 270 percutaneous ultrasound-guided fiducial marker implantations in 77 patients, which were performed from June 2008 through March 2011. Of 270 implantations, 104 were implanted in metastatic lymph nodes, 96 were in the liver, 39 were in the pancreas, and 31 were in the prostate. During and after the implantation, major and minor procedure-related complications were documented. We defined technical success as the implantation enabling adequate treatment planning and CT simulation. The major and minor complication rates were 1% and 21%, respectively. One patient who had an implantation in the liver suffered severe abdominal pain, biloma, and pleural effusion, which were considered as major complication. Abdominal pain was the most common complication in 11 patients (14%). Among nine patients who had markers inserted in the prostate, one had transient hematuria for less than 24 hours, and the other experienced transient voiding difficulty. Of the 270 implantations, 261 were successful (97%). The reasons for unsuccessful implantations included migration of fiducial markers (five implantations, 2%) and failure to discriminate the fiducial markers (three implantations, 1%). Among the unsuccessful implantation cases, six patients required additional procedures (8%). The symptomatic complications following ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantation of fiducial markers are relatively low. However, careful consideration of the relatively higher rate of migration and discrimination failure is needed when performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantations of fiducial markers.

  3. Visibility of an iron-containing fiducial marker in magnetic resonance imaging for high-precision external beam prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Komeda, Hisao; Hirose, Shigeki; Taniguchi, Takuya; Ono, Kousei; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2017-11-29

    Visualization of fiducial gold markers is critical for registration on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for imaging-guided radiotherapy. Although larger markers provide better visualization on MRI, they tend to generate artifacts on CT. MRI is strongly influenced by the presence of metals, such as iron, in the body. Here we compared efficacies of a 0.5% iron-containing gold marker (GM) and a traditional non-iron-containing marker. Twenty-seven patients underwent CT/MRI fusion-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Markers were placed by urologists under local anesthesia. Gold Anchor (GA; diameter: 0.28 mm; length: 10 mm), an iron-containing marker, was placed on the right side of the prostate using a 22-G needle and VISICOIL (VIS; diameter: 0.35 mm; length: 10 mm), a non-iron-containing marker, was placed on the left side using a 19-G needle. T2*-weighted images MRI sequences were obtained. Two radiation oncologists and a radiation technologist evaluated and assigned scores for visual quality on a five-point scale (1, poor; 5, best visibility). Artifact generation on CT was slightly greater with GA than with VIS. The mean marker visualization scores on MRI of all three observers were significantly superior for GA than for VIS (3.5 vs 3.2, 3.9 vs 3.2, and 4.0 vs 2.9). The actual size of the spherical GA was about 2 mm in diameter, but the signal void on MRI was approximately 5 mm. Although both markers were well visualized and can be recommended clinically, the results suggest that GA has some subtle advantages for quantitative visualization that could prove useful in certain situations of stereotactic body radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. A framework for automatic creation of gold-standard rigid 3D-2D registration datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Hennadii; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Špiclin, Žiga

    2017-02-01

    Advanced image-guided medical procedures incorporate 2D intra-interventional information into pre-interventional 3D image and plan of the procedure through 3D/2D image registration (32R). To enter clinical use, and even for publication purposes, novel and existing 32R methods have to be rigorously validated. The performance of a 32R method can be estimated by comparing it to an accurate reference or gold standard method (usually based on fiducial markers) on the same set of images (gold standard dataset). Objective validation and comparison of methods are possible only if evaluation methodology is standardized, and the gold standard  dataset is made publicly available. Currently, very few such datasets exist and only one contains images of multiple patients acquired during a procedure. To encourage the creation of gold standard 32R datasets, we propose an automatic framework. The framework is based on rigid registration of fiducial markers. The main novelty is spatial grouping of fiducial markers on the carrier device, which enables automatic marker localization and identification across the 3D and 2D images. The proposed framework was demonstrated on clinical angiograms of 20 patients. Rigid 32R computed by the framework was more accurate than that obtained manually, with the respective target registration error below 0.027 mm compared to 0.040 mm. The framework is applicable for gold standard setup on any rigid anatomy, provided that the acquired images contain spatially grouped fiducial markers. The gold standard datasets and software will be made publicly available.

  5. Implantation and Stability of Metallic Fiducials Within Pulmonary Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Forbes, Alan; Willoughby, Twyla R. M.S.; Wallace, Karen; Manon, Rafael R.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Herrera, Luis; Johnston, Alan; Herran, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report and describe implantation techniques and stability of metallic fiducials in lung lesions to be treated with external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing radiation therapy for small early-stage lung cancer underwent implantation with small metallic markers. Implantation was either transcutaneous under computed tomographic (CT) or fluoroscopic guidance or transbronchial with the superDimension/Bronchus system (radiofrequency signal-based bronchoscopy guidance related to CT images). Results: Implantation was performed transcutaneously in 15 patients and transbronchially in 8 patients. Pneumothorax occurred with eight of the 15 transcutaneous implants, six of which required chest tube placement. None of the patients who underwent transbronchial implantation developed pneumothorax. Successfully inserted markers were all usable during gated image-guided radiotherapy. Marker stability was determined by observing the variation in gross target volume (GTV) centroid relative to the marker on repeated CT scans. Average three-dimensional variation in the GTV center relative to the marker was 2.6 ± 1.3 (SD) mm, and the largest variation along any anatomic axis for any patient was <5 mm. Average GTV volume decrease during the observation period was 34% ± 23%. Gross tumor volumes do not appear to shrink uniformly about the center of the tumor, but rather the tumor shapes deform substantially throughout treatment. Conclusions: Transbronchial marker placement is less invasive than transcutaneous placement, which is associated with high pneumothorax rates. Although marker geometry can be affected by tumor shrinkage, implanted markers are stable within tumors throughout the treatment duration regardless of implantation method

  6. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part v - EUS-Guided Therapeutic Interventions (short version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, P; Jenssen, C.; Hocke, Martine

    2016-01-01

    and block, vascular intervention, drainage of fluid collections, drainage of biliary and pancreatic ducts, and experimental tumor ablation techniques are discussed. For each topic, all current evidence has been extensively analyzed and summarized into major recommendations for reader consultation (short...

  7. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumonceau, J-M; Polkowski, M; Larghi, A

    2011-01-01

    -TCB), of submucosal tumors, diffuse esophageal/gastric wall thickening, pancreatic solid masses and cystic-appearing lesions, mediastinal lesions unrelated to lung or esophageal cancer, cancer of the esophagus, stomach, and rectum, lymph nodes of unknown origin, adrenal gland masses, and focal liver lesions. False...

  8. Impact of EUS-guided FNA on management of gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hazem; Vilmann, Peter; Sharma, Vijay

    2010-01-01

    EUS is an integral part of the pretherapeutic evaluation program for patients with upper GI cancer.......EUS is an integral part of the pretherapeutic evaluation program for patients with upper GI cancer....

  9. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part IV - EUS-guided interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, C; Hocke, M; Fusaroli, P

    2016-01-01

    The fourth part of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound describes general aspects of endoscopic ultrasound-guided diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and assesses the evidence for endoscopic ultrasound-gu...

  10. Fiducial-based fusion of 3D dental models with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Amir H; Hannam, Alan G; Fels, Sidney

    2018-04-16

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in study of maxillofacial structures. While MRI is the modality of choice for soft tissues, it fails to capture hard tissues such as bone and teeth. Virtual dental models, acquired by optical 3D scanners, are becoming more accessible for dental practice and are starting to replace the conventional dental impressions. The goal of this research is to fuse the high-resolution 3D dental models with MRI to enhance the value of imaging for applications where detailed analysis of maxillofacial structures are needed such as patient examination, surgical planning, and modeling. A subject-specific dental attachment was digitally designed and 3D printed based on the subject's face width and dental anatomy. The attachment contained 19 semi-ellipsoidal concavities in predetermined positions where oil-based ellipsoidal fiducial markers were later placed. The MRI was acquired while the subject bit on the dental attachment. The spatial position of the center of mass of each fiducial in the resultant MR Image was calculated by averaging its voxels' spatial coordinates. The rigid transformation to fuse dental models to MRI was calculated based on the least squares mapping of corresponding fiducials and solved via singular-value decomposition. The target registration error (TRE) of the proposed fusion process, calculated in a leave-one-fiducial-out fashion, was estimated at 0.49 mm. The results suggest that 6-9 fiducials suffice to achieve a TRE of equal to half the MRI voxel size. Ellipsoidal oil-based fiducials produce distinguishable intensities in MRI and can be used as registration fiducials. The achieved accuracy of the proposed approach is sufficient to leverage the merged 3D dental models with the MRI data for a finer analysis of the maxillofacial structures where complete geometry models are needed.

  11. Transarterial Fiducial Marker Placement for Image-guided Proton Therapy for Malignant Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Kengo; Shimohira, Masashi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Nishikawa, Hiroko; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Hara, Masaki; Hashizume, Takuya; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze the technical and clinical success rates and safety of transarterial fiducial marker placement for image-guided proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.Methods and MaterialsFifty-five patients underwent this procedure as an interventional treatment. Five patients had 2 tumors, and 4 tumors required 2 markers each, so the total number of procedures was 64. The 60 tumors consisted of 46 hepatocellular carcinomas and 14 liver metastases. Five-mm-long straight microcoils of 0.018 inches in diameter were used as fiducial markers and placed in appropriate positions for each tumor. We assessed the technical and clinical success rates of transarterial fiducial marker placement, as well as the complications associated with it. Technical success was defined as the successful delivery and placement of the fiducial coil, and clinical success was defined as the completion of proton therapy.ResultsAll 64 fiducial coils were successfully installed, so the technical success rate was 100 % (64/64). Fifty-four patients underwent proton therapy without coil migration. In one patient, proton therapy was not performed because of obstructive jaundice due to bile duct invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the clinical success rate was 98 % (54/55). Slight bleeding was observed in one case, but it was stopped immediately and then observed. None of the patients developed hepatic infarctions due to fiducial marker migration.ConclusionTransarterial fiducial marker placement appears to be a useful and safe procedure for proton therapy for malignant liver tumors

  12. Transarterial Fiducial Marker Placement for Image-guided Proton Therapy for Malignant Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Kengo, E-mail: yesterday.is.yesterday@gmail.com; Shimohira, Masashi, E-mail: mshimohira@gmail.com [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sasaki, Shigeru, E-mail: ssasaki916@yahoo.co.jp; Iwata, Hiromitsu, E-mail: h-iwa-ncu@nifty.com; Nishikawa, Hiroko, E-mail: piroko1018@gmail.com; Ogino, Hiroyuki, E-mail: oginogio@gmail.com; Hara, Masaki, E-mail: mhara@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Nagoya City West Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center (Japan); Hashizume, Takuya, E-mail: tky300@gmail.com; Shibamoto, Yuta, E-mail: yshiba@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze the technical and clinical success rates and safety of transarterial fiducial marker placement for image-guided proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.Methods and MaterialsFifty-five patients underwent this procedure as an interventional treatment. Five patients had 2 tumors, and 4 tumors required 2 markers each, so the total number of procedures was 64. The 60 tumors consisted of 46 hepatocellular carcinomas and 14 liver metastases. Five-mm-long straight microcoils of 0.018 inches in diameter were used as fiducial markers and placed in appropriate positions for each tumor. We assessed the technical and clinical success rates of transarterial fiducial marker placement, as well as the complications associated with it. Technical success was defined as the successful delivery and placement of the fiducial coil, and clinical success was defined as the completion of proton therapy.ResultsAll 64 fiducial coils were successfully installed, so the technical success rate was 100 % (64/64). Fifty-four patients underwent proton therapy without coil migration. In one patient, proton therapy was not performed because of obstructive jaundice due to bile duct invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the clinical success rate was 98 % (54/55). Slight bleeding was observed in one case, but it was stopped immediately and then observed. None of the patients developed hepatic infarctions due to fiducial marker migration.ConclusionTransarterial fiducial marker placement appears to be a useful and safe procedure for proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.

  13. Novel Technique for Hepatic Fiducial Marker Placement for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarraya, Hajer; Chalayer, Chloé; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Bonodeau, Francois; Lacornerie, Thomas; Mirabel, Xavier; Boulanger, Thomas; Taieb, Sophie; Kramar, Andrew; Lartigau, Eric; Ceugnart, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report experience with fiducial marker insertion and describe an advantageous, novel technique for fiducial placement in the liver for stereotactic body radiation therapy with respiratory tracking. Methods and Materials: We implanted 1444 fiducials (single: 834; linked: 610) in 328 patients with 424 hepatic lesions. Two methods of implantation were compared: the standard method (631 single fiducials) performed on 153 patients from May 2007 to May 2010, and the cube method (813 fiducials: 610 linked/203 single) applied to 175 patients from April 2010 to March 2013. The standard method involved implanting a single marker at a time. The novel technique entailed implanting 2 pairs of linked markers when possible in a way to occupy the perpendicular edges of a cube containing the tumor inside. Results: Mean duration of the cube method was shorter than the standard method (46 vs 61 minutes; P<.0001). Median numbers of skin and subcapsular entries were significantly smaller with the cube method (2 vs 4, P<.0001, and 2 vs 4, P<.0001, respectively). The rate of overall complications (total, major, and minor) was significantly lower in the cube method group compared with the standard method group (5.7% vs 13.7%; P=.013). Major complications occurred while using single markers only. The success rate was 98.9% for the cube method and 99.3% for the standard method. Conclusions: We propose a new technique of hepatic fiducial implantation that makes use of linked fiducials and involves fewer skin entries and shorter time of implantation. The technique is less complication-prone and is migration-resistant

  14. Implementation of Fiducial-Based Image Registration in the Cyberknife Robotic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Wagner, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Fiducial-based image registration methodology as implemented in the Cyberknife system is explored. The Cyberknife is a radiosurgery system that uses image guidance technology and computer-controlled robotics to determine target positions and adjust beam directions accordingly during the dose delivery. The image guidance system consists of 2 x-ray sources mounted on the ceiling and a detection system mounted on both sides of the treatment couch. Two orthogonal live radiographs are taken prior to and during patient treatment. Fiducial markers are identified on these radiographs and compared to a library of digital reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) using the fiducial extraction software. The fiducial extraction software initially sets an intensity threshold on the live radiographs to generate white areas on black images referred to as 'blobs.' Different threshold values are being used and blobs at the same location are assumed to originate from the same object. The number of blobs is then reduced by examining each blob against a predefined set of properties such as shape and exposure levels. The remaining blobs are further reduced by examining the location of the blobs in the inferior-superior patient axis. Those blobs that have the corresponding positions are assumed to originate from the same object. The remaining blobs are used to create fiducial configurations and are compared to the reference configuration from the computed tomography (CT) image dataset for treatment planning. The best-fit configuration is considered to have the appropriate fiducial markers. The patient position is determined based on these fiducial markers. During the treatment, the radiation beam is turned off when the Cyberknife changes nodes. This allows a time window to acquire live radiographs for the determination of the patient target position and to update the robotic manipulator to change beam orientations accordingly

  15. Method comparison of ultrasound and kilovoltage x-ray fiducial marker imaging for prostate radiotherapy targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Clifton David; Thomas, Charles R., Jr.; Schwartz, Scott; Golden, Nanalei; Ting, Joe; Wong, Adrian; Erdogmus, Deniz; Scarbrough, Todd J.

    2006-10-01

    Several measurement techniques have been developed to address the capability for target volume reduction via target localization in image-guided radiotherapy; among these have been ultrasound (US) and fiducial marker (FM) software-assisted localization. In order to assess interchangeability between methods, US and FM localization were compared using established techniques for determination of agreement between measurement methods when a 'gold-standard' comparator does not exist, after performing both techniques daily on a sequential series of patients. At least 3 days prior to CT simulation, four gold seeds were placed within the prostate. FM software-assisted localization utilized the ExacTrac X-Ray 6D (BrainLab AG, Germany) kVp x-ray image acquisition system to determine prostate position; US prostate targeting was performed on each patient using the SonArray (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Patients were aligned daily using laser alignment of skin marks. Directional shifts were then calculated by each respective system in the X, Y and Z dimensions before each daily treatment fraction, previous to any treatment or couch adjustment, as well as a composite vector of displacement. Directional shift agreement in each axis was compared using Altman-Bland limits of agreement, Lin's concordance coefficient with Partik's grading schema, and Deming orthogonal bias-weighted correlation methodology. 1019 software-assisted shifts were suggested by US and FM in 39 patients. The 95% limits of agreement in X, Y and Z axes were ±9.4 mm, ±11.3 mm and ±13.4, respectively. Three-dimensionally, measurements agreed within 13.4 mm in 95% of all paired measures. In all axes, concordance was graded as 'poor' or 'unacceptable'. Deming regression detected proportional bias in both directional axes and three-dimensional vectors. Our data suggest substantial differences between US and FM image-guided measures and subsequent suggested directional shifts. Analysis reveals that the vast majority of

  16. Surgical fiducial segmentation and tracking for pose estimation based on ultrasound B-mode images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei Chen; Kuo, Nathanael; Aalamifar, Fereshteh; Narrow, David; Coon, Devin; Prince, Jerry; Boctor, Emad M

    2016-08-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for the quantitative measurement of blood flow. However, given that it provides velocity data that is dependent on the location and angle of measurement, repeat measurements to detect problems over time may require an expert to return to the same location. We therefore developed an image-guidance system based on ultrasound B-mode images that enables an inexperienced user to position the ultrasound probe at the same site repeatedly in order to acquire a comparable time series of Doppler readings. The system utilizes a bioresorbable fiducial and complementing software composed of the fiducial detection, key points tracking, probe pose estimation, and graphical user interface (GUI) modules. The fiducial is an echogenic marker that is implanted at the surgical site and can be detected and tracked during ultrasound B-mode screening. The key points on the marker can next be used to determine the pose of the ultrasound probe with respect to the marker. The 3D representation of the probe with its position and orientation are then displayed in the GUI for the user guidance. The fiducial detection has been tested on the data sets collected from three animal studies. The pose estimation algorithm was validated by five data sets collected by a UR5 robot. We tested the system on a plastisol phantom and showed that it can detect and track the fiducial marker while displaying the probe pose in real-time.

  17. Sample positioning in neutron diffraction experiments using a multi-material fiducial marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marais, D., E-mail: Deon.Marais@necsa.co.za [Research and Development Division, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) SOC Limited, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Venter, A.M., E-mail: Andrew.Venter@necsa.co.za [Research and Development Division, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) SOC Limited, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology, North-West University, Mahikeng 2790 (South Africa); Markgraaff, J., E-mail: Johan.Markgraaff@nwu.ac.za [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); James, J., E-mail: Jon.James@open.ac.uk [Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK76AA England (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    An alternative sample positioning method is reported for use in conjunction with sample positioning and experiment planning software systems deployed on some neutron diffraction strain scanners. In this approach, the spherical fiducial markers and location trackers used with optical metrology hardware are replaced with a specifically designed multi-material fiducial marker that requires one diffraction measurement. In a blind setting, the marker position can be determined within an accuracy of ±164 µm with respect to the instrument gauge volume. The scheme is based on a pre-determined relationship that links the diffracted peak intensity to the absolute positioning of the fiducial marker with respect to the instrument gauge volume. Two methods for establishing the linking relationship are presented, respectively based on fitting multi-dimensional quadratic functions and a cross-correlation artificial neural network.

  18. Note: A simple image processing based fiducial auto-alignment method for sample registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Wesley D; Porto, Lucas R; Ip, Candice J X; Nantel, Megan K T; Tellkamp, Friedjof; Lu, Yinfei; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2015-08-01

    A simple method for the location and auto-alignment of sample fiducials for sample registration using widely available MATLAB/LabVIEW software is demonstrated. The method is robust, easily implemented, and applicable to a wide variety of experiment types for improved reproducibility and increased setup speed. The software uses image processing to locate and measure the diameter and center point of circular fiducials for distance self-calibration and iterative alignment and can be used with most imaging systems. The method is demonstrated to be fast and reliable in locating and aligning sample fiducials, provided here by a nanofabricated array, with accuracy within the optical resolution of the imaging system. The software was further demonstrated to register, load, and sample the dynamically wetted array.

  19. Gold Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Barro; Sanjay P. Misra

    2013-01-01

    From 1836 to 2011, the average real rate of price change for gold in the United States is 1.1% per year and the standard deviation is 13.1%, implying a one-standard-deviation confidence band for the mean of (0.1%, 2.1%). The covariances of gold's real rate of price change with consumption and GDP growth rates are small and statistically insignificantly different from zero. These negligible covariances suggest that gold's expected real rate of return--which includes an unobserved dividend yiel...

  20. SU-G-BRA-07: An Innovative Fiducial-Less Tracking Method for Radiation Treatment of Abdominal Tumors by Diaphragm Disparity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, D; Zhao, W [University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida (United States); Wu, X [Biophysics Research Institute of America, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of tracking abdominal tumors without the use of gold fiducial markers Methods: In this simulation study, an abdominal 4DCT dataset, acquired previously and containing 8 phases of the breathing cycle, was used as the testing data. Two sets of DRR images (45 and 135 degrees) were generated for each phase. Three anatomical points along the lung-diaphragm interface on each of the Digital Reconstructed Radiograph(DRR) images were identified by cross-correlation. The gallbladder, which simulates the tumor, was contoured for each phase of the breathing cycle and the corresponding centroid values serve as the measured center of the tumor. A linear model was created to correlate the diaphragm’s disparity of the three identified anatomical points with the center of the tumor. To verify the established linear model, we sequentially removed one phase of the data (i.e., 3 anatomical points and the corresponding tumor center) and created new linear models with the remaining 7 phases. Then we substituted the eliminated phase data (disparities of the 3 anatomical points) into the corresponding model to compare model-generated tumor center and the measured tumor center. Results: The maximum difference between the modeled and the measured centroid values across the 8 phases were 0.72, 0.29 and 0.30 pixels in the x, y and z directions respectively, which yielded a maximum mean-squared-error value of 0.75 pixels. The outcomes of the verification process, by eliminating each phase, produced mean-squared-errors ranging from 0.41 to 1.28 pixels. Conclusion: Gold fiducial markers, requiring surgical procedures to be implanted, are conventionally used in radiation therapy. The present work shows the feasibility of a fiducial-less tracking method for localizing abdominal tumors. Through developed diaphragm disparity analysis, the established linear model was verified with clinically accepted errors. The tracking method in real time under different

  1. Gold monetization and gold discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Flood; Peter M. Garber

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a study of the price level and relative price effects of a policy to monetize gold and fix its price at a given future time and at the then prevailing nominal price. Price movements are analyzed both during the transition to the gold standard and during the post-monetization period. The paper also explores the adjustments to fiat money which are necessary to ensure that this type of gold monetization is non-inflationary. Finally, some conditions which produce a run on the governm...

  2. Quantification of MRI visibility and artifacts at 3T of liquid fiducial marker in a pancreas tissue-mimicking phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Sergej; Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Troost, Esther Gera Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray-based position verification of the target volume in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is currently performed on solid fiducial markers that are implanted under endoscopic ultrasonography. A new biodegradable liquid fiduci...

  3. Creating a distortion characterisation dataset for visual band cameras using fiducial markers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jermy, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available . This will allow other researchers to perform the same steps and create better algorithms to accurately locate fiducial markers and calibrate cameras. A second dataset that can be used to assess the accuracy of the stereo vision of two calibrated cameras is also...

  4. Geometry planning and image registration in magnetic particle imaging using bimodal fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, F.; Hofmann, M.; Them, K.; Knopp, T.; Jung, C.; Salamon, J.; Kaul, M. G.; Mummert, T.; Adam, G.; Ittrich, H.; Werner, R.; Säring, D.; Weber, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a quantitative imaging modality that allows the distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles to be visualized. Compared to other imaging techniques like x-ray radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MPI only provides a signal from the administered tracer, but no additional morphological information, which complicates geometry planning and the interpretation of MP images. The purpose of the authors’ study was to develop bimodal fiducial markers that can be visualized by MPI and MRI in order to create MP–MR fusion images. Methods: A certain arrangement of three bimodal fiducial markers was developed and used in a combined MRI/MPI phantom and also during in vivo experiments in order to investigate its suitability for geometry planning and image fusion. An algorithm for automated marker extraction in both MR and MP images and rigid registration was established. Results: The developed bimodal fiducial markers can be visualized by MRI and MPI and allow for geometry planning as well as automated registration and fusion of MR–MP images. Conclusions: To date, exact positioning of the object to be imaged within the field of view (FOV) and the assignment of reconstructed MPI signals to corresponding morphological regions has been difficult. The developed bimodal fiducial markers and the automated image registration algorithm help to overcome these difficulties.

  5. Geometry planning and image registration in magnetic particle imaging using bimodal fiducial markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, F., E-mail: f.werner@uke.de; Hofmann, M.; Them, K.; Knopp, T. [Section for Biomedical Imaging, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20246, Germany and Institute for Biomedical Imaging, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany); Jung, C.; Salamon, J.; Kaul, M. G.; Mummert, T.; Adam, G.; Ittrich, H. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20246 (Germany); Werner, R.; Säring, D. [Institute for Computational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20246 (Germany); Weber, O. M. [Philips Medical Systems DMC GmbH, Hamburg 22335 (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a quantitative imaging modality that allows the distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles to be visualized. Compared to other imaging techniques like x-ray radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MPI only provides a signal from the administered tracer, but no additional morphological information, which complicates geometry planning and the interpretation of MP images. The purpose of the authors’ study was to develop bimodal fiducial markers that can be visualized by MPI and MRI in order to create MP–MR fusion images. Methods: A certain arrangement of three bimodal fiducial markers was developed and used in a combined MRI/MPI phantom and also during in vivo experiments in order to investigate its suitability for geometry planning and image fusion. An algorithm for automated marker extraction in both MR and MP images and rigid registration was established. Results: The developed bimodal fiducial markers can be visualized by MRI and MPI and allow for geometry planning as well as automated registration and fusion of MR–MP images. Conclusions: To date, exact positioning of the object to be imaged within the field of view (FOV) and the assignment of reconstructed MPI signals to corresponding morphological regions has been difficult. The developed bimodal fiducial markers and the automated image registration algorithm help to overcome these difficulties.

  6. Liquid fiducial marker performance during radiotherapy of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydhög, Jonas Scherman; Mortensen, Steen Riisgaard; Larsen, Klaus Richter

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the positional and structural stability of a long-term biodegradable liquid fiducial marker (BioXmark) for radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced lung cancer. Markers were injected via endoscopic- or endobronchial ultrasound in lymph nodes and reachable primary tumours. Marker...

  7. Assessment of fiducial markers to enable the co-registration of photographs and MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Bridgette A; Petrovic, Andreas; Urschler, Martin; Scheurer, Eva

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the visualisation of novel external fiducial skin markers in photography and MRI. To co-register photographs and MR images, and additionally assess the spatial accuracy of these co-registrations with the view of future application in the investigation of forensically relevant soft tissue lesions. Strand-shaped fiducial markers were secured externally over hematomas on the thigh of 10 volunteers. The region of interest was photographed and examined using MRI at 3T in oblique and transversal orientations and the visibility of the markers assessed. Markers provided 'control points' in both sets of images, enabling the computation of an affine transform to register oblique MR images to photographs. The fiducial registration error was evaluated by calculating the root-mean-square error of nine corresponding evaluation points visible in both modalities. Fiducial markers were clearly visualised in both photography and MRI. The co-registration of photographs and oblique MR images was achieved for all participants. The overall root-mean-square error for registrations was 1.18mm (TIRM) and 1.46mm (TSE2D with SPAIR fat-suppression). The proposed approach led to the successful visualisation of non-invasive fiducial markers using photography and MRI (TIRM and TSE2D (SPAIR) sequences). This visualisation, combined with an affine transformation process provided a simple, cost-effective way to accurately co-register photographs and MR images of subcutaneous hematomas located on the thigh. Further investigation of the novel markers and the proposed co-visualisation approach holds potential to improve not only the forensic documentation of soft tissue lesions, but to also improve certain clinical applications, including the area of dermatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prostate motion during standard radiotherapy as assessed by fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Y.; Crook, J.M.; Salhani, D.; Yang, H.; Esche, B.

    1995-01-01

    From November 1993 to August 1994, 55 patients with localized prostate carcinoma had three gold seeds placed in the prostate under transrectal ultrasound guidance prior to the start of radiotherapy in order to track prostate motion. Patients had a planning CT scan before initial simulation and again at about 40 Gy, just prior to simulation of a field reduction. Seed position relative to fixed bony landmarks (pubic symphysis and both ischial tuberosities) was digitized from each pair of orthogonal films from the initial and boost simulation using the Nucletron brachytherapy planning system. Vector analysis was performed to rule out the possibility of independent seed migration within the prostate between the time of initial and boost simulation. Prostate motion was seen in the posterior (mean: 0.56 cm; SD: 0.41 cm) and inferior directions (mean: 0.59 cm; SD: 0.45 cm). The base of the prostate was displaced more than 1 cm posteriorly in 30% of patients and in 11% in the inferior direction. Prostate position is related to rectal and bladder filling. Distension of these organs displaces the prostate in an anterosuperior direction, with lesser degrees of filling allowing the prostate to move posteriorly and inferiorly. Conformal therapy planning must take this motion into consideration. Changes in prostate position of this magnitude preclude the use of standard margins

  9. Gold Museum

    OpenAIRE

    Efraín Sánchez Cabra

    2003-01-01

    On 22 december 1939, the Banco de la República, the Central Bank of Colombia, purchased a 23.5 centimetres high pre-Columbian gold arte fact weighing 777·7 grams that was to become the Gold M useum's foundation stone. Described as a Quimbaya poporo, it is a masterpiece of pre-Hispanic goldwork, an object of beauty whose brightly burnished body and neck, crowned with four sphere-like or naments, rest on an exquisite cast metal tiligree base and which seems to ftoat in a space of its own. The b...

  10. Effect of Gold Marker Seeds on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Murshed, E-mail: Murshed.Hossain@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schirmer, Timo [Global MR Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Munich (Germany); Richardson, Theresa; Chen, Lili; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Ma Changming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance stereoscopic imaging (MRSI) of the prostate is an emerging technique that may enhance targeting and assessment in radiotherapy. Current practices in radiotherapy invariably involve image guidance. Gold seed fiducial markers are often used to perform daily prostate localization. If MRSI is to be used in targeting prostate cancer and therapy assessment, the impact of gold seeds on MRSI must be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of gold seeds on the quality of MRSI data acquired in phantom experiments. Methods and Materials: A cylindrical plastic phantom with a spherical cavity 10 centimeters in diameter wss filled with water solution containing choline, creatine, and citrate. A gold seed fiducial marker was put near the center of the phantom mounted on a plastic stem. Spectra were acquired at 1.5 Tesla by use of a clinical MRSI sequence. The ratios of choline + creatine to citrate (CC/Ci) were compared in the presence and absence of gold seeds. Spectra in the vicinity of the gold seed were analyzed. Results: The maximum coefficient of variation of CC/Ci induced by the gold seed was found to be 10% in phantom experiments at 1.5 T. Conclusion: MRSI can be used in prostate radiotherapy in the presence of gold seed markers. Gold seeds cause small effects (in the order of the standard deviation) on the ratio of the metabolite's CC/Ci in the phantom study done on a 1.5-T scanner. It is expected that gold seed markers will have similar negligible effect on spectra from prostate patients. The maximum of 10% of variation in CC/Ci found in the phantom study also sets a limit on the threshold accuracy of CC/Ci values for deciding whether the tissue characterized by a local spectrum is considered malignant and whether it is a candidate for local boost in radiotherapy dose.

  11. Effect of Gold Marker Seeds on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Murshed; Schirmer, Timo; Richardson, Theresa; Chen, Lili; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Ma Changming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance stereoscopic imaging (MRSI) of the prostate is an emerging technique that may enhance targeting and assessment in radiotherapy. Current practices in radiotherapy invariably involve image guidance. Gold seed fiducial markers are often used to perform daily prostate localization. If MRSI is to be used in targeting prostate cancer and therapy assessment, the impact of gold seeds on MRSI must be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of gold seeds on the quality of MRSI data acquired in phantom experiments. Methods and Materials: A cylindrical plastic phantom with a spherical cavity 10 centimeters in diameter wss filled with water solution containing choline, creatine, and citrate. A gold seed fiducial marker was put near the center of the phantom mounted on a plastic stem. Spectra were acquired at 1.5 Tesla by use of a clinical MRSI sequence. The ratios of choline + creatine to citrate (CC/Ci) were compared in the presence and absence of gold seeds. Spectra in the vicinity of the gold seed were analyzed. Results: The maximum coefficient of variation of CC/Ci induced by the gold seed was found to be 10% in phantom experiments at 1.5 T. Conclusion: MRSI can be used in prostate radiotherapy in the presence of gold seed markers. Gold seeds cause small effects (in the order of the standard deviation) on the ratio of the metabolite's CC/Ci in the phantom study done on a 1.5-T scanner. It is expected that gold seed markers will have similar negligible effect on spectra from prostate patients. The maximum of 10% of variation in CC/Ci found in the phantom study also sets a limit on the threshold accuracy of CC/Ci values for deciding whether the tissue characterized by a local spectrum is considered malignant and whether it is a candidate for local boost in radiotherapy dose.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in the radiation treatment planning of localized prostate cancer using intra-prostatic fiducial markers for computed tomography co-registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, C.C.; Damyanovich, A.; Haycocks, T.; Haider, M.; Bayley, A.; Catton, C.N.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility, and potential implications, of using intra-prostatic fiducial markers, rather than bony landmarks, for the co-registration of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images in the radiation treatment planning of localized prostate cancer. Methods: All men treated with conformal therapy for localized prostate cancer underwent routine pre-treatment insertion of prostatic fiducial markers to assist with gross target volume (GTV) delineation and to identify prostate positioning during therapy. Six of these men were selected for investigation. Phantom MRI measurements were obtained to quantify image distortion, to determine the most suitable gold alloy marker composition, and to identify the spin-echo sequences that optimized both marker identification and the contrast between the prostate and the surrounding tissues. The GTV for each patient was contoured independently by three radiation oncologists on axial planning CT slices, and on axial MRI slices fused to the CT slices by matching the implanted fiducial markers. From each set of contours the scan common volume (SCV), and the scan encompassing volume (SEV), were obtained. The ratio SEV/SCV for a given scan is a measure of inter-observer variation in contouring. For each of the 18 patient-observer combinations the observer common volume (OCV) and the observer encompassing volume (OEV) was obtained. The ratio OEV/OCV for a given patient-observer combination is a measure of the inter-modality variation in contouring. The distance from the treatment planning isocenter to the prostate contours was measured and the discrepancy between the CT- and the MR-defined contour recorded. The discrepancies between the CT- and MR-defined contours of the posterior prostate were recorded in the sagittal plane at 1-cm intervals above and below the isocenter. Results: Phantom measurements demonstrated trivial image distortion within the required field of view, and an 18K Au/Cu alloy to

  13. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  14. Preclinical investigation for developing injectable fiducial markers using a mixture of BaSO{sub 4} and biodegradable polymer for proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Hee [Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Gil, Moon Soo; Lee, Doo Sung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Chemical Engineering, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Youngyih, E-mail: youngyih@skku.edu, E-mail: Hee.ro.Park@samsung.com; Park, Hee Chul, E-mail: youngyih@skku.edu, E-mail: Hee.ro.Park@samsung.com; Yu, Jeong Il; Noh, Jae Myoung; Cho, Jun Sang; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Jason W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Kim, Hye Yeong; Shin, Eun Hyuk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the use of mixture of BaSO{sub 4} and biodegradable polymer as an injectable nonmetallic fiducial marker to reduce artifacts in x-ray images, decrease the absorbed dose distortion in proton therapy, and replace permanent metal markers. Methods: Two samples were made with 90 wt. % polymer phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and 10 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} (B1) or 20 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} (B2). Two animal models (mice and rats) were used. To test the injectability and in vivo gelation, a volume of 200 μl at a pH 5.8 were injected into the Sprague-Dawley rats. After sacrificing the rats over time, the authors checked the gel morphology. Detectability of the markers in the x-ray images was tested for two sizes (diameters of 1 and 2 mm) for B1 and B2. Four samples were injected into BALB/C mice. The polymer mixed with BaSO{sub 4} transform from SOL at 20 °C with a pH of 6.0 to GEL in the living body at 37 °C with a pH of 7.4, so the size of the fiducial marker could be controlled by adjusting the injected volume. The detectability of the BaSO{sub 4} marker was measured in x-ray images of cone beam CT (CBCT), on-board imager [anterior–posterior (AP), lateral], and fluoroscopy (AP, lateral) using a Novalis-TX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) repeatedly over 4 months. The volume, HU, and artifacts for the markers were measured in the CBCT images. Artifacts were compared to those of gold marker by analyzing the HU distribution. The dose distortion in proton therapy was computed by using a Monte Carlo (MC) code. A cylindrical shaped marker (diameter: 1 or 2 mm, length: 3 mm) made of gold, stainless-steel [304], titanium, and 20 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} was positioned at the center of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) in parallel or perpendicular to the beam entrance. The dose distortion was measured on the depth dose profile across the markers. Results: Transformation to GEL and the biodegradation were verified. All BaSO{sub 4} markers

  15. A fiducial detection algorithm for real-time image guided IMRT based on simultaneous MV and kV imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weihua; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Louis; Wiersma, Rodney; Xing, Lei

    2008-08-01

    The advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as 3DCRT and IMRT is limited by intrafraction organ motion. A new approach to gain near real-time 3D positions of internally implanted fiducial markers is to analyze simultaneous onboard kV beam and treatment MV beam images (from fluoroscopic or electronic portal image devices). Before we can use this real-time image guidance for clinical 3DCRT and IMRT treatments, four outstanding issues need to be addressed. (1) How will fiducial motion blur the image and hinder tracking fiducials? kV and MV images are acquired while the tumor is moving at various speeds. We find that a fiducial can be successfully detected at a maximum linear speed of 1.6 cm/s. (2) How does MV beam scattering affect kV imaging? We investigate this by varying MV field size and kV source to imager distance, and find that common treatment MV beams do not hinder fiducial detection in simultaneous kV images. (3) How can one detect fiducials on images from 3DCRT and IMRT treatment beams when the MV fields are modified by a multileaf collimator (MLC)? The presented analysis is capable of segmenting a MV field from the blocking MLC and detecting visible fiducials. This enables the calculation of nearly real-time 3D positions of markers during a real treatment. (4) Is the analysis fast enough to track fiducials in nearly real time? Multiple methods are adopted to predict marker positions and reduce search regions. The average detection time per frame for three markers in a 1024 x 768 image was reduced to 0.1 s or less. Solving these four issues paves the way to tracking moving fiducial markers throughout a 3DCRT or IMRT treatment. Altogether, these four studies demonstrate that our algorithm can track fiducials in real time, on degraded kV images (MV scatter), in rapidly moving tumors (fiducial blurring), and even provide useful information in the case when some fiducials are blocked from view by the MLC. This technique can provide a gating signal or

  16. Cardiac embolization of an implanted fiducial marker for hepatic stereotactic body radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessey Hooman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In liver stereotactic body radiotherapy, reduction of normal tissue irradiation requires daily image guidance. This is typically accomplished by imaging a surrogate to the tumor. The surrogate is often an implanted metal fiducial marker. There are few reports addressing the specific risks of hepatic fiducial marker implantation. These risks are assumed to be similar to percutaneous liver biopsies which are associated with a 1-4% complication rate - almost always pain or bleeding. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of such a fiducial marker migrating to the heart. Case presentation An 81-year-old Caucasian man (5 years post-gastrectomy for a gastric adenocarcinoma was referred post-second line palliative chemotherapy for radiotherapy of an isolated liver metastasis. It was decided to proceed with treatment and platinum fiducials were chosen for radiation targeting. Under local anesthesia, three Nester embolization coils (Cook Medical Inc., Bloomington, IN, USA were implanted under computed tomography guidance. Before the placement of each coil, the location of the tip of the delivery needle was confirmed by computed tomography imaging. During the procedure, the third coil unexpectedly migrated through the hepatic vein to the inferior vena cava and lodged at the junction of the vena cava and the right atrium. The patient remained asymptomatic. He was immediately referred to angiography for extraction of the coil. Using fluoroscopic guidance, an EN Snare Retrieval System (Hatch Medical L.L.C., Snellville, GA, USA was introduced through a jugular catheter; it successfully grasped the coil and the coil was removed. The patient was kept overnight for observation and no immediate or delayed complications were encountered due to the migration or retrieval of the coil. He subsequently went on to be treated using the remaining fiducials. Conclusion Implanted fiducial markers are increasingly used for stereotactic

  17. Hawking, fiducial, and free-fall temperature of black hole on gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    On gravity's rainbow, the energy of test particles deforms the geometry of a black hole in such a way that the corresponding Hawking temperature is expected to be modified. It means that the fiducial and free-fall temperatures on the black hole background should also be modified according to deformation of the geometry. In this work, the probing energy of test particles is assumed as the average energy of the Hawking particle in order to study the particle back reaction of the geometry by using the advantage of gravity's rainbow. We shall obtain the modified fiducial and free-fall temperatures, respectively. The behaviors of these two temperatures on the horizon tell us that black hole complementarity is still well defined on gravity's rainbow. (orig.)

  18. Conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: contribution of pelvic immobilization and new fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Oozeer, R.; Le Thanh, H.; Chauvet, B.; Toy, B.J.; Reboul, F.

    1997-01-01

    To reduce errors in the positioning of patients treated with external conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, we evaluated both the use of an immobilization device and new fiducial markers. The immobilization device consisted of an individual mold made of polyurethane foam. Two sets of skin markers located on the anterior tibial surfaces were used to identify the pelvic isocenter. The patient's position was evaluated by orthogonal port film which were then compared with the original simulation film. Results are presented with respect to orthogonal axes. Comparison with classic procedures without immobilization showed that use of the mold and new fiducial markers led to a decrease in set-up errors which were less than 5 mm. With the use of an immobilization device and optimized techniques for patients' positioning, conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer is more accurate. (authors)

  19. Development and clinical evaluation of automatic fiducial detection for tumor tracking in cine megavoltage images during volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcona, Juan Diego; Li Ruijiang; Mok, Edward; Hancock, Steven; Xing Lei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time tracking of implanted fiducials in cine megavoltage (MV) imaging during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery is complicated due to the inherent low contrast of MV images and potential blockage of dynamic leaves configurations. The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically practical autodetection algorithm for motion management during VMAT. Methods: The expected field-specific segments and the planned fiducial position from the Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) treatment planning system were projected onto the MV images. The fiducials were enhanced by applying a Laplacian of Gaussian filter in the spatial domain for each image, with a blob-shaped object as the impulse response. The search of implanted fiducials was then performed on a region of interest centered on the projection of the fiducial when it was within an open field including the case when it was close to the field edge or partially occluded by the leaves. A universal template formula was proposed for template matching and normalized cross correlation was employed for its simplicity and computational efficiency. The search region for every image was adaptively updated through a prediction model that employed the 3D position of the fiducial estimated from the localized positions in previous images. This prediction model allowed the actual fiducial position to be tracked dynamically and was used to initialize the search region. The artifacts caused by electronic interference during the acquisition were effectively removed. A score map was computed by combining both morphological information and image intensity. The pixel location with the highest score was selected as the detected fiducial position. The sets of cine MV images taken during treatment were analyzed with in-house developed software written in MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA). Five prostate patients were analyzed to assess the algorithm performance by measuring their positioning

  20. Validation of deformable image registration algorithms on CT images of ex vivo porcine bladders with fiducial markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, S.; Heethuis, S. E.; Rosario, T.; Hoogeman, M. S.; Bel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) is important in the implementation of image guided adaptive radiotherapy techniques for cancer in the pelvic region. Validation of algorithms is best performed on phantoms with fiducial markers undergoing controlled large deformations.

  1. Development and evaluation of automatic registration system for multi-range fiducials applied to augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake; Yang, Shoufeng; Yan, Weida; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an automatic registration system was developed that can measure 3 dimensional position and orientation of multi-range fiducials automatically using a camera, laser range finder and motion bases connected to a computer. Result of the experimental evaluation shows that the measurement takes about 50 seconds per marker and RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of the position and orientation measurement are 3.5 mm and 1.2 degrees respectively. (author)

  2. Development of a robust MRI fiducial system for automated fusion of MR-US abdominal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Christopher P; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Callstrom, Matthew R; Kurup, Anil N; Washburn, Michael; Trester, Pamela S; Fowler, Charles L; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J

    2018-05-21

    We present the development of a two-component magnetic resonance (MR) fiducial system, that is, a fiducial marker device combined with an auto-segmentation algorithm, designed to be paired with existing ultrasound probe tracking and image fusion technology to automatically fuse MR and ultrasound (US) images. The fiducial device consisted of four ~6.4 mL cylindrical wells filled with 1 g/L copper sulfate solution. The algorithm was designed to automatically segment the device in clinical abdominal MR images. The algorithm's detection rate and repeatability were investigated through a phantom study and in human volunteers. The detection rate was 100% in all phantom and human images. The center-of-mass of the fiducial device was robustly identified with maximum variations of 2.9 mm in position and 0.9° in angular orientation. In volunteer images, average differences between algorithm-measured inter-marker spacings and actual separation distances were 0.53 ± 0.36 mm. "Proof-of-concept" automatic MR-US fusions were conducted with sets of images from both a phantom and volunteer using a commercial prototype system, which was built based on the above findings. Image fusion accuracy was measured to be within 5 mm for breath-hold scanning. These results demonstrate the capability of this approach to automatically fuse US and MR images acquired across a wide range of clinical abdominal pulse sequences. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Development of wide area tracking method for augmented reality using multi-range fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake; Fujino, Hidenori; Yan, Weida; Yang, Shoufeng; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    A new fiducial marker for augmented reality was designed along with a method that recognizes the markers captured by a camera and calculates the relative position and orientation between the markers and the camera. These markers can be used at both long and short distances without increasing the number of markers pasted in the environment. Results of the experimental evaluation show that the new marker can be used in a larger area than circular markers and more stably than square markers. (author)

  4. Research of time fiducial and imaging VISAR laser for Shenguang-III laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhenguo; Tian, Xiaocheng; Zhou, Dandan; Zhu, Na; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Mingzhong; Xu, Dangpeng; Dang, Zhao; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo; Wang, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Time fiducial laser is an important tool for the precise measurement in high energy density physics experiments. The VISAR probe laser is also vital for shock wave diagnostics in ICF experiments. Here, time fiducial laser and VISAR light were generated from one source on SG-III laser facility. After generated from a 1064-nm DFB laser, the laser is modulated by an amplitude modulator driven by 10 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator. Using time division multiplexing technology, the ten-pulse time fiducial laser and the 20-ns VISAR pulse were split by a 1×2 multiplexer and then chosen by two acoustic optic modulators. Using the technique, cost of the system was reduced. The technologies adopted in the system also include pulse polarization stabilization, high precision fiber coupling and energy transmission. The time fiducial laser generated synchronized 12-beam 2ω and 4-beam 3ω laser, providing important reference marks for different detectors and making it convenient for the analysis of diagnostic data. After being amplified by fiber amplifiers and Nd:YAG rod amplifiers, the VISAR laser pulse was frequency-converted to 532-nm pulse by a thermally controlled LBO crystal with final output energy larger than 20 mJ. Finally, the green light was coupled into a 1-mm core diameter, multimode fused silica optical fiber and propagated to the imaging VISAR. The VISAR laser has been used in the VISAR diagnostic physics experiments. Shock wave loading and slowdown processes were measured. Function to measure velocity history of shock wave front movement in different kinds of materials was added to the SG-III laser facility.

  5. Determination of gold in gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keedy, C.R.; Parson, L.; Shen, J.

    1989-01-01

    The gold content of placer gold flakes and gold bearing ores was determined by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis, respectively. It was discovered that significant errors result in the instrumental method for gold flakes as small as 10 mg due to sample self-absorption of neutrons during irradiation. Reliable results were obtained for both ore samples and gold flakes by dissolving the samples in aqua regia prior to irradiation. (author) 7 refs.; 3 tabs

  6. MR-guided stereotactic neurosurgery-comparison of fiducial-based and anatomical landmark transformation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsche, S; Sauner, D; Maarouf, M; Hoevels, M; Luyken, K; Schulte, O; Lackner, K; Sturm, V; Treuer, H

    2004-01-01

    For application in magnetic resonance (MR) guided stereotactic neurosurgery, two methods for transformation of MR-image coordinates in stereotactic, frame-based coordinates exist: the direct stereotactic fiducial-based transformation method and the indirect anatomical landmark method. In contrast to direct stereotactic MR transformation, indirect transformation is based on anatomical landmark coregistration of stereotactic computerized tomography and non-stereotactic MR images. In a patient study, both transformation methods have been investigated with visual inspection and mutual information analysis. Comparison was done for our standard imaging protocol, including t2-weighted spin-echo as well as contrast enhanced t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. For t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, both methods showed almost similar and satisfying performance with a small, but significant advantage for fiducial-based transformation. In contrast, for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with more geometric distortions due to field inhomogenities and gradient nonlinearity than t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, mainly caused by a reduced bandwidth per pixel, anatomical landmark transformation delivered markedly better results. Here, fiducial-based transformation yielded results which are intolerable for stereotactic neurosurgery. Mean Euclidian distances between both transformation methods were 0.96 mm for t2-weighted spin-echo and 1.67 mm for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. Maximum deviations were 1.72 mm and 3.06 mm, respectively

  7. Lack of Correlation Between External Fiducial Positions and Internal Tumor Positions During Breath-Hold CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunjan, Sandeep; Starkschall, George; Prado, Karl; Dong Lei; Balter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: For thoracic tumors, if four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is unavailable, the internal margin can be estimated by use of breath-hold (BH) CT scans acquired at end inspiration (EI) and end expiration (EE). By use of external surrogates for tumor position, BH accuracy is estimated by minimizing the difference between respiratory extrema BH and mean equivalent-phase free breathing (FB) positions. We tested the assumption that an external surrogate for BH accuracy correlates with internal tumor positional accuracy during BH CT. Methods and Materials: In 16 lung cancer patients, 4DCT images, as well as BH CT images at EI and EE, were acquired. Absolute differences between BH and mean equivalent-phase (FB) positions were calculated for both external fiducials and gross tumor volume (GTV) centroids as metrics of external and internal BH accuracy, respectively, and the results were correlated. Results: At EI, the absolute difference between mean FB and BH fiducial displacement correlated poorly with the absolute difference between FB and BH GTV centroid positions on CT images (R 2 = 0.11). Similarly, at EE, the absolute difference between mean FB and BH fiducial displacements correlated poorly with the absolute difference between FB and BH GTV centroid positions on CT images (R 2 = 0.18). Conclusions: External surrogates for tumor position are not an accurate metric of BH accuracy for lung cancer patients. This implies that care should be taken when using such an approach because an incorrect internal margin could be generated.

  8. Robust and efficient fiducial tracking for augmented reality in HD-laparoscopic video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, M.; Groch, A.; Baumhauer, M.; Maier-Hein, L.; Teber, D.; Rassweiler, J.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wegner, In.

    2012-02-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a convenient way of porting information from medical images into the surgical field of view and can deliver valuable assistance to the surgeon, especially in laparoscopic procedures. In addition, high definition (HD) laparoscopic video devices are a great improvement over the previously used low resolution equipment. However, in AR applications that rely on real-time detection of fiducials from video streams, the demand for efficient image processing has increased due to the introduction of HD devices. We present an algorithm based on the well-known Conditional Density Propagation (CONDENSATION) algorithm which can satisfy these new demands. By incorporating a prediction around an already existing and robust segmentation algorithm, we can speed up the whole procedure while leaving the robustness of the fiducial segmentation untouched. For evaluation purposes we tested the algorithm on recordings from real interventions, allowing for a meaningful interpretation of the results. Our results show that we can accelerate the segmentation by a factor of 3.5 on average. Moreover, the prediction information can be used to compensate for fiducials that are temporarily occluded or out of scope, providing greater stability.

  9. MR-guided stereotactic neurosurgery-comparison of fiducial-based and anatomical landmark transformation approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsche, S [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Sauner, D [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, Jena (Germany); Maarouf, M [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Hoevels, M [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Luyken, K [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Schulte, O [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Lackner, K [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Sturm, V [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Treuer, H [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2004-06-21

    For application in magnetic resonance (MR) guided stereotactic neurosurgery, two methods for transformation of MR-image coordinates in stereotactic, frame-based coordinates exist: the direct stereotactic fiducial-based transformation method and the indirect anatomical landmark method. In contrast to direct stereotactic MR transformation, indirect transformation is based on anatomical landmark coregistration of stereotactic computerized tomography and non-stereotactic MR images. In a patient study, both transformation methods have been investigated with visual inspection and mutual information analysis. Comparison was done for our standard imaging protocol, including t2-weighted spin-echo as well as contrast enhanced t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. For t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, both methods showed almost similar and satisfying performance with a small, but significant advantage for fiducial-based transformation. In contrast, for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with more geometric distortions due to field inhomogenities and gradient nonlinearity than t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, mainly caused by a reduced bandwidth per pixel, anatomical landmark transformation delivered markedly better results. Here, fiducial-based transformation yielded results which are intolerable for stereotactic neurosurgery. Mean Euclidian distances between both transformation methods were 0.96 mm for t2-weighted spin-echo and 1.67 mm for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. Maximum deviations were 1.72 mm and 3.06 mm, respectively.

  10. W+W- production at the LHC. Fiducial cross sections and distributions in NNLO QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazzini, Massimiliano; Wiesemann, Marius; Kallweit, Stefan; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA; Pozzorini, Stefano; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA; Rathlev, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    We consider QCD radiative corrections to W + W - production at the LHC and present the first fully differential predictions for this process at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbation theory. Our computation consistently includes the leptonic decays of the W bosons, taking into account spin correlations, off-shell effects and non-resonant contributions. Detailed predictions are presented for the different-flavour channel pp→μ + e - ν μ anti ν e +X at √(s)=8 and 13 TeV. In particular, we discuss fiducial cross sections and distributions in the presence of standard selection cuts used in experimental W + W - and H→W + W - analyses at the LHC. The inclusive W + W - cross section receives large NNLO corrections, and, due to the presence of a jet veto, typical fiducial cuts have a sizeable influence on the behaviour of the perturbative expansion. The availability of differential NNLO predictions, both for inclusive and fiducial observables, will play an important role in the rich physics programme that is based on precision studies of W + W - signatures at the LHC.

  11. Visibility of fiducial markers used for image-guided radiation therapy on optical coherence tomography for registration with CT: An esophageal phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvehgaran, Pouya; Alderliesten, Tanja; Weda, Jelmer J A; de Bruin, Martijn; Faber, Dirk J; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; van Leeuwen, Ton G; van Herk, Marcel; de Boer, Johannes F

    2017-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is of interest to visualize microscopic esophageal tumor extensions to improve tumor delineation for radiation therapy (RT) planning. Fiducial marker placement is a common method to ensure target localization during planning and treatment. Visualization of these fiducial markers on OCT permits integrating OCT and computed tomography (CT) images used for RT planning via image registration. We studied the visibility of 13 (eight types) commercially available solid and liquid fiducial markers in OCT images at different depths using dedicated esophageal phantoms and evaluated marker placement depth in clinical practice. We designed and fabricated dedicated esophageal phantoms, in which three layers mimic the anatomical wall structures of a healthy human esophagus. We successfully implanted 13 commercially available fiducial markers that varied in diameter and material property at depths between 0.5 and 3.0 mm. The resulting esophageal phantoms were imaged with OCT, and marker visibility was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using the contrast-to-background-noise ratio (CNR). The CNR was defined as the difference between the mean intensity of the fiducial markers and the mean intensity of the background divided by the standard deviation of the background intensity. To determine whether, in current clinical practice, the implanted fiducial markers are within the OCT visualization range (up to 3.0 mm depth), we retrospectively measured the distance of 19 fiducial markers to the esophageal lumen on CT scans of 16 esophageal cancer patients. In the esophageal phantoms, all the included fiducial markers were visible on OCT at all investigated depths. Solid fiducial markers were better visible on OCT than liquid fiducial markers with a 1.74-fold higher CNR. Although fiducial marker identification per type and size was slightly easier for superficially implanted fiducial markers, we observed no difference in the ability of OCT to

  12. SU-E-T-507: Interfractional Variation of Fiducial Marker Position During HDR Brachytherapy with Cervical Interstitial Needle Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S; Kim, R; Benhabib, S; Araujo, J; Burnett, L; Duan, J; Popple, R; Wu, X; Cardan, R; Brezovich, I [UniversityAlabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: HDR brachytherapy using interstitial needle template for cervical cancer is commonly delivered in 4-5 fractions. Routine verification of needle positions before each fraction is often based on radiographic imaging of implanted fiducial markers. The current study evaluated interfractional displacement of implanted fiducial markers using CT images. Methods: 9 sequential patients with cervical interstitial needle implants were evaluated. The superior and inferior borders of the target volumes were defined by fiducial markers in planning CT. The implant position was verified with kV orthogonal images before each fraction. A second CT was acquired prior 3rd fraction (one or 2 days post planning CT). Distances from inferior and superior fiducial markers to pubic symphysis plane (perpendicular to vaginal obtulator)were measured. Distance from needle tip of a reference needle (next to the inferior marker) to the pubic symphysis plane was also determined. The difference in fiducial marker distance or needle tip distance between planning CT and CT prior 3rd fraction were measured to assess markers migration and needle displacement. Results: The mean inferior marker displacement was 4.5 mm and ranged 0.9 to 11.3 mm. The mean superior marker displacement was 2.7 mm and ranged 0 to 10.4 mm. There was a good association between inferior and superior marker displacement (r=0.95). Mean averaged inferior and superior marker displacement was 3.3 mm and ranged from 0.1 to 10.9 mm, with a standard deviation of 3.2 mm. The mean needle displacement was 5.6 mm and ranged 0.2 to 15.6 mm. Needle displacements were reduced (p<0.05) after adjusting according to needle-to-fiducials distance. Conclusion: There were small fiducial marker displacements between HDR fractions. Our study suggests a target margin of 9.7 mm to cover interfractional marker displacements (in 95% cases) for pretreatment verification based on radiographic imaging.

  13. Combined kV and MV imaging for real-time tracking of implanted fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, R. D.; Mao Weihua; Xing, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of intrafraction organ motion, target localization uncertainty can greatly hamper the advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). To minimize the adverse dosimetric effect caused by tumor motion, a real-time knowledge of the tumor position is required throughout the beam delivery process. The recent integration of onboard kV diagnostic imaging together with MV electronic portal imaging devices on linear accelerators can allow for real-time three-dimensional (3D) tumor position monitoring during a treatment delivery. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a near real-time 3D internal fiducial tracking system based on the combined use of kV and MV imaging. A commercially available radiotherapy system equipped with both kV and MV imaging systems was used in this work. A hardware video frame grabber was used to capture both kV and MV video streams simultaneously through independent video channels at 30 frames per second. The fiducial locations were extracted from the kV and MV images using a software tool. The geometric tracking capabilities of the system were evaluated using a pelvic phantom with embedded fiducials placed on a moveable stage. The maximum tracking speed of the kV/MV system is approximately 9 Hz, which is primarily limited by the frame rate of the MV imager. The geometric accuracy of the system is found to be on the order of less than 1 mm in all three spatial dimensions. The technique requires minimal hardware modification and is potentially useful for image-guided radiation therapy systems

  14. Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters Using Anti-fiducial Charged Current Events in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, Matthew Levy [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Abstract The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) obse rves the disappearance of muon neutrinos as they propagate in the long baseline Neutri nos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam. MINOS consists of two detectors. The near detector sam ples the initial composition of the beam. The far detector, 735 km away, looks for an energy-d ependent deficit in the neutrino spectrum. This energy-dependent deficit is interpreted as q uantum mechanical oscillations be- tween neutrino flavors. A measurement is made of the effective two-neutrino mixing parameters Δ m 2 ≈ Δ m 2 23 and sin 2 2 θ ≈ sin 2 2 θ 23 . The primary MINOS analysis uses charged current events in the fiducial volume of the far detector. This analysis uses the roughly equal-sized sample of events that fails the fiducial cut, consisting of interact ions outside the fiducial region of the detector and in the surrounding rock. These events provide a n independent and complementary measurement, albeit weaker due to incomplete reconstructi on of the events. This analysis reports on an exposure of 7 . 25 × 10 20 protons-on-target. Due to poor energy resolution, the meas urement of sin 2 2 θ is much weaker than established results, but the measuremen t of sin 2 2 θ > 0 . 56 at 90% confidence is consistent with the accepted value. The measur ement of Δ m 2 is much stronger. Assuming sin 2 2 θ = 1 , Δ m 2 = (2 . 20 ± 0 . 18[stat] ± 0 . 14[syst]) × 10 - -3 eV 2 .

  15. Influence of the number of elongated fiducial markers on the localization accuracy of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, Johan; De Bois, Josien; Van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Implanting fiducial markers for localization purposes has become an accepted practice in radiotherapy for prostate cancer. While many correction strategies correct for translations only, advanced correction protocols also require knowledge of the rotation of the prostate. For this purpose, typically, three or more markers are implanted. Elongated fiducial markers provide more information about their orientation than traditional round or cylindrical markers. Potentially, fewer markers are required. In this study, we evaluate the effect of the number of elongated markers on the localization accuracy of the prostate. To quantify the localization error, we developed a model that estimates, at arbitrary locations in the prostate, the registration error caused by translational and rotational uncertainties of the marker registration. Every combination of one, two and three markers was analysed for a group of 24 patients. The average registration errors at the prostate surface were 0.3–0.8 mm and 0.4–1 mm for registrations on, respectively, three markers and two markers located on different sides of the prostate. Substantial registration errors (2.0–2.2 mm) occurred at the prostate surface contralateral to the markers when two markers were implanted on the same side of the prostate or only one marker was used. In conclusion, there is no benefit in using three elongated markers: two markers accurately localize the prostate if they are implanted at some distance from each other. (paper)

  16. Comparison of respiratory surrogates for gated lung radiotherapy without internal fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korreman, S.; Mostafavi, H.; Le, Q.T.; Boyer, A.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to compare the ability of two respiratory surrogates to mimic actual lung tumor motion during audio coaching. The investigation employed video clips acquired after patients had had fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors to be used for image-guided stereoscopic radiotherapy. The positions of the markers in the clips were measured within the video frames and used as the standard for tumor volume motion. An external marker was tracked optically during the fluoroscopic acquisitions. An image correlation technique was developed to compute a gating signal from the fluoroscopic images. The correlation gating trace was similar to the optical gating trace in the phase regions of the respiratory cycle used for gating. A cross correlation analysis and comparison of the external optical marker gating with internal fluoroscopic gating was performed. The fluoroscopic image correlation surrogate was found to be superior to the external optical surrogate in the AP-views in four out of six cases. In one of the remaining two cases, the two surrogates performed comparably, while in the last case, the external fiducial trace performed best. It was concluded that fluoroscopic gating based on correlation of native image features in the fluoroscopic images will be adequate for respiratory gating

  17. Comparison of respiratory surrogates for gated lung radiotherapy without internal fiducials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korreman, S. [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Mostafavi, H. [Varian Medical Systems, Mountain View, CA (United States). Gintzon Technology Center; Le, Q.T.; Boyer, A. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2006-09-15

    An investigation was carried out to compare the ability of two respiratory surrogates to mimic actual lung tumor motion during audio coaching. The investigation employed video clips acquired after patients had had fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors to be used for image-guided stereoscopic radiotherapy. The positions of the markers in the clips were measured within the video frames and used as the standard for tumor volume motion. An external marker was tracked optically during the fluoroscopic acquisitions. An image correlation technique was developed to compute a gating signal from the fluoroscopic images. The correlation gating trace was similar to the optical gating trace in the phase regions of the respiratory cycle used for gating. A cross correlation analysis and comparison of the external optical marker gating with internal fluoroscopic gating was performed. The fluoroscopic image correlation surrogate was found to be superior to the external optical surrogate in the AP-views in four out of six cases. In one of the remaining two cases, the two surrogates performed comparably, while in the last case, the external fiducial trace performed best. It was concluded that fluoroscopic gating based on correlation of native image features in the fluoroscopic images will be adequate for respiratory gating.

  18. Characterization of Target Volume Changes During Breast Radiotherapy Using Implanted Fiducial Markers and Portal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Emma J.; Donovan, Ellen M.; Yarnold, John R.; Coles, Charlotte E.; Evans, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine target volume changes by using volume and shape analysis for patients receiving radiotherapy after breast conservation surgery and to compare different methods of automatically identifying changes in target volume, position, size, and shape during radiotherapy for use in adaptive radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven patients undergoing whole breast radiotherapy had fiducial markers sutured into the excision cavity at the time of surgery. Patients underwent imaging using computed tomography (for planning and at the end of treatment) and during treatment by using portal imaging. A marker volume (MV) was defined by using the measured marker positions. Changes in both individual marker positions and MVs were identified manually and using six automated similarity indices. Comparison of the two types of analysis (manual and automated) was undertaken to establish whether similarity indices can be used to automatically detect changes in target volumes. Results: Manual analysis showed that 3 patients had significant MV reduction. This analysis also showed significant changes between planning computed tomography and the start of treatment for 9 patients, including single and multiple marker movement, deformation (shape change), and rotation. Four of the six similarity indices were shown to be sensitive to the observed changes. Conclusions: Significant changes in size, shape, and position occur to the fiducial marker-defined volume. Four similarity indices can be used to identify these changes, and a protocol for their use in adaptive radiotherapy is suggested

  19. Influence of the number of elongated fiducial markers on the localization accuracy of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Johan; de Bois, Josien; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2012-10-01

    Implanting fiducial markers for localization purposes has become an accepted practice in radiotherapy for prostate cancer. While many correction strategies correct for translations only, advanced correction protocols also require knowledge of the rotation of the prostate. For this purpose, typically, three or more markers are implanted. Elongated fiducial markers provide more information about their orientation than traditional round or cylindrical markers. Potentially, fewer markers are required. In this study, we evaluate the effect of the number of elongated markers on the localization accuracy of the prostate. To quantify the localization error, we developed a model that estimates, at arbitrary locations in the prostate, the registration error caused by translational and rotational uncertainties of the marker registration. Every combination of one, two and three markers was analysed for a group of 24 patients. The average registration errors at the prostate surface were 0.3-0.8 mm and 0.4-1 mm for registrations on, respectively, three markers and two markers located on different sides of the prostate. Substantial registration errors (2.0-2.2 mm) occurred at the prostate surface contralateral to the markers when two markers were implanted on the same side of the prostate or only one marker was used. In conclusion, there is no benefit in using three elongated markers: two markers accurately localize the prostate if they are implanted at some distance from each other.

  20. Consequences of fiducial marker error on three-dimensional computer animation of the temporomandibular joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, J. Ken, III; Boston, J. Robert; Rudy, Thomas E.; Greco, Carol M.; Zaki, Hussein S.

    2001-05-01

    Jaw motion has been used to diagnose jaw pain patients, and we have developed a 3D computer animation technique to study jaw motion. A customized dental clutch was worn during motion, and its consistent and rigid placement was a concern. The experimental protocol involved mandibular movements (vertical opening) and MR imaging. The clutch contained three motion markers used to collect kinematic data and four MR markers used as fiducial markers in the MR images. Fiducial marker misplacement was mimicked by analytically perturbing the position of the MR markers +/- 2, +/- 4, and +/- 6 degrees in the three anatomical planes. The percent difference between the original and perturbed MR marker position was calculated for kinematic parameters. The maximum difference across all perturbations for axial rotation, coronal rotation, sagittal rotation, axial translation, coronal translation, and sagittal translation were 176.85%, 191.84%, 0.64%, 9.76%, 80.75%, and 8.30%, respectively, for perturbing all MR markers, and 86.47%, 93.44%, 0.23%, 7.08%, 42.64%, and 13.64%, respectively, for perturbing one MR marker. The parameters representing movement in the sagittal plane, the dominant plane in vertical opening, were determined to be reasonably robust, while secondary movements in the axial and coronal planes were not considered robust.

  1. Fiducial marker guided stereotactic liver radiotherapy: Is a time delay between marker implantation and planning CT needed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Esben S; Bertholet, Jenny; Høyer, Morten

    2016-01-01

    To minimize the risk of marker migration in fiducial marker guided liver SBRT it is common to add a delay of a week between marker implantation and planning CT. This study found that such a delay is unnecessary and could be avoided to minimize the treatment preparation time.......To minimize the risk of marker migration in fiducial marker guided liver SBRT it is common to add a delay of a week between marker implantation and planning CT. This study found that such a delay is unnecessary and could be avoided to minimize the treatment preparation time....

  2. SU-C-210-04: Considerable Pancreatic Tumor Motion During Breath-Hold Measured Using Intratumoral Fiducials On Fluoroscopic Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lens, E; Horst, A van der; Versteijne, E; Tienhoven, G van; Bel, A [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Using a breath hold (BH) technique during radiotherapy of pancreatic tumors is expected to reduce intra-fractional motion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tumor motion during BH. Methods: In this pilot study, we included 8 consecutive pancreatic cancer patients. All had 2– 4 intratumoral gold fiducials. Patients were asked to perform 3 consecutive 30-second end-inhale BHs on day 5, 10 and 15 of their three-week treatment. During BH, airflow through a mouthpiece was measured using a spirometer. Any inadvertent flow of air during BH was monitored for all patients. We measured tumor motion on lateral fluoroscopic movies (57 in total) made during BH. In each movie the fiducials as a group were tracked over time in superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction using 2-D image correlation between consecutive frames. We determined for each patient the range of intra-BH motion over all movies; we also determined the absolute means and standard deviations (SDs) for the entire patient group. Additionally, we investigated the relation between inadvertent airflow during BH and the intra-BH motion. Results: We found intra-BH tumor motion of up to 12.5 mm (range, 1.0–12.5 mm) in SI direction and up to 8.0 mm (range, 1.0–8.0 mm) in AP direction. The absolute mean motion over the patient population was 4.7 (SD: 3.0) mm and 2.8 (SD: 1.2) mm in the SI and AP direction, respectively. Patients were able to perform stable consecutive BHs; during only 20% of the movies we found very small airflows (≤ 65 ml). These were mostly stepwise in nature and could not explain the continuous tumor motions we observed. Conclusion: We found substantial (up to 12.5 mm) pancreatic tumor motion during BHs. We found minimal inadvertent airflow, seen only during a minority of BHs, and this did not explain the obtained results. This work was supported by the foundation Bergh in het Zadel through the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF Kankerbestrijding) project No. UVA 2011-5271.

  3. Metastatic tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma masquerading as a pancreatic cystic tumor and diagnosed by EUS-guided FNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Ryan; Andrawes, Sherif A; Hamele-Bena, Diane; Tong, Guo-Xia

    2017-11-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the pancreas is uncommon and head and neck squamous carcinoma metastatic to the pancreas is extremely rare. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the pancreas presents a unique diagnostic challenge: in addition to mimicking the rare primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas based on cytologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features, it may be mistaken for a cystic neoplasm of the pancreas because of its high predilection for cystic degeneration in metastatic sites. Herein, we report a case of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma with a cystic pancreatic metastasis diagnosed by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA). This represents a third reported case of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the pancreas from the head and neck region. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of EUS-FNA during evaluation of pancreatic cystic lesion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rescue EUS-guided intrahepatic biliary drainage for malignant hilar biliary stricture after failed transpapillary re-intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaga, Kosuke; Takenaka, Mamoru; Kitano, Masayuki; Chiba, Yasutaka; Imai, Hajime; Yamao, Kentaro; Kamata, Ken; Miyata, Takeshi; Omoto, Shunsuke; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Nishida, Naoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2017-11-01

    Treatment of unresectable malignant hilar biliary stricture (UMHBS) is challenging, especially after failure of repeated transpapillary endoscopic stenting. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided intrahepatic biliary drainage (EUS-IBD) is a recent technique for intrahepatic biliary decompression, but indications for its use for complex hilar strictures have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of EUS-IBD for UMHBS after failed transpapillary re-intervention. Retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with UMHBS of Bismuth II grade or higher who, between December 2008 and May 2016, underwent EUS-IBD after failed repeated transpapillary interventions. The technical success, clinical success, and complication rates were evaluated. Factors associated with clinical ineffectiveness of EUS-IBD were explored. A total of 30 patients (19 women, median age 66 years [range 52-87]) underwent EUS-IBD for UMHBS during the study period. Hilar biliary stricture morphology was classified as Bismuth II, III, or IV in 5, 13, and 12 patients, respectively. The median number of preceding endoscopic interventions was 4 (range 2-14). EUS-IBD was required because the following procedures failed: duodenal scope insertion (n = 4), accessing the papilla after duodenal stent insertion (n = 5), or achieving desired intrahepatic biliary drainage (n = 21). Technical success with EUS-IBD was achieved in 29 of 30 patients (96.7%) and clinical success was attained in 22 of these 29 (75.9%). Mild peritonitis occurred in three of 30 (10%) and was managed conservatively. Stent dysfunction occurred in 23.3% (7/30). There was no procedure-related mortality. On multivariable analysis, Bismuth IV stricture predicted clinical ineffectiveness (odds ratio = 12.7, 95% CI 1.18-135.4, P = 0.035). EUS-IBD may be a feasible and effective rescue alternative with few major complications after failed transpapillary endoscopic re-intervention in patients with UMHBS, particularly for Bismuth II or III strictures.

  5. Transrectal EUS-guided FNA biopsy of a presacral chordoma-report of a case and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus Gottlieb; Paul H Lin; David M Liu; Karl Anders

    2008-01-01

    Chordomas are rare tumors which originate from the remnants of the notochord.These tumors are locally aggressive and have a predilection for the ends of the axial skeleton.An important prerequisite for optimal management of these tumors is a correct preoperative diagnosis.The present case is the first report of the use of endoscopic ultrasound to obtain transrectal fine needle aspiration biopsy of a presacral chordoma.A review of the prior computer tomography (CT) scans allowed us to calculate the tumor volume doubling time (18.3 mo).Transrectal biopsy of chordomas is controversial,however we believe that such concerns are not justified.

  6. Multivariate analysis for the estimation of target localization errors in fiducial marker-based radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Masanori [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: m-nkmr@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Akimoto, Mami; Ueki, Nami; Yamada, Masahiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Tanabe, Hiroaki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Kokubo, Masaki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe 650-0047, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Itoh, Akio [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the target localization error (TLE) in terms of the distance between the target and the localization point estimated from the surrogates (|TMD|), the average of respiratory motion for the surrogates and the target (|aRM|), and the number of fiducial markers used for estimating the target (n). Methods: This study enrolled 17 lung cancer patients who subsequently underwent four fractions of real-time tumor tracking irradiation. Four or five fiducial markers were implanted around the lung tumor. The three-dimensional (3D) distance between the tumor and markers was at maximum 58.7 mm. One of the markers was used as the target (P{sub t}), and those markers with a 3D |TMD{sub n}| ≤ 58.7 mm at end-exhalation were then selected. The estimated target position (P{sub e}) was calculated from a localization point consisting of one to three markers except P{sub t}. Respiratory motion for P{sub t} and P{sub e} was defined as the root mean square of each displacement, and |aRM| was calculated from the mean value. TLE was defined as the root mean square of each difference between P{sub t} and P{sub e} during the monitoring of each fraction. These procedures were performed repeatedly using the remaining markers. To provide the best guidance on the answer with n and |TMD|, fiducial markers with a 3D |aRM ≥ 10 mm were selected. Finally, a total of 205, 282, and 76 TLEs that fulfilled the 3D |TMD| and 3D |aRM| criteria were obtained for n = 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was used to evaluate TLE as a function of |TMD| and |aRM| in each n. Results: |TMD| for n = 1 was larger than that for n = 3. Moreover, |aRM| was almost constant for all n, indicating a similar scale for the marker’s motion near the lung tumor. MRA showed that |aRM| in the left–right direction was the major cause of TLE; however, the contribution made little difference to the 3D TLE because of the small amount of motion in the left–right direction. The TLE

  7. SU-F-P-40: Analysis of Pelvic Lymph Node Margin Using Prostate Fiducial Markers, for SBRT Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J; Castro Pena, P; Garrigo, E; Zunino, S; Venencia, C [Instituto de Radioterapia - Fundacion Marie Curie, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The use of fiducials markers in prostate treatment allows a precise localization of this volume. Typical prostate SBRT margins with fiducials markers are 5mm in all directions, except toward the rectum, where 3mm is used. For some patients nearby pelvic lymph nodes with 5mm margin need to be irradiate assuming that its localization is linked to the prostate fiducial markers instead of bony anatomy. The purpose of this work was to analyze the geometric impact of locate the lymph node regions through the patient positioning by prostate fiducial markers. Methods: 10 patients with prostate SBRT with lymph nodes irradiation were selected. Each patient had 5 implanted titanium fiducial markers. A Novalis TX (BrainLAB-Varian) with ExacTrac and aSi1000 portal image was used. Treatment plan uses 11 beams with a dose prescription (D95%) of 40Gy to the prostate and 25Gy to the lymph node in 5 fractions. Daily positioning was carried out by ExacTrac system based on the implanted fiducials as the reference treatment position; further position verification was performed using the ExacTrac and two portal images (gantry angle 0 and 90) based on bony structures. Comparison between reference position with bony based ExacTrac and portal image localization, was done for each treatment fraction Results: A total of 50 positioning analysis were done. The average discrepancy between reference treatment position and ExacTrac based on bony anatomy (pubic area) was 4.2mm [0.3; 11.2]. The discrepancy was <5mm in 61% of the cases and <9mm in 92%. Using portal images the average discrepancy was 3.7mm [0.0; 11.1]. The discrepancy was <5mm in 69% of the cases and <9mm in 96%. Conclusion: Localizing lymph node by prostate fiducial markers may produce large discrepancy as large as 11mm compared to bony based localization. Dosimetric impact of this discrepancy should be studied.

  8. A new fiducial marker for Image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer: Clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Holmberg, Mats; Hoejkjaer Larsen, Erik; Fabrin, Knud; Fisker, Rune V. (Dept. of Medical Physics, Oncology, Aalborg Hospital (Denmark))

    2008-08-15

    Background. A new fiducial marker for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) based on a removable prostate stent made of Ni Ti has been developed during two previous clinical feasibility studies. The marker is currently being evaluated for IGRT treatment in a third clinical study. Method. The new marker is used to co-register MR and planning CT scans with high accuracy in the region around the prostate. The co-registered MR-CT volumes are used for delineation of GTV before planning. In each treatment session the IGRT system is used to position the patient before treatment. The IGRT system use a stereo pair of kV images matched to corresponding Digital Reconstructed Radiograms (DRR) from the planning CT scan. The match is done using mutual gray scale information. The pair of DRR's for positioning is created in the IGRT system with a threshold in the Look Up Table (LUT). The resulting match provides the necessary shift in couch coordinates to position the stent with an accuracy of 1-2 mm within the planned position. Results. At the present time 39 patients have received the new marker. Of the 39 one has migrated to the bladder. Deviations of more than 5 mm between CTV outlined on CT and MR are seen in several cases and in anterior-posterior (AP), left-right (LR) and cranial-caudal (CC) directions. Intra-fraction translation movements up to +/- 3 mm are seen as well. As the stent is also clearly visible on images taken with high voltage x-rays using electronic portal images devices (EPID), the positioning has been verified independently of the IGRT system. Discussion. The preliminary result of an on going clinical study of a Ni Ti prostate stent, potentially a new fiducial marker for image guided radiotherapy, looks promising. The risk of migration appears to be much lower compared to previous designs

  9. A new fiducial marker for Image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer: clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Holmberg, Mats; Højkjaer Larsen, Erik; Fabrin, Knud; Fisker, Rune V

    2008-01-01

    A new fiducial marker for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) based on a removable prostate stent made of Ni Ti has been developed during two previous clinical feasibility studies. The marker is currently being evaluated for IGRT treatment in a third clinical study. The new marker is used to co-register MR and planning CT scans with high accuracy in the region around the prostate. The co-registered MR-CT volumes are used for delineation of GTV before planning. In each treatment session the IGRT system is used to position the patient before treatment. The IGRT system use a stereo pair of kV images matched to corresponding Digital Reconstructed Radiograms (DRR) from the planning CT scan. The match is done using mutual gray scale information. The pair of DRR's for positioning is created in the IGRT system with a threshold in the Look Up Table (LUT). The resulting match provides the necessary shift in couch coordinates to position the stent with an accuracy of 1-2 mm within the planned position. At the present time 39 patients have received the new marker. Of the 39 one has migrated to the bladder. Deviations of more than 5 mm between CTV outlined on CT and MR are seen in several cases and in anterior-posterior (AP), left-right (LR) and cranial-caudal (CC) directions. Intra-fraction translation movements up to +/- 3 mm are seen as well. As the stent is also clearly visible on images taken with high voltage x-rays using electronic portal images devices (EPID), the positioning has been verified independently of the IGRT system. The preliminary result of an on going clinical study of a Ni Ti prostate stent, potentially a new fiducial marker for image guided radiotherapy, looks promising. The risk of migration appears to be much lower compared to previous designs.

  10. Automatic tracking of implanted fiducial markers in cone beam CT projection images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, T. E.; Skalski, A.; Matuszewski, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes a novel method for simultaneous intrafraction tracking of multiple fiducial markers. Although the proposed method is generic and can be adopted for a number of applications including fluoroscopy based patient position monitoring and gated radiotherapy, the tracking results presented in this paper are specific to tracking fiducial markers in a sequence of cone beam CT projection images. Methods: The proposed method is accurate and robust thanks to utilizing the mean shift and random sampling principles, respectively. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated with qualitative and quantitative methods, using data from two pancreatic and one prostate cancer patients and a moving phantom. The ground truth, for quantitative evaluation, was calculated based on manual tracking preformed by three observers. Results: The average dispersion of marker position error calculated from the tracking results for pancreas data (six markers tracked over 640 frames, 3840 marker identifications) was 0.25 mm (at iscoenter), compared with an average dispersion for the manual ground truth estimated at 0.22 mm. For prostate data (three markers tracked over 366 frames, 1098 marker identifications), the average error was 0.34 mm. The estimated tracking error in the pancreas data was < 1 mm (2 pixels) in 97.6% of cases where nearby image clutter was detected and in 100.0% of cases with no nearby image clutter. Conclusions: The proposed method has accuracy comparable to that of manual tracking and, in combination with the proposed batch postprocessing, superior robustness. Marker tracking in cone beam CT (CBCT) projections is useful for a variety of purposes, such as providing data for assessment of intrafraction motion, target tracking during rotational treatment delivery, motion correction of CBCT, and phase sorting for 4D CBCT.

  11. Multiple ECG Fiducial Points-Based Random Binary Sequence Generation for Securing Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guanglou; Fang, Gengfa; Shankaran, Rajan; Orgun, Mehmet A; Zhou, Jie; Qiao, Li; Saleem, Kashif

    2017-05-01

    Generating random binary sequences (BSes) is a fundamental requirement in cryptography. A BS is a sequence of N bits, and each bit has a value of 0 or 1. For securing sensors within wireless body area networks (WBANs), electrocardiogram (ECG)-based BS generation methods have been widely investigated in which interpulse intervals (IPIs) from each heartbeat cycle are processed to produce BSes. Using these IPI-based methods to generate a 128-bit BS in real time normally takes around half a minute. In order to improve the time efficiency of such methods, this paper presents an ECG multiple fiducial-points based binary sequence generation (MFBSG) algorithm. The technique of discrete wavelet transforms is employed to detect arrival time of these fiducial points, such as P, Q, R, S, and T peaks. Time intervals between them, including RR, RQ, RS, RP, and RT intervals, are then calculated based on this arrival time, and are used as ECG features to generate random BSes with low latency. According to our analysis on real ECG data, these ECG feature values exhibit the property of randomness and, thus, can be utilized to generate random BSes. Compared with the schemes that solely rely on IPIs to generate BSes, this MFBSG algorithm uses five feature values from one heart beat cycle, and can be up to five times faster than the solely IPI-based methods. So, it achieves a design goal of low latency. According to our analysis, the complexity of the algorithm is comparable to that of fast Fourier transforms. These randomly generated ECG BSes can be used as security keys for encryption or authentication in a WBAN system.

  12. Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freilich, Jessica M.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Shi, Ellen J.; Hunt, Dylan C.; Gupta, Shilpa; Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richard.wilder@moffitt.org [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder cancer; Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost) on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06). In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol: Conclusions: Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost. (author)

  13. Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Freilich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT for bladder cancer.Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol.Results Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06. In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol.Conclusions Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost.

  14. A new fiducial marker for Image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer: Clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Holmberg, Mats; Hoejkjaer Larsen, Erik; Fabrin, Knud; Fisker, Rune V.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A new fiducial marker for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) based on a removable prostate stent made of Ni Ti has been developed during two previous clinical feasibility studies. The marker is currently being evaluated for IGRT treatment in a third clinical study. Method. The new marker is used to co-register MR and planning CT scans with high accuracy in the region around the prostate. The co-registered MR-CT volumes are used for delineation of GTV before planning. In each treatment session the IGRT system is used to position the patient before treatment. The IGRT system use a stereo pair of kV images matched to corresponding Digital Reconstructed Radiograms (DRR) from the planning CT scan. The match is done using mutual gray scale information. The pair of DRR's for positioning is created in the IGRT system with a threshold in the Look Up Table (LUT). The resulting match provides the necessary shift in couch coordinates to position the stent with an accuracy of 1-2 mm within the planned position. Results. At the present time 39 patients have received the new marker. Of the 39 one has migrated to the bladder. Deviations of more than 5 mm between CTV outlined on CT and MR are seen in several cases and in anterior-posterior (AP), left-right (LR) and cranial-caudal (CC) directions. Intra-fraction translation movements up to +/- 3 mm are seen as well. As the stent is also clearly visible on images taken with high voltage x-rays using electronic portal images devices (EPID), the positioning has been verified independently of the IGRT system. Discussion. The preliminary result of an on going clinical study of a Ni Ti prostate stent, potentially a new fiducial marker for image guided radiotherapy, looks promising. The risk of migration appears to be much lower compared to previous designs

  15. Frontiers in Gold Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Basic chemistry of gold tells us that it can bond to sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands. The Frontiers in Gold Chemistry Special Issue covers gold complexes bonded to the different donors and their fascinating applications. This issue covers both basic chemistry studies of gold complexes and their contemporary applications in medicine, materials chemistry, and optical sensors. There is a strong belief that aurophilicity plays a major role in the unending applications of g...

  16. TH-CD-207A-09: Stay On Target: Dynamic, Patient-Specific Templates of Fiducial Marker Clusters for IGRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W; Miften, M; Jones, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Pancreatic SBRT relies on extremely accurate delivery of ablative radiation doses to the target, and intra-fractional tracking of fiducial markers can facilitate improvements in dose delivery. However, this requires algorithms that are able to find fiducial markers with high speed and accuracy. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel marker tracking algorithm that is robust against many of the common errors seen with traditional template matching techniques. Methods: Using CBCT projection images, a method was developed to create detailed template images of fiducial marker clusters without prior knowledge of the number of markers, their positions, or their orientations. Briefly, the method (i) enhances markers in projection images, (ii) stabilizes the cluster’s position, (iii) reconstructs the cluster in 3D, and (iv) precomputes a set of static template images dependent on gantry angle. Furthermore, breathing data were used to produce 4D reconstructions of clusters, yielding dynamic template images dependent on gantry angle and breathing amplitude. To test these two approaches, static and dynamic templates were used to track the motion of marker clusters in more than 66,000 projection images from 75 CBCT scans of 15 pancreatic SBRT patients. Results: For both static and dynamic templates, the new technique was able to locate marker clusters present in projection images 100% of the time. The algorithm was also able to correctly locate markers in several instances where only some of the markers were visible due to insufficient field-of-view. In cases where clusters exhibited deformation and/or rotation during breathing, dynamic templates resulted in cross-correlation scores up to 70% higher than static templates. Conclusion: Patient-specific templates provided complete tracking of fiducial marker clusters in CBCT scans, and dynamic templates helped to provide higher cross-correlation scores for deforming/rotating clusters. This novel algorithm

  17. TH-CD-207A-09: Stay On Target: Dynamic, Patient-Specific Templates of Fiducial Marker Clusters for IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, W; Miften, M; Jones, B [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Pancreatic SBRT relies on extremely accurate delivery of ablative radiation doses to the target, and intra-fractional tracking of fiducial markers can facilitate improvements in dose delivery. However, this requires algorithms that are able to find fiducial markers with high speed and accuracy. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel marker tracking algorithm that is robust against many of the common errors seen with traditional template matching techniques. Methods: Using CBCT projection images, a method was developed to create detailed template images of fiducial marker clusters without prior knowledge of the number of markers, their positions, or their orientations. Briefly, the method (i) enhances markers in projection images, (ii) stabilizes the cluster’s position, (iii) reconstructs the cluster in 3D, and (iv) precomputes a set of static template images dependent on gantry angle. Furthermore, breathing data were used to produce 4D reconstructions of clusters, yielding dynamic template images dependent on gantry angle and breathing amplitude. To test these two approaches, static and dynamic templates were used to track the motion of marker clusters in more than 66,000 projection images from 75 CBCT scans of 15 pancreatic SBRT patients. Results: For both static and dynamic templates, the new technique was able to locate marker clusters present in projection images 100% of the time. The algorithm was also able to correctly locate markers in several instances where only some of the markers were visible due to insufficient field-of-view. In cases where clusters exhibited deformation and/or rotation during breathing, dynamic templates resulted in cross-correlation scores up to 70% higher than static templates. Conclusion: Patient-specific templates provided complete tracking of fiducial marker clusters in CBCT scans, and dynamic templates helped to provide higher cross-correlation scores for deforming/rotating clusters. This novel algorithm

  18. Gold in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Many plants have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in plants

  19. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

      Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...... of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...

  20. Fluoroscopic gating without implanted fiducial markers for lung cancer radiotherapy based on support vector machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ying; Dy, Jennifer G; Alexander, Brian; Jiang, Steve B

    2008-01-01

    Various problems with the current state-of-the-art techniques for gated radiotherapy have prevented this new treatment modality from being widely implemented in clinical routine. These problems are caused mainly by applying various external respiratory surrogates. There might be large uncertainties in deriving the tumor position from external respiratory surrogates. While tracking implanted fiducial markers has sufficient accuracy, this procedure may not be widely accepted due to the risk of pneumothorax. Previously, we have developed a technique to generate gating signals from fluoroscopic images without implanted fiducial markers using template matching methods (Berbeco et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4481-90, Cui et al 2007b Phys. Med. Biol. 52 741-55). In this note, our main contribution is to provide a totally different new view of the gating problem by recasting it as a classification problem. Then, we solve this classification problem by a well-studied powerful classification method called a support vector machine (SVM). Note that the goal of an automated gating tool is to decide when to turn the beam ON or OFF. We treat ON and OFF as the two classes in our classification problem. We create our labeled training data during the patient setup session by utilizing the reference gating signal, manually determined by a radiation oncologist. We then pre-process these labeled training images and build our SVM prediction model. During treatment delivery, fluoroscopic images are continuously acquired, pre-processed and sent as an input to the SVM. Finally, our SVM model will output the predicted labels as gating signals. We test the proposed technique on five sequences of fluoroscopic images from five lung cancer patients against the reference gating signal as ground truth. We compare the performance of the SVM to our previous template matching method (Cui et al 2007b Phys. Med. Biol. 52 741-55). We find that the SVM is slightly more accurate on average (1-3%) than

  1. Assessment of a daily online implanted fiducial marker-guided prostate radiotherapy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, P B; Dahl, K; Ebert, M A; White, M; Wratten, C; Ostwald, P; Pichler, P; Denham, J W

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether intrafraction prostate motion can affect the accuracy of online prostate positioning using implanted fiducial markers and to determine the effect of prostate rotations on the accuracy of the software-predicted set-up correction shifts. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts before treatment. Verification images were also acquired during treatment to assess whether intrafraction motion had occurred. A limitation of the online image registration software is that it does not allow for in-plane prostate rotations (evident on lateral portal images) when aligning marker positions. The accuracy of couch shifts was assessed by repeating the registration measurements with separate software that incorporates full in-plane prostate rotations. Additional treatment time required for online positioning was also measured. For the patient group, the overall postalignment systematic prostate errors were less than 1.5 mm (1 standard deviation) in all directions (range 0.2-3.9 mm). The random prostate errors ranged from 0.8 to 3.3 mm (1 standard deviation). One patient exhibited intrafraction prostate motion, resulting in a postalignment prostate set-up error of more than 10 mm for one fraction. In 14 of 35 fractions, the postalignment prostate set-up error was greater than 5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction for this patient. Maximum prostate rotations measured from the lateral images varied from 2 degrees to 20 degrees for the patients. The differences between set-up shifts determined by the online software without in-plane rotations to align markers, and with rotations applied, was less than 1 mm (root mean square), with a maximum difference of 4.1 mm. Intrafraction prostate motion was found to reduce the effectiveness of the online set-up for one of the patients. A larger study is required

  2. Accuracy of heart rate variability estimation by photoplethysmography using an smartphone: Processing optimization and fiducial point selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Mileo, V; Guede-Fernandez, F; Fernandez-Chimeno, M; Ramos-Castro, J; Garcia-Gonzalez, M A

    2015-08-01

    This work compares several fiducial points to detect the arrival of a new pulse in a photoplethysmographic signal using the built-in camera of smartphones or a photoplethysmograph. Also, an optimization process for the signal preprocessing stage has been done. Finally we characterize the error produced when we use the best cutoff frequencies and fiducial point for smartphones and photopletysmograph and compare if the error of smartphones can be reasonably be explained by variations in pulse transit time. The results have revealed that the peak of the first derivative and the minimum of the second derivative of the pulse wave have the lowest error. Moreover, for these points, high pass filtering the signal between 0.1 to 0.8 Hz and low pass around 2.7 Hz or 3.5 Hz are the best cutoff frequencies. Finally, the error in smartphones is slightly higher than in a photoplethysmograph.

  3. Clinical outcome of fiducial-less CyberKnife radiosurgery for stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, In Hye; Song, Si Yeol; Cho, Byung Chul; Kwak, Jung Won; Jung, Nuri Hyun; Kim, Su Ssan; Choi, Eun Kyung; Jung, Jin Hong; Je, Hyoung Uk; Choi, Won Sik

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment results in early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients who have undergone fiducial-less CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS). From June 2011 to November 2013, 58 patients underwent CKRS at Asan Medical Center for stage I lung cancer. After excluding 14 patients, we retrospectively reviewed the records of the remaining 44 patients. All analyses were performed using SPSS ver. 21. The median age at diagnosis was 75 years. Most patients had inoperable primary lung cancer with a poor pulmonary function test with comorbidity or old age. The clinical stage was IA in 30 patients (68.2%), IB in 14 (31.8%). The mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (range, 1.2 to 4.8 cm), and the tumor was smaller than 2 cm in 12 patients (27.3%). The radiation dose given was 48-60 Gy in 3-4 fractions. In a median follow-up of 23.1 months, local recurrence occurred in three patients (2-year local recurrence-free survival rate, 90.4%) and distant metastasis occurred in 13 patients. All patients tolerated the radiosurgery well, only two patients developing grade 3 dyspnea. The most common complications were radiation-induced fibrosis and pneumonitis. Eight patients died due to cancer progression. The results showed that fiducial-less CKRS shows comparable local tumor control and survival rates to those of LINAC-based SABR or CKRS with a fiducial marker. Thus, fiducial-less CKRS using Xsight lung tracking system can be effectively and safely performed for patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer without any risk of procedure-related complication

  4. Measurement of fiducial, differential and production cross sections in the H to gamma gamma decay channel with ATLAS (YSF talk)

    CERN Document Server

    Menary, Stephen Burns; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The production, simplified template (STXS), fiducial and differential cross section measurements are presented in the $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ channel using $36.1~\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the ATLAS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\text{TeV}$. Limits are placed on the strengths of several dimension-6 effective Lagrangian terms using the Strongly Interacting Light Higgs (SILH) basis.

  5. Clinical outcome of fiducial-less CyberKnife radiosurgery for stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Hye; Song, Si Yeol; Cho, Byung Chul; Kwak, Jung Won; Jung, Nuri Hyun; Kim, Su Ssan; Choi, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin Hong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Je, Hyoung Uk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Sik [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Uiversity of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the treatment results in early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients who have undergone fiducial-less CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS). From June 2011 to November 2013, 58 patients underwent CKRS at Asan Medical Center for stage I lung cancer. After excluding 14 patients, we retrospectively reviewed the records of the remaining 44 patients. All analyses were performed using SPSS ver. 21. The median age at diagnosis was 75 years. Most patients had inoperable primary lung cancer with a poor pulmonary function test with comorbidity or old age. The clinical stage was IA in 30 patients (68.2%), IB in 14 (31.8%). The mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (range, 1.2 to 4.8 cm), and the tumor was smaller than 2 cm in 12 patients (27.3%). The radiation dose given was 48-60 Gy in 3-4 fractions. In a median follow-up of 23.1 months, local recurrence occurred in three patients (2-year local recurrence-free survival rate, 90.4%) and distant metastasis occurred in 13 patients. All patients tolerated the radiosurgery well, only two patients developing grade 3 dyspnea. The most common complications were radiation-induced fibrosis and pneumonitis. Eight patients died due to cancer progression. The results showed that fiducial-less CKRS shows comparable local tumor control and survival rates to those of LINAC-based SABR or CKRS with a fiducial marker. Thus, fiducial-less CKRS using Xsight lung tracking system can be effectively and safely performed for patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer without any risk of procedure-related complication.

  6. Gold and uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.S.; Davidson, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A process for extracting gold and uranium from an ore containing them both comprising the steps of pulping the finely comminuted ore with a suitable cyanide solution at an alkaline pH, acidifying the pulp for uranium dissolution, adding carbon activated for gold recovery to the pulp at a suitable stage, separating the loaded activated carbon from the pulp, and recovering gold from the activated carbon and uranium from solution

  7. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash University, Physics Department (Australia)

    1998-12-15

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed.

  8. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed

  9. Fake Magnets, Real Physics: Using touch tables with fiducials to create interactive experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, J. B.; Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Interactive Learning at the Space Science Institute has been producing space weather related activities for both museums and online for over a decade (see, for instance, www.spaceweathercenter.org). Recently we have begun exploring the possibilities of augmented reality as a mechanism for letting visitors explore magnetic fields, charged particle motion, and related space weather topics. Using a Microsoft Surface touch table, NCIL@SSI has developed several activities that incorporate magnet "fiducials"... objects shaped like recognizable magnets (bar, horseshoe, etc.) that when placed on the table are recognized by the computer. In this way visitors can place a magnet, then see the associated magnetic field drawn out on the table. And given a magnet (which could be the Earth) and a field, they can touch the screen to launch charged particles in to the field. We believe that this combination of physical objects and simulated physics provides a compelling new opportunity for topics such as space weather, where the necessary prior knowledge (e.g., the behavior of magnetic fields and charged particles) are not well understood, or even easily accessible, for the average visitor. We will be reporting both on the software and educational strategies reflected in it, as well as testing which is being performed at the NCAR visitor center in Boulder Colorado and the Hatfield Visitor Center in Oregon by NCIL's Director of Learning Research and Evaluation. This work is funded by the National Science Foundation.

  10. A relative navigation sensor for CubeSats based on LED fiducial markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Francesco; Branz, Francesco; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    Small satellite platforms are becoming very appealing both for scientific and commercial applications, thanks to their low cost, short development times and availability of standard components and subsystems. The main disadvantage with such vehicles is the limitation of available resources to perform mission tasks. To overcome this drawback, mission concepts are under study that foresee cooperation between autonomous small satellites to accomplish complex tasks; among these, on-orbit servicing and on-orbit assembly of large structures are of particular interest and the global scientific community is putting a significant effort in the miniaturization of critical technologies that are required for such innovative mission scenarios. In this work, the development and the laboratory testing of an accurate relative navigation package for nanosatellites compliant to the CubeSat standard is presented. The system features a small camera and two sets of LED fiducial markers, and is conceived as a standard package that allows small spacecraft to perform mutual tracking during rendezvous and docking maneuvers. The hardware is based on off-the-shelf components assembled in a compact configuration that is compatible with the CubeSat standard. The image processing and pose estimation software was custom developed. The experimental evaluation of the system allowed to determine both the static and dynamic performances. The system is capable to determine the close range relative position and attitude faster than 10 S/s, with errors always below 10 mm and 2 deg.

  11. Interobserver variability of radiation therapists aligning to fiducial markers for prostate radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Timothy; Owen, Rebecca; Holt, Tanya; Roberts, Lisa; Biggs, Jennifer; McCarthy, Alicia; Parfitt, Matthew; Fielding, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    As the use of fiducial markers (FMs) for the localisation of the prostate during external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has become part of routine practice, radiation therapists (RTs) have become increasingly responsible for online image interpretation. The aim of this investigation was to quantify the limits of agreement (LoA) between RTs when localising to FMs with orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) imaging. Six patients receiving prostate EBRT utilising FMs were included in this study. Treatment localisation was performed using kV imaging prior to each fraction. Online stereoscopic assessment of FMs, performed by the treating RTs, was compared with the offline assessment by three RTs. Observer agreement was determined by pairwise Bland-Altman analysis. Stereoscopic analysis of 225 image pairs was performed online at the time of treatment, and offline by three RT observers. Eighteen pairwise Bland-Altman analyses were completed to assess the level of agreement between observers. Localisation by RTs was found to be within clinically acceptable 95% LoAs. Small differences between RTs, in both the online and offline setting, were found to be within clinically acceptable limits. RTs were able to make consistent and reliable judgements when matching FMs on planar kV imaging. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  12. Interobserver variability of radiation therapists aligning to fiducial markers for prostate radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, Timothy; Owen, Rebecca; Holt, Tanya; Roberts, Lisa; Biggs, Jennifer; McCarthy, Alicia; Parfitt, Matthew; Fielding, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    As the use of fiducial markers (FMs) for the localisation of the prostate during external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has become part of routine practice, radiation therapists (RTs) have become increasingly responsible for online image interpretation. The aim of this investigation was to quantify the limits of agreement (LoA) between RTs when localising to FMs with orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) imaging. Six patients receiving prostate EBRT utilising FMs were included in this study. Treatment localisation was performed using kV imaging prior to each fraction. Online stereoscopic assessment of FMs, performed by the treating RTs, was compared with the offline assessment by three RTs. Observer agreement was determined by pairwise Bland-Altman analysis. Stereoscopic analysis of 225 image pairs was performed online at the time of treatment, and offline by three RT observers. Eighteen pairwise Bland-Altman analyses were completed to assess the level of agreement between observers. Localisation by RTs was found to be within clinically acceptable 95% LoAs. Small differences between RTs, in both the online and offline setting, were found to be within clinically acceptable limits. RTs were able to make consistent and reliable judgements when matching FMs on planar kV imaging.

  13. Respiratory-Gated Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Adjacent to the Gastrointestinal Tract without Fiducial Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miu Mizuhata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been reported, but insertion of fiducial markers in the liver is usually required. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of respiratory-gated PBT without fiducial markers for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract. From March 2011 to December 2015 at our institution, 40 patients were evaluated (median age, 72 years; range, 38–87 years. All patients underwent PBT at a dose of 60 to 80 cobalt gray equivalents (CGE in 20 to 38 fractions. The median follow-up period was 19.9 months (range, 1.2–72.3 months. The median tumor size was 36.5 mm (range, 11–124 mm. Kaplan–Meier estimates of the 2-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local tumor control rates were 76%, 60%, and 94%, respectively. One patient (2.5% developed a grade 3 gastric ulcer and one (2.5% developed grade 3 ascites retention; none of the remaining patients developed grade >3 toxicities (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 4.0.. This study indicates that PBT without fiducial markers achieves good local control without severe treatment-related toxicity of the gastrointestinal tract for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorke, Ellen; Xiong, Ying; Han, Qian; Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Results: Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (range, −11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Conclusions: Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable.

  15. Objective assessment of the aesthetic outcomes of breast cancer treatment: toward automatic localization of fiducial points on digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udpa, Nitin; Sampat, Mehul P.; Kim, Min Soon; Reece, Gregory P.; Markey, Mia K.

    2007-03-01

    The contemporary goals of breast cancer treatment are not limited to cure but include maximizing quality of life. All breast cancer treatment can adversely affect breast appearance. Developing objective, quantifiable methods to assess breast appearance is important to understand the impact of deformity on patient quality of life, guide selection of current treatments, and make rational treatment advances. A few measures of aesthetic properties such as symmetry have been developed. They are computed from the distances between manually identified fiducial points on digital photographs. However, this is time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-observer variability. The purpose of this study is to investigate methods for automatic localization of fiducial points on anterior-posterior digital photographs taken to document the outcomes of breast reconstruction. Particular emphasis is placed on automatic localization of the nipple complex since the most widely used aesthetic measure, the Breast Retraction Assessment, quantifies the symmetry of nipple locations. The nipple complexes are automatically localized using normalized cross-correlation with a template bank of variants of Gaussian and Laplacian of Gaussian filters. A probability map of likely nipple locations determined from the image database is used to reduce the number of false positive detections from the matched filter operation. The accuracy of the nipple detection was evaluated relative to markings made by three human observers. The impact of using the fiducial point locations as identified by the automatic method, as opposed to the manual method, on the calculation of the Breast Retraction Assessment was also evaluated.

  16. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorke, Ellen, E-mail: yorke@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Xiong, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Han, Qian [Department of Radiotherapy, Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou (China); Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Results: Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (range, −11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Conclusions: Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable.

  17. Daily online bony correction is required for prostate patients without fiducial markers or soft-tissue imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M L; Vial, P; Wiltshire, K L; Bell, L J; Blome, S; Kerestes, Z; Morgan, G W; O'Driscoll, D; Shakespeare, T P; Eade, T N

    2011-09-01

    To compare online position verification strategies with offline correction protocols for patients undergoing definitive prostate radiotherapy. We analysed 50 patients with implanted fiducial markers undergoing curative prostate radiation treatment, all of whom underwent daily kilovoltage imaging using an on-board imager. For each treatment, patients were set-up initially with skin tattoos and in-room lasers. Orthogonal on-board imager images were acquired and the couch shift to match both bony anatomy and the fiducial markers recorded. The set-up error using skin tattoos and offline bone correction was compared with online bone correction. The fiducial markers were used as the reference. Data from 1923 fractions were analysed. The systematic error was ≤1 mm for all protocols. The average random error was 2-3mm for online bony correction and 3-5mm for skin tattoos or offline-bone. Online-bone showed a significant improvement compared with offline-bone in the number of patients with >5mm set-up errors for >10% (P20% (Pmarkers or daily soft-tissue imaging. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fiducial registration error as a statistical process control metric in image-guided radiotherapy with prostatic markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ung, M.N.; Wee, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Portal imaging of implanted fiducial markers has been in use for image-guided radiotherapy (TORT) of prostate cancer, with ample attention to localization accuracy and organ motion. The geometric uncertainties in point-based rigid-body (PBRB) image registration during localization of prostate fiducial markers can be quantified in terms of a fiducial registration error (FRE). Statistical process control charts for individual patients can be designed to identify potentially significant deviation of FRE from expected behaviour. In this study, the aim was to retrospectively apply statistical process control methods to FREs in 34 individuals to identify parameters that may impact on the process stability in image-based localization. A robust procedure for estimating control parameters, control lim its and fixed tolerance levels from a small number of initial observations has been proposed and discussed. Four distinct types of qualitative control chart behavior have been observed. Probable clinical factors leading to IORT process instability are discussed in light of the control chart behaviour. Control charts have been shown to be a useful decision-making tool for detecting potentially out-of control processes on an individual basis. It can sensitively identify potential problems that warrant more detailed investigation in the 10RT of prostate cancer.

  19. Prostate position relative to pelvic bony anatomy based on intraprostatic gold markers and electronic portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallenkamp, John M.; Herman, Michael G.; Kruse, Jon J.; Pisansky, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the relative positions and motions of the prostate, pelvic bony anatomy, and intraprostatic gold fiducial markers during daily electronic portal localization of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate cancer patients were treated supine with definitive external radiotherapy according to an on-line target localization protocol using three or four intraprostatic gold fiducial markers and an electronic portal imaging device. Daily pretherapy and through-treatment electronic portal images (EPIs) were obtained for each of four treatment fields. The patients' pelvic bony anatomy, intraprostatic gold markers, and a best visual match to the target (i.e., prostate) were identified on simulation digitally reconstructed radiographs and during daily treatment setup and delivery. These data provided quantitative inter- and intrafractional analysis of prostate motion, its position relative to the bony anatomy, and the individual intraprostatic fiducial markers. Treatment planning margins, with and without on-line localization, were subsequently compared. Results: A total of 22,266 data points were obtained from daily pretherapy and through-treatment EPIs. The pretherapy three-dimensional (3D) average displacement of the fiducial markers, as a surrogate for the prostate, was 5.6 mm, which improved to 2.8 mm after use of the localization protocol. The bony anatomy 3D average displacement was 4.4 mm both before and after localization to the prostate (p = 0.46). Along the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and right-left (RL) axes, the average prostate displacement improved from 2.5, 3.7, and 1.9 mm, respectively, before localization to 1.4, 1.6, and 1.1 mm after (all p < 0.001). The pretherapy to through-treatment position of the bony landmarks worsened from 1.7 to 2.5 mm (p < 0.001) in the SI axis, remained statistically unchanged at 2.8 mm (p = 0.39) in the AP axis, and improved from 2.0 to 1.2 mm in the RL axis (p < 0.001). There

  20. BROOKHAVEN: High energy gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1992-01-01

    On April 24, Brookhaven's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) started to deliver gold ions at 11.4 GeV per nucleon (2,000 GeV per ion) to experimenters who were delighted not only to receive the world's highest energy gold beam but also to receive it on schedule

  1. Assessment of cone beam CT registration for prostate radiation therapy: fiducial marker and soft tissue methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Timothy; Owen, Rebecca; Holt, Tanya; Fielding, Andrew; Biggs, Jennifer; Parfitt, Matthew; Coates, Alicia; Roberts, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the consistency and accuracy of radiation therapists (RTs) performing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) alignment to fiducial markers (FMs) (CBCTFM ) and the soft tissue prostate (CBCTST ). Six patients receiving prostate radiation therapy underwent daily CBCTs. Manual alignment of CBCTFM and CBCTST was performed by three RTs. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using a modified Bland-Altman analysis for each alignment method. Clinically acceptable 95% limits of agreement with the mean (LoAmean ) were defined as ±2.0 mm for CBCTFM and ±3.0 mm for CBCTST . Differences between CBCTST alignment and the observer-averaged CBCTFM (AvCBCTFM ) alignment were analysed. Clinically acceptable 95% LoA were defined as ±3.0 mm for the comparison of CBCTST and AvCBCTFM . CBCTFM and CBCTST alignments were performed for 185 images. The CBCTFM 95% LoAmean were within ±2.0 mm in all planes. CBCTST 95% LoAmean were within ±3.0 mm in all planes. Comparison of CBCTST with AvCBCTFM resulted in 95% LoA of -4.9 to 2.6, -1.6 to 2.5 and -4.7 to 1.9 mm in the superior-inferior, left-right and anterior-posterior planes, respectively. Significant differences were found between soft tissue alignment and the predicted FM position. FMs are useful in reducing inter-observer variability compared with soft tissue alignment. Consideration needs to be given to margin design when using soft tissue matching due to increased inter-observer variability. This study highlights some of the complexities of soft tissue guidance for prostate radiation therapy. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  2. Assessment of cone beam CT registration for prostate radiation therapy: fiducial marker and soft tissue methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, Timothy; Owen, Rebecca; Holt, Tanya; Fielding, Andrew; Biggs, Jennifer; Parfitt, Matthew; Coates, Alicia; Roberts, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the consistency and accuracy of radiation therapists (RTs) performing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) alignment to fiducial markers (FMs) (CBCT FM ) and the soft tissue prostate (CBCT ST ). Six patients receiving prostate radiation therapy underwent daily CBCTs. Manual alignment of CBCT FM and CBCT ST was performed by three RTs. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using a modified Bland–Altman analysis for each alignment method. Clinically acceptable 95% limits of agreement with the mean (LoA mean ) were defined as ±2.0 mm for CBCT FM and ±3.0 mm for CBCT ST . Differences between CBCT ST alignment and the observer-averaged CBCT FM (AvCBCT FM ) alignment were analysed. Clinically acceptable 95% LoA were defined as ±3.0 mm for the comparison of CBCT ST and AvCBCT FM . CBCT FM and CBCT ST alignments were performed for 185 images. The CBCT FM 95% LoA mean were within ±2.0 mm in all planes. CBCT ST 95% LoA mean were within ±3.0 mm in all planes. Comparison of CBCT ST with AvCBCT FM resulted in 95% LoA of −4.9 to 2.6, −1.6 to 2.5 and −4.7 to 1.9 mm in the superior–inferior, left–right and anterior–posterior planes, respectively. Significant differences were found between soft tissue alignment and the predicted FM position. FMs are useful in reducing inter-observer variability compared with soft tissue alignment. Consideration needs to be given to margin design when using soft tissue matching due to increased inter-observer variability. This study highlights some of the complexities of soft tissue guidance for prostate radiation therapy.

  3. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  4. Full automatic fiducial marker detection on coil arrays for accurate instrumentation placement during MRI guided breast interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatos, Konstantinos; Boehler, Tobias; Geisler, Benjamin; Zachmann, Harald; Twellmann, Thorsten

    2010-02-01

    With its high sensitivity, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) of the breast is today one of the first-line tools for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, particularly in the dense breast of young women. However, many relevant findings are very small or occult on targeted ultrasound images or mammography, so that MRI guided biopsy is the only option for a precise histological work-up [1]. State-of-the-art software tools for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer in DCE-MRI data offer also means for image-based planning of biopsy interventions. One step in the MRI guided biopsy workflow is the alignment of the patient position with the preoperative MR images. In these images, the location and orientation of the coil localization unit can be inferred from a number of fiducial markers, which for this purpose have to be manually or semi-automatically detected by the user. In this study, we propose a method for precise, full-automatic localization of fiducial markers, on which basis a virtual localization unit can be subsequently placed in the image volume for the purpose of determining the parameters for needle navigation. The method is based on adaptive thresholding for separating breast tissue from background followed by rigid registration of marker templates. In an evaluation of 25 clinical cases comprising 4 different commercial coil array models and 3 different MR imaging protocols, the method yielded a sensitivity of 0.96 at a false positive rate of 0.44 markers per case. The mean distance deviation between detected fiducial centers and ground truth information that was appointed from a radiologist was 0.94mm.

  5. Technique of Injection of Hyaluronic Acid as a Prostatic Spacer and Fiducials Before Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissier, Romain; Udrescu, Corina; Rebillard, Xavier; Terrier, Jean-Etienne; Faix, Antoine; Chapet, Olivier; Azria, David; Devonec, Marian; Paparel, Philippe; Ruffion, Alain

    2017-01-01

    To describe a technique combining the implantation of fiducials and a prostatic spacer (hyaluronic acid [HA]) to decrease the rectal toxicity after an image-guided external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with hypofractionation for prostate cancer and to assess the tolerance and the learning curve of the procedure. Thirty patients with prostate cancer at low or intermediate risk were included in a phase II trial: image-guided EBRT of 62 Gy in 20 fractions of 3.1 Gy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A transrectal implantation of 3 fiducials and transperineal injection of 10 cc of HA (NASHA gel spacer, Q-Med AB, Uppsala, Sweden) between the rectum and the prostate was performed by 1 operator. The thickness of HA was measured at 10 points on magnetic resonance imaging to establish a quality score of the injection (maximum score = 10) and determine the learning curve of the procedure. The quality score increased from patients 1-10, 11-20, to 21-30 with respective median scores: 7 [2-10], 5 [4-7], and 8 [3-10]. The average thicknesses of HA between the base, middle part, and apex of the prostate and the rectum were the following: 15.1 mm [6.4-29], 9.8 mm [5-21.2], and 9.9 mm [3.2-21.5]. The injection of the HA induced a median pain score of 4 [1-8] and no residual pain at mid-long term. Creating an interface between the rectum and the prostate and the implantation of fiducials were feasible under local anesthesia with a short learning curve and could become a standard procedure before a hypofractionated EBRT for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-time automatic fiducial marker tracking in low contrast cine-MV images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wei-Yang; Lin, Shu-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Chang; Liou, Shu-Cheng; Nath, Ravinder; Liu Wu [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, 62102 (China); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510-3220 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    standard deviations of the results from the 6 researchers are 2.3 and 2.6 pixels. The proposed framework takes about 128 ms to detect four markers in the first MV images and about 23 ms to track these markers in each of the subsequent images. Conclusions: The unified framework for tracking of multiple markers presented here can achieve marker detection accuracy similar to manual detection even in low-contrast cine-MV images. It can cope with shape deformations of fiducial markers at different gantry angles. The fast processing speed reduces the image processing portion of the system latency, therefore can improve the performance of real-time motion compensation.

  7. Real-time automatic fiducial marker tracking in low contrast cine-MV images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wei-Yang; Lin, Shu-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Chang; Liou, Shu-Cheng; Nath, Ravinder; Liu Wu

    2013-01-01

    standard deviations of the results from the 6 researchers are 2.3 and 2.6 pixels. The proposed framework takes about 128 ms to detect four markers in the first MV images and about 23 ms to track these markers in each of the subsequent images. Conclusions: The unified framework for tracking of multiple markers presented here can achieve marker detection accuracy similar to manual detection even in low-contrast cine-MV images. It can cope with shape deformations of fiducial markers at different gantry angles. The fast processing speed reduces the image processing portion of the system latency, therefore can improve the performance of real-time motion compensation.

  8. Global Fiducials Program Imagery: New Opportunities for Geospatial Research, Outreach, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    MOLNIA, Bruce F., PRICE, Susan D. and, KING, Stephen E., U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 562 National Center, Reston, VA 20192, sprice@usgs.gov The Civil Applications Committee (CAC), operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), is the Federal interagency committee that facilitates Federal civil agency access to U.S. National Systems space-based electro-optical (EO) imagery for natural disaster response; global change investigations; ecosystem monitoring; mapping, charting, and geodesy; and related topics. The CAC's Global Fiducials Program (GFP) has overseen the systematic collection of high-resolution imagery to provide geospatial data time series spanning a decade or more at carefully selected sites to study and monitor changes, and to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of dynamic and sensitive areas of our planet. Since 2008, more than 4,500 one-meter resolution EO images which comprise time series from 85 GFP sites have been released for unrestricted public use. Initial site selections were made by Federal and academic scientists based on each site's unique history, susceptibility, or environmental value. For each site, collection strategies were carefully defined to maximize information extraction capabilities. This consistency enhances our ability to understand Earth's dynamic processes and long-term trends. Individual time series focus on Arctic sea ice change; temperate glacier behavior; mid-continent wetland dynamics; barrier island response to hurricanes; coastline evolution; wildland fire recovery; Long-Term Ecological Resource (LTER) site processes; and many other topics. The images are available from a USGS website at no cost, in an orthorectified GeoTIFF format with supporting metadata, making them ideal for use in Earth science education and GIS projects. New on-line tools provide enhanced analysis of these time-series imagery. For additional information go to http://gfp.usgs.gov or http://gfl.usgs.gov.Bering Glacier is the largest and

  9. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  10. Gold nanoprobes for theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Book-Newell, Brittany; Sethu, Palaniappan; Rao, Madhusudhana; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoprobes have become attractive diagnostic and therapeutic agents in medicine and life sciences research owing to their reproducible synthesis with atomic level precision, unique physical and chemical properties, versatility of their morphologies, flexibility in functionalization, ease of targeting, efficiency in drug delivery and opportunities for multimodal therapy. This review highlights some of the recent advances and the potential for gold nanoprobes in theranostics. PMID:22122586

  11. Facts and Fantasies about Gold

    OpenAIRE

    Klement, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of gold as an investment the demand for effective risk management techniques for gold investments has increased as well. In this paper we analyze several drivers of the price of gold that have been proposed in the past. Our analysis indicates that short-term volatility of the price of gold remains rather unpredictable with many of the explanations like the fund flows in physical gold ETF either unreliable or unstable over time. Our analysis suggests that there...

  12. High Retention and Safety of Percutaneously Implanted Endovascular Embolization Coils as Fiducial Markers for Image-Guided Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Pulmonary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Julian C.; Yu Yao; Rao, Aarti K.; Dieterich, Sonja; Maxim, Peter G.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Diehn, Maximilian; Sze, Daniel Y.; Kothary, Nishita; Loo, Billy W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the retention rates of two types of implanted fiducial markers for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) of pulmonary tumors, smooth cylindrical gold 'seed' markers ('seeds') and platinum endovascular embolization coils ('coils'), and to compare the complication rates associated with the respective implantation procedures. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the retention of percutaneously implanted markers in 54 consecutive patients between January 2004 and June 2009. A total of 270 markers (129 seeds, 141 coils) were implanted in or around 60 pulmonary tumors over 59 procedures. Markers were implanted using a percutaneous approach under computed tomography (CT) guidance. Postimplantation and follow-up imaging studies were analyzed to score marker retention relative to the number of markers implanted. Markers remaining near the tumor were scored as retained. Markers in a distant location (e.g., pleural space) were scored as lost. CT imaging artifacts near markers were quantified on radiation therapy planning scans. Results: Immediately after implantation, 140 of 141 coils (99.3%) were retained, compared to 110 of 129 seeds (85.3%); the difference was highly significant (p < 0.0001). Of the total number of lost markers, 45% were reported lost during implantation, but 55% were lost immediately afterwards. No additional markers were lost on longer-term follow-up. Implanted lesions were peripherally located for both seeds (mean distance, 0.33 cm from pleural surface) and coils (0.34 cm) (p = 0.96). Incidences of all pneumothorax (including asymptomatic) and pneumothorax requiring chest tube placement were lower in implantation of coils (23% and 3%, respectively) vs. seeds (54% and 29%, respectively; p = 0.02 and 0.01). The degree of CT artifact was similar between marker types. Conclusions: Retention of CT-guided percutaneously implanted coils is significantly better than that of seed markers. Furthermore, implanting coils is at

  13. Measurement of the Higgs boson fiducial and differential cross sections in the 4\\ell decay channel at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Salvucci, Antonio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This poster presents a measurement of the inclusive and differential fiducial cross sections of Higgs-boson production in the four leptons (electrons or muons) final state. The data sample, collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2015 and 2016, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of \\SI{36.1}{\\per\\femto\\barn} of proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of \\SI{13}{\\TeV}. The inclusive fiducial cross section has been measured to be in agreement with the Standard Model (SM) prediction. Moreover, several differential fiducial cross sections have been measured for observables sensitive to the Higgs-boson production and decay. Good agreement has been found between data and SM predictions.

  14. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using diatoms-silica-gold and EPS-gold bionanocomposite formation

    OpenAIRE

    Schröfel, Adam; Kratošová, Gabriela; Bohunická, Markéta; Dobročka, Edmund; Vávra, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Novel synthesis of gold nanoparticles, EPS-gold, and silica-gold bionanocomposites by biologically driven processes employing two diatom strains (Navicula atomus, Diadesmis gallica) is described. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction analysis (SAED) revealed a presence of gold nanoparticles in the experimental solutions of the diatom culture mixed with tetrachloroaureate. Nature of the gold nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron m...

  15. Aluminum-coated optical fibers as efficient infrared timing fiducial photocathodes for synchronizing x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The timing fiducial system at the Nova Two-Beam Facility allows time-resolved x-ray and optical streak camera data from laser-produced plasmas to be synchronized to within 30 ps. In this system, an Al-coated optical fiber is inserted into an aperture in the cathode plate of each streak camera. The coating acts as a photocathode for a low-energy pulse of 1ω (λ = 1.054 μm) light which is synchronized to the main Nova beam. The use of the fundamental (1ω) for this fiducial pulse has been found to offer significant advantages over the use of the 2ω second harmonic (λ = 0.53 μm). These advantages include brighter signals, greater reliability, and a higher relative damage threshold, allowing routine use without fiber replacement. The operation of the system is described, and experimental data and interpretations are discussed which suggest that the electron production in the Al film is due to thermionic emission. The results of detailed numerical simulations of the relevant thermal processes, undertaken to model the response of the coated fiber to 1ω laser pulses, are also presented, which give qualitative agreement with experimental data. Quantitative discrepancies between the modeling results and the experimental data are discussed, and suggestions for further research are given

  16. Influence of different breathing maneuvers on internal and external organ motion: Use of fiducial markers in dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, Christian; Zimmermann, Hendrik; Fink, Christian; Umathum, Reiner; Schoebinger, Max; Huber, Peter; Zuna, Ivan; Debus, Juergen; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Semmler, Wolfhard; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bock, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate, with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and a fiducial marker, the influence of different breathing maneuvers on internal organ and external chest wall motion. Methods and materials: Lung and chest wall motion of 16 healthy subjects (13 male, 3 female) were examined with real-time trueFISP (true fast imaging with steady-state precession) dMRI and a small inductively coupled marker coil on either the abdomen or thorax. Three different breathing maneuvers were performed (predominantly 'abdominal breathing,' 'thoracic breathing,' and unspecific 'normal breathing'). The craniocaudal (CC), anteroposterior (AP), and mediolateral (ML) lung distances were correlated (linear regression coefficient) with marker coil position during forced and quiet breathing. Results: Differences of the CC distance between maximum forced inspiration and expiration were significant between abdominal and thoracic breathing (p < 0.05). The correlation between CC distance and coil position was best for forced abdominal breathing and a marker coil in the abdominal position (r 0.89 ± 0.04); for AP and ML distance, forced thoracic breathing and a coil in the thoracic position was best (r = 0.84 ± 0.03 and 0.82 ± 0.03, respectively). In quiet breathing, a lower correlation was found. Conclusion: A fiducial marker coil external to the thorax in combination with dMRI is a new technique to yield quantitative information on the correlation of internal organ and external chest wall motion. Correlations are highly dependent on the breathing maneuver

  17. Tailoring four-dimensional cone-beam CT acquisition settings for fiducial marker-based image guidance in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; van Wieringen, Niek; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Bel, Arjan; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2018-04-01

    Use of four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) and fiducial markers for image guidance during radiation therapy (RT) of mobile tumors is challenging due to the trade-off among image quality, imaging dose, and scanning time. This study aimed to investigate different 4D-CBCT acquisition settings for good visibility of fiducial markers in 4D-CBCT. Using these 4D-CBCTs, the feasibility of marker-based 4D registration for RT setup verification and manual respiration-induced motion quantification was investigated. For this, we applied a dynamic phantom with three different breathing motion amplitudes and included two patients with implanted markers. Irrespective of the motion amplitude, for a medium field of view (FOV), marker visibility was improved by reducing the imaging dose per projection and increasing the number of projection images; however, the scanning time was 4 to 8 min. For a small FOV, the total imaging dose and the scanning time were reduced (62.5% of the dose using a medium FOV, 2.5 min) without losing marker visibility. However, the body contour could be missing for a small FOV, which is not preferred in RT. The marker-based 4D setup verification was feasible for both the phantom and patient data. Moreover, manual marker motion quantification can achieve a high accuracy with a mean error of [Formula: see text].

  18. SU-F-J-137: Intrafractional Change of the Relationship Between Internal Fiducials and External Breathing Signal in Pancreatic Cancer Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, N; Murphy, J; Simpson, D; Cervino, L [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The use of respiratory gating for management of breathing motion during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) relies on a consistent relationship between the breathing signal and the actual position of the internal target. This relationship was investigated in patients treated for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Four patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing SBRT that had implanted fiducials in the tumor were included in this study. Treatment plans were generated based on the exhale phases (30–70%) from the pre-treatment 4DCT. The margin between the internal target volume (ITV) and the planning target volume was three mm. After patient setup using cone-beam CT, simultaneous fluoroscopic imaging and breathing motion monitoring were used during at least three breathing cycles to verify the fiducial position and to optimize the gating window. After treatment, fluoroscopic images were acquired for verification purposes and exported for retrospective analyses. Fiducial positions were determined using a template-matching algorithm. For each dataset, we established a linear relationship between the fiducial position and the anterior-posterior (AP) breathing signal. The relationships before and after treatment were compared and the dose distribution impact evaluated. Results: Seven pre- and post-treatment fluoroscopic pairs were available for fiducial position analyses in the superior-inferior (SI) and left-right (LR) directions, and five in the AP direction. Time between image acquisitions was typically six to eight minutes. An average absolute change of 1.2±0.7 mm (range: 0.1–1.7) of the SI fiducial position relative to the external signal was found. Corresponding numbers for the LR and AP fiducial positions were 0.9±1.0 mm (range: 0.2–3.0) and 0.5±0.4 mm (range: 0.2–1.2), respectively. The dose distribution impact was small in both the ITV and organs-at-risk. Conclusion: The relationship change between fiducial position and external breathing

  19. SU-F-J-137: Intrafractional Change of the Relationship Between Internal Fiducials and External Breathing Signal in Pancreatic Cancer Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, N; Murphy, J; Simpson, D; Cervino, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The use of respiratory gating for management of breathing motion during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) relies on a consistent relationship between the breathing signal and the actual position of the internal target. This relationship was investigated in patients treated for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Four patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing SBRT that had implanted fiducials in the tumor were included in this study. Treatment plans were generated based on the exhale phases (30–70%) from the pre-treatment 4DCT. The margin between the internal target volume (ITV) and the planning target volume was three mm. After patient setup using cone-beam CT, simultaneous fluoroscopic imaging and breathing motion monitoring were used during at least three breathing cycles to verify the fiducial position and to optimize the gating window. After treatment, fluoroscopic images were acquired for verification purposes and exported for retrospective analyses. Fiducial positions were determined using a template-matching algorithm. For each dataset, we established a linear relationship between the fiducial position and the anterior-posterior (AP) breathing signal. The relationships before and after treatment were compared and the dose distribution impact evaluated. Results: Seven pre- and post-treatment fluoroscopic pairs were available for fiducial position analyses in the superior-inferior (SI) and left-right (LR) directions, and five in the AP direction. Time between image acquisitions was typically six to eight minutes. An average absolute change of 1.2±0.7 mm (range: 0.1–1.7) of the SI fiducial position relative to the external signal was found. Corresponding numbers for the LR and AP fiducial positions were 0.9±1.0 mm (range: 0.2–3.0) and 0.5±0.4 mm (range: 0.2–1.2), respectively. The dose distribution impact was small in both the ITV and organs-at-risk. Conclusion: The relationship change between fiducial position and external breathing

  20. Retrospective analysis of prostate cancer patients with implanted gold markers using off-line and adaptive therapy protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Balter, James M.; Lam, Kwok L.; Sandler, Howard M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of applying adaptive and off-line setup correction models to bony anatomy and gold fiducial markers implanted in the prostate, relative to daily alignment to skin tattoos and daily on-line corrections of the implanted gold markers. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with implanted gold fiducial markers were treated using a daily on-line setup correction protocol. The patients' positions were aligned to skin tattoos and two orthogonal diagnostic digital radiographs were obtained before treatment each day. These radiographs were compared with digitally reconstructed radiographs to obtain the translational setup errors of the bony anatomy and gold markers. The adaptive, no-action-level and shrinking-action-level off-line protocols were retrospectively applied to the bony anatomy to determine the change in the setup errors of the gold markers. The protocols were also applied to the gold markers directly to determine the residual setup errors. Results: The percentage of remaining fractions that the gold markers fell within the adaptive margins constructed with 1.5σ' (estimated random variation) after 5, 10, and 15 measurement fractions was 74%, 88%, and 93% for the prone patients and 55%, 77%, and 93% for the supine patients, respectively. Using 2σ', the percentage after 5, 10, and 15 measurements was 85%, 95%, and 97% for the prone patients and 68%, 87%, and 99% for the supine patients, respectively. The average initial three-dimensional (3D) setup error of the gold markers was 0.92 cm for the prone patients and 0.70 cm for the supine patients. Application of the no-action-level protocol to bony anatomy with N m = 3 days resulted in significant benefit to 4 of 10 patients, but 3 were significantly worse. The residual average 3D setup error of the gold markers was 1.14 cm and 0.51 cm for the prone and supine patients, respectively. When applied directly to the gold markers with N m = 3 days, 5 patients benefited and

  1. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  2. Gold film with gold nitride - A conductor but harder than gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siller, L.; Peltekis, N.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Chao, Y.; Bull, S.J.; Hunt, M.R.C.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of surface nitrides on gold films is a particularly attractive proposition, addressing the need to produce harder, but still conductive, gold coatings which reduce wear but avoid the pollution associated with conventional additives. Here we report production of large area gold nitride films on silicon substrates, using reactive ion sputtering and plasma etching, without the need for ultrahigh vacuum. Nanoindentation data show that gold nitride films have a hardness ∼50% greater than that of pure gold. These results are important for large-scale applications of gold nitride in coatings and electronics

  3. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  4. Interfractional Position Variation of Pancreatic Tumors Quantified Using Intratumoral Fiducial Markers and Daily Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, Astrid van der, E-mail: a.vanderhorst@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wognum, Silvia; Dávila Fajardo, Raquel; Jong, Rianne de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hooft, Jeanin E. van; Fockens, Paul [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantify interfractional pancreatic position variation using fiducial markers visible on daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. In addition, we analyzed possible migration of the markers to investigate their suitability for tumor localization. Methods and Materials: For 13 pancreatic cancer patients with implanted Visicoil markers, CBCT scans were obtained before 17 to 25 fractions (300 CBCTs in total). Image registration with the reference CT was used to determine the displacement of the 2 to 3 markers relative to bony anatomy and to each other. We analyzed the distance between marker pairs as a function of time to identify marker registration error (SD of linear fit residuals) and possible marker migration. For each patient, we determined the mean displacement of markers relative to the reference CT (systematic position error) and the spread in displacements (random position error). From this, we calculated the group systematic error, Σ, and group random error, σ. Results: Marker pair distances showed slight trends with time (range, −0.14 to 0.14 mm/day), possibly due to tissue deformation, but no shifts that would indicate marker migration. The mean SD of the fit residuals was 0.8 mm. We found large interfractional position variations, with for 116 of 300 (39%) fractions a 3-dimensional vector displacement of >10 mm. The spread in displacement varied significantly (P<.01) between patients, from a vector range of 9.1 mm to one of 24.6 mm. For the patient group, Σ was 3.8, 6.6, and 3.5 mm; and σ was 3.6, 4.7 and 2.5 mm, in left–right, superior–inferior, and anterior–posterior directions, respectively. Conclusions: We found large systematic displacements of the fiducial markers relative to bony anatomy, in addition to wide distributions of displacement. These results for interfractional position variation confirm the potential benefit of using fiducial markers rather than bony anatomy for daily online

  5. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  6. Spectroscopic diagnostic of gold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a simulation of a gold-aluminium alloy target irradiated by laser are presented. FCI code has been used with a processing out of LTE of atomic physics of gold and of multigroup photonics. Emission and reabsorption of gold and aluminium lines are included [fr

  7. Spectroscopic diagnostic of gold plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, M.

    1986-06-01

    Results of a simulation of a gold-aluminium alloy target irradiated by laser are presented. FCI code has been used with a processing out of LTE of atomic physics of gold and of multigroup photonics. Emission and reabsorption of gold and aluminium lines are included.

  8. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  9. Bioassisted Phytomining of Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluckov, Biljana S.

    2015-05-01

    Bioassisted phytomining implies targeted use of microorganisms and plants for the selective recovery of the metal. Metals from undissolved compounds are dissolved by applying specially chosen microorganisms and therefore become available to the hyperaccumulating plants. In the article, the selective extraction method of base metals and the precious metal gold by using microorganisms and plants is discussed.

  10. Digging for Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2012-01-01

    In the case of higher education, the hills are more like mountains of data that "we're accumulating at a ferocious rate," according to Gerry McCartney, CIO of Purdue University (Indiana). "Every higher education institution has this data, but it just sits there like gold in the ground," complains McCartney. Big Data and the new tools people are…

  11. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  12. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-01-01

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  13. Fiducial distributions in Higgs and Drell-Yan production at N$^3$LL+NNLO arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Bizon, Wojciech; Gehrmann-De Ridder, Aude; Gehrmann, Thomas; Glover, Nigel; Huss, Alexander; Monni, Pier Francesco; Re, Emanuele; Rottoli, Luca; Torrielli, Paolo

    The perturbative description of certain differential distributions across a wide kinematic range requires the matching of fixed-order perturbation theory with resummation of large logarithmic corrections to all orders. We present precise matched predictions for transverse-momentum distributions in Higgs boson (H) and Drell-Yan pair (DY) production as well as for the closely related ${\\phi^{*}_\\eta}$ distribution at the LHC. The calculation is exclusive in the Born kinematics, and allows for arbitrary fiducial selection cuts on the decay products of the colour singlets, which is of primary relevance for experimental analyses. Our predictions feature very small residual scale uncertainties and display a good convergence of the perturbative series. A comparison of the predictions for DY observables to experimental data at 8 TeV shows a very good agreement within the quoted errors.

  14. Robust augmented reality registration method for localization of solid organs' tumors using CT-derived virtual biomechanical model and fluorescent fiducials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong-Ho; Haouchine, Nazim; Soares, Renato; Klymchenko, Andrey; Andreiuk, Bohdan; Marques, Bruno; Shabat, Galyna; Piechaud, Thierry; Diana, Michele; Cotin, Stéphane; Marescaux, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is the fusion of computer-generated and real-time images. AR can be used in surgery as a navigation tool, by creating a patient-specific virtual model through 3D software manipulation of DICOM imaging (e.g., CT scan). The virtual model can be superimposed to real-time images enabling transparency visualization of internal anatomy and accurate localization of tumors. However, the 3D model is rigid and does not take into account inner structures' deformations. We present a concept of automated AR registration, while the organs undergo deformation during surgical manipulation, based on finite element modeling (FEM) coupled with optical imaging of fluorescent surface fiducials. Two 10 × 1 mm wires (pseudo-tumors) and six 10 × 0.9 mm fluorescent fiducials were placed in ex vivo porcine kidneys (n = 10). Biomechanical FEM-based models were generated from CT scan. Kidneys were deformed and the shape changes were identified by tracking the fiducials, using a near-infrared optical system. The changes were registered automatically with the virtual model, which was deformed accordingly. Accuracy of prediction of pseudo-tumors' location was evaluated with a CT scan in the deformed status (ground truth). In vivo: fluorescent fiducials were inserted under ultrasound guidance in the kidney of one pig, followed by a CT scan. The FEM-based virtual model was superimposed on laparoscopic images by automatic registration of the fiducials. Biomechanical models were successfully generated and accurately superimposed on optical images. The mean measured distance between the estimated tumor by biomechanical propagation and the scanned tumor (ground truth) was 0.84 ± 0.42 mm. All fiducials were successfully placed in in vivo kidney and well visualized in near-infrared mode enabling accurate automatic registration of the virtual model on the laparoscopic images. Our preliminary experiments showed the potential of a biomechanical model with fluorescent

  15. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  16. Dosimetric implications of residual seminal vesicle motion in fiducial-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Feng, Mary

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D min ) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V 95% ) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D min was ≥95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V 95% of 99.6 ± 0.8%; for the FSV D min was ≥95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V 95% of 97.9 ± 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV.

  17. SU-E-J-64: Feasibility Study of Surgical Clips for Fiducial Tracking in CyberKnife System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H; Yoon, J; Lee, E; Cho, S; Park, K; Choi, W; Baek, J; Keum, K; Koom, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the ability of CyberKnife to track surgical clips used as fiducial markers. Methods: The Octavius 1000SRS detector and solid water (RW3) slab phantom were used with motion platform to evaluate the study. The RW3 slab phantom was set up to measure the dose distribution from coronal plane. It consists of 9 plates and the thickness of each plate is 10mm. Among them, one plate was attached with 3 surgical clips, which are orthogonally positioned on outer region of array. The length of attached clip was represented as 1cm on planning CT. The clip plate was placed on the 1000SRS detector and 3 slabs were stacked up on the plate to build the measuring depth. Below the detector, 5 slabs were set. The two-axis motion platform was programmed with 1D sinusoidal movement (20mm peak-to-peak, 3s period) toward superior/inferior and left/right directions to simulate target motion. During delivery, two clips were extracted by two X-ray imagers, which led to translational error correction only. Synchrony was also used for dynamic tracking. After the irradiation, the measured dose distribution of coronal plane was compared with the planar dose distribution calculated by the CyberKnife treatment planning system (Multiplan) for cross verification. The results were assessed by comparing the absolute Gamma (γ) index. Results: The dose distributions measured by the 1000SRS detector were in good agreements with those calculated by Multiplan. In the dosimetric comparison using γ-function criteria based on the distance-to-agreement of 3mm and the local dose difference of 3%, the passing rate with γ- parameter ≤1 was 91% in coronal plane. Conclusion: The surgical clips can be considered as new fiducials for robotic radiosurgery delivery by considering the target margin with less than 5mm

  18. ECG denoising and fiducial point extraction using an extended Kalman filtering framework with linear and nonlinear phase observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, Mahsa; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B; Jutten, Christian; Armoundas, Antonis A; Sayadi, Omid

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we propose an efficient method for denoising and extracting fiducial point (FP) of ECG signals. The method is based on a nonlinear dynamic model which uses Gaussian functions to model ECG waveforms. For estimating the model parameters, we use an extended Kalman filter (EKF). In this framework called EKF25, all the parameters of Gaussian functions as well as the ECG waveforms (P-wave, QRS complex and T-wave) in the ECG dynamical model, are considered as state variables. In this paper, the dynamic time warping method is used to estimate the nonlinear ECG phase observation. We compare this new approach with linear phase observation models. Using linear and nonlinear EKF25 for ECG denoising and nonlinear EKF25 for fiducial point extraction and ECG interval analysis are the main contributions of this paper. Performance comparison with other EKF-based techniques shows that the proposed method results in higher output SNR with an average SNR improvement of 12 dB for an input SNR of -8 dB. To evaluate the FP extraction performance, we compare the proposed method with a method based on partially collapsed Gibbs sampler and an established EKF-based method. The mean absolute error and the root mean square error of all FPs, across all databases are 14 ms and 22 ms, respectively, for our proposed method, with an advantage when using a nonlinear phase observation. These errors are significantly smaller than errors obtained with other methods. For ECG interval analysis, with an absolute mean error and a root mean square error of about 22 ms and 29 ms, the proposed method achieves better accuracy and smaller variability with respect to other methods.

  19. MO-FG-BRA-05: Next Generation Radiotherapy Biomaterials Loaded With Gold Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifter, G; Ngwa, W [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Sajo, E [Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Korideck, H; Cormack, R; Makrigiorgos, G [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kumar, R [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Sridhar, S [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: It has been proposed that routinely used inert radiotherapy (RT) biomaterials (e.g. fiducials, spacers) can be upgraded to smarter ones by coating/loading them with radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs), for sustained in-situ release after implantation to enhance RT. In this work, we developed prototypes of such RT biomaterials and investigated the sustained release of GNPs from the biomaterials as a function of design parameters. Methods: Prototype smart biomaterials were produced by incorporating the GNPs in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer millirods during the gel phase of production. For comparison, commercially available spacers were also coated with a polymer film loaded with fluorescent GNP. Optical/spectroscopy methods were used to monitor in vitro release of GNPs over time as a function of different design parameters: polymer weighting, type, and initial (loading) GNP concentrations. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed to verify GNP release. Results: Results showed that gold nanoparticles could be successfully loaded in the new RT biomaterial prototypes. Burst release of GNPs could be achieved within 1 to 25 days depending on the preparation approach. Burst release was followed by sustained release profile over time. The amount of released GNP increased with increasing loading concentration as expected. The release profiles could also be customized as a function of polymer weighting, or preparation approaches. Conclusion: Considered together, our results highlight potential for the development of next generation RT biomaterials loaded with GNPs customizable to different RT schedules. Such biomaterials could be employed as needed instead of currently used inert spacers/fiducials at no additional inconvenience to patients, to enhance RT.

  20. MO-FG-BRA-05: Next Generation Radiotherapy Biomaterials Loaded With Gold Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifter, G; Ngwa, W; Sajo, E; Korideck, H; Cormack, R; Makrigiorgos, G; Kumar, R; Sridhar, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It has been proposed that routinely used inert radiotherapy (RT) biomaterials (e.g. fiducials, spacers) can be upgraded to smarter ones by coating/loading them with radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs), for sustained in-situ release after implantation to enhance RT. In this work, we developed prototypes of such RT biomaterials and investigated the sustained release of GNPs from the biomaterials as a function of design parameters. Methods: Prototype smart biomaterials were produced by incorporating the GNPs in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer millirods during the gel phase of production. For comparison, commercially available spacers were also coated with a polymer film loaded with fluorescent GNP. Optical/spectroscopy methods were used to monitor in vitro release of GNPs over time as a function of different design parameters: polymer weighting, type, and initial (loading) GNP concentrations. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed to verify GNP release. Results: Results showed that gold nanoparticles could be successfully loaded in the new RT biomaterial prototypes. Burst release of GNPs could be achieved within 1 to 25 days depending on the preparation approach. Burst release was followed by sustained release profile over time. The amount of released GNP increased with increasing loading concentration as expected. The release profiles could also be customized as a function of polymer weighting, or preparation approaches. Conclusion: Considered together, our results highlight potential for the development of next generation RT biomaterials loaded with GNPs customizable to different RT schedules. Such biomaterials could be employed as needed instead of currently used inert spacers/fiducials at no additional inconvenience to patients, to enhance RT

  1. Moessbauerspectroscopy on Gold Ruby Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslbeck, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the chemical states of gold and the physical mechanisms of the growing process of the particles under the influence of additional ingredients like tin, lead, antimony and selenium before, during and after the colouring process are investigated by using the Moessbauer spectroscopy on 197 Au, 119 Sn and 121 Sb, optical spectroscopy and X-ray-diffraction. Gold in an unnealed, colourless state of the glasses consists of monovalent forming linear bonds to two neighbouring oxygen atoms. The Lamb-Moessbauer factor of these gold oxide bondings is observed as 0.095 at 4.2 K. The gold in it's oxide state transforms to gold particles with a diameter of 3 nm to 60 nm. The size of the gold particles is quite definable within the optical spectra and certain sizes are also discernable within the Moessbauer spectra. One component of the Moessbauer spectra is assigned to the surface layer of the gold particles. By comparing this surface component with the amount of the bulk metallic core, one can calculate the size of the gold particles. In the Moessbauer spectra of the colourless glass one also can find parts of bulk metallic gold. Investigations with X-ray diffraction show that these are gold particles with a diameter of 100 nm to 300 nm and therefore have no additional colouring effect within the visible spectrum. The Moessbauer spectra on gold of the remelt glasses are similar to those which have been measured on the initial colourless glasses

  2. For the love of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Gold is found in minute quantities and gold mining generates enormous amounts of waste materials and long history of environmental destruction: mercury in tailing, eroded land, and acid mine drainage are legacies of the past. The problem has become worse in recent years in North America, Australia, the Amazon basin, Philippines. This paper describes the economics of gold and the changes in the world economy which has precipitated the new gold rushes. Current technology uses a cyanide solution for leaching small amounts of gold from tons of waste, and mercury remains a toxic waste of gold mining. Both short and long term results of gold mining, on the environment and on indiginous populations are described

  3. Comparison of megavoltage position verification for prostate irradiation based on bony anatomy and implanted fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nederveen, Aart J.; Dehnad, Homan; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A. van; Hofman, Pieter; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The patient position during radiotherapy treatment of prostate cancer can be verified with the help of portal images acquired during treatment. In this study we quantify the clinical consequences of the use of image-based verification based on the bony anatomy and the prostate target itself. Patients and methods: We analysed 2025 portal images and 23 computed tomography (CT) scans from 23 patients with prostate cancer. In all patients gold markers were implanted prior to CT scanning. Statistical data for both random and systematic errors were calculated for displacements of bones and markers and we investigated the effectiveness of an off-line correction protocol. Results: Standard deviations for systematic marker displacement are 2.4 mm in the lateral (LR) direction, 4.4 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction and 3.7 mm in the caudal-cranial direction (CC). Application of off-line position verification based on the marker positions results in a shrinkage of the systematic error to well below 1 mm. Position verification based on the bony anatomy reduces the systematic target uncertainty to 50% in the AP direction and in the LR direction. No reduction was observed in the CC direction. For six out of 23 patients we found an increase of the systematic error after application of bony anatomy-based position verification. Conclusions: We show that even if correction based on the bony anatomy is applied, considerable margins have to be set to account for organ motion. Our study highlights that for individual patients the systematic error can increase after application of bony anatomy-based position verification, whereas the population standard deviation will decrease. Off-line target-based position verification effectively reduces the systematic error to well below 1 mm, thus enabling significant margin reduction

  4. Rushing for gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

    2009-01-01

    African rural dwellers have faced depressed economic prospects for several decades. Now, in a number of mineral-rich countries, multiple discoveries of gold and precious stones have attracted large numbers of prospective small-scale miners. While their 'rush' to, and activities within, mining sit...... affluent than the others, suggesting that movement can be rewarding for those willing to 'try their luck' with the hard work and social networking demands of mining another site.......African rural dwellers have faced depressed economic prospects for several decades. Now, in a number of mineral-rich countries, multiple discoveries of gold and precious stones have attracted large numbers of prospective small-scale miners. While their 'rush' to, and activities within, mining sites...

  5. Gold' 82 - technical sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viewing, K.

    1983-01-01

    Sulphur-isotope studies had been applied by Dr. I. Lambert to a number of deposits in Western Australia and also to certain samples from Vubachickwe and other deposits in Zimbabwe. A study of the sulphur isotopes at the Dickenson Mine, revealed a wide spread of values in the mineralised zones. Metamorphic processes were likely to be significant in the concentration of gold. The iron formations at the Old Jardine Mine had been unfolded by Dr. W.S. Hallager and the pattern of sedimentation was unraveled. A gold-rich zone was separated by a barren gap from the other part of the mineralised zone. Research was also done on the effects of the metamorphic processes, and the ages of mineralisation

  6. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  7. Comparison of prostate set-up accuracy and margins with off-line bony anatomy corrections and online implanted fiducial-based corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, P B; Dahl, K; Ebert, M A; Wratten, C; White, M; Denham, J W

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine prostate set-up accuracy and set-up margins with off-line bony anatomy-based imaging protocols, compared with online implanted fiducial marker-based imaging with daily corrections. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Pretreatment orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts and verification images were acquired during treatment to measure residual set-up error. The prostate set-up errors that would result from skin marker set-up, off-line bony anatomy-based protocols and online fiducial marker-based corrections were determined. Set-up margins were calculated for each set-up technique using the percentage of encompassed isocentres and a margin recipe. The prostate systematic set-up errors in the medial-lateral, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions for skin marker set-up were 2.2, 3.6 and 4.5 mm (1 standard deviation). For our bony anatomy-based off-line protocol the prostate systematic set-up errors were 1.6, 2.5 and 4.4 mm. For the online fiducial based set-up the results were 0.5, 1.4 and 1.4 mm. A prostate systematic error of 10.2 mm was uncorrected by the off-line bone protocol in one patient. Set-up margins calculated to encompass 98% of prostate set-up shifts were 11-14 mm with bone off-line set-up and 4-7 mm with online fiducial markers. Margins from the van Herk margin recipe were generally 1-2 mm smaller. Bony anatomy-based set-up protocols improve the group prostate set-up error compared with skin marks; however, large prostate systematic errors can remain undetected or systematic errors increased for individual patients. The margin required for set-up errors was found to be 10-15 mm unless implanted fiducial markers are available for treatment guidance.

  8. Comparison of prostate set-up accuracy and margins with off-line bony anatomy corrections and online implanted fiducial-based corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P. B.; Dahl, K.; Ebert, M. A.; Wratten, C.; White, M.; Denham, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to determine prostate set-up accuracy and set-up margins with off-line bony anatomy-based imaging protocols, compared with online implanted fiducial marker-based imaging with daily corrections. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Pretreatment orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts and verification images were acquired during treatment to measure residual set-up error. The prostate set-up errors that would result from skin marker set-up, off-line bony anatomy-based protocols and online fiducial marker-based corrections were determined. Set-up margins were calculated for each set-up technique using the percentage of encompassed isocentres land a margin recipe. The prostate systematic set-up errors in the medial-lateral, superior-inferior and anterior-I posterior directions for skin marker set-up were 2.2, 3.6 and 4.5 mm (1 standard deviation). For our bony anatomy-I based off-line protocol the prostate systematic set-up errors were 1.6, 2.5 and 4.4 mm. For the online fiducial based set-up the results were 0.5, 1.4 and 1.4 mm. A prostate systematic error of 10.2 mm was uncorrected by the off-line bone protocol in one patient. Set-up margins calculated to encompass 98% of prostate set-up shifts were 111-14 mm with bone off-line set-up and 4-7 mm with online fiducial markers. Margins from the van Herk margin I recipe were generally 1-2 mm smaller. Bony anatomy-based set-up protocols improve the group prostate set-up error compared with skin marks; however, large prostate systematic errors can remain undetected or systematic (errors increased for individual patients. The margin required for set-up errors was found to be 10-15 mm unless I implanted fiducial markers are available for treatment guidance.

  9. Validation of deformable image registration algorithms on CT images of ex vivo porcine bladders with fiducial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wognum, S; Heethuis, S E; Rosario, T; Hoogeman, M S; Bel, A

    2014-07-01

    The spatial accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) is important in the implementation of image guided adaptive radiotherapy techniques for cancer in the pelvic region. Validation of algorithms is best performed on phantoms with fiducial markers undergoing controlled large deformations. Excised porcine bladders, exhibiting similar filling and voiding behavior as human bladders, provide such an environment. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial accuracy of different DIR algorithms on CT images of ex vivo porcine bladders with radiopaque fiducial markers applied to the outer surface, for a range of bladder volumes, using various accuracy metrics. Five excised porcine bladders with a grid of 30-40 radiopaque fiducial markers attached to the outer wall were suspended inside a water-filled phantom. The bladder was filled with a controlled amount of water with added contrast medium for a range of filling volumes (100-400 ml in steps of 50 ml) using a luer lock syringe, and CT scans were acquired at each filling volume. DIR was performed for each data set, with the 100 ml bladder as the reference image. Six intensity-based algorithms (optical flow or demons-based) implemented in theMATLAB platform DIRART, a b-spline algorithm implemented in the commercial software package VelocityAI, and a structure-based algorithm (Symmetric Thin Plate Spline Robust Point Matching) were validated, using adequate parameter settings according to values previously published. The resulting deformation vector field from each registration was applied to the contoured bladder structures and to the marker coordinates for spatial error calculation. The quality of the algorithms was assessed by comparing the different error metrics across the different algorithms, and by comparing the effect of deformation magnitude (bladder volume difference) per algorithm, using the Independent Samples Kruskal-Wallis test. The authors found good structure accuracy without dependency on

  10. Validation of deformable image registration algorithms on CT images of ex vivo porcine bladders with fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wognum, S.; Heethuis, S. E.; Bel, A.; Rosario, T.; Hoogeman, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The spatial accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) is important in the implementation of image guided adaptive radiotherapy techniques for cancer in the pelvic region. Validation of algorithms is best performed on phantoms with fiducial markers undergoing controlled large deformations. Excised porcine bladders, exhibiting similar filling and voiding behavior as human bladders, provide such an environment. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial accuracy of different DIR algorithms on CT images ofex vivo porcine bladders with radiopaque fiducial markers applied to the outer surface, for a range of bladder volumes, using various accuracy metrics. Methods: Five excised porcine bladders with a grid of 30–40 radiopaque fiducial markers attached to the outer wall were suspended inside a water-filled phantom. The bladder was filled with a controlled amount of water with added contrast medium for a range of filling volumes (100–400 ml in steps of 50 ml) using a luer lock syringe, and CT scans were acquired at each filling volume. DIR was performed for each data set, with the 100 ml bladder as the reference image. Six intensity-based algorithms (optical flow or demons-based) implemented in theMATLAB platform DIRART, a b-spline algorithm implemented in the commercial software package VelocityAI, and a structure-based algorithm (Symmetric Thin Plate Spline Robust Point Matching) were validated, using adequate parameter settings according to values previously published. The resulting deformation vector field from each registration was applied to the contoured bladder structures and to the marker coordinates for spatial error calculation. The quality of the algorithms was assessed by comparing the different error metrics across the different algorithms, and by comparing the effect of deformation magnitude (bladder volume difference) per algorithm, using the Independent Samples Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The authors found good structure

  11. Validation of deformable image registration algorithms on CT images of ex vivo porcine bladders with fiducial markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wognum, S., E-mail: s.wognum@gmail.com; Heethuis, S. E.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rosario, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The spatial accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) is important in the implementation of image guided adaptive radiotherapy techniques for cancer in the pelvic region. Validation of algorithms is best performed on phantoms with fiducial markers undergoing controlled large deformations. Excised porcine bladders, exhibiting similar filling and voiding behavior as human bladders, provide such an environment. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial accuracy of different DIR algorithms on CT images ofex vivo porcine bladders with radiopaque fiducial markers applied to the outer surface, for a range of bladder volumes, using various accuracy metrics. Methods: Five excised porcine bladders with a grid of 30–40 radiopaque fiducial markers attached to the outer wall were suspended inside a water-filled phantom. The bladder was filled with a controlled amount of water with added contrast medium for a range of filling volumes (100–400 ml in steps of 50 ml) using a luer lock syringe, and CT scans were acquired at each filling volume. DIR was performed for each data set, with the 100 ml bladder as the reference image. Six intensity-based algorithms (optical flow or demons-based) implemented in theMATLAB platform DIRART, a b-spline algorithm implemented in the commercial software package VelocityAI, and a structure-based algorithm (Symmetric Thin Plate Spline Robust Point Matching) were validated, using adequate parameter settings according to values previously published. The resulting deformation vector field from each registration was applied to the contoured bladder structures and to the marker coordinates for spatial error calculation. The quality of the algorithms was assessed by comparing the different error metrics across the different algorithms, and by comparing the effect of deformation magnitude (bladder volume difference) per algorithm, using the Independent Samples Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The authors found good structure

  12. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be properly fabricated to deliver the cargo into the targeted cells through effective endocytosis. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the selective penetration of gold nanoparticles into immune cells. The interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cell receptors is discussed. As distinct from other published reviews, we present a summary of the immunological properties of gold nanoparticles. This review also summarizes what is known about the application of gold nanoparticles as an antigen carrier and adjuvant in immunization for the preparation of antibodies in vivo . For each of the above topics, the basic principles, recent advances, and current challenges are discussed. Thus, this review presents a detailed analysis of data on interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cells. Emphasis is placed on the systematization of data over production of antibodies by using gold nanoparticles and adjuvant properties of gold nanoparticles. Specifically, we start our discussion with current data on interaction of various gold nanoparticles with immune cells. The next section describes existing technologies to improve production of antibodies in vivo by using gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific ligands. Finally, we describe what is known about adjuvant properties of bare gold or functionalized nanoparticles. In the Conclusion section, we present a short summary of reported data and some challenges and perspectives.

  13. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D. [University of Lubumbashi, Zaire, Gecamines Metallurgical Research Centre, Likasi, Zaire, c/o Gecamines Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-15

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  14. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  15. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied

  16. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  17. Propagation and stability characteristics of a 500-m-long laser-based fiducial line for high-precision alignment of long-distance linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Masanori; Telada, Souichi; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2013-09-01

    A laser-based alignment system with a He-Ne laser has been newly developed in order to precisely align accelerator units at the KEKB injector linac. The laser beam was first implemented as a 500-m-long fiducial straight line for alignment measurements. We experimentally investigated the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam passing through laser pipes in vacuum. The pointing stability at the last fiducial point was successfully obtained with the transverse displacements of ±40 μm level in one standard deviation by applying a feedback control. This pointing stability corresponds to an angle of ±0.08 μrad. This report contains a detailed description of the experimental investigation for the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam in the laser-based alignment system for long-distance linear accelerators.

  18. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in... EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general. Gold coins, and gold certificates of the type issued before January 30, 1934, are exchangeable, as provided...

  19. Determining gold content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for determining the gold content of a material, comprises irradiating a body of the material with neutrons and determining the intensity of γ-rays having an energy of 279 keV arising from the reaction 179 Au(nn') 179 Au → 279 keV. The apparatus has means for conveying the materials past an assembly, which has a neutron source, which does not produce neutrons having sufficient energy to excite fast neutron reactions in non-auriferous constituents. (author)

  20. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  1. Determination of Gold from Gold Matrix of North Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research paper presents analytical results of Au, Mn and V concentrations of some Nigerian gold ores using two techniques: epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fourteen samples were collected from gold fields of North Western Nigeria, prepared separately to a ...

  2. Clinical impact of EUS elastography followed by contrast-enhanced EUS in patients with focal pancreatic masses and negative EUS-guided FNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iordache, Sevastiţa; Costache, Mădălin Ionuţ; Popescu, Carmen Florina

    2016-01-01

    and negative cytopathology after EUS-FNA, based on previously published results and cut-offs of real-time elastographic (RTE) EUS and contrast-enhanced harmonic (CEH) EUS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included in the study a subgroup of 50 consecutive patients with focal pancreatic masses which underwent EUS...... malignancy, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of RTE-EUS were: 97.7%, 77.4%, and 84% respectively. CEH-EUS had similar results: 89.5%, 80.7%, and 84%, respectively. In 25 patients with soft/mixed appearance during elastography,sequential assessment using contrast-enhanced EUSwas performed...

  3. Tracking Accuracy of a Real-Time Fiducial Tracking System for Patient Positioning and Monitoring in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchory, Tal; Schifter, Dan; Lichtman, Rinat; Neustadter, David; Corn, Benjamin W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy there is a need to accurately know the location of the target in real time. A novel radioactive tracking technology has been developed to answer this need. The technology consists of a radioactive implanted fiducial marker designed to minimize migration and a linac mounted tracking device. This study measured the static and dynamic accuracy of the new tracking technology in a clinical radiation therapy environment. Methods and Materials: The tracking device was installed on the linac gantry. The radioactive marker was located in a tissue equivalent phantom. Marker location was measured simultaneously by the radioactive tracking system and by a Microscribe G2 coordinate measuring machine (certified spatial accuracy of 0.38 mm). Localization consistency throughout a volume and absolute accuracy in the Fixed coordinate system were measured at multiple gantry angles over volumes of at least 10 cm in diameter centered at isocenter. Dynamic accuracy was measured with the marker located inside a breathing phantom. Results: The mean consistency for the static source was 0.58 mm throughout the tested region at all measured gantry angles. The mean absolute position error in the Fixed coordinate system for all gantry angles was 0.97 mm. The mean real-time tracking error for the dynamic source within the breathing phantom was less than 1 mm. Conclusions: This novel radioactive tracking technology has the potential to be useful in accurate target localization and real-time monitoring for radiation therapy.

  4. W{sup ±}Z production at the LHC: fiducial cross sections and distributions in NNLO QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazzini, Massimiliano [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich,CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Kallweit, Stefan [TH Division, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rathlev, Dirk [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich,CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Wiesemann, Marius [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich,CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); TH Division, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-05-26

    We report on the first fully differential calculation for W{sup ±}Z production in hadron collisions up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD perturbation theory. Leptonic decays of the W and Z bosons are consistently taken into account, i.e. we include all resonant and non-resonant diagrams that contribute to the process pp→ℓ{sup ′±}ν{sub ℓ{sup ′}}ℓ{sup +}ℓ{sup −}+X both in the same-flavour (ℓ{sup ′}=ℓ) and the different-flavour (ℓ{sup ′}≠ℓ) channel. Fiducial cross sections and distributions are presented in the presence of standard selection cuts applied in the experimental W{sup ±}Z analyses by ATLAS and CMS at centre-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. As previously shown for the inclusive cross section, NNLO corrections increase the NNLO result by about 10%, thereby leading to an improved agreement with experimental data. The importance of NNLO accurate predictions is also shown in the case of new-physics scenarios, where, especially in high-p{sub T} categories, their impact can reach O(20%). The availability of differential NNLO predictions will play a crucial role in the rich physics programme that is based on precision studies of W{sup ±}Z signatures at the LHC.

  5. Measurements of fiducial and differential cross sections for Higgs boson production in the diphoton decay channel at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horii, Yasuyuki; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Struebig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-09-19

    Measurements of fiducial and differential cross sections are presented for Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV. The analysis is performed in the $H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$ decay channel using 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is extracted using a fit to the diphoton invariant mass spectrum assuming that the width of the resonance is much smaller than the experimental resolution. The signal yields are corrected for the effects of detector inefficiency and resolution. The $pp\\rightarrow H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$ fiducial cross section is measured to be $43.2 \\pm 9.4 (stat) {}^{+3.2}_{-2.9} (syst) \\pm 1.2 (lumi)$ fb for a Higgs boson of mass 125.4 GeV decaying to two isolated photons that have transverse momentum greater than 35% and 25% of the diphoton invariant mass and each with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.37. Four additional fiducial cross sections and two cross-sectio...

  6. Activation analysis in gold industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear techniques and methods were, are, and will be very important for many fields of science, agriculture, industry, etc. Among other examples one can remember role of the nuclear medicine (radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic methods) or semiconductors (communication, computing, information, etc.) which industrial production has been on initial stage based on activation analysis. One of very illustrative examples is application of nuclear methods in gold industry. This is given by favorable nuclear properties of gold. Uzbekistan is one of the main producers of gold. Open-cast mining and hydro metallurgic extraction (using leaching by cyanide and sorption by ion-exchange resin) is the mostly used technology. The typical gold ores are sulfide and contain elevated concentration of As and Sb. That needs special technology of gold extraction. Importance of gold for Uzbekistan economy is a reason why for many years there are carried out studies concerning to gold production. These studies include also nuclear methods and their results are successfully used in gold industry. The present paper gives a brief overview for period of 25 years. For many reasons most of these studies were not published before completely. Despite some results are obtained decades ago we decided to present the overview as an example how nuclear methods can cover requirements of the whole process. We are trying to sort these studies according to methods and applications

  7. Accuracy of Ultrasound-Based (BAT) Prostate-Repositioning: A Three-Dimensional On-Line Fiducial-Based Assessment With Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Koehler, Frederick Marc; Kuepper, Beate; Wolff, Dirk; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Mai, Sabine; Hesser, Juergen; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of ultrasound-based repositioning (BAT) before prostate radiation with fiducial-based three-dimensional matching with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients and Methods: Fifty-four positionings in 8 patients with 125 I seeds/intraprostatic calcifications as fiducials were evaluated. Patients were initially positioned according to skin marks and after this according to bony structures based on CBCT. Prostate position correction was then performed with BAT. Residual error after repositioning based on skin marks, bony anatomy, and BAT was estimated by a second CBCT based on user-independent automatic fiducial registration. Results: Overall mean value (MV ± SD) residual error after BAT based on fiducial registration by CBCT was 0.7 ± 1.7 mm in x (group systematic error [M] = 0.5 mm; SD of systematic error [Σ] = 0.8 mm; SD of random error [σ] = 1.4 mm), 0.9 ± 3.3 mm in y (M = 0.5 mm, Σ = 2.2 mm, σ = 2.8 mm), and -1.7 ± 3.4 mm in z (M = -1.7 mm, Σ = 2.3 mm, σ = 3.0 mm) directions, whereas residual error relative to positioning based on skin marks was 2.1 ± 4.6 mm in x (M = 2.6 mm, Σ = 3.3 mm, σ = 3.9 mm), -4.8 ± 8.5 mm in y (M = -4.4 mm, Σ = 3.7 mm, σ = 6.7 mm), and -5.2 ± 3.6 mm in z (M = -4.8 mm, Σ = 1.7 mm, σ = 3.5mm) directions and relative to positioning based on bony anatomy was 0 ± 1.8 mm in x (M = 0.2 mm, Σ = 0.9 mm, σ = 1.1 mm), -3.5 ± 6.8 mm in y (M = -3.0 mm, Σ = 1.8 mm, σ = 3.7 mm), and -1.9 ± 5.2 mm in z (M = -2.0 mm, Σ = 1.3 mm, σ = 4.0 mm) directions. Conclusions: BAT improved the daily repositioning accuracy over skin marks or even bony anatomy. The results obtained with BAT are within the precision of extracranial stereotactic procedures and represent values that can be achieved with several users with different education levels. If sonographic visibility is insufficient, CBCT or kV/MV portal imaging with implanted fiducials are recommended

  8. Stealing the Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, S G

    2005-01-01

    Stealing the Gold presents a survey of some of the most exciting topics in condensed matter physics today, from the perspective of the pioneering work of Sam Edwards. Original articles from leaders in the field, including several Nobel laureates, highlight the historical development as well as new and emerging areas. This book would be of interest to graduate students and researchers in condensed matter physics, statistical physics and theoretical physics. Over the course of nearly half a century, Sam Edwards has led the field of condensed matter physics in new directions, ranging from the electronic and statistical properties of disordered materials to the mechanical properties of granular materials. Along the way he has provided seminal contributions to fluid mechanics, polymer science, surface science and statistical mechanics. This volume celebrates the immense scope of his influence by presenting a collection of original articles by recognized leaders in theoretical physics, including two Nobel laureates and a Fields medalist, which describe the genesis, evolution and future prospects of the various sub-fields of condensed matter theory, along with reprints of a selection of Edwards' seminal papers that helped give birth to the subject. Stealing the Gold, Edwards' favourite caricature of the relationship between theoretical physicists and nature, will be of singular interest to graduate students looking for an overview of some of the most exciting areas of theoretical physics, as well as to researchers in condensed matter physics looking for a comprehensive, broad and uniquely incisive snapshot of their subject at the dawn of the 21st century. (book review)

  9. Five-year follow-up using a prostate stent as fiducial in image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jesper; Sander, Lotte

    2015-06-01

    To report results from the five-year follow-up on a previously reported study using image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (PC) and a removable prostate stent as fiducial. Patients with local or locally advanced PC were treated using five-field 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DRT). The clinical target volumes (CTV) were treated to 78 Gy in 39 fractions using daily on-line image guidance (IG). Late genito-urinary (GU) and gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicities were scored using the radiotherapy oncology group (RTOG) score and the common toxicity score of adverse events (CTC) score. Urinary symptoms were also scored using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Median observation time was 5.4 year. Sixty-two of the 90 patients from the original study cohort were eligible for toxicity assessment. Overall survival, cancer-specific survival and biochemical freedom from failure were 85%, 96% and 80%, respectively at five years after radiotherapy. Late toxicity GU and GI RTOG scores≥2 were 5% and 0%. Comparing pre- and post-radiotherapy IPSS scores indicate that development in urinary symptoms after radiotherapy may be complex. Prostate image-guided radiotherapy using a prostate stent demonstrated survival data comparable with recently published data. GU and GI toxicities at five-year follow-up were low and comparable to the lowest toxicity rates reported. These findings support that the precision of the prostate stent technique is at least as good as other techniques. IPSS revealed a complex development in urinary symptoms after radiotherapy.

  10. A Comparison of In-Room Computerized Tomography Options for Detection of Fiducial Markers in Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Rebecca; Foroudi, Farshad; Kron, Tomas; Milner, Alvin; Cox, Jennifer; Cramb, Jim; Zhu Li; Duchesne, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare volumetric in-room computed tomography (CT) and kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) to planar imaging with respect to their ability to localize fiducial markers (FMs) for radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Image guidance options from two linear accelerators were compared in terms of identifying the center of gravity (COG) of FMs from the isocenter: a Siemens Primatom, where the couch is rotated 180 degrees from the treatment isocenter to the in-room CT vs. electronic portal imaging (EPI); and a Varian OBI system, where kV CBCT, EPI, and planar kV radiographs were compared. In all, 387 image pairs (CBCT = 133; CT = 254) from 18 patients were analyzed. A clinical tolerance of 3 mm was predefined as the acceptable threshold for agreement. Results: COG location on in-room CT and EPI was in agreement 96.9%, 85.8%, and 89.0% of the time in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively, vs. 99.2%, 91.7%, and 93.2% for the CBCT and EPI analysis. The CBCT vs. kV radiographs were in agreement 100% (LR), 85.4% (SI), and 88.5% (AP), and EPI vs. kV radiographs were in agreement 100% (LR), 94.6% (SI), and 91.5% (AP) of the time. Conclusion: Identification of FMs on volumetric or planar images was found to be not equivalent (±3 mm) using either linear accelerator. Intrafraction prostate motion, interpretation of FM location, and spatial properties of images are contributing factors. Although in-room CT has superior image quality, the process of realigning the treatment couch to acquire a CT introduces an error, highlighting the benefits of a single isocentric system.

  11. Comparison of CT on Rails With Electronic Portal Imaging for Positioning of Prostate Cancer Patients With Implanted Fiducial Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Rebecca; Kron, Tomas; Foroudi, Farshad; Milner, Alvin; Cox, Jennifer; Duchesne, Gillian; Cleeve, Laurence; Zhu Li; Cramb, Jim; Sparks, Laura; Laferlita, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this investigation was to measure the agreement between in-room computed tomography (CT) on rails and electronic portal image (EPI) radiography. Methods and Materials: Agreement between the location of the center of gravity (COG) of fiducial markers (FMs) on CT and EPI images was determined in phantom studies and a patient cohort. A secondary analysis between the center of volume (COV) of the prostate on CT and the COG of FMs on CT and EPI was performed. Agreement was defined as the 95% probability of a difference of ≤3.0 mm between images. Systematic and random errors from CT and EPI are reported. Results: From 8 patients, 254 CT and EPI pairs were analyzed. FMs were localized to within 3 mm on CT and EPI images 96.9% of the time in the left-right (LR) plane, 85.8% superior-inferior (SI), and 89% anterior-posterior (AP). The differences between the COV on CT and the COG on EPI were not within 3 mm in any plane: 87.8% (LR), 64.2% (SI), and 70.9% (AP). The systematic error varied from 1.2 to 2.9 mm (SI) and 1.8-2.9 mm (AP) between the COG on EPI and COV on CT. Conclusions: Considerable differences between in-room CT and EPI exist. The phantom measurements showed slice thickness affected the accuracy of localization in the SI plane, and couch sag that occurs at the CT on rails gantry could not be totally corrected for in the AP plane. Other confounding factors are the action of rotating the couch and associated time lag between image acquisitions (prostate motion), EPI image quality, and outlining uncertainties.

  12. Quantification of respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion using fiducial markers and four-dimensional computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; de Jong, Rianne; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Bel, Arjan; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    Respiration-induced tumor motion is an important geometrical uncertainty in esophageal cancer radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify this motion using fiducial markers and four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Twenty esophageal cancer patients underwent endoscopy-guided marker implantation in the tumor volume and 4DCT acquisition. The 4DCT data were sorted into 10 breathing phases and the end-of-inhalation phase was selected as reference. We quantified for each visible marker (n=60) the motion in each phase and derived the peak-to-peak motion magnitude throughout the breathing cycle. The motion was quantified and analyzed for four different regions and in three orthogonal directions. The median(interquartile range) of the peak-to-peak magnitudes of the respiration-induced marker motion (left-right/anterior-posterior/cranial-caudal) was 1.5(0.5)/1.6(0.5)/2.9(1.4) mm for the proximal esophagus (n=6), 1.5(1.4)/1.4(1.3)/3.7(2.6) mm for the middle esophagus (n=12), 2.6(1.3)/3.3(1.8)/5.4(2.9) mm for the distal esophagus (n=25), and 3.7(2.1)/5.3(1.8)/8.2(3.1) mm for the proximal stomach (n=17). The variations in the results between the three directions, four regions, and patients suggest the need of individualized region-dependent anisotropic internal margins. Therefore, we recommend using markers with 4DCT to patient-specifically adapt the internal target volume (ITV). Without 4DCT, 3DCTs at the end-of-inhalation and end-of-exhalation phases could be alternatively applied for ITV individualization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Migration of intraprostatic fiducial markers and its influence on the matching quality in external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delouya, Guila; Carrier, Jean-Francois; Beliveau-Nadeau, Dominic; Donath, David; Taussky, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of fiducial marker (FM) migration on the matching quality in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: The position of FMs were identified using on-board kV imaging (OBI) and their 3-D position established using an in-house reconstruction algorithm for 31 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma. To carry out the match, the positions were overlaid on the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) generated from the planning CT. The distance between each FM was calculated for seven treatments throughout the EBRT course. Four radiotherapy technologists were asked to independently perform and rate the match from OBI to DRR which was then correlated to the extent of FM migration. Results: All the matches were rated by at least three radiotherapy technologists as 'very easy' ('easy' subgroup) for 24 patients (77%), while the other seven patients had their match rated less than 'very easy' and considered the 'not easy' subgroup. The average daily FM migration was 0.93 ± 0.34 mm for the 'easy' subgroup vs. 1.82 ± 0.75 mm for the latter. An average migration >2 mm was seen in five/seven patients in the 'not easy' subgroup as compared to none in the 'easy' subgroup. There was a trend towards less FM migration and better matching if the planning CT was done later than the day of the FM implant (p = 0.093). Conclusions: FM migration >2 mm predicts for a more difficult matching process; PTV margins might have to be adjusted or the planning CT repeated.

  14. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  15. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  16. Enhancement of gold recovery using bioleaching from gold concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. H.; Cho, K. H.; Kim, B. J.; Choi, N. C.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The gold in refractory ores is encapsulated as fine particles (sometimes at a molecular level) in the crystal structure of the sulfide (typically pyrite with or without arsenopyrite) matrix. This makes it impossible to extract a significant amount of refractory gold by cyanidation since the cyanide solution cannot penetrate the pyrite/arsenopyrite crystals and dissolve gold particles, even after fine grinding. To effectively extract gold from these ores, an oxidative pretreatment is necessary to break down the sulfide matrix. The most popular methods of pretreatment include nitric acid oxidation, roasting, pressure oxidation and biological oxidation by microorganisms. This study investigated the bioleaching efficiency of Au concentrate under batch experimental conditions (adaptation cycles and chemical composition adaptation) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from gold mine leachate in Sunsin gold mine, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at two different chemical composition (CuSO4 and ZnSO4), two different adaptation cycles 1'st (3 weeks) and 2'nd (6 weeks). The results showed that the pH in the bacteria inoculating sample decreased than initial condition and Eh increased. In the chemical composition adaptation case, the leached accumulation content of Fe and Pb was exhibited in CuSO4 adaptation bacteria sample more than in ZnSO4 adaptation bacteria samples, possibly due to pre-adaptation effect on chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) in gold concentrate. And after 21 days on the CuSO4 adaptation cycles case, content of Fe and Pb was appeared at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample(Fe - 1.82 and Pb - 25.81 times per control sample) lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample(Fe - 2.87 and Pb - 62.05 times per control sample). This study indicates that adaptation chemical composition and adaptation cycles can play an important role in bioleaching of gold concentrate in eco-/economic metallurgy process.

  17. In harmony with gold and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A profile is given on Mr Clive Knobbs as managing director of Harmony gold mine. From March 1 1983 he succeeded as deputy chairman of the group's gold and uranium division, and became the Rand Mines representative on the Gold Producers Committee and the Executive Committee of the Chamber of Mines. The article also takes a look at gold and uranium mining in general

  18. 41 CFR 101-45.002 - Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Gold. 101-45.002 Section... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.002 Gold. (a) Gold will be sold in accordance with this section and part 102-38 of the Federal Management Regulation. (b) Sales of gold shall be processed to— (1) Use the sealed bid...

  19. Size fraction assaying of gold bearing rocks (for gold extraction) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method has been developed for processing and extraction of gold from gold bearing rocks for use by small-scale gold miners in Ghana. The methodology involved crushing of gold bearing hard rocks to fine particles to form a composite sample and screening at a range of sizes. Gold distribution in the composite ...

  20. Gold--a controversial sensitizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    allergy to gold sodium thiosulfate were published at the beginning of the 1990s, the allergic nature of the reported positive patch test reactions to gold was questioned. The major argument for such questioning was the lack of demonstrable clinical relevance in most positive reactors. A major reason......Until recently, gold allergy was considered to be extremely rare. Gold has been used and worshipped for thousands of years without any obvious complaints of skin problems, either in those participating in mining and other ways of prospecting, or in those wearing jewellery. When studies on contact...... for the questioning may have been confusion in differentiating between contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis. To arrive at a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis, 3 steps have, in principle, to be fulfilled: (i) establishment of contact allergy; (ii) demonstration of present exposure; (iii) assessment...

  1. Gold, currencies and market efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2016-05-01

    Gold and currency markets form a unique pair with specific interactions and dynamics. We focus on the efficiency ranking of gold markets with respect to the currency of purchase. By utilizing the Efficiency Index (EI) based on fractal dimension, approximate entropy and long-term memory on a wide portfolio of 142 gold price series for different currencies, we construct the efficiency ranking based on the extended EI methodology we provide. Rather unexpected results are uncovered as the gold prices in major currencies lay among the least efficient ones whereas very minor currencies are among the most efficient ones. We argue that such counterintuitive results can be partly attributed to a unique period of examination (2011-2014) characteristic by quantitative easing and rather unorthodox monetary policies together with the investigated illegal collusion of major foreign exchange market participants, as well as some other factors discussed in some detail.

  2. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  3. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2014-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds derived from cellulose, hemicelluloses, and woody biomass extractives. Since gold catalysts possess high stability under oxidative conditions, selective oxidation reactions were discussed more thoroughly than other critical reactions such as partial hydrogenation, acetalization, and isomerization. The influence of reaction conditions, the role of the catalyst, and the advantages and disadvantages of using gold are pre...

  4. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Dykman, Lev A.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be...

  5. Biosensors based on gold nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Vidotti,Marcio; Carvalhal,Rafaela F.; Mendes,Renata K.; Ferreira,Danielle C. M.; Kubota,Lauro T.

    2011-01-01

    The present review discusses the latest advances in biosensor technology achieved by the assembly of biomolecules associated with gold nanoparticles in analytical devices. This review is divided in sections according to the biomolecule employed in the biosensor development: (i) immunocompounds; (ii) DNA/RNA and functional DNA/RNA; and (iii) enzymes and Heme proteins. In order to facilitate the comprehension each section was subdivided according to the transduction mode. Gold nanoparticles bas...

  6. Characterisation of gold from Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Naden, Jon; Henney, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This is a study of the variation in chemistry and inclusion mineralogy of bedrock and placer gold from Fiji. It forms part of a large project, undertaking gold characterisation from a wide range of geological environments in Ecuador, Zimbabwe, Malaysia and Fiji. The work was carried out under the Overseas Development AdministratiodBritish Geological Survey Technology Development and Research programme (Project R5549) as part of the British Government’s provision of technical...

  7. Goldenphilicity: Luminescent gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansores, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the solids and molecules different types of bonds are presented depending on the involved atoms, covalent bonds are common among elements of open shell, where more bond orbitals are filled than anti bond orbitals. It is expected that ionic bonds among closed shell atoms which have charges of opposite sign. Bonds type Van der Waals are presented among molecules which have a bipolar moment. It would not be expected bonds among zero charge species, or more generally with the same nominal charge and in any case the attractive forces would be very small. In fact it is expected that two metallic cations to be repelled each other. There recently is evidence that in organic or organometallic compounds could exist attractive interactions between two cations of the d 8 -d 10 -s 2 families. These bonds are weak but stronger than those of Van der Waals. They are compared with the hydrogen bonds. In this work it was reviewed some examples in which the goldenphilicity plays an important role in the luminescence that the gold complexes present. Examples of mono, bi and trinuclear and the structures that these organometallic compounds could take are examined. (Author)

  8. High-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer using daily fiducial marker-based position verification: acute and late toxicity in 331 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M; Dehnad, Homan; Gils, Carla H van; Boeken Kruger, Arto E; Heide, Uulke A van der; Vulpen, Marco van

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and late toxicity after high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with fiducial marker-based position verification for prostate cancer. Between 2001 and 2004, 331 patients with prostate cancer received 76 Gy in 35 fractions using IMRT combined with fiducial marker-based position verification. The symptoms before treatment (pre-treatment) and weekly during treatment (acute toxicity) were scored using the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). The goal was to score late toxicity according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) scale with a follow-up time of at least three years. Twenty-two percent of the patients experienced pre-treatment grade ≥ 2 genitourinary (GU) complaints and 2% experienced grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. Acute grade 2 GU and GI toxicity occurred in 47% and 30%, respectively. Only 3% of the patients developed acute grade 3 GU and no grade ≥ 3 GI toxicity occurred. After a mean follow-up time of 47 months with a minimum of 31 months for all patients, the incidence of late grade 2 GU and GI toxicity was 21% and 9%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 GU and GI toxicity rates were 4% and 1%, respectively, including one patient with a rectal fistula and one patient with a severe hemorrhagic cystitis (both grade 4). In conclusion, high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker-based position verification is well tolerated. The low grade ≥ 3 toxicity allows further dose escalation if the same dose constraints for the organs at risk will be used

  9. BioXmark for high-precision radiotherapy in an orthotopic pancreatic tumor mouse model. Experiences with a liquid fiducial marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobiasch, S.; Kampfer, S.; Burkhardt, R.; Wilkens, J.J.; Schilling, D.; Schmid, T.E.; Combs, S.E.

    2017-01-01

    High-precision radiotherapy (RT) requires precise positioning, particularly with high single doses. Fiducial markers in combination with onboard imaging are excellent tools to support this. The purpose of this study is to establish a pancreatic cancer mouse model for high-precision image-guided RT (IGRT) using the liquid fiducial marker BioXmark (Nanovi, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark). In an animal-based cancer model, different volumes of BioXmark (10-50 μl), application forms, and imaging modalities - cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) incorporated in either the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) or the small-animal micro-CT Scanner (SkyScan; Bruker, Brussels, Belgium) - as well as subsequent RT with the SARRP system were analyzed to derive recommendations for BioXmark. Even small volumes (10 μl) of BioXmark could be detected by CBCT (SARRP and Skyscan). Larger volumes (50 μl) led to hardening artefacts. The position of BioXmark was monitored at least weekly by CBCT and was stable over 4 months. BioXmark was shown to be well tolerated; no changes in physical condition or toxic side effects were observed in comparison to control mice. BioXmark enabled an exact fusion with the original treatment plan with less hardening artefacts, and minimized the application of contrast agent for fractionated RT. An orthotopic pancreatic tumor mouse model was established for high-precision IGRT using a fiducial marker. BioXmark was successfully tested and provides the perfect basis for improved imaging in high-precision RT. BioXmark enables a unique application method and optimal targeted precision in fractionated RT. Therefore, preclinical trials evaluating novel fractionation regimens and/or combination treatment with high-end RT can be performed. (orig.) [de

  10. High-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer using daily fiducial marker-based position verification: acute and late toxicity in 331 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeken Kruger Arto E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the acute and late toxicity after high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT with fiducial marker-based position verification for prostate cancer. Between 2001 and 2004, 331 patients with prostate cancer received 76 Gy in 35 fractions using IMRT combined with fiducial marker-based position verification. The symptoms before treatment (pre-treatment and weekly during treatment (acute toxicity were scored using the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC. The goal was to score late toxicity according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC scale with a follow-up time of at least three years. Twenty-two percent of the patients experienced pre-treatment grade ≥ 2 genitourinary (GU complaints and 2% experienced grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI complaints. Acute grade 2 GU and GI toxicity occurred in 47% and 30%, respectively. Only 3% of the patients developed acute grade 3 GU and no grade ≥ 3 GI toxicity occurred. After a mean follow-up time of 47 months with a minimum of 31 months for all patients, the incidence of late grade 2 GU and GI toxicity was 21% and 9%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 GU and GI toxicity rates were 4% and 1%, respectively, including one patient with a rectal fistula and one patient with a severe hemorrhagic cystitis (both grade 4. In conclusion, high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker-based position verification is well tolerated. The low grade ≥ 3 toxicity allows further dose escalation if the same dose constraints for the organs at risk will be used.

  11. Fluid collection after partial pancreatectomy: EUS drainage and long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillol, Fabrice; Godat, Sebastien; Turrini, Olivier; Zemmour, Christophe; Bories, Erwan; Pesenti, Christian; Ratone, Jean Phillippe; Ewald, Jacques; Delpero, Jean Robert; Giovannini, Marc

    2018-03-29

    Postoperative fluid collection due to pancreatic leak is the most frequent complication after pancreatic surgery. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of post-pancreatic surgery fluid collection is the gold standard procedure; however, data on outcomes of this procedure are limited. The primary endpoint of our study was relapse over longterm followup, and the secondary endpoint was the efficiency and safety of EUS-guided drainage of post-pancreatic surgery fluid collection. This retrospective study was conducted at a single center from December 2008 to April 2016. Global morbidity was defined as the occurrence of an event involving additional endoscopic procedures, hospitalization, or interventional radiologic or surgical procedures. EUS-guided drainage was considered a clinical failure if surgery was required to treat a relapse after stent removal. Fortyone patients were included. The technical success rate was 100%. Drainage was considered a clinical success in 93% (39/41) of cases. Additionally, 19 (46%) complications were identified as global morbidity. The duration between surgery and EUS-guided drainage was not a significantly related factor for morbidity rate (P = 0.8); however, bleeding due to arterial injuries (splenic artery and gastroduodenal artery) from salvage drainage procedures occurred within 25 days following the initial surgery. There was no difference in survival between patients with and without complications. No relapse was reported during the followup (median: 44.75 months; range: 29.24 to 65.74 months). EUSguided drainage for post-pancreatic surgery fluid collection was efficient with no relapse during longterm followup. Morbidity rate was independent of the duration between the initial surgery and EUS-guided drainage; however, bleeding risk was likely more important in cases of early drainage.

  12. Structure and bonding in gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in chemical applications of 197 Au Moessbauer spectroscopy are reviewed. For gold(I) and gold(III), systematic variations in isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are seen as the ligands are changed; the effects of change in coordination number of the gold atoms are also systematic. Data for gold(II) systems involving gold-gold bonds lie between those for corresponding gold(I) and gold(III) materials, showing a small increase in isomer shift and a larger increase in quadrupole splitting as the oxidation state decreases; these trends are explained in terms of the structures. Data for mixed-metal cluster compounds are much more sensitive to structural effects than in homonuclear clusters. Both sets of data show systematic changes with increase in the number of metal atoms to which the gold atom is bound. The connectivity also influences the recoil-free fraction. (orig.)

  13. Intraprostatic fiducials for localization of the prostate gland: Monitoring intermarker distances during radiation therapy to test for marker stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Forbes, Alan; Wagner, Thomas; Maach, Mourad; Langen, Katja M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The use of intraprostatic fiducials as surrogates for prostate gland position assumes that the markers are rigidly positioned within the prostate. To test this assumption, the intermarker distances (IMD) of implanted markers was monitored during the full course of radiation therapy to determine marker stability within the prostate gland. Methods and Materials The analysis is performed on 56 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A total of 168 markers (3 markers per patient) were implanted. Two high-resolution X-rays were acquired before treatment delivery to visualize the position of the implanted markers. A total of 2,037 daily alignments were performed on the 56 cases (average: 36 alignments per patient). Each pair of X-ray images allows the computation of the 3 IMDs. A total of 6,111 IMDs were available for analysis. To study variations in marker position, daily IMDs were compared with the IMD that was observed during the first alignment. We defined the variation in the IMD as the important measure of intrinsic marker position variation. The standard deviation (SD) of IMD variations was studied as a measure of the extent of marker position variation. Particular attention was given to cases in which significant intermarker variations were observed. Results The average directional variation of all IMDs (± SD) was -0.31 (±1.41) mm. The average absolute variation of all IMDs (± SD) was 1.01 (±1.03) mm. The largest observed variation in IMD was 10.2 mm. Among the individual 56 patients, the SDs of the IMD variations were computed and found to range from 0.4 to 4.2 mm. In 54 of the 56 patients (96%), the variations of all 3 IMDs had SD of 4.0 mm or less, which indicates little variation in the relative position of the markers. Only in 2 patients did any of the IMDs vary, with SD that exceeded 4.0 mm, which indicated noticeable and consistent marker-position variation. The maximum observed SD in the IMD variation was 4.2 mm. In each of

  14. Annealing relaxation of ultrasmall gold nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Except serving as an excellent gift on proper occasions, gold finds applications in life sciences, particularly in diagnostics and therapeutics. These applications were made possible by gold nanoparticles, which differ drastically from macroscopic gold. Versatile surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles allows coating with small molecules, polymers, biological recognition molecules. Theoretical investigation of nanoscale gold is not trivial, because of numerous metastable states in these systems. Unlike elsewhere, this work obtains equilibrium structures using annealing simulations within the recently introduced PM7-MD method. Geometries of the ultrasmall gold nanostructures with chalcogen coverage are described at finite temperature, for the first time.

  15. Phage based green chemistry for gold ion reduction and gold retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Magdiel I; Xie, Jianping; Leong, David T

    2014-01-22

    The gold mining industry has taken its toll on the environment, triggering the development of more environmentally benign processes to alleviate the waste load release. Here, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophages (phages) for biosorption and bioreduction of gold ions from aqueous solution, which potentially can be applied to remediate gold ions from gold mining waste effluent. Phage has shown a remarkably efficient sorption of gold ions with a maximum gold adsorption capacity of 571 mg gold/g dry weight phage. The product of this phage mediated process is gold nanocrystals with the size of 30-630 nm. Biosorption and bioreduction processes are mediated by the ionic and covalent interaction between gold ions and the reducing groups on the phage protein coat. The strategy offers a simple, ecofriendly and feasible option to recover of gold ions to form readily recoverable products of gold nanoparticles within 24 h.

  16. 4D modeling in a gimbaled linear accelerator by using gold anchor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hideharu; Ozawa, Shuichi; Matsuura, Takaaki; Kawakubo, Atsushi; Hosono, Fumika; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Yasushi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify whether the dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) feature of a Vero4DRT system performs with 10-mm-long and 0.28 mm diameter gold anchor markers. Gold anchor markers with a length of 10 mm and a diameter of 0.28 mm were used. Gold anchor markers were injected with short and long types into bolus material. These markers were sandwiched by a Tough Water (TW) phantom in the bolus material. For the investigation of 4-dimensional (4D) modeling feasibility under various phantom thicknesses, the TW phantom was added at 2 cm intervals (in upper and lower each by 1 cm). A programmable respiratory motion table was used to simulate breathing-induced organ motion, with an amplitude of 30 mm and a breathing cycle of 3 s. X-ray imaging parameters of 80 kV and 125 kV (320 mA and 5 ms) were used. The least detection error of the fiducial marker was defined as the 4D-modeling limitation. The 4D modeling process was attempted using short and long marker types and its limitation with the short and long types was with phantom thicknesses of 6 and 10 cm at 80 kV and 125 kV, respectively. However, the loss in detectability of the gold anchor because of 4D-modeling errors was found to be approximately 6% (2/31) with a phantom thickness of 2 cm under 125 kV. 4D-modeling could be performed except under the described conditions. This work showed that a 10-mm-long gold anchor marker in short and long types can be used with DTT for short water equivalent path length site, such as lung cancer patients, in the Vero4DRT system.

  17. Gold nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Silva, Andressa A. da; Leal, Jessica; Batista, Jorge G.S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    In our laboratory has been growing the interest in studying gold nanoparticles and for this reason, the aim of this work is report the first results of the effect of chitosan as stabilizer in gold nanoparticle formulation. AuNPs were synthesized by reducing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) using NaBH 4 or gamma irradiation (25kGy) as reduction agent. The chitosan (3 mol L -1 ) was added at 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mL. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their physical stability was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer over one week during storage at room temperature. Absorption measurements indicated that the plasmon resonance wavelength appears at a wavelength around 530 nm. Has been observed that Chitosan in such quantities were not effective in stabilizing the AuNPs. (author)

  18. Plasmonic Horizon in Gold Nanosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Cynthia; Sivun, Dmitry; Ziegler, Johannes; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter; Hrelescu, Calin; Klar, Thomas A

    2018-02-14

    An electromagnetic wave impinging on a gold nanosponge coherently excites many electromagnetic hot-spots inside the nanosponge, yielding a polarization-dependent scattering spectrum. In contrast, a hole, recombining with an electron, can locally excite plasmonic hot-spots only within a horizon given by the lifetime of localized plasmons and the speed carrying the information that a plasmon has been created. This horizon is about 57 nm, decreasing with increasing size of the nanosponge. Consequently, photoluminescence from large gold nanosponges appears unpolarized.

  19. New Trends in Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites

  20. A Novel Strategy for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticle Self Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Jyoti; Lal, Sumit; van Veen, Henk A.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle self assemblies are one-dimensional structures of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticle self assemblies exhibit unique physical properties and find applications in the development of biosensors. Methodologies currently available for lab-scale and commercial synthesis of gold

  1. Ligations of Gold Atoms with Iron Porphyrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ling; Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ulstrup, Jens

    Gold is an exotic material with d-electrons deciding electronic mappings andconfigurations of adsorbed molecules. The specific interaction of Au atoms and S-, Ncappedmolecules make gold nanoparticles widely applied in the medicine transport andimmunoassay. Density functional theory demonstrates t...

  2. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille

    2013-01-01

    . In conclusion, our findings support that bio-liberation of gold from metallic gold surfaces have anti-inflammatory properties similar to classic gold compounds, warranting further studies into the pharmacological potential of this novel gold-treatment and the possible synergistic effects of hyaluronic acid....... by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study...... investigates the anti-inflammatory properties of metallic gold/HA on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf-α), Interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, Il-10, Colony-stimulating factor (Csf)-v2, Metallothionein (Mt)-1/2, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 in cultured J774 macrophages...

  3. The geology of the gold deposits of Prestea gold belt of Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the geology of the gold deposits along the Prestea gold belt of Ghana to assist exploration work for new orebodies along the belt. Prestea district is the third largest gold producer in West Africa after Obuasi and Tarkwa districts (over 250 metric tonnes Au during the last century). The gold deposits are ...

  4. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Phototherapy for Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; He, Y.; Xin, J.; Wang, S.; Xu, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles exhibit very unique physiochemical and optical properties, which now are extensively studied in range of medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In particular, gold nanoparticles show promise in the advancement of cancer treatments. This review will provide insights into the four different cancer treatments such as photothermal therapy, gold nanoparticle-aided photodynamic therapy, gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy, and their use as drug carrier. We also discuss the mechanism of every method and the adverse effects and its limitations

  5. Clinical feasibility study for the use of implanted gold seeds in the prostate as reliable positioning markers during megavoltage irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnad, Homan; Nederveen, Aart J.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A. van; Hofman, Pieter; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using gold seed implants in the prostate for position verification, using an a-Si flat panel imager as a detector during megavoltage irradiation of prostate carcinoma. This is a study to guarantee positioning accuracy in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and materials: Ten patients with localized prostate carcinoma (T2-3) received between one and three fiducial gold markers in the prostate. All patients were treated with 3-D conformal radiotherapy with an anterior-posterior (AP) and two lateral wedge fields. The acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were scored using common toxicity criteria scales (CTC). Using three consecutive CT scans and portal images obtained during the treatment we have studied the occurrence of any change in prostate shape (deformation), seed migration and the magnitude of translations and rotations of the prostate. Results: We observed no acute major complications for prostate irradiation regarding the seed implantation. The maximum acute GU toxicity grade 2 (dysuria and frequency) was observed in seven patients during the treatment. The maximum grade 2 (diarrhoea) was scored in two patients regarding the acute GI toxicities. No significant prostate deformation could be detected in the consecutive CT scans. It appeared that the distances between the markers only slightly changed during treatment (S.D. 0.5 mm). Random prostate translations were (1 S.D.) 2.1, 3.2 and 2.2 mm in the lateral (LR), AP and cranial-caudal (CC) directions, respectively, whereas systematic translations were 3.3, 4.8 and 3.5 mm in the LR, AP and CC directions, respectively. Random prostate rotations were (1 S.D.) 3.6, 1.7 and 1.9 deg. around the LR, AP and CC axis, respectively, whereas systematic rotations were 4.7, 2.0 and 2.7 deg. around the LR, AP and CC axis, respectively. Conclusions: We found that the fiducial gold seeds are a safe and appropriate

  6. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  7. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov

    2014-01-01

    There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  8. Cancer caused by radioactive gold rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callary, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Two recent cases of skin cancer caused by radioactive gold rings are described. The gold was contaminated with radon daughters from hollow goldseeds used to hold radon, back in the 1930s or possibly later. Other radioactive gold rings are probably being worn. The Canadian AECB offers free testing

  9. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...

  10. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We elucid...

  11. Daily Prostate Volume and Position Monitoring Using Implanted Gold Markers and On-Board Imaging during Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kašaová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate prostate volume changes and prostate motions during radiotherapy. Methods: In 2010, twenty-five patients were treated for prostate cancer by external beam radiotherapy with implanted fiducial markers. Coordinates of three gold markers on kilovoltage images were calculated daily. Volume changes in target structure were observed through changes in intermarker distances. Differences in patient position between laser-tattoo alignment and gold marker localization were evaluated. Intrafraction motion was assessed by measuring marker displacement on kilovoltage images acquired before and after fraction delivery. Results: Prostate shrinkage was observed in 60% of patients. The average shrinkage was 7% of the prostate’s initial volume. Corrections after laser-tattoo alignment remained mostly below 1 cm. The difference between marker centroid position on the actual images and the planning images was 2 ± 1 mm on average. The extension of intrafraction movements was 7.6 ± 0.2 mm on average. Conclusions: In our retrospective study, the possibility for prostate volume changes during radiotherapy was revealed. Intrafraction movements turned out to be the limiting factor in safety margin reduction.

  12. Surface vertical deposition for gold nanoparticle film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, J J; Qiu, F S; Chen, G D; Reeves, M E

    2003-01-01

    In this rapid communication, we present the surface vertical deposition (SVD) method to synthesize the gold nanoparticle films. Under conditions where the surface of the gold nanoparticle suspension descends slowly by evaporation, the gold nanoparticles in the solid-liquid-gas junction of the suspension aggregate together on the substrate by the force of solid and liquid interface. When the surface properties of the substrate and colloidal nanoparticle suspension define for the SVD, the density of gold nanoparticles in the thin film made by SVD only depends on the descending velocity of the suspension surface and on the concentration of the gold nanoparticle suspension. (rapid communication)

  13. [Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Azospirillum brasilense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriashina, M A; Vetchinkina, E P; Burov, A M; Ponomareva, E G; Nikitina, V E

    2014-01-01

    Plant-associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Azospirillum brasilense were shown to reduce the gold of chloroauric acid to elemental gold, resulting in formation of gold nanoparicles. Extracellular phenoloxidizing enzymes (laccases and Mn peroxidases) were shown to participate in reduction of Au+3 (HAuCl4) to Au(0). Transmission electron microscopy revealed accumulation of colloidal gold nanoparticles of diverse shape in the culture liquid of A. brasilense strains Sp245 and Sp7. The size of the electron-dense nanospheres was 5 to 50 nm, and the size of nanoprisms varied from 5 to 300 nm. The tentative mechanism responsible for formation of gold nanoparticles is discussed.

  14. Gold and not so real gold in Medieval treatises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrenka Bogovic-Zeskoski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evidence diverse materials and processes used by artisans (and alchemists required to synthesize a visually viable replacement for gold. The emphasis of the research is upon the production of mosaic gold or porporina, a pigment that has survived into modern times, which was used as ink and as paint. Base metals, mostly tin, but also alloys were used both into foils coated with glazes and varnishes and as pigment. The research focuses upon recipes documented in treatises dating from Antiquity to the late Medieval period (ca. 1500 and an attempt is made to answer two questions. In the first place, why was there a need for a surrogate? Secondly, why are there so few tangible examples detected on surviving artifacts? In conclusion, an argument is offered pointing out that, although much can be learned by scientific examination of artifacts, textual analysis is equally important and necessary to unravel mysteries of ancient technologies

  15. Detection of esophageal fiducial marker displacement during radiation therapy with a 2-dimensional on-board imager: analysis of internal margin for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Junichi; Hanada, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshio; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko; Seki, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Ogata, Haruhiko; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2013-03-15

    To quantify the interfraction displacement of esophageal fiducial markers for primary esophageal cancer radiation therapy. Orthogonal 2-dimensional (2D) matching records fused to vertebrae were analyzed in clinically staged T1/2N0 esophageal cancer patients undergoing endoscopic clipping as fiducial metal markers. Displacement of the markers between the digitally reconstructed radiographs and on-board kilovoltage images during radiation therapy was analyzed according to direction and esophageal site. Forty-four patients, with 81 markers (10 proximal, 42 middle, and 29 distal), underwent 367 2D matching sessions during radiation therapy. The mean (SD) absolute marker displacement was 0.26 (0.30) cm in the right-left (RL), 0.50 (0.39) cm in the superior-inferior (SI), and 0.24 (0.21) cm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction. Displacement was significantly larger in the SI than in the RL and AP directions (Pdisplacements of the distal, middle, and proximal esophagus were 0.67 (0.45) cm, 0.42 (0.32) cm, and 0.36 (0.30) cm, respectively. Distal esophagus displacement was significantly larger than those of the middle and proximal esophagus (Pinternal margin to cover 95% of the cases was 0.75 cm in the RL and AP directions. In the SI direction, the margin was 1.25 cm for the proximal and middle esophagus and 1.75 cm for the distal esophagus. The magnitude of interfraction displacement of esophageal clips was larger in the SI direction, particularly in the distal esophagus, but substantial displacement was observed in other directions and at other esophageal sites. It is practical to take estimated movements into account with internal margins, even if vertebrae-based 2D matching is performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of Esophageal Fiducial Marker Displacement During Radiation Therapy With a 2-dimensional On-board Imager: Analysis of Internal Margin for Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Junichi; Hanada, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshio; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko; Seki, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Ogata, Haruhiko; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the interfraction displacement of esophageal fiducial markers for primary esophageal cancer radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Orthogonal 2-dimensional (2D) matching records fused to vertebrae were analyzed in clinically staged T1/2N0 esophageal cancer patients undergoing endoscopic clipping as fiducial metal markers. Displacement of the markers between the digitally reconstructed radiographs and on-board kilovoltage images during radiation therapy was analyzed according to direction and esophageal site. Results: Forty-four patients, with 81 markers (10 proximal, 42 middle, and 29 distal), underwent 367 2D matching sessions during radiation therapy. The mean (SD) absolute marker displacement was 0.26 (0.30) cm in the right–left (RL), 0.50 (0.39) cm in the superior–inferior (SI), and 0.24 (0.21) cm in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction. Displacement was significantly larger in the SI than in the RL and AP directions (P<.0001). In the SI direction, mean absolute displacements of the distal, middle, and proximal esophagus were 0.67 (0.45) cm, 0.42 (0.32) cm, and 0.36 (0.30) cm, respectively. Distal esophagus displacement was significantly larger than those of the middle and proximal esophagus (P<.0001). The estimated internal margin to cover 95% of the cases was 0.75 cm in the RL and AP directions. In the SI direction, the margin was 1.25 cm for the proximal and middle esophagus and 1.75 cm for the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The magnitude of interfraction displacement of esophageal clips was larger in the SI direction, particularly in the distal esophagus, but substantial displacement was observed in other directions and at other esophageal sites. It is practical to take estimated movements into account with internal margins, even if vertebrae-based 2D matching is performed

  17. Residual translational and rotational errors after kV X-ray image-guided correction of prostate location using implanted fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wust, Peter; Graf, Reinhold; Boehmer, Dirk; Budach, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual errors and required safety margins after stereoscopic kilovoltage (kV) X-ray target localization of the prostate in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) using internal fiducials. Patients and Methods: Radiopaque fiducial markers (FMs) have been inserted into the prostate in a cohort of 33 patients. The ExacTrac/Novalis Body trademark X-ray 6d image acquisition system (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) was used. Corrections were performed in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) direction. Rotational errors around LR (x-axis), AP (y) and SI (z) have been recorded for the first series of nine patients, and since 2007 for the subsequent 24 patients in addition corrected in each fraction by using the Robotic Tilt Module trademark and Varian Exact Couch trademark. After positioning, a second set of X-ray images was acquired for verification purposes. Residual errors were registered and again corrected. Results: Standard deviations (SD) of residual translational random errors in LR, AP, and SI coordinates were 1.3, 1.7, and 2.2 mm. Residual random rotation errors were found for lateral (around x, tilt), vertical (around y, table), and longitudinal (around z, roll) and of 3.2 , 1.8 , and 1.5 . Planning target volume (PTV)-clinical target volume (CTV) margins were calculated in LR, AP, and SI direction to 2.3, 3.0, and 3.7 mm. After a second repositioning, the margins could be reduced to 1.8, 2.1, and 1.8 mm. Conclusion: On the basis of the residual setup error measurements, the margin required after one to two online X-ray corrections for the patients enrolled in this study would be at minimum 2 mm. The contribution of intrafractional motion to residual random errors has to be evaluated. (orig.)

  18. Residual translational and rotational errors after kV X-ray image-guided correction of prostate location using implanted fiducials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wust, Peter [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Charite - Univ. Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Graf, Reinhold; Boehmer, Dirk; Budach, Volker

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual errors and required safety margins after stereoscopic kilovoltage (kV) X-ray target localization of the prostate in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) using internal fiducials. Patients and Methods: Radiopaque fiducial markers (FMs) have been inserted into the prostate in a cohort of 33 patients. The ExacTrac/Novalis Body trademark X-ray 6d image acquisition system (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) was used. Corrections were performed in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) direction. Rotational errors around LR (x-axis), AP (y) and SI (z) have been recorded for the first series of nine patients, and since 2007 for the subsequent 24 patients in addition corrected in each fraction by using the Robotic Tilt Module trademark and Varian Exact Couch trademark. After positioning, a second set of X-ray images was acquired for verification purposes. Residual errors were registered and again corrected. Results: Standard deviations (SD) of residual translational random errors in LR, AP, and SI coordinates were 1.3, 1.7, and 2.2 mm. Residual random rotation errors were found for lateral (around x, tilt), vertical (around y, table), and longitudinal (around z, roll) and of 3.2 , 1.8 , and 1.5 . Planning target volume (PTV)-clinical target volume (CTV) margins were calculated in LR, AP, and SI direction to 2.3, 3.0, and 3.7 mm. After a second repositioning, the margins could be reduced to 1.8, 2.1, and 1.8 mm. Conclusion: On the basis of the residual setup error measurements, the margin required after one to two online X-ray corrections for the patients enrolled in this study would be at minimum 2 mm. The contribution of intrafractional motion to residual random errors has to be evaluated. (orig.)

  19. SU-E-J-219: Quantitative Evaluation of Motion Effects On Accuracy of Image-Guided Radiotherapy with Fiducial Markers Using CT Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, I; Oyewale, S; Ahmad, S; Algan, O [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Alsbou, N [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ada, OH (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate quantitatively patient motion effects on the localization accuracy of image-guided radiation with fiducial markers using axial CT (ACT), helical CT (HCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using modeling and experimental phantom studies. Methods: Markers with different lengths (2.5 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm) were inserted in a mobile thorax phantom which was imaged using ACT, HCT and CBCT. The phantom moved with sinusoidal motion with amplitudes ranging 0–20 mm and a frequency of 15 cycles-per-minute. Three parameters that include: apparent marker lengths, center position and distance between the centers of the markers were measured in the different CT images of the mobile phantom. A motion mathematical model was derived to predict the variations in the previous three parameters and their dependence on the motion in the different imaging modalities. Results: In CBCT, the measured marker lengths increased linearly with increase in motion amplitude. For example, the apparent length of the 10 mm marker was about 20 mm when phantom moved with amplitude of 5 mm. Although the markers have elongated, the center position and the distance between markers remained at the same position for different motion amplitudes in CBCT. These parameters were not affected by motion frequency and phase in CBCT. In HCT and ACT, the measured marker length, center and distance between markers varied irregularly with motion parameters. The apparent lengths of the markers varied with inverse of the phantom velocity which depends on motion frequency and phase. Similarly the center position and distance between markers varied inversely with phantom speed. Conclusion: Motion may lead to variations in maker length, center position and distance between markers using CT imaging. These effects should be considered in patient setup using image-guided radiation therapy based on fiducial markers matching using 2D-radiographs or volumetric CT imaging.

  20. SU-E-J-219: Quantitative Evaluation of Motion Effects On Accuracy of Image-Guided Radiotherapy with Fiducial Markers Using CT Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I; Oyewale, S; Ahmad, S; Algan, O; Alsbou, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate quantitatively patient motion effects on the localization accuracy of image-guided radiation with fiducial markers using axial CT (ACT), helical CT (HCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using modeling and experimental phantom studies. Methods: Markers with different lengths (2.5 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm) were inserted in a mobile thorax phantom which was imaged using ACT, HCT and CBCT. The phantom moved with sinusoidal motion with amplitudes ranging 0–20 mm and a frequency of 15 cycles-per-minute. Three parameters that include: apparent marker lengths, center position and distance between the centers of the markers were measured in the different CT images of the mobile phantom. A motion mathematical model was derived to predict the variations in the previous three parameters and their dependence on the motion in the different imaging modalities. Results: In CBCT, the measured marker lengths increased linearly with increase in motion amplitude. For example, the apparent length of the 10 mm marker was about 20 mm when phantom moved with amplitude of 5 mm. Although the markers have elongated, the center position and the distance between markers remained at the same position for different motion amplitudes in CBCT. These parameters were not affected by motion frequency and phase in CBCT. In HCT and ACT, the measured marker length, center and distance between markers varied irregularly with motion parameters. The apparent lengths of the markers varied with inverse of the phantom velocity which depends on motion frequency and phase. Similarly the center position and distance between markers varied inversely with phantom speed. Conclusion: Motion may lead to variations in maker length, center position and distance between markers using CT imaging. These effects should be considered in patient setup using image-guided radiation therapy based on fiducial markers matching using 2D-radiographs or volumetric CT imaging

  1. Nanotoxicity of gold and gold-cobalt nanoalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, E; Khalil, W K B; Emam, A N; Mohamed, M B; Rao, K V

    2012-05-21

    Nanotoxicology test of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and gold-cobalt (Au-Co) nanoalloy is an important step in their safety evaluation for biomedical applications. The Au and Au-Co NPs were prepared by reducing the metal ions using sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping material. The average size and shape of the nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Cobalt presence in the nanoalloy was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, and the magnetic properties of these particles were determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The Gold and gold-cobalt NPs of average size 15 ± 1.5 nm were administered orally to mice with a dose of 80, 160, and 320 mg/kg per body weight (bw) using gavages. Samples were collected after 7 and 14 days of the treatment. The results indicated that the Au-Co NPs were able to induce significant alteration in the tumor-initiating genes associated with an increase of micronuclei (MNs) formation and generation of DNA adduct (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) as well as a reduction in the glutathione peroxidase activity. This action of Au-Co NPs was observed using 160 and 320 mg/kg bw at both time intervals. However, Au NPs had much lower effects than Au-Co NPs on alteration in the tumor-initiating genes, frequency of MNs, and generation of 8-OHdG as well as glutathione peroxidase activity except with the highest dose of Au NPs. This study suggests that the potential to cause in vivo genetic and antioxidant enzyme alterations due to the treatment by Au-Co nanoalloy may be attributed to the increase in oxidative stress in mice.

  2. Distribution and composition of gold in porphyry gold systems: example from the Biely Vrch deposit, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koděra, Peter; Kozák, Jaroslav; Brčeková, Jana; Chovan, Martin; Lexa, Jaroslav; Jánošík, Michal; Biroň, Adrián; Uhlík, Peter; Bakos, František

    2018-03-01

    The Biely Vrch deposit in the Western Carpathians is assigned to the shallow, sulfide-poor porphyry gold deposit type and has an exceptionally low Cu/Au ratio. According to 3-D geochemical models, there is a limited spatial correlation between Au and Cu due to the primary introduction of gold by a salt melt and Cu by low-density vapor. Despite a rough spatial correlation of gold grades with quartz stockwork intensity, gold is hosted mostly by altered rock, exclusively in native form. Three main gold mineral assemblages were recognized here. In the deepest parts of the system, the K- and Ca-Na silicate gold assemblage is associated with minerals of high-temperature alteration (plagioclase, K-feldspar, actinolite), with gold grades and fineness depending on depth and potassium content of the host rock: K-silicate alteration hosts the lowest fineness gold ( 914), whereas Ca-Na silicate alteration has the highest ( 983). The intermediate argillic gold assemblage is the most widespread, with gold hosted mainly by chlorite, illite, smectite, and interstratified illite-chlorite-smectite minerals. The gold fineness is mostly variable (875-990) and inherited from the former gold mineral assemblages. The latest advanced argillic gold assemblage has its gold mostly in kaolinite. The extremely high fineness ( 994) results from gold remobilization by late-stage aqueous magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Uncommon bonanza-grade appears where the earlier gold mineral assemblages were further enriched by this remobilized gold. Primary precipitation of gold occurred during ascent and cooling of salt melts at 450 to 309 °C, mostly during retrograde quartz solubility.

  3. Byzantine gold coins and jewellery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddy, A.; La Niece, S.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the dating of Byzantine gold coinage. The results of such a study are of fundamental importance for the study of the economic history of the later Byzantine Empire and they are also of importance for the historian of technology when studying the composition of the contemporary Byzantine jewellery. Although Carbon-14 dating cannot be used as a method af dating, historians can still benefit from the analysis of the alloy of which the antiquity is made, as this is sometimes characteristic of the period in which it was used. A number of pieces of Byzantine jewellery has been analysed by x-ray fluorescence analysis, after first gently abrading a small area of the surface of the gold with the carborundum paper in an inconspicious position on the back or side of the object. A table is given on the results of this analysis

  4. Reverse Transfection Using Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Fujita, Satoshi; Uchimura, Eiichiro; Miyake, Masato; Miyake, Jun

    Reverse transfection from a solid surface has the potential to deliver genes into various types of cell and tissue more effectively than conventional methods of transfection. We present a method for reverse transfection using a gold colloid (GC) as a nanoscaffold by generating nanoclusters of the DNA/reagentcomplex on a glass surface, which could then be used for the regulation of the particle size of the complex and delivery of DNA into nuclei. With this method, we have found that the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (20 nm in particle size) to the pEGFP-N1/Jet-PEI complex resulted in an increase in the intensity of fluorescence of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (based on the efficiency of transfection) from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), as compared with the control without GC. In this manner, we constructed a method for reverse transfection using GC to deliver genes into the cells effectively.

  5. CMS Industries awarded gold, crystal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CMS collaboration honoured 10 of its top suppliers in the seventh annual awards ceremony The representatives of the firms that recieved the CMS Gold and Crystal Awards stand with their awards after the ceremony. The seventh annual CMS Awards ceremony was held on Monday 13 March to recognize the industries that have made substantial contributions to the construction of the collaboration's detector. Nine international firms received Gold Awards, and General Tecnica of Italy received the prestigious Crystal Award. Representatives from the companies attended the ceremony during the plenary session of CMS week. 'The role of CERN, its machines and experiments, beyond particle physics is to push the development of equipment technologies related to high-energy physics,'said CMS Awards Coordinator Domenico Campi. 'All of these industries must go beyond the technologies that are currently available.' Without the involvement of good companies over the years, the construction of the CMS detector wouldn't be possible...

  6. Nanobubble trouble on gold surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Kuhle, A.; Garnaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    When analyzing surfaces related to biosensors with in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), the existence of nanobubbles called for our attention. The bubbles seem to form spontaneously when gold surfaces are immersed in clean water and are probably a general phenomenon at water-solid interfaces....... Besides from giving rise to undesired effects in, for example, biosensors, nanobubbles can also cause artifacts in AFM imaging. We have observed nanobubbles on unmodified gold surfaces, immersed in clean water, using standard silicon AFM probes. Nanobubbles can be made to disappear from contact mode AFM...... images and then to reappear by changing the scanning force. By combining contact mode AFM imaging and local force measurements, the interaction between the nanobubbles and the probe can be analyzed and give information about the characteristics of nanobubbles. A model of the forces between the AFM probe...

  7. Gold, currencies and market efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 449, č. 1 (2016), s. 27-34 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Efficient market hypothesis, * Gold * Currencies, * Fractal dimension * Entropy * Long-Term memory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kristoufek-0455876.pdf

  8. Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

    A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

  9. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars

    OpenAIRE

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O.; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 108 to 26.8 × 108 M−1cm−1. Measured values correl...

  10. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine Marya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  11. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications**

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabalak, Sara E.; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4. The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where ...

  12. Jabiluka gold-uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Jabiluka gold-uranium deposit, 230km east of Darwin in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, was discovered by Pancontinental Mining Limited in 1971. Jabiluka, with reserves in excess of 200,000 tonnes of contained U 3 O 8 in two deposits 500 metres apart, is the world's largest high grade uranium deposit and also contains nearly 12 tonnes of gold. It is proposed that only the larger deposit, Jabiluka II will be mined - by underground extraction methods, and that 275,000 tonnes of ore per year will be mined and processed to produce 1,500 tonnes of U 3 O 8 and up to 30,000 oz of gold. The revenue from the uranium sales is estimated to be of the order of A$100 million per year at A$30/lb. By the end of 1982 all necessary mining and environmental approvals had been obtained and significant marketing progress made. With the Australian Labor Party winning Commonwealth Government in the 1983 election, Pancontinental's permission to seek sales contracts was withdrawn and development of the Jabiluka deposit ceased. Jabiluka remains undeveloped - awaiting a change in Australian Government policy on uranium. figs., maps

  13. Analysis of gold and silver concentration on gold mining tailings by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikov, I.I.; Salimov, M.I.; Sadykova, Z.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Instrumental neutron-activation analysis without radiochemical separation is one of most applicable and often used methods to analyze the concentration of gold, silver and other rare and noble metals in gold ores. This method is not suitable for analyzing low concentration of gold and silver in gold mining tailings due to rather high concentration of some elements. Samples are dissolved by boiling in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids to extract gold and silver into the solution. Chemical yield of gold and silver after dissolution of the sample and further chromatographic separation is between 92 and 95 percent respectively

  14. Recovery of carrier-free gold-195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iofa, B.Z.; Ivanova, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is known that gold(III) is readily extracted from nitric acid solutions with ethers. The authors have studied extraction of trace amounts of gold(III) from nitric acid solutions with diethyl and diisopropyl ethers in the presence of significant excess of Pt(IV). Distribution coefficients of gold(III) were measured radiometrically using carrier-free gold-195 or spectrophotometrically in the presence of platinum(IV). Very high coefficients of gold separation from platinum may be achieved. Preliminary experiments have shown that zinc-65 was not extracted with ethers from nitric acid solutions. As an extraction system, the authors have chosen the system 10 M HNO 3 -diisopropyl ether. After model experiments, the authors have performed recovery of carrier-free gold-195 from a real platinum target irradiated with protons in a cyclotron

  15. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin XIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9558

  16. Physiological investigation of gold nanorods toward watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yujie; Li, Junli; Ren, Hongxuan; Huang, Jin; Yuan, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity and oxidant stress of the gold nanorods toward watermelon, and hence give a quantitative risk assessment of both seeds and plants phase. The seed germination, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the contents of soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been measured while the plant roots were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the gold nanorods significantly promoted the root elongation. Furthermore, the results on the enzymes activities of plant indicated that oxidative stress happened in the plant treated with gold nanorods. However, the gold nanorods resulted in the phytotoxicity toward plant especially at high concentration. The TEM images of the plant roots with and without the treatment of gold nanorods showed the significant different size of starch granules. In conclusion, significant physiological changes of plant occurred after treatment with the gold nanorods.

  17. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  18. Geochemical indicators of gold ore fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, Yu.G.

    1995-01-01

    The principles of selection of indicators for genetic reconstructions and prognostic valuations of gold mineralization of diverse morphological and geochemical types have been substantiated. The neutron-activation analysis with radiochemical separation and detection limit of 1-10 -8 %, instrumental neutron-activation analysis and atomic-absorption analysis are the main methods of determination of gold low contents in the rocks, as well as diverse elements, including transition, rare earth elements and tellurium, in gold. 50 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  19. Glyco-gold nanoparticles: synthesis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Compostella, Federica; Pitirollo, Olimpia; Silvestri, Alessandro; Polito, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Glyco-gold nanoparticles combine in a single entity the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles with the biological activity of carbohydrates. The result is an exciting nanosystem, able to mimic the natural multivalent presentation of saccharide moieties and to exploit the peculiar optical properties of the metallic core. In this review, we present recent advances on glyco-gold nanoparticle applications in different biological fields, highlighting the key parameters which inspire the glyco ...

  20. Glyco-gold nanoparticles: synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Compostella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glyco-gold nanoparticles combine in a single entity the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles with the biological activity of carbohydrates. The result is an exciting nanosystem, able to mimic the natural multivalent presentation of saccharide moieties and to exploit the peculiar optical properties of the metallic core. In this review, we present recent advances on glyco-gold nanoparticle applications in different biological fields, highlighting the key parameters which inspire the glyco nanoparticle design.

  1. Coal gold agglomeration: an innovative approach to the recovery of gold in environmentally sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, N.C.; Hughes-Narborough, C.; Willey, G. [Davy (Stockton) Ltd., Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Coal Gold Agglomeration (CGA) was developed by BP Minerals and involves the selective recovery of oleophilic gold particles from an aqueous slurry into coal-oil agglomerates. These agglomerates are allowed to build up to a high gold loading and are then separated from the slurry. The loaded agglomerates are burned and the gold is finally recovered from the ash residue by dissolution and precipitation or by direct smelting. 6 figs.

  2. Gold nano-particles fixed on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsch, Christian; Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Kracker, Michael; Rüssel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We produced wear resistant gold–ruby coatings on amorphous substrates. ► Thin sputtered gold layers were covered by or embedded in silica coatings. ► Annealing above T g of the substrate glass led to the formation of gold nano particles. ► A 1 1 1-texture of the gold particles is observed via XRD and EBSD. ► EBSD-patterns can be acquired from crystals covered by a thin layer of glass. - Abstract: A simple process for producing wear resistant gold nano-particle coatings on transparent substrates is proposed. Soda-lime-silica glasses were sputtered with gold and subsequently coated with SiO 2 using a combustion chemical vapor deposition technique. Some samples were first coated with silica, sputtered with gold and then coated with a second layer of silica. The samples were annealed for 20 min at either 550 or 600 °C. This resulted in the formation of round, well separated gold nano-particles with sizes from 15 to 200 nm. The color of the coated glass was equivalent to that of gold–ruby glasses. Silica/gold/silica coatings annealed at 600 °C for 20 min were strongly adherent and scratch resistant. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to describe the crystal orientations of the embedded particles. The gold particles are preferably oriented with their (1 1 1) planes perpendicular to the surface.

  3. CO oxidation on gold nanoparticles: Theoretical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remediakis, Ioannis; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of our theoretical results regarding CO oxidation on both oxide-supported and isolated gold nanoparticles. Using Density Functional Theory we have studied the adsorption of molecules and the oxidation reaction of CO on gold clusters. Low-coordinated sites on the gold...... nanoparticles can adsorb small inorganic molecules such as O2 and CO, and the presence of these sites is the key factor for the catalytic properties of supported gold nanoclusters. Other contributions, induced by the presence of the support, can provide parallel channels for the reaction and modulate the final...

  4. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    , is to handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...... influxes of prospectors competing for a very limited area. This paper charts significant gold rush events in the mineral industry in recent decades and uses preliminary data on the areas impacted by these gold rushes to argue that many mineral tenure systems should be modified in order to be better able...

  5. BioXmark for high-precision radiotherapy in an orthotopic pancreatic tumor mouse model. Experiences with a liquid fiducial marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobiasch, S. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Munich (Germany); Kampfer, S. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Technical University of Munich (TUM), Physics Department, Garching (Germany); Burkhardt, R.; Wilkens, J.J. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany); Technical University of Munich (TUM), Physics Department, Garching (Germany); Schilling, D.; Schmid, T.E. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany); Combs, S.E. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany); Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Munich (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    High-precision radiotherapy (RT) requires precise positioning, particularly with high single doses. Fiducial markers in combination with onboard imaging are excellent tools to support this. The purpose of this study is to establish a pancreatic cancer mouse model for high-precision image-guided RT (IGRT) using the liquid fiducial marker BioXmark (Nanovi, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark). In an animal-based cancer model, different volumes of BioXmark (10-50 μl), application forms, and imaging modalities - cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) incorporated in either the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) or the small-animal micro-CT Scanner (SkyScan; Bruker, Brussels, Belgium) - as well as subsequent RT with the SARRP system were analyzed to derive recommendations for BioXmark. Even small volumes (10 μl) of BioXmark could be detected by CBCT (SARRP and Skyscan). Larger volumes (50 μl) led to hardening artefacts. The position of BioXmark was monitored at least weekly by CBCT and was stable over 4 months. BioXmark was shown to be well tolerated; no changes in physical condition or toxic side effects were observed in comparison to control mice. BioXmark enabled an exact fusion with the original treatment plan with less hardening artefacts, and minimized the application of contrast agent for fractionated RT. An orthotopic pancreatic tumor mouse model was established for high-precision IGRT using a fiducial marker. BioXmark was successfully tested and provides the perfect basis for improved imaging in high-precision RT. BioXmark enables a unique application method and optimal targeted precision in fractionated RT. Therefore, preclinical trials evaluating novel fractionation regimens and/or combination treatment with high-end RT can be performed. (orig.) [German] Die Hochpraezisionsstrahlentherapie (RT) erfordert insbesondere bei hohen Einzeldosen eine exakte Lagerung. Marker in Kombination mit integrierten Bildgebungsverfahren koennen dies optimal gewaehrleisten

  6. Nuclear excitation in muonic gold

    CERN Document Server

    Robert Tissot, B; Debrunner, P; Engfer, R; Link, R; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Walter, H K

    1973-01-01

    Energies and intensities of muonic X-rays in gold were measured at the CERN muon channel with an experimental set-up as described by Backe et al. (1972). The 2p-1s and 3d-2p transitions could only be analysed taking into account beside the static quadrupole interaction a dynamical hyperfine interaction of the 2p states, which leads to an excitation of the first four nuclear levels. The dynamical hyperfine interaction was calculated using the core excitation model (de Shalit, (1961)). (0 refs).

  7. The Resonance Integral of Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirlow, K; Johansson, E

    1959-04-15

    The resonance activation integral of gold has been determined, by means of cadmium ratio measurements of thin foils in a neutron beam. Comparison was made with a 1/v detector, and the neutron spectra were measured with a chopper. The resonance integral, RI, is defined as {integral}{sub 0.5}{sup {infinity}}{sigma}{sub r}(E)dE/E, where {sigma}{sub r}(E) is the differenc between the total absorption cross section and the 1/v part. An experimental value of 1490 {+-} 40 barns has been obtained. RI has also been computed from resonance parameter data with the result 1529 {+-} 70 barns.

  8. Fiducial-free CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for single vertebral body metastases: acceptable local control and normal tissue tolerance with 5 fraction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Beant; Oermann, Eric; Ju, Andrew; Suy, Simeng; Yu, Xia; Rabin, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital,, Washington, DC (United States); Kalhorn, Christopher; Nair, Mani N.; Voyadzis, Jean-Marc [Department of Neurosurgery, Georgetown University Hospital,, Washington, DC (United States); Unger, Keith; Collins, Sean P.; Harter, K. W.; Collins, Brian T., E-mail: collinsb@gunet.georgetown.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital,, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-04-26

    This retrospective analysis examines the local control and toxicity of five-fraction fiducial-free CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for single vertebral body (VB) metastases. All patients had favorable performance status (ECOG 0–1), oligometastatic disease, and no prior spine irradiation. A prescribed dose of 30–35 Gy was delivered in five fractions to the planning target volume (PTV) using the CyberKnife with X-sight spine tracking. Suggested maximum spinal cord and esophagus point doses were 30 and 40 Gy, respectively. A median 30 Gy (IQR, 30–35 Gy) dose was delivered to a median prescription isodose line of 70% (IQR, 65–77%) to 20 patients. At 34 months median follow-up (IQR, 25–40 months) for surviving patients, the 1- and 2-year Kaplan–Meier local control estimates were 80 and 73%, respectively. Two of the five local failures were infield in patients who had received irradiation to the gross tumor volume and three were paravertebral failures just outside the PTV in patients with prior corpectomy. No local failures occurred in patients who completed VB radiation alone. The 1- and 2-year Kaplan–Meier overall survival estimates were 80 and 57%, respectively. Most deaths were attributed to metastatic disease; one death was attributed to local recurrence. The mean maximum point doses were 26.4 Gy (SD, 5.1 Gy) to the spinal cord and 29.1 Gy (SD, 8.9 Gy) to the esophagus. Patients receiving maximum esophagus point doses greater than 35 Gy experienced acute dysphagia (Grade I/II). No spinal cord toxicity was documented. Five-fraction fiducial-free CyberKnife SBRT is an acceptable treatment option for newly diagnosed VB metastases with promising local control rates and minimal toxicity despite the close proximity of such tumors to the spinal cord and esophagus. A prospective study aimed at further enhancing local control by targeting the intact VB and escalating the total dose is planned.

  9. Geochemical methodology for gold prospect ion in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenber, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work is about the history of gold prospection in Uruguay. In this study there are considered the geochemical aspects, the gold performance, the applicability to mining prospection and the gold prospection aluvionar

  10. MEASUREMENT OF FIDUCIAL, DIFFERENTIAL AND PRODUCTION CROSS SECTIONS IN THE $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ DECAY CHANNEL WITH ATLAS --- Proceedings for 53rd Recontres de Moriond - Electroweak Interactions and Unified Theories (2018) ---

    CERN Document Server

    Menary, Stephen Burns; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of differential (in the fiducial phase space) and production mode cross sections are presented in the $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ decay channel using 36~fb$^{-1}$ data collected by the ATLAS detector at a centre of mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13$~TeV. These characterise $pp\\rightarrow H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ processes in a variety of ways; production mode cross sections directly test the compatibility of the data with the Standard Model (SM), whereas fiducial measurements make minimal SM assumptions and can thus be re-interpreted in order to constrain new physics models which change event topologies and kinematic distributions. The sensitivity is approximately double that of the $\\sqrt{s}=8$~TeV dataset. Five differential distributions are used to constrain Wilson coefficients using the effective field theory approach.

  11. Gold emissivities for hydrocode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, C.; Wagon, F.; Galmiche, D.; Loiseau, P.; Dattolo, E.; Babonneau, D.

    2004-10-01

    The Radiom model [M. Busquet, Phys Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] is designed to provide a radiative-hydrodynamic code with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) data efficiently by using LTE tables. Comparison with benchmark data [M. Klapisch and A. Bar-Shalom, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 687 (1997)] has shown Radiom to be inaccurate far from LTE and for heavy ions. In particular, the emissivity was found to be strongly underestimated. A recent algorithm, Gondor [C. Bowen and P. Kaiser, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 81, 85 (2003)], was introduced to improve the gold non-LTE ionization and corresponding opacity. It relies on fitting the collisional ionization rate to reproduce benchmark data given by the Averroès superconfiguration code [O. Peyrusse, J. Phys. B 33, 4303 (2000)]. Gondor is extended here to gold emissivity calculations, with two simple modifications of the two-level atom line source function used by Radiom: (a) a larger collisional excitation rate and (b) the addition of a Planckian source term, fitted to spectrally integrated Averroès emissivity data. This approach improves the agreement between experiments and hydrodynamic simulations.

  12. Gold emissivities for hydrocode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, C.; Wagon, F.; Galmiche, D.; Loiseau, P.; Dattolo, E.; Babonneau, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiom model [M. Busquet, Phys Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] is designed to provide a radiative-hydrodynamic code with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) data efficiently by using LTE tables. Comparison with benchmark data [M. Klapisch and A. Bar-Shalom, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 687 (1997)] has shown Radiom to be inaccurate far from LTE and for heavy ions. In particular, the emissivity was found to be strongly underestimated. A recent algorithm, Gondor [C. Bowen and P. Kaiser, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 81, 85 (2003)], was introduced to improve the gold non-LTE ionization and corresponding opacity. It relies on fitting the collisional ionization rate to reproduce benchmark data given by the Averroes superconfiguration code [O. Peyrusse, J. Phys. B 33, 4303 (2000)]. Gondor is extended here to gold emissivity calculations, with two simple modifications of the two-level atom line source function used by Radiom: (a) a larger collisional excitation rate and (b) the addition of a Planckian source term, fitted to spectrally integrated Averroes emissivity data. This approach improves the agreement between experiments and hydrodynamic simulations

  13. Paper Money but a Gold Debt. Italy in the Gold Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Tattara; or consequences)

    2002-01-01

    During the 52 years between the Unification of the Kingdom of Italy and World War 1, the lira was legally convertible into metal for a limited period of time. Although not formally committed to gold, the lira exchange towards the gold standard countries proved remarkably stable, \\223shadowing\\224 gold. It is widely claimed that being one of the successful members of the gold standard circle entailed a number of advantages. If the lira was closely linked to gold, suggesting that there was only...

  14. Spherical aggregates composed of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C-C; Kuo, P-L; Cheng, Y-C

    2009-01-01

    Alkylated triethylenetetramine (C12E3) was synthesized and used as both a reductant in the preparation of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl 4 and a stabilizer in the subsequent self-assembly of the gold nanoparticles. In acidic aqueous solution, spherical aggregates (with a diameter of about 202 ± 22 nm) of gold nanoparticles (with the mean diameter of ∼18.7 nm) were formed. The anion-induced ammonium adsorption of the alkylated amines on the gold nanoparticles was considered to provide the electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance between the gold nanoparticles, which constituted the barrier that prevented the individual particles from coagulating. However, as the amino groups became deprotonated with increasing pH, the ammonium adsorption was weakened, and the amino groups were desorbed from the gold surface, resulting in discrete gold particles. The results indicate that the morphology of the reduced gold nanoparticles is controllable through pH-'tunable' aggregation under the mediation of the amino groups of alkylated amine to create spherical microstructures.

  15. Gold deposits of the southern Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, J.T.; Park, C.F.

    1948-01-01

    This report deals chiefly with the gold mines in the Southern Appalachian gold belt whose workings were accessible at the time of examination, but it also · summarizes available information concerning many mines that were not accessible. Most of the mines lie within a belt, 10 to 100 miles wide, that extends

  16. Nonlinear optical studies of single gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Meindert Alexander van

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are spherical clusters of gold atoms, with diameters typically between 1 and 100 nanometers. The applications of these particles are rather diverse, from optical labels for biological experiments to data carrier for optical data storage. The goal of my project was to develop new

  17. Ionization model for nickel-like gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.; Bruneau, J.

    1986-04-01

    Before we build an extensive population model for gold ionized 49 to 52 times, we have studied with a more simple model the effect of accounting for cascades (or dielectronic recombination) and Δn = 0 transitions. These transitions allow some understanding of typical feature of experimental gold spectra

  18. The Stability of Supported Gold Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masoud, Nazila

    2018-01-01

    Gold has supreme cultural and financial value and, in form of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm, is a unique catalyst for different industrially relevant reactions. Intriguing properties of the gold catalysts have spurred demand in the chemical industry for Au catalysts, the application of which

  19. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods

  20. Gold - Old Drug with New Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Gavino; Gerosa, Clara; Fanni, Daniela; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Nurchi, Valeria M

    2018-01-01

    Research into gold-based drugs for a range of human diseases has seen a revival in recent years. This article reviews the most important applications of gold products in different fields of human pathology. Au(I) and Au(III) compounds have been re-introduced in clinical practice for targeting the cellular components involved in the onset and progression of viral and parasitic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. After some brief historical notes, this article takes into account the applications of gold compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and also in tuberculosis and in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. The use of gold containing drugs in the cure of cancer are then considered, with special emphasis to the use of nanoparticles and to the photo-thermal cancer therapy. The use of colloidal gold in diagnostics, introduced in the last decade is widely discussed. As a last point a survey on the adverse effects and on the toxicity of the various gold derivatives in use in medicine is presented. In this review, we described the surprisingly broad spectrum of possible uses of gold in diagnostics and in therapeutic approaches to multiple human diseases, ranging from degenerative to infectious diseases, and to cancer. In particular, gold nanoparticles appear as attractive elements in modern clinical medicine, combining high therapeutic properties, high selectivity in targeting cancer cells and low toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which...

  2. Gold 100: proceedings of the international conference on gold. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, C.E.; King, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of Gold 100 have been published in three separate volumes. The first deals with the mining of gold, the second with the extractive metallurgy of gold, and the third with industrial uses of gold. In this second volume, the papers on extractive metallurgy presented at the Conference reflect most of the problems that are currently of significant technical interest to the industry. This volume is divided in six main parts covering plant design, carbon-in-pulp technology, refractory gold, new technology, grinding and concentration, and leaching. The part on new technology includes papers on x-ray fluorescence analyzers, Moessbauer spectroscopy and leaching processes for uranium, while the part on grinding and concentration includes papers on nuclear and radiotracer techniques for the recovery of gold as well as various flotation parameters in the flotation behaviour of gold and uranium

  3. Photogrammetry-Based Head Digitization for Rapid and Accurate Localization of EEG Electrodes and MEG Fiducial Markers Using a Single Digital SLR Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausner, Tommy; Dalal, Sarang S; Crespo-García, Maité

    2017-01-01

    The performance of EEG source reconstruction has benefited from the increasing use of advanced head modeling techniques that take advantage of MRI together with the precise positions of the recording electrodes. The prevailing technique for registering EEG electrode coordinates involves electromagnetic digitization. However, the procedure adds several minutes to experiment preparation and typical digitizers may not be accurate enough for optimal source reconstruction performance (Dalal et al., 2014). Here, we present a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective alternative method to register EEG electrode positions, using a single digital SLR camera, photogrammetry software, and computer vision techniques implemented in our open-source toolbox, janus3D . Our approach uses photogrammetry to construct 3D models from multiple photographs of the participant's head wearing the EEG electrode cap. Electrodes are detected automatically or semi-automatically using a template. The rigid facial features from these photo-based models are then surface-matched to MRI-based head reconstructions to facilitate coregistration to MRI space. This method yields a final electrode coregistration error of 0.8 mm, while a standard technique using an electromagnetic digitizer yielded an error of 6.1 mm. The technique furthermore reduces preparation time, and could be extended to a multi-camera array, which would make the procedure virtually instantaneous. In addition to EEG, the technique could likewise capture the position of the fiducial markers used in magnetoencephalography systems to register head position.

  4. The ν-cleus experiment: a gram-scale fiducial-volume cryogenic detector for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, R.; Rothe, J.; Angloher, G.; Hauff, D.; Mancuso, M.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Bento, A. [Universidade de Coimbra, CIUC, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Guetlein, A.; Kluck, H.; Schieck, J. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Oberauer, L.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss a small-scale experiment, called ν-cleus, for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering by probing nuclear-recoil energies down to the 10 eV regime. The detector consists of low-threshold CaWO{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} calorimeter arrays with a total mass of about 10 g and several cryogenic veto detectors operated at millikelvin temperatures. Realizing a fiducial volume and a multi-element target, the detector enables active discrimination of γ, neutron and surface backgrounds. A first prototype Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} device, operated above ground in a setup without shielding, has achieved an energy threshold of ∝20 eV and further improvements are in reach. A sensitivity study for the detection of coherent neutrino scattering at nuclear power plants shows a unique discovery potential (5 σ) within a measuring time of

  5. Intra-fraction prostate displacement in radiotherapy estimated from pre- and post-treatment imaging of patients with implanted fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kron, Tomas; Thomas, Jessica; Fox, Chris; Thompson, Ann; Owen, Rebecca; Herschtal, Alan; Haworth, Annette; Tai, Keen-Hun; Foroudi, Farshad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine intra-fraction displacement of the prostate gland from imaging pre- and post-radiotherapy delivery of prostate cancer patients with three implanted fiducial markers. Methods and materials: Data were collected from 184 patients who had two orthogonal X-rays pre- and post-delivery on at least 20 occasions using a Varian On Board kV Imaging system. A total of 5778 image pairs covering time intervals between 3 and 30 min between pre- and post-imaging were evaluated for intra-fraction prostate displacement. Results: The mean three dimensional vector shift between images was 1.7 mm ranging from 0 to 25 mm. No preferential direction of displacement was found; however, there was an increase of prostate displacement with time between images. There was a large variation in typical shifts between patients (range 1 ± 1 to 6 ± 2 mm) with no apparent trends throughout the treatment course. Images acquired in the first five fractions of treatment could be used to predict displacement patterns for individual patients. Conclusion: Intra-fraction motion of the prostate gland appears to be a limiting factor when considering margins for radiotherapy. Given the variation between patients, a uniform set of margins for all patients may not be satisfactory when high target doses are to be delivered.

  6. Measurements of fiducial differential cross sections for Higgs boson production in the diphoton decay channel at √(s)=8 TeV with ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipuzzi, Marco

    2016-12-01

    In this thesis, measurements of fiducial differential cross sections are presented for Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=8 TeV. The analysis is performed in the H→γγ decay channel using 20.3 fb -1 of data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is extracted using a fit to the diphoton invariant mass spectrum, then the signal yields are corrected for the effects of detector inefficiency and resolution. Differential cross sections are presented as a function of variables related to the charged particles and the jet activity produced in the Higgs boson events. The observables considered are derived from the N-jettiness inclusive event-shape and build from track and jet information. These observables are sensitive to the distribution of the radiation in the event. Combining jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity information the variables τ 1 and Σ i τ i are defined. These observables can be used as jet vetoes and their cross sections are theoretically well-controlled. The observed spectra are statistically limited but broadly in line with the theoretical expectations.

  7. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement

  8. Synthesis of camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhimin; Liu Zhiguo; Zu Yuangang; Fu Yujie; Zhao Chunjian; Zhao Xiuhua; Meng Ronghua; Tan Shengnan

    2010-01-01

    Camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials have been synthesized by the sodium borohydride reduction method under a strong basic condition. The obtained gold nanomaterials have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The camptothecin-loaded gold colloidal solution was very stable and can be stored for more than two months at room temperature without obvious changes. The color of the colloidal solution can change from wine red to purple and blue during the acidifying process. It was revealed that the release of camptothecin and the aggregation of gold nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the solution pH. The present study implied that the gold nanomaterials can be used as the potential carrier for CPT delivery.

  9. Hydrofluorination of Alkynes Catalysed by Gold Bifluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Fady; Patrick, Scott R; Bello, Davide; Brill, Marcel; Obled, Alan; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of nine new N -heterocyclic carbene gold bifluoride complexes starting from the corresponding N -heterocyclic carbene gold hydroxides. A new methodology to access N,N' -bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) fluoride starting from N,N' -bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) hydroxide and readily available potassium bifluoride is also reported. These gold bifluorides were shown to be efficient catalysts in the hydrofluorination of symmetrical and unsymmetrical alkynes, thus affording fluorinated stilbene analogues and fluorovinyl thioethers in good to excellent yields with high stereo- and regioselectivity. The method is exploited further to access a fluorinated combretastatin analogue selectively in two steps starting from commercially available reagents.

  10. Synthesis of camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Zhimin [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu Zhiguo, E-mail: zguoliu@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Zu Yuangang, E-mail: nefunano@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Fu Yujie; Zhao Chunjian; Zhao Xiuhua; Meng Ronghua; Tan Shengnan [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials have been synthesized by the sodium borohydride reduction method under a strong basic condition. The obtained gold nanomaterials have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The camptothecin-loaded gold colloidal solution was very stable and can be stored for more than two months at room temperature without obvious changes. The color of the colloidal solution can change from wine red to purple and blue during the acidifying process. It was revealed that the release of camptothecin and the aggregation of gold nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the solution pH. The present study implied that the gold nanomaterials can be used as the potential carrier for CPT delivery.

  11. Measurement of differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for Higgs boson production in the four-lepton decay channel in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 and 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elkafrawy, Tamer; Mohamed, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-04-01

    Differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for the production of four leptons via the $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell$ decays ($\\ell = \\mathrm{e}$, $\\mu$) are measured in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 and 8 TeV. Measurements are performed with data corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb$^{-1}$ at 7 TeV, and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ at 8 TeV, collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Differential cross sections are determined as functions of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the four-lepton system, accompanying jet multiplicity, transverse momentum of the leading jet, and difference in rapidity between the Higgs boson candidate and the leading jet. A measurement of the $ \\mathrm{Z} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ cross section, and its ratio to the $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ cross section is also performed. All cross sections are measured within a fiducial phase space defined by the requirements on lepton kinematics and event topology. The integrated $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ fiducial cr...

  12. Measurement of the Inclusive and Fiducial Cross-Section of Single Top-Quark $t$-Channel Events in $pp$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This note presents the measurement of a $t$-channel single top-quark production fiducial cross-section in the lepton+jets channel with 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of 8 TeV data using a neural-network discriminant. Events are selected by requiring exactly two jets, where one of the jets is required to be $b$-tagged. Signal events from $t$-channel single top-quark processes are enhanced using a neural-network discriminant based on final-state observables. The $t$-channel production cross-section in the fiducial region is obtained from a binned maximum-likelihood fit to the neural-network discriminant. A fiducial cross-section quoted within the detector acceptance of $\\sigma_{\\rm fid} = 3.37 \\pm 0.05 \\, (\\mathrm{stat.}) \\pm 0.47 \\, (\\mathrm{syst.}) \\pm 0.09 \\, (\\mathrm{lumi.})~\\text{pb}$ is obtained. The total inclusive $t$-channel cross-section is calculated using the acceptance predicted by various Monte Carlo generators. If the acceptance from the aMC@NLO+Herwig event generator is used, a value of $\\sigma_t = 82.6 \\pm 1.2...

  13. Carbonate hosted gold deposit in Tasmania, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadi, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: This study uses elemental and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with gold from Henty and Beaconsfield in Tasmania, Australia, to illustrate source of gold-bearing fluids, salinity, temperature and dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonate. The Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are located in northern and western Tasmania respectively. Gold mineralisation in Beaconsfield occurs within the quartz-carbonate Tasmania Reef (Lower to Middle Palaeozoic sequence, Hills, 1998). The Henty gold mine is located at the base of the Cambrian Tyndall Group (volcano-sedimentary succession, White and McPhie, 1996) close to Henty Fault. Gold in carbonate samples from Henty ranges from 7.7 to 9360 ppm and in Beaconsfield ranges from 0.01 to 434 ppm. The amount of carbonate in samples from Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines varies from approximately 24 to 99.8%. Bivariate plot of Ca relative to total amounts of Mg, Fe and Mn illustrates that the major carbonate minerals at Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are magnesian ankerite and calcite. The difference in carbonate mineralogy, at Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines, is attributed to the composition of fluids responsible for carbonate alteration. Gold and magnesium in Beaconsfield ankerite are derived from the leaching of Cambrian ultramafic rocks during the Devonian by the passage of meteoric fluids through tectonically affected Ordovician carbonates (Rao and Adabi, 1999). The total concentration of Fe and Mn are low (0.5 to 2%) in Henty and high (1 to 17.5%) in Beaconsfield ankerite, possibly due to oxidising conditions at Henty and reducing conditions at Beaconsfield gold mines during gold mineralisation. Variation of Sr values between Beaconsfield ankerite and Henty calcite is related to dissolution of limestone that increase Sr concentrations in gold mineralising fluids. Na values in both Beaconsfield (20 to 1100 ppm) and Henty carbonates (25 to 1650 ppm) suggest low salinity fluids responsible for gold

  14. Worth their weight in gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ryssen, E.

    1986-01-01

    A radiotherapeutic method of treating tumours in, on and around the eye, developed and improved over more than a decade of research at the University of Cape Town's Medical School and at the city's Groote Schuur Hospital, has won worldwide recognition. A problem when irradiating eye tumours is that the rays can damage surrounding tissues. Professor Sealy's team overcome this problem by using tailor-made gold or stainless steel shields moulded indiridually to fit the curve of the eyeball of each patient. Depending on the location of the tumour, small radioactive seeds of iodine 125 are placed on the inner or outer curve of the shield in such a way that their rays are confined to the desired location. The number and position of the seeds is worked out to give the desired dose of radiation

  15. Gold nanoparticles: generation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.

    2013-07-01

    In this presentation we report the reduction of Au 3+ through chemical and free radical (e solv - ) reactions both in non-aqueous and aqueous media. In chemical reduction, the spectral nature in ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) systems was different. The band intensity of gold nanoparticles was lower in AA system. While in free radical reaction, the yield of nanoparticles was pure i.e. free from excess reactants. Under the study 60-200 nm size nanoparticles were generated, which are inert to oxygen. Using pulse radiolysis technique, the initial rate for e solv - reaction with Au 3+ was determined to be 7.6 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 . (author)

  16. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-07-30

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 10 8 to 26.8 × 10 8 M -1 cm -1 . Measured values correlate with those obtained from theoretical models of the NStars using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which we use to simulate the extinction spectra of the nanostars. Finally, because NStars are typically used in biological applications, we conjugate DNA and antibodies to the NStars and calculate the footprint of the bound biomolecules.

  17. Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN, and Au(OHx, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching.

  18. Enrichment of Gold in Antimony Matte by Direct Smelting of Refractory Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xie, Boyi; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Conventional cyanidation technology achieves low gold recovery when used to process refractory gold concentrate. Based on the geochemical characteristics of gold deposit mineralization, a new method is proposed herein for gold enrichment in antimony matte by smelting of refractory gold concentrate. The effects of the FeO/SiO2 and CaO/SiO2 ratios, smelting temperature, and smelting time on the gold recovery were investigated in detail. The optimum conditions were determined to be FeO/SiO2 ratio of 1.2, CaO/SiO2 ratio of 0.4, smelting temperature of 1200°C, and smelting time of 45 min. The gold content in antimony matte and smelting slag was 96.68 and 1.13 g/t, respectively. The gold, antimony, and arsenic recovery was 97.72%, 26.89%, and 6.56%, respectively, with most of the antimony and arsenic volatilized into dust. Mineral liberation analyzer results showed that the antimony matte mainly consisted of FeS and FeO, with three phases, viz. FeAs, SbAs, and AuSb, embedded between them, indicating that gold was easily enriched with antimony and arsenic during smelting of refractory gold concentrate.

  19. Coal-gold agglomeration: an alternative separation process in gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcil, A.; Wu, X.Q.; Aksay, E.K. [Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Considering the increasing environmental concerns and the potential for small gold deposits to be exploited in the future, the uses of environmentally friendly processes are essential. Recent developments point to the potential for greatly increased plant performance through a separation process that combines the cyanide and flotation processes. In addition, this kind of alternative treatment processes to the traditional gold recovery processes may reduce the environmental risks of present small-scale gold mining. Gold recovery processes that applied to different types of gold bearing ore deposits show that the type of deposits plays an important role for the selection of mineral processing technologies in the production of gold and other precious metals. In the last 25 years, different alternative processes have been investigated on gold deposits located in areas where environmental issues are a great concern. In 1988, gold particles were first recovered by successful pilot trial of coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) process in Australia. The current paper reviews the importance of CGA in the production of gold ore and identifies areas for further development work.

  20. Gold Leaching Characteristics and Intensification of a High S and As-Bearing Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-bin; Liu, Xiao-liang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Qian; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yan

    Some high sulfur and arsenic-bearing gold concentrate has a gold leaching rate less than 80% by oxidation roasting-pickling-cyanidation process. The characteristics and intensification of gold leaching were studied systemically. By combining chemical composition and phase analysis, the low gold leaching rate was found to lie in the capsulation of gold by iron-containing phases including iron oxides, arsenopyrite and pyrite. 96.66% of gold in the industrial leaching residue was capsulated and 95.88% of the capsulated turned out to be in the iron-containing phases. The results of laboratory pickling-cyanidation experiments on the calcine and industrial leaching residue presented further demonstration for the fact that gold capsulated in the iron-containing phases was hard to be leached. However, the gold cyanide leaching rate of calcine could be raised over 95% by a reduction roasting-pickling pretreatment which played such a significant role in exposing the capsulated gold that gold leaching was intensified remarkably.

  1. Enrichment of Gold in Antimony Matte by Direct Smelting of Refractory Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xie, Boyi; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin

    2018-06-01

    Conventional cyanidation technology achieves low gold recovery when used to process refractory gold concentrate. Based on the geochemical characteristics of gold deposit mineralization, a new method is proposed herein for gold enrichment in antimony matte by smelting of refractory gold concentrate. The effects of the FeO/SiO2 and CaO/SiO2 ratios, smelting temperature, and smelting time on the gold recovery were investigated in detail. The optimum conditions were determined to be FeO/SiO2 ratio of 1.2, CaO/SiO2 ratio of 0.4, smelting temperature of 1200°C, and smelting time of 45 min. The gold content in antimony matte and smelting slag was 96.68 and 1.13 g/t, respectively. The gold, antimony, and arsenic recovery was 97.72%, 26.89%, and 6.56%, respectively, with most of the antimony and arsenic volatilized into dust. Mineral liberation analyzer results showed that the antimony matte mainly consisted of FeS and FeO, with three phases, viz. FeAs, SbAs, and AuSb, embedded between them, indicating that gold was easily enriched with antimony and arsenic during smelting of refractory gold concentrate.

  2. The giant Jiaodong gold province: The key to a unified model for orogenic gold deposits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Groves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the term orogenic gold deposit has been widely accepted for all gold-only lode-gold deposits, with the exception of Carlin-type deposits and rare intrusion-related gold systems, there has been continuing debate on their genesis. Early syngenetic models and hydrothermal models dominated by meteoric fluids are now clearly unacceptable. Magmatic-hydrothermal models fail to explain the genesis of orogenic gold deposits because of the lack of consistent spatially – associated granitic intrusions and inconsistent temporal relationships. The most plausible, and widely accepted, models involve metamorphic fluids, but the source of these fluids is hotly debated. Sources within deeper segments of the supracrustal successions hosting the deposits, the underlying continental crust, and subducted oceanic lithosphere and its overlying sediment wedge all have their proponents. The orogenic gold deposits of the giant Jiaodong gold province of China, in the delaminated North China Craton, contain ca. 120 Ma gold deposits in Precambrian crust that was metamorphosed over 2000 million years prior to gold mineralization. The only realistic source of fluid and gold is a subducted oceanic slab with its overlying sulfide-rich sedimentary package, or the associated mantle wedge. This could be viewed as an exception to a general metamorphic model where orogenic gold has been derived during greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism of supracrustal rocks: basaltic rocks in the Precambrian and sedimentary rocks in the Phanerozoic. Alternatively, if a holistic view is taken, Jiaodong can be considered the key orogenic gold province for a unified model in which gold is derived from late-orogenic metamorphic devolatilization of stalled subduction slabs and oceanic sediments throughout Earth history. The latter model satisfies all geological, geochronological, isotopic and geochemical constraints but the precise mechanisms of auriferous fluid release, like many

  3. Gold nanoparticles produced in a microalga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangpipat, Tiyaporn; Beattie, Isabel R.; Chisti, Yusuf; Haverkamp, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient biological route to production of gold nanoparticles which allows the nanoparticles to be easily recovered remains elusive. Live cells of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris were incubated with a solution of gold chloride and harvested by centrifugation. Nanoparticles inside intact cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy and confirmed to be metallic gold by synchrotron based X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These intracellular gold nanoparticles were 40–60 nm in diameter. At a concentration of 1.4% Au in the alga, a better than 97% recovery of the gold from solution was achieved. A maximum of 4.2% Au in the alga was obtained. Exposure of C. vulgaris to solutions containing dissolved salts of palladium, ruthenium, and rhodium also resulted in the production of the corresponding nanoparticles within the cells. These were surmised to be also metallic, but were produced at a much lower intracellular concentration than achieved with gold. Iridium was apparently toxic to the alga. No nanoparticles were observed using platinum solutions. C. vulgaris provides a possible route to large scale production of gold nanoparticles.

  4. NUCLEATION STUDIES OF GOLD ON CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SOBRI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest has grown in developing non-toxic electrolytes for gold electrodeposition to replace the conventional cyanide-based bath for long term sustainability of gold electroplating. A solution containing thiosulphate and sulphite has been developed specially for microelectronics applications. However, at the end of the electrodeposition process, the spent electrolyte can contain a significant amount of gold in solution. This study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of gold recovery from a spent thiosulphate-sulphite electrolyte. We have used flat-plate glassy carbon and graphite electrodes to study the mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth of gold deposition from the spent electrolyte. It was found that at the early stages of reduction process, the deposition of gold on glassy carbon exhibits an instantaneous nucleation of non-overlapping particles. At longer times, the particles begin to overlap and the deposition follows a classic progressive nucleation phenomenon. On the other hand, deposition of gold on graphite does not follow the classical nucleation phenomena.

  5. Nature vs. nurture: gold perpetuates "stemness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P; Deb, Kaushik Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Adult tissues contain quiescent reservoirs of multipotent somatic stem cells and pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells (ELSCs). Credited with regenerative properties gold is used across both -contemporary and -ancient medicines. Here, we show that gold exerted these effects by enhancing the pool of pluripotent ELSC while improving their stemness. We used hESCs as an in-vitro model to understand if gold could enhance self-renewal and pluripotency. Swarna-bhasma (SB), an ancient Indian gold microparticulate (41.1 nm), preparation, reduced spontaneous-differentiation, improved self-renewal, pluripotency and proliferation of hESCs. Colloidal gold-nanoparticles (GNP) (15.59 nm) were tested to confirm that the observations were attributable to nanoparticulate-gold. SB and GNP exposure: maintained -stemness, -karyotypic stability, enhanced pluripotency till day-12, increased average colony-sizes, and reduced the number of autonomously-derived differentiated FGFR1 positive fibroblast-niche-cells/colony. Particulate-gold induced upregulation of FGFR1 and IGF2 expression, and decrease in IGF1 secretion indicates IGF1/2 mediated support for enhanced pluripotency and self-renewal in hESCs.

  6. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs

  7. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.

  8. Electrochemical Oxidation of Glycerol Using Gold Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Rozali Othman; Amirah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, potential linear V and chronocuolometry methods were carried out to gain electrochemical behavior of glycerol at a gold electrode. Potassium hydroxide and sulfuric acid were chosen to be the electrolyte for the electro-oxidation of this organic compound. Besides gold plate electrode, gold composite electrode (Au-PVC) was also used as the working electrode. The Au-PVC composite electrode was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine its morphological aspects before and after used in electrochemical oxidation of glycerol. In alkaline solution, the adsorption of hydroxide species onto the surface of both gold plate and composite Au-PVC electrodes occurs at potential around 500 mV vs SCE. However, at gold plate electrode, there was a small, broad peak before the drastic escalation of current densities which indicates the charge transfer of the chemisorbed OH - anion. In acidic media, the gold oxide was formed after potential 1.0 V. From the cyclic voltammogram glycerol undergo oxidation twice in potassium hydroxide at gold plate and Au-PVC composite electrodes, while in sulfuric acid, oxidation reaction happened once for glycerol on the gold plate electrode. Overall, electrochemical oxidation of glycerol was more effective in alkaline media. Tafel graph which plotted from potential linear V method shows that Au-PVC composite electrode is better than gold plate electrode for the electro-oxidation of glycerol in alkaline solution. Electrochemical oxidation of glycerol products as analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) produced several carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds. (author)

  9. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshuo; He, Dawei; Zhang, Xiqing; Duan, Jiahua; Wu, Hongpeng; Xu, Haiteng; Wang, Yongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Single sheets of functionalized graphene oxide are derived through chemical exfoliation of natural flake graphite. We present an effective synthetic method of graphene-gold nanoparticles hybrid nanocomposites. AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) was used to measure the thickness of the individual GO nanosheet. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy was used to verify the attachment of oxygen functionalities on the surface of graphene oxide. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) data revealed the average diameters of the gold colloids and characterized the composite particles situation. Absorption spectroscopy showed that before and after synthesis the gold particle size did not change. Our studies indicate that the hybrid is potential substrates for catalysts and biosensors.

  10. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs

  11. The giant Kalgoorlie Gold Field revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Mary Vielreicher

    2016-05-01

    Direct timing constraints on gold mineralization indicate that Fimiston- and Mt Charlotte-style mineralization formed within a relative short period of time around 2.64 Ga, and, as such, support a model of progressive deformation of a rheologically heterogeneous rock package late in the structural history. Fluid characteristics, combined with the structural, metamorphic and absolute timing, support description of gold mineralization at the Golden Mile as orogenic and mesozonal, and this allows direct correlation with orogenic gold deposits worldwide, which classically formed during accretion along convergent margins throughout Earth history.

  12. Nondestructive analysis of the gold quarter liras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, C.; Guerol, A.; Demir, L.; Sahin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we have prepared seven Au-Cu standards in the concentration range of 18-24 (as carat) for nondestructive control of gold quarter liras. Some calibration curves for quantitative analysis of Au in the gold quarter liras that commercially present in Turkey have been plotted using these standard samples. The characteristic X-rays of Au and Cu emitted from these standard samples and the test sample with known composition are recorded by using a Ge(Li) detector. These calibration curves provide a nondestructive analysis of gold quarter liras with the uncertainties about 1.18%. (author)

  13. Refractory concentrate gold leaching: Cyanide vs. bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Ahmad

    1989-12-01

    Gold extraction, recovery and economics for two refractory concentrates were investigated using cyanide and bromine reagents. Gold extractions for cyanide leaching (24-48 hours) and bromine leaching (six hours) were the same and ranged from 94 to 96%. Gold recoveries from bromine pregnant solutions using carbon adsorption, ion exchange, solvent extraction, and zinc and aluminum precipitation methods were better than 99.9%. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that chemical costs for cyanidation and bromine process are 11.70 and 11.60 respectively, per tonne of calcine processed.

  14. Gold's monetary roll will be strengthened - Plumbridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Delivering his Presidential address at the Chamber's annual general meeting, Mr Plumbridge said the gold market would enter a new phase and listed seven reasons why gold's monetary role would be strengthened. There was a dramatic increase in the demand for gold jewellery. He also forecasted that South African uranium production would again attain its former peak annual production of about 6000t. There is an essential need for a sustained growth in nuclear power and the prospects for uranium mining industry remain encouraging

  15. Gold nanoparticles extraction from dielectric scattering background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Wang, Jingxin

    2014-11-01

    The unique advantages such as brightness, non-photobleaching, good bio-compatibility make gold nanoparticles desirable labels and play important roles in biotech and related research and applications. Distinguishing gold nanoparticles from other dielectric scattering particles is of more importance, especially in bio-tracing and imaging. The enhancement image results from the localized surface plasmon resonance associated with gold nanopartilces makes themselves distinguishable from other dielectric particles, based on which, we propose a dual-wavelength detection method by employing a high sensitive cross-polarization microscopy.

  16. Gold Photoluminescence: Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Kim Hjælm; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes...... and dimensions of gold nanoparticles influences the GSPR wavelength and polarization characteristics, thereby allowing us to enhance and spectrally mold the plasmon-assisted PL while simultaneously controlling its polarization. In order to understand the underlying physics behind the plasmon-enhanced PL, we...

  17. Nuclear analyses of the Pietroasa gold hoard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Besliu, C.

    1999-01-01

    By means of nuclear analyses the concentrations of Au, Ag, Cu, Ir, Os, Pt, Co and Hg were measured in the 12 artifacts of the gold hoard discovered in 1837 at Pietroasa, Buzau country in Romania. The concentrations of the first four elements were used to compare different stylistic groups assumed by historians. Comparisons with gold nuggets from the old Dacian territory and gold Roman imperial coins were also made. A good agreement was found with the oldest hypothesis which considers that the hoard is represented by three styles appropriated mainly by the Goths. (author)

  18. Coal-oil gold agglomeration assisted flotation to recover gold from refractory ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, A.; Yue, C.

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the applicability of coal-oil gold agglomeration (CGA) assisted flotation to recover gold from a refractory ore. The ore with the grade of 2-5 g/t was tested with the CGA-flotation process in six different size fractions from 38 to 300 urn using different collector types and dosages. In addition, the flotation without CGA was performed under the same condition for comparison. The results showed that the higher gold grade and recovery were achieved by applying the CGA-flotation, compared with the flotation without CGA. More than 20-60 times grade increase from the head grade was obtained with CGA-flotation. The elemental analysis of gold and sulphur explained their relationship with gold recovery. The results well indicated the applicability of CGA to upgrade the refractory gold ore.

  19. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A

    2009-01-01

    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  20. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. Part I. Numerical model-based optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Fahrig, Rebecca; Keil, Andreas; Besier, Thor F; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J; Beaupré, Gary S; Maier, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Human subjects in standing positions are apt to show much more involuntary motion than in supine positions. The authors aimed to simulate a complicated realistic lower body movement using the four-dimensional (4D) digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom. The authors also investigated fiducial marker-based motion compensation methods in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) space. The level of involuntary movement-induced artifacts and image quality improvement were investigated after applying each method. An optical tracking system with eight cameras and seven retroreflective markers enabled us to track involuntary motion of the lower body of nine healthy subjects holding a squat position at 60° of flexion. The XCAT-based knee model was developed using the 4D XCAT phantom and the optical tracking data acquired at 120 Hz. The authors divided the lower body in the XCAT into six parts and applied unique affine transforms to each so that the motion (6 degrees of freedom) could be synchronized with the optical markers' location at each time frame. The control points of the XCAT were tessellated into triangles and 248 projection images were created based on intersections of each ray and monochromatic absorption. The tracking data sets with the largest motion (Subject 2) and the smallest motion (Subject 5) among the nine data sets were used to animate the XCAT knee model. The authors defined eight skin control points well distributed around the knees as pseudo-fiducial markers which functioned as a reference in motion correction. Motion compensation was done in the following ways: (1) simple projection shifting in 2D, (2) deformable projection warping in 2D, and (3) rigid body warping in 3D. Graphics hardware accelerated filtered backprojection was implemented and combined with the three correction methods in order to speed up the simulation process. Correction fidelity was evaluated as a function of number of markers used (4-12) and marker distribution

  1. Effects of dissolucytotic gold ions on recovering brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, Gorm; Larsen, Agnete

    2010-04-01

    Recent experimental research has shown that metallic gold releases charged gold atoms when placed intracerebrally and that the liberated gold ions affect inflammation in the brain. The observations suggest that metallic gold can be used as a safe suppressor of inflammation in the central nervous system.

  2. Electroplating of gold using a sulfite-based electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, E.; Jacobs, B.; Falcone, S.; Geluk, E.J.; Karouta, F.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Besten, den J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Electroplating of gold is often used in optoelectronic and microelectronic devices for air-bridges, heat-sinks or gold-bumps for flip-chip techniques. The gold-cyanide electrolytes, which are commonly used in gold-electroplating, are toxic and attack resist patterns causing cracks during the plating

  3. Treatment-Related Morbidity in Prostate Cancer: A Comparison of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy With and Without Image Guidance Using Implanted Fiducial Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jasmeet; Greer, Peter B.; White, Martin A.; Parker, Joel; Patterson, Jackie; Tang, Colin I.; Capp, Anne; Wratten, Christopher; Denham, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of rectal and urinary dysfunctional symptoms using image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) with fiducials and magnetic resonance planning for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: During the implementation stages of IGRT between September 2008 and March 2010, 367 consecutive patients were treated with prostatic irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with and without IGRT (non-IGRT). In November 2010, these men were asked to report their bowel and bladder symptoms using a postal questionnaire. The proportions of patients with moderate to severe symptoms in these groups were compared using logistic regression models adjusted for tumor and treatment characteristic variables. Results: Of the 282 respondents, the 154 selected for IGRT had higher stage tumors, received higher prescribed doses, and had larger volumes of rectum receiving high dosage than did the 128 selected for non-IGRT. The follow-up duration was 8 to 26 months. Compared with the non-IGRT group, improvement was noted in all dysfunctional rectal symptoms using IGRT. In multivariable analyses, IGRT improved rectal pain (odds ratio [OR] 0.07 [0.009-0.7], P=.02), urgency (OR 0.27 [0.11-0.63], P=<.01), diarrhea (OR 0.009 [0.02-0.35], P<.01), and change in bowel habits (OR 0.18 [0.06-0.52], P<.010). No correlation was observed between rectal symptom levels and dose-volume histogram data. Urinary dysfunctional symptoms were similar in both treatment groups. Conclusions: In comparison with men selected for non-IGRT, a significant reduction of bowel dysfunctional symptoms was confirmed in men selected for IGRT, even though they had larger volumes of rectum treated to higher doses

  4. Four-dimensional measurement of the displacement of internal fiducial and skin markers during 320-multislice computed tomography scanning of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Okuma, Kae; Tada, Keiichiro; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Shibata-Mobayashi, Shino; Sakumi, Akira; Saotome, Naoya; Haga, Akihiro; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Ino, Kenji; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2012-10-01

    To study the three-dimensional movement of internal tumor bed fiducial and breast skin markers, using 320-multislice computed tomography (CT); and to analyze intrafractional errors for breast cancer patients undergoing breast irradiation. This study examined 280 markers on the skin of the breast (200 markers) and on the primary tumor bed (80 markers) of 20 patients treated by external-beam photon radiotherapy. Motion assessment was analyzed in 41 respiratory phases during 20 s of cine CT in the radiotherapy position. To assess intrafractional errors resulting from respiratory motion, four-dimensional CT scans were acquired for 20 patients. Motion in the anterior-posterior (A/P) and superior-inferior (S/I) directions showed a strong correlation (|r| > 0.7) with the respiratory curve for most markers (79% and 70%, respectively). The average marker displacements between maximum and minimum value during 20 s for the 200 breast skin metal markers were 1.1 ± 0.3 mm, 2.1 ± 0.6 mm, and 1.6 ± 0.4 mm in the left-right, A/P, and S/I directions, respectively. For the 80 tumor bed clips, displacements were 0.9 ± 0.2 mm in left-right, 1.7 ± 0.5 mm in A/P, and 1.1 ± 0.3 mm in S/I. There was no significant difference in the motion between breast quadrant regions or between the primary site and the other regions. Motion in primary breast tumors was evaluated with 320-multislice CT. Very little change was detected during individual radiation treatment fractions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intra-operative fiducial-based CT/fluoroscope image registration framework for image-guided robot-assisted joint fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Giulio; Georgilas, Ioannis; Morad, Samir; Gibbons, Peter; Tarassoli, Payam; Atkins, Roger; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2017-08-01

    Joint fractures must be accurately reduced minimising soft tissue damages to avoid negative surgical outcomes. To this regard, we have developed the RAFS surgical system, which allows the percutaneous reduction of intra-articular fractures and provides intra-operative real-time 3D image guidance to the surgeon. Earlier experiments showed the effectiveness of the RAFS system on phantoms, but also key issues which precluded its use in a clinical application. This work proposes a redesign of the RAFS's navigation system overcoming the earlier version's issues, aiming to move the RAFS system into a surgical environment. The navigation system is improved through an image registration framework allowing the intra-operative registration between pre-operative CT images and intra-operative fluoroscopic images of a fractured bone using a custom-made fiducial marker. The objective of the registration is to estimate the relative pose between a bone fragment and an orthopaedic manipulation pin inserted into it intra-operatively. The actual pose of the bone fragment can be updated in real time using an optical tracker, enabling the image guidance. Experiments on phantom and cadavers demonstrated the accuracy and reliability of the registration framework, showing a reduction accuracy (sTRE) of about [Formula: see text] (phantom) and [Formula: see text] (cadavers). Four distal femur fractures were successfully reduced in cadaveric specimens using the improved navigation system and the RAFS system following the new clinical workflow (reduction error [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. Experiments showed the feasibility of the image registration framework. It was successfully integrated into the navigation system, allowing the use of the RAFS system in a realistic surgical application.

  6. Three-phase Interstellar Medium in Galaxies Resolving Evolution with Star Formation and Supernova Feedback (TIGRESS): Algorithms, Fiducial Model, and Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2017-09-01

    We introduce TIGRESS, a novel framework for multi-physics numerical simulations of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) implemented in the Athena MHD code. The algorithms of TIGRESS are designed to spatially and temporally resolve key physical features, including: (1) the gravitational collapse and ongoing accretion of gas that leads to star formation in clusters; (2) the explosions of supernovae (SNe), both near their progenitor birth sites and from runaway OB stars, with time delays relative to star formation determined by population synthesis; (3) explicit evolution of SN remnants prior to the onset of cooling, which leads to the creation of the hot ISM; (4) photoelectric heating of the warm and cold phases of the ISM that tracks the time-dependent ambient FUV field from the young cluster population; (5) large-scale galactic differential rotation, which leads to epicyclic motion and shears out overdense structures, limiting large-scale gravitational collapse; (6) accurate evolution of magnetic fields, which can be important for vertical support of the ISM disk as well as angular momentum transport. We present tests of the newly implemented physics modules, and demonstrate application of TIGRESS in a fiducial model representing the solar neighborhood environment. We use a resolution study to demonstrate convergence and evaluate the minimum resolution {{Δ }}x required to correctly recover several ISM properties, including the star formation rate, wind mass-loss rate, disk scale height, turbulent and Alfvénic velocity dispersions, and volume fractions of warm and hot phases. For the solar neighborhood model, all these ISM properties are converged at {{Δ }}x≤slant 8 {pc}.

  7. Interfractional variability of respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion quantified using fiducial markers and four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; van Wieringen, Niek; Bel, Arjan; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the interfractional variability of respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion using fiducial markers and four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) and assess if a 4D-CT is sufficient for predicting the motion during the treatment. Twenty-four patients with 63 markers visible in the retrospectively reconstructed 4D-CBCTs were included. For each marker, we calculated the amplitude and trajectory of the respiration-induced motion. Possible time trends of the amplitude over the treatment course and the interfractional variability of amplitudes and trajectory shapes were assessed. Further, the amplitudes measured in the 4D-CT were compared to those in the 4D-CBCTs. The amplitude was largest in the cranial-caudal direction of the distal esophagus (mean: 7.1mm) and proximal stomach (mean: 7.8mm). No time trend was observed in the amplitude over the treatment course. The interfractional variability of amplitudes and trajectory shapes was limited (mean: ≤1.4mm). Moreover, small and insignificant deviation was found between the amplitudes quantified in the 4D-CT and in the 4D-CBCT (mean absolute difference: ≤1.0mm). The limited interfractional variability of amplitudes and trajectory shapes and small amplitude difference between 4D-CT-based and 4D-CBCT-based measurements imply that a single 4D-CT would be sufficient for predicting the respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion during the treatment course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Accuracy of an infrared marker-based patient positioning system (ExacTrac®) for stereotactic body radiotherapy in localizing the planned isocenter using fiducial markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Rodríguez, María de los Ángeles; Hernández-Bojórquez, Mariana; Martínez-Gómez, Alma Angélica; Contreras-Pérez, Agustín; Negrete-Hernández, Ingrid Mireya; Hernández-Oviedo, Jorge Omar; Mitsoura, Eleni; Santiago-Concha, Bernardino Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) requires a controlled immobilization and position monitoring of patient and target. The purpose of this work is to analyze the performance of the imaging system ExacTrac® (ETX) using infrared and fiducial markers. Materials and methods: In order to assure the accuracy of isocenter localization, a Quality Assurance procedure was applied using an infrared marker-based positioning system. Scans were acquired of an inhouse-agar gel and solid water phantom with infrared spheres. In the inner part of the phantom, three reference markers were delineated as reference and one pellet was place internally; which was assigned as the isocenter. The iPlan® RT Dose treatment planning system. Images were exported to the ETX console. Images were acquired with the ETX to check the correctness of the isocenter placement. Adjustments were made in 6D the reference markers were used to fuse the images. Couch shifts were registered. The procedure was repeated for verification purposes. Results: The data recorded of the verifications in translational and rotational movements showed averaged 3D spatial uncertainties of 0.31 ± 0.42 mm respectively 0.82° ± 0.46° in the phantom and the first correction of these uncertainties were of 1.51 ± 1.14 mm respectively and 1.37° ± 0.61°. Conclusions: This study shows a high accuracy and repeatability in positioning the selected isocenter. The ETX-system for verifying the treatment isocenter position has the ability to monitor the tracing position of interest, making it possible to be used for SBRT positioning within uncertainty ≤1mm.

  9. Accuracy of an infrared marker-based patient positioning system (ExacTrac®) for stereotactic body radiotherapy in localizing the planned isocenter using fiducial markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes-Rodríguez, María de los Ángeles, E-mail: angy24538@yahoo.com; Mitsoura, Eleni [Medical Physics Graduate Programme, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan esquina Jesús Carranza Colonia Moderna de la Cruz, C.P. 50180, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Hernández-Bojórquez, Mariana; Martínez-Gómez, Alma Angélica; Contreras-Pérez, Agustín; Negrete-Hernández, Ingrid Mireya; Hernández-Oviedo, Jorge Omar; Santiago-Concha, Bernardino Gabriel [Centro de Cáncer ABC, The American British Cowdray Medical Center I.A.P. (CMABC), Calle Sur 136, no. 116, Colonia las Américas, C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) requires a controlled immobilization and position monitoring of patient and target. The purpose of this work is to analyze the performance of the imaging system ExacTrac® (ETX) using infrared and fiducial markers. Materials and methods: In order to assure the accuracy of isocenter localization, a Quality Assurance procedure was applied using an infrared marker-based positioning system. Scans were acquired of an inhouse-agar gel and solid water phantom with infrared spheres. In the inner part of the phantom, three reference markers were delineated as reference and one pellet was place internally; which was assigned as the isocenter. The iPlan® RT Dose treatment planning system. Images were exported to the ETX console. Images were acquired with the ETX to check the correctness of the isocenter placement. Adjustments were made in 6D the reference markers were used to fuse the images. Couch shifts were registered. The procedure was repeated for verification purposes. Results: The data recorded of the verifications in translational and rotational movements showed averaged 3D spatial uncertainties of 0.31 ± 0.42 mm respectively 0.82° ± 0.46° in the phantom and the first correction of these uncertainties were of 1.51 ± 1.14 mm respectively and 1.37° ± 0.61°. Conclusions: This study shows a high accuracy and repeatability in positioning the selected isocenter. The ETX-system for verifying the treatment isocenter position has the ability to monitor the tracing position of interest, making it possible to be used for SBRT positioning within uncertainty ≤1mm.

  10. Four-Dimensional Measurement of the Displacement of Internal Fiducial Markers During 320-Multislice Computed Tomography Scanning of Thoracic Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Kida, Satoshi; Sakumi, Akira; Haga, Akihiro; Ito, Saori; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Okuma, Kae; Ino, Kenji; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the three-dimensional movement of internal fiducial markers placed near esophageal cancers using 320-multislice CT. Methods and Materials: This study examined 22 metal markers in the esophageal wall near the primary tumors of 12 patients treated with external-beam photon radiotherapy. Motion assessment was analyzed in 41 respiratory phases during 20 s of cine CT in the radiotherapy position. Results: Motion in the cranial-caudal (CC) direction showed a strong correlation (R 2 > 0.4) with the respiratory curve in most markers (73%). The average absolute amplitude of the marker movement was 1.5 ± 1.6 mm, 1.6 ± 1.7 mm, and 3.3 ± 3.3 mm in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and CC directions, respectively. The average marker displacements in the CC direction between peak exhalation and inhalation for the 22 clips were 1.1 mm (maximum, 5.5 mm), 3.0 mm (14.5 mm), and 5.1 mm (16.3 mm) for the upper, middle, and lower thoracic esophagus, respectively. Conclusions: Motion in primary esophagus tumor was evaluated with 320-multislice CT. According to this study, 4.3 mm CC, 1.5 mm AP, and 2.0 mm LR in the upper, 7.4 mm CC, 3.0 mm AP, and 2.4 mm LR in the middle, and 13.8 mm CC, 6.6 mm AP, and 6.8 mm LR in the lower thoracic esophagus provided coverage of tumor motion in 95% of the cases in our study population.

  11. A study on gold detection in Wenyu gold mine with XRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liuchun

    1988-01-01

    A portable X ray fluorescence analyzer was used for detecting fluorcescent X rays from the elements associated with gold ores. Fe, As and Ni were chosen to be the indicator elements to analyse rock samples in Wenyu gold mine. Optimum indicators were determined, and it had proved to be successful to detect gold indirectly by measuring the yields of characteristic X rays of the elements. The method provided also valuable information on geology mapping and deposits forming environment

  12. Electrocatalytic glucose oxidation at gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film prepared from oppositely charged nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Celebanska, Anna; Nogala, Wojciech; Sashuk, Volodymyr; Chernyaeva, Olga; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticulate film electrodes were prepared by layer-by-layer method from oppositely charged nanoparticles. • Positively charged nanoparticles play dominant role in glucose oxidation in alkaline solution. • Gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film electrodes exhibit similar glucose oxidation current and onset potential. - Abstract: Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose was studied at nanoparticulate gold and gold-carbon film electrodes. These electrodes were prepared by a layer-by-layer method without application of any linker molecules. Gold nanoparticles were stabilized by undecane thiols functionalized by trimethyl ammonium or carboxylate groups, whereas the carbon nanoparticles were covered by phenylsulfonate functionalities. The gold nanoparticulate electrodes were characterized by UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and voltammetry, before and after heat-treatment. Heat-treatment facilitates the aggregation of the nanoparticles and affects the structure of the film. The comparison of the results obtained with film electrodes prepared from gold nanoparticles with the same charge and with gold-carbon nanoparticulate electrodes, proved that positively charged nanoparticles are responsible for the high electrocatalytic activity, whereas negatively charged ones act rather as a linker of the film

  13. Formation of gold nanorods and gold nanorod films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotsyuk, L.L.; Kulakovich, O.S.; Shabunya-Klyachkovskaya, E.V.; Gaponenko, S.V.; Vashchenko, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of gold nanorods as well as thin films prepared via electrostatic deposition of gold nanorods has been investigated. The obtained gold nanorods films have been used as substrates for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of sulfur-free organic molecules mitoxantrone and malachite green as well as inorganic malachite microcrystals for the first time. The additional modification of films with L-cysteine allows one to significantly extend the use of gold nanorods for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis. (authors)

  14. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  15. Poly-thiosemicarbazide membrane for gold recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Yapici, Tahir; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-01-01

    A novel polymeric membrane adsorber with a high density of adsorption sites that can selectively capture Au(III) ions, is proposed as an efficient alternative to recover gold from dilute solutions. Poly-thiosemicarbazide (PTSC), a polymer

  16. Lamellar multilayer hexadecylaniline-modified gold nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    standard Wilhelmy plate was used for surface pressure sensing. Multilayer ... carried out on a JEOL model 1200EX instrument operated at an accelerating voltage of ... the gold nanoparticles within domains (and reorganization of the domains ...

  17. A new route to gold nanoflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Ferenc; Henning, Ricky; Sarhan, Radwan M.; Prietzel, Claudia; Bargheer, Matias; Koetz, Joachim

    2018-05-01

    Catanionic vesicles spontaneously formed by mixing the anionic surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as a reducing medium to produce gold clusters, which are embedded and well-ordered into the template phase. The gold clusters can be used as seeds in the growth process that follows by adding ascorbic acid as a mild reducing component. When the ascorbic acid was added very slowly in an ice bath round-edged gold nanoflowers were produced. When the same experiments were performed at room temperature in the presence of Ag+ ions, sharp-edged nanoflowers could be synthesized. The mechanism of nanoparticle formation can be understood to be a non-diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process of preordered gold nanoparticles embedded in catanionic vesicle fragments. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments show an excellent enhancement factor of 1.7 · 105 for the nanoflowers deposited on a silicon wafer.

  18. Deep gold mine fracture zone behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the behaviour of the fracture zone surrounding deep level gold mine stopes is detailed in three main sections of this report. Section 2 outlines the ongoing study of fundamental fracture process and their numerical...

  19. Optical properties of spherical gold mesoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evlyukhin, A. B.; Kuznetsov, A. I.; Novikov, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Optical properties of spherical gold particles with diameters of 150-650 nm (mesoparticles) are studied by reflectance spectroscopy. Particles are fabricated by laser-induced transfer of metallic droplets onto metal and dielectric substrates. Contributions of higher multipoles (beyond...

  20. Adsorption-induced restructuring of gold nanochains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    The chemical properties of single-atomic chains of gold atoms are investigated using density functional calculations. The nanochains are shown to be unusually chemically active with strong chemisorption of oxygen atoms and carbon monoxide. The chemisorption energies vary significantly with the st......The chemical properties of single-atomic chains of gold atoms are investigated using density functional calculations. The nanochains are shown to be unusually chemically active with strong chemisorption of oxygen atoms and carbon monoxide. The chemisorption energies vary significantly...... with the strain/stress conditions for the chain. Oxygen atoms are found to energetically prefer to get incorporated into a chain forming a new type of gold-oxygen nanochain with a conductance of one quantum unit. We suggest that the long bond lengths observed in electron microscopy investigations of gold chains...

  1. Synthesis method of asymmetric gold particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Bong-Hyun; Murata, Michael; Hahm, Eunil; Lee, Luke P

    2017-06-07

    Asymmetric particles can exhibit unique properties. However, reported synthesis methods for asymmetric particles hinder their application because these methods have a limited scale and lack the ability to afford particles of varied shapes. Herein, we report a novel synthetic method which has the potential to produce large quantities of asymmetric particles. Asymmetric rose-shaped gold particles were fabricated as a proof of concept experiment. First, silica nanoparticles (NPs) were bound to a hydrophobic micro-sized polymer containing 2-chlorotritylchloride linkers (2-CTC resin). Then, half-planar gold particles with rose-shaped and polyhedral structures were prepared on the silica particles on the 2-CTC resin. Particle size was controlled by the concentration of the gold source. The asymmetric particles were easily cleaved from the resin without aggregation. We confirmed that gold was grown on the silica NPs. This facile method for synthesizing asymmetric particles has great potential for materials science.

  2. Biological synthesis and characterization of intracellular gold ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thods of reduction of metal ions using plants or microorganisms are often ... have several advantages over bacteria, they are often pre- ferred. ... in static condition for a period of 7 days. ... work was focused on the production of intracellular gold.

  3. Uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Golynko, Z.Sh.

    1981-01-01

    The process of uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores in the South Africa is considered. Flowsheets of reprocessing gold-uranium conglomerates, pile processing and uranium extraction from the ores are presented. Continuous counter flow ion-exchange process of uranium extraction using strong-active or weak-active resins is noted to be the most perspective and economical one. The ion-exchange uranium separation with the succeeding extraction is also the perspective one.

  4. The Modern Monetary System and Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Rubtsov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the nature of modern money, analyzes the mechanism of its creation, showing that it is basically generated by credit and the principle of partial bank reserve. The article draws comparative parallels between trade money based on gold and contemporary, credit money; the author quotes leading bankers and finance experts on the need for partial return to the principles of functioning of the gold standard as the most effective institute of regulating the monetary system in society.

  5. Optical Epitaxial Growth of Gold Nanoparticle Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Jaquay, Eric; Nakano, Aiichiro; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-09-09

    We use an optical analogue of epitaxial growth to assemble gold nanoparticles into 2D arrays. Particles are attracted to a growth template via optical forces and interact through optical binding. Competition between effects determines the final particle arrangements. We use a Monte Carlo model to design a template that favors growth of hexagonal particle arrays. We experimentally demonstrate growth of a highly stable array of 50 gold particles with 200 nm diameter, spaced by 1.1 μm.

  6. Synthesis of radioactive gold nanoparticle in surfactant medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadesh Mandal

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis of radioactive gold nanoparticle in surfactant medium. Proton irradiated stable 197 Au and radioactive 198 Au were simultaneously used for production of radioactive gold nanoparticle. Face centered cubic gold nanoparticles with size of 4-50 nm were found in proton irradiated gold foil. However, the size of nanoparticle varies with pH using both stable and radioactive gold. (author)

  7. Study on Sumbawa gold recovery using centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdana, A. D.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.; Bendiyasa, I. M.; Prijambada, I. D.; Hamada, F.; Sachiko, T.

    2018-01-01

    The Artisanal Small Gold Mining in Sumbawa has been processing gold with mercury (Hg), which poses a serious threat to the mining and global environment. One method of gold processing that does not use mercury is by gravity method. Before processing the ore first performed an analysis of Mineragraphy and analysis of compound with XRD. Mineragraphy results show that gold is associated with chalcopyrite and covelite and is a single particle (native) on size 58.8 μm, 117 μm up to 294 μm. characterization with XRD shows that the Sumbawa Gold Ore is composed of quartz, pyrite, pyroxene, and sericite compounds. Sentrifugation is one of separation equipment of gravity method to increase concentrate based on difference of specific gravity. The optimum concentration result is influenced by several variables, such as water flow rate and particle size. In this present research, the range of flow rate is 5 lpm and 10 lpm, the particle size - 100 + 200 mesh and -200 +300 mesh. Gold concentration in concentrate is measured by EDX. The result shows that the optimum condition is obtained at a separation with flow rate 5 lpm and a particle size of -100 + 200 mesh.

  8. Analysis on the Impact of the Fluctuation of the International Gold Prices on the Chinese Gold Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share and Comex gold futures are chosen to form the sample, for the purpose of analysing the impact of the fluctuation of the international gold prices on the gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share. Using the methods of unit root test, Granger causality test, VAR model, and impulse response function, this paper has analysed the relationship between the price change of the international gold futures and the price fluctuation of gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen comprehensively. The results suggest the fluctuation of the international gold futures has a strong influence on the domestic futures.

  9. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabalak, Sara E.; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4. The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where the optical attenuation caused by blood and soft tissue is essentially negligible. They are also biocompatible and present a well-established surface for easy functionalization. We have tailored the scattering and absorption cross-sections of Au nanocages for use in optical coherence tomography and photothermal treatment, respectively. Our preliminary studies show greatly improved spectroscopic image contrast for tissue phantoms containing Au nanocages. Our most recent results also demonstrate the photothermal destruction of breast cancer cells in vitro by using immuno-targeted Au nanocages as an effective photo-thermal transducer. These experiments suggest that Au nanocages may be a new class of nanometer-sized agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:18648528

  10. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabalak, Sara E; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2007-10-17

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl(4). The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where the optical attenuation caused by blood and soft tissue is essentially negligible. They are also biocompatible and present a well-established surface for easy functionalization. We have tailored the scattering and absorption cross-sections of Au nanocages for use in optical coherence tomography and photothermal treatment, respectively. Our preliminary studies show greatly improved spectroscopic image contrast for tissue phantoms containing Au nanocages. Our most recent results also demonstrate the photothermal destruction of breast cancer cells in vitro by using immuno-targeted Au nanocages as an effective photo-thermal transducer. These experiments suggest that Au nanocages may be a new class of nanometer-sized agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  11. The Kolar Gold Field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekantan, B.V.

    1982-01-01

    Meson theory was propounded to explain the nuclear force which holds neutrons and protons inside the nucleus. Subsequently, quark theory was put forward to bring some order into an enormously large number of fundamental particles discovered in the hadron family. These two theories are briefly explained. The gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force and the strong nuclear force are the basic forces which determine the behaviour of fundamental particles when they are in close proximity. If the last three of the above-mentioned four forces are one or just different aspects of a single force, quarks and leptons can be mingled in the same theoretical framework indicating the non-conservation of baryon number and the spontaneous decay of the proton into leptons. In order to test the last possibility i.e. proton decay, an experiment has been set up in the Kolar Gold Field at a depth of 2300 metres in India. 1650 gas proportional counters are sandwiched between iron plates. The total amount of iron in the form of iron plates and walls of the counters is 140 tons. In this experiment, nuclei of iron are serving as the source of protons and neutrons and the depth eliminates the background events which mimic proton decay. The amount of iron used in the experiment i.e. 140 tons is more than enough to obtain evidence of 10 proton decay events in a year, assuming that the lifetime of proton is 10 30 years or below. (M.G.B.)

  12. Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Sundaram, Chitra; Malani, Nikita; Ichikawa, Haruyo

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 Bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to curcumin. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses. These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multitargeted therapy is better than monotargeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life".

  13. The use of gold markers and electronic portal imaging for radiotherapy verification in prostate cancer patients: Sweden Ghana Medical Centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Felix Acquah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of radiotherapy cancer treatment delivery depends on the accuracy of patient setup for each fraction. A significant problem arises from reproducing the same patient position and prostate location during treatment planning for every fraction of the treatment process. To analyze the daily movements of the prostate, gold markers are implanted in the prostate and portal images taken and manually matched with reference images to locate the prostate. Geometrical and fiducial markers are annotated onto a highly quality generated digitally reconstructed radiographs, that are compared with portal images acquired right before treatment dose delivery. A 0 and 270 degree treatment fields are used to calculate prostate shifts for all prostate cancer patients undergoing treatment at the Sweden Ghana Medical Centre, using an iViewGT portal imaging device. After aligning of the marker positions onto the reference images, the set-up deviations corrections are displayed and an on-line correction procedure applied. The measured migrations of the prostate markers are below the threshold of 3 mm for the main plans and 2 mm for the boost plans. With daily electronic portal imaging combined with gold markers, provides an objective method for verifying and correcting the position of the prostate immediately prior to radiation delivery.--------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Acquah GF. The use of gold markers and electronic portal imaging for radiotherapy verification in prostate cancer patients: Sweden Ghana Medical Centre experience. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:020112.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.12

  14. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  15. Gold Nanoparticles Obtained by Bio-precipitation from Gold(III) Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Tiemann, K.J.; Gamez, G.; Dokken, K.; Tehuacanero, S.; Jose-Yacaman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of metal nanoparticles has shown to be very important in recent industrial applications. Currently gold nanoparticles are being produced by physical methods such as evaporation. Biological processes may be an alternative to physical methods for the production of gold nanoparticles. Alfalfa biomass has shown to be effective at passively binding and reducing gold from solutions containing gold(III) ions and resulting in the formation of gold(0) nanoparticles. High resolution microscopy has shown that five different types of gold particles are present after reaction with gold(III) ions with alfalfa biomass. These particles include: fcc tetrahedral, hexagonal platelet, icosahedral multiple twinned, decahedral multiple twinned, and irregular shaped particles. Further analysis on the frequency of distribution has shown that icosahedral and irregular particles are more frequently formed. In addition, the larger particles observed may be formed through the coalescence of smaller particles. Through modification of the chemical parameters, more uniform particle size distribution may be obtained by the alfalfa bio-reduction of gold(III) from solution

  16. Gold and gold-copper nanoparticles in 2-propanol: A radiation chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    The studies on the reduction of Au 3+ to gold nanoparticles in presence and absence of Cu 2+ under deoxygenated conditions in 2-propanol by radiolytic method have been carried out. On γ-radiolysis, preliminary yellow colored solution of Au 3+ changed to purple color owing to gold nanoparticles formation, which exhibits an absorption peak at around 540 nm. In the presence of Cu 2+ , absorption of gold-copper nanoparticles, which was also produced during γ-radiolysis, was red shifted in contrast to the system containing no Cu 2+ . Under DLS studies the sizes of gold nanoparticles in the absence and the presence of Cu 2+ were found to be larger (>400 nm). However, in presence of polyethylene glycol, a stabilizer the nanoparticle sizes became smaller, sizes measured for gold and gold-copper nanoparticles are 40 and 140 nm, respectively. Moreover, the change in UV-vis spectra in the Cu 2+ and Au 3+ mixed system highlights the formation of gold-copper nanoparticles in core-shell type arrangement. - Highlights: → Present radiation chemical study highlights high reactivity of Au ·2+ with Cu 2+ . → Absorption of gold-copper nanoparticles is blue shifted as compared to copper nanoparticles. → Change in UV-vis spectra with dose emphasizes core-shell type arrangement of Au-Cu nanoparticles.

  17. Knowledge-driven GIS modeling technique for gold exploration, Bulghah gold mine area, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Madani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to generate a favorability map for gold exploration at the Bulghah gold mine area using integration of geo-datasets within a GIS environment. Spatial data analyses and integration of different geo-datasets are carried out based on knowledge-driven and weighting technique. The integration process involves the weighting and scoring of different layers affecting the gold mineralization at the study area using the index overlay method within PCI Geomatica environment. Generation of the binary predictor maps for lithology, lineaments, faults and favorable contacts precede the construction of the favorability map. About 100 m buffer zones are generated for favorable contacts, lineaments and major faults layers. Internal weighting is assigned to each layer based on favorability for gold mineralization. The scores for lithology, major faults, lineaments and favorable contacts layers in the constructed favorability map are 50%, 25%, 10% and 15%, respectively. Final favorability map for the Bulghah gold mine area shows the recording of two new sites for gold mineralization located at the northern and southern extensions of tonalite–diorite intrusions. The northern new site is now exploited for gold from the Bulghah North mine. The southern new site is narrow and small; its rocks resemble those of the Bulghah gold mine.

  18. CT-guided core biopsy and percutaneous fiducial seed placement in the lung: Can these procedures be combined without an increase in complication rate or decrease in technical success?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal [Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Interventional Radiology, 2799 West Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Sheiman, Robert, E-mail: rsheiman@bidmc.harvard.edu [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Brook, Olga R. [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Gourtsoyianni, Sofia [King' s College London, St Thomas’ Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, SE1 7EH London (United Kingdom); Mahadevan, Anand [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Radiation Oncology, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Siewert, Bettina [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: To determine if concomitant CT-guided biopsy and percutaneous fiducial seed placement in the lung can be performed in a selective patient population without increased complication or decreased success rates compared to either procedure alone. Materials and methods: An IRB approved retrospective analysis of 285 consecutive patients that underwent CT-guided placement of fiducial seeds in the lung alone (N = 63), with concomitant core biopsy (N = 53) or only core biopsy (N = 169) was performed. Variables compared included: patient demographics, lesion size, depth from pleura, needle size, number of passes through pleura, number and size of core biopsies, number of seeds placed and technical success rates. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate pair-wise comparisons. Results: A pathologic diagnosis of malignancy was confirmed in all cases undergoing seed placement alone and seed placement with concurrent biopsy, and in 144 of the biopsy alone lesions. On univariate analysis, major complication rates were similar for all three groups as were lesion size, depth, number of pleural passes, and technical success. Pair-wise comparisons of the remaining variables demonstrated a significant younger age and smaller needle size in the biopsy only group, and less minor complications in the fiducial only group. Overall there were 80/285 (28.1%) minor and 29/285 (10.2%) major complications. All major complications leading to admission consisted of either pneumothorax or hemothorax, while minor complications included asymptomatic stable or resolving pneumothoraces, transient hemoptysis or small hemothoraces. Conclusions: A combined procedure of percutaneous pulmonary core biopsy and stereotactic seed placement can be performed without additional risk of a major complication when compared to performing these separately.

  19. Genesis of uranium-gold pyritic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The ancient pyritic ore conglomerates have a common origin best exemplified by the Witwatersrand deposits. All contain detrital pyrite and uraninite, which are unstable in modern oxygenated environments and were deposited in a reducing atmosphere. The Rand reefs are not similar to modern gold placers. Placers result from the near incapacity of streams and currents to transport coarse gold. Placers as rich as Rand reef occur only in narrow paystreaks within 15 kilometers of a coarse-gold source. The board dispersion of gold in the reefs is due to solution transport of metal complexed as aurous sulfide, leached anoxygenically from crustal rocks, probably from sea-floor basalt, and precipitated by a slow reaction driven by the radioactive decay of detrital uraninite. Radiolysis of water on shallow marine unconformities resulted in diffusion of hydrogen to the atmosphere and a slight excess of hydroxyl free radical in the reef environment. The mild oxidizing tendency slowly dissolved uranium, precipitated gold, and oxygenated thucholite. These actions define a maturing process. A uraninite placer accumulating on an unconformity becomes progressively converted to a gold reef with little residual uraninite. The most mature reefs tend to grade toward the thucholite-seam type, very thin but exceedingly rich in gold. A combination of chemical attack and physical reworking accounts for the general thinness of mature reefs. Pyrite, like uraninite, decreases in abundance with increasing maturity; buffering by pyrite moderated the oxidative depletion of uranium. Where pyrite was scanty or absent, uraninite was completely dissolved by the effects of radiolysis and no ore formed

  20. Beneficiation of the gold bearing ore by gravity and flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Alim; Kangal, Olgaç; Sirkeci, Ayhan A.; Önal, Güven

    2012-02-01

    Gold concentration usually consists of gravity separation, flotation, cyanidation, or the combination of these processes. The choice among these processes depends on the mineralogical characterization and gold content of the ore. Recently, the recovery of gold using gravity methods has gained attention because of low cost and environmentally friendly operations. In this study, gold pre-concentrates were produced by the stepwise gravity separation and flotation techniques. The Knelson concentrator and conventional flotation were employed for the recovery of gold. Gold bearing ore samples were taken from Gümüşhane Region, northern east part of Turkey. As a result of stepwise Knelson concentration experiments, a gold concentrate assaying around 620 g/t is produced with 41.4wt% recovery. On the other hand, a gold concentrate about 82 g/t is obtained with 89.9wt% recovery from a gold ore assaying 6 g/t Au by direct flotation.

  1. Gold leaf counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a gold leaf 100 nm thin film is used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The traditional method of hammering gold foil to obtain a thin gold leaf, which requires only small amounts of gold, was employed. The gold leaf was then attached to the substrate using an adhesive to produce the gold electrode. The proposed approach for fabricating counter electrodes is demonstrated to be facile and cost-effective, as opposed to existing techniques. Compared with electrodes prepared with gold foil and sputtered gold, the gold leaf counter electrode