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Sample records for eurycoma longifolia jack

  1. Habitat Preferences, Distribution Pattern, and Root Weight Estimation of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

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    Siti Masitoh Kartikawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack is one of non timber forest products with “indeterminate” conservation status and commercially traded in West Kalimantan. The research objective was to determine the potential of pasak bumi root per hectare and its ecological condition under natural habitat. Root weight of E. longifolia Jack was estimated using simple linear regression and exponential equation with stem diameter and height as independent variables. The results showed that the individual number of the population was 114 with the majority in seedling stage with 71 individuals (62.28%. The distribution was found in clumped pattern. Conditions of the habitat could be described as follows: daily average temperature of 25.6oC, daily average relative humidity of 73.6%, light intensity of 0.9 klx, and red-yellow podsolic soil with texture ranged from clay to sandy clay. The selected estimator model for E. longifolia Jack root weight used exponential equation with stem height as independent variable using the equation of Y= 21.99T0,010 and determination coefficient of 0.97. After height variable was added, the potential of E. longifolia Jack minimum root weight that could be harvested per hectare was 0.33 kg.Keywords: Eurycoma longifolia, habitat preference, distribution pattern, root weight

  2. The Cholesterol Lowering Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali Root Extract in Male Rats

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    Ghasak G Faisal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract on serum lipids in rats. Methods: Twenty-six mature male albino Wistar rats were used in this study. A group of 18 rats were fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, after which their lipid profile was compared to the control group, who were kept on a normal diet. The rats were then further divided into three groups, the Cf group that continued to feed on a high fat and cholesterol diet only, and group A and group B who continued on a high fat diet with the addition of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract respectively for 4 weeks. After the 4 week period, the rat's lipid profiles were analysed again. Results: Group A and B showed significant total cholesterol reduction when compared to the Cf group, 140 ± 7.23, 139.63 ± 7.95, 192.14 ± 8.96 mg/dL respectively (p < 0.001. The total cholesterol/HDL ratio in group A was 5 however there was a sharp increase in group B to a high-risk level of 9.2 indicating a significant drop in HDL levels. The LDL level increased significantly in both group A and B compared to the Cf group. Conclusions: Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract is effective in lowering total cholesterol, however the dose needs to be adjusted to prevent an excessive decrease in HDL levels.

  3. Comparison of Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Bioactive for the Eurycoma longifolia jack using different Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim; Maizatul Akmam Md Nasir

    2011-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia jack (Tongkat Ali, Genus: Eurycoma; Family, Simaroubaceae) is one of the most popular tropical herbal plants. The plant contains a series of quassinoids, which are mainly responsible for its bitter taste. The plant extract, especially roots, are exclusively used (traditionally) for enhancing testosterone levels in men. The roots also have been used in indigenous traditional medicines for its unique anti-malarial, anti-pyretic, antiulcer, cytotoxic and aphrodisiac properties. As part of an on-going research on the bioactive compound of Eurycoma longifolia and evaluation for an optimized analysis method and parameter that influence in LC-MS analysis were carried out. Identification of the bioactive compounds was based on comparison of calculated retention time and mass spectral data with literature values. Examination of the Eurycoma longifolia sample showed some variations and differences in terms of parameters in LC-MS. However, combined method using methanol as the solvent with injection volume 1.0 μL and analysis in ultra scan mode and acetic acid as acidic modifier is the optimum method for LCMS analysis of Eurycoma longifolia because it successfully detected the optimum mass of compounds with good resolution and perfectly separated within a short analysis time. (author)

  4. Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

    2010-10-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognized as 'Tongkat Ali.' The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds (like eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B) among which the alkaloids and quassinoids form a major portion. Even though toxicity and safety evaluation studies have been pursued, still a major gap exists in providing scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumer's safety. The present review aims at reviewing the research works undertaken till date, on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) Root In Precopulation Stage to the Fertility of Female Mouse (Mus musculus L.)

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    Marlinza, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) have potency to be used to increase bodyendurance, to cure malaria drug, and to act as afrodisiak. However, the effect of pasak bumi onwomen fertility, especially at pre-copulation stage was not widely known. This research seeks toreveal the effect pasak bumi extract treated at pre-copulation phase on fertility. This experimentemploy mice (Mus Musculus L.) and was undertaken at Biology and Cemistry laboratories PMIPA, andVeterinary laboratory of Jambi Uni...

  6. Permen dan Jelli Sebagai Produk Inovasi dari Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack

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    Fatmir Edwar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack merupakan salah satu jenis tumbuhan hutan tropis di Indonesia yang pemanfaatannya sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan obat baik yang modern maupun tradisional.  Pasak bumi mengandung senyawa erikomanon yang ampuh mengobati malaria dan senyawa kuasinoid serta alkaloid yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan sel kanker. Pasak bumi juga mempunyai senyawa aktif flavonoid yang berfungsi untuk melindungi struktur sel, meningkatkan efektifitas vitamin C, anti inflamasi, mencegah keropos tulang, antioksidan, dan antibiotik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat produk permen dan jelli dari bagian akar, batang, daun, ranting, dan kulit pasak bumi sehingga dapat meningkatkan nilai tambah dan memudahkan akses bagi masyarakat luas untuk mendapatkan khasiat zat aktif yang dikandung tumbuhan tersebut dalam bentuk produk inovatif.  Standard produk yang dihasilkan (permen dan jelli mengacu kepada SNI 3547.1:2008 tentang kembang gula keras dan SNI No. 3547.2:2008 tentang kembang gula lunak. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian permen, semua parameter yaitu kadar air, abu, gula, sukrosa, Zn, Hg, Pb, As, Angka Lempeng Total, Coliform, Ecoli, Salmonella dan Kapang/Khamir memenuhi syarat, kecuali untuk parameter Cu dengan nilai antara 3,48–8,17% tidak memenuhi standar yang dipersyaratkan yaitu maksimal 2%. Sedangkan produk jelli sebagian besar memiliki kadar air bervariasi antara 18,20–39,45% tidak memenuhi standar  yang dipersyaratkan maksimal 20%. Hasil dari penelitian ini dapat meningkatkan nilai tambah dan nilai jual dari tumbuhan pasak bumi berupa produk permen dan jelli yang memiliki cita rasa, keunggulan dan manfaat bagi kesehatan.ABSTRAKPasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack merupakan salah satu jenis tumbuhan hutan tropis di Indonesia yang pemanfaatannya sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan obat baik yang modern maupun tradisional.  Pasak bumi mengandung senyawa erikomanon yang ampuh mengobati malaria dan senyawa kuasinoid serta

  7. Eurycomanone and Eurycomanol from Eurycoma longifolia Jack as Regulators of Signaling Pathways Involved in Proliferation, Cell Death and Inflammation

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    Shéhérazade Hajjouli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eurycomanone and eurycomanol are two quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. The aim of this study was to assess the bioactivity of these compounds in Jurkat and K562 human leukemia cell models compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Both eurycomanone and eurycomanol inhibited Jurkat and K562 cell viability and proliferation without affecting healthy cells. Interestingly, eurycomanone inhibited NF-κB signaling through inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and upstream mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, but not eurycomanol. In conclusion, both quassinoids present differential toxicity towards leukemia cells, and the presence of the α,β-unsaturated ketone in eurycomanone could be prerequisite for the NF-κB inhibition.

  8. Capsule Formulation of Ethanolic Extract of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma Longifolia Jack.,) and its Effect on Human Health Vital Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Laela Hayu Nurani; Eka Kumalasari; Abdul Rohman; Sitarina Widyarini

    2017-01-01

    Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia) has the potential to be developed as antihypertensive, antipyretic, aphrodisiacs and health supplements. The use of E. longifolia as a traditional medicine needs to be pursued in the form of more effective and appropriate formulation. The capsule preparations are easy to make and can cover the bitter taste of E. longifolia. Clinical trials in this study use design pre-post treatment in healthy humans. Subjects used were male - healthy men and healthy women ...

  9. Production of aventitious root of eurycoma longifolia jack using air-lift bioreactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nazirah Wan Ali; Siti Sarah Abd Wahab; Zakaria Seman; Muhammad Ruzaini Abdul Wahab; Mohamad Rozi Mohamed Yasin; Sobri Hussein; Abdul Rahim Harun; Azhar Mohamad; Rusli Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    In Malaysia the Eurycoma longifolia is better known as a Tongkat Ali, where it has great local demand as a health tonic. Observation after 3 months revealed that modified MS medium (1/2 Nitrate) supplemented with IBA at 5.0 mg/L and 6.0 mg/L (5% sucrose) was found to be the best formulation for adventitious root induction. The data obtained showed that 70% (10 + 2 adventitious root per explants) of the explants cultured formed the adventitious root in both treatments. Other treatments tested within the range (1.0- 10.0 mg/L) produced less than four adventitious roots per explant. Meanwhile, in the treatment using IAA, the highest formation of root was recorded in 7.0 mg/L with the number of root produced was 3 + 1 per explant. Apart from that, observation after 2 months revealed that 4 + 1 adventitious root per explant was observed in the treatment using 4 mg/L NAA. The chemical profiling studies was carried out by focusing on the production of 9-methoxycanthine-6-one in callus derived from different explants, namely leaf, petiole, rachis and root. The R f value spots of 9-methoxycanthine-6-one (obtained from the TLC) analysis showed a yellowish green in colour when observed under UV light at 366 nm. Based on the intensity and size of the spots on the chromatogram, it was detected that concentration of 9-methoxycanthine-6-one in root-derived callus was generally higher as compared to other calluses. Therefore, adventitious root culture can be an attractive as it is highly differentiated and can cause stable and extensive production of secondary metabolites. (Author)

  10. Acute, reproductive toxicity and two-generation teratology studies of a standardized quassinoid-rich extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Low, Bin-Seng; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2014-07-01

    The roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack are popularly sought as herbal medicinal supplements to improve libido and general health amongst the local ethnic population. The major quassinoids of E. longifolia improved spermatogenesis and fertility but toxicity studies have not been well documented. The reproductive toxicity, two generation of foetus teratology and the up-and-down acute toxicity were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats orally treated with quassinoid-rich E. longifolia extract (TAF273). The results showed that the median lethal dose (LD50 ) of TAF273 for female and male rats was 1293 and >2000 mg/kg, respectively. Fertility index and litter size of the TAF273 treated were significantly increased when compared with those of the non-treated animals. The TAF273-treated dams decreased in percentage of pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss and late resorption. No toxic symptoms were observed on the TAF273-treated pregnant female rats and their foetuses were normal. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from reproductive toxicity and teratology studies of TAF273 in rats was 100 mg/kg body weight/day, being more than 10-fold lower than the LD50 value. Thus, any human dose derived from converting the rat doses of 100 mg/kg and below may be considered as safe for further clinical studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali: Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology

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    Shaheed Ur Rehman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali, a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500–2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents’ identification, determination, further development and most

  12. The effects of combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack ethanolic extract and doxorubicine on hematological profile in rats given by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

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    Nurani, L. H.; Mursyidi, A.; Widyarini, S.; Rohman, A.

    2017-11-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is known as anticancer drug commonly used for cancer treatment. Eurycoma longifolia Jack or Pasakbumi was reported to have chemopreventive effect. In cancer patients, there are some dysfunctions of blood parameter, therefore some hematologic tests are needed to monitor cancer patients. In this study, the effects of combination of ethanolic extract of E. longifolia Jack (EEE) and Dox on hematologic profiles were investigated in rats injected by DMBA. Rats were divided into eight groups. Group I was normal group; Group II, rats were treated with extract dose 100 mg/kgbw; Groups III, IV, V, VI, VII and VIII, rats were treated with Dox, DMBA, DMBA+Dox, DMBA+EEE, DMBA+Dox +EEE, and Dox+EEE, respectively. DMBA administration orally was conducted twice a week for 5 weeks. At 16th week of treatments, bloods were taken from orbitalis sinus for hematologicals profile (levels of Hb, erytrocyte, hematocrite, leukocyte, MCV, MCH, and differencial leucocyte count) measurements. These data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by LSD test. DMBA administration significantly decreased the hematological profiles compared to the normal group, except in lymphocyte level. Rats treated with extract and extract+Dox were able to increase the hematological profile compared to rats given by DMBA only. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the combination of EEE and Dox potentially increase hematological profile of rats given by DMBA.

  13. Mass propagation of in vitro plantlets and extraction of bioactive compounds from Eurycoma Longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) using cell and organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack or better known in Malaysia as Tongkat Ali is an important herbal plant that owes its popularity locally and worldwide to its aphrodisiac claim and has been sought after as an essential component for the treatment of anti-malarial, anti-ulcer, anti-tumour promoting and anti-parasitic agent and also as health supplements. Quassinoids and canthin-6-one alkaloids contained in Tongkat Ali roots are the main substances having active functions for human body. Propagation is commonly done through seeds or some vegetative means such as cuttings of stems and root, grafting or layering. However, propagation by conventional method is inadequate to meet the demand due to low viability, low germination rate, delayed rooting and long life cycle. Tissue culture has been successfully applied for mass production of plantlets and extraction of many useful secondary metabolites, including pharmaceuticals, pigments and other fine chemicals. Tongkat Ali active substances have also been derived through cell culture technology but its processes need to be optimized before the product can be commercialized. Cell and organ cultures have been proven to be an efficient alternative method for biomass production due to its fast growth and stable metabolite production. In view of its potential commercial value as a plantation crop as well as to conserve its germplasm, micropropagation technique using cell culture system is an attractive method for regeneration and mass propagation. (Author)

  14. Cytotoxic activity of quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia.

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    Miyake, Katsunori; Li, Feng; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2010-07-01

    Twenty-four quassinoids isolated from Eurycoma longifolia Jack were investigated for their cytotoxicity against a panel of four different cancer cell lines, which includes three murine cell lines [colon 26-L5 carcinoma (colon 26-L5), B16-BL6 melanoma (B16-BL6), Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)] and a human lung A549 adenocarcinoma (A549) cell line. Among the tested compounds, eurycomalactone (9) displayed the most potent activity against all the tested cell lines; colon 26-L5 (IC50 = 0.70 microM), B16-BL6 (IC50 = 0.59 microM), LLC (IC50 = 0.78 microM), and A549 (IC50 = 0.73 microM). These activities were comparable to clinically used anticancer agent doxorubicin (colon 26-L5, IC50 = 0.76 microM; B16-BL6, IC50 = 0.86 microM; LLC, IC50 = 0.80 microM; A549, IC50 = 0.66 microM).

  15. Capsule Formulation of Ethanolic Extract of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma Longifolia Jack., and its Effect on Human Health Vital Signs

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    Laela Hayu Nurani

    2017-08-01

    cover the bitter taste of E. longifolia. Clinical trials in this study use design pre-post treatment in healthy humans. Subjects used were male - healthy men and healthy women who met inclusion criteria and were subjected with formulated capsule for 14 days. The study resulted capsule formula comprising of the ethanolic extract of E. longifolia 300 mg, vivapur 101 300 mg, 58 mg maydis starch, aerosil 3%, talc 2%, and Mg stearate 1%. The results showed that the capsule of E. longifolia did not affect the value of heart rate, respiration rate, body temperature and weight (P > 0.05, based on paired t-test, but they causes a decrease in blood pressure of healthy human. The ethanol extract of E. longifolia caused vasodilation of blood vessels that can be used in antihypertensive therapy.

  16. Increase in Bcl2 expression of penile and prostate cells of Sprague Dawley male rats following treatment with buceng (combination of Pimpinella alpina molk with Eurycoma longifolia Jack

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    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with buceng combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Pimpinella alpine Molk has been proven to increase testosterone level, decrease apoptosis and caspase3 expression. Bcl2 is an antiapoptotic protein found in cytoplasm which inhibits cells apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of buceng on Bcl2 expression on penile and prostate tissues of the rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats of 90 days old, weighing ± 300 grams, were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A, normal rats. Group B, castrated rats and treated with buceng 100 mg/day, per oral (Cast-Bcg; Group C, castrated rats and treated with 2 ml of water as placebo against buceng (Cast-Plac. Group D, castrated rats, treated with mesterolone 6.75 mg/day, per oral, as exogenous testosterone (Cast-Mest. All rats were treated for 30 days. Manova test was used to analyze the different expression of Bcl2 among groups with significance level at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Castration was associated with significant decrease of Bcl2 expression in the penile and prostate tissues (53.0 and 50.9%, respectively compared to normal rats (82.6 and 84.2%, respectively, p < 0.001. Treatment with mesterolone reversed Bcl2 expression (77.1 and 78.1% to a near normal level. The same level of Bcl2 expression was also observed with buceng treatment (73.8 and 78.2%.Conclusion: The treatment with buceng could enhance Bcl2 expression in penile and prostate tissues, comparable to normal rats and mesterolone treated rats.

  17. Comparative study on the effect of Eurycoma longifolia and Smilax myosotiflora on male rats fertility

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    Mahmoud, Amal Salem Farag; Noor, Mahanem Mat

    2013-11-01

    The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Smilax myosotiflora were studied on sperm quality include sperm count, motility, viability and histology of the testis and pregnancy rate after mating with fertile proved females, as well as litter size on Sprague-Dawley (S-D) adult male rats. After dosing them with distilled water group A, group B 150 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of E. longifolia roots, group C 150 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of S. myosotiflora leaf and group D 150 mg/kg body weight of E. longifolia combined with 150 mg/kg S. myosotiflora body weight daily for 14 days of stage (a) and 28 days for stage (b) of treatments. Results exhibited no significant variation (P>0.05) of stage (a),while results showed that E. longifolia Jack increase (Psperm count, motility, viability and histology of the testis and gender (male) of the litter size respectively of stage (b). This study provides evidence that E. longifolia Jack is a potent stimulator of fertility in male rat.

  18. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

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    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT. However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL, can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis.

  19. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in elicited hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia

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    Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia

    2016-11-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.

  20. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia provision on blood sugar level, cholesterols, and uric acid of Etawa Crossbreed Goat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratomo, Hurip

    2018-05-01

    Previous research on male white rat with provision of Eurycoma longifolia until the 3rd days has increased significantly on the formation of final spermatid from spermatozoon, and testosterone, and increase activity of pituitary cell producing the LH hormone. However, these researches yet studied on possibility of side effects caused by provision of Eurycoma longifolia for 6 days on male EC goat. The research aims to measure the effect of Eurycoma longifolia on the levels of: 1). Blood sugar, 2). Cholesterols, and 3). Uric acid of Male Etawa Crossbreed (EC) goat. This research was conducted through two treatment groups, namely : 1). Control group (provision of aquadest) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days, 2) Eurycoma longifolia group with a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight (bb) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days. Measurements on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid level were conducted in the 1st, 2nd and 6th days. The obtained data were analyzed using Duncan test with confidence level by 95% (α=0,05) comparing the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid measured from the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days with the same compound level measured from the Eurycoma longifolia treatment group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. The result obtained there were no significant changes on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid levels between all Eurycoma longifolia treatment groups compared to the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. Thus, the Eurycoma longifolia provision until in the 6th day did not provide any negative side effects and can be applied in the Etawa crossbreed goat farm.

  1. Histology of somatic embryos of eurycoma longifolia (simaroubaceae): relevance in agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, B.; Rabiah, S.S.; Keng, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Histological analysis conducted on somatic embryos of Eurycoma longifolia shows the developmental structures that are remarkably similar to seeds found in the wild. The primary components of a growing somatic embryo are its shoot and root apical meristems indicated by dense layers of rapidly growing cells. The increased understanding of In vitro culture systems and anatomical changes provide information into cellular processes that govern genetic transformation of E. longifolia with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The presence of meristematic regions on cultured somatic embryos suggests that they are suitable for genetic transformation as genetic elements could be transported to these regions where growth and differentiation are centered. This allows the successful integration and expression of transferred DNA in the host organism, leading the way for an efficient A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation protocol. (author)

  2. Polar Quassinoids in Standardized Eurycoma longifolia Extract Formulated into a Lipid-Based Solid Dispersion to Improve Rat Sperm Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Qiu; Ebrahimi, Forough; Low, Bin-Seng; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2017-12-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack is popularly sought in Southeast Asian countries for traditional remedies to improve sexual performance and fertility. 13α(21)-Epoxyeurycomanone and eurycomanone, two major quassinoids in a root extract (TAF2) were reported to improve rat spermatogenesis and fertility. Unfortunately, these quassinoids possess low bioavailability because of high aqueous solubility and low lipid membrane permeability. Often, other possible barriers may be P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux in the gut and presystemic hepatic metabolism. The present study attempted to solve these problems by formulating a lipid-based solid dispersion (TAF2-SD) of optimized mixture of TAF2 and emulsifiers, which was then orally administered to rats prior to sperm count analysis. The TAF2-SD-treated rats showed significantly twofold (p < 0.001) and fourfold (p < 0.001) higher sperm count than did TAF2-treated and vehicle-treated (control) rats, respectively. The study also demonstrated no significant in vitro ileal absorption changes of the quassinoids by P-gp efflux inhibitors and concentration change or secondary metabolite formation upon in vitro incubation with rat liver homogenates, suggesting that P-gp-mediated efflux and presystemic metabolism were not limiting their bioavailability. Further study on orally TAF2-treated rats confirmed that the area under the curve and bioavailability curve of each quassinoid in the absence and presence of ketoconazole were unchanged. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of drying temperature on drying kinetics and eurycomanone content of Eurycoma longifolia roots

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    Hada Masayu, I.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and eurycomanone content of Eurycoma longifolia roots were investigated to determine the optimum temperature for drying of this herb. The roots were subjected to drying temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70°C. The drying kinetics data indicated that the drying rate increased with increase in temperature but decreased with time. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. Three established thin layer drying models include Page, Midili and Logarithmic were employed to describe the drying process. The Midili model was found as the best fitting model in representing the process. The quality of the products was evaluated by comparing the content of its active compound, eurycomanone, quantified using an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC. The fastest drying process was achieved at 70°C, but UPLC results showed that the product suffered at 18% reduction in eurycomanone content as compared to the control. Based on the findings of this work, the optimum drying temperature for E. longifolia roots is 60°C.

  4. Effects of methyl-jasmonate on 9-methoxycanthin-6-one content in Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) root culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, F.M.; Rathinam, X.; Danial, M.

    2015-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia is a flowering plant from the Simaroubaceae family and it has been identified as one of the most intriguing medicinal plants in Malaysia. In the present study, the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one, an alkaloid compound was determined with various methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) concentrations using root culture via liquid system. Quantification of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one was confirmed by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quantitative analysis using HPLC displayed highest concentration of 9-methoxycanthin-6- one content in the absence of MeJA treatment (control) followed by increasing concentrations of MeJA (1, 10 and 100 micro M). Microanatomical analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has shown that root hair morphology of E.longifolia does not change significantly, whereas roots hair displayed rough surfaces with increases MeJA concentrations. Therefore, MeJA is not a suitable elicitor to increase 9-methoxycanthin-6-one compound in E. lon. (author)

  5. Decreased expression of caspase3 in penis and prostate tissues of rat after the treatment with buceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk & Euricoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Taufiqurrachman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buceng {combination of pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack and purwoceng (Pimpinella alpine Molk} has been proven to increase testosterone (Te level and decrease apoptosis. Unfortunately, there is no evidence whether these effects are mediated by the declining of caspase3. Objective of this study was to evaluate whether buceng could decrease the expression of caspase3 of penis and prostate cells in Sprague Dawley male rats.Methods: Twenty four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 300 g (90 days old were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 6 male rats. Group A, rats were castrated and received buceng 50 mg. Group B, rats were not castrated, sacrifices as positive control. Group C, rats were castrated and given 2 mL aquadest as negative control. Group D, rats were castrated and got of 6.75 mg mesterolone, dissolved in 2 mL water. MANOVA statistical analysis was adopted to examine the difference expression of caspase3 in all groups. The comparison of caspase3 expression between two groups exhibiting difference values were evaluated by Post Hoc test.Results: MANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in the expression of caspase3 of penis and prostate tissues among the four groups. Post Hoct test also indicated that expression of caspase3 in group A (buceng (33.56; 35.83 was significantly lower compared to group C (negative control (54.33; 60.07 and group D (mesterolone (51.91;56.21, p = 0.000, and higher compared than group B or normal rats (29.40; 27.72, but statistically not significant (p = 0.826.Conclusion: The treatment of 50 mg buceng/day for 30 consecutive days could decrease caspase3 expression in penis and prostate cells. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:2-8Keywords: Apoptosis, buceng (Pimpinella alpine Molk – Eurycoma longifolia Jack, caspase3 

  6. NMR-based plasma metabolomic discrimination for male fertility assessment of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Forough; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2017-06-01

    Male infertility is one of the leading causes of infertility which affects many couples worldwide. Semen analysis is a routine examination of male fertility status which is usually performed on semen samples obtained through masturbation that may be inconvenient to patients. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, TA), native to Malaysia, has been traditionally used as a remedy to boost male fertility. In our recent studies in rats, upon the administration of high-quassinoid content extracts of TA including TA water (TAW), quassinoid-rich TA (TAQR) extracts, and a low-quassinoid content extract including quassinoid-poor TA (TAQP) extract, sperm count (SC) increased in TAW- and TAQR-treated rats when compared to the TAQP-treated and control groups. Consequently, the rats were divided into normal- (control and TAQP-treated) and high- (TAW- and TAQR-treated) SC groups [Ebrahimi et al. 2016]. Post-treatment rat plasma was collected. An optimized plasma sample preparation method was developed with respect to the internal standards sodium 3- (trimethylsilyl) propionate- 2,2,3,3- d4 (TSP) and deuterated 4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-ammonium trifluoroacetate (DSA). Carr-Purcell-Meibum-Gill (CPMG) experiments combined with orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was employed to evaluate plasma metabolomic changes in normal- and high-SC rats. The potential biomarkers associated with SC increase were investigated to assess fertility by capturing the metabolomic profile of plasma. DSA was selected as the optimized internal standard for plasma analysis due to its significantly smaller half-height line width (W h/2 ) compared to that of TSP. The validated OPLS-DA model clearly discriminated the CPMG profiles in regard to the SC level. Plasma profiles of the high-SC group contained higher levels of alanine, lactate, and histidine, while ethanol concentration was significantly higher in the normal-SC group. This approach might be a new alternative applicable to

  7. The in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activities of a standardized quassinoids composition from Eurycoma longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kind Leng Tong

    Full Text Available Quassinoids are a group of diterpenoids found in plants from the Simaroubaceae family. They are also the major bioactive compounds found in Eurycoma longifolia which is commonly used as traditional medicine in South East Asia to treat various ailments including sexual dysfunction and infertility. These uses are attributed to its ability to improve testosterone level in men. Chronic consumption of E. longifolia extracts has been reported to increase testosterone level in men and animal model but its effect on prostate growth remains unknown. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of a standardized total quassinoids composition (SQ40 containing 40% of the total quassinoids found in E. longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line. SQ40 inhibited LNCaP cell growth at IC50 value of 5.97 μg/mL while the IC50 on RWPE-1 human prostate normal cells was 59.26 μg/mL. SQ40 also inhibited 5α-dihydrotestosterone-stimulated growth in LNCaP cells dose-dependently. The inhibitory effect of SQ40 in anchorage-independent growth of LNCaP cells was also demonstrated using soft agar assay. SQ40 suppressed LNCaP cell growth via G0/G1 phase arrest which was accompanied by the down-regulation of CDK4, CDK2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin D3 and up-regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 protein levels. SQ40 at higher concentrations or longer treatment duration can cause G2M growth arrest leading to apoptotic cell death as demonstrated by the detection of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in LNCaP cells. Moreover, SQ40 also inhibited androgen receptor translocation to nucleus which is important for the transactivation of its target gene, prostate-specific antigen (PSA and resulted in a significant reduction of PSA secretion after the treatment. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 10 mg/kg of SQ40 also significantly suppressed the LNCaP tumor growth on mouse xenograft model. Results from the present study suggest that the standardized total quassinoids

  8. Phenolic-rich extracts of Eurycoma longifolia and Cylicodiscus gabunensis inhibit enzymes responsible for the development of erectile dysfunction and are antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Adebayo, Adeniyi A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2018-05-19

    Herbs have been used from ages to manage male sexual dysfunction. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effects of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) and Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) stem bark extracts on some enzymes implicated in erectile dysfunction in vitro. The extracts were prepared, and their effects on phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), arginase, and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) as well as pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation were assessed. Furthermore, phenolic contents were determined, and their components were characterized and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results revealed that the extracts inhibited PDE-5, arginase, and ACE in a concentration-dependent manner. However, IC50 values revealed that CG had higher inhibitory potential on PDE-5 (IC50=204.4 μg/mL), arginase (IC50=39.01 μg/mL), and ACE (IC50=48.81 μg/mL) than EL. In addition, the extracts inhibited pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in penile tissue homogenate. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that CG is richer in phenolic compounds than EL, and this could be responsible for higher biological activities observed in CG than EL. Hence, the observed antioxidant property and inhibitory action of CG and EL on enzymes relevant to erectile dysfunction in vitro could be part of possible mechanisms underlying their involvement in traditional medicine for the management of male sexual dysfunction.

  9. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  10. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay K. Udani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali, which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P<0.05 for all. Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  11. Development of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali Roots Using Online Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography (SPE-LC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Nasriah Zaini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE technique prior to online SPE-LC. The effects of mobile phase compositions and column switching time on the chromatographic fingerprint were optimized. Validation of the developed method was studied based on eurycomanone. Linearity was in the range of 5 to 50 µg∙mL−1 (r2 = 0.997 with 3.2% relative standard deviation of peak area. The developed method was used to analyze 14 E. longifolia root samples and 10 products (capsules. Selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA, discriminant analysis (DA, and principal component analysis (PCA were applied to the fingerprint datasets of 37 selected peaks to evaluate the ability of the chromatographic fingerprint in classifying quality of E. longifolia. Three groups were obtained using CA. DA yielded 100% correlation coefficient with 19 discriminant compounds. Using PCA, E. longifolia root samples were clearly discriminated from the products. This study showed that the developed online SPE-LC method was able to provide comprehensive evaluation of E. longifolia samples for quality control purposes.

  12. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Keong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta ® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions.

  13. A review on safety and efficacy of products containing Longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafeez Ahmad Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam and also Laos. The roots extract of E. longifolia, is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia used for many purposes such as sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate and summarize the existing literatures regarding the efficacy and safety of products which contain E. longifolia as its main ingredient. In summary, based on the literature evaluated in this review article, products which contain tongkat ali showed a clinical benefit on improving erectile dysfunction as well as a good safety profile. We recommend consumers to check the level of the bioactive compound “eurycomanone” as their guide before choosing any E. longifolia product.

  14. Chemical composition of essential oil of mentha longifolia l. subsp. longifolia growing wild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okut, N.; Yagmur, M.; Yildirim, B.

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., is very important to some culinary usage and antimicrobial activity. The essential oil of Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia growing in the Bahcesaray area (Van Province, Turkey) was studied. This study designed for determine of essential oil constituent Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia that collected from wild area. Mint leaves sample essential oils obtained by hydro distillation and essential oil components were determined using GC-MS. The main component of wild grown Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia was Menthone (19.31%). Second one and others were Pulegone (12.42%), Piperitone (11.05%), Dihydrocarvon (8.32%), Limonene (6.1%), 3-Terpinolenone (5.66%), 1,8-Cineole (4.37%), Germacrene D (3.38%) and Caryopyllene (3.19%), respectively. (author)

  15. Characterization of primary and secondary metabolites of leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the primary and secondary metabolite profiles of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) stems and leaves to determine whether it can be utilized for therapeutic purposes as the roots. A total of six types of extracts were tested. The extracts showed high content of glycosaponins, polysaccharides, proteins and ...

  16. Jack St. Clair Kilby

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    the modern history of science and technology is highlighted by the fact that Jack ... Missouri, a traditional mid-western state in the United States of. America. ... his engineering education got interrupted when the second world war intensified ...

  17. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  18. Sennar Jacks (Equus asinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with an objective of evaluating the breeding soundness and sexual behavior of Sennar jackasses. ... score of 7 for the breeding and 4.8 for the working jacks. The mean (iSE) of height at wither,the ..... Equine Reproductive Physiology, Breeding and Stud Manage- ment, 2ndEdn. Farming Press ...

  19. Human Keratinocytes Radioprotection with Mentha Longifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Berselli, P.; Zava, S.; Negroni, M.; Corsetto, P.; Montorfano, G.; Bertolotti, A.; Ranza, E.; Ottolenghi, A.; Berra, B.

    Antioxidants are suggested to act as radioprotectors, and dietary supplements based on antiox-idants have been proposed for astronauts involved in long-term space missions. Plant extracts with antioxidant properties may be used in dietetic supplements for astronauts; in fact recent nutritional guidelines suggest that "fruits and vegetables may become as important on space-going vessels as limes were on the sea-going vessels of old". Mint presents a large variety of biological properties, such as antiallergenic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, an-tiviral, gastrointestinal protective, hepatoprotective, chemopreventive activities, most of which are attributable to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant properties and protective bio-efficacy of a phenol enriched Mentha longifolia ex-tract on gamma rays stressed human keratinocytes (NCTC2544). We assessed first the in vitro antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH), and then evaluated different stress markers in order to investigate various oxidative stress targets: cell viability (MTT); retained proliferating ca-pability (CA); DNA damage (histone H2AX) and protein damage (HSP70 induction). Results indicate that this Mint extract has a higher antioxidant activity respect to fresh extracts, that could be responsible of its really interesting radio-protective effects.

  20. Efectos embriotóxicos de Picrosia longifolia Don (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado los probables efectos tóxicos del extracto acuoso de Picrosia longifolia Don “Achicoria” sobre el desarrollo de embriones preimplantacionales de ratón. Extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 20%, 10% y 0% fue suministrado a ratonas preñadas hasta las 86 horas postcópula (hpc. Al evaluar el estadio embrionario se encontró que el extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 10% y 20% causó retraso en el desarrollo embrionario. También se observó una disminución en la viabilidad embrionaria en los grupos tratados. Tanto la disminución de viabilidad como el retraso en el desarrollo se produjo en una forma dosis dependiente.

  1. Rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Polylthia longifolia leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollamadugu Nagavenkata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this research article we present a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using P. longifolia leaf extract as reducing agent. Methods: Characterization using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM was performed. Results: TEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 57 nm. Conclusions: P. longifolia demonstrated strong potential for synthesis of silver nanoparticles by rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0. Biological methods are a good competent for the chemical procedures, which are enviro- friendly and convenient.

  2. Jack Michael's Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of motivating operation (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of drive. Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on how to study motivation by shifting its origins from the organism to the environment. Michael's account also served to stimulate applied research and to better understand behavioral functio...

  3. Happy birthday, Jack Steinberger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2016-01-01

    Even if he’s recently stopped coming to CERN on his bike, Jack Steinberger and his piercing blue eyes are still regular visitors to our corridors. As he celebrates his 95th birthday, we pay tribute to one of CERN’s greatest scientists.   Jack Steinberger in 2008, pictured on the occasion of the "Accelerating Nobel" exhibition. (Image: Claudia Marcelloni/CERN) Jack emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1934 to escape the persecution of the Jews. He later went on to study under Enrico Fermi in Chicago and in the 1950s, he contributed to the development of bubble chambers. Using this new detection apparatus, he was involved in the myriad discoveries and results that led to the construction of the Standard Model. In 1961, while at Columbia University (New York), he took part in the first experiment with a high-energy neutrino beam, which gave rise to the discovery of the muon neutrino. This discovery was awarded the&a...

  4. Chlorinated Iridoid Glucosides from Veronica longifolia and their Antioxidant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Harput, U. Sebnem

    2010-01-01

    From Veronica longifolia were isolated three chlorinated iridoid glucosides, namely asystasioside E (6) and its 6-O-esters 6a and 6b, named longifoliosides A and B, respectively. The structures of 6a and 6b were proved by analysis of their spectroscopic data and by conversion to the catalpol ester...

  5. From Jack to Double Jack Polynomials via the Supersymmetric Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Luc; Mathieu, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    The Calogero-Sutherland model occurs in a large number of physical contexts, either directly or via its eigenfunctions, the Jack polynomials. The supersymmetric counterpart of this model, although much less ubiquitous, has an equally rich structure. In particular, its eigenfunctions, the Jack superpolynomials, appear to share the very same remarkable combinatorial and structural properties as their non-supersymmetric version. These super-functions are parametrized by superpartitions with fixed bosonic and fermionic degrees. Now, a truly amazing feature pops out when the fermionic degree is sufficiently large: the Jack superpolynomials stabilize and factorize. Their stability is with respect to their expansion in terms of an elementary basis where, in the stable sector, the expansion coefficients become independent of the fermionic degree. Their factorization is seen when the fermionic variables are stripped off in a suitable way which results in a product of two ordinary Jack polynomials (somewhat modified by plethystic transformations), dubbed the double Jack polynomials. Here, in addition to spelling out these results, which were first obtained in the context of Macdonal superpolynomials, we provide a heuristic derivation of the Jack superpolynomial case by performing simple manipulations on the supersymmetric eigen-operators, rendering them independent of the number of particles and of the fermionic degree. In addition, we work out the expression of the Hamiltonian which characterizes the double Jacks. This Hamiltonian, which defines a new integrable system, involves not only the expected Calogero-Sutherland pieces but also combinations of the generators of an underlying affine {widehat{sl}_2} algebra.

  6. Jacks--A Study of Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Ralph

    This vocational physics individualized student instructional module on jacks (simple machines used to lift heavy objects) contains student prerequisites and objectives, an introduction, and sections on the ratchet bumper jack, the hydraulic jack, the screw jack, and load limitations. Designed with a laboratory orientation, each section consists of…

  7. Toleransi Tanaman Peneduh Polyalthia longifolia dan Pterocarpus indicus terhadap Ganoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Urban Trees Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus to Infection of  the red root rot fungus Ganoderma sp. Urban trees on the Gadjah Mada University (UGM area play an important role in increasing environmental qualities as well as in supporting the teaching and learning processes. However, red root rot disease caused by Basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. has severely infected some existing urban trees. This experiment was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Polyalthia longifolia (glodokan and Pterocarpus indicus (angsana to the infection of Ganoderma sp. Identification of infected trees was performed in UGM area. Further steps were carried out to achieve those objectives : (1 isolation of Ganoderma spp. and testing of Koch’s postulate and (2 examination of the susceptibility of  P. longifolia and P. indicus to infection of Ganoderma sp. The susceptibility test of P. longifolia and P. indicus to Ganoderma sp. indicated that P. longifolia was more resistant to fungal pathogen infection than that of P. indicus. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that P. longifolia is a species that is more suitable than P. indicus.  P. longifolia should be planted on the areas that have been infested with inocula of Ganoderma sp..

  8. Jack Stenner: The Lexile King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Linda J.

    2000-01-01

    Traces the career of Jack Stenner. Stenner made the empirical discovery that observable readability could be entirely predicted from word familiarity and sentence length, and applied this "Lexile Framework"(R) to books and readers. Discusses the use of the Lexile Framework as a way to target specific readers. (SLD)

  9. A taxonomic re-assessment of Ammocharis herrei and Cybistetes longifolia (Amaryllideae: Amaryllidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The infructescence of the poorly known Ammocharis herrei F.M. Leight. is similar to that which is diagnostic for Cybistetes longifolia (L. Milne-Redh. & Schweick. In the absence of distinct morphological differences A. herrei is placed into synonymy under C. longifolia. Plants of the amplified C.  longifolia have fewer, large seeds in Namaqualand and the Richtersveld and smaller, more numerous seeds in the Western Cape. This pattern is postulated to reflect divergent strategies of resource allocation in different habitats. It is suggested that the infructescence of C.  longifolia. a highly derived structure suited to tumbling, evolved from the unspecialised condition in Ammocharis as an adaptation to the high winds of southwestern Africa.

  10. John B. "Jack" Townshend (1927-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Jack Townshend, geophysicist and dedicated public servant, died on 13 August 2012 in Fairbanks, Alaska. He was 85. Jack's career with the federal government, most of it with the national magnetic observatory program, spanned more than six solar cycles of time, and he retired only days before his death. The duration of Jack's career encompassed an important period in the history of the advancement of our understanding of the Earth. Jack's career of contributions, his life, and his personality are worthy of retrospective celebration.

  11. Soil recovery after removal of the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia: consequences for ecosystem restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise Helene; Struwe, Sten

    2009-01-01

    Invasion by Acacia longifolia alters soil characteristics and processes. The present study was conducted to determine if the changes in soil C and N pools and processes induced by A. longifolia persist after its removal, at the São Jacinto Dunes Nature Reserve (Portugal). Some areas had been...... invaded for a long time (>20 years) and others more recently (Soil samples...... decrease (>54% and >95%, respectively) after removal of both A. longifolia and litter. Our results suggest that after removal of an N2-fixing invasive tree that changes ecosystem-level processes, it takes several years before soil nutrients and processes return to pre-invasion levels, but this legacy...

  12. The Alignment Jacks of the LHC Cryomagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Dwivedi, J; Goswami, S G; Madhumurthy, V; Parma, V; Soni, H C

    2004-01-01

    The precise alignment of the 1232 dipoles, 474 Short Straight Sections (SSS) and some other components of the LHC collider, requires the use of 6800 jacks. The specific requirements and the need for a cost-effective solution for this large production, justified the development and industrialisation of a dedicated mechanical jack. The jack was developed, and is now being produced by Centre for Advanced Technology, India, in the framework of a collaboration between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy in India. Three jacks support each of the 32-ton heavy, 15-meter long cryo-dipole of LHC, and provide the required alignment features. Identical jacks support the lighter LHC Short Straight Sections. Presently, the mass production of 6800 jacks is in progress with two Indian manufacturers, and 3545 jacks have already been delivered to CERN by April 2004. Considering the successful performance of the jacks, it is now envisaged to extend their use, with some modifications, for even higher-demanding alignment of ...

  13. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Grebennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents data about qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in water-ethanol extract of perspective clone of Mentha longifolia L. of NBE-NSC selection. Phenolic substances content in water-ethanol extract amounted to 3003.3 mg/100g. 13 components were determined in the extract. The extract contains caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid isomers, rosmarinic acid and glycosides of luteolin. Rosmarinic acid (50.2% prevails among phenolic substances of Mentha longifolia extract. The conclusion is that the use of this extract is possible to create products with high biological value

  14. Jack Reeves and his science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lorna G; Grover, Robert F

    2006-04-28

    John T. (Jack) Reeves' science is reviewed across the 37 years of his research career at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, a period which occupied approximately half his remarkable life. His contributions centered on understanding the inter-relatedness as well as the underlying mechanisms controlling the various components of the O(2) transport system. We review here his studies on exercise performance; these encompassed about half his scientific output with the other half being devoted to the study of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Early studies concerned cardiac output, showing how it was a balance between O(2) uptake and O(2) extraction, and that cardiac output during exercise at high altitude was reduced, most likely because of decreased plasma volume and left ventricular filling. Jack's many studies addressed virtually every aspect of the O(2) transport system -- adding significantly to our understanding of the syndromes of altitude illness, the mechanisms by which ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia influenced ventilatory acclimatization, and the contributions of the various limbs of the autonomic nervous system on systemic blood pressure, vascular resistance and substrate utilization. His scientific career ended abruptly in 2004 when struck by a car while biking to work, but his legacy remains in his more than 385+ research articles or chapters, the 40+ fellows he trained, and the countless number of younger (and older) scientists for whom he served as a role model for learning how to scrutinize their data and present their findings in clear and sometimes bold prose. An integral man, he is sorely missed.

  15. COMPOSITIONAL EVALUATION OF RAW AND PROCESSED HARMS (Brachystegia eurycoma SEED FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O Aremu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brachystegia eurycoma is predominantly grown in the eastern region of Nigeria. Its seed is used in food majorly as a soup condiment, flavouring agent and soup thickener. The proximate, mineral and amino acid compositions were determined on raw and processed seeds (boiled, fermented and roasted using standard analytical techniques. The processing methods showed deviations in nutrients from the raw seeds. The crude protein was reduced by the processing methods with exception of roasting method. Crude fat was reduced in all the processing methods in this order: Raw > fermented > roasted > boiled samples. All the processing methods enhanced calcium content in this order: Raw < boiled < fermented < roasted samples. Boiling and fermenting reduced the content of magnesium by 72.6 and 30.2%, respectively while boiling, fermenting and roasting increased potassium content by 124.5, 12.2 and 120.4%, respectively. Generally, all the samples were found to be a good source of essential minerals and harmful heavy metals such as lead, chromium, arsenic and cadmium were not at detectable range of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The amino acid profile revealed that amino acids in fermented sample were better concentrated than that of raw and other processed samples. The total essential amino acids (TEAA ranged from 28.63 g/100g crude protein in roasted sample to 34.79 g/100g crude protein in fermented sample. The limiting amino acid (LAA for all the samples was Met + Cys (TSAA.

  16. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Rheedia longifolia Planch & Triana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valber da Silva Frutuoso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheedia longifolia Planch et Triana belongs to the Clusiaceae family. This plant is widely distributed in Brazil, but its chemical and pharmacological properties have not yet been studied. We report here that leaves aqueous extract of R. longifolia (LAE shows analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Oral or intraperitoneal administration of this extract dose-dependently inhibited the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid in mice. The analgesic effect and the duration of action were similar to those observed with sodium diclofenac, a classical non-steroidal analgesic. In addition to the effect seen in the abdominal constriction model, LAE was also able to inhibit the hyperalgesia induced by lipopolysaccharide from gram-negative bacteria (LPS in rats. We also found that R. longifolia LAE inhibited an inflammatory reaction induced by LPS in the pleural cavity of mice. Acute toxicity was evaluated in mice treated with the extract for seven days with 50 mg/kg/day. Neither death, nor alterations in weight, blood leukocyte counts or hematocrit were noted. Our results suggest that aqueous extract from R. longifolia leaves has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity with minimal toxicity and are therefore endowed with a potential for pharmacological control of pain and inflammation.

  17. Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Maria Cristina; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Muscolo, Adele; Freitas, Helena

    2012-06-01

    Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species--Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways. Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. europaeus the effect was not significant. Under salt stress, the root:shoot ratio (W(R):W(S)) and root mass ratio (W(R):W(RS)) increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. longifolia but the same was not observed in U. europaeus. In addition, salt stress caused a significant accumulation of Na+, especially in U. europaeus, and a decrease in K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. longifolia compared to U. europaeus. In A. longifolia, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) activities increased significantly, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities remained unchanged in comparison with the control. In U. europaeus, NaCl concentration significantly reduced APX activity but did not significantly affect CAT, GR and POX activities. Our results suggest that the invasive species copes better with salinity stress in part due to a higher rates of CAT and GR activities and a higher K+/Na+ ratio, which may represent an additional advantage when competing with native species in co-occurring salty habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Jack superpolynomials: physical and combinatorial definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, P.; Mathieu, P.; Lapointe, L.

    2004-01-01

    Jack superpolynomials are eigenfunctions of the supersymmetric extension of the quantum trigonometric Calogero-Moser-Sutherland Hamiltonian. They are orthogonal with respect to the scalar product, dubbed physical, that is naturally induced by this quantum-mechanical problem. But Jack superpolynomials can also be defined more combinatorially, starting from the multiplicative bases of symmetric superpolynomials, enforcing orthogonality with respect to a one-parameter deformation of the combinatorial scalar product. Both constructions turn out to be equivalent. (author)

  19. Quantitative estimation of pulegone in Mentha longifolia growing in Saudi Arabia. Is it safe to use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez; Saleh, Mahmoud Fayez; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad

    2016-03-01

    Our TLC study of the volatile oil isolated from Mentha longifolia showed a major UV active spot with higher Rf value than menthol. Based on the fact that the components of the oil from same plant differ quantitatively due to environmental conditions, the major spot was isolated using different chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic means as pulegone. The presence of pulegone in M. longifolia, a plant widely used in Saudi Arabia, raised a hot debate due to its known toxicity. The Scientific Committee on Food, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate General, European Commission set a limit for the presence of pulegone in foodstuffs and beverages. In this paper we attempted to determine the exact amount of pulegone in different extracts, volatile oil as well as tea flavoured with M. longifolia (Habak) by densitometric HPTLC validated methods using normal phase (Method I) and reverse phase (Method II) TLC plates. The study indicated that the style of use of Habak in Saudi Arabia resulted in much less amount of pulegone than the allowed limit.

  20. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Nikšić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC of essential oil from Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. Aim of this study to investigate the quality, antimicrobial andantioxidant activity of wild species Mentha longifolia essential oil from Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The chemical profi le of essential oil was evaluated by the means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 6bacterial strains. RSC was assessed by measuring the scavenging activity of essential oils on 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH.Results: The main constituents of the essential oil of M. longifoliae folium were oxygenated monoterpenes,piperitone oxide (63.58% and 1,8-cineole (12.03%. Essential oil exhibited very strong antibacterial activity.The most important antibacterial activity essential oil was expressed on Gram negative strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerginosa and Salmonella enterica. subsp.enterica serotype ABONY. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as a RSC. Investigated essential oil was able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPHH form (IC50=10.5 μg/ml and this activity was dose –dependent.Conclusion: The study revealed signifi cant antimicrobial activity of the investigated essential oil. The examined oil exhibited high RSC, which was found to be in correlation to the content of mainly monoterpeneketones and aldehydes. These results indicate that essential oils could serve as safe antioxidant and antiseptic supplements in pharmaceuticals.

  1. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  2. Jack Michael's Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on…

  3. Jack in the Box, Unit 1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In the assignment known as ‘JACK- in-the-box’ the aim is to foster col- laborative situations through man- aging a complex architectural issue. The aim is to conduct an integrat- ed teaching course that extends from an introductory outline pro- cess through to the project devel- opment phase...

  4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of essential oils from Schinus areira L. and Schinus longifolia (Lindl.) Speg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ana P; Gurovic, Maria S Vela; Rodriguez, Silvana A; Murray, María G; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2009-06-01

    The essential oils of Schinus areira L. and S. longifolia (Lindl.) Speg. (Anacardiaceae) have been studied for their in vitro anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was determined by GC-MS. Fruit and leaf oils of S. areira were analyzed separately. The essential oil from S. longifolia elicited marked enzymatic inhibition (IC50 = 20.0 +/- 1.0 microg/mL) and showed radical scavenger activity (IC50 = 25.2 +/- 2.4 microg/mL). The essential oil from S. areira leaves was more active than that of the fruits in both bioassays.

  5. Reproductive aspects of Jack mackerel Trachurus murphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Perea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The time series of monthly gonadosomatic index (GSI and biannual size at first maturity of Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyiNichols 1920 in Peru between 1967 and 2012 is analyzed and discussed. The annual and interannual variation of the reproductive cycle was determined. It is shown that in Peru T. murphyihas a single relatively extended spawning period with a maximum in November each year. It is also shown that for more than four decades T. murphyi has spawned regularly every year in Peruvian waters. The reproductive activity of T. murphyi has a greater variability off Peru and the spawning period has peaks of lesser magnitude but extend longer than observed in the spawning occurring off Chile. The analyses of the sizes at first maturity of Jack mackerel in Peruvian waters did not show significant changes throughout the entire period observed.

  6. Identification of a monopartite begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic of Mentha longifolia in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2018-02-01

    Mentha is a very important crop grown and used extensively for many purposes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted viruses causing serious disease in many important plants exhibiting variable symptoms with significant economic loss globally. During farmers' field survey, yellow vein mosaic disease was observed in Mentha longifolia plants growing near tomato fields in Saudi Arabia. The causative agent was identified in 11 out of 19 samples using begomovirus-specific primers and the association of begomovirus with yellow vein mosaic disease in M. longifolia was confirmed. The full-length viral genome and betasatellite were amplified, cloned, and sequenced bidirectionally. The full DNA-A genome was found to have 2785 nucleotides with 1365 bp-associated betasatellite molecule. An attempt was made to amplify DNA-B, but none of the samples produced any positive amplicon of expected size which indicated the presence of monopartite begomovirus. The sequence identity matrix and phylogenetic analysis, based on full genome showed the highest identity (99.6%) with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and in phylogenetic analysis it formed a closed cluster with Tomato leaf curl virus infecting tomato and Corchorus crop in Saudi Arabia. The sequence analysis results of betasatellites showed the highest identity (98.9%) with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites infecting tomato and phylogenetic analysis using betasatellites formed a close cluster with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites infecting tomato and Corchorus crops, which has already been reported to cause yellow vein mosaic and leaf curl disease in many cultivated and weed crops growing in Saudi Arabia. The identified begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease in mentha could be a mutated strain of TYLCV and tentatively designated as TYLCV-Mentha isolate. Based on published data and latest information, this is the first report of identification of Tomato yellow leaf

  7. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  8. Cytogeography of essential oil chemotypes of Eremophila longifolia F. Muell (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the widely distributed desert plant Eremophila longifolia has at least six geographically defined essential oil chemotypes. The focus of the present study is to extend and enhance information concerning known chemotypes and to investigate the involvement of cell nuclei ploidy in this variation. Forty field collected specimens of E. longifolia were taken from most of the mainland states of Australia then subjected to hydrodistillation to produce essential oils, which were then chemically characterised. Ploidy was determined using relative fluorescence of cell nuclei stained with propidium iodide, measured in a flow cytometer. Using principal component analysis (PCA), at least three essential oil chemotypes, in addition to the six already described, were identified in the present study. Previously described high yielding essential oil chemotypes were also characterised in terms of diploidy. For the first time diploid populations were identified in New South Wales, correlating with high yielding isomenthone/menthone and karahanaenone chemotypes. Furthermore, the separate diploid population previously described from Western Australia was demonstrated to be the safrole/methyl eugenol type, which is restricted to a small geographic range in far north-west Western Australia (Murchison District). All other chemotypes were shown to be tetraploid, including apparently randomly emerging individuals, representative of chemotypes producing low yields of isomenthone/menthone and karahanaenone similar in composition to the high yielding diploid types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Zine, Sandeep Prabhakar; Chaskar, Pratip Kashinath; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves’ ethanolic extract by analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin. PMID:25002804

  10. De vluchtige olie van enkele chemotypen van mentha suaveolens EHRH. en van hybriden met mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hindrik

    1974-01-01

    De opvatting dat Mentha x piperita L. een bastaard zou zijn van Mentha spicata L. en Mentha aquatica L. werd nader besproken. Hierbij werd Mentha spicata beschouwd als een bastaard van Mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON en Mentha suaveolens EHRH. ... Zie: Samenvatting.

  11. Automatic Hydraulic Jack Inbuilt In A Four Wheeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth M. Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With increasing levels of technology efforts being put to increase the comfort and safety. These can be done by implementation of better design. This paper describes Implementation of Automatic hydraulic jack Mechanism in a four wheeler itself. The jack will be powered by the battery. So at a time of puncture to replace the wheel one has to just press the button and the jack which is fitted in the car itself will lift the car.

  12. Effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia on glucose tolerance in normal human subjects and in maturity-onset diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M R; Wickramasinghe, N; Thabrew, M I; Ariyananda, P L; Karunanayake, E H

    1991-03-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effects of hot-water extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves and Asteracanthus longifolia whole plant material on the glucose tolerance of normal human subjects and maturity-onset diabetic patients. The extracts of both Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia significantly improved glucose tolerance in the normal subjects and the diabetic patients when investigated at oral doses equivalent to 20 g/kg of starting material.

  13. Evaluation of the Genotoxic Potential against H2O2-Radical-Mediated DNA Damage and Acute Oral Toxicity of Standardized Extract of Polyalthia longifolia Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used in medicoculturally diverse countries around the world, where it is a part of a time-honoured tradition that is respected even today. Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract has been previously reported as an efficient antioxidant in vitro. Hence, the genotoxic effects of P. longifolia leaf were investigated by using plasmid relation, comet, and Allium cepa assay. In the presence of  ∙OH radicals, the DNA in supercoil was start nicked into open circular form, which is the product of the single-stranded cleavage of supercoil DNA and quantified as fragmented separate bands on agarose gel in plasmid relation assay. In the plasmid relation and comet assay, the P. longifolia leaf extract exhibited strong inhibitory effects against H2O2-mediated DNA damage. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed in the Allium cepa assay. The abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges, and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at the interphase. The results of Allium cepa assay confirmed that the methanol extracts of P. longifolia exerted no significant genotoxic or mitodepressive effects at 100 μg/mL. Thus, this study demonstrated that P. longifolia leaf extract has a beneficial effect against oxidative DNA damage. This experiment is the first report for the protective effect of P. longifolia on DNA damage-induced by hydroxyl radicals. Additionally in acute oral toxicity study, female rats were treated at 5000 mg/kg body weight of P. longifolia leaf extract and observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. P. longifolia leaf extract did not produce any treatment-related toxic effects in rats.

  14. Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia from the Pakistani Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahseen Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6 g/100 g while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50 g/100 g. The essential oil content was found to be 1.07 g/100 g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and β-caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP and total flavonoids (TF contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging ability, bleaching β-carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts.

  15. Transitional Experiences of Post-16 Sports Education: Jack's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, David C. R.; Sparkes, Andrew C.; Brown, David H. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the layered transitional experiences of a semi-professional athlete named Jack (a pseudonym) between the fields of professional sport and further and higher education. Our analysis is framed by the quadripartite framework of structuration and focuses on Jack's "in-situ" practices at his college and university in order…

  16. Prospects and potential of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) J.F. Macbride for nutritional and industrial purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Sangita; Suneja, Poonam; Hussain, Zakir; Abraham, Z.; Mishra, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The oil and fatty acid composition of thirty-seven Madhuca longifolia genotypes growing in 13 districts of Tamil Nadu, India was determined. Considerable variations between genotypes were found for oil content, fatty acid profile, iodine value, saponification value, cetane number and O/L ratio. The total oil content of mahua ranged from 44.4% to 61.5%. The palmitic acid (11.7-25.9%), stearic acid (19.1-32.2%), oleic acid (32.9-48.6%) and linoleic acid (9.4-15.4%) are the major fatty acids found in mahua seeds. Saponification value, iodine value and cetane number ranged from 198.3-202.8, 52.0-68.6 and 58.0-61.6 respectively. The large variability was observed for all the measured parameters. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed study of this kind would help in exploring the potential of mahua for nutritional and industrial purposes.

  17. Isolation and identification of antimicrobial compound from Mentha longifolia L. leaves grown wild in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bayati Firas A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae leaves have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation by the indigenous people of Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In the present study, an antimicrobial compound was isolated and characterized, and its biological activity was assessed. Methods The compound was isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oil using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of the compound was assessed using both disc diffusion and microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Results A known compound was isolated from the essential oil of the plant and was identified as (- menthol. The isolated compound was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against seven selected pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast Candida albicans. Menthol at different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 was active against all tested bacteria except for P. aeruginosa, and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against S. mutans (zone of inhibition: 25.3 mm using the disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration MIC values ranged from 15.6–125.0 μg/ml, and the most promising results were observed against S. aureus and S. mutans (MIC 15.6 μg/ml while, S. faecalis, S. pyogenis and L. acidophilus ranked next (MIC 31.2 μg/ml. Furthermore, menthol achieved considerable antifungal activity against the yeast C. albicans (zone of inhibition range: 7.1–18.5 mm; MIC: 125.0. Conclusion The isolation of an antimicrobial compound from M. longifolia leaves validates the use of this plant in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation.

  18. Quercetin and quercetin 3-O-glycosides from Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. show anti-Mayaro virus activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Alda E; Kuster, Ricardo M; Yamamoto, Kristie A; Salles, Tiago S; Campos, Renata; de Meneses, Marcelo D F; Soares, Márcia R; Ferreira, Davis

    2014-03-28

    The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes 'Mayaro fever', a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. Currently, there are no licensed drugs against most mosquito-transmitted viruses. Here, we investigated the in vitro anti-MAYV activity of the flavonoids quercetin and its derivatives from the Brazilian shrub Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. Flavonoids were purified by chromatographic fractionation from leaf extracts of B. longifolia and chemically identified as quercetin and quercetin glycosides using spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity of purified flavonoids and of EtOAc- and n-BuOH-containing flavonoid mixtures was measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. The following flavonoids were purified from B. longifolia leaves: non-glycosylated quercetin and its glycosides guaijaverin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and hyperin. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions containing these flavonoids demonstrated the highest antiviral activity of all tested substances, while quercetin had the highest antiviral activity amongst purified flavonoids. Quercetin, EtOAc, or n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 25 μg/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. A mixture of the isomers isoquercitrin and hyperin had a modest antiviral effect (IC90 = 104.9), while guaijaverin and quercitrin did not show significant antiviral activity. B. longifolia is a good source of flavonoids with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report of the activity of quercetin and its derivatives against an alphavirus.

  19. Manager's handbook for jack pine in the north central states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Benzie

    1977-01-01

    Provides a key for the resource manager to use in choosing silvicultural practices for the management of jack pine. Control of stand composition, growth, and stand establishment for timber production, water, wildlife, and recreation are discussed.

  20. Generalized Jack and Macdonald polynomials arising from AGT conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the existence and the orthogonality of the generalized Jack symmetric functions which play an important role in the AGT relations. We show their orthogonality by deforming them to the generalized Macdonald symmetric functions.

  1. In conversation with Nobel Laureate Jack Steinberger

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Awarded the 1988 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery of the muon neutrino, Jack Steinberger has been part of the CERN establishment for almost 50 years. He recently celebrated his 90th birthday and can still be found in his CERN office on an almost daily basis. If you happened to have a coffee with him… this is what he would tell you: his recollections, and thoughts about the present and future of particle physics.   I’ve been at CERN for 45 years, and I’ve seen this organisation go through a lot. Experiments have grown significantly and so have the aspirations of particle physics. When I did my thesis 64 years ago, I could do it alone in just 6 months and I could get worldwide interesting results. Now, experiments at CERN are made up of hundreds, if not thousands of people, working for 20 years to get a result. My thesis advisor was Enrico Fermi, and in 1953 – unless it was 1952, I’d done my thesis a few years before - he was asked to be t...

  2. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of stem barks of Coula edulis Baill. Pseudospondias longifolia Engl. and Carapa klaineana Pierre. from Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sima Obiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts of Coula edulis (C. edulis, Pseudospondia longifolia (P. longifolia and Carapa klaineana (C. klaineana. Methods: Presence of total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins was evaluated to estimate the effects of plants on microbial diseases. Water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts were examined for antioxidant activities. All plant extracts were evaluated against six reference strains, eleven clinical isolates and two fungal strains. Results: The contents of total phenols [(12 857.56 ± 1.00 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g], flavonoids [(1 634.13 ± 1.88 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g], tannins [(2 672.00 ± 1.59 mg tannic acid equivalent/100 g] and proanthocyanidins [(395.11 ± 0.83 mg apple procyanidin equivalent/100 g] were highest in the water-acetone and water-ethanol extracts from C. edulis in comparison with P. longifolia and C. klaineana. The water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts from C. edulis presented the highest antimicrobial activities against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103907, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella sp. The tested microorganisms showed sensitivity to all extracts of P. longifolia and C. klaineana with the exception of Shigella dysenteriae CIP 5451, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Conclusions: Our results suggest that C. edulis extracts contain greater antioxidant and antimicrobial properties than P. longifolia and C. klaineana extracts.

  3. Phytochemical Properties of Mentha longifolia L. Essential Oil and its Antimicrobial Effects on Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mahmodi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Due to the side effects of chemical and synthetic preservatives, consumers have recently become more eager to use foods containing natural preservatives from plants, animals and microbial sources. In the present study, biochemical composition and antibacterial effects (MIC of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus have been evaluated. Methods: In this experimental study, the biochemical composition and antibacterial prosperities of this essential oil was determined by the Gas chromatography/ mass spectrophotometer (GC/MS and micro dilution method respectively. The morphological and membrane changes of the bacterial cell under the effect of this essential oil were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using ANOVA. Results: The chemical analysis of the essential oil by Gas chromatography/ mass spectrophotometer (GC/MS revealed the presence of 22 substances (95.30%, mainly including Pulegon (31.54%, 1,8 Cineol (15.89%, Menthoforan (11.8% and Cis- Isopulegon (9.74%. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oil determined under different temperature and pH values showed to be in the range of 75-1200 µg/ ml. Conclusion: The MIC results and membrane cell damage observed in the electron microscopy evaluation indicated that this essential oil have a high antibacterial activity. Therefore, this essential oil can be combined with other agents for the preservation of foods against pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms.

  4. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of the essential oils of Schinus longifolia (Lindl.) speg., Schinus fasciculata (Griseb.) I. M. Johnst., and Schinus areira L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ana P; Frontera, María A; Tomas, María A; Mulet, María C

    2005-01-01

    The essential oil composition from the aerial parts of three Anacardiaceae growing in Bahía Blanca, Argentina was studied by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oils of S. longifolia and S. fasciculata have been studied for the first time. The major constituents were alpha-pinene (46.5%), beta-pinene (15.1%) and alpha-phellandrene (10.1%) for S. longifolia and limonene (10.9%), beta-phellandrene (6.16%) and alpha-phellandrene (5.6%) for S. fasciculata. The major components of the essential oil of S. areira were limonene (28.6%), alpha-phellandrene (10.1%), sabinene (9.2%) and camphene (9.2%) differing from the literature data. The essential oils from S. areira and S. longifolia exhibited a high biotoxicity in a brine shrimp assay with Artemia persimilis.

  5. JACK - ANTHROPOMETRIC MODELING SYSTEM FOR SILICON GRAPHICS WORKSTATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.

    1994-01-01

    JACK is an interactive graphics program developed at the University of Pennsylvania that displays and manipulates articulated geometric figures. JACK is typically used to observe how a human mannequin interacts with its environment and what effects body types will have upon the performance of a task in a simulated environment. Any environment can be created, and any number of mannequins can be placed anywhere in that environment. JACK includes facilities to construct limited geometric objects, position figures, perform a variety of analyses on the figures, describe the motion of the figures and specify lighting and surface property information for rendering high quality images. JACK is supplied with a variety of body types pre-defined and known to the system. There are both male and female bodies, ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentile, based on NASA Standard 3000. Each mannequin is fully articulated and reflects the joint limitations of a normal human. JACK is an editor for manipulating previously defined objects known as "Peabody" objects. Used to describe the figures as well as the internal data structure for representing them, Peabody is a language with a powerful and flexible mechanism for representing connectivity between objects, both the joints between individual segments within a figure and arbitrary connections between different figures. Peabody objects are generally comprised of several individual figures, each one a collection of segments. Each segment has a geometry represented by PSURF files that consist of polygons or curved surface patches. Although JACK does not have the capability to create new objects, objects may be created by other geometric modeling programs and then translated into the PSURF format. Environment files are a collection of figures and attributes that may be dynamically moved under the control of an animation file. The animation facilities allow the user to create a sequence of commands that duplicate the movements of a

  6. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  7. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  8. Scientific rationale for cos lettuce growing technology Lactuca sativa var. longifolia L. in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically validated items of growing technology disclosed for cos lettuce marketable products in the conditions of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Impact of environmental factors onto growth and development of Lactuca sativa var. longifolia L. plants. Sowing terms established for the seed of cos lettuce at field-seeded growing. Development parameters are quoted for plant productivity indices and marketable product indices for cos lettuce of national and foreign breeding. According to VCU characteristics a  typical model has been designed for the cos lettuce indices of suitability for dissemination in Ukraine.

  9. Comparative study of chemistry compositions and antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and oleoresins from dried and fresh Mentha longifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical compositions and antimicrobial potentials of the essential oils and oleoresins obtained from fresh and dried Mentha longifolia L. Methods: Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques were used to determine the profiling of the essential oils and oleoresins. In order to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the volatile oil and oleoresins, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus niger (1884, Aspergillus flavus (2479, Fusarium monoliforme (1893, Fusarium graminearum (2088 and Penicillium viridicatum (2007 were undertaken whereas four pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (1790, Staphylococcus aureus (3103 (Gram-positive, Escherichia coli (1672, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1942 (Gram-negative were selected for the present study. Food poisoned, inverted Petri plate, agar well diffusion and disk diffusion methods were employed for investigating antimicrobial potentials. Results: Piperitenone oxide, an oxygenated monoterpene, dominated the chemical compositions of essential oils and oleoresins whose compositions varied from 23.5%–87.8%. Both essential oils showed good antifungal activities against Aspergillus and Fusarium species. The antibacterial investigations revealed that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oils. Conclusions: Drying the fresh herbal materials influences the chemical contents and the biological activities of the essential oils and oleoresins. Such results indicate that essential oils of Mentha longifolia L. can be possible candidates for further investigations to isolate and characterize their active principles as possible new natural preservatives.

  10. Heritability and intertrait correlations in breeding subpopulations of jack pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1985-01-01

    Twenty breeding populations of jack pine were established in 1979 and 1980 in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Four populations were index populations and were each established at 4 locations by research cooperators. Sixteen populations were applied breeding populations and were established at single locations by public and private cooperators. Combined analysis of...

  11. The Authority and Charismas of Jack Ma's Leadership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希

    2014-01-01

    Jack Ma is the top manager of Ali Baba group, with a strong leadership. He mixes autocratic leadership and charismatic leadership together. The powers he used are from his position, the reward system of the company and the charismas to gain his leading power. In addition, he uses his charismas and his achievements to win the trust of the employees, which develop his leadership.

  12. Book Review: Jack Simons: Teacher, Scholar, Comrade: A Jacana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Jack Simons: Teacher, Scholar, Comrade: A Jacana Pocket Biography. Book Author: Hugh Macmillan. Jacana: Auckland Park, 2016. 167 pp. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  13. Geographic variation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung Oh Hyun

    1977-01-01

    Ten traits were measured on 10-year-old jack pine grown at Cloquet, Minnesota, from seed collected from 90 provenances. The traits were examined by using analysis of variance and computing correlations for all combinations of 9 traits plus latitude , longitude, and elevation of the seed sources and cluster analyses using the D2 values from the...

  14. JACK LONDON ETNÓLOGO AMATEUR DEL PUGILISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available De los relatos que Jack London ha consagrado al boxeo, A Piece of Steak es sin dudas aquel que merece hoy nuestra mayor atención, e incluso un lugar en el panteón de los textos literarios sobre el Noble Arte, y junto a él otros tres títulos...

  15. Functional properties of unmodified and modified Jack bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The native Jack bean (Canavalia eniformis) starch was chemically modified through oxidation and acetylation. Proximate composition analysis revealed higher moisture, protein, fat and ash contents 'native unmodified than modified starches and higher yield in modified starches. Swelling capacity and solubility of all the ...

  16. Recollections of Jack Michael and the Application of Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Jack Michael offered a course on verbal behavior almost every year throughout his teaching career. Jack was also interested in the application of Skinner's work and in 1976 began to offer a graduate course at Western Michigan University titled Verbal Behavior Applications. Jack and his students pursued the application of Skinner's work on verbal…

  17. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  18. Phenolics composition and antidiabetic property of Brachystegia eurycoma seed flur in high-fat diet, low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify some major pharmacologically important flavonoids and phenolic acids in Brachystegia eurycoma seed flour (BESF and evaluate its antidiabetic activity in type 2 diabetic rats. Method: Flavonoids and phenolic acids were quantified using a reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatrography coupled with diode array detection. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats using high-fat diet, low-dose streptozotocin (HFD/STZ model, by feeding the rats with HFD for 2 weeks followed by single dose administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally. The diabetic rats were later fed BESF-supplemented (10% and 20% diets, or administered with metformin (25 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days; the control rats were fed basal diet during this period. After the dietary regimen, the rats were sacrificed, and their blood, liver and pancreas samples were collected for biochemical assays. Results: The flavonoids (catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol and phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic, chlorogenic and ellagic acid were abundant in BESF. BESFsupplemented diets (BESF-SD significantly (P 0.05 with metformin administration in some of the biomarkers. Conclusion: The flavonoids and phenolic acids in BESF may have acted synergistically to produce the observed antidiabetic effects. BESF could therefore be an effective and affordable dietary therapy for the management of T2DM; and an excellent source for drug discovery.

  19. Footprint study in children during the Jack test

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, José Antonio; Saito, Edgar; Lira Neto, Ozório Almeida; Rowinski, Sérgio; Blumetti, Francesco Camara; Dobashi, Eiffel Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar as impressões plantares durante o teste de Jack em crianças quantificando e observando os resultados numa faixa etária crítica para a formação do arco plantar. MÉTODO: Avaliamos 60 crianças brancas (120 pés) sendo 35 meninos e 25 meninas com idades entre 2 e 5 anos, sem queixas ortopédicas. Simulamos o teste de Jack com uma órtese em cunha de 45º apoiada sob o hálux. Obtivemos impressões em apoio monopodálico bilateralmente utilizando um pedígrafo. O exame dividiu-se em dua...

  20. Inflatable Indian travel pillow as a pneumatic patient jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishna A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian travel pillow readily available in the market has been utilized as a patient jack in the operation theatre. This has been used to raise the shoulders of an anaesthetized patient for surgery in the head and neck region and a set of two pillows have been used to prop-up a prone anaesthetized patient. This allows smooth positioning of the patient after intubation without disturbance to the airway with minimal manpower.

  1. Seeing is believing -- SpyJack system investigates field problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, D.

    1998-01-01

    The SpyJack Remote Monitoring System, a stand-alone, single-site remote well monitoring system that works off its own embedded controller is described. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) unit, developed by CORE Technologies Inc., has an integrated voice/alarm system, monitoring sensors installed at remote well sites continuously 24 hours a day with a digital camera, with 300 degrees of visual confirmation capability. It can also be used as a surveillance tool against terrorism as has been shown in the case of some recent debilitating attacks on remote wells in Alberta. SpyJack monitors flow rates and pressures, pumpjack stroke rates, sucker rod temperature, load cell and engine shut-off relay, as well as ambient temperature, tank levels, and motion detection. At the office, SpyJack Well Management Interface uses nine drop-down screens to take users through the remote monitoring and control of each site. The screens include production sensors, line sensors, dyno chart, environmental/safety sensors and sensor information and set up. Currently under development is the unsolicited dial-out capability. When implemented the system will send out information at pre-determined times, such as every four hours, or at specific times during the day. Compressing images to enable speedier downloading is also being planned

  2. Evaluation of Continuous VNIR-SWIR Spectra versus Narrowband Hyperspectral Indices to Discriminate the Invasive Acacia longifolia within a Mediterranean Dune Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Große-Stoltenberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing is an effective tool to discriminate plant species, providing vast potential to trace plant invasions for ecological assessments. However, necessary baseline information for the use of remote sensing data is missing for many high-impact invaders. Furthermore, the identification of the suitable classification algorithms and spectral regions for successfully classifying species remains an open field of research. Here, we tested the separability of the invasive tree Acacia longifolia from adjacent exotic and native vegetation in a Natura 2000 protected Mediterranean dune ecosystem. We used continuous visible, near-infrared and short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR data as well as vegetation indices at the leaf and canopy level for classification, comparing five different classification algorithms. We were able to successfully distinguish A. longifolia from surrounding vegetation based on vegetation indices. At the leaf level, radial-basis function kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM and Random Forest (RF achieved both a high Sensitivity (SVM: 0.83, RF: 0.78 and a high Positive Predicted Value (PPV (0.86, 0.83. At the canopy level, RF was the classifier with an optimal balance of Sensitivity (0.75 and PPV (0.75. The most relevant vegetation indices were linked to the biochemical parameters chlorophyll, water, nitrogen, and cellulose as well as vegetation cover, which is in line with biochemical and ecophysiological properties reported for A. longifolia. Our results highlight the potential to use remote sensing as a tool for an early detection of A. longifolia in Mediterranean coastal ecosystems.

  3. Investigation of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and M. longifolia (L.) L. subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley Decoction and Infusion

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZER, Züleyha

    2018-01-01

    In present study, we report phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of decoctionand infusion of Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicataand M. longifolia (L.) L. subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley. The quantitativeamounts of the phenolic contents were determined by LC-MS/MS.  The main compounds and amounts of M. spicata weredetermined as follow for decoction; caffeic acid, quercetagetin-3,6-dimethyletherand penduletin (4126.6; 2141.5; 1472.7 mg/kg dried herba, respectively), for infusion;fumaric aci...

  4. Students Learning Physics While Lifting Themselves: A Simple Analysis of a Scissors Jack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2017-01-01

    Every time I have to jack up my car, I am a bit surprised by how slowly the scissors jack works the higher I raise it, and close to maximum height I need very little force to turn the crank. This agrees well with the principle of simple machines. Since I have to jack up my car at least twice a year to change between winter tires and summer tires,…

  5. Visit at PFAFF Silberblau for follow -up of mechanical jacks fabrication for HF

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig

    2000-01-01

    The HF detctor is sitting on either side of the CMS experiment at a height of the beam, 8.79m This detector weighs 220 tons will be lifted in 4 steps on its working position. 4 mechanical jacks with 100t force each will act on each corner of rectangle of 5600mm x 3200mm. The individual main pieces of the jacks are shown here. Next step is the assembly of the jacks by putting together housing, groundplate, spindle, gear, worm gear etc. Delivery of the first 4 jacks in dec.2000

  6. The influence of musical cadence into aquatic jumping jacks kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mário J; Oliveira, Cristiana; Teixeira, Genoveva; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between the head-out aquatic exercise "Jumping jacks" kinematics and the musical cadence in healthy and fit subjects. Five young women, with at least one year of experience conducting head- out aquatic programs were videotaped in the frontal plane, with a pair of cameras providing a double projection (above and below the water surface). Subjects performed an incremental protocol of five bouts (120 b·min(-1), 135 b·min(-1), 150 b·min(-1), 165 b·min(-1) and 180 b·min(-1)) with 16 full cycles of the "Jumping jacks" exercise. Data processing and calculation of upper limbs' (i.e. hands), lower limbs' (i.e. feet) and center of mass' 2D linear velocity and displacement were computed with the software Ariel Performance Analysis System and applying the 2D-DLT algorithm. Subjects decreased the cycle period during the incremental protocol. Significant and negative relationships with the musical cadence were verified for the center of mass and upper limbs vertical displacement. On the other hand, for the lower limbs lateral velocity, a significant and positive relationship was observed. It is concluded that expert and fit subjects increase the lower limb's velocity to maintain the range of motion, while the upper limb's displacement is reduced to coupe the music cadence. Key pointsWhile performing the Jumping Jacks, expert and fit subjects increase their lower limbs segmental velocity to maintain the range of motion.The upper limbs displacement is reduced to maintain the music cadence.Expert and fit subjects present similar response for alternating or simultaneously head-out aquatic exercises when increasing the music cadence.

  7. Forest Modeling of Jack Pine Trees for BOREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghhadam, Mahta; Saatchi, Sasan

    1994-01-01

    As a part of the intensive field campaign for the Boreal forest ecosystem-atmosphere research (BOREAS) project in August 1993, the NASA/JPL AIRSAR covered an area of about 100 km by 100 km near the Prince Albert National Park in Saskatchewan, Canada. At the same time, ground-truth measurements were made in several stands which have been selected as the primary study sites, as well as in some auxiliary sites. This paper focuses on an area including Jack Pine stands in the Nipawin area near the park.

  8. Destructive Cholangitis in an Adult Jack Russell Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kodama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old female Jack Russell terrier dog exhibited vomiting and severe jaundice of the visible mucous membranes and skin. Ultrasonography revealed diffuse areas of high echogenicity and focal areas of low echogenicity in the left lobe of the liver. On macroscopic observation of the biopsied liver specimen, many scattered irregularly shaped red spots were observed on the liver surface and on the cut surface. Histopathologically, there was loss of the interlobular bile duct and cholangitis accompanied by infiltration of pigment-laden macrophages in the Glisson’s capsule. Therefore, in the present case the dog was diagnosed with destructive cholangitis.

  9. CoJACK: A High-Level Cognitive Architecture with Demonstrations of Moderators, Variability, and Implications for Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    defined, to CoJACK (Ritter, Reifers, Klein, & Schoelles, 2007) based on task appraisal theory (e.g., Cannon, 1932; Lazarus & Folkman , 1984; Selye...Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Lazarus , R. S., & Folkman , S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer Publishing. Lovett, M. C., Daily, L...promising. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Java JACK Default CoJack CoJack Caffeine CoJack Challenged CoJack Threatened Agent Type Ta n k s D es tr o y e d

  10. Comparison of Sparse and Jack-knife partial least squares regression methods for variable selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karaman, Ibrahim; Qannari, El Mostafa; Martens, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two different techniques of variable selection, Sparse PLSR and Jack-knife PLSR, with respect to their predictive ability and their ability to identify relevant variables. Sparse PLSR is a method that is frequently used in genomics, whereas Jack-knife PL...

  11. Using Black Light to Find Jack-Pine Budworm Egg Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel T. Jennings

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine foliage infested with jack-pine budworm egg masses was examined under two kinds of light -- black light and a combination of natural and fluorescent light. Black light significantly increased the accuracy of count but not the efficiency of examination.

  12. Investigating the Jack the Ripper Case: Engaging Students in a Criminal Investigations Class through Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Kazmi, Syed

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the utilization of a class project involving the Jack the Ripper murders. Students enrolled in a criminal investigations class were required to investigate the five canonical murders associated with the infamous serial killer known as Jack the Ripper and the murders that occurred in London during 1888. This paper…

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Cholinesterase Inhibitory and Antimicrobial Properties of Mentha longifolia subsp. noeana and Its Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulselam Ertaş

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds, the essential oil and fatty acid compositions of Mentha longifolia subsp. noeana with their biological activities. Ursolic acid (1, u vaol (2, stigmast-5-ene-3 b -yl formate (3, stigmast-5-en-3-one (4, b -sitosterol (5, bis(2-ethylhexyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate (6,hexacosyl (E-ferulate (7 and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxy flavone (8 were obtained from the aerial parts. The compounds (2-4, 6, 7 were isolated for the first time from a Mentha species. Palmitic acid (40.8% was the major component of the non-polar fraction obtained from the petroleum ether extract. Pulegone (32.3% was the main constituent of the essential oil which exhibited strong butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (77.36 ± 0.29%, moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The methanol extract showed 80% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the acetone extract possessed moderate DPPH free radical scavenging activity (60% inhibition at 100 m g/mL.

  14. A comparison Comparison between analgesic effects of aqueous ethanolic extract of mentha longifolia and morphine in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Paknia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Long-term consumption of many drugs followed by reduction of their effectiveness has necessitated performing research on new analgesics .Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effects of mentha longifolia and morphine in mice using writhing and hot plate tests. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 70 male rats were divided into 7 equal groups. The groups included the control, three experimental groups receiving 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg of mentha extract and three experimental groups which received 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of morphine .In order to measure pain, the two acceptable tests, writhing and hot plate tests, were applied. Pain scores were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45 or 60 min after administration of algogenic stimulus. Results: It was found that in hot plate test, only the dose of 1600mg/kg of Mentha extract after 60 minutes was significantly able to exert an analgesic effect (P<0.05. In wrighting test, mentha extract at different doses significantly reduced the number and time of wrightes in the rats, comparable to morphine (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that all doses of mentha extract in wrighting test have analgesic effects which indicate chronic pain inhibition of mentha hydroalcholic extract.

  15. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Polyalthia longifolia Leaf Extract along with D-Sorbitol: Study of Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaviya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract as reducing and capping agent along with D-sorbitol used to increase the stability of the nanoparticles has been reported. The reaction is carried out at two different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−4 M of silver nitrate, and the effect of temperature on the synthesis of AgNPs is investigated by stirring at room temperature (25°C and at 60°C. The UV-visible spectra of NPs showed a blue shift with increasing temperature at both concentrations. FT-IR analysis shows that the biomoites played an important role in the reduction of Ag+ ions and the growth of AgNPs. TEM results were utilized for the determination of the size and morphology of nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles are found to be highly toxic against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.

  16. The characters God and Hamlet by Jack Miles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania de Fátima da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the book “God - A Biography,” Jack Miles aims to introduce ourselves Creator-God as a literary character. Miles developed a narrative based on concept aristotelian, in other words, the structure of the work is made from beginning to end. This procedure established a harmony arising from the interaction between the parties, which contributes to scrutinize the precise details of the story of the main protagonist. We decided to highlight that time some characteristics of the main character of the work and compare them to the character Hamlet, by William Shakespeare, because from the beginning of the narrative to completion Miles calls the reader’s attention to the play Shakespeare.

  17. Applying the vantage PDMS to jack-up drilling ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Chen, Yuan-Ming; Cui, Tong-Kai; Wang, Zi-Shen; Gong, Li-Jiang; Yu, Xiang-Fen

    2009-09-01

    The plant design management system (PDMS) is an integrated application which includes a database and is useful when designing complex 3-D industrial projects. It could be used to simplify the most difficult part of a subsea oil extraction project—detailed pipeline design. It could also be used to integrate the design of equipment, structures, HVAC, E-ways as well as the detailed designs of other specialists. This article mainly examines the applicability of the Vantage PDMS database to pipeline projects involving jack-up drilling ships. It discusses the catalogue (CATA) of the pipeline, the spec-world (SPWL) of the pipeline, the bolt tables (BLTA) and so on. This article explains the main methods for CATA construction as well as problem in the process of construction. In this article, the authors point out matters needing attention when using the Vantage PDMS database in the design process and discuss partial solutions to these questions.

  18. A possible role of partially pyrolysed essential oils in Australian Aboriginal traditional ceremonial and medicinal smoking applications of Eremophila longifolia (R. Br.) F. Muell (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, N J; Jones, G L

    2013-06-03

    Eremophila longifolia is one of the most respected of the traditional medicines used by Australian Aboriginal people. Customary use involves smoldering the leaves over hot embers of a fire to produce an acrid smoke, believed to have therapeutic effects broadly consistent with antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory capacity. The current study aims to examine the contribution of partially pyrolysed and non-pyrolysed essential oils in traditional usage of Eremophila longifolia. Non-pyrolysed and partially pyrolysed essential oils were produced by hydrodistillation and part-wet/part-dry distillation, respectively. All samples were tested for antimicrobial activity by broth dilution. Some of these samples were further treated to an incrementally stepped temperature profile in a novel procedure employing a commercial thermocycler in an attempt to mimic the effect of temperature gradients produced during smoking ceremonies. Components from the pyrodistilled oils were compared with the non-pyrodistilled oils, using GC-MS, GC-FID and HPLC-PAD. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, was used to compare free radical scavenging ability. Partially pyrolysed oils had approximately three or more times greater antimicrobial activity, enhanced in cultures warmed incrementally to 60°C and held for 30s and further enhanced if held for 2 min. Partially pyrolysed oils showed a radical scavenging capacity 30-700 times greater than the corresponding non-pyrolysed oils. HPLC-PAD revealed the presence of additional constituents not present in the fresh essential oil. These results, by showing enhanced antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, provide the first known Western scientific justification for the smoking ceremonies involving leaves of Eremophila longifolia. During customary use, both partially pyrolysed as well as non-pyrolysed essential oils may contribute significantly to the overall intended medicinal effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  19. Why so many flowers? A preliminary assessment of mixed pollination strategy enhancing sexual reproduction of the invasive Acacia longifolia in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovanetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia longifolia, a native legume from Australia, has been introduced in many European countries and elsewhere, thus becoming one of the most important global invasive species. In Europe, its flowering occurs in a period unsuitable for insect activity: nonetheless it is considered entomophilous. Floral traits of this species are puzzling: brightly coloured and scented as liked by insects, but with abundant staminate small-sized flowers and relatively small pollen grains, as it is common in anemophilous species. Invasion processes are especially favoured when reshaping local ecological networks, thus the interest in understanding pollination syndromes associated with invasive plant species that may facilitate invasiveness. Moreover, a striking difference exists between its massive flowering and relatively poor seed set. We introduced a novel approach: first, we consider the possibility that a part of the pollination success is carried on by wind and, second, we weighted the ethological perspective of the main pollinator. During the flowering season of A. longifolia (February–April 2016, we carried on exclusion experiments to detect the relative contribution of insects and wind. While the exclusion experiments corroborated the need for pollen vectors, we actually recorded a low abundance of insects. The honeybee, known pollinator of acacias, was relatively rare and not always productive in terms of successful visits. While wind contributed to seed set, focal observations confirmed that honeybees transfer pollen when visiting both the inflorescences to collect pollen and the extrafloral nectaries to collect nectar. The mixed pollination strategy of A. longifolia may then be the basis of its success in invading Portugal's windy coasts.

  20. A-jacks and Aquawrap installations in Utah : scour revetment performance evaluation, final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This is a performance evaluation report for A-Jacks, an articulated concrete block designed to protect bridge elements exposed to the river scouring forces, and for Aquawrap, a glass fiber reinforced polymer designed to protect and strengthen bridge ...

  1. Léon Lederman, Mel Schwartz and Jack Steinberger wre awarded the 1988 Nobel Physics Prize.

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1988-01-01

    Léon Lederman (left), Mel Schwartz (right) and Jack Steinberger were awarded the 1988 Nobel Physics Prize for their 1962 experiment at Brookhaven which showed that neutrinos come in more than one kind.

  2. TOPOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND MOBILITY OF THE MECHANISMS USED IN CAR MECHANICAL JACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica VELIȘCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a structural analysis of the mechanism of high topological type jack - screw and translator rectilinear- patina and mobility mechanism analysis using various generally applicable formulas.

  3. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, J.E.; Wineman, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    A jacking mechanism for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns each have a pin which rides in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring the locking plates into engagement with the housing in a raised or a lowered position of the support column such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball screw jacks. (author)

  4. Teistsugune vaade juhtide tasustamisele / Jack Welch, Suzy Welch ; intervjueerinud Stefan Eiselin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Welch, Jack

    2010-01-01

    USA juhtimisspetsialistide Jack ja Suzy Welchi hinnangul võib tippjuhtidele makstava palga ümber kerkinud poleemika üks võimalikke põhjuseid lisaks halvale kommunikatsioonile olla ka ideoloogiate kokkusobimatus

  5. Topological color codes on Union Jack lattices: a stable implementation of the whole Clifford group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Bombin, H.; Andrist, Ruben S.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the error threshold of topological color codes on Union Jack lattices that allow for the full implementation of the whole Clifford group of quantum gates. After mapping the error-correction process onto a statistical mechanical random three-body Ising model on a Union Jack lattice, we compute its phase diagram in the temperature-disorder plane using Monte Carlo simulations. Surprisingly, topological color codes on Union Jack lattices have a similar error stability to color codes on triangular lattices, as well as to the Kitaev toric code. The enhanced computational capabilities of the topological color codes on Union Jack lattices with respect to triangular lattices and the toric code combined with the inherent robustness of this implementation show good prospects for future stable quantum computer implementations.

  6. An experimental study of the mechanism of failure of rocks under borehole jack loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, T. K.; Goodman, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests with an experimental jack and an NX-borehole jack are reported. The following conclusions were made: Under borehole jack loading, a circular opening in a brittle solid fails by tensile fracturing when the bearing plate width is not too small. Two proposed contact stress distributions can explain the mechanism of tensile fracturing. The contact stress distribution factor is a material property which can be determined experimentally. The borehole tensile strength is larger than the rupture flexural strength. Knowing the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stress field, borehole jack test results can be used to determine the borehole tensile strength. Knowing the orientation of the in situ stress field and the flexural strength of the rock substance, the magnitude of the in situ stress components can be calculated. The detection of very small cracks is essential for the accurate determination of the failure loads which are used in the calculation of strengths and stress components.

  7. JackEx: The new digital manufacturing resource for optimization of Exoskeleton-based factory environments

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, Carmen; Mureșan, Paul Cristian; Simon, Gabriel-Marian

    2016-01-01

    The employment of Exoskeletons for manual handling work in manufacturing industries aims at increased employment, productivity, safety and security at workplace. This paper highlights several challenges, current results and future steps of our work in optimization of Exoskeleton based factory environments. “JackEx” is the enhancement of the standard digital humanoid “Jack” with concepts and elements of passive Exoskeletons. For the development of JackEx, a new digital manufacturing resource, ...

  8. A Group Interview about Publishing with Professor Jack Zipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Louise Parfitt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The conversation piece is the product of a group interview with Professor Jack Zipes and provides useful insights about publishing for early career researchers across disciplines. Based on his wider experiences as academic and writer, Professor Zipes answered questions from PhD researchers about: writing books, monographs and edited collections; turning a PhD thesis into a monograph; choosing and approaching publishers; and the advantages of editing books and translations. It presents some general advice for writing and publishing aimed at postgraduate students. Professor Zipes is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities, United States, a world expert on fairy tales and storytelling highlighting the social and historical dimensions of them. Zipes has forty years of experience publishing academic and mass-market books, editing anthologies, and translating work from French, German and Italian. His best known books are Breaking the Magic Spell (1979, Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion (1983, The Irresistible Fairy Tale: The Cultural and Social History of a Genre (2012, and The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm (2014.

  9. Multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.R.; Crawford, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    A multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism is described for controlling a nuclear reactor comprising: an elongate pressure housing; closely-spaced drive rods located in the pressure housing, the drive rod being connected to a reactor rod which is insertable in a reactor core; electrochemical stationary latch means which are selectively actuatable for holding a respective one of the drive rods stationary with respect to the pressure housing, the plurality of stationary latch means including at least one coil located about the pressure housing; longitudinally spaced electromechanical movable latch means, individually associated with one of the drive rods and each including a base for the drive rod associated therewith, for, when actuated, holding the associated drive rod stationary with respect to the base associated therewith, the movable latch means including an associated coil located about the pressure housing; and longitudinally spaced electromechanical lift means, individually associated with the base, for, when actuated, moving an associated base longitudinally along the pressure housing from a first position to a second position to thereby enable movement of one or more of the other drive rods longitudinally independently of the other drive rods in response to sequential and repeated operation of the electromechanical means, the lift means including an associated coil located about the pressure housing

  10. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, J.E.; Wineman, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    A jacking mechanism is described for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns have a pin structure which rides up and down in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring bolt holes through the locking plates into alignment with a set of bolt holes in the housing, there being a set of such housing bolt holes corresponding to both a raised and a lowered position of the support column. When the locking plate is so aligned, a surface of the locking plate mates with a surface in the housing such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball jacks. Since the locking plates are to be installed and bolted to the housing during periods of reactor operation, the ball jacks need not be sized to react the large forces which occur or potentially could occur on the upper internals structure of the reactor during operation. The locking plates react these loads. The ball jacks, used only during refueling, can be smaller, which enable conventionally available equipment to fulfill the precision requirements for the task within available space

  11. Isolation and characterisation of (-)-genifuranal: the principal antimicrobial component in traditional smoking applications of Eremophila longifolia (Scrophulariaceae) by Australian aboriginal peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Jones, Graham Lloyd; Greatrex, Ben William

    2014-07-03

    Eremophila longifolia is considered by some Australian Aboriginal tribal groups to be among the most significant of the medicinal plants in contemporary and traditional use. Usage modalities traditionally involved lipophilic extraction into animal fats and most importantly, ceremonial or medicinal smoking applications, involving the fumigation of mothers and infants following childbirth or boys following circumcision. An attempt was made to replicate the smoking modalities used by Australian Aboriginal people in the laboratory to identify bioactive compounds. Two methods were used to produce smoke extracts; smoke was channelled through a condenser then bubbled into solvent, or bubbled directly into H2O then partitioned into chloroform followed by butanol. Extracts were used, firstly for antimicrobial screening using micro-titre plate broth dilution to produce minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), and secondly for chemical analysis. Structure elucidation of an abundant compound isolated from the smoke extract was performed using 2D-NMR and derivatisation. Significant antimicrobial activity (<1.0 mg/ml) was produced using the smoke extracts against the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and the yeast Candida albicans. A major component of the smoke with strong antimicrobial activity (0.13-0.5 mg/ml) was isolated which we have named (-)-genifuranal. Structure elucidation using 2D-NMR and derivatisation demonstrated genifuranal to be 5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[c]furan-4-ylacetaldehyde. Genifuranal is not observed in the leaves before heating, but is produced in the smoking or heating process and is thought to derive from hydrolysis and rearrangement of geniposidic acid or a related glycoside. Only geographically specific specimens of Eremophila longifolia produced (-)-genifuranal, which strongly supports previous hypothesised geographical variation in traditional usage, reflective of phytochemical variation. It would appear that

  12. Stress analysis of jacks, frame and bearing connections, and drill rod for core sampler truck No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis evaluates the structural design adequacy of several components and connections for the rotary mode core sampler truck (RMCST) No. 2. This analysis was requested by the Characterization Equipment Group (WHC 1994a). The components addressed in this report are listed below: front jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; rear jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; center outrigger jacks and connection to the truck chassis; lower frame assembly and connection to the truck chassis; bolt connections for bearing plate assembly (for path of maximum load); traverse slide brackets and mounting of the traverse jack cylinders; and drill rod (failure loads)

  13. Black-tailed jack rabbit movements and habitat utilization at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    In June 1982, a study of black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) ecology was initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This study will provide data necessary to evaluate the role of jack rabbits in radionuclide transport away from the Subsurface Disposal Area of the RWMC. Primary goals are to document radionuclide concentrations in jack rabbit tissues, and determine population size, movement patterns, habitat use, and food habits of jack rabbits inhabiting the RWMC area. Study design and prelimianry results are discussed

  14. Polyalthia longifolia Methanolic Leaf Extracts (PLME) induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial potential depolarization by possibly modulating the redox status in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Oon, Chern Ein; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2017-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been accepted as a gold mine, with respect to the diversity of their phytochemicals. Many medicinal plants extracts are potential anticancer agents. Polyalthia longifolia var. angustifolia Thw. (Annonaceae) is one of the most significant native medicinal plants and is found throughout Malaysia. Hence, the present study was intended to assess the anticancer properties of P. longifolia leaf methanolic extract (PLME) and its underlying mechanisms. The Annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis showed that PLME induces apoptosis in HeLa cells in dose-dependent manner whereas the PI flow cytometric analysis for cell cycle demonstrated the accumulation of cells at sub G0/G1, G0/G1 and G2/M phases. Investigation with JC-1 flow cytometry analysis indicated increase in mitochondria membrane potential depolarisation corresponding to increase in PLME concentrations. PLME was also shown to influence intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by exerting anti-oxidant (half IC 50 ) and pro-oxidant (IC 50 and double IC 50 ) affect against HeLa cells. PLME treatment also displayed DNA damage in HeLa cells in concentration depended fashion. The proteomic profiling array exposed the expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins upon PLME treatment at IC 50 concentration in HeLa cells. Pro-apoptotic proteins; BAX, BAD, cytochrome c, caspase-3, p21, p27 and p53 were found to be significantly up-regulated while anti-apoptotic proteins; BCL-2 and BCL-w were found to be significantly down-regulated. This investigation postulated the role of p53 into mediating apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial potential depolarisation by modulating the redox status of HeLa cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. An Analytical Method for Jack-Up Riser’s Fatigue Life Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengde Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine whether a special sea area and its sea state are available for the jack-up riser with surface blowout preventers, an analytical method is presented to estimate the jack-up riser’s wave loading fatigue life in this study. In addition, an approximate formula is derived to compute the random wave force spectrum of the small-scale structures. The results show that the response of jack-up riser is a narrow band random vibration. The infinite water depth dispersion relation between wavenumber and wave frequency can be used to calculate the wave force spectrum of small-scale structures. The riser’s response mainly consists of the additional displacement response. The fatigue life obtained by the formula proposed by Steinberg is less than that of the Bendat method.

  16. The Bildungsroman Tradition: The Philosophical Maturation of Jack Burden in All the King’s Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam M. Al-Shraah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to sketch out the transformation that Jack Burden—the main character in the novel—had gone through. With all the political leanings in Warren’s All the king’s Men, Jack burden seems to have had developed his own theories of dealing with life and people all through his life. He has always suffered an inferiority complex, rendering himself unworthy of being a real human being. This paper claims that Jack’s philosophical transformation has passed through three distinct phases; he had changed from a carefree idealist to a man of moral responsibility much similar to a Bildungsroman style of character maturation. Difficult times that Jack Burden has gone through caused his awakening at the end of the novel ushering his maturation

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2009-01-01

    Jack bean urease was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.05 Å resolution. Plant urease is a seed protein that is common in most legumes. It is also common in many bacteria and fungi and several species of yeast. Urease allows organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source by catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urease from jack bean meal was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving acetone precipitation and size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. The jack bean urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.05 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 3 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 138.57, c = 198.36 Å

  18. Spin-singlet quantum Hall states and Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estienne, Benoit; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We show that a large class of bosonic spin-singlet Fractional Quantum Hall model wavefunctions and their quasihole excitations can be written in terms of Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry. Our approach describes new spin-singlet quantum Hall states at filling fraction ν=(2k)/(2r-1) and generalizes the (k,r) spin-polarized Jack polynomial states. The NASS and Halperin spin-singlet states emerge as specific cases of our construction. The polynomials express many-body states which contain configurations obtained from a root partition through a generalized squeezing procedure involving spin and orbital degrees of freedom. The corresponding generalized Pauli principle for root partitions is obtained, allowing for counting of the quasihole states. We also extract the central charge and quasihole scaling dimension, and propose a conjecture for the underlying CFT of the (k,r) spin-singlet Jack states.

  19. Estudo da impressão plantar obtida durante o teste de Jack em crianças Footprint study in children during the Jack test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as impressões plantares durante o teste de Jack em crianças quantificando e observando os resultados numa faixa etária crítica para a formação do arco plantar. MÉTODO: Avaliamos 60 crianças brancas (120 pés sendo 35 meninos e 25 meninas com idades entre 2 e 5 anos, sem queixas ortopédicas. Simulamos o teste de Jack com uma órtese em cunha de 45º apoiada sob o hálux. Obtivemos impressões em apoio monopodálico bilateralmente utilizando um pedígrafo. O exame dividiu-se em duas etapas: com e sem o uso da órtese. A metodologia de Valenti e Volpon foi utilizada para mensurar as impressões plantares e os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Os valores dos índices de Valenti e Volpon diminuiram quando a órtese foi utilizada. A diferença entre os índices com ou sem órtese diminuiu gradualmente com a progressão etária. CONCLUSÕES: É possível quantificar o teste de Jack pelwas impressões plantares pelo método de Valenti e Volpon. A variação do seu formato apresentou tendência a ser menor a partir dos 4 anos. O teste de Jack perdeu gradativamente a capacidade de modificar a impressão plantar com a idade, diminuindo sua acuidade como parâmetro de bom prognóstico na formação do arco longitudinal medial. Nível de Evidência: Nível IV, estudo descritivo observacional.OBJECTIVE: To assess the plantar impressions obtained in children during the Jack test, with the aim of quantifying and analyzing their variability in the critical period for plantar foot arch formation. METHOD: A hundred and twenty feet from 60 healthy White children, recruited in an outpatient pediatric clinic, were examined. Our sample included 35 boys and 25 girls, ranging from 2 to 5 years. The Jack test was simulated using a 45o wedge-shaped orthosis applied to the hallux. Bilateral plantar impressions were acquired in the alternate single-foot standing position using a pedigraph. Two plantar impressions were

  20. Modeling of the Jacked Pile Static Load Test with PLAX 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautvydas Statkus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article jacked pile installation technology and its current processes, altering the base physical and mechanical characteristics are discussed. For the jacked pile static load test simulation Plax 3D software was selected, the opportunities and developments were described. Model building, materials, models, model geometry, finite elements, boundary conditions and assumptions adopted in addressing problems described in detail. Three different tasks formulated and load-settlement dependence a comparison of the results with the experiment given. Conclusions are formulated according to the modeling results.

  1. Jack Michael's Musings on the 60th Anniversary of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Barbara E.; Esch, John W.; Palmer, David C.

    2017-01-01

    When the B. F. Skinner Foundation reprinted Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" in 1992, Jack Michael wrote one of its two forewords, a detailed outline of the book's purpose and scope. On the 60th anniversary of the first publication (1957) of "Verbal Behavior", Jack reflects on the book's impact and its importance to the…

  2. Structure and biomass production of one- to seven-year-old intensively cultured jack pine plantation in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Zavitkovski; David H. Dawson

    1978-01-01

    Spacing and rotation length effects were studied for 7 years in intensively cultured jack pine stands. Production culminated at age 5 in the densest planting and progressively later in more open spacing. Biomass production was two to several times higher than in jack pine plantations grown under traditional silvicultural systems.

  3. Jack Mezirow's Conceptualisation of Adult Transformative Learning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Colin

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of Jack Mezirow's transformative learning theory and its conceptualisation. It discusses the three major influences, namely Thomas Khun's philosophical conception of paradigm, Freire's conception of conscientisation and consciousness growth, and Habermas' domains of learning and the discussion of…

  4. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  5. Height and seasonal growth pattern of jack pine full-sib families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1981-01-01

    Total tree height, seasonal shoot elongation, dates of growth initiation and cessation, and mean daily growth rate were measured and analyzed for a population of jack pine full-sib families derived from inter-provenance crosses. Parental provenance had no effect on these variables although this may have been due to small sample size. Progenies differed significantly...

  6. Asymptotic theory of generalized estimating equations based on jack-knife pseudo-observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Pedersen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A general asymptotic theory of estimates from estimating functions based on jack-knife pseudo-observations is established by requiring that the underlying estimator can be expressed as a smooth functional of the empirical distribution. Using results in p-variation norms, the theory is applied...

  7. Is the lateral jack-knife position responsible for cases of transient neurapraxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinares, Diana Margarita; Davis, Timothy T; Fung, Daniel A; Liu, John Chung-Liang; Clark, Stephen; Daily, David; Mok, James M

    2016-01-01

    The lateral jack-knife position is often used during transpsoas surgery to improve access to the spine. Postoperative neurological signs and symptoms are very common after such procedures, and the mechanism is not adequately understood. The objective of this study is to assess if the lateral jack-knife position alone can cause neurapraxia. This study compares neurological status at baseline and after positioning in the 25° right lateral jack-knife (RLJK) and the right lateral decubitus (RLD) position. Fifty healthy volunteers, ages 21 to 35, were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group A (RLD) and Group B (RLJK). Motor and sensory testing was performed prior to positioning. Subjects were placed in the RLD or RLJK position, according to group assignment, for 60 minutes. Motor testing was performed immediately after this 60-minute period and again 60 minutes thereafter. Sensory testing was performed immediately after the 60-minute period and every 15 minutes thereafter, for a total of 5 times. Motor testing was performed by a physical therapist who was blinded to group assignment. A follow-up call was made 7 days after the positioning sessions. Motor deficits were observed in the nondependent lower limb in 100% of the subjects in Group B, and no motor deficits were seen in Group A. Statistically significant differences (p knife positioning for 60 minutes results in neurapraxia of the nondependent lower extremity. Our results support the hypothesis that jack-knife positioning alone can cause postoperative neurological symptoms.

  8. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-18

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the essay, Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague.  Created: 11/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/20/2014.

  9. Mosaic Stunting in jack pine seedlings in a northern Michigan bareroot nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette Potvin; R. Kasten Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Dana Richter

    2010-01-01

    Mosaic, or patchy, stunting of bareroot conifer seedlings is thought to be caused by deficiencies of mycorrhizal fungi following fumigation, resulting in reduced nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorus. Mosaic stunting of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings was observed in 2005 at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. We initiated a study to...

  10. Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushikubo, Takayuki; Kita, Noriko T.; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Valley, John W.

    2008-08-01

    In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60 ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios ( δ7Li = - 19 to + 13‰) about five times more variable than those recorded in primitive ocean floor basalts (2 to 8‰), but similar to continental crust and its weathering products. Values of δ7Li below - 10‰ are found in zircons that formed as early as 4300 Ma. The high Li compositions indicate that primitive magmas were not the source of Jack Hills zircons and the fractionated values of δ7Li suggest that highly weathered regolith was sampled by these early Archean magmas. These new Li data provide evidence that the parent magmas of ancient zircons from Jack Hills incorporated materials from the surface of the Earth that interacted at low temperature with liquid water. These data support the hypothesis that continental-type crust and oceans existed by 4300 Ma, within 250 million years of the formation of Earth and the low values of δ7Li suggest that weathering was extensive in the early Archean.

  11. Jacks-of-all-trades? The effect of balanced skills on team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosendahl Huber, L.; Sloof, R.; van Praag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that solo entrepreneurs benefit from having balanced skills: Jacks-of-All-Trades (JATs) are better entrepreneurs than specialists are. Nowadays however, the majority of entrepreneurs start up and run ventures together in teams. In this paper we test whether the

  12. Impacts of fiber orientation and milling on observed crystallinity in jack pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Richard S. Reiner; Roderquita K. Moore; Carlos Baez

    2014-01-01

    Influences of fiber orientation and milling on wood cellulose crystallinity were studied using jack pine wood. The fiber orientation effects were measured by sampling rectangular wood blocks in radial, tangential, and cross-sectional orientations. The influence of milling was studied by analyzing the unsieved and sieved milled wood fractions (all

  13. Uus valem otsustamiseks: 10-10-10 / Jack Welch, Suzy Welch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Welch, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Juhtimisspetsialistid Jack ja Suzy Welch tutvustavad enda loodud valemit 10-10-10, mis on elu juhtimise tööriist aitamaks langetada raskeid otsuseid, hinnates nende mõju 10 minuti, 10 kuu ja 10 aasta pärast

  14. 3-D habitat suitability of jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in the Southeastern Pacific, a comprehensive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, A.; Habasque, J.; Hattab, Tarek; Hintzen, N.T.; Ricardo, Oliveros Ramos; Gutierrez, M.; Demarcq, Herve; Gerlotto, F.

    2016-01-01

    South Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, has an ocean-scale distribution, from the South American coastline to New Zealand and Tasmania. This fish, captured by Humans since the Holocene, is nowadays heavily exploited and its population has decreased substantially since the mid-1990s. The

  15. Soil loss by water erosion in areas under maize and jack beans intercropped and monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Terra Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adequate soil management can create favorable conditions to reduce erosion and water runoff, consequently increase water soil recharge. Among management systems intercropping is highly used, especially for medium and small farmers. It is a system where two or more crops with different architectures and vegetative cycles are explored simultaneously at the same location. This research investigated the effects of maize intercropped with jack bean on soil losses due to water erosion, estimate C factor of Universal Soil Losses Equation (USLE and how it can be affected by soil coverage. The results obtained also contribute to database generation, important to model and estimate soil erosion. Total soil loss by erosion caused by natural rain, at Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were: 4.20, 1.86, 1.38 and 1.14 Mg ha-1, respectively, for bare soil, maize, jack bean and the intercropping of both species, during evaluated period. Values of C factor of USLE were: 0.039, 0.054 and 0.077 Mg ha Mg-1 ha-1 for maize, jack bean and intercropping between both crops, respectively. Maize presented lower vegetation cover index, followed by jack beans and consortium of the studied species. Intercropping between species showed greater potential on soil erosion control, since its cultivation resulted in lower soil losses than single crops cultivation, and this aspect is really important for small and medium farmers in the studied region.

  16. Pivoting output unit control systems activated by jacks. [for controlling aircraft flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliere, P.

    1978-01-01

    An invention to be used for controlling aircraft flaps is described. It is applicable to control systems with two coaxial output units which pivot simultaneously with respect to two fixed units and which are activated by two opposed, straight coaxial jacks.

  17. Jack Nicholson: A Reel and Real-Life Contribution to Neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manjul; Purkayastha, Moushumi; Rai, Ashutosh; Mukherjee, Kanchan K

    2017-05-01

    Though primarily considered entertainment, cinema is a mirror of society. The portrayal of neurosciences is common in cinema, but none could do it better than Jack Nicholson. We give a brief overview of his contribution to neurosciences by analyzing his acting skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Constituents of the essential oils of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Moi, La Dinh; Hung, N.D.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the root bark and wood of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees growing wild in Vietnam were investigated by a combination of GC and GC/MS. More than 30 compounds in the root bark oil, and about 20 components in the wood oil have been identified.

  19. Cadmium accumulation by jack-bean and sorghum in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francato Zancheta, Ariana Carramaschi; De Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Zambrosi, Fernando César Bachiega; de Magalhães Erismann, Norma; Andrade Lagôa, Ana Maria Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Among the technologies used to recuperate cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils, phytoextraction are particularly important, where the selection of suitable plants is critical to the success of the soil remediation. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the responses of jack-bean and sorghum to Cd supply and to quantify Cd accumulation by these species grown in hydroponic culture. The plants were subjected to 0, 15, 30, or 60 μmol Cd L(-1) in the nutrient solution, and gas exchange, plant growth and Cd accumulation were measured at 25 days after starting Cd treatments. The Cd supply severely reduced growth of shoots and roots in both species. In jack-bean, Cd decreased photosynthesis by 56-86%, stomatal conductance by 59-85% and transpiration by 48-80%. The concentrations and amounts of Cd accumulated in the plant tissues were proportional to the metal supply in the nutrient solution. Sorghum was more tolerant than jack-bean to Cd toxicity, but the latter showed a greater metal concentration and accumulation in the shoot. Therefore, jack-bean would be more suitable than sorghum for use in Cd phytoremediation programs based on phytoextraction.

  20. IDENTIFIKASI METABOLIT SEKUNDER DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK DAUN SUNGKAI (Peronema canescens JACK. TERHADAP BEBERAPA BAKTERI PATOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsyik Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A research which identification of secondary metabolites and antibacterial activity test from methanol exstract of leaf Sungkai (Peronema canencens Jack to several pathogens bacterial, which aims to identification of secondary methabolites and determine the antibacterial activity from crude methanol extract of leaf Sungkai (P. canencens Jack. against Streptococcus mutans, Salmonella thyposa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Material test obtained by maceration with methanol, then tested for activity. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC value extract was determined by liquid dilution and the followed by scratches on solid media method.  Minimum Kill Concentration (KBM value extracts was determined by agar diffusion method with using paper disks.The results secondary metabolite identify form extracts of leaves P. canencens obtainable derived alkaloid, terpenoids - steroids, flavonoids, and tannin compounds. Methanol extract have the antibacterial activity. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC value of extract is concentration of 20% for bacteria S. mutans, S.thiposa and S.aureus, while for the B. subtilis is konsentration of 15%. Minimum Kill Concentration (KBM values exstract at a concentration of 5% effective at killing S. mutans and S. thyposa bacteria, while the concentration of 1% effective to bacteria B.subtilis and S.aureus. Key words: P. canencens Jack,  antibacteria activity, S. mutans, S. thiposa, B. subtillis, S. aureus   ABSTRAK   Telah dilakukan penelitian identifikasi metabolit sekunder dan aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak metanol daun Sungkai (P.canencens Jack terhadap beberapa bakteri patogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi metabolit sekunder dan mengetahui aktifitas antibakteri dan Kadar Hambat Minimum (KHM dan Nilai Kadar Bunuh Minimum (KBM ekstrak kasar metanol daun Sungkai (P.canencens Jack. terhadap bakteri  Streptococcus mutans, Salmonella thyposa, Bacillus subtilis dan

  1. Standardized Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract (PLME) inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis: The anti-cancer study with various microscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2017-07-01

    Over the years a number of microscopy methods have been developed to assess the changes in cells. Some non-invasive techniques such as holographic digital microscopy (HDM), which although does not destroy the cells, but helps to monitor the events that leads to initiation of apoptotic cell death. In this study, the apoptogenic property and the cytotoxic effect of P. longifolia leaf methanolic extract (PLME) against the human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) was studied using light microscope (LM), holographic digital microscopy (HDM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average IC 50 value of PLME against HeLa cells obtained by MTT and CyQuant assay was 22.00μg/mL at 24h. However, noncancerous Vero cells tested with PLME exhibited no cytotoxicity with the IC 50 value of 51.07μg/mL at 24h by using MTT assay. Cytological observations showed nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage, multinucleation, abnormalities of mitochondrial cristae, membrane blebbing, disappearance of microvilli and filopodia, narrowing of lamellipodia, holes, formation of numerous smaller vacuoles, cytoplasmic extrusions and formation of apoptotic bodies as confirmed collectively by HDM, LM, SEM and TEM. In conclusion, PLME was able to produce distinctive morphological features of HeLa cell death that corresponds to apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil and nisin alone and in combination on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis in a food model and bacterial ultrastructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajohi, Mohamad Reza; Tajik, Hossein; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Hadian, Mojtaba

    2011-02-01

    In the face of emerging new pathogens and ever-growing health-conscious customers, food preservation technology remains on the top agenda of food industry. This study was aimed at determining the effects of the essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., alone and in combination with nisin, on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis at 8°C and 25°C in a food model (commercial barley soup) during 15 days. The essential oil alone at 8°C inhibited bacterial growth significantly compared with the control (p < 0.05). However, at 25°C, none of the concentrations of the essential oil alone showed inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. At 8°C, the combination effect of the essential oil and nisin on bacteria was noted at 0.25 μg mL(-1) for nisin and 0.05 μL mL(-1) for the essential oil (p < 0.05). The combination of nisin and the essential oil demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on the vegetative forms of bacteria at 25°C, although it was comparable to that of nisin alone at the same concentrations. Electron microscopy studies revealed a great deal of damage to B. cereus treated with a combination of nisin and the essential oil. However, the combination of nisin with the essential oil led to a complete destruction of cell wall and cytoplasm of vegetative cells of B. subtilis.

  3. Southwestern Surgical Congress Jack A. Barney award competition presenters - Where are they now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Shanu N; Kallies, Kara J

    2017-12-01

    Resident research presentations at surgical conferences may encourage future research endeavors. 2010-2016 SWSC annual meeting programs were reviewed for presenters eligible for the Jack Barney award. Award recipients from 1987 to 2016 were included. There were 100 unique presenters eligible for the Jack Barney award, and 28 unique award recipients. Thirty-six (82%) presenters currently practice in a community setting, 5 (11%) at a university hospital, 2 (5%) internationally, and 1 (2%) in a military hospital. Scholarly articles were published by 41% of presenters. Sixteen of the 28 recipients (57%) practice in community hospitals, and 9 (32%) practice in university settings; 3 are still in training. Twenty recipients (71%) published after residency. Thirty percent and 25% of presenters and recipients are SWSC members, respectively. Peer-reviewed publications were frequent among eligible presenters and award recipients. Encouraging presenters to become SWSC members provides an opportunity for improved retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cluster analysis on a sphere: Application to magnetizations from metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Richard K.; Tarduno, John A.; Dare, Matthew S.; Mitra, Gautam; Cottrell, Rory D.

    2018-02-01

    Metasediments of the Jack Hills contain the oldest known terrestrial minerals in the form of zircons nearly 4.4 billion years old. Paleointensity data from these zircons provide evidence for a Hadean geodynamo as old as 4.2 billion years old. Given the importance of these zircons for constraining the earliest history of the core, it is vital to understand the fidelity of the zircon record. A fundamental aspect providing context for the preservation of primary magnetic signals is the nature of overprints predicted to have been imparted on rocks of the Jack Hills due to Archean to Proterozoic metamorphic events. To be viable magnetic records of a Hadean geodynamo, zircon magnetization directions should differ from these secondary magnetizations. To evaluate these secondary magnetizations, we report paleomagnetic analyses of a comprehensive sampling of 68 quartzite cobble-sized clasts from the Jack Hills metasediments ∼0.5 to 1.0 km from the Discovery Site (which has yielded the oldest zircons and paleofield estimates). While application of standard paleomagnetic tests suggests that the ensemble of cobble directions cannot be distinguished from those drawn from a random distribution, a new cluster analysis of directions on a sphere and non-parametric resampling approaches reveal significant directions amongst subsets of the data. One, isolated at the lowest temperature analyzed [200 to 300 °C, Declination (Dec.) = 316.8°, Inclination (Inc.) = - 51.1 °] appears to be dominated by the present day field. Another, isolated at higher (but still relatively low unblocking temperatures that we call "intermediate", of ∼350-500 °C, Dec. = 243.8°, Inc. = 9.5°) agrees with a magnetic overprint isolated from the secondary Cr-Fe mica fuchsite isolated from the Jack Hills Discovery site, passing a field test at the 80% confidence level. No evidence is found in our data, or in the data of others collected on similar Jack Hills lithologies, for a widespread 1 Ga

  5. JackIn Head: Immersive Visual Telepresence System with Omnidirectional Wearable Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Shunichi; Nagai, Shohei; Rekimoto, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Sharing one's own immersive experience over the Internet is one of the ultimate goals of telepresence technology. In this paper, we present JackIn Head, a visual telepresence system featuring an omnidirectional wearable camera with image motion stabilization. Spherical omnidirectional video footage taken around the head of a local user is stabilized and then broadcast to others, allowing remote users to explore the immersive visual environment independently of the local user's head direction. We describe the system design of JackIn Head and report the evaluation results of real-time image stabilization and alleviation of cybersickness. Then, through an exploratory observation study, we investigate how individuals can remotely interact, communicate with, and assist each other with our system. We report our observation and analysis of inter-personal communication, demonstrating the effectiveness of our system in augmenting remote collaboration.

  6. Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.

  7. Seismic analysis of the frame structure reformed by cutting off column and jacking based on stiffness ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. K.; Xu, X. S.

    2017-11-01

    The cutting off column and jacking technology is a method for increasing story height, which has been widely used and paid much attention in engineering. The stiffness will be changed after the process of cutting off column and jacking, which directly affects the overall seismic performance. It is usually necessary to take seismic strengthening measures to enhance the stiffness. A five story frame structure jacking project in Jinan High-tech Zone was taken as an example, and three finite element models were established which contains the frame model before lifting, after lifting and after strengthening. Based on the stiffness, the dynamic time-history analysis was carried out to research its seismic performance under the EL-Centro seismic wave, the Taft seismic wave and the Tianjin artificial seismic wave. The research can provide some guidance for the design and construction of the entire jack lifting structure.

  8. In Search of the Real Mr. China Jack Perkowski's positive account of his business adventures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT

    2008-01-01

    @@ When former Wall Street banker Jack Perkowski first arrived in Hong Kong in 1990 looking to set up a business, not only did he not speak a word of the language, he had never even tasted Chinese food.

  9. Eesti saab 2018. aasta Londoni raamatumessil erilise tähelepanu osaliseks / Jacks Thomas ; intervjueerinud Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thomas, Jacks

    2017-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa ühe suurima, Londoni raamatumessi direktori Jacks Thomasiga, kes külastas Tallinna, et teha ettevalmistusi järgmiseks aastaks, kui Eesti koos teiste Baltimaadega on messi peakülaline

  10. Railway crossings: driving the structure under the railway by means of oleodinamic jacks

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Méndez, Ramón; López Palomar, Rafael; Ruiz Viedma, Andrés J.

    1991-01-01

    "The best level crossing is a dead crossing", those involved are accustomed to say Yet, until a short time ago, eliminating these conflictive crossings not only implied a great deal of money but prolonged building work, with the all too familiar sequel of precautions, speed restrictions and problems for rail traffic. However, a brand new system, based on using hydraulic jacks to drive the concrete structure of the crossing to a different level in the track embankment, allows the execution in ...

  11. The Jack Wills crowd: towards a sociology of an elite subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony; Smith, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    British sociologists have long been interested in youth sub-cultures. However British sociologists have tended to focus on working class subcultures and avoided engagement with exclusive sub-cultures of elite social groups. This article seeks to attend to this gap by examining the subculture of a British elite: ex-public school students at select universities in the UK in the twenty-first century. This group consists of a relatively small group of young adults, aged between 18 and 23, who attended public schools, especially one of the nine Clarendon schools (Eton, Winchester, Westminster, St. Paul's, Merchant Taylor's, Shrewsbury, Rugby, Harrow and Charterhouse), and were students at a selective group of British universities, primarily Oxford and Cambridge, Durham, Bristol, Exeter, Bath, Manchester, St Andrews and Edinburgh. The article examines the way in which this group has reconfigured and re-constituted itself in the face of globalizing challenges. Specifically, it examines the way in which participation of ex-public school students in events run by and under the patronage of the high street retailing company, Jack Wills, has played a galvanising role for this group in the last decade. The Jack Wills crowd is an example of how some young adults form exclusive social networks and reproduce prevailing forms of privilege. The social networks built around the Jack Wills subculture is likely to provide them with advantages in the job market through a prodigious network of connections and patrons. The Jack Wills subculture potentially contributions to the socio-economic reproduction of the higher professional middle classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  12. Rereading "The Jack-Roller:" Hidden Histories in Sociology and Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ian

    2009-01-01

    I revisit one of the iconic Chicago School studies, Clifford Shaw's "The Jack-Roller". A naive reading of Shaw's book leaves the reader with a sense of having been inducted into a melange of what we now know as "sociology" and "social work," but which to Shaw seems a coherent stance. I suggest that this is close to the heart of how things were,…

  13. Effect of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Fei; Huang, Rui-Ji; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Xuxia; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack mackerel samples of AI group displayed higher pH values than those of AA and SH groups. TVB-N, TMA and TBARS values of all samples increased with the storage time, and these values of AI had a lower increase than AA and SH. Moreover, samples of AI had a better sensory score than AA and SH during storage. It can be concluded that slaughter method of asphyxia in ice water for Chilean jack mackerel exhibit the better efficiency on maintaining the fish quality during refrigerated storage on board.

  14. Variation of Time Domain Failure Probabilities of Jack-up with Wave Return Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahmad; Harahap, Indra S. H.; Ali, Montassir Osman Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated failure probabilities of jack up units on the framework of time dependent reliability analysis using uncertainty from different sea states representing different return period of the design wave. Surface elevation for each sea state was represented by Karhunen-Loeve expansion method using the eigenfunctions of prolate spheroidal wave functions in order to obtain the wave load. The stochastic wave load was propagated on a simplified jack up model developed in commercial software to obtain the structural response due to the wave loading. Analysis of the stochastic response to determine the failure probability in excessive deck displacement in the framework of time dependent reliability analysis was performed by developing Matlab codes in a personal computer. Results from the study indicated that the failure probability increases with increase in the severity of the sea state representing a longer return period. Although the results obtained are in agreement with the results of a study of similar jack up model using time independent method at higher values of maximum allowable deck displacement, it is in contrast at lower values of the criteria where the study reported that failure probability decreases with increase in the severity of the sea state.

  15. Jack Polynomials as Fractional Quantum Hall States and the Betti Numbers of the ( k + 1)-Equals Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaere, Christine Berkesch; Griffeth, Stephen; Sam, Steven V.

    2014-08-01

    We show that for Jack parameter α = -( k + 1)/( r - 1), certain Jack polynomials studied by Feigin-Jimbo-Miwa-Mukhin vanish to order r when k + 1 of the coordinates coincide. This result was conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane, who proposed that these Jack polynomials are model wavefunctions for fractional quantum Hall states. Special cases of these Jack polynomials include the wavefunctions of Laughlin and Read-Rezayi. In fact, along these lines we prove several vanishing theorems known as clustering properties for Jack polynomials in the mathematical physics literature, special cases of which had previously been conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane. Motivated by the method of proof, which in the case r = 2 identifies the span of the relevant Jack polynomials with the S n -invariant part of a unitary representation of the rational Cherednik algebra, we conjecture that unitary representations of the type A Cherednik algebra have graded minimal free resolutions of Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand type; we prove this for the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement in the case when the number of coordinates n is at most 2 k + 1. In general, our conjecture predicts the graded S n -equivariant Betti numbers of the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement with no restriction on the number of ambient dimensions.

  16. The use of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2017-10-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  17. Antioxidant activity, the content of total phenols and flavonoids in the ethanol extracts of Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson dried by the use of different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Dragana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the yield of extracted substances obtained by means of extraction using 70 % ethanol (v/v, the content of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained from the samples of the herbs dried by means of different techniques. Wild mint Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson was dried naturally in a laboratory oven at a temperature of 45 °C and in an absorptive low temperature condensation oven at 35°C. The highest yield of extracts was obtained from the naturally dried herbs and the lowest from the herbs dried in the low temperature condensation drying oven. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined by spectrophotometric methods with an FC reagent and by the complexation reaction with aluminium-chloride, respectively. The extract of the naturally dried herbs had the highest overall content of phenols (113.8±2.0 mg of gallic acid/g of the dry extract and flavonoids (106.7±0.3 mg of rutin/g of the dry extract. The highest antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP and DPPH assay was determined in the extracts obtained from naturally dried herbs (2.76±0.15 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.022±0.001 mg/ml, while the lowest was obtained from the extracts of herbs dried in the laboratory oven (1.13±0.11 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.033±0.001 mg/ml. The HPLC-DAD analysis result show that the greatest content of phenolic compounds show extract obtained from naturally dried plant material. The dominant phenolic component in the all extracts is Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. The content of all phenolic compound strongly depend on the drying conditions.

  18. Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi fillets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Bastías

    Full Text Available The effect of four cooking methods was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid, calcium, iron, and zinc content in salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. The moisture content of steamed salmon decreased (64.94% compared to the control (68.05%; a significant decrease was observed in Chilean jack mackerel in all the treatments when compared to the control (75.37%. Protein content in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel significantly increased under the different treatments while the most significant decrease in lipids was found in oven cooking and canning for salmon and microwaving for Chilean jack mackerel. Ash concentration in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel did not reveal any significant differences. Iron and calcium content only had significant changes in steaming while zinc did not undergo any significant changes in the different treatments. Finally, no drastic changes were observed in the fatty acid profile in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel.

  19. Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar) and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balladares, Pamela; Acuña, Sergio; Quevedo, Roberto; Muñoz, Ociel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of four cooking methods was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid, calcium, iron, and zinc content in salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. The moisture content of steamed salmon decreased (64.94%) compared to the control (68.05%); a significant decrease was observed in Chilean jack mackerel in all the treatments when compared to the control (75.37%). Protein content in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel significantly increased under the different treatments while the most significant decrease in lipids was found in oven cooking and canning for salmon and microwaving for Chilean jack mackerel. Ash concentration in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel did not reveal any significant differences. Iron and calcium content only had significant changes in steaming while zinc did not undergo any significant changes in the different treatments. Finally, no drastic changes were observed in the fatty acid profile in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. PMID:28686742

  20. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  1. Validation of on-site job-built guardrails with shoring jack as supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To protect themselves against fall hazards in a slab-column frame, workers use the row of shoring jacks installed at 1 m from the edge as supports for on-site built guardrails. Inspectors of the Quebec Workers Compensation Board (Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST have expressed concern about the safety and compliance of these on-site built guardrails with the Quebec Safety Code for the Construction Industry (S-2.1, r.4. Some workers have also inquired if the shoring jack can be used as an anchor for a travel restraint system. The present study describes how an evaluation method and a test protocol have been used to verify if guardrails built on-site, with shoring jacks as supports, are safe and comply with the requirements of S-2.1, r.4 and if the shoring jack can be used as an anchor point for a travel restraint system. The results of the study show 1 guardrails built on site with shoring jacks as supports, are safe and comply with S-2.1, r.4 and 2 shoring jacks used as supports for guardrails must not be used as an anchor for a travel restraint system.Para la protección contra el peligro de caída en altura durante la ejecución de la estructura de un edificio, los trabajadores utilizan puntales acodalados a dos forjados y situados a 1 metro del borde de forjado como apoyo de las barandillas de seguridad. Inspectores de la Quebec Workers Compensation Board (Commision de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST han expresado su preocupación por la seguridad y el cumplimiento de estos sistemas de protección en la construcción conforme al Código de Seguridad de Quebec para la industria de la construcción (S-2.1, R.6. Así mismo algunos trabajadores han mostrado su inquietud sobre la utilización de los puntales como sistemas para limitar el desplazamiento. El presente estudio describe un método de evaluación y un procedimiento de ensayo que se han utilizado para verificar si las barandillas de seguridad

  2. Secondary vegetation succession on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiveau, Daniel

    2000-07-01

    The effects of different harvesting and site preparation methods on competing vegetation were studied in nine jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Six different treatments plus glyphosate herbiciding and no herbiciding were applied: 1) tree-length harvesting followed by trenching, and full-tree harvesting followed by five site preparations, 2) no site preparation, 3) trenching and 4) blading and compaction as well as blading followed by two planting densities, 5) 1.2m and 6) 2m. Competing vegetation was assessed preharvest and years 1, 2, 3, and 5 postharvest. Data was also available from nine juvenile sites as well as nine semimature sites. Data collection consisted of coverage values of each species as well as structural data for main life forms in height classes. Growth and health data of the planted jack pine seedlings were also available. The data was analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), diversity indices and tabular analysis. Three years after the herbicide application there is no difference between the total coverage in the halfplots that have received herbiciding and those that have not, but an alteration of the relative abundance of species groups has developed; glyphosate herbiciding promotes grasses over shrubs. When no site preparation is applied, shrubs increase and compete with the seedlings, whose growth is cut in half compared to the ones that have been site prepared by trenching. Five years after blading, and blading plus compaction, there is still very little vegetation in the research plots, but there is no reduction of the survival rate and growth of the jack pine seedlings. More dense planting after this treatment leads to more competing vegetation, probably due to increased availability of moisture. Grasses do not seem to be affected by compaction and pioneer mosses are promoted by this treatment but compaction leads to a significant reduction of the total coverage of competing vegetation

  3. A sperm-agglutinating lectin from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjuntra, P; Muanwongyathi, P; Chulavatnatol, M

    1985-04-30

    A lectin specific for N-acetylgalactosamine was isolated from seed extract of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by affinity chromatography on a Affigel-galactosamine-agarose column. The lectin possessed agglutinating activities for human and rat sperm as well as human red blood cells. It was found to have Mr = 62,000 consisting of two dissimilar subunits of Mr = 18,000 and 13,000. It also cross-reacted with an antibody against the lectin of Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera).

  4. Selected Problems of Sensitivity and Reliability of a Jack-Up Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmarynowski Bogdan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with sensitivity and reliability applications to numerical studies of an off-shore platform model. Structural parameters and sea conditions are referred to the Baltic jack-up drilling platform. The sudy aims at the influence of particular basic variables on static and dynamic response as well as the probability of failure due to water waves and wind loads. The paper presents the sensitivity approach to a generalized eigenvalue problem and evaluation of the performace functions. The first order time-invariant problems of structural reliability analysis are under concern.

  5. A phyt osociological classification of the vegetation of the Jack Scott Nature Reserve*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Coetzee

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Jack Scott Nature Reserve in the Central Bankenveld Veld Type is classified chiefly by the Braun-Blanquet Table Method. Habitat features, physiognomy, total floristic composition, differentiating species, woody plants and prominent grasses and forbs are presented for each community. Characterizing habitat features, in order of importance for the communities, are: exposure, soil texture, geology, slope, aspect, degree of rockiness and previous ploughing. The classification correlates well with the major physiographic and climatic variation in the Reserve and generally does not cut across main physiognomic types. The communities are potentially homogeneous management units.

  6. Narrativa visual de uma obra beat: os vagabundos iluminados de Jack Kerouac

    OpenAIRE

    TEJERO MARTINEZ, DIANA MARIA

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza las técnicas narrativas de los "cómics" aplicadas en la adaptación de la novela "Los vagabundos del Dharma" de Jack Kerouac. Se trata de un trabajo de investigación basado en los estudios de los teóricos Will Eisner y Scott McCloud y de la estudiosa de la adaptación Linda Hutcheon. En la inverstigación se exploran las posibilidades de los "cómics" como medio de expressión gráfica y las características de las adaptaciones de algunas obras...

  7. A Comparison Between Measured and Predicted Hydrodynamic Damping for a Jack-Up Rig Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas; Rohbock, Lars; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    An extensive set of measurements funded by the EU project Large Scale Facilities Program has been carried out on a model of a jack-up rig at the Danish Hydraulic Institute. The test serieswere conducted by MSC and include determination of base shears and overturning moments in both regular...... methods.In the comparison between the model test results and the theoretical predictions, thehydro-dynamic damping proves to be the most important uncertain parameter. It is shown thata relative large hydrodynamic damping must be assumed in the theoretical calculations in orderto predict the measured...

  8. Acheronta movebo. Resilencia y revolución en The Mexican (1911 de Jack London

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    Eduardo González de la Fuente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo maneja uno de los relatos pugilísticos de Jack London, The Mexican (1911, para explorar el mundo del boxeo como lugar público de conflictos sociales e ideológicos identificados y significados en la proteica figura del boxeador. Así pues, el ring es susceptible de devenir y analizarse como un espacio de práctica política, de antagonismo y debate que, en su reglada exposición de violencias carnales y simbólicas, condensa una particular síntesis efectiva de corporalidades y discursos.

  9. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  10. Cross-Reactivity of Polyclonal Antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) Urease and Helicobacter pylori Urease Subunit A Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Zbigniew Jerzy; Relich, Inga; Konieczna, Iwona; Kaca, Wieslaw; Kolesinska, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Overlapping decapeptide fragments of H. pylori urease subunit A (UreA) were synthesized and tested with polyclonal antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) urease. The linear epitopes of UreA identified using the dot blot method were then examined using epitope mapping. For this purpose, series of overlapping fragments of UreA, frameshifted ± four amino acid residues were synthesized. Most of the UreA epitopes which reacted with the Jack bean urease polyclonal antibodies had been recognized in previous studies by monoclonal antibodies against H. pylori urease. Fragments 11 - 24, 21 - 33, and 31 - 42 were able to interact with the Jack bean urease antibodies, giving stable immunological complexes. However, the lack of recognition by these antibodies of all the components in the peptide map strongly suggests that a non-continuous (nonlinear) epitope is located on the N-terminal domain of UreA. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Influence of mycorrhizal associations on paper birch and jack pine seedlings when exposed to elevated copper, nickel or aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.D.; Browning, M.H.R.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1986-10-01

    Acid deposition may adversely affect northern forest ecosystems by increasing the concentration of metals in the soil solution. This study investigates the effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on paper birch and jack pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu, Ni or Al in sand culture. One of four mycorrhizal fungi, Scleroderma flavidum, was able to reduce Ni toxicity to the birch seedlings. It did this by reducing transport of Ni to the stems. None of the fungi affected Cu toxicity in birch. In separate experiments, jack pine seedlings were exposed to combinations of Al and Ca. Infection with Rhizopogon rubescens increased seedling susceptibility to Al. Seedlings inoculated with Suillus tomentosus showed a greater growth stimulation by Ca than uninoculated jack pines. Thus, for both tree species, the mycorrhizal association could alter the response of seedlings to high concentrations of certain metals, although this varied with fungal species. 8 references.

  12. Herbs in exercise and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra', ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

  13. Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) inhibits jack bean urease activity due to methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriemen, Jana; Klemm, Oliver; Henle, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) exerts a strong antibacterial effect. Bacterial enzymes are an important target for antibacterial compounds. The enzyme urease produces ammonia and enables bacteria to adapt to an acidic environment. A new enzymatic assay, based on photometric detection of ammonia with ninhydrin, was developed to study urease activity. Methylglyoxal (MGO) and its precursor dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which are naturally present in manuka honey, were identified as jack bean urease inhibitors with IC 50 values of 2.8 and 5.0mM, respectively. Urease inhibition of manuka honey correlates with its MGO and DHA content. Non-manuka honeys, which lack MGO and DHA, showed significantly less urease inhibition. MGO depletion from manuka honey with glyoxalase reduced urease inhibition. Therefore, urease inhibition by manuka honey is mainly due to MGO and DHA. The results obtained with jack bean urease as a model urease, may contribute to the understanding of bacterial inhibition by manuka honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species.

  15. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity–ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C.; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, ‘complementarity' and ‘selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the ‘jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity–multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems. PMID:27010076

  16. POPULASI DAN HABITAT Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. DI CAGAR ALAM MANDOR, KALIMANTAN BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysarah .

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. is a species which adapted on the nutrient-poor areas in Mandor nature reserve.  Its could be increasing the quality of Mandor nature reserve as protected area. This research aims to study the population and habitat of N. ampullaria in the Mandor nature reserve. This study was conducted at two habitats, heath forest and peat swamp forest. Observations were made on, population abundance and habitat factors of  N. ampullaria. The results showed that the highest population density of N. ampullaria was in heath forest. Their are growth in groups. Vegetation analysis showed that constituent species habitat of N. ampullaria consist of 69 species from 39 familly. Result of identification to insects showed Formicidae is dominant family that trapped in pitcher of N. ampullaria. Temperature and humidity in N. ampullaria’s habitat has been switable for requirements growth of pitcher plant. Rainfall during the study was normally. Ratio of sand and soil on both affected the improvement of individual N. ampullaria in Mandor nature reserve. Keywords: habitat, Mandor nature reserve, Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, population

  17. The construction of identity in a consumerist society: Delillo’s Jack Gladney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Matković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the construction of the postmodern identity of Jack Gladney, the main character in Don DeLillo’s White Noise (1985. Employing (postmodern, social psychology, and psychoanalytic theories of Zygmunt Bauman, Erich Fromm, Jean Baudrillard, and Gilles Lipovetsky, it analyzes the construction of Gladney’s character through his social roles as professor, husband, and consumer in the narrow sense of the word in order to deduce that his consumerist practices have spread to all aspects of his life. This reading reveals a new interpretation of Gladney’s fear of death; it shows that Gladney’s thanatophobia represents a consequence of his atheistic worldview. Namely, unable to find a haven in religion, he unsuccessfully seeks the meaning of life and death elsewhere, mainly in consumerism, which is identified as the source of his alienation from himself, people, and God. This paper suggests that numerous problems of postmodern life are caused by the lack of faith in God and proposes a conclusion that religion itself could be the answer to the difficulties faced by postmodern individuals with fragmented identities such as Jack Gladney.

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of jack bean urease inhibition by Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Nana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jack bean urease (EC 3.5.1.5 is a metalloenzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. The heavy metal ions are common inhibitors to control the rate of the enzymatic urea hydrolysis, which take the Hg2+ as the representative. Hg2+ affects the enzyme activity causing loss of the biological function of the enzyme, which threatens the survival of many microorganism and plants. However, inhibitory kinetics of urease by the low concentration Hg2+ has not been explored fully. In this study, the inhibitory effect of the low concentration Hg2+ on jack bean urease was investigated in order to elucidate the mechanism of Hg2+ inhibition. Results According to the kinetic parameters for the enzyme obtained from Lineweaver–Burk plot, it is shown that the Km is equal to 4.6±0.3 mM and Vm is equal to 29.8±1.7 μmol NH3/min mg. The results show that the inhibition of jack bean urease by Hg2+ at low concentration is a reversible reaction. Equilibrium constants have been determined for Hg2+ binding with the enzyme or the enzyme-substrate complexes (Ki =0.012 μM. The results show that the Hg2+ is a noncompetitive inhibitor. In addition, the kinetics of enzyme inhibition by the low concentration Hg2+ has been studied using the kinetic method of the substrate reaction. The results suggest that the enzyme first reversibly and quickly binds Hg2+ and then undergoes a slow reversible course to inactivation. Furthermore, the rate constant of the forward reactions (k+0 is much larger than the rate constant of the reverse reactions (k-0. By combining with the fact that the enzyme activity is almost completely lost at high concentration, the enzyme is completely inactivated when the Hg2+ concentration is high enough. Conclusions These results suggest that Hg2+ has great impacts on the urease activity and the established inhibition kinetics model is suitable.

  19. Ecological Responses to Five Years of Experimental Nitrogen Application in an Upland Jack-pine Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaschenko, N.; Berryman, S.; Straker, J.; Berg, K.; McDonough, A.; Watmough, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    A five-year experimental study was conducted to evaluate the response of an upland jack-pine (Pinus banksiana) forest to elevated levels of nitrogen (N) deposition in Northern Alberta. N deposition in the region is expected to increase with industrial expansion of oil sands activity, and there is regional interest to set N critical loads for sensitive ecosystems. In this study, N was applied as NH4NO3 above a jack-pine canopy via helicopter, annually for five years (2010-2015) at dosages equivalent to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Approximately 35% of the applied N was retained in the canopy while 65% reached understory vegetation dominated by lichens and mosses. We measured a significant increase in tissue N concentrations of common ground lichens (Cladonia mitis and C. stellaris) and ground moss (Pleurozium schreberi) as well as epiphytic lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha). On an annual basis, the applied N was primarily captured in the lichen and moss understory, dominated by C. mitis. In the highest treatments, N concentrations in C. mitis were 1.5-2.5 times greater than pre-treatment values. Peak N concentrations in the ground moss Pleurozium schreberi (1.4%) indicate that a threshold of N saturation was reached by year 3. We observed no changes in community composition of vascular and non-vascular plants, or changes in vascular plant tissue N. Chlorophyll levels in C. mitis increased with N treatment, but there was no indication of toxicity or changes to decomposition and growth. After five years of N application, only Peltigera polydactylon, a ground cyanolichen, appeared to be negatively impacted where the thalli showed necrosis at deposition loads >10kg N ha-1 yr-1. No changes to biomass or N ecosystem processes were observed. Based on these observations, we provide evidence that the first adverse ecological effects of N deposition in jack-pine stands occurred at deposition rates of 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1.

  20. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined.

  1. Healing of the Acutely Injured Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Functional Treatment with the ACL-Jack, a Dynamic Posterior Drawer Brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL has a limited healing capacity leading to persisting instability. Hypothesis/Purpose. To study if the application of a brace, producing a dynamic posterior drawer force, after acute ACL injury reduces initial instability. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace were compared to controls treated with primary ACL reconstruction und controls treated nonsurgically with functional rehabilitation. Measurements included anterior laxity (Rolimeter, clinical scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and IKDC, and MRI evaluation. Patients were followed up to 24 months. Results. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace showed a significant improvement of anterior knee laxity comparable to patients treated with ACL reconstruction, whereas laxity persisted after nonsurgical functional rehabilitation. The failure risk (secondary reconstruction necessary of the ACL-Jack group was however 21% (18 of 86 within 24 months. Clinical scores were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion. Treatment of acute ACL tears with the ACL-Jack brace leads to improved anterior knee laxity compared to nonsurgical treatment with functional rehabilitation.

  2. Effect of average growing season temperature on seedling germination, survival and growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. David; E. Humenberger

    2017-01-01

    Because jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is serotinous, it retains multiple years of cones until environmental conditions are favorable for releasing seed. These cones, which contain seed cohorts that developed under a variety of growing seasons, can be accurately aged using bud scale scars on twigs and branches. By calculating the average daily...

  3. Jack Michael's Appointments at the University of Houston and Arizona State University: Reflections from a Former Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Jack Michael was an early enthusiast for what is now called applied behavior analysis. His many seminal contributions were through early publications in applied behavior analysis and the work of the students he trained (e.g., T. Ayllon, M. M. Wolf). His close mentorship of students earned him acclaim as a teacher along with his many theoretical…

  4. Raccoglier lettere. Le “Vico collaborations” di Jack W. Stauffacher e Dennis Letbetter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando, David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting in the early ’70s the San Francisco printer and typographer Jack W. Stauffacher undertook a graphic exploration of Vico’s works, which continued during the past decade together with the photographer Dennis Letbetter. The aim of this article is to present their experience - which is at the same time poetic and historically attentive, focusing on the relationships between text and images, and on the typographical and physical qualities of 18th century editions - to an audience which includes Italian Vico scholars. The text is composed of a brief introduction and an interview with the two artists, and is followed (pp. 94-180 by a photographic presentation of their "Vico collaborations".

  5. Solving 1D plasmas and 2D boundary problems using Jack polynomials and functional relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendley, P.; Saleur, H.; Lesage, F.

    1995-01-01

    The general one-dimensional open-quotes log-sineclose quotes gas is defined by restricting the positive and negative charges of a two-dimensional Coulomb gas to live on a circle. Depending on charge constraints, this problem is equivalent to different boundary field theories. We study the electrically neutral case, which is equivalent to a two-dimensional free boson with an impurity cosine potential. We use two different methods: a perturbative one based on Jack symmetric functions, and a non-perturbative one based on the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz and functional relations. The first method allows us to find an explicit series expression for all coefficients in the virial expansion of the free energy and the experimentally measurable conductance. Some results for correlation functions are also presented. The second method gives an expression for the full free energy, which yields a surprising fluctuation-dissipation relation between the conductance and the free energy

  6. Modular jack-up platform debuts in Peru's Amazon jungle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, A.

    1975-08-11

    Robishaw Engineering Inc., Houston, has designed and built a jack-up platform based on a modular flotation and erection system that allows exploratory and development drilling year round in any location that cannot be reached by conventional equipment. All components are light enough to be transported by helicopters rated for 4000-lb loads, yet strong and buoyant enough to serve as working platforms. The pile-supported self-elevating drilling platform consists of H-shaped steel girders joined by pin connectors and tension wires. Deck panels are steel-plated. When elevated on steel pilings, the platform can support loads imposed by rigs capable of drilling to 18,000 ft. One such unit is currently being used in the Peruvian rain forest.

  7. Ficus deltoidea Jack: A Review on Its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidun Bunawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae has had a long history of use in traditional medicine among the Malays to alleviate and heal ailments such as sores, wounds, and rheumatism and as an after-birth tonic and an antidiabetic drug. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that this plant has a wide variety of beneficial attributes for human health. Despite its importance, a review of this species has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, we review and summarize the historic and current literature concerning the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, and toxicity of this wonder plant. This summary could be beneficial for future research aiming to exploit the therapeutic potential of this useful, medicinal species.

  8. Multi-gene phylogeny of jacks and pompanos (Carangidae), including placement of monotypic vadigo Campogramma glaycos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerau, M; Freese, M; Hanel, R

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the phylogenetic trees of jacks and pompanos (Carangidae), an ecologically and morphologically diverse, globally distributed fish family, are inferred from a complete, concatenated data set of two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I, cytochrome b) loci and one nuclear (myosin heavy chain 6) locus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences are largely congruent and show a clear separation of Carangidae into the four subfamilies: Scomberoidinae, Trachinotinae, Naucratinae and Caranginae. The inclusion of the carangid sister lineages Coryphaenidae (dolphinfishes) and Rachycentridae (cobia), however, render Carangidae paraphyletic. The phylogenetic trees also show with high statistical support that the monotypic vadigo Campogramma glaycos is the sister to all other species within the Naucratinae. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Gastrodia elata Bl. and Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Mori, A

    1992-12-01

    Gastrodia elata Bl. (GE) and Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks (UR) are two traditional Chinese medicinal herbal drugs, used for the treatment of convulsions and epilepsy. Their antioxidant effects in vivo and their free radical scavenging effects in vitro were investigated. Epileptogenic foci in the lateral brain of the rat were induced by the injection of ferric chloride into the lateral cortex. Both extracts significantly inhibited the increase in levels of lipid peroxide in the ipsilateral cortex, at all times observed. In addition, the two extracts also induced an early increase of activity of superoxide dismutase in the mitochondrial fraction of the ipsilateral cortex. In in vitro experiments, the two extracts exhibited significant dose-dependent scavenging effects on free radicals, using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These results suggest that the proposed antiepileptic effects of GE and UR may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of the active components in these two medicinal herbs.

  10. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of corn in monoculture and intercropped with jack bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário S. P. de Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (Kc for four stages of “Caatingueiro” corn under the climate condition of Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, using weighing lysimeters. The field trial occurred in 2015, from March 18 to June 25, in two areas cultivated with “Caatingueiro’ corn intercropped with jack bean and in monoculture. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo was estimated by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model and the Kc values were determined by the ratio between ETc and ETo. The Kc values obtained for the intercropping and monoculture systems, were respectively: 0.78 (I; 1.01 (II; 1.10 (III and 1.01 (IV, and 0.62 (I; 0.92 (II; 1.27 (III and 0.81 (IV, and they were different from the values presented by FAO.

  11. [Malignant narcissism and sexual homicide--exemplified by the Jack Unterweger case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, R

    1999-01-01

    With the syndrome of malignant narcissism, which is characterised by narcissistic personality disorder, anti-social behaviour, sadism and a marked tendency to paranoid reactions, Kernberg (1985, 1996) describes an independent form of pathological narcissism. According to Stone (1996) this is found in many mass-murderers and serial killers. On the basis of the example of Jack Unterweger the connection between malignant narcissism and sexual offence is discussed as to psychodynamic development, personality structure and psychopathology. Unterweger, who was convicted to lifelong imprisonment in 1976 for sadistic sexual murder, became a wellknown writer in prison and was released prematurely in 1990 as the Austria case of successful rehabilitation. As stated in the sentence passed against him he killed 11 prostitutes in Europe and the USA within the next 18 months, but never pleaded guilty. Psychiatric examination revealed numerous elements of malignant narcissism and the constellation of his development and life was typical of serial offenders.

  12. Prevalence, severity, and natural history of jack jumper ant venom allergy in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon G A; Franks, Rodney W; Baldo, Brian A; Heddle, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    The jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) is responsible for greater than 90% of Australian ant venom allergy. However, deaths have only been recorded in the island of Tasmania. We sought to determine the prevalence, clinical features, natural history, and predictors of severity of M pilosula sting allergy in Tasmania. We performed a random telephone survey supported by serum venom-specific IgE analysis, review of emergency department presentations, and follow-up of allergic volunteers. M pilosula, honeybee (Apis mellifera), and yellow jacket wasp (Vespula germanica) sting allergy prevalences were 2.7%, 1.4%, and 0.6% compared with annual sting exposure rates of 12%, 7%, and 2%, respectively. Similarly, emergency department presentations with anaphylaxis to M pilosula were double those for honeybee. M pilosula allergy prevalence increased with age of 35 years or greater (odds ratio [OR], 2.4) and bee sting allergy (OR, 16.9). Patients 35 years of age or older had a greater risk of hypotensive reactions (OR, 2.9). Mueller reaction grades correlated well with adrenaline use. During follow-up, 79 (70%) of 113 jack jumper stings caused anaphylaxis. Prior worst reaction severity predicted the likelihood and severity of follow-up reactions; only 3 subjects had more severe reactions. Venom-specific IgE levels and other clinical features, including comorbidities, were not predictive of severity. Sting allergy prevalence is determined by age and exposure rate. M pilosula sting exposure in Tasmania is excessive compared with that found in mainland Australia, and there is a high systemic reaction risk in allergic people on re-sting. Prior worst reaction severity (Mueller grade) and age predict reaction severity and might be used to guide management.

  13. Kinetics and Mechanism Study of Competitive Inhibition of Jack-Bean Urease by Baicalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lirong; Su, Jiyan; Wu, Dianwei; Yu, Xiaodan; Su, Zuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Kong, Songzhi; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Ji; Su, Ziren

    2013-01-01

    Baicalin (BA) is the principal component of Radix Scutellariae responsible for its pharmacological activity. In this study, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition by BA against jack-bean urease were investigated for its therapeutic potential. It was revealed that the IC50 of BA against jack-bean urease was 2.74 ± 0.51 mM, which was proved to be a competitive and concentration-dependent inhibition with slow-binding progress curves. The rapid formation of initial BA-urease complex with an inhibition constant of K i = 3.89 × 10−3 mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with an overall inhibition constant of K i* = 1.47 × 10−4 mM. High effectiveness of thiol protectors against BA inhibition indicated that the strategic role of the active-site sulfhydryl group of the urease was involved in the blocking process. Moreover, the inhibition of BA was proved to be reversible due to the fact that urease could be reactivated by dithiothreitol but not reactant dilution. Molecular docking assay suggested that BA made contacts with the important activating sulfhydryl group Cys-592 residues and restricted the mobility of the active-site flap. Taken together, it could be deduced that BA was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration-dependently, serving as a promising urease inhibitor for treatments on urease-related diseases. PMID:24198731

  14. Jack-knife stretching promotes flexibility of tight hamstrings after 4 weeks: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Hada, Yasushi; Sakai, Toshinori; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Dezawa, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Tight hamstrings are reported to be one of the causes of low back pain. However, there have been few reports on effective stretching procedures for the tight hamstrings. The so-called jack-knife stretch, an active-static type of stretching, can efficiently increase the flexibility of tight hamstrings. To evaluate hamstring tightness before and after the 4-week stretching protocol in healthy volunteer adults and patients aged under 18 years with low back pain. For understanding the hamstrings tightness, we measured two parameters including (1) finger to floor distance (FFD) and (2) pelvis forward inclination angle (PFIA). Eight healthy adult volunteers who had no lumbar or hip problems participated in this study (mean age: 26.8 years). All lacked flexibility and their FFD were positive before the experiment. Subjects performed 2 sets of the jack-knife stretch every day for 4 weeks. One set consisted of 5 repetitions, each held for 5 s. Before and during the 4-week experiment, the FFD and PFIA of toe-touching tests were measured weekly. For 17 of the sports players aged under 18, only FFD was measured. In adult volunteers, FFD was 14.1 ± 6.1 cm before the experiment and decreased to -8.1 ± 3.7 cm by the end of week 4, indicating a gain in flexibility of 22.2 cm. PFIA was 50.6 ± 8.2 before the experiment and 83.8 ± 5.8 degrees after. Before and after the experiment, the differences were significant (p hamstrings.

  15. The Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyiand the environmental macro-scale variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Espino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses information on various macro environmental variables available since 1876 for the Southeast Pacific and more recent data on Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (Nichols, 1920 landings and biomass in the Peruvian sea, relating them to probable areas of water masses equivalent to Cold Coastal Waters (CCW and Subtropical Surface Waters (SSW. It is concluded that the index of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO presents expressions of variability that are consistent with those found for the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI and that the detected changes in biomass of Jack mackerel T. murphyiin the Peruvian sea reflect changes in the availability of the fish stock associated with secular (SOI and decadal (PDO variability patterns. These fluctuations in stock availability impact fisheries in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile, which show significant variations in their landings and would have given a biased picture of the state of abundance, leading to wrong diagnoses of the real situation of the exploited stocks. These patterns of variability would also affect the appearance of El Niño, making them start in the southern hemisphere autumn or spring depending on whether the current PDO is positive or negative. Periods of high (1876 – 1925 and 1976 – 2012 and low (1926 – 1975 variability are also identified in relation to the Euclidean distance of the variances of the SOI; and in relation to the PDO a distinction is made between warm (1925 – 1944 and 1975 – 1994, cold (1945 – 1974 and tempered or interface periods (1895 – 1924 and 1995 – 2012, the latter being explained by the interaction between periods of high variability.

  16. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  17. Solar drying of jack fruit almonds Secagem solar de amêndoas de jaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre J. de M Queiroz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dryers heated by solar energy have been constructed and used in drying whole and half jack fruit almonds. The samples were dried during the day in direct sun and in the conventional solar dryer prepared for this purpose. Another piece of equipment was built for reception and accumulation of sun energy in a body of water, which was used as a heat source for night drying. The drying with the sun energy was compared with artificial drying. The jack fruit almonds were dried whole, half, with pellicle and without it. The storage of solar energy in water was technically viable for use in night drying. The drying by combining solar dryers in the day and night periods were completed in approximately 35 hours, and were equivalent to artificial drying between 40ºC and 70ºC. Almond cut in half and the pellicle removed reduced the drying time.Secadores com aquecimento por energia solar foram construídos e utilizados em secagens de amêndoas de jaca inteiras e em metades. As secagens no período diurno foram realizadas por exposição direta ao sol e em secador solar convencional, elaborado para este fim. Construiu-se também um equipamento para captação e acumulação de energia solar em uma massa de água, a qual foi utilizada como fonte de calor para realização de secagens no período noturno. As secagens com o uso de energia solar foram comparadas com secagens artificiais. As amêndoas de jaca foram secadas inteiras, em metades, com e sem película. O armazenamento da energia solar em corpo de água mostrou-se viável do ponto de vista técnico para utilização em secagens noturnas. As secagens combinando secadores por energia solar nos períodos diurno e noturno foram concluídas em tempos aproximados de 35 horas e equivaleram a secagens artificiais entre 40 ºC e 70 ºC. O corte das amêndoas e a retirada das películas reduziram o tempo de secagem.

  18. A Change in Igneous Activity of the Jack Hills Zircon Sources ca. 3.9 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    New Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperature (Txlln) data for Jack Hills zircons reveal that the tight clustering of Hadean grains around a Txlln of 680°C, possibly indicative of felsic-to-intermediate minimum melting conditions, continues to ~3.92 Ga. Between 3.92-3.82 Ga the 680°C clustering ceases and most concordant grains cluster around an apparent Txlln of 610°C. A small group of zircons with higher Txlln (~750°C), present during the Hadean, is also observed during this period. After 3.82 Ga a Hadean-like distribution resumes for ~100 Ma. This large, concordant, low-Ti group at ~3.9 Ga is statistically distinct from the Hadean distribution and appears to be unique in the Jack Hills zircon record. The existence of coeval high- and low-Ti groups suggests that two distinct zircon-forming processes are distinguishable ~3.9 Ga, unlike during the Hadean. The significant numbers of zircons with apparent Txlln below 600°C may be suggestive of subsolidus formation, since igneous units with solidii below 600°C are relatively rare. The higher-Ti group is more consistent with an intermediate to mafic igneous origin but metamorphic overprinting or subsolidus formation at granulite grade cannot be ruled out by Txlln alone. A substantial proportion of the high-Ti group display oscillatory and disrupted oscillatory zoning in cathodoluminescence images, usually indicative of igneous origins and later metamorphism, respectively; most low-Ti grains are homogeneous. Several of each group display patchy zonation indicative of metamorphic overprinting. Although several grains with apparent Txlln >600°C display oscillatory zonation, the majority of the low-Ti group do not show textural evidence for igneous origins. We interpret these results to indicate the transition from a mechanism(s) that produced dominantly 680°C apparent zircon temperatures at ca. 3.9 Ga to include a new zircon-forming process in the sediment source(s), likely a protracted period of metamorphism

  19. Jack'd, a Mobile Social Networking Application: A Site of Exclusion Within a Site of Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    User-generated smartphone applications have created a new level of virtual connectivity for gay males, one in which users can create profiles and meet other users as nearby or as far away as possible. For those within close proximity, the other users can be considered their "virtual neighbors." Although the applications are theoretically designed to be places of inclusion and not exclusion, where any gay male with economic means can download an application, many profiles have been created that exclude other users. Through an examination of profiles on one such application, Jack'd, exclusion is found in the way users celebrate and reinforce ideas of traditional masculinity and denigrate and reinforce stereotypic ideas of femininity embodied by some gay men. Jack'd, and other user-generated smartphone applications, can be read as virtual neighborhoods where one is excluded based on their gender performance.

  20. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  1. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  2. Analysis of Floating Buoy of a Wave Power Generating Jack-Up Platform Haiyuan 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Date Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the performance of floating buoys of a wave power generating jack-up platform called Haiyuan 1, in order to work out the optimum designed draft and hydraulic pressure. The performance of the buoy, especially its delivered power, is an important issue in designing oscillating buoy wave energy converter. In this case, major factors affect the performance including incident wave, designed draft, and hydraulic pressure on the buoy. To find out the relationship among design draft, hydraulic pressure, and delivered power, the key point is to precisely estimate wave induced motion of the buoy. Three-dimensional theory and time domain method based on potential theory were adopted in the paper. Unlike ship and other floating structures, motion of wave energy converter (WEC buoy in wave will be weakened because of energy take-off, which will cause significant draft changing with time. Thus, draft changing should be taken into consideration as well. In addition, green water problem occurs more frequently than that in ship and other floating structures and also might the reduce delivered power. Therefore, green water problem will also be taken into account when choosing the optimum designed draft and hydraulic pressure. The calculation indicates that the optimum designed draft is 0.935 m, while the optimum designed hydraulic pressure is 30 kN.

  3. Non-reef environments impact the diversification of extant jacks, remoras and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frédérich, Bruno; Marramà, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Giorgio; Santini, Francesco

    2016-11-16

    Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the exception of requiem sharks, all the groups showing a higher level of diversity in reefs than in non-reef habitats have diets based predominantly on plankton, algae or benthic invertebrates. Here we explore the pattern of diversification of carangoid fishes, a clade that includes numerous piscivorous species (e.g. trevallies, jacks and dolphinfishes), using time-calibrated phylogenies as well as ecological and morphological data from both extant and fossil species. The study of carangoid morphospace suggests that reef environments played a role in their early radiation during the Eocene. However, contrary to the hypothesis of a reef-association-promoting effect, we show that habitat shifts to non-reef environments have increased the rates of morphological diversification (i.e. size and body shape) in extant carangoids. Piscivory did not have a major impact on the tempo of diversification of this group. Through the ecological radiation of carangoid fishes, we demonstrate that non-reef environments may sustain and promote processes of diversification of different marine fish groups, at least those including a large proportion of piscivorous species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Safe jack-up method permits repairs of tank bottoms and foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Wit, J.

    1991-01-01

    The oil and chemical industries use many thousands of steel tanks to store crude oil, oil products, and chemical liquids. The majority of these tanks are 30-40 years old. Tank bottoms are likely to begin leaking in the coming years, as these tanks get older. The European technique of jacking up a tank and repairing its foundation allows the thorough inspection of the underside of the tank bottom and the removal of saturated foundation material. And the possibility of soil and groundwater pollution is reduced to a minimum. With good, regular maintenance, the lifetime of a storage tank is very long. But experience has shown that special attention should be paid to the tank's bottom. Tank bottoms are only 5 or 6 mm thick, and in the last 10 years, an increasing number of leaks in tank bottoms have been reported. Tank foundations are affected by these leaks. This article describes the resulting procedure, which is used successfully in many European countries, but is not yet common in the U.S

  5. Anti-diabetic Activity of Tabat Barito Leafs (Ficus deltoidea, Jack Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Agus Cahyanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea, Jack leaf is believed could be used to treat diabetes. But more scientific data are needed. The aim of this study is to investigate  antidiabetic activity of  Tabat Barito extract by glucose tolerance method. The treatment was given in three doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW and two controls using aquoeus and glibenklamid.  Tabat barito extract was obtained by maceration and made into dry extract with addition of starch. The result showed that chemical compound of the ethanol extract were fenolic and saponin. The extract showed effects in lowering blood sugar levels with glucose tolerance methods at 30 to 60 minutes. Blood glucose levels of mice treated with the extract extract ranged between 132.60 to 258.00 mg/dL , glibenklamide ranged from 130.20 to 144.60 mg/dL, and aqua ranged between 227.60 to 260.20 mg/dL. The percentage decrease in blood sugar levels compared to controls is 32.54%.

  6. Development of observational learning during school formation in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohji; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

    2014-03-01

    We assessed whether the development of observational learning in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles corresponds with that of their schooling behaviour. Schooling behaviour was quantitatively analyzed by nearest neighbour distance and separation angle in two size classes of fish, 20-mm and 40-mm in body length. Observer and non-observer fish with matching sizes were conditioned to pellets by temporarily stopping aeration. Observer fish were provided with five observation trials of other individuals feeding near an air stone when aeration was stopped. After the observation trial, fish were conditioned to pellets with the stop of aeration, and then the learning process was evaluated by the increase in the association with the feeding area when aeration was stopped. In 20-mm fish, which were at an immature stage of schooling behaviour, there was no difference in the learning process between observer and non-observer fish. In contrast, 40-mm fish were confirmed to have a well-developed schooling behaviour, and the observer learnt the feeding area more efficiently than the non-observer. This study provides evidence that observational learning develops along with the development of the social interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. What to copy: the key factor of observational learning in striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Masuda, R; Yamashita, Y

    2014-03-01

    Animals in social environments can enhance their learning efficiency by observing the behaviour of others. Our previous study showed that learning efficiency of schooling fish increased through the observation of the behaviour of trained demonstrator conspecifics. The present study aimed to verify the key factor of observational learning by investigating what information is important for social transmission of feeding information. A striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) observer was provided with one of the five observation treatments: (a) pellets observation, where pellets were dropped near the aeration in an adjacent tank; (b) responding conspecific observation, where a trained conspecific demonstrator responded to the aeration without food in the adjacent tank; (c) foraging conspecific observation, where a conspecific demonstrator foraged near the aeration in the adjacent tank; (d) nearby pellets observation, where pellets were dropped in a transparent column near the aeration in the observer tank; and (e) foraging heterospecific observation, where a filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) demonstrator foraged near the aeration in the adjacent tank. The response to the aeration in these observers was compared with that of controls who did not observe any behaviour. Only individuals who observed foraging conspecifics showed a response to the aeration after observing. These results suggest that observer fish acquire feeding information not through recognition of prey items or through imitation of the demonstrator, but through the vicarious reinforcement of a conspecific for foraging.

  8. Uncaria rhynchophylla (miq) Jack plays a role in neuronal protection in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Su, Shan-Yu; Jan, Ya-Min; Hsieh, Ching-Tou; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack (UR) is one of many Chinese herbs. Our previous studies have shown that UR has both anticonvulsive and free radical-scavenging activities in kainic acid (KA)-treated rats. The aim of the present study was to use the effect of UR on activated microglia, nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic cells to investigate its function in neuroproction in KA-treated rats. UR of 1.0 or 0.5 g/kg was orally administered for 3 days (first day, second day, and 30 min prior to KA administration on the third day), or 10 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 30 min prior to KA (2 microg/2 microl) was injected into the right hippocampus region of Sprague-Dawly rats. ED1 (mouse anti rat CD68), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells were observed in the hippocampus region. The results indicated that 1.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg of UR and 10 mg/kg of L-NAME reduced the counts of ED1, nNOS, iNOS immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells in KA-treated rats. This study demonstrates that UR can reduce microglia activation, nNOS, iNOS and apoptosis, suggesting that UR plays a neuro-protective role against neuronal damage in KA-treated rats.

  9. Within crown variation in the relationship between foliage biomass and sapwood area in jack pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Robert; Berninger, Frank; Ung, Chhun-Huor; Mäkelä, Annikki; Swift, D Edwin; Zhang, S Y

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between sapwood area and foliage biomass is the basis for a lot of research on eco-phyisology. In this paper, foliage biomass change between two consecutive whorls is studied, using different variations in the pipe model theory. Linear and non-linear mixed-effect models relating foliage differences to sapwood area increments were tested to take into account whorl location, with the best fit statistics supporting the non-linear formulation. The estimated value of the exponent is 0.5130, which is significantly different from 1, the expected value given by the pipe model theory. When applied to crown stem sapwood taper, the model indicates that foliage biomass distribution influences the foliage biomass to sapwood area at crown base ratio. This result is interpreted as being the consequence of differences in the turnover rates of sapwood and foliage. More importantly, the model explains previously reported trends in jack pine sapwood area at crown base to tree foliage biomass ratio.

  10. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a jack russell terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO'Neill Emma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A twenty-month-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with a four-day history of thrombocytopenia, echymotic inguinal haemorrhages, coughing and reduced exercise tolerance. Clinical examination revealed several petechial haemorrhages on the gingivae and small echymotic haemorrhages in the inguinal region, along with mild bilateral epistaxis. Haematology confirmed a platelet count of 1.0 × 10/L. Thoracic radiographs revealed a wide-spread mixed alveolar-interstitial lung pattern, apparent throughout the entire lungfield, but particularly marked within the left lung lobes. A presumptive diagnosis of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was made and the dog was treated with vincristine and immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone. Initially anaemia developed following gastrointestinal haemorrhage; however, after symptomatic treatment the dog showed a marked clinical improvement. Evaluation for an underlying cause of the disease revealed Angiostrongylus vasorum L1 larvae on faecal analysis and treatment with fenbendazole was commenced. The dog made a full clinical recovery with all treatment was withdrawn within five weeks of diagnosis. This is the second report of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection and it is the first to be successfully managed. The report highlights that Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered in young dogs presented with thrombocytopenia.

  11. Preliminary report and design of using Jack Pines for the phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, L.; Ireland, J.; Hohn, S.; Herman, L.; Hanna, A.

    1999-01-01

    A study is being conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using Jack Pines for the phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils in northern Saskatchewan. The sites have some level of diesel contamination from spills associated with generators belonging to SaskTel. The first phase of the study was conducted under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Jack Pine were planted in sand with a range of diesel concentrations. A control planting of seedlings with no diesel was also conducted. The study also included control pots of sand with diesel and no seedlings for comparison of diesel degradation. The results from this first phase will help determine the feasibility of performing more extensive testing of phytoremediation on site in northern Saskatchewan. Results will be conclusive in August 2000. So far, the results show that Jack Pines can survive in soil highly contaminated with hydrocarbons. The second phase will include field trials. Diesel concentrations at the sites range from 0 ppm to 30,000 ppm. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Preliminary report and design of using Jack Pines for the phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils in northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, L; Ireland, J; Hohn, S; Herman, L [ERIN Consulting Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada); Hanna, A [SaskTel, Regina, SK (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    A study is being conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using Jack Pines for the phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils in northern Saskatchewan. The sites have some level of diesel contamination from spills associated with generators belonging to SaskTel. The first phase of the study was conducted under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Jack Pine were planted in sand with a range of diesel concentrations. A control planting of seedlings with no diesel was also conducted. The study also included control pots of sand with diesel and no seedlings for comparison of diesel degradation. The results from this first phase will help determine the feasibility of performing more extensive testing of phytoremediation on site in northern Saskatchewan. Results will be conclusive in August 2000. So far, the results show that Jack Pines can survive in soil highly contaminated with hydrocarbons. The second phase will include field trials. Diesel concentrations at the sites range from 0 ppm to 30,000 ppm. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Fire Regime in Marginal Jack Pine Populations at Their Southern Limit of Distribution, Riding Mountain National Park, Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Canada, long fire history reconstructions are rare. In a context where both anthropogenic and climate influences on fire regime have changed, Parks Canada has a mandate to maintain ecological integrity. Here we present a fire history derived from fire-scarred jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees growing at their southern distribution limit in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP. In Lake Katherine Fire Management Unit (LKFMU, a subregion within the park, fire history was reconstructed from archival records, tree-ring records, and charcoal in lake sediment. From about 1450 to 1850 common era (CE the fire return intervals varied from 37 to 125 years, according to models. During the period 1864–1930 the study area burned frequently (Weibull Mean Fire Intervals between 2.66 and 5.62 years; this period coincided with the end of First Nations occupation and the start of European settlement. Major recruitment pulses were associated with the stand-replacing 1864 and 1894 fires. This period nevertheless corresponded to a reduction in charcoal accumulation. The current fire-free period in LKFMU (1930–today coincides with RMNP establishment, exclusion of First Nations land use and increased fire suppression. Charcoal accumulation further decreased during this period. In the absence of fire, jack pine exclusion in LKFMU is foreseeable and the use of prescribed burning is advocated to conserve this protected jack pine ecosystem, at the southern margins of its range, and in the face of potential climate change.

  14. Population structure of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (P. banksiana) complex as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Terrance Z; Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, Francis C

    2002-06-01

    We studied the population structure of a lodgepole (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) complex in west central Alberta and neighboring areas by assessing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variability in 23 lodgepole pine, 9 jack pine, and 8 putative hybrid populations. Of 200 random primers screened, 10 that amplified 39 sharp and reproducible RAPDs were chosen for the study. None of the 39 RAPDs were unique to the parental species. RAPD diversity ranged from 0.085 to 0.190 among populations and averaged 0.143 for lodgepole pine, 0.156 for jack pine, 0.152 for hybrids, and 0.148 for all 40 populations. The estimated population differentiation based on G(ST) was 0.168 for hybrids, 0.162 for lodgepole pine, 0.155 for jack pine, and 0.247 across all 40 populations. Cluster analysis of genetic distances generally separated jack pine from lodgepole pine and hybrids, but no division could be identified that further separated lodgepole pine from hybrids. The observed weak to mild trend of "introgression by distance" in the complex and neighbouring areas was consistent with the view that introgressive hybridization between lodgepole and jack pines within and outside the hybrid zone may have been through secondary contact and primary intergradation, respectively.

  15. Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Y; Kishida, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawamura, T; Xie, S; Yamashita, Y; Sassa, C; Tsukamoto, Y

    2010-10-01

    Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles were investigated. Under transmitted light, translucent (W(t)) and opaque otoliths (W(o)) were detected in juveniles collected from Wakasa Bay between July 2005 and April 2006, whereas only opaque otoliths (G(o)) were detected in Goto-nada Sea individuals between May and June 2006. Three groups of juveniles were distinguished based on differences in hatch season, otolith size and growth history, and body morphometrics. As T. japonicus has different spawning seasons according to spawning grounds, each group was estimated to hatch in different waters. Juveniles with W(t) otoliths were considered to have stayed in coastal habitat longer, as the hatch area was estimated to be near Wakasa Bay. Juveniles with W(o) and G(o) otoliths appear to recruit to coastal waters at larger size, since their hatch areas were estimated to be far from each collection area. Larger otoliths of W(t) were attributed to otolith accretion after the second growth flexion, which was observed only for W(t) . Standard length of W(t) fish at the second otolith growth flexion was estimated to correspond to recruitment size to coastal rocky reefs in Wakasa Bay. Body morphometrics were correlated with otolith size after removing body size effect, suggesting that morphological variations of T. japonicus juveniles were also associated with the timing of recruitment to coastal habitat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Observed chlorine concentrations during Jack Rabbit I and Lyme Bay field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph; Huq, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    As part of planning for a series of field experiments where large quantities (up to 20 tons) of pressurized liquefied chlorine will be released, observations from previous chlorine field experiments are analyzed to estimate the ranges of chlorine concentrations expected at various downwind distances. In five field experiment days during the summer 2010 Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field trials, up to two tons of chlorine were released and concentrations were observed at distances, x, from 25 to 500 m. In the 1927 Lyme Bay (LB) experiments, there were four days of trials, where 3-10 tons of chlorine were released in about 15 min from the back of a ship. Concentrations were sampled at LB from four ships sailing across the cloud path at downwind distances in the range from about 350 to 3000 m. Thus, the distances from which JR I concentrations were available slightly overlapped the LB distances. One-minute arc-maximum chlorine concentrations, C (g/m3), were analyzed from four JR I trials and two LB trials. Normalized concentrations (Cu/Q) were plotted versus x (m), where u (m/s) is measured wind speed at heights of 2-10 m and Q (g/s) is continuous mass release rate. It is found that the JR I and LB Cu/Q observations smoothly merge with each other and fall along a line with approximate slope of -2 at distances beyond about 200 m (i.e., Cu/Q is proportional to x-2). At x < 200 m, where dense gas effects are more important, the slope is less (about -1.5). Most of the data points are within a factor of two of the "best-fit" line.

  17. Evaluating the Feasibility of Five Candidate DNA Barcoding Loci for Philippine Lasianthus Jack (Lasiantheae: Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshed, Muhammad Jefte C; Valdez, Marcos B; Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    The pantropical genus Lasianthus Jack is identified for high phenotypic plasticity making traditional taxonomic identification difficult. Having some members with important medicinal properties, a precise complimentary identification through DNA barcoding is needed for species delineation. In this study, 12 samples representing six Philippine Lasianthus species were used to determine the most efficient barcoding loci among the cpDNA markers ( mat K, rbc L, rps 16, and trn T-F) and nrDNA (ITS) based on the criteria of universality, discriminatory power, and resolution of species. The results revealed that ITS has the recommended primer universality, greatest interspecific divergences, and average resolution of species. Among the cpDNA markers, mat K and rbc L are recommended but with minimal resolution of species. While trn T-F showed moderate interspecific variations and resolution of Lasianthus species, rps 16 has the lowest interspecific divergence and resolution of species. Consequently, ITS is the potential ideal DNA barcode for Lasianthus species. ITS, mat K, and rps 16 markers have the excellent amplification and sequence qualityITS marker has the highest interspecific divergence with the maximum values, followed by mat K, rbc L, trn T-F, and rps 16, respectivelyAll markers except rps 16 yielded average resolution to Lasianthus speciesITS marker is the most ideal locus in terms of excellent universality, high interspecific discriminatory ability, and average species resolution. Abbreviations used: ITS: Internal Transcribe Spacer, mat K: maturase K, rbc L: ribulose-1,5-biphospahte-carboxylase, rps 16: ribosomal protein 16 small subunit gene.

  18. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Mair

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15% were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI (R²=0.54. Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

  19. Burn Severity Dominates Understory Plant Community Response to Fire in Xeric Jack Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire is the most common disturbance in northern boreal forests, and large fires are often associated with highly variable burn severities across the burnt area. We studied the understory plant community response to a range of burn severities and pre-fire stand age four growing seasons after the 2011 Richardson Fire in xeric jack pine forests of northern Alberta, Canada. Burn severity had the greatest impact on post-fire plant communities, while pre-fire stand age did not have a significant impact. Total plant species richness and cover decreased with disturbance severity, such that the greatest richness was in low severity burns (average 28 species per 1-m2 quadrat and plant cover was lowest in the high severity burns (average 16%. However, the response of individual plant groups differed. Lichens and bryophytes were most common in low severity burns and were effectively eliminated from the regenerating plant community at higher burn severities. In contrast, graminoid cover and richness were positively related to burn severity, while forbs did not respond significantly to burn severity, but were impacted by changes in soil chemistry with increased cover at pH >4.9. Our results indicate the importance of non-vascular plants to the overall plant community in this harsh environment and that the plant community is environmentally limited rather than recruitment or competition limited, as is often the case in more mesic forest types. If fire frequency and severity increase as predicted, we may see a shift in plant communities from stress-tolerant species, such as lichens and ericaceous shrubs, to more colonizing species, such as certain graminoids.

  20. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  1. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  2. Differential effects of plant ontogeny and damage type on phloem and foliage monoterpenes in jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Colgan, L Jessie

    2012-08-01

    Coniferous trees have both constitutive and inducible defences that deter or kill herbivores and pathogens. We investigated constitutive and induced monoterpene responses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to a number of damage types: a fungal associate of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey & R.W. Davidson); two phytohormones, methyl jasmonate (MJ) and methyl salicylate (MS); simulated herbivory; and mechanical wounding. We only included the fungal, MJ and mechanical wounding treatments in the field experiments while all treatments were part of the greenhouse studies. We focused on both constitutive and induced responses between juvenile and mature jack pine trees and differences in defences between phloem and needles. We found that phytohormone applications and fungal inoculation resulted in the greatest increase in monoterpenes in both juvenile and mature trees. Additionally, damage types differentially affected the proportions of individual monoterpenes: MJ-treated mature trees had higher myrcene and β-pinene than fungal-inoculated mature trees, while needles of juveniles inoculated with the fungus contained higher limonene than MJ- or MS-treated juveniles. Although the constitutive monoterpenes were higher in the phloem of juveniles than mature jack pine trees, the phloem of mature trees had a much higher magnitude of induction. Further, induced monoterpene concentrations in juveniles were higher in phloem than in needles. There was no difference in monoterpene concentration between phytohormone applications and G. clavigera inoculation in mature trees, while in juvenile trees MJ was different from both G. clavigera and simulated herbivory in needle monoterpenes, but there was no difference between phytohormone applications and simulated herbivory in the phloem.

  3. Facile synthesis of highly branched jacks-like ZnO nanorods and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhagar, P. [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, R. Saravana [R and D Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamilnadu (India); Jung, June Hyuk; Cho, Woohyung [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of); Sathyamoorthy, R. [R and D Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamilnadu (India); Won, Jongok [Department of Chemistry, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yong Soo, E-mail: kangys@hanyang.ac.kr [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Highly branched, jacks-like ZnO nanorods architecture were explored as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells, and their photovoltaic performance was compared with that of branch-free ZnO nanorods photoanodes. The highly branched network and large pores of the jacks-like ZnO nanorods electrodes enhances the charge transport, and electrolyte penetration. Thus, the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs render a higher conversion efficiency of {eta} = 1.82% (V{sub oc} = 0.59 V, J{sub sc} = 5.52 mA cm{sup -2}) than that of the branch-free ZnO nanorods electrodes ({eta} = 1.08%, V{sub oc} = 0.49 V, J{sub sc} = 4.02 mA cm{sup -2}). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurements reveal that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs exhibit higher internal quantum efficiency ({approx}59.1%) than do the branch-free ZnO nanorods DSSC ({approx}52.5%). The charge transfer resistances at the ZnO/dye/electrolyte interfaces investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSC had high charge transfer resistance and a slightly longer electron lifetime, thus improving the solar-cell performance.

  4. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  5. Facile synthesis of highly branched jacks-like ZnO nanorods and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhagar, P.; Kumar, R. Saravana; Jung, June Hyuk; Cho, Woohyung; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Won, Jongok; Kang, Yong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Highly branched, jacks-like ZnO nanorods architecture were explored as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells, and their photovoltaic performance was compared with that of branch-free ZnO nanorods photoanodes. The highly branched network and large pores of the jacks-like ZnO nanorods electrodes enhances the charge transport, and electrolyte penetration. Thus, the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs render a higher conversion efficiency of η = 1.82% (V oc = 0.59 V, J sc = 5.52 mA cm -2 ) than that of the branch-free ZnO nanorods electrodes (η = 1.08%, V oc = 0.49 V, J sc = 4.02 mA cm -2 ). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurements reveal that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs exhibit higher internal quantum efficiency (∼59.1%) than do the branch-free ZnO nanorods DSSC (∼52.5%). The charge transfer resistances at the ZnO/dye/electrolyte interfaces investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSC had high charge transfer resistance and a slightly longer electron lifetime, thus improving the solar-cell performance.

  6. Automated detection and mapping of crown discolouration caused by jack pine budworm with 2.5 m resolution multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Donald G.; Cloney, Ed; Joyce, Steve P.

    2005-05-01

    Jack pine budworm ( Choristoneura pinus pinus (Free.)) is a native insect defoliator of mainly jack pine ( Pinus banksiana Lamb.) in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. Periodic outbreaks of this insect, which generally last two to three years, can cause growth loss and mortality and have an important impact ecologically and economically in terms of timber production and harvest. The jack pine budworm prefers to feed on current year needles. Their characteristic feeding habits cause discolouration or reddening of the canopy. This red colouration is used to map the distribution and intensity of defoliation that has taken place that year (current defoliation). An accurate and consistent map of the distribution and intensity of budworm defoliation (as represented by the red discolouration) at the stand and within stand level is desirable. Automated classification of multispectral imagery, such as is available from airborne and new high resolution satellite systems, was explored as a viable tool for objectively classifying current discolouration. Airborne multispectral imagery was acquired at a 2.5 m resolution with the Multispectral Electro-optical Imaging Sensor (MEIS). It recorded imagery in six nadir looking spectral bands specifically designed to detect discolouration caused by budworm and a near-infrared band viewing forward at 35° was also used. A 2200 nm middle infrared image was acquired with a Daedalus scanner. Training and test areas of different levels of discolouration were created based on field observations and a maximum likelihood supervized classification was used to estimate four classes of discolouration (nil-trace, light, moderate and severe). Good discrimination was achieved with an overall accuracy of 84% for the four discolouration levels. The moderate discolouration class was the poorest at 73%, because of confusion with both the severe and light classes. Accuracy on a stand basis was also good, and regional and within stand

  7. Analýza image produktu Jack Daniel´s Tennessee Fire na českém trhu

    OpenAIRE

    Papoušek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This Diploma Thesis focuses on a new alcoholic product in the Czech Republic - Jack Daniel's Tennessee Fire. It examines its popularity amongst consumers, its relation to other products in the range of the brand and to the main competitors of the other brands. For better interpretation of the results there is a questionnaire research. The aim of this work is the image analysis of this product in the Czech market and to offer potential recommendations for the brand in the future which come out...

  8. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and M. paniculata (L. Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2% followed by caryophyllene (9.5%. Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%, b-caryophyllene (11.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, b-elemene (8.9%, germacrene D (6.9% and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene (6.4%. The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

  9. Neoarchean metamorphism recorded in high-precision Sm-Nd isotope systematics of garnets from the Jack Hills (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, K. A.; Baxter, E. F.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Marschall, H.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of metasedimentary rocks from the Jack Hills, which host Earth's oldest known detrital minerals, have focused on zircon and occasionally monazite or xenotime, but no attention has been directed toward one of the most common mineral markers of metamorphism: garnet. Garnet can provide a record of the post-depositional, prograde metamorphic history of Archean metasedimentary rocks. Additionally, the use of a newly developed detrital garnet dating technique [1,2] may reveal information about pre-depositional metamorphism that could address lingering questions about the nature and timing of Earth's earliest tectonometamorphic events. Here we investigate garnet from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks to test whether they record in situ metamorphism or are a detrital relict of even older metamorphic events. We identified garnet in two bulk quartz-pebble conglomerate samples collected from the 'discovery' outcrop at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Electron microprobe analyses of polished grains and SEM measurements of unpolished grain surfaces are consistent, revealing garnet composition indicative of a single generation/population of predominantly almandine-spessartine solid solution (~10-35% mole fraction spessartine). Compositional maps of garnet grains reveal little zoning and no discontinuities, most consistent with a single growth event. Dating Jack Hills' garnet via the Sm-Nd system is possible due to continued development of small sample analysis techniques, including running NdO+ TIMS analyses with Ta2O5 activator [3] permitting Ma for two point isochrons between clean garnet (Sm/Nd ≥ 1.0) and their leached inclusion populations [2]. Four grouped garnet grain separates from one sample yield preliminary dates of 2703.6×6.0Ma, 2612.4×6.0Ma, 2605.0×5.5Ma, and 2567.3×8.3Ma, while the second sample yielded a date of 2579.6×4.6 Ma (2σ). Compositional and geochronologic data indicate likely in situ garnet growth during a late

  10. Characterization of inclusions in terrestrial impact formed zircon: Constraining the formation conditions of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltys, J. P.; Wielicki, M. M.; Sizemore, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the discovery and subsequent geochemical analysis of Hadean terrestrial material (e.g. detrital zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia), a dramatic paradigm shift has occurred in the hypothesized near surface conditions of the first 500 million years of Earth's evolution. From a hellish setting riddled with impactors and not fit for life to a much milder environment that may have been uniquely suitable for the origin of life. Geochemical analyses of these ancient materials have been used to suggest the presence of water at or near the surface as well as the existence of continental crust during the Hadean, both of which have been suggested as necessary for the origin of life. However, the intensity of extraterrestrial bombardment during the Hadean and the effects of such events on the origin of life remains poorly understood. Clearly, as evidenced by Phanerozoic impact events, extraterrestrial impactors have the potential to dramatically effect the environment, particularly the biosphere. Early Earth likely experienced multiple large impact events, as evidenced by the lunar record, however whether those impacts were sufficient to frustrate the origin of life remains an open question. Although multiple lines of evidence, including the inclusion population, suggest the formation of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills as crystallizing in an under-thrust environment from S-type magmas, a recent study has suggested their formation in an impact melt environment analogous to a portion of the Sudbury Igneous Complex at the Sudbury impact structure. To determine between these two formation scenarios we have under-taken an inclusion study of terrestrial impact formed zircon from four of the largest terrestrial impact structures (Sudbury, Canada; Manicouagan, Canada; Vredefort, South Africa; Morokweng, South Africa), to compare to the vast inclusion dataset that exists for Jack Hills zircon. Preliminary data suggests a different inclusion population, from Hadean zircon

  11. Debris flow from 2012 failure of moraine-dammed lake, Three Fingered Jack volcano, Mount Jefferson Wilderness, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Wills, Barton B.

    2014-01-01

    In the late spring or early summer of 2012, a flood emanated from a small moraine-dammed lake on the northeast flank of Three Fingered Jack in the Mount Jefferson Wilderness. Channel erosion or slope collapse breached the natural dam of the lake, leading to a sudden lowering of lake level by 2.8 m and discharge of 12,700 cubic meters (m3) of water. The resulting debris flow formed a bouldery deposit extending about 0.35 km downslope.

  12. Was Jack the Ripper a Slaughterman? Human-Animal Violence and the World’s Most Infamous Serial Killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew; Watson, Katherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The identity of Jack the Ripper remains one of the greatest unsolved crime mysteries in history. Jack was notorious both for the brutality of his murders and also for his habit of stealing organs from his victims. His speed and skill in doing so, in conditions of poor light and haste, fueled theories he was a surgeon. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch from one of his victims has revealed several key aspects that strongly suggest he had no professional surgical training. Instead, the technique used was more consistent with that of a slaughterhouse worker. There were many small-scale slaughterhouses in East London in the 1880s, within which conditions were harsh for animals and workers alike. The brutalizing effects of such work only add to concerns highlighted by modern research that those who commit violence on animals are more likely to target people. Modern slaughterhouses are more humane in some ways but more desensitizing in others, and sociological research has indicated that communities with slaughterhouses are more likely to experience the most violent of crimes. The implications for modern animal slaughtering, and our social reliance on slaughterhouses, are explored. Abstract Hundreds of theories exist concerning the identity of “Jack the Ripper”. His propensity for anatomical dissection with a knife—and in particular the rapid location and removal of specific organs—led some to speculate that he must have been surgically trained. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch of one of his victims has revealed several aspects of incisional technique highly inconsistent with professional surgical training. Related discrepancies are also apparent in the language used within the only letter from Jack considered to be probably authentic. The techniques he used to dispatch his victims and retrieve their organs were, however, highly consistent with techniques used within the slaughterhouses of the day. East London in the 1880s had

  13. Heritability and complex segregation analysis of deafness in Jack Russell Terriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strain George M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between patterns of pigmentation and deafness in the dog has a long-documented history, with reports dating back over one hundred years. Long suspected of having a genetic basis, the search for loci with a pronounced influence in the expression of hearing loss in the dog has yet to be successful. No studies in the dog to date have found a possible influence of a specific colour locus associated with deafness. The present study is intended to evaluate the heritability of deafness in the Jack Russell Terrier (JRT, characterize the mode of inheritance, and evaluate the existence of a sex, coat colour, or coat texture influence on the expression of sensorineural deafness. Results The estimation of heritability of deafness in the JRT was 0.22 when deafness was considered a binary (normal/deaf trait and 0.31 when deafness was considered a three-category (normal/unilateral/bilateral deafness. The influence of coat colour in the incidence of JRT deafness was statistically significant, indicating that dogs with more white are more likely to be deaf. The influence of sex or coat texture was not statistically significant in the incidence of JRT deafness. Complex segregation analysis revealed a model of a single locus with a large effect on the binary measure of hearing loss is not supported. Conclusion This is the first attempt, to our knowledge, to characterize a genetic component responsible for deafness in the JRT. The heritability of deafness in the JRT was found to be 0.22 and 0.31 considering deafness to be a two-category or three-category trait, respectively. There appears to be an influence of coat colour on the expression of deafness. In an attempt to characterize the mode of inheritance of deafness in the JRT, a model of a single locus with a large effect on hearing loss is not supported with this data. Further study is needed to determine if a single locus may be influencing deafness in the JRT. While the

  14. Hydraulic Shearing and Hydraulic Jacking Observed during Hydraulic Stimulations in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir in Pohang, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K. B.; Park, S.; Xie, L.; Kim, K. I.; Yoo, H.; Kim, K. Y.; Choi, J.; Yoon, K. S.; Yoon, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Song, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) relies on sufficient and irreversible enhancement of reservoir permeability through hydraulic stimulation and possibility of such desirable change of permeability is an open question that can undermine the universality of EGS concept. We report results of first hydraulic stimulation campaign conducted in two deep boreholes in fractured granodiorite geothermal reservoir in Pohang, Korea. Borehole PX-1, located at 4.22 km, was subjected to the injection of 3,907 m3 with flow rate of up to 18 kg/s followed by bleeding off of 1,207 m3. The borehole PX-2, located at 4.35 km, was subjected to the injection of 1,970 m3 with flow rate of up to 46 kg/sIn PX-1, a sharp distinct decline of wellhead pressure was observed at around 16 MPa of wellhead pressure which was similar to the predicted injection pressure to induce hydraulic shearing. Injectivity interpretation before and after the hydraulic shearing indicates that permanent increase of permeability was achieved by a factor of a few. In PX-2, however, injectivity was very small and hydraulic shearing was not observed due possibly to the near wellbore damage made by the remedying process of lost circulation such as using lost circulation material during drilling. Flow rate of larger than 40 kg/s was achieved at very high well head pressure of nearly 90 MPa. Hydraulic jacking, that is reversible opening and closure of fracture with change of injection pressure, was clearly observed. Although sharp increase of permeability due to fracture opening was achieved with elevated injection pressure, the increased permeability was reversed with decreased injection pressure.Two contrasting response observed in the same reservoir at two different boreholes which is apart only 600 m apart provide important implication that can be used for the stimulation strategy for EGS.This work was supported by the New and Renewable Energy Technology Development Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology

  15. Paleomagnetism and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility study of the Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (Nevada, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, S.; Petronis, M. S.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gordon, L.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (JST) outcrops across the western Mina Deflection accommodation zone, west-central Nevada and into eastern California. Previously, the source location for the JST was unknown, yet recent studies northwest of Mono Lake, CA have identified a relatively un-rotated structural block in which to reference the paleomagnetic data. Although new studies have indicated that this block may be rotated up to 13º, we argue that the probable source area is located near the Bodie Hills, CA. At this site, the paleomagnetic reference direction is D = 353°, I = 43°, α95 = 7.7° (Carlson et al, 2013). Based on these data, the JST can be used to measure absolute vertical-axis rotation as well as enable reconstruction of the paleo-topography using the corrected anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. A total of 19 sites were sampled to constrain Cenozoic to recent vertical axis rotation within the region and AMS experiments were conducted to determine the flow direction of the JST. Curie point estimates indicate that the JST ranges in titanium concentration from 0.042 to 1.10, indicating a low to moderate titanomagnetite phase (Akimoto, 1962). Demagnetization experiments reveal mean destructive fields of the NRM ranging between 15mT and 40mT suggesting that both multi-domain to pseudo-single domain grains are the dominant ferromagnetic phases that carry the remanence and AMS fabric. Preliminary paleomagnetic data yield stable single component demagnetization behavior for most sites that, after structural correction, indicate clockwise vertical axis rotation ranging from +20°± 10° to +60°± 11° between multiple fault blocks. The uncorrected AMS data yield oblate magnetic fabrics that can be used to infer the transport direction, source region, and paleovalley geometry of the JST. These data are tentatively interpreted to indicate west to east transport of the JST across the Mono Basin region into the Mina Deflection that was erupted and

  16. Epiberberine, a natural protoberberine alkaloid, inhibits urease of Helicobacter pylori and jack bean: Susceptibility and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lihua; Li, Cailan; Chen, Hanbin; Mo, Zhizhun; Zhou, Jiangtao; Liu, Yuhong; Ma, Zhilin; Xu, Yuyao; Yang, Xiaobo; Xie, Jianhui; Su, Ziren

    2017-12-15

    In our previous study, Rhizoma Coptidis extract was found to exert more potent inhibitory effect than its major component berberine towards urease from Helicobacter pylori (HPU) and jack bean (JBU). In continuation of our work, the present study was designed to further comparatively investigate the urease inhibitory activities of five major protoberberine alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis, namely berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorhizine to identify the bioactive constituent, and illuminate the potential mechanism of action. Results indicated that the five protoberberine alkaloids acted as concentration-dependent inactivators of urease with IC 50 values ranging between 3.0 and 5087μM for HPU and 2.3->10,000μM for JBU, respectively. Notably, epiberberine (EB) was found to be the most potent inhibitor against both ureases with IC 50 values of 3.0±0.01μM for HPU and 2.3±0.01μM for JBU, which was more effective than the standard urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (83±0.01μM for HPU and 22±0.01μM for JBU, respectively). Further kinetic analysis revealed that the type of EB inhibition against HPU was slow-binding and uncompetitive, with K i of 10.6±0.01μM, while slow-binding and competitive against JBU with K i of 4.6±0.01μM. Addition of thiol reagents, such as l-cysteine, glutathione and dithiothreitol, significantly abolished the inhibition, while Ni 2+ competitive inhibitors, boric acid and sodium fluoride, synergetically inhibited urease with EB, indicating the obligatory role of the active site sulfhydryl group for the inhibition. In addition, binding of EB with the urease proved to be reversible, as about 65% and 90% enzymatic activity of HPU and JBU, respectively, could be restored by dithiothreitol application. These findings highlighted the potential role of Rhizoma Coptidis protoberberine alkaloids, especially EB, as a lead urease inhibitor in the treatment of diseases associated with ureolytic bacteria. Thus, EB had good

  17. Development and simulation of the air-jack for emergency like a huge disaster; Kyujoyo eajakki no kaihatsu to sono simyureshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuyama, Kunihisa.; Ogata, Yuji.; Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Hashizume, Kiyoshi.; Nishida, Kenjiro. [Nippon Kayaku Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-28

    When a disaster is so huge like Kobe earthquake, every energy line is killed. Even if we want to help the sufferers, we have no energy to move machines to help them. As collapsed houses are very heavy, we need machines to remove collapsed stuff. Explosives include a lot of energy in themselves. So, an air-jack which has explosives inside was developed to remove collapsed stuff on suffered people. A simple air-jack was made and tested. One concrete block, 50cm x 50cm x 50cm, was lifted by the simple air-jack. A simulation of lifting the concrete block was carried out with a programme ANSYS on the super computer. (author)

  18. Preliminary results of the empirical validation of daily increments in otoliths of jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus murphyi (Nichols, 1920 marked with oxytetracycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araya

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of microincrement formation in sagittae otoliths of jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus was validated using experiments on captive fish. Adult jack mackerel were injected with a dose of 100 mg of oxytetracycline/kg of fish. A second injection was performed 30 days later. The fish were then sacrificed and their sagittae otoliths were extracted. Thin sections of the otoliths were prepared and observed through an epifluorescent microscope using ultraviolet light. Two fluorescent marks corresponding to the two injections were clearly visible. The average number of microincrements between the two fluorescent marks was 29 (n=10; S.D.=1.63 and the median was 29.3. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated that this value was not significantly different from 30. This result indicates that microincrements in otoliths of adult jack mackerel of between 28.4 and 37.7 cm fork length are formed with a daily frequency.

  19. Biochemical components of seminal plasma and their correlation to the fresh seminal characteristics in Marwari stallions and Poitou jacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumala Rao Talluri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. Materials and Methods: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June. From the collected semen ejaculates, we estimated the values of some biochemical components, viz., total protein content, total lipid content, and enzymes such as glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as well as concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total calcium (Ca, and phosphorus (P and correlations among different seminal parameters were statistically examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: In this study, we found positive correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and GOT, GPT, ALP and ACP for both the group stallions. Significant correlation between motility and glucose, GOT and GPT could be an indication for their role metabolism and protection against free radicals to the spermatozoa. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that there is a positive correlation between some biochemical values such as glucose, Ca, ALP, and LDH and seminal parameters which play a key role in capacitation and onward movement of the spermatozoa.

  20. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species.

  1. Durable Reliability of Jack-up Platforms. The impact of Fatigue, Fracture and Effect of Extreme Environmental Loads on the Structural Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabakhty, N.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of factors is governing the operational conditions of jack-up platforms. The platforms are moved to different locations, which are causing changes in water depth, environmental and seabed conditions, drilling depths, payload etc. Insight should be gained in how the different factors affect

  2. Movable chain jacks and winches: case study of PETROBRAS' P58/)62and ENI's Goliat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindheim, Reidar [Aker Pusnes AS, Arendal (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    Recently, Aker Solutions delivered a movable chain jack system to PETROBRAS's P58/P62 FPSOs and a movable windlass system to ENI's Goliat FPSO. This paper highlights the main differences between the two systems and when it is beneficial to employ movable systems. There are many parameters to consider in determining which system to use - also a traditional system involving a single winch or chain jack per mooring line may in many cases be preferred. The movable chain jack concept is designed to operate multiple mooring lines within the same cluster. A single chain jack is lifted by a skidding gantry and moved to the next mooring line and so forth. Installation and messenger chains are moved using a large sliding chain locker allowing for later offloading of the surplus chain. The movable windlass system is also designed to operate multiple mooring lines within the same cluster. However, in this case the winch is rotary and can operate via electric or hydraulic power. One of the main considerations is to move the windlass and keep the mooring lines intact without cutting them. (author)

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of spine, skin and rind of Jack fruit peel - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, M; Ruckmani, A; Saravanan, R; Lakshmipathy Prabhu, R

    2017-10-09

    The present study was conducted to identify the chemical constituents and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of crude ethanolic extracts of spine, skin and rind of jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) peel. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were assessed using Folin's Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods which revealed 316, 355 and 382 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of polyphenol and 96.7, 131.6 and 164.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of flavonoid in spine, skin and rind, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity of all three extracts was comparable to diclofenac in vitro and in vivo studies. Skin exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity, rind had preferential inhibition on Cyclooxygenase-2 and spine and skin inhibited both Cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 in vitro.

  4. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and M. paniculata (L. Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2% followed by caryophyllene (9.5%. Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%, beta-caryophyllene (11.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, beta-elemene (8.9%, germacrene D (6.9% and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene (6.4%. The composi-tions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

  5. What can zircon ages from the Jack Hills detrital zircon suite really tell us about Hadean geodynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    As the only direct sample of the Hadean Earth, detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been the subject of intense investigation over the almost three decades since their discovery. A wide variety of geochemical and isotopic analyses of these grains, as well as their mineral inclusions, have been used variously to support two fundamentally different models for Hadean geodynamics: (i) Some form of (not necessarily modern-style) plate recycling generating felsic (continental-type?) crust at the boundaries [1, 2], or conversely (ii) the persistence of a long-lived, stagnant basaltic lid within which magmatism occurred as a result of internal temperature perturbations and/or impacts [3, 4], a model also generally consistent with a wide range of observations from post-Hadean geochemical reservoirs. Despite the considerable time and resources expended, the majority of these studies uncritically accept the individual U-Pb zircon ages, even though their veracity is key to many of the interpretations [5, 6]. We report here the results of an in-depth evaluation of all published (and new) U-Pb ages from the Jack Hills zircon suite in order to define age populations that can be used with a high degree of confidence in geodynamic interpretations. A notable problem in the interpretation of U-Pb data from ancient zircon grains (including those as young as the Neoarchean) is that disturbance of the systematics even several 100 Ma after crystallization causes data to spread along the concordia curve without becoming discernably discordant within the relatively large error bounds associated with U/Pb ages from in situ dating methods (e.g. SIMS). While 207Pb/206Pb ages are typically more precise, individually they provide no means to detect Pb-loss-induced younging. However, if two or preferably more analyses have been made in the same zircon growth zone, a reasonable evaluation of the possibility of Pb-loss can be made. In the available Jack Hills zircon

  6. Hi-Jack: a novel computational framework for pathway-based inference of host–pathogen interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2015-03-09

    Motivation: Pathogens infect their host and hijack the host machinery to produce more progeny pathogens. Obligate intracellular pathogens, in particular, require resources of the host to replicate. Therefore, infections by these pathogens lead to alterations in the metabolism of the host, shifting in favor of pathogen protein production. Some computational identification of mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions have been proposed, but it seems the problem has yet to be approached from the metabolite-hijacking angle. Results: We propose a novel computational framework, Hi-Jack, for inferring pathway-based interactions between a host and a pathogen that relies on the idea of metabolite hijacking. Hi-Jack searches metabolic network data from hosts and pathogens, and identifies candidate reactions where hijacking occurs. A novel scoring function ranks candidate hijacked reactions and identifies pathways in the host that interact with pathways in the pathogen, as well as the associated frequent hijacked metabolites. We also describe host-pathogen interaction principles that can be used in the future for subsequent studies. Our case study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) revealed pathways in human-e.g. carbohydrate metabolism, lipids metabolism and pathways related to amino acids metabolism-that are likely to be hijacked by the pathogen. In addition, we report interesting potential pathway interconnections between human and Mtb such as linkage of human fatty acid biosynthesis with Mtb biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, or linkage of human pentose phosphate pathway with lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Mtb. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle’s historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  8. Effect of a previous high hydrostatic pressure treatment on lipid damage in chilled Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maluenda, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipid damage evolution was analyzed in chilled Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi previously treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP technology. Different pressure levels and pressure holding times were tested. In addition, fish corresponding to pre- and post-rigor mortis (RM stages were comparatively studied. Previous HHP treatment led to a marked lipid hydrolysis inhibition in chilled fish. Increasing the pressure level and pressure holding time led to a lower free fatty acid content, with the effect of pressure being more relevant. According to the analysis of different types of lipid oxidation indexes, no effect of the previous HHP treatment on the lipid oxidation development could be determined in chilled jack mackerel. Concerning the effect of the RM stage of raw fish, a higher primary and secondary lipid oxidation development was observed in fish corresponding to the post-RM condition throughout the chilled storage; although a definite effect on lipid hydrolysis could not be found.Se estudió la evolución de la alteración lipídica en jurel chileno (Trachurus murphyi refrigerado previamente tratado a altas presiones hidrostáticas (HHP. Se aplicaron distintos valores de presión y tiempo de presurización; asimismo, se analizó de forma comparativa la respuesta al proceso del pescado inicial en estados pre- y post-rigor mortis (RM. El tratamiento previo por HHP produjo inhibición de la hidrólisis lipídica en pescado refrigerado, siendo más intenso el efecto de la presión que el del tiempo de presurización. De acuerdo con el análisis de distintos índices de oxidación, no se concluyó un efecto determinante sobre la oxidación lipídica por parte del tratamiento previo de HHP. En relación al efecto del estado de RM del pescado inicial, se observó una oxidación primaria y secundaria mayor en jurel correspondiente a la condición post-RM durante la conservación en refrigeración; sin embargo, no se detectó un efecto

  9. Comparative toxic effects of some xenobiotics on the germination and early seedling growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. ) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, P; Vladut, R

    1981-12-01

    Seeds of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) were germinated in homogeneous emulsions or aqueous tank-mix solutions of fenitrothion or Matacil and their respective adjuvants: Atlox and Aerotex, or diluent oil No. 585 and nonylphenol. Percentage and peak germination values, water uptake, sprout length, ATP content, and morphological modifications were recorded from 0 to 14 or 21 days. Apart from 100 ppm fenitrothion which stimulated germination values, germination in jack pine was only marginally affected by any of the treatments; in contrast, white birch was negatively affected by all treatments. The most sensitive parameters of toxicity were the sprout length and ATP content after 14 days growth. Aberrant hypocotyl/root length ratios were evidenced in pine seeds after exposure to xenobiotic treatments which did not affect the germinative capacity of seeds. ATP content in the 14-day-old pine and birch seedlings was consistently higher than controls in all treatment sets. (Refs. 29).

  10. The web cast of the Nobel Prize of Physics of 2008, transmitted direct from Stockholm to the Globe of Science at CERN. Followed by a discussion among CERN theorists, with the participation of Jack Steinberger and John Ellis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2008-01-01

    The web cast of the Nobel Prize of Physics of 2008, transmitted direct from Stockholm to the Globe of Science at CERN. Followed by a discussion among CERN theorists, with the participation of Jack Steinberger and John Ellis.

  11. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in...

  12. NRDA-processed CTD data from the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 3 Leg 1, collected from 2010-06-12 to 2010-06-20, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Jack Fitz, Cruise 03, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  13. NRDA-processed CTD data from the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 2 Leg 1, collected from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-31, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128138)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Jack Fitz, Cruise 02, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  14. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-12 to 2010-06-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-12 to 2010-06-20 in...

  15. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of motor unit for the jacks for the LHC low-beta quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 134 motor units for the jacks for the LHC low-beta quadrupoles. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with ZTS VVU KOSICE (SK), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 134 motor units for a total amount of 1 266 674 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  16. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.; Dang, Q-L.

    2005-01-01

    The interactive effects of soil temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the photosynthetic functions of white birch and jack pine were investigated. Elevated carbon dioxide was found to significantly decrease the allocation of electron transport to photorespiration in both species by increasing electron allocation to Rubisco carboxylation. Photosynthetic down-regulation occurred in both species after four months in elevated carbon dioxide as evidenced by decreases in maximal carboxylation rate which were unaffected by soil temperature. 50 refs., 5 figs

  17. Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography method for quantitation of L-proline in 20 % tincture from Murraya paniculata L. Jack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varona Torres, Noel; Gutierrez Gaiten, Yamilet Irene; Casado Martin, Celia Magaly

    2014-01-01

    The search for analytical methods that may monitor the quality of drugs is an issue of great interest in the pharmaceutical field, even more if they are directed to studying chemical markers of medicinal plants, their extracts and phytomedicines. To validate a high-resolution liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of the L-proline amino acid as a marker substance in Murraya paniculata L. Jack tincture

  18. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen Conifer Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, F.; Huner, N.; Ensminger, I.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack ...

  19. Pervasive remagnetization of detrital zircon host rocks in the Jack Hills, Western Australia and implications for records of the early geodynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Maloof, Adam C.; Tailby, Nicholas; Ramezani, Jahandar; Fu, Roger R.; Hanus, Veronica; Trail, Dustin; Bruce Watson, E.; Harrison, T. Mark; Bowring, Samuel A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Coe, Robert S.

    2015-11-01

    It currently is unknown when Earth's dynamo magnetic field originated. Paleomagnetic studies indicate that a field with an intensity similar to that of the present day existed 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). Detrital zircon crystals found in the Jack Hills of Western Australia are some of the very few samples known to substantially predate this time. With crystallization ages ranging from 3.0-4.38 Ga, these zircons might preserve a record of the missing first billion years of Earth's magnetic field history. However, a key unknown is the age and origin of magnetization in the Jack Hills zircons. The identification of >3.9 Ga (i.e., Hadean) field records requires first establishing that the zircons have avoided remagnetization since being deposited in quartz-rich conglomerates at 2.65-3.05 Ga. To address this issue, we have conducted paleomagnetic conglomerate, baked contact, and fold tests in combination with U-Pb geochronology to establish the timing of the metamorphic and alteration events and the peak temperatures experienced by the zircon host rocks. These tests include the first conglomerate test directly on the Hadean-zircon bearing conglomerate at Erawandoo Hill. Although we observed little evidence for remagnetization by recent lightning strikes, we found that the Hadean zircon-bearing rocks and surrounding region have been pervasively remagnetized, with the final major overprinting likely due to thermal and/or aqueous effects from the emplacement of the Warakurna large igneous province at ∼1070 million years ago (Ma). Although localized regions of the Jack Hills might have escaped complete remagnetization, there currently is no robust evidence for pre-depositional (>3.0 Ga) magnetization in the Jack Hills detrital zircons.

  20. X-ray diffraction, XAFS and scanning electron microscopy study of otolith of a crevalle jack fish (caranx hippos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha [Bailey Hall 703, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 S. Wabash Avenue, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)]. E-mail: sidpattanaik@yahoo.com

    2005-04-01

    The otolith of a crevalle jack fish (caranx hippos) has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The results suggest that the biomineralization of otolith occurs predominantly in the aragonite phase. A detailed X-ray Rietveld analysis showed that the first shell Ca-O distances in otolith lay in the range 2.371-2.652 A, with each calcium atom coordinated to 9 oxygen atoms. While the average Ca-O distance remains same in both otolith and aragonite, certain Ca-O distances in otolith differ markedly from those in aragonite. Such difference reflects the remarkable degree of control that the protein matrix exercised over packing of calcium and carbonate ions to promote growth of rarer aragonite otolith. In view of the complex coordination chemistry of calcium in otoliths, the EXAFS analysis was limited to obtaining local atomic environment about calcium up to the first Ca-O shell. EXAFS data showed an asymmetric distribution of Ca-O bond distances with the centroid of distribution at 2.48 A, which is closer to the average Ca-O distance in aragonite than in calcite. The asymmetry in the Ca-O peak is consistent with an apparent departure of Ca-O distances from a near regular distribution, as expected of an aragonite otolith.

  1. X-ray diffraction, XAFS and scanning electron microscopy study of otolith of a crevalle jack fish (caranx hippos)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha

    2005-01-01

    The otolith of a crevalle jack fish (caranx hippos) has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The results suggest that the biomineralization of otolith occurs predominantly in the aragonite phase. A detailed X-ray Rietveld analysis showed that the first shell Ca-O distances in otolith lay in the range 2.371-2.652 A, with each calcium atom coordinated to 9 oxygen atoms. While the average Ca-O distance remains same in both otolith and aragonite, certain Ca-O distances in otolith differ markedly from those in aragonite. Such difference reflects the remarkable degree of control that the protein matrix exercised over packing of calcium and carbonate ions to promote growth of rarer aragonite otolith. In view of the complex coordination chemistry of calcium in otoliths, the EXAFS analysis was limited to obtaining local atomic environment about calcium up to the first Ca-O shell. EXAFS data showed an asymmetric distribution of Ca-O bond distances with the centroid of distribution at 2.48 A, which is closer to the average Ca-O distance in aragonite than in calcite. The asymmetry in the Ca-O peak is consistent with an apparent departure of Ca-O distances from a near regular distribution, as expected of an aragonite otolith

  2. Conformational change results in loss of enzymatic activity of jack bean urease on its interaction with silver nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuvel, Shobana; Subramanian, Balakumar; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2015-10-01

    Urease is an enzyme produced by microbes such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. Plants also produce this enzyme. Urease action splits urea into ammonia and carbamate. This action is having important implications in agro-chemical, medicinal and environment. Therefore there is always a constant search for new and novel compounds which could inhibit this enzyme. Here we have studied the interaction of jack bean urease (JBU) with silver nanoparticle to analyze the influence of the resultant protein corona formation on the catalytic property of JBU. Several techniques like UV-Vis, gel shift assay and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize this interaction. Urease activity assay suggests that the protein corona formation inhibits the enzymatic action of JBU. The loss of enzymatic action could be either due to the nanoparticle blocking the active site of JBU or a conformational change in the protein. The CD spectra of JBU-AgNP complexes clearly revealed significant changes in the secondary structural composition of the JBU and this could be the reason for the loss of enzymatic activity of JBU. This study revealed an interesting observation, where the interaction of AgNP with JBU resulted destabilization of hexameric nature of JBU which is otherwise highly stable. The results of the present study could be useful in the development of nanoparticle based material for inhibiting the ureolytic activity of ureases in different fields.

  3. Tree rings provide early warning signals of jack pine mortality across a moisture gradient in the southern boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamet, S. D.; Chun, K. P.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Barr, A. G.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2015-08-01

    Recent declines in productivity and tree survival have been widely observed in boreal forests. We used early warning signals (EWS) in tree ring data to anticipate premature mortality in jack pine (Pinus banksiana)—an extensive and dominant species occurring across the moisture-limited southern boreal forest in North America. We sampled tree rings from 113 living and 84 dead trees in three soil moisture regimes (subxeric, submesic, subhygric) in central Saskatchewan, Canada. We reconstructed annual increments of tree basal area to investigate (1) whether we could detect EWS related to mortality of individual trees, and (2) how water availability and tree growth history may explain the mortality warning signs. EWS were evident as punctuated changes in growth patterns prior to transition to an alternative state of reduced growth before dying. This transition was likely triggered by a combination of severe drought and insect outbreak. Higher moisture availability associated with a soil moisture gradient did not appear to reduce tree sensitivity to stress-induced mortality. Our results suggest tree rings offer considerable potential for detecting critical transitions in tree growth, which are linked to premature mortality.

  4. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  5. Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (soil respiration), net CO2 exchange after photosynthetic uptake by ground-cover plants, and soil CO2 concentration versus depth below land surface were measured at four ages of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forest in central Saskatchewan. Soil respiration was smallest at a clear-cut site, largest in an 8-year-old stand, and decreased with stand age in 20-year-old and mature (60-75 years old) stands during May-September 1994 (12.1, 34.6, 31.5, and 24.9 mol C??m-2, respectively). Simulations of soil respiration at each stand based on continuously recorded soil temperature were within one standard deviation of measured flux for 48 of 52 measurement periods, but were 10%-30% less than linear interpolations of measured flux for the season. This was probably due to decreased soil respiration at night modeled by the temperature-flux relationships, but not documented by daytime chamber measurements. CO2 uptake by ground-cover plants ranged from 0 at the clear-cut site to 29, 25, and 9% of total growing season soil respiration at the 8-year, 20-year, and mature stands. CO2 concentrations were as great as 7150 ppmv in the upper 1 m of unsaturated zone and were proportional to measured soil respiration.

  6. White Anglo-Saxon hopes and black Americans' Atlantic dreams: Jack Johnson and the British boxing colour bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runstedtler, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the controversy surrounding Jack Johnson's proposed world heavyweight title fight against the British champion Bombardier Billy Wells in London (1911). In juxtaposing African Americans' often glowing discussions of European tolerance with the actual white resistance the black champion faced in Britain, including the Home Office's eventual prohibition of the match, the article explores the period's transnational discourses of race and citizenship. Indeed, as white sportsmen on both sides of the Atlantic joined together in their search for a "White Hope" to unseat Johnson, the boxing ring became an important cultural arena for interracial debates over the political and social divisions between white citizens and nonwhite subjects. Although African Americans had high hopes for their hero's European sojourn, the British backlash against the Johnson-Wells match underscored the fact that their local experiences of racial oppression were just one facet of a much broader global problem. At the same time, the proposed prizefight also made the specter of interracial conflict in the colonies all the more tangible in the British capital, provoking public discussions about the merits of U.S. racial segregation, along with the need for white Anglo-Saxon solidarity around the world. Thus, this article not only exposes the underlying connections between American Jim Crow and the racialized fault lines of British imperialism, but it also traces the "tense and tender ties" linking U.S. and African American history with the new imperial history and postcolonial studies.

  7. Detrital Zircons From the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer, Western Australia: Geochronological, Morphological, and Geochemical Evidence for Diverse >4000 Ma Source Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J. L.; Myers, J. S.; Sylvester, P. J.; Cox, R. A.

    2004-05-01

    Detrital zircons from all major clastic units in the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer metasedimentary belts, Western Australia, were analyzed for morphology, internal zoning, inclusion mineralogy, age, and trace element concentrations (latter two obtained by laser-ablation microprobe ICPMS). The results show that zircons were derived from a wide diversity of rocks, including previously described, >4000 Ma grains that are older than any known terrestrial rocks. In three metaconglomerate samples from the western Jack Hills, 4200-3800 Ma zircons ("old grains") comprise 14% of the population, 3800-3600 Ma grains form only 2%, and 3550-3250 Ma zircons ("young grains") are dominant with a significant peak at 3380 Ma. Old and young grains are interpreted as being from similar rock types because they are indistinguishable in trace element concentrations, size (several hundred microns), morphology (subequant, typically fragmented), internal zoning (typically both oscillatory and sector), and U concentration (50-200 ppm). Many of these properties suggest an intermediate plutonic source, whereas an evolved granitic source was previously interpreted from rare-earth element and oxygen isotope data. Detrital zircons in quartzites and metaconglomerates at Mount Narryer differ significantly from zircons from the western Jack Hills. Old grains comprise only 3% (most of which are 4200-4100 Ma), 3800-3600 Ma zircons form 31%, and there are peaks at 3650, 3600, and 3500 Ma. Old and young grains have similar properties that suggest granitic sources, such as elongate prismatic morphology, oscillatory zoning, high U concentrations (100-600 ppm), and xenotime and monazite inclusions. Trace element concentrations are broadly similar to those in Jack Hills zircons, with notable exceptions being generally higher U, smaller Ce and Eu anomalies, and lower Nb/Ta. It is considered unlikely that Jack Hills zircons were derived from granitic gneisses that surround the metasedimentary belts because

  8. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuramirah Azizan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively, and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively. Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1% and eugenol (8.1%, while α-humulene (5.5% and germacrene D (7.7% were dominant in F. deltoidea. The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63–2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven

  9. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nuramirah; Mohd Said, Shahida; Zainal Abidin, Zamirah; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-12-05

    In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus salivarius , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum . Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)). Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively), and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively). Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1%) and eugenol (8.1%), while α-humulene (5.5%) and germacrene D (7.7%) were dominant in F. deltoidea . The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63-2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven strains

  10. Engineering task plan for upgrades to the leveling jacks on core sample trucks number 3 and 4; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOSTELNIK, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Characterizing the waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site is accomplished by obtaining a representative core sample for analysis. Core sampling is one of the numerous techniques that have been developed for use given the environmental and field conditions at the Hanford Site. Core sampling is currently accomplished using either Push Mode Core Sample Truck No.1 or; Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks No.2, 3 or 4. Past analysis (WHC 1994) has indicated that the Core Sample Truck (CST) leveling jacks are structurally inadequate when lateral loads are applied. WHC 1994 identifies many areas where failure could occur. All these failures are based on exceeding the allowable stresses listed in the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code. The mode of failure is for the outrigger attachments to the truck frame to fail resulting in dropping of the CST and possible overturning (Ref. Ziada and Hundal, 1996). Out of level deployment of the truck can exceed the code allowable stresses in the structure. Calculations have been performed to establish limits for maintaining the truck level when lifting. The calculations and the associated limits are included in appendix A. The need for future operations of the CSTS is limited. Sampling is expected to be complete in FY-2001. Since there is limited time at risk for continued use of the CSTS with the leveling controls without correcting the structural problems, there are several design changes that could give incremental improvements to the operational safety of the CSTS with limited impact on available operating time. The improvements focus on making the truck easier to control during lifting and leveling. Not all of the tasks identified in this ETP need to be performed. Each task alone can improve the safety. This engineering task plan is the management plan document for implementing the necessary additional structural analysis. Any additional changes to meet requirements of standing orders shall require a

  11. Influences of vegetation structure and elevation on CO2 uptake in a mature jack pine forest in Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasmer, L.; McCaughey, H.; Treitz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) is often used to measure the movement and direction of energy and trace gas concentrations in ecosystems. Data from EC networks are often combined with remote sensing data and ecosystem models in order to assess the spatial and temporal variability of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchanges within specific areas of interest. This study presented a new method of determining changes in the structural characteristics of biomass and elevation. Lidar was used within the contours of half-hourly flux footprint areas to characterize vegetation structure and elevation. The influences of vegetation structure and elevation on CO 2 concentrations were measured by EC and Lidar measurements for 3 mature growing periods at a mature jack pine site in Saskatchewan. Mensuration data were collected over 2 periods. Meteorological, CO 2 , and H2O flux measurements were collected for 30 minute periods each day. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the influence of meteorological variables on vegetation structure. Footprint contour lines were then layered onto the canopy height models derived by the lidar data. Multiple regression equations were used to determine net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) using meteorological variables, canopy fractional cover; and elevation, as well as the results obtained from a Landsberg equation. The study showed that differences in NEP variability were influenced by differences in canopy and ground surface characteristics within the site. EC measurements underestimated gross CO 2 fluxes by 5 per cent as the biomass was lower within the immediate vicinity of the EC network. It was concluded that canopy structures and elevation are important factors for determining annual carbon balances. 36 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  12. Proterozoic events recorded in quartzite cobbles at Jack Hills, Western Australia: New constraints on sedimentation and source of > 4 Ga zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Marion L.; Wilde, Simon A.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Pidgeon, Robert T.

    2010-03-01

    Rare heavy mineral bands within quartzite cobbles were identified in two conglomerate units within the Jack Hills belt, Western Australia. Seven zircon-bearing cobbles were analysed from one location (site 152) and three from another (site 154), both approximately 1 km west of the site where zircons in excess of 4 Ga are abundant (W74 'discovery' site). Individual pebbles from the 152 site reveal three distinctive features, containing either zircons > 3.0 Ga in age, 4 Ga was discovered from the entire suite of pebbles, in contrast to the well-studied W74 site. A single detrital zircon with an age of 1220 ± 42 Ma from location 152 is the youngest grain so far reported from sedimentary rocks at Jack Hills. It shows magmatic oscillatory zoning and thus implies at least two sedimentary cycles within the Proterozoic; requiring erosion of an igneous precursor, incorporation into a clastic sediment, induration and subsequent erosion and transport to be hosted in the conglomerate. The nearest source for rocks of this age is the Bangemall Supergroup in the Collier Basin, ˜ 100 km northeast in the Capricorn Orogen. This would imply tectonic interleaving of originally more extensive Bangemall rocks, possibly related to activity along the Cargarah Shear Zone that traverses the Jack Hills belt. The lack of > 4.1 Ga zircons in the pebbles is highly significant, suggesting the immediate source of ancient zircons was no longer present at the Earth's surface. This equates with a general lack of ancient crystals noted in rocks that contain Proterozoic zircons from previous studies and implies that such grains diminish in number as earlier sedimentary rocks were successively recycled.

  13. Analysis of ITER NbTi and Nb3Sn CICCs experimental minimum quench energy with JackPot, MCM and THEA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, T.; Duchateau, J. L.; Breschi, M.; Devred, A.; Nijhuis, A.

    2017-09-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) for ITER magnets are subjected to fast changing magnetic fields during the plasma-operating scenario. In order to anticipate the limitations of conductors under the foreseen operating conditions, it is essential to have a better understanding of the stability margin of magnets. In the last decade ITER has launched a campaign for characterization of several types of NbTi and Nb3Sn CICCs comprising quench tests with a singular sine wave fast magnetic field pulse and relatively small amplitude. The stability tests, performed in the SULTAN facility, were reproduced and analyzed using two codes: JackPot-AC/DC, an electromagnetic-thermal numerical model for CICCs, developed at the University of Twente (van Lanen and Nijhuis 2010 Cryogenics 50 139-148) and multi-constant-model (MCM) (Turck and Zani 2010 Cryogenics 50 443-9), an analytical model for CICCs coupling losses. The outputs of both codes were combined with thermal, hydraulic and electric analysis of superconducting cables to predict the minimum quench energy (MQE) (Bottura et al 2000 Cryogenics 40 617-26). The experimental AC loss results were used to calibrate the JackPot and MCM models and to reproduce the energy deposited in the cable during an MQE test. The agreement between experiments and models confirm a good comprehension of the various CICCs thermal and electromagnetic phenomena. The differences between the analytical MCM and numerical JackPot approaches are discussed. The results provide a good basis for further investigation of CICC stability under plasma scenario conditions using magnetic field pulses with lower ramp rate and higher amplitude.

  14. Variability in Light Use Efficiency With Changes in Vegetation Structure and Understory, Using a Temporally Changing Flux Footprint at the BERMS Old Jack Pine Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Barr, A.; Black, A.; Hopkinson, C.; Kljun, N.; McCaughey, H.; Treitz, P.; Shashkov, A.; Zha, T.

    2006-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing algorithms of vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP) often include a light use efficiency (LUE) term that varies depending on meteorological constraints and biome type. LUE is defined as the carbon fixed per mole of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by the canopy (APAR). LUE estimated using GPP from eddy covariance data is complex and changes over short time periods as the available resources (soil moisture, light, temperature, and nitrogen) vary. An understanding of the variability in LUE will improve local to regional estimates of GPP within complex vegetated land cover types using the variety of remote sensing technologies now available. This study examines variability in LUE and GPP at a mature jack pine site within the Fluxnet-Canada BERMS (Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites) study area using a flux footprint model (Kljun et al. 2004) and airborne lidar data (e.g. Chasmer et al. 2006). Three separate weeks of high frequency eddy covariance data are analyzed for June, July, and August 2002 to capture changes in photosynthesis and carbon uptake through the growing season with variations in precipitation and soil moisture. Footprint estimates are derived in half-hourly resolution to provide information on the spatial and temporal variation of the sources of measured C-fluxes. Airborne lidar directly samples ground topography and vegetation structure (i.e., canopy and understory height, gaps between trees, base of canopy), and may provide information on soil moisture and drainage at the ground surface via absorbed and reflected laser pulse energy. Two questions will be addressed specific to net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of the site as a whole, including parts of the ecosystem that may not be properly represented using eddy covariance techniques. These are: 1. How does C uptake and respiration spatially and temporally vary across the jack pine site? 2. How do vegetation characteristics vary with

  15. Growth of the Pacific jack Caranx caninus (Pisces: Carangidae from the coast of Colima, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Espino Barr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific jack Caranx caninus is a common species fished by artisanal fishermen off the coast of Colima, México. During 2002, monthly samples of morphometric data and otoliths were taken to determine age and growth. Seven age groups were identified. The highest growth, 14.4 cm, takes place during the first year of life. During the second year, C. caninus grows 11.76 cm; the third year 9.61 cm; the fourth 7.85 cm; the fifth 6.41 cm and sixth year 5.24 cm. The constants of von Bertalanffy´s growth equation were: L∞ = 83.26 cm, W∞ = 18.138 g, K = 0.202, t o = -0.283 and A0.95 = 15 years. Growth curves of other species of the same genus were calculated in order to compare them with the one obtained in the present work. The gonadosomatic index presented higher values during November and May. The periods of more intensive feeding are from August to February. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 171-179. Epub 2008 March 31.El jurel Caranx caninus es una especie común que se captura en la pesca artesanal frente a las costas de Colima, México. Mensualmente, durante 2002, se tomaron datos morfométricos y muestras de otolitos para determinar la edad y el crecimiento. Se encontraron siete grupos de edad; durante el primer año de vida se da el mayor crecimiento, hasta 14.4 cm. Durante el segundo año, C. caninus crece 11.76 cm; el tercero 9.61 cm; el cuarto 7.85 cm; el quinto 6.41 cm y el último año crece 5.24 cm. Las constantes de la ecuación de crecimiento de von Bertalanffy fueron: L∞ = 83.26 cm, W∞ = 18.138 g, K = 0.202, to = -0.283 y la longevidad A0.95 = 15 años. Las curvas de crecimiento de otras especies del mismo género se compararon con las obtenidas en el presente trabajo. El índice gonadosomático presentó valores más altos durante noviembre y mayo. Los periodos de tiempo de alimentación más intensa son de agosto a febrero.

  16. Desidratação osmótica de fatias de jaca Osmotic dehydration of jack fruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elita Martins Duarte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de fatias de jaca em geometria plana. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 43 ºC, com agitação, utilizando-se de soluções de sacarose, nas concentrações de 40 e 50 ºBrix. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que na solução de sacarose a 50 ºBrix o valor da perda de água (WL foi maior ao final de 28,5 horas de processo (68,5% b.u para 40,2% b.u., ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução de sacarose a 40 ºBrix, (68,5% b.u para 43% b.u.. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG. O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através dos modelos de Page e Fick. Pela análise da equação de Fick, verificou-se que os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva foram 0,5837 e 0,6677 mm² min-1 para 40 e 50 ºBrix, respectivamente.The present work was undertaken with the objective of studying the kinetics and the osmotic-dehydration modeling of slices of jack-fruit in a flat layout. The osmotic treatment was carried out at 43ºC, employing agitation, and using sucrose solutions at concentrations of 40º and 50º Brix. The study of the kinetics of osmotic dehydration showed that in the sucrose solution at 50º Brix, the value of the water-loss (WL was higher after 28.5 hours of processing (68.5% wb to 40.2% wb , slightly higher than that found for the sucrose solution at 40º Brix (68.5% wb to 43% wb. The opposite behavior was observed for the gain in solids (SG. Adjustment of the experimental data was done using the Page and Fick models. From the analysis of the Fick equation, it was found that the effective diffusivity coefficients were 0.5837 and 0.6677 mm² min-1 for 40º and 50º Brix, respectively.

  17. Clinical Performance and Safety of 108 SpineJack Implantations: 1-Year Results of a Prospective Multicentre Single-Arm Registry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Noriega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, consecutive, multicentre observational registry aimed to confirm the safety and clinical performance of the SpineJack system for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCF of traumatic origin. We enrolled 103 patients (median age: 61.6 years with 108 VCF due to trauma, or traumatic VCF with associated osteoporosis. Primary outcome was back pain intensity (VAS. Secondary outcomes were Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, EuroQol-VAS, and analgesic consumption. 48 hours after surgery, a median relative decrease in pain intensity of 81.5% was observed associated with a significant reduction in analgesic intake. Improvements in disability (91.3% decrease in ODI score and in quality of life (increase 21.1% of EQ-VAS score were obtained 3 months after surgery. All results were maintained at 12 months. A reduction in the kyphotic angulation was observed postoperatively (-5.4±6.3°; p<0.001, remained at 12 months (-4.4±6.0°, p=0.002. No adverse events were implant-related and none required device removal. Three patients (2.9% experienced procedure-related complications. The overall adjacent fracture rate up to 1 year after surgery was 2.9%. The SpineJack procedure is an effective, low-risk procedure for patients with traumatic VCF allowing a fast and sustained improvement in quality of life over 1 year after surgery.

  18. In vitro Anti-proliferative and Apoptotic Activities of Eurycoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Results: F1 showed unremarkable growth inhibition rate while F2 and F3 ... Treatment with F2 and F3 (100 µg/ml) for 96 h increased cell death from 3.3 to 95.5 and 76.3 %, ... three decades [4]. ... [9], breast [10] and cervical cancers [11] have ... 60 was obtained from American Type Culture ... acted as a negative control.

  19. Modelling the pasting properties of Brachystegia eurycoma ( Achi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of achi flour and how to manipulate the quantities of sodium chloride and palm oil during soup preparation. The models would also be useful to food processors in predicting rheology of fabricated food where the ingredient mix includes sodium chloride and palm oil. Keywords: Soup thickener, peak viscosity, pasting time, ...

  20. Wear if a NBR seal for a oil jack pump; Desgaste de um retentor de NBR utilizado em uma unidade de bombeio de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Washington B. de; Barros, Levi B.; Machado, Jonata F.; Silva, Jailson H. Costa da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mail: uoxito@hotmail.com, e-mail: levibarreto@hotmail.com.br, e-mail: jonataferreira@hotmail.com, e-mail: jailson.costa@pop.com.br; Medeiros, Joao Telesforo N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos de Tribologia], e-mail: medeirosj2@asme.org

    2007-07-01

    The NBR seals are used in tribological systems because they are resistance to solvent, oil and fuel. This elastomer is used in the jack pump (oil pump unit-PETROBRAS), it is located in the stuffing box. It converts the rotational movement of an electric motor to a vertical reciprocating movement to drive the pump shaft, generating a tribological contact between the polished rod and the seal, avoiding oil leakage. In this work, was developed an experimental test rig to simulate the sealing conditions of the tribological pair polished rod-seal package for a oil pumping unit in a 1:1 scale. In the experimental part of this work were used several techniques as thermal history, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), hardness and mass losses analysis. The friction influence on the temperature was one of the most important effect caused by the contact. The SEM analyses and the hardness losses had evidenced the damage on the surface submitted to the contact. (author)

  1. Evolution of Conifer Diterpene Synthases: Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis in Lodgepole Pine and Jack Pine Involves Monofunctional and Bifunctional Diterpene Synthases1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E.; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L.; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs. PMID:23370714

  2. Evolution of conifer diterpene synthases: diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in lodgepole pine and jack pine involves monofunctional and bifunctional diterpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs.

  3. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  4. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen conifer Jack pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P A; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22 degrees C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7 degrees C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7 degrees C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22 degrees C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of beta-carotene in the warm autumn

  5. An official American Thoracic Society proceedings: work-related asthma and airway diseases. Presentations and discussion from the Fourth Jack Pepys Workshop on Asthma in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlo, Susan M; Malo, Jean-Luc

    2013-08-01

    Work-related asthma is a common occupational lung disease. The scope of the Fourth Jack Pepys Workshop that was held in May 2010 went beyond asthma to include discussion of other occupational airway diseases, in particular occupationally related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiolitis. Aspects explored included public health considerations, environmental aspects, outcome after diagnosis, prevention and surveillance, and other work-related obstructive airway diseases. Consistent methods are needed to accurately estimate the comparative burden of occupation-related airway diseases among different countries. Challenges to accomplishing this include variability in health care delivery, compensation systems, cultural contexts, and social structures. These factors can affect disease estimates, while heterogeneity in occupations and workplace exposures can affect the underlying true prevalence of morbidity. Consideration of the working environment included discussion of practical methods of limiting exposure to respiratory sensitizers, methods to predict new sensitizers before introduction into workplaces, the role of legislated exposure limits, and models to estimate relative validity of various ameliorative measures when complete avoidance of the sensitizer is not feasible. Other strategies discussed included medical surveillance measures and education, especially for young individuals with asthma and new workers about to enter the workforce. Medical outcomes after development of sensitizer-induced occupational asthma are best following earlier diagnosis and removal from further exposure, but a subset may be able to continue working safely provided that exposure is reduced under close follow-up monitoring. It was recognized that occupationally related COPD is common but underappreciated, deserving further study and prevention efforts.

  6. New insights about the population structure of the blue jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus in the NE Atlantic using otolith stable isotope ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus is a pelagic fish widely distributed in the NE Atlantic and also found in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. It is an economically important resource in the Macaronesian islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, but despite its fishery value and ecological importance, fluctuations in the landings are difficult to explain since studies regarding the population dynamics, stocks structure, fish movements and habitat connectivity are inexistent. The populations of marine pelagic fishes, in particular the migratory ones, such as T. picturatus,, may be erroneously considered an homogenous population unit because they show broad geographic distributions, large population sizes and high migratory movements. Stable isotope ratios, namely δ18O and δ13C, measured by standard mass spectrometric techniques in whole otolith samples of T. picturatus adults sampled in the fishery grounds of the Islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, and at the Portuguese mainland (Matosinhos, Peniche and Portimão during the spring-summer of 2013 were analysed. The 18O signatures followed the general tendency taking into account the seawater temperatures of the sampling regions. 13C signatures showed however differences between the oceanic or continental origin of the fish. Both variables provided location-specific signatures. Further studies including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA studies are also been conducted to acquire new knowledge for fisheries conservation purposes.

  7. Sulfonamide-Linked Ciprofloxacin, Sulfadiazine and Amantadine Derivatives as a Novel Class of Inhibitors of Jack Bean Urease; Synthesis, Kinetic Mechanism and Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Saeed, Aamer; Albericio, Fernando; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Abbas, Qamar; Hassan, Mubashir; Raza, Hussain; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-08-16

    Sulfonamide derivatives serve as an important building blocks in the drug design discovery and development (4D) process. Ciprofloxacin-, sulfadiazine- and amantadine-based sulfonamides were synthesized as potent inhibitors of jack bean urease and free radical scavengers. Molecular diversity was explored and electronic factors were also examined. All 24 synthesized compounds exhibited excellent potential against urease enzyme. Compound 3e (IC 50 = 0.081 ± 0.003 µM), 6a (IC 50 = 0.0022 ± 0.0002 µM), 9e (IC 50 = 0.0250 ± 0.0007 µM) and 12d (IC 50 = 0.0266 ± 0.0021 µM) were found to be the lead compounds compared to standard (thiourea, IC 50 = 17.814 ± 0.096 µM). Molecular docking studies were performed to delineate the binding affinity of the molecules and a kinetic mechanism of enzyme inhibition was propounded. Compounds 3e , 6a and 12d exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, while derivative 9e revealed a non-competitive mode of inhibition. Compounds 12a , 12b , 12d , 12e and 12f showed excellent radical scavenging potency in comparison to the reference drug vitamin C.

  8. Preliminary Report on the Effect of Pre-Boring on the Mobilized Friction Capacity of Pile Foundation Hydraulically Jacked into Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-drilling was performed to reduce lateral earth pressure generated by pile foundation hydraulically jacked into expansive soil. Nineteen prestressed-precast spun concrete pile with diameter of 800 mm were penetrated into expansive soil up the depth of 40 m. Pre-drilling with diameter of 700 mm was carried out up to the depth of 12.5 m. Penetration loads required to install the piles, which was displayed on the built-in pressure panel, were recorded every 1 m interval. The load that was consisted of merely shaft friction was then used to find out the mobilized skin friction between pile shaft and its surrounding soils. The calculated mobilized skin friction was correlated to the value of Standard Penetration Test (NSPT and compared to Decourt formula. The result shows that skin friction calculated using Decourt formula relatively conservative compared to those determined from the records of field penetration. The upper bound of mobilized skin friction can be defined by modifying Decourt formula.

  9. Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash “Jack Pro Spülung plus” (“rheodol-Spülung plus” on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göhring, Jana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aim: Jack Pro Spülung Plus (also available as “rheodol-Spülung plus” is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Spülung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone.Method: The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.02–0.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.004–0.006% was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.02–0.03% and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Results: Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Spülung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Spülung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Spülung Plus is

  10. Antioxidant activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit) leaf extracts: remarkable attenuations of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Haidy S; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Moussa, Ziad; Taha, Kamilia F; Singab, Abdel Nasser B

    2011-04-05

    The present study examines the antioxidative, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit) leaf extracts (JFEs). The 70% ethanol (JFEE), n-butanol (JFBE), water (JFWE), chloroform (JFCE), and ethyl acetate (JFEAE) extracts were obtained. Both JFEE and JFBE markedly scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical and chelate Fe+2 in vitro. A compound was isolated from JFBE and identified using 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR. The administration of JFEE or JFBE to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) from 200 to 56 and 79 mg%, respectively; elevated insulin from 10.8 to 19.5 and 15.1 µU/ml, respectively; decreased lipid peroxides from 7.3 to 5.4 and 5.9 nmol/ml, respectively; decreased %glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (%HbA1C) from 6.8 to 4.5 and 5.0%, respectively; and increased total protein content from 2.5 to 6.3 and 5.7 mg%, respectively. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio significantly declined by -37, -19, -23, -37, and -39%, respectively, in the case of JFEE; and by -31, -14, -17, -31, and -25%, respectively, in the case of JFBE; as compared to diabetic rats. HDL-C increased by +37% (JFEE) and by +11% (JFBE). Both JFEE and JFBE have shown appreciable results in decreasing FBG, lipid peroxides, %HbA1C, TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, and increasing insulin, HDL-C, and protein content. The spectrometric analysis confirmed that the flavonoid isolated from JFBE was isoquercitrin. We can conclude from this study that JFEE and JFBE exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an antioxidative pathway that might be referred to their flavonoid contents.

  11. Single-zircon dating by stepwise Pb-evaporation constrains the Archean history of detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, B.; Lippolt, H.J.; Pidgeon, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Pb isotope analyses have been carried out on 42 zircon grains from a Western Australian metaconglomerate using stepwise Pb-evaporation directly in the ion source of a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. The metaconglomerate is from the Archean Jack Hills Metasedimentary Belt, and is known from ion microprobe (''SHRIMP'') analyses to contain a complex zircon population with ages between 4.2 Ga and 3.1 Ga. The same complex pattern of ages is found by the Pb evaporation studies. Five grains yielded minimum crystallization ages from 4.17 Ga to 4.07 Ga. The main population appears significantly younger, having been generated at about 3.55-3.3 Ga. The agreement between the two analytical approaches confirms the SHRIMP results and demonstrates the value of the stepwise-evaporation technique in determining the age patterns of mixing zircon populations. In many of the evaporative Pb isotope records the 207/206 ratios remained constant for all evaporation steps, which we interpret as evaporation from concordant zircon phases. However, for the majority of zircons 207/206 ratios increased with increasing evaporation temperature, and usually approached constant values during evaporation at the highest temperatures. This can be attributed to mixing of different radiogenic Pb components from either crystalline zircon phases of different ages or from domains of isotopically disturbed metamict zircon. Present results confirm > 4 Ga zircon ages in the metaconglomerate from the Hack Hills and substantiate formation of crust at a very early stage in the evolution of the earth. Results also confirm a major crust-forming event 3.55-3.3 Ga ago. (orig.)

  12. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Marvibaigi

    Full Text Available Scurrula ferruginea (Jack Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231 and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184. The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL. The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated.

  13. The inverse microconglomerate test: Definition and application to the preservation of Paleoarchean to Hadean magnetizations in metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Rory; Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Dare, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a new paleomagnetic field test, the inverse microconglomerate test. In contrast with traditional conglomerate tests, which target specimens that might preserve primary magnetizations, the inverse microconglomerate test focuses on magnetic carriers having unblocking temperatures less than peak metamorphic temperatures. These mineral carriers are expected to carry a consistent direction of remagnetization. Hence, the inverse microconglomerate test evaluates whether coherent magnetizations are retained on a grain/mineral scale in a given sedimentary rock sample. By defining the remagnetization direction, it also serves as a benchmark for comparison of magnetizations from other grains/minerals having unblocking temperatures higher than peak metamorphic conditions (i.e., potential primary magnetizations). We apply this new test to sediments of the Jack Hills (JH), Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. For the JH sediments we focus on fuchsite, a secondary Cr-mica that contains relict Cr-Fe spinels capable of recording remanent magnetizations. We find that JH fuchsite grains retain consistent magnetic directions at unblocking temperatures between ˜270 and 340 oC, which defines a positive test. This direction does not reproduce a nominal 1078-1070 Ma remagnetization reported by Weiss et al. (EPSL, 2015) that we interpret as an artifact of inappropriate use of averaging and statistics. The thermochemical remanent magnetization recorded by the fuchsite was most likely imparted during peak JH metamorphic conditions at ˜2650 Ma. Our inverse microconglomerate test complements a positive microconglomerate test and large scale positive conglomerate test conducted on JH cobbles (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013), further supporting evidence that JH zircons record Paleoarchean to Hadean primary magnetizations at high (greater than 550 oC) unblocking temperatures (Tarduno et al., Science, 2015). More generally, the new inverse microconglomerate test may aid in

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit Leaf Extracts: Remarkable Attenuations of Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidy S. Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the antioxidative, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit leaf extracts (JFEs. The 70% ethanol (JFEE, n-butanol (JFBE, water (JFWE, chloroform (JFCE, and ethyl acetate (JFEAE extracts were obtained. Both JFEE and JFBE markedly scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical and chelate Fe+2in vitro. A compound was isolated from JFBE and identified using 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR. The administration of JFEE or JFBE to streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG from 200 to 56 and 79 mg%, respectively; elevated insulin from 10.8 to 19.5 and 15.1 μU/ml, respectively; decreased lipid peroxides from 7.3 to 5.4 and 5.91 nmol/ml, respectively; decreased %glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (%HbA1C from 6.8 to 4.5 and 5.0%, respectively; and increased total protein content from 2.5 to 6.3 and 5.7 mg%, respectively. Triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio significantly declined by -37, -19, -23, -37, and -39%, respectively, in the case of JFEE; and by -31, -14, -17, -31, and -25%, respectively, in the case of JFBE; as compared to diabetic rats. HDL-C increased by +37% (JFEE and by +11% (JFBE. Both JFEE and JFBE have shown appreciable results in decreasing FBG, lipid peroxides, %HbA1C, TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, and increasing insulin, HDL-C, and protein content. The spectrometric analysis confirmed that the flavonoid isolated from JFBE was isoquercitrin. We can conclude from this study that JFEE and JFBE exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an antioxidative pathway that might be referred to their flavonoid contents.

  15. Estatus nutricional y crecimiento vegetativo de plantas de vanilla planifolia jacks afectadas por la fertilización y la composición de substrato orgánico

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, Adriana Isabel; Osorio Vega, Nelson Walter; Diez, Maria Claudia; Moreno, Flavio Humberto

    2014-01-01

    El cultivo de la vainilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks) es promisorio en Colombia, sin embargo, sus requerimientos nutricionales son desconocidos. En este estudio la hipótesis fue que el estado nutricional del cultivo de vainilla y su crecimiento dependen de la composición del sustrato y de la fertilización aplicada. En parcelas experimentales de 0.8 x 0.8 x 0.2 m se aplicaron cada 2 meses 10 lt adicionales de un sustrato que contenía fragmentos de madera (WC) o fibra de coco (CF) y hojarasca (L...

  16. Anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging actions of two herbs, Uncaria rhynchophylla (MIQ) Jack and Gastrodia elata Bl., in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C L; Tang, N Y; Chiang, S Y; Hsieh, C T; Lin, J G

    1999-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jack (UR) and Gastrodia elata BI. (GE) are traditional Chinese herbs that are usually used in combination to treat convulsive disorders, such as epilepsy, in China. The aim of this study was to compare the anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging activities of UR alone and UR in combination with GE in rats. For the in vitro studies, brain tissues from 6 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with 120 microg/ml kainic acid (KA), with or without varied concentrations of UR or UR plus GE. For the in vivo studies, male SD rats (6 per group) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of KA 12 mg/kg to induce epileptic seizures and generation of free radicals, with or without oral administration of UR 1 g/kg alone or UR 1 g/kg plus GE 1 g/kg. Epileptic seizures were verified by behavioral observations, and electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings. These results showed that UR alone decreased KA-induced lipid peroxide levels in vitro, whereas UR plus GE did not produce a greater effect than UR alone. UR significantly reduced counts of wet dog shakes (WDS), paw tremor (PT) and facial myoclonia (FM) in KA-treated rats and significantly delayed the onset time of WDS, from 27 min in the control group to 40 min in the UR group. UR plus GE did not inhibit seizures more effectively than UR alone, but did further prolong the onset time of WDS to 63 min (P < 0.05 vs. UR alone). UR alone reduced the levels of free radicals in vivo, as measured by lipid peroxidation in the brain and luminol-chemiluminescence (CL) counts and lucigenin-CL counts in the peripheral whole blood, but the combination of GE and UR did not reduce free radical levels more markedly than UR alone. In conclusion, our results indicate that UR has anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging activities, and UR combined with GE exhibit greater inhibition on the onset time of WDS than UR alone. These findings suggest that the anticonvulsive effects of UR and

  17. Jacks-of-All-Trades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    education program. Based on pupils' precisely measured level of verbal and mathematical ability, we exogenously compose 179 teams separated into four different types: JAT teams, math-specialist teams, verbal-specialist teams and mixed specialist teams. Our results show that balanced skills are beneficial...

  18. Jack R. Ferrell III | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    hundred compounds and a large variety of chemical functionalities. On the left is a photo of a woman ), and oxygenated bio-oil (depicted with a photo of a woman holding a plastic vial containing liquid bio for Pyrolysis Bio-oil: History, Challenges, and Current Status of Methods," Bioproducts &

  19. Development of Multichannel Artificial Lipid-Polymer Membrane Sensor for Phytomedicine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yeon Md Shakaff

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality control of herbal medicines remain a challenging issue towardsintegrating phytomedicine into the primary health care system. As medicinal plants is acomplicated system of mixtures, a rapid and cost-effective evaluation method tocharacterize the chemical fingerprint of the plant without performing laborious samplepreparation procedure is reported. A novel research methodology based on an in-housefabricated multichannel sensor incorporating an array of artificial lipid-polymer membraneas a fingerprinting device for quality evaluation of a highly sought after herbal medicine inthe Asean Region namely Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali. The sensor array is based onthe principle of the bioelectronic tongue that mimics the human gustatory system throughthe incorporation of artificial lipid material as sensing element. The eight non-specificsensors have partially overlapping selectivity and cross-sensitivity towards the targetedanalyte. Hence, electrical potential response represented by radar plot is used to characterizeextracts from different parts of plant, age, batch-to-batch variation and mode of extraction ofE. longifolia through the obtained potentiometric fingerprint profile. Classification modelwas also developed classifying various E. longifolia extracts with the aid of chemometricpattern recognition tools namely hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principalcomponent analysis (PCA. The sensor seems to be a promising analytical device for qualitycontrol based on potentiometric fingerprint analysis of phytomedicine.

  20. Screening of Polyalthia longifolia and Aloe vera for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NOBLINE

    Lead, Iron and Zinc in soils, roots and shoots was determined. Results showed that the two plants have phytoextraction ability with reductions in Zn, Fe, and Pb in the phytoextraction soil . ..... accumulation of cadmium by vegetables grown.

  1. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-05-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-05-13 in response to the Deepwater...

  2. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-31 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-31 in response to the Deepwater...

  3. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-12 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-12 in response to the Deepwater...

  4. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN ISOLAT PROTEIN KORO PEDANG (Canavalia ensiformis L. TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK CAKE [Effects of Addition of Protein Isolates from Jack Bean Seed (Canavalia ensiformis L. on the Characteristics of Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Witono

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Addition of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L. protein isolate in cake making was studied. The isolate was prepared from the beans by the method of isoelectrical point at pH 4. At low concentrations (less than 1% of the wheat flour, the addition of the protein isolate could improve the characteristics of the cake by increasing the loaf volume, decreasing the density, and softening the texture. In contrast, the addition of 1.5% tended to decrease the quality of the cake as compared to that added with 1% by decreasing the loaf volume, increasing the density, and hardening the texture. However, the more protein isolate added, the more slowly the rate of the cake staling.

  5. The Rhetoric of Inferiority of African Slaves in John Fawcett’s Obi; or, Three-Fingered Jack (1800 Re-evaluated in Charlie Haffner’s Amistad Kata-Kata (1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pallua

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available John Fawcett’s Obi; or, Three-Finger’d Jack (1800 draws a distorted picture of the life of slaves in Jamaica. This paper investigates the ambivalence in this distortion as Fawcett creates two kinds of slaves by pitting them against each other: the loyal and obedient slaves (but still inferior vs. the superstitious-ridden and rebellious slaves deeply rooted in old traditions, thus considered inferior, uneducated, immoral and dangerous. The juxtaposition of what I call ‘anglicised’ slaves instrumentalised by the coloniser and the heathen ‘savages’ that are beyond the reach of the imperial ideology enables Fawcett to substantiate the claim that Christianity successfully promotes slaves to ‘anglicised’ mimic men/women who are then able to carry out its mission: to eradicate the pagan practice of obeah, three-finger’d Jack, and all those slaves that threaten the stability of the coloniser’s superiority. Charlie Haffner’s play Amistad Kata-Kata (1987 is about the heroism of Shengbe Pieh and his fellow slaves on board the La Amistad: on their way to the colonies they revolted, were sent to prison, tried, finally freed, and taken back home after 3 years. The paper shows how Haffner repositions the ‘Amistad trope’ in the 20th century by effacing the materiality of the body of the African slaves, thus re-evaluating the corporeality of the colonised slave in the 19th -century post-abolition debate by coming to terms with the cultural trauma postindependent African collective identity has been experiencing. The re-staging of the play by the ‘Freetong Players’ in 2007/8 commemorated the bicentenary of the abolition of the Atlantic Slave Trade, a unique opportunity to direct the attention to asserting the identity of ‘Post-European’ Africa.

  6. Simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids in Tongkat Ali dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Min; Jang, Moonhee; Kim, In Sook; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is one of the most popular traditional herbs in Southeast Asia and generally consumed as forms of dietary supplements, tea, or drink additives for coffee or energy beverages. In this study, the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids of Tongkat Ali (eurycomanone, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone, 14,15β-dihydroxyklaineanone, eurycomalactone, and longilactone) was developed and validated. Using the developed method, the content of the six quassinoids was measured in Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplement tablets or capsules, and the resulting data were used to confirm the presence of Tongkat Ali in those products. Among the six quassinoids, eurycomanone was the most abundant quassinoid in all samples tested. The developed method would be useful for the quality assessment of Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplements. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 4,5,7,8,17-Pentahydroxy-14,18-dimethyl-6-methylene-3,10-dioxapentacyclo[9.8.0.01,7.04,19.013,18]nonadec-14-ene-9,16-dione methanol solvate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Hoe Teh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The title quassinoid compound, C20H24O9·CH3OH·2H2O, is a natural eurycomanone isolated from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. The molecules contain a fused five-ring system, with one tetrahydrofuran ring adopting an envelope conformation, one tetrahydropyran-2-one ring in a screw boat conformation, one cyclohexenone ring in a half-chair conformation and two cyclohexane rings in chair conformations. Intramolecular C—H...O interactions generate S(5 ring motifs and an O—H...O interaction generates an S(7 ring motif. In the crystal, molecules are linked via intermolecular O—H...O interactions along the b axis and further stacked along a axis. The absolute configuration of the title compound was inferred from previously solved structures of its analogues.

  8. Increased Air Temperature during Simulated Autumn Conditions Does Not Increase Photosynthetic Carbon Gain But Affects the Dissipation of Excess Energy in Seedlings of the Evergreen Conifer Jack Pine1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P.A.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22°C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7°C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7°C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22°C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of β-carotene in the warm autumn treatment as well as by changes in

  9. Recruiting faith- and non-faith-based schools, adolescents and parents to a cluster randomised sexual-health trial: experiences, challenges and lessons from the mixed-methods Jack Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aventin, Áine; Lohan, Maria; Maguire, Lisa; Clarke, Mike

    2016-07-29

    The move toward evidence-based education has led to increasing numbers of randomised trials in schools. However, the literature on recruitment to non-clinical trials is relatively underdeveloped, when compared to that of clinical trials. Recruitment to school-based randomised trials is, however, challenging, even more so when the focus of the study is a sensitive issue such as sexual health. This article reflects on the challenges of recruiting post-primary schools, adolescent pupils and parents to a cluster randomised feasibility trial of a sexual-health intervention, and the strategies employed to address them. The Jack Trial was funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research. It comprised a feasibility study of an interactive film-based sexual-health intervention entitled If I Were Jack, recruiting over 800 adolescents from eight socio-demographically diverse post-primary schools in Northern Ireland. It aimed to determine the facilitators and barriers to recruitment and retention to a school-based sexual-health trial and identify optimal multi-level strategies for an effectiveness study. As part of an embedded process evaluation, we conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups with principals, vice-principals, teachers, pupils and parents recruited to the study as well as classroom observations and a parents' survey. With reference to social learning theory, we identified a number of individual-, behavioural- and environmental-level factors that influenced recruitment. Commonly identified facilitators included perceptions of the relevance and potential benefit of the intervention to adolescents, the credibility of the organisation and individuals running the study, support offered by trial staff, and financial incentives. Key barriers were prior commitment to other research, lack of time and resources, and perceptions that the intervention was incompatible with pupil or parent needs or the school ethos. Reflecting on the methodological

  10. “狼之子”的正反想象:杰克·伦敦眼中的中国移民%The Pros and Cons of Imagination of 'the Son of Wolves':the Chinese Immigrants in the Eyes of Jack London

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤立媛

    2014-01-01

    Jack London created altogether six China and Chinese immigrants related works, which show his completely different views to China, uglification as well as understanding and sympathy. Although in the shadow of racism, Jack London made great contributions to the communication between Chinese and Western culture for a more rational thinking and more objective description. This paper will explore Jack London's reasons of his pros and cons of imagination toward Chinese immigrants' images from his psychological factors and the social, historical background.%杰克·伦敦一生共创作了六部有关中国和中国移民形象的作品,既有对中国丑化的一面,也有对中国理解、同情的一面。虽然摆脱不了种族主义的阴影,但其更为理性的思考与更为客观的描述使得他对中国、对中西文化之间的交流做出了巨大的贡献。本文将从杰克·伦敦自身的心理因素和所处的社会历史背景来探讨他对中国移民形象正反想象的原因。

  11. Use of co-precipitates of Brachystegia Eurycoma gum and egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    precipitates of Brachystegia gum and egg albumin as binder, and testing the stability of the metronidazole tablets with regard to moisture uptake and also the effect of moisture sorption on disintegration and dissolution profiles of the tablets.

  12. Modulation of cell surface hydrophobicity and attachment of bacteria to abiotic surfaces and shrimp by Malaysian herb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yew Woh; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-08-01

    The use of simple crude water extracts of common herbs to reduce bacterial attachment may be a cost-effective way to control bacterial foodborne pathogens, particularly in developing countries. The ability of water extracts of three common Malaysian herbs (Andrographis paniculata, Eurycoma longifolia, and Garcinia atroviridis) to modulate hydrophobicity and attachment to surfaces of five food-related bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus ATCC 14576, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) were determined. The bacterial attachment to hydrocarbon assay was used to determine bacterial hydrophobicity. Staining and direct microscopic counts were used to determine attachment of bacteria to glass and stainless steel. Plating on selective media was used to determine attachment of bacteria to shrimp. All extracts were capable of either significantly ( P 0.05) to bacterial attachment. For specific combinations of bacteria, surface material, and plant extract, significant correlations (R > 0.80) between hydrophobicity and attachment were observed. The highest of these was observed for S. aureus attachment to stainless steel and glass after treatment with the E. longifolia extract (R = 0.99, P < 0.01). The crude water herb extracts in this study were shown to have the potential to modulate specific bacterial and surface interactions and may, with further work, be useful for the simple and practical control of foodborne pathogens.

  13. Estatus nutricional y crecimiento vegetativo de plantas de Vanilla planifolia Jacks afectadas por la fertilización y la composición de substrato orgánico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Isabel Osorio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de la vainilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks es promisorio en Colombia, sin embargo, sus requerimientos nutricionales son desconocidos. En este estudio la hipótesis fue que el estado nutricional del cultivo de vainilla y su crecimiento dependen de la composición del sustrato y de la fertilización aplicada. En parcelas experimentales de 0.8 x 0.8 x 0.2 m se aplicaron cada 2 meses 10 lt adicionales de un sustrato que contenía fragmentos de madera (WC o fibra de coco (CF y hojarasca (LL en diferentes proporciones volumétricas (% (75:25, 50:50, 25:75. Se aplicaron cuatro dosis anuales de un fertilizante químico (grado 27-11-11: 0, 20, 60 y 140 g por planta. Los resultados indican que una interacción altamente significativa (P < 0.01 entre el sustrato y la fertilización sobre el crecimiento de las plantas. La longitud del tallo de las plantas de vainilla se incrementó significativamente con la dosis de fertilización de 20 g/planta solamente en los sustratos compuestos por 75% de CF o WC y 25% de LL. La presencia de CF produjo contenidos foliares de P, K, Cu, Mg y Mn significativamente más altos (P < 0.05 que aquellos obtenidos cuando WC fue utilizado en el sustrato. Por el contrario, la presencia de WC en el substrato incrementó (P < 0.05 los contenidos foliares de N y Ca con respecto a los niveles observados con CF en el sustrato de crecimiento.

  14. Factors influencing the quality of Myrmecia pilosula (Jack Jumper) ant venom for use in in vitro and in vivo diagnoses of allergen sensitization and in allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanandy, T; Dwyer, H E; McLean, L; Davies, N W; Nichols, D; Gueven, N; Brown, S G A; Wiese, M D

    2017-11-01

    Allergen immunotherapy uses pharmaceutical preparations derived from naturally occurring source materials, which contain water-soluble allergenic components responsible for allergic reactions. The success of in vivo and in vitro diagnoses in allergen sensitization and allergen immunotherapy largely depends on the quality, composition and uniformity of allergenic materials used to produce the active ingredients, and the formulation employed to prepare finished products. We aimed to examine the factors influencing batch-to-batch consistency of Jack Jumper (Myrmecia pilosula) ant venom (JJAV) in the form of active pharmaceutical ingredient (AI) and informed whether factors such as temperature, artificial light and container materials influence the quality of JJAV AIs. We also aimed to establish handling and storage requirements of JJAV AIs to ensure preservation of allergenic activities during usage in the diagnosis of allergen sensitization and in allergen immunotherapy. The quality and consistency of JJAV AIs were analysed using a combination of bicinchoninic acid assay for total protein quantification, HPLC-UV for JJAV allergen peptides quantification, ELISA inhibition for total allergenic potency, SDS-PAGE, AU-PAGE and immunoblot for qualitative assessment of JJAV components, and Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay for the quantification of endotoxin concentration. API-ZYM and Zymogram assays were used to probe the presence of enzymatic activities in JJAV. Pharmaceutical-grade JJAV for allergen immunotherapy has good batch-to-batch consistency. Temporary storage at 4°C and light exposure do not affect the quality of JJAV. Exposure to temperature above 40°C degrades high MW allergens in JJAV. Vials containing JJAV must be stored frozen and in upright position during long-term storage. We have identified factors, which can influence the quality and consistency of JJAV AIs, and provided a framework for appropriate handling, transporting and storage of JJAV to be used

  15. Every Story Tells a Story That Has Already Been Told: Intertextuality and Intermediality in Philip Pullman’s Spring-Heeled Jack and in Kevin Brooks’ iBoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Prusse

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Training English teachers involves acquainting them with suitable texts for their future classrooms. Ideally such texts touch upon matters that children and young adults respond to and such literature also offers learning opportunities both for the pre-service teachers and their students. It can be argued that such learning opportunities can be found when analysing superheroes, when considering the impact of the new media on young people or when focusing on the blending of different genres and texts. The two novels selected for this purpose are Philip Pullman’s Spring-Heeled Jack (1989 and Kevin Brooks’ iBoy (2010. The former is a hybrid of a traditional and a graphic novel and resorts to intertextual allusions, for instance by means of quotes at the beginning of each chapter. The latter text also resorts to quotations – but from different sources, namely almost exclusively from the worldwide web. While iBoy may at first sight look rather conventional as a novel, it nevertheless reveals its provenance from the digital age in the numbering of the chapters in the binary system. Young readers (and their teachers may thus discover the pleasures of literary reading when following Pullman’s superhero (taken from a Victorian penny-dreadful across London. Brooks’ hybrid protagonist, by contrast, a first-person narrator, allows readers to gain insights into the problematic side of his role and his powers. Ultimately these rather conventional novels succeed in capturing their readers’ attention and somewhat contradict critics who predict the arrival of a more hypertextual approach to reading because of the impact of the new media.

  16. Phytoremediation of lead by jack beans on a Rhodic Hapludox amended with EDTA Fitorremediação de chumbo por feijão-de-porco em um Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico tratado com EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fernando Faria Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA addition to soils on the lead (Pb phytoextraction potential of jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis L.. In a pot experimentSoil samples (dystrophic Rhodic Hapludox were treated with six Pb rates (0, 100, 200, 350, 1,200, and 2,400 mg kg-1 soil applied as Pb(NO32 without and with EDTA application (0 and 0.5 g kg-1, respectively. Lead, Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, SO4(2-, H2PO4-, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and DOC (dissolved organic carbon concentrations obtained in a saturation soil extract (soil:water ratio of 1:0.3 were used for Pb speciation by means of the software Visual-Minteq 2.30. Soil Pb-availability was assessed with Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA extraction. EDTA treated soils showed higher Pb (as PbEDTA2-, and Fe (as FeEDTA- concentrations in soil solution leading to higher uptake of these elements by the jack bean. On the other hand, it decreased the concentration of stable complexes as Pb-DOC and Fe-DOC. EDTA also induced better nutrition to plants building up the concentration of non target metals (Ca, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in shoots. Shoot dry matter yield remained constant even at the highest Pb rates after EDTA treatment. Jack bean can be considered as a potential Pb-phytoextractor. In addition, the DTPA solution was effective to assess Pb availability to the plants at all applied Pb rates.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos do ácido etilenodiamino tetraacético (EDTA no potencial fitoextrator do feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis L.. Amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico foram tratadas com seis doses de Pb (0, 100, 200, 350, 1.200 e 2.400 mg kg-1 de solo aplicadas como Pb(NO32 com e sem a aplicação de EDTA (0 e 0,5 g kg-1, respectivamente e colocadas em vasos. A concentração de Pb2+, Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, SO4(2-, H2PO4-, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2

  17. Different Outcomes after Being Stolen:Depiction of Delicate Relations between the Indian Native and the White in Jack London’s Writings%被抢的不同遭际:杰克伦敦笔下印第安人与白人关系描画

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽耘; 朱珺; 姜武有

    2016-01-01

    杰克伦敦研究自美国伦敦作品评论伊始至今已逾百年,新世纪该领域研究欲突破,厘清其间颇具争议的问题是一大走向。比读杰克伦敦创作早期发表的两部同题材作品«北方的奥德赛»(An Odyssey of the North ,1900)与«白人李婉»(Li -Wan ,the Fair ,1902),以梳理伦敦创作早期的种族意识表现为旨归,聚焦其笔下书写的印第安土著与淘金白人间的紧张关系,抉发出两作间的互文性及作者的创作深意。%Till now Jack London Studies has a history of more than one hundred years since the early criticism of Jack London’s literary works in America in the early twentieth century.For the breakthrough of this researching field in now new century, trying to answer separately those highly debatably questions may be one way out.This paper, by comparative and creative reading of Jack London’s two early writings An Odyssey of the North in 1 900 & Li Wan , the Fair in 1 902, which both focused on the same event i.e.girl’s being stolen away from her own people and its outG come, intends to come out London’s controversial racism in his early time.The early two stories in London’s creation can actually be interpreted as centering in the intense relations between the Indian natives and those white goldGminG ers, such intertextuality does great help in delving into London’s hidden racism while writing.

  18. CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF JACK TREE LATEX AND

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and on Saponification yielded fatty acids, Volatile as well as non-volatile. The unsaponifiable portion on repeated crystallisation provided a crystal- line, sharp melting compound which was identified as artostenone? from a. Latex (200 c.c.). ത്ത min- pe. Coagulum (A) Aqueous alcoholic solution (B). Acetone or ethyl acetate ...

  19. Jack Human Modelling Tool: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    design and evaluation [8] and evolved into the Computerised Biomechanical Man Model (Combiman), shown in Figure 2. Combiman was developed at the...unrealistic arrangement of tetrahedra (Figure 7) to a highly realistic human model based on current anthropometric, anatomical and biomechanical data...has long legs and a short torso may find it difficult to adjust the seat and rudder pedals to achieve the required over the nose vision, reach to

  20. Jack Sparrow on tagasi! / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Gore Verbinski lavastatud piraadi-triloogia teine film "Kariibi mere piraadid : Surnud mehe aardekirst" ("Pirates of the Caribbean : Dead Man's Chest"), peaosas Johnny Depp : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006

  1. Jack-o'-Lantern and nuclear mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Garwin, R.

    1997-01-01

    Is the humanity survival threatened by the use of nuclear energy? Do nuclear power plants stand risks? and if the answer is yes what kind of risks? Georges Charpak, physicist, Nobel price of physics, member of Academy of Science (Paris) and Richard L. Garwin, physicist, member of National Academy of Science (Washington) bring some answers: what is the fission, what is the fusion, the neutron, the PWR reactors, the fast neutrons reactors, the three miles island accident and the Chernobyl accident, their effect on public opinion, the radiations and the living, the nuclear wastes and the becoming of nuclear weapons. (N.C.)

  2. Desempenho agronômico de milho consorciado com feijão-de-porco em duas épocas de cultivo no sistema orgânico de produção Agronomic performance of corn intercropped with jack beans in two cropping seasons in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Perin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, avalia-se a produção de milho verde e grão em cultivo orgânico e a massa de leguminosa no consórcio milho, feijão-de-porco, em duas épocas de cultivo. Foram realizados dois experimentos de campo, em Viçosa (MG, no período de outono/inverno e de primavera/verão. O milho e o feijão-de-porco foram semeados simultaneamente na mesma linha, espaçadas de 1m. Os tratamentos foram as densidades de feijão-de-porco, 0, 2, 4 e 6 plantas m-1 e as duas épocas de cultivo, no esquema fatorial 4 x 2, utilizando-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A produção de milho foi influenciada somente pela época do ano, atingindo 7,26 e 9,64 Mg ha-1 de milho verde e 5,01 e 7,46 Mg ha-1 de grãos nos cultivos de outono/inverno e primavera/verão, respectivamente. Houve efeito significativo da densidade de plantas, da época de amostragem e da época de cultivo sobre a produção de massa do adubo verde. A maior produção de biomassa de feijão-de-porco (5,07 Mg ha-1 foi obtida no final do ciclo do milho no cultivo de outono/inverno, com 4,8 plantas m-1. No cultivo de primavera/verão a produção máxima (2,95 Mg ha-1 foi obtida com 6 plantas m-1 também no final do ciclo da cultura do milho. Conclui-se que a produção de milho em cultivo orgânico não é prejudicada pela consorciação com feijão-de-porco.This work evaluates the yield of fresh and grain corn in organic system and the leguminous mass in the intercropping corn, jack beans, in two cropping seasons. Two field experiments were carried out in Viçosa (MG, on Autumn/Winter and Spring/Summer. Corn and jack beans were sown simultaneously in the same rows 1 m apart. The treatments were the jack beans density (0, 2, 4 or 6 plants m-1 and the two cropping season, arranged in a 4 x 2 factorial design and randomized blocks with four repetitions. The corn yield was influenced only by cropping season, reaching 7.26 and 9.64 Mg ha-1 of fresh and

  3. Produção de biomassa e teor de macronutrientes do milheto, feijão-de-porco e guandu-anão em cultivo solteiro e consorciado Biomass production and macronutrients quantity of millet, jack bean, guandu single and in intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Monti Teixeira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a produção de biomassa e o teor de macronutrientes do milheto (Pennisetum typhoides (Burm. Stapf, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC. e guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. em cultivo solteiro e nos consórcios da gramínea com as leguminosas, visando a produção de palha no sistema plantio direto. O trabalho foi conduzido no campo experimental do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, Brasil. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Apenas o guandu-anão solteiro apresentou menor produção de fitomassa fresca e seca, sendo que os demais tratamentos não diferiram entre si, pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. De forma geral, as leguminosas apresentaram maiores teores de N e Ca e o milheto maiores teores de S. Apenas o feijão-de-porco solteiro apresentou menor teor de P. Os maiores teores de K foram apresentados pelo milheto solteiro e consorciado com as leguminosas e pelo feijão-de-porco em consórcio com milheto. Os menores teores de Mg foram verificados para o guandu-anão.The object of this work was to evaluate the biomass production and the macronutrients quantity of millet (Pennisetum typhoides (Burm. Stapf, jack bean (Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC., guandu (Cajanus cajan, (L. Millsp. dwarf cultivar, and the millet with leguminous consortiums to straw production in no-tillage system. The experiment was carried in experimental area at Agriculture Department of the Federal University of Lavras (Lavras, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five treatments and four replications. For biomass production, only the guandu presented smaller fresh and dry biomass yield than the other treatments. In general, the leguminous presented the greatest N and Ca quantities and millet the greatest quantities of S. Only jack bean presented minor P quantity. For K the greatest quantities

  4. Jack Mitchell : kallistage oma töötajaid / Jack Mitchell ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mitchell, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Kuidas üks maailma edukamaid ärimehi valib oma firmasse töötajaid, tema müügikultuurist ning peatselt ilmuvast teisest raamatust, kus peamiseks põhitõeks on oma töötajatest lugupidamine ning nende "kallistamine". Lisa: Jacki viis põhitõde

  5. Jack Deverell : NATO ei kao kuhugi / Jack Deverell ; interv. Margus Kolga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Deverell, Jack

    2005-01-01

    NATO põhjapiirkonna vägede endise juhi arvates võiks NATO olla endiselt peamine sõjalise jõu instrument, olgu tegemis siis NATO või EL-i juhitud sõjalise operatsiooniga, ta ei usu, et NATO ja EL muutuvad sõjaliselt ning poliitiliselt omavahel võistlevateks organisatsioonideks. Riigid peaksid tegutsema koos selliste sõjaliste võimete loomisel, milleks nad üksi suutelised ei ole

  6. Invasive Acacia longifolia induce changes in the microbial catabolic diversity of sand dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten

    2008-01-01

    diversity. Five substrate groups were tested: amino acids, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, plant litters, and plant polymers. CRP clearly discriminated between the three different areas. Respiratory responses to the individual substrates a-ketoglutaric acid, oxalic acid, starch, citric acid, and xylose...... and to the groups of amino acids and plant polymers were similar in both invaded areas and different in the non-invaded. The responses to tartaric acid, gallic acid, fumaric acid, Cistus litter, and Acacia litter were the same in long- and non-invaded areas, but different from recently invaded areas. The duration...

  7. SEPHIROT: Scenario for Universe-Creation AUTOMATICALLY from Digits On-Average Euler-Bernoulli-Kummer-Riemann-Newcomb-Poincare-Weyl-Benford-Kac-Raimi-Hill-Antonoff-Siegel ``Digit-Physics'' Logarithm-Law: ``It's a Jack-in-the-Box Universe'': EMET/TRUTH!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; Young, Frederic; Wignall, Janis

    2013-04-01

    SEPHIROT: Siegel[http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1553]: Ten-[0->9]-Digits; Average Log-Law SCALE-Invariance; Utter-Simplicity: ``Complexity'' (vs. ``Complicatedness''); Zipf-law/Hyperbolicity/ Inevitability SCENARIO AUTOMATICALLY CREATES & EVOLVES a UNIVERSE: inflation, a big-bang, bosons(E)->Mellin-(c2)-tranform->fermions(m), hidden-dark-energy(HDE), hidden-dark-matter (HDM), cosmic-microwave-background(CMB), supersymmetry(SUSY), PURPOSELY NO: theories,models,mechanisms,processes, parameters,assumptions,WHATSOEVER: It's a ``Jack-in-the-Box'' Universe!!!: ONLY VIA: Newcomb [Am.J.Math.4(1),39(1881)]QUANTUM-discovery!!!-Benford-Siegel-Antonoff[AMS.Joint-Mtg.(02)-Abs.#973-60-124!!!] inversion to ONLY BEQS with d=0 BEC: ``Digit-Physics''!; Log fixed-point invariance(s): [base=units=SCALE] of digits classic (not classical!) average [CAUSING] log statistical-correlations =log(1+1/d), with physics-crucial d=0 BEC singularity/pole, permits SEPHIROT!!!: ``digits are quanta are bosons because bosons are and always were digits!!!'': Digits = Bosons with d=0 BEC(!!!) & expansion to Zipf-law Hyperbolicity INEVITABILITY CMB!

  8. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimoelja, A

    2000-01-01

    Traditional herbs have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the management of erectile dysfunction and have become known world-wide as an 'instant' treatment. The modern view of the management of erectile dysfunction subscribes to a single etiology, i.e. the mechanism of erection. A large number of pharmacological agents are orally consumed and vasoactive agents inserted intraurethrally or injected intrapenially to regain good erection. Modern phytochemicals have developed from traditional herbs. Phytochemicals focus their mechanism of healing action to the root cause, i.e. the inability to control the proper function of the whole body system. Hence phytochemicals manage erectile dysfunction in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Protodioscin is a phytochemical agent derived from Tribulus terrestris L plant, which has been clinically proven to improve sexual desire and enhance erection via the conversion of protodioscine to DHEA (De-Hydro-Epi-Androsterone). Preliminary observations suggest that Tribulus terrestris L grown on different soils does not consistently produce the active component Protodioscin. Further photochemical studies of many other herbal plants are needed to explain the inconsistent results found with other herbal plants, such as in diversities of Ginseng, Eurycoma longifolia, Pimpinella pruacen, Muara puama, Ginkgo biloba, Yohimbe etc.

  9. Micropropagation of herbal plants for mass production of in vitro plantlets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Sobri; Ibrahim, Rusli [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research MINT, Bangi (Malaysia). Agrotechnology and Biosciences Div.

    2006-09-15

    Malaysia herbal industry is considered to be one of the most dynamic enterprises with annual growth estimated at 20 % a year. The total import value of the medicinal and aromatic plants increased from RM 141 million in 1986 to RM 431 million in 1996. Species that have been identified in terms of current priority are Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), Andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi), Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu), Centella asiatica (Pegaga), Orthosiphon aristatus (Misai Kucing) and Gynura procumbens (Sambung Nyawa). Herbal and medicinal plants have a larger pool of genetic resources for the production of compounds valuable to the industry and human well being such as in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and health food. The use of tissue culture technology has long been considered as an attractive solution to the problem of limited supply of raw materials for the industries. Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) has been well known to increase female hormone, overcome tiredness and regain overall health. Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus) has proven to be active against kidney stones, high blood pressure, diabetes and gout and Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens) is active against hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Tissue culture protocols had been optimized for the mass production of in vitro plantlets of these three selected herbal plants. (Author)

  10. Incorporation of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology as supplements in energy chocolate confectionery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Cempaka Mohd Yusof; Sobri Hussein; Salmah Moosa; Salahbiah Badul Majid; Azhar Mohammad; Foziah Ali; Shafii Khamis; Rusli Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) and Ginseng (Panax ginseng) are well known herbs among Asians and have been sought after by Europeans and others for the benefits to health, especially as aphrodisiac and nourishing stimulants. They have high antioxidant level and were reported to be used in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. Since Tongkat Ali and Ginseng are difficult to cultivate and have a long cultivation period, the bioreactor technology is the alternative method to produce huge amount of raw materials for the herbal industry and continuous supply of standardized raw materials that is not affected by geographical and environmental factors, soil less and free from pesticides and other contaminants. Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology have similar profiles as extracts derived from normal cultivation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) profiles showed presence of active compounds in the Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from the mass propagated roots. Cytotoxicity test using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality assay, revealed that higher concentration of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots did not kill or affect the brine shrimps, implying that the extracts were safe for consumption. Incorporation of combination of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng total extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology energy chocolate confectionery was accepted by the panelists in sensory evaluation and showed that the chocolate product has good potential as a carrier besides beverages and capsules. (author)

  11. POTENCY OF THE INDONESIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subeki Subeki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian traditional herbal medicine has been practiced for many centuries in Indonesia to treat malaria diseases. Although modern medicine is becoming increasingly important, herbal medicine is still very popular. In order to select raw material for preparation of safety herbal medicines, forty five medicinal plants have been tested for acute toxicity in mouse at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. The extracts of Asclepias curassavica leave, Alstonia scholaris leave, Decospermum fruticosum leave, Elaocarpus petiolatus bark, Elaocarpus parvifolius bark, Eurycoma longifolia root, Garcinia rigida bark, Nephelium lappaceum bark, Pentaspodan motleyi leave, Picrasma javanica leave, Phyllanthus niruri whole, Quassia indica leave, Syzygium pycnanthum bark, Tetrasera scandens leave, Cratoxylum glaucum bark, Sandoricum emarginatum bark, Mallotus paniculatus leave, Microcos ovatolanceolata bark, Poikilospermum suaveolens leave, Fibraurea chloroleuea leave, Tetrasera scandens root, and Timonius billitonensis bark showed toxicity with mortality level of 20-100%. The remaining 32 plant extracts were not toxic at dose tested. The toxic plant species should be considered in the preparation of herbal medicines. Of the safety extracts were tested for their antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in vivo at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. Extract of Carica papaya leave was most active than other plant extracts with parasitemia 1.13%, while control showed 17.21%. More research is needed to scientifically prove efficacy and to identity antimalarial constituents in the plant extracts. Key words: Indonesian medicinal plant, jamu, toxicity, antimalarial activity, Plasmodium berghei.

  12. Micropropagation of herbal plants for mass production of in vitro plantlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia herbal industry is considered to be one of the most dynamic enterprises with annual growth estimated at 20 % a year. The total import value of the medicinal and aromatic plants increased from RM 141 million in 1986 to RM 431 million in 1996. Species that have been identified in terms of current priority are Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), Andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi), Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu), Centella asiatica (Pegaga), Orthosiphon aristatus (Misai Kucing) and Gynura procumbens (Sambung Nyawa). Herbal and medicinal plants have a larger pool of genetic resources for the production of compounds valuable to the industry and human well being such as in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and health food. The use of tissue culture technology has long been considered as an attractive solution to the problem of limited supply of raw materials for the industries. Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) has been well known to increase female hormone, overcome tiredness and regain overall health. Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus) has proven to be active against kidney stones, high blood pressure, diabetes and gout and Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens) is active against hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Tissue culture protocols had been optimized for the mass production of in vitro plantlets of these three selected herbal plants. (Author)

  13. Screening of selected indigenous plants of Cambodia for antiplasmodial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Sotheara; Chea, Aun; Bun, Sok-Siya; Elias, Riad; Gasquet, Monique; Timon-David, Pierre; Balansard, Guy; Azas, Nadine

    2006-08-11

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of 117 aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts derived from different parts of 28 indigenous wild plant species was studied. These plants are commonly used in Cambodian traditional medicine. The plant extracts were tested for in vitro activity against a chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain (W2). Nine extracts were moderately active with IC(50) values ranging between 5 and 10 microg/ml, 17 extracts were active with IC(50) values ranging between 1 and 5 microg/ml. These 26 extracts derived from eight plants belong to six families. The most active extracts were dichloromethane and came from Stephania rotunda and Brucea javanica with IC(50) values of 1 microg/ml and a selectivity index > or = 25. It is interesting to note that some aqueous extracts were as active as dichloromethane extracts especially aqueous extracts of Stephania rotunda, Brucea javanica, Phyllanthus urinaria and Eurycoma longifolia with IC(50) values of uses of these plants for the treatment of malaria and/or fever. In this study, we report the antiplasmodial potential activity of eight plant species from Cambodia. Among them four are tested for the first time.

  14. EDTA assisted phytorremediation of a Pb contamined soil: metal leaching and uptake by jack beans Lixiviação e absorção de Pb pelo feijão-de-porco assistido pela aplicação de EDTA no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassetto Gabos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is one of the main soil contaminants. It is also of difficult phytoremediation due to its low solubility and high retention on soil particles. EDTA application to soil is a strategy to increase heavy metal phytoextraction, but such chelants usually cause phytotoxicity and metal leaching side effects. Therefore, these research work objectives were to evaluate the effects of single (0.5 g kg-1 and split (0.25 + 0.25 g kg-1 EDTA application on Pb uptake by jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis L. as well as on Pb vertical movement in a Pb contaminated soil material. Two sets of experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions: in the first one, plants were grown in 3L-pots filled with a Pb-contaminated soil to evaluate Pb uptake by plants; for the second experiment, PVC-columns (42 cm height were used to evaluate soil Pb leaching: the upper half-column (20 cm was filled up with Pb-contaminated soil (1800 mg kg-1 whereas the lower half-column (20 cm was filled with clean soil. Ten 60 mm-rainfalls with a duration of five hours were simulated by dropping distilled water on the top of columns, and leachates were collected for chemical analysis. Plants did not show any visual Pb toxicity symptoms or reduction in dry matter yield. Nevertheless, Pb uptake by jack beans regarded as total plant Pb accumulation was higher in EDTA-treated plants. Vertical Pb movement was observed mostly for the single EDTA application. EDTA addition to the soil favor Pb-phytoextraction by jack beans and the split EDTA application decrease the metal leaching, indicating less risk of environmental contamination.O chumbo (Pb é um dos principais contaminantes de solo. Os processos de remediação são dificultados devido à alta retenção do elemento às partículas do solo. A utilização do EDTA para aumentar a fitoextração dos metais do solo tem apresentado bons resultados. Contudo, os quelantes podem causar efeitos indesejáveis como a fitotoxidez e a lixivia

  15. Using Jack Tales in a Second Grade Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Doris

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project in which Kentucky second grades developed puppet shows and photography activities based on traditional Appalachian oral tales. Discusses student progress in language arts skills, creativity, use of audiovisual equipment, and group cooperation. (SV)

  16. USA hiiglane GE Healthcare korraldab meditsiinis revolutsiooni / Andrew Jack

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jack, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    General Electricu tütarettevõte GE Healthcare võttis üle Briti diagnostika- ja bioteaduse uurimisfirma Amersham, firma strateegia tuum on võimsa skaneerimistehnoloogia ja meditsiinilise diagnostika üksteisele lähendamine. Lisa: Aeg sorteerida andmeid infotehnoloogia abil

  17. Conceptual design of the inner cryostat support and jack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarino, V.; Petereit, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Endcap Cryostat will be supported by the End Barrel Tilecalorimeter at four points. The outer support points will be carried by a structure that is external to the End Barrel modules while the inner support points will be directly on the modules. This paper concerns the design of these inner support points. The design parameters for the inner support points are: (1) must be able to support twice the front load from the Endcap Cryostat (70 tons); (2) the support point must make contact on the inner radius surface provided on the Endcap Cryostat; (3) vertical adjust must be allowed of up to ± 6mm; (4) the support must be a simple support; (5) the support must be contained within the envelope of one End Barrel submodule

  18. Judging Jack: Rethinking Historical Agency and the Sport Hero

    OpenAIRE

    Kohe, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    One aspect of the dizzying (aesthetic, cultural, linguistic, visual, and post-modern) ‘turns’ Sport history has taken in recent times has been the revision/deconstruction of sporting heroes and demystification of historical narratives. This, in turn, has attended to larger historical concerns about the centrality of agents and agency in narrative making. Encouraged by these directions, this paper reconsiders the primacy afforded agents and their agency within national Olympic history creation...

  19. Õiglasem ja moodsam ELi arve / Jack Straw

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Straw, Jack

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia välisminister selgitab Suurbritannia kui Euroopa Liidu eesistujamaa poolt esitatud ettepanekuid Euroopa Liidu järgmise, 2007.-2013. aasta eelarveperioodi rahastamiskava kohta ning kinnitab, et Suurbritannia on valmis maksma oma osa ühenduse eelarvesse, kuid ainult oma õiglase osa

  20. Revisiting Jack Goody to Rethink Determinisms in Literacy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Ross

    2013-01-01

    This article revisits Goody's arguments about literacy's influence on social arrangements, culture, cognition, economics, and other domains of existence. Whereas some of his arguments tend toward technological determinism (i.e., literacy causes change in the world), other of his arguments construe literacy as a force that shapes and is shaped by…

  1. Jack of all trades: Versatile catechol crosslinking mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Kamperman, M.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Catechols play an important role in many natural systems. They are known to readily interact with both organic (e.g., amino acids) and inorganic (e.g., metal ions, metal oxides) compounds, thereby providing a powerful system for protein curing. Catechol crosslinked protein networks, such as

  2. HDGF: a novel jack-of-all-trades in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cihang; Wang, Jianbo; Ma, Wei; Wang, Xintong; Cheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-01

    HDGF is an important regulator of a broad range of cancer cell activities and plays important roles in cancer cell transformation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Such a divergent influence of HDGF on cancer cell activities derives from its multiple inter- and sub-cellular localizations where it interacts with a range of different binding partners. Interestingly, high levels of HDGF could be detected in patients' serum of some cancers. This review is focused on the role of HDGF in tumorigenesis and metastasis, and provides insight for application in clinical cancer therapy as well as its clinical implications as a prognostic marker in cancer progression.

  3. DARPP-32, Jack of all trades… master of which?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eYger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B was discovered as a substrate of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA enriched in dopamine-innervated brain areas. It is one of 3 related PKA-regulated inhibitors of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1. These inhibitors seem to have appeared in early vertebrate ancestors, possibly Gnathostomes. DARPP-32 has additional important biochemical properties including inhibition of PKA when phosphorylated by Cdk5 and regulation by casein kinases 1 and 2. It is highly enriched in specific neuronal populations, especially striatal medium-size spiny neurons. As PP1 inhibitor DARPP-32 amplifies and/or mediates many actions of PKA at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm, with a broad spectrum of targets and functions. DARPP-32 also undergoes a continuous and tightly regulated cytonuclear shuttling. This trafficking is controlled by phosphorylation of Ser-97, which is necessary for nuclear export. When phosphorylated on Thr-34 and dephosphorylated on Ser-97, DARPP-32 can inhibit PP1 in the nucleus and modulate signaling pathways involved in the regulation of chromatin response. Recent work with multiple transgenic and knockout mutant mice has allowed the dissection of DARPP-32 function in striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. It is implicated in the action of therapeutic and abused psychoactive drugs, in prefrontal cortex function, and in sexual behavior. However, the contribution of DARPP-32 in human behavior remains poorly understood. Post-mortem studies in humans suggest possible alterations of DARPP-32 levels in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Genetic studies have revealed a polymorphism with possible association with psychological and psychopathological traits. In addition, a short isoform of DARPP-32, t-DARPP, plays a role in cancer, indicating additional signaling properties. Thus, DARPP-32 is a non-essential but tightly regulated signaling hub molecule which may improve the general performance of the neuronal circuits in which it is expressed.

  4. Collisions damage assessment of ships and jack-up rigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shengming; Pedersen, P. Terndrup; Ocakli, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Ship collision with offshore installations is one of the key concerns in design and assess of platforms performance and safety. This paper presents an analysis on collision energy and structural damage in ship and offshore platform collisions for various collision scenarios. The platform or rig...

  5. Hoornloos fokken vraagt draagvlak ( interview met Jack Windig)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, J.

    2009-01-01

    Het fokken op hoornloosheid kan een einde maken aan het kunstmatige onthoornen. Dat is goed voor het dierwelzijn vinden veehouders, maar de burger denkt daar in eerste instantie anders over, zo blijkt uit onderzoek van ASG

  6. Von Anselm von Feuerbach zu Jack the Ripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Habermas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey discusses recent studies on the history of crime and criminal law in 19th century Europe. At the same time it opens up for new perspectives on the history of crime and law – perspectives which allow us to challenge the master narrative of the modern legal state’s development. The article argues that future studies should focus on the processes that lead to legal action. Prosecution attorneys, experts (i.e. physicians and journalists are only some of the agents who participate in the dispute process in court. The structural circumstances of their actions should be analyzed in order to understand legal action as dispute process – a term which was first developed by the anthropology of law.

  7. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy…

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of belonging to a CERN Club are numerous for you as an individual and for CERN as an Organization! At CERN there are nearly 50 Clubs, run by teams of keen and dedicated volunteers, each offering sporting, cultural or technology-related activities.  Becoming a member of one of those clubs will enable you to carry out your preferred hobbies and interests and at the same time, it will enhance your non-professional relations amongst other colleagues working at CERN and also facilitate your (and your family’s) integration in the local area. Joining a CERN club will help your widen your circle of friends and help you understand the work carried out by your colleagues in different domains within CERN. CERN clubs are open to people from the local area, which also means you can mingle with people from varying backgrounds and nationalities from the region, again aiding integration and your language skills. It gives CERN people the opportunity to explain to our friends from the local ar...

  8. Librarianship and literature essays in honour of Jack Pafford

    CERN Document Server

    Milne, A T

    2014-01-01

    These essays are produced in honour of the seventieth birthday of Dr J. H. Pafford, Goldsmith's Librarian of the University of London from 1945 to 1967, and reflect his interests in librarianship, textual editing and local history.

  9. Antiangiogenic Effect of Ficus deltoidea Jack Standardised Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: To prepare the water extract (FD-A), the powder of the plant was extracted with water under ... chromatography (RP-HPLC), as well as by total phenolic and flavonoid contents. .... quantification (LOQ) according to a previously.

  10. Jack Wescott and Donald F. Smith. The Legacy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.; Wescott, Jack W.; Smith, Donald F.

    2017-01-01

    This is the tenth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged our profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these leaders and…

  11. Free harmonic oscillators, Jack polynomials, and Calogero-Sutherland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurappa, N.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2000-01-01

    The algebraic structure and the relationships between the eigenspaces of the Calogero-Sutherland model (CSM) and the Sutherland model (SM) on a circle are investigated through the Cherednik operators. We find an exact connection between the simultaneous nonsymmetric eigenfunctions of the A N-1 Cherednik operators, from which the eigenfunctions of the CSM and SM are constructed, and the monomials. This construction allows us to simultaneously diagonalize both CSM and SM (after gauging away the Hamiltonians by suitable measures) and also enables us to write down a harmonic oscillator algebra involving the Cherednik operators, which yields the raising and lowering operators for both of these models. The connections of the CSM with free oscillators and the SM with free particles on a circle are established in a novel way. We also point out the subtle differences between the excitations of the CSM and the SM

  12. All Work and No PLA Makes Jack a Dull Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova-Gonci, Viktoria

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an assortment of approaches--building blocks--commonly used in Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) practices (this list is certainly not comprehensive): (1) course matching (comparing course requirements to a student's prior learning experiences); (2) student's ability to articulate learning gained from…

  13. Liberação de macronutrientes das palhadas de milheto solteiro e consorciado com feijão-de-porco sob cultivo de feijão Macronutrient release from straw of millet and millet - jack - bean intercropping under common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Monti Teixeira

    2010-04-01

    matéria seca e maiores teores de N e Ca, ciclando maior quantidade de todos os macronutrientes. A palhada de milheto + feijão-de-porco apresentou maiores velocidades de decomposição e liberação de N, Ca e Mg.Nutrients recycle is related to the absorption capacity by different cover crop species. Already speeds of decomposition and of nutrient release of straws produced is mostly related with C/N ratio, with a marked difference between grasses and leguminous. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass production and macronutrient contents and accumulation, decomposition, and nutrient release from straw of millet (Pennisetum typhoides (Burm. Stapf and millet - jack - bean (Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC. intercropping, under field conditions, under common bean, sown in August (winter/spring. Decomposition and nutrient release was determined in nylon bags (0.2 x 0.2 m, 1 mm mesh filled with straw quantities according to the area of the bag. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications in split plot arrangement. The straws represented the plots and the subplots evaluation periods (0, 8, 16, 24, 40, 56, and 72 days. The residues were dried to constant weight in a forced-air oven at 65 ºC to determine the remaining dry matter, then ground and sent to a laboratory to analyze macronutrient contents. Based on the contents and remaining dry matter amounts, the remaining nutrient amounts were determined, expressed in relation to the initial amount. Non-linear models were fit to the values, choosing the best adjustment in each case. Biomass quantity, N and Ca contents and cycling of nutrient quantities was greatest in the intercropping straw. The decomposition and nutrient release speeds were also highest in millet - jack - bean intercropping straw.

  14. Fitomassa, teor e acúmulo de micronutrientes do milheto, feijão-deporco e guandu-anão, em cultivo solteiro e consorciado = Micronutrient phytomass, levels and accumulation in millet, jack bean and pigeon pea, as sole crops and in intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Monti Teixeira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O consórcio entre gramíneas e leguminosas para produção de palha, no sistema plantio direto, visa conciliar a proteção do solo, por meio da maior durabilidade da gramínea, com a fixação de N e disponibilização mais rápida de nutrientes pela decomposição da leguminosa. Diante disso, instalou-se um experimento para determinar a produção de fitomassa e o teor e acúmulo de micronutrientes do milheto, feijão-de-porco e guandu-anão, em cultivo solteiro enos consórcios da gramínea com as leguminosas, para a produção de palha no plantio direto. O trabalho foi conduzido no campo experimental do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras – Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais. O delineamento foi o deblocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos, para os teores das espécies em cultivo solteiro e consorciado e cinco tratamentos para produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de micronutrientes, comquatro repetições. Apenas o guandu-anão solteiro apresentou menor produção de fitomassa fresca e seca, com os demais tratamentos produzindo, em média, 12,361 e 2,854 t ha-1 de fitomassa fresca e seca, respectivamente. Houve diferenças significativas para os teores de B, Cu e Zn e para os acúmulos de todos os micronutrientes avaliados. As leguminosas apresentaram maiores teores de B e o milheto, maiores teores de Cu e Zn. De forma geral, o consórcio entremilheto e feijão-de-porco apresentou os maiores acúmulos de micronutrientes.Intercropping leguminous with gramineous crops for straw production in no-tillage systems aims to conciliate soil protection(through greater durability of gramineous crops with nitrogen fixation and faster micronutrient availability (through leguminous decomposition. Therefore, an experiment was conducted withthe intention of evaluating phytomass production as well as micronutrient levels and accumulation in millet (Pennisetum typhoides (Burm. Stapf, jack bean (Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC., and pigeon

  15. Short- and longterm impacts of Acacia longifolia invasion on belowground processes of a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten

    2008-01-01

    to new areas, displacing the native vegetation. These invaded ecosystems contrast with the native dune ecosystems that are typically dominated by herb and shrub communities. This study characterizes belowground changes to the native environment as a result of recent (20 y...

  16. Consumption of herbal products: a study of urban community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul’Afifah Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Formulation of herbs into dosage forms promotes their marketing and usage. However, if these herbal products are being taken in an unhealthy trend, they may pose risks to consumers. Aims The present study aimed to investigate herbal product consumption trends (n=550 among adults in the main cities of Malaysia. Methods A questionnaire-based, six-week cross-sectional study was conducted. Respondents were randomly selected in Shah Alam, Klang, Subang, and Kuala Lumpur. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and Chi-square test was applied where appropriate. Results Out of the 550 survey instruments distributed, 453(82.4 per cent responded. The prevalence rate of herbal products use among the adult population in the past 12 months was 71.5 per cent. Regarding the consumption profile; the consumers were mostly female (73.4 per cent, age 25–44 (72.8, and educated at tertiary level (74.8 per cent. The majority of respondents perceived that herbal products helped reduce severity of illness and improve health related quality of life, while (16.4 per cent consumed the herbal products for the treatment of menstrual problem, 71.7 per cent without the recommendation of health care professionals and 85.0 per cent of them purchased through over-the-counter retail sales. The herbal products most commonly consume were Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah (32.4 per cent, Camellia sinensis (Green Tea (32.1 per cent, Panax ginseng (Ginseng (23.8 per cent, and Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali (22.5 per cent. Conclusion This study highlights an unhealthy trend in self-prescription of herbal product consumption without healthcare professionals’ recommendation. Hence, there is an urgent need for healthcare professionals to monitor herbal product consumption.

  17. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim; Abdul Rahim Harun; Azhar Mohamad; Hawa Abdul Aziz; Wan Nazirah Wan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  18. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  19. Environ: E00693 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00693 Achyranthes aspera, Achyranthes longifolia, Achyranthes bidentata root Crude drug ... Achyranthes asper...thes [TAX:169205] ... Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) Achyranthes aspera, Achyranthes longifolia, Achyranthes bidentata root (dried) ...

  20. Light exposure during storage preserving soluble sugar and l-ascorbic acid content of minimally processed romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. longifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Ai, Zhilu; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Zhu, Meiyun

    2013-01-01

    Minimally processed romaine lettuce (MPRL) leaves were stored in light condition (2500lux) or darkness at 4°C for 7d. Light exposure significantly delayed the degradation of chlorophyll and decrease of glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose content, and thus preserved more total soluble solid (TSS) content at the end of storage in comparison with darkness. While, it did not influenced starch content that progressively decreased over time. The l-ascorbic acid (AA) accumulated in light-stored leaves, but deteriorated in dark-stored leaves during storage. The dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) increased in all leaves stored in both light and dark condition, of which light condition resulted in less DHA than darkness. In addition, the fresh weight loss and dry matter significantly increased and these increases were accelerated by light exposure. Conclusively, light exposure in applied intensity effectively alleviated MPRL quality deterioration by delaying the decreases of pigments, soluble sugar, TSS content and accumulating AA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental Assessment of Alternate Training Area Jack Pine Flats Idaho Department of Lands Near Coolin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    habitats within the proposed permit/lease area are not suitable for full support of these species, particularly reproduction and are not considered...restricting harvest has a more substantial positive effect on bull trout reproduction and survival over any other factor. Hence, the proposed action will...growth mesic conifer forests. They are known to use other habitat types such as openings and riparian areas. Populations in Idaho have decreased from

  2. Optic neuritis caused by canine distemper virus in a Jack Russell terrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara R.; Whelan, Nick C.; Pinard, Chantale L.; Alcala, Fernanda Castillo; Wolfe, Katheryn C.

    2011-01-01

    An atypical case of canine distemper (CD) was diagnosed in a vaccinated healthy adult dog. The patient was presented circling, seizuring, and blind. Postmortem examination resulted in a diagnosis of CD. Optic neuritis was diagnosed, a finding not previously described in the context of CD virus infection presenting solely with neurological signs. PMID:21731093

  3. Efek NAA dan BAP terhadap Pembentukan Tunas, Daun, dan Tinggi Tunas Stek Mikro Nepenthes ampullaria Jack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heti Sartika Sari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to know the interaction between NAA and BAP as well as to obtain the best combination of both treatments in promoting the growth of Nepenthes ampullariamicrocutting.An experiment arranged in a factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD wasapplied. Stem segments were used as blocks, where block I was the first segment followed by the next two segments as block II and III respectively. Two factors, i.e. NAA concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 µM and BAP concentrations (0, 9, 18, 27 µM were employed giving rise to 16 combination of treatments. Each treatment combination was replicated threetimes resulting in 48 experimental units. The parametersmeasured were date of shoot initiation, date of root initiation, shoot number, leaf number, root number, length of longest leafand shoot height. The results showed that interactionbetween NAA and BAP in promoting N. ampullariamicrocutting growth was observed.  Combination between NAA of 0 µM and BAP of 18 µMwas found to be the best in promoting N. ampullariamicrocutting growth.Meanwhile, combination between NAA 0 µM and BAP 27 µM was recommended to promote shoot number of N. ampullaria.

  4. Recombinant pre-pro-Concanavalin A (jack bean) is stable but of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ... Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park,. Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK. †Present address: Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of ..... (London: Academic Press) pp.

  5. Analysis of designed experiments by stabilised PLS Regression and jack-knifing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Harald; Høy, M.; Westad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Pragmatical, visually oriented methods for assessing and optimising bi-linear regression models are described, and applied to PLS Regression (PLSR) analysis of multi-response data from controlled experiments. The paper outlines some ways to stabilise the PLSR method to extend its range...... the reliability of the linear and bi-linear model parameter estimates. The paper illustrates how the obtained PLSR "significance" probabilities are similar to those from conventional factorial ANOVA, but the PLSR is shown to give important additional overview plots of the main relevant structures in the multi....... An Introduction, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2001]....

  6. Soil investigations for jack-ups, pile design, and fixed platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, E R

    1977-05-01

    With the exception of dynamically positioned vessels, all stationary structures used by the petroleum industry in the sea are, in one way or another, connected to the seabed to ensure their immobility or stability. Consequently, the ability of the marine soils to support the imposed loads must be determined to allow a safe and economic foundation design and method of structure installation. Two main types of tests are being carried out offshore more or less on a routine basis: the cone penetration and the in-situ vane. The standard cone penetrometer testing method consists essentially of an electric penetrometer which is pushed into the seabed at a constant speed by an hydraulic piston. Remotely operated from the sea surface, the cone penetrates into the ground and the resistance that the soil exerts against the tip and sides of the cone are separately and continuously measured and recorded. The resulting continuous graph provides a detailed picture of the soil profile. In addition, soils data currently required for foundation design and installation can be derived from the test results based on existing correlations.

  7. Germinant size of jack pine in relation to seed size and geographic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Yeatman

    1966-01-01

    The initial size of conifer seedlings is closely related to seed size (Hadders 1963), and seed size is a maternal characteristic that is highly subject to environmental modification (Mergen et al. 1964; Righter 1945). The effect of seed weight must be accounted for in critical studies of seedlings which attempt to attribute differences in growth to specific genetic or...

  8. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 133.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... physical and chemical properties. The minimum milkfat content is 50 percent by weight of the solids, and... a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in...

  9. Invasiveness of Oenothera congeners alien to Europe: Jack of all trades, master of invasion?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihulka, Stanislav; Pyšek, Petr; Martínková, Jana; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), s. 83-96 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P155; GA ČR GA206/05/0323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Competitive ability * Germination * Growth rate Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2006

  10. Titanic, Jack, Rose e o Princípio de Arquimedes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Denardin de Oliveira

    2012-08-01

    Este trabalho analisa fisicamente uma cena do filme Titanic, que teve significativa repercussão nas redes sociais quando da ocasião do seu relançamento para os cinemas. A cena está associada a questões como flutuação e o Princípio de Arquimedes e sugere uma instigante análise para ser realizada em aulas de Física.

  11. 40 Metros abaixo do fundo do Atlântico, "latti", Jack the Ripper e Olissipo

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Maria da Conceição Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Pois é, com a graça do Altíssimo, estamos prestes a iniciar mais uma andança! Daquelas fabulosas que, uma vez por ano, somos sortudos por poder fazer. E a deste ano prometia ser de arromba! Por duas razões básicas e fundamentais: primeiro, porque íamos rever Londres, onde havíamos estado pela primeira vez quatro anos antes da viragem do milénio. Segundo, porque íamos atravessar o Eurotúnel, essa tão fantástica quanto assustadora o...

  12. "Every jack to his trade?": power, identity and market segmentation in the homosexual movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora Lins França

    Full Text Available The present article aims at exploring the relations between the homosexual movement and the segmented consumption market directed at such public in São Paulo. Starting with the social drama analyzed in the text, which involves militant homosexuals and transvestites, the so-called actors of such segmented market, and the attending public, we intend to delineate ways to understand these relations, as well as some processes related to the constitution of the political subject of the homosexual movement in a context of both multiplication of identifying categories and destabilization of this subject.

  13. development of u-channel screw jack for vegetable oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 36, No 3 (2017) > ... Results of the machine design for some of the machine components gave the following values: U-channel structural frame made of mild steel (80 x 160 x 650 mm), compression cap (70 mm) and heater ...

  14. Donkey in Disguise: Jack Jennings and the Center on Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), the proliferation of high school exit exams, the success of school choice initiatives, and a dozen other smaller if more bitter battles, education has become one of the hottest policy topics in Washington. That means there is a booming market for education experts, especially those who claim…

  15. development of u-channel screw jack for vegetable oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    the performance of the machine in terms of oil yield, extraction efficiency and extraction loss with groundnut as the feedstock. ... The world production of oil seed stocks was estimated to ..... published by Asoke K. Ghosh PHI Learning. Limited ...

  16. Jacks of metal(loid chelation trade in plants – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser A. Anjum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Varied environmental compartments including soils are being contaminated by a myriad toxic metal(loids (hereafter termed as ‘metal/s’ mainly through anthropogenic activities. These metals may contaminate food chain and bring irreparable consequences in human. Plant-based approach (phytoremediation stands second to none among bioremediation technologies meant for sustainable cleanup of soils/sites with metal-contamination. In turn, the capacity of plants to tolerate potential consequences caused by the extracted/accumulated metals decides the effectiveness and success of phytoremediation system. Chelation is among the potential mechanisms that largely govern metal-tolerance in plant cells by maintaining low concentrations of free metals in cytoplasm. Metal-chelation can be performed by compounds of glutathione (GSH (reduced GSH; phytochelatins, PCs; metallothioneins, MTs and non-GSH (histidine, nicotianamine, organic acids origin. This paper presents an appraisal of recent reports on both GSH and non-GSH associated compounds in an effort to shed light on the significance of these compounds in metal-plant tolerance, as well as to provide scientific clues for the development of phytoextraction strategies.

  17. Jack the Giant Tamer: Poetry Writing in the Treatment of Paranoid Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Constance

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief case report on the use of poetry writing in the treatment of a patient with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. Notes that, after 23 sessions in which the patient said nothing, the patient brought a poem for the therapist to read at the 24 session. (SR)

  18. Why does Jack, and not Jill, break his crown? Sex disparity in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Warrington, Nicole M; Rubin, Joshua B

    2012-01-25

    It is often reported that brain tumors occur more frequently in males, and that males suffer a worse outcome from brain tumors than females. If correct, these observations suggest that sex plays a fundamental role in brain tumor biology. The following review of the literature regarding primary and metastatic brain tumors, reveals that brain tumors do occur more frequently in males compared to females regardless of age, tumor histology, or region of the world. Sexually dimorphic mechanisms that might control tumor cell biology, as well as immune and brain microenvironmental responses to cancer, are explored as the basis for this sex disparity. Elucidating the mechanisms by which sex chromosomes and sex hormones impact on brain tumorigenesis and progression will advance our understanding of basic cancer biology and is likely to be essential for optimizing the care of brain tumor patients.

  19. Why does Jack, and not Jill, break his crown? Sex disparity in brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tao; Warrington, Nicole M; Rubin, Joshua B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is often reported that brain tumors occur more frequently in males, and that males suffer a worse outcome from brain tumors than females. If correct, these observations suggest that sex plays a fundamental role in brain tumor biology. The following review of the literature regarding primary and metastatic brain tumors, reveals that brain tumors do occur more frequently in males compared to females regardless of age, tumor histology, or region of the world. Sexually dimorphic mecha...

  20. SIFAT FISIKA DAN KETEGUHAN PATAH PAPAN SEMEN PARTIKEL DARI PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Burhanuddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemungkinan pemanfaatan pelepah kelapa sawit sebagai bahan baku papan semen partikel dan untuk mengetahui sifat fisika dan mekanika papan semen partikel pada berbagai perbandingan semen dan partikel dari dua merek semen (Tonasa dan Tiga Roda. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan pola faktorial 2 x 3 sebanyak 5 kali ulangan, dimana faktor A adalah merek semen yaitu semen tonasa dan semen Tiga Roda kemudian faktor B adalah perbandingan antara partikel dan semen. Hasil pengujian sifat fisika dan mekanika masing-masing menunjukan pengaruh yang sangat berbeda nyata, hal ini disebabkan karena semakin banyak penambahan jumlah perekat semen maka semakin baik pula sifat fisika dan mekanika papan semen yang dibuat, sedangkan untuk faktor merek semen tidak menunjukan perbedaan yang nyata. Kata kunci : Pelapah kelapa sawit, sifat fisika dan mekanika, papan semen partikel

  1. Anticonvulsant effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack. in rats with kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C L; Chen, M F; Li, T C; Li, S C; Tang, N Y; Hsieh, C T; Pon, C Z; Lin, J G

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the anticonvulsant effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and the physiological mechanisms of its action in rats. A total of 70 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected for study. Thirty four of these rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) CONTROL GROUP (n = 6): received intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg); 2) UR1000 group (n = 10), 3) UR500 group (n = 6) 4) UR250 group, received UR 1000, 500, 250 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration, respectively; 5) Contrast group: received carbamazepine 20 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration. Behavior and EEG were monitored from 15 min prior to drug administration to 3 hours after KA administration. The number of wet dog shakes were counted at 10 min intervals throughout the experimental course. The remaining 36 rats were used to measure the lipid peroxide level in the cerebral cortex one hour after KA administration. These rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 rats as follows: 1) Normal group: no treatment was given; 2) CONTROL GROUP: received KA (12 mg/kg) i.p.; 3) UR1000 group, 4) UR500 group, 5) UR250 group, received UR 1000, 500, 250 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration, respectively; 6) Contrast group: received carbamazepine 20 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration. Our results indicated that both UR 1000 and 500 mg/kg decreased the incidence of KA-induced wet dog shakes, no similar effect was observed in the UR 250 mg/kg and carbamazepine 20 mg/kg group. Treatment with UR 1000 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, or 250 mg/kg and carbamazepine 20 mg/kg decreased KA-induced lipid peroxide level in the cerebral cortex and was dose-dependent. These findings suggest that the anticonvulsant effect of UR possibly results from its suppressive effect on lipid peroxidation in the brain.

  2. Why does Jack, and not Jill, break his crown? Sex disparity in brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is often reported that brain tumors occur more frequently in males, and that males suffer a worse outcome from brain tumors than females. If correct, these observations suggest that sex plays a fundamental role in brain tumor biology. The following review of the literature regarding primary and metastatic brain tumors, reveals that brain tumors do occur more frequently in males compared to females regardless of age, tumor histology, or region of the world. Sexually dimorphic mechanisms that might control tumor cell biology, as well as immune and brain microenvironmental responses to cancer, are explored as the basis for this sex disparity. Elucidating the mechanisms by which sex chromosomes and sex hormones impact on brain tumorigenesis and progression will advance our understanding of basic cancer biology and is likely to be essential for optimizing the care of brain tumor patients.

  3. 76 FR 60900 - Jack A. Danton, D.O.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... physical examination was Respondent's discussion of UC2's MRI. More specifically, the ALJ found that... MRI might well show that a person has a bulging disc but that the condition is asymptomatic. Yet as... prescribed 180 tablets of Oxycodone 15 mg to UC1, with the dosing instruction to take one tablet every 6...

  4. Detection of human-infective trypanosomes in acutely-infected Jack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A diagnosis of acute canine African trypanosomosis was made by microscopic examination of blood smear. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) analysis, using primers specifically targeting the human serum resistanceassociated (SRA) gene, revealed a monolytic infection with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense ...

  5. Effects of Stearin and Lecithin Concentrations on Physical Properties of Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Misnawi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbal coffee is one of the coffee diversivication product that has been well recognized in the market. The addition of herbs or spices, such as ginger, pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia, Panax (from the genus of Panax L. and Habbatussauda (black cumin/black seed/Nigella sativa in the coffee, not only offer an enhanced flavor characteristic, but more importantly also offer the consumer to gain a health benefit which are possessed by the herbs used. Cardamom (Amonum cardomum is commonly recognized as a food spices to add flavor to dishes. Cardamom is also known as a herb that possess health benefit such as the medicine for tonsil and throat inflammation, fever, asthma and fatigue reliever. This research was aimed to develop a herbal coffee containing the extract of cardamom and to study the characteristic of herbal coffee obtained physicochemically and by sensory analysis. Crystallized coffee and sugar mixture was blended with cardamom extract by several ratio, which were 90%:10%, 80%:20%, 70%:30%, 60%:40% and 50%:50% to obtain ready to drink cardamom herbal coffee. The mixtures and control (without the addition of cardamom were then subjected for consumer perception by testing it to 30 panelist based on hedonic sensory test. The 3 mixtures that were choosen were then analysed for its physicochemical characteristic such as its powder and brewing appearrance, insoluble solids, reducing sugar and caffein concentration. The result showed that the addition of 10%, 20% and 30% cardamom extracthad good preferences to consumer, which 10% of addition resulted the highest preferences. The hedonic sensory test resulted the preferences of the aforementioned herbal coffee on color, aroma, taste and flavor was 3.37; 3.14; 3.30; 3.27 and 3.37 (on scale 1 to 5, respectively, representing moderately like to like preferences.The physiscochemical analysis show that the mixture contain 0.17% of insoluble solid, 0.13% of reducing sugar and 0.45% caffeine which comply

  6. Development of Cardamom (Amomum cardamomum Herbal Coffee Beverages: A study of physicochemical characteristic and consumer perception towards sensory properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ariefandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal coffee is one of the coffee diversivication product that has been well recognized in the market. The addition of herbs or spices, such as ginger, pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia, Panax (from the genus of Panax L. and Habbatussauda (black cumin/black seed/Nigella sativa in the coffee, not only offer an enhanced flavor characteristic, but more importantly also offer the consumer to gain a health benefit which are possessed by the herbs used. Cardamom (Amonum cardomum is commonly recognized as a food spices to add flavor to dishes. Cardamom is also known as a herb that possess health benefit such as the medicine for tonsil and throat inflammation, fever, asthma and fatigue reliever. This research was aimed to develop a herbal coffee containing the extract of cardamom and to study the characteristic of herbal coffee obtained physicochemically and by sensory analysis. Crystallized coffee and sugar mixture was blended with cardamom extract by several ratio, which were 90%:10%, 80%:20%, 70%:30%, 60%:40% and 50%:50% to obtain ready to drink cardamom herbal coffee. The mixtures and control (without the addition of cardamom were then subjected for consumer perception by testing it to 30 panelist based on hedonic sensory test. The 3 mixtures that were choosen were then analysed for its physicochemical characteristic such as its powder and brewing appearrance, insoluble solids, reducing sugar and caffein concentration. The result showed that the addition of 10%, 20% and 30% cardamom extracthad good preferences to consumer, which 10% of addition resulted the highest preferences. The hedonic sensory test resulted the preferences of the aforementioned herbal coffee on color, aroma, taste and flavor was 3.37; 3.14; 3.30; 3.27 and 3.37 (on scale 1 to 5, respectively, representing moderately like to like preferences.The physiscochemical analysis show that the mixture contain 0.17% of insoluble solid, 0.13% of reducing sugar and 0.45% caffeine which comply

  7. Physiology and postharvest conservation of ‘Paluma’ guava under coatings using Jack fruit seed-based starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Marques Rodrigues

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of jackfruit seed starch-based (S coatings, added to chitosan and alginate on the physiology and maintenance of quality of cold stored ‘Paluma’ guavas, followed by transfer to the room condition. The design was the completely randomized, in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in 4 replications, with 4 coatings (dispersion of S - 4%; S 2% + chitosan - 2% (SC; S - 2% + alginate - 2% (SA; and the uncoated control, in 2 environments (refrigerated (10±2 °C e 80±2% RH with transfer to room condition (25±3 °C e 75±4% HR, on the 16th and 20th day of cold storage. The SC and SA coatings were efficient in reducing the respiratory rate in fruits during 10 days at room condition. The SC coating delayed fruit ripening, and maintained firmness and color, with intention of purchasing and appearance higher than the limit of acceptance for another 6 days, following transferring to room condition, at the 16th day of refrigeration.

  8. 75 FR 32357 - Gallatin National Forest; Montana; Jack Rabbit to Big Sky Meadow Village 161 kV Transmission Line...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... prior to the close of the comment period and should clearly articulate the reviewer's concerns and... during the scoping of the proposed action and the comment period. The decision maker will take into... near Cascade Creek homes/Lava Lake Trailhead area, Greek Creek homes and the Deer Creek Trailhead areas...

  9. Towards abundance estimates for jack mackerel in the South Pacific based on acoustic data collected by the commercial vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunel, T.P.A.; Faessler, S.M.M.; Haan, de D.; Hintzen, N.T.; Kamp, van der P.H.J.; Ybema, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Pelagic trawlers make intensive use of echosounders and therefore could potentially be used as acoustic data collection platforms. This project investigated the possibility of collecting acoustic data and its potential utility to estimate fish stock biomass. The scope of the project was to develop

  10. La productividad de la vainilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews en México de 2003 a 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santillán Fernández

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available En México la producción de vainilla (Vanilla planifolia ha disminuido como resultado de una escasa aplicación de paquetes tecnológicos adecuados a las condiciones edafoclimáticas del cultivo. Para comprobar esta hipótesis se realizó un análisis de su productividad de 2003 a 2014 a nivel internacional, mediante pruebas de medias de Tukey, y a nivel nacional con el modelo de descomposición de factores del crecimiento de la producción propuesto por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura. Los resultados mostraron que, en el periodo de estudio, México no incrementó su exportación de vainilla a nivel internacional debido a que se destinó una escasa superficie al cultivo. En el contexto nacional, para el periodo 2009-2014 en comparación con 2003-2008 hubo un incremento en la producción de 2.5 % como respuesta a los rendimientos de campo (2.0 %. Esto se registró en 14 de los 52 municipios involucrados, que presentaron un aumento de 1.6 % en la superficie sembrada y 1.8 % en el campo, lo que contrasta con la caída de producción (-0.1 % de los restantes 38 municipios, producto de una reducción en el área cultivada (-2.3 %. Estos resultados indican que a pesar de los buenos rendimientos en campo que se obtuvieron de 2009-2014, el país no ha podido incrementar su productividad a nivel internacional, principalmente por la escasa superficie sembrada y a la falta de transferencia de tecnología para impulsar el desarrollo del sector.

  11. Jumpin’ Jacks: Social Marketing Campaign Aimed to Increase Awareness of Healthful Behavior in South Dakota Fourth Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan N. Olesen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of utilizing a collegiate mascot as a marketing tool for the promotion of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity among 4th grade students. The program utilized service learning and formative research for the development of a social marketing campaign comprised of nutrition education and brand marketing. A pre-test/post-test design was used to measure fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in participants in intervention and control schools. Awareness and understanding of the campaign was assessed post-intervention. There were no changes in fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity. However, 91% of the intervention students were able to correctly report understanding of the campaign messages, and approximately one-third of the participants were able to recall the campaign without any prompts. Results demonstrated how a social marketing campaign can utilize branding techniques to bring about awareness, which is an essential step in initiating behavior change.

  12. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Archidendron clypearia (Jack.) I.C. Nielsen: Results from systematic screening of Vietnamese medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Thuy Duong; Pham Duc Vinh; Phuong Thien Thuong; Nguyen Thi Hoai; Le Nguyen Thanh; Tran The Bach; Nguyen Hai Nam; Nguyen Hoang Anh

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To screen Vietnamese medicinal plants for xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and to isolate XO inhibitor(s) from the most active plant.Methods: The plants materials were extracted by methanol. The active plant materials were fractionated using different organic solvents, includingn-hexane, ethyl acetate, andn-butanol. Bioassay-guided fractionation and column chromatography were used to isolate compounds. The compounds structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Results:Three hundreds and eleven methanol extracts (CME) belonging to 301 Vietnamese herbs were screened for XO inhibitory activity. Among these plants, 57 extracts displayed XO inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL with inhibition rates of over 50%. The extracts of Archidendron clypearia,Smilax poilanei,Linociera ramiflora and Passiflora foetida exhibited the greatest potency with IC50 values below 30 μg/mL. Chemical study performed on the extract ofArchidendron clypearia resulted in the isolation of six compounds, including 1-octacosanol, docosenoic acid, daucosterol, methyl gallate, quercitrin and (?)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan. The compound (?)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan showed the most potent XO inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 25.5 μmol/L.Conclusions:From this investigation, four Vietnamese medicinal plants were identified to have XO inhibitory effects with IC50 values of the methanol extracts below 30 μg/mL. Compound (?)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan was identified as an XO inhibitor from Archidendron clypearia with IC50 value of 25.5 μmol/L.

  13. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Archidendron clypearia (Jack.) I.C. Nielsen: Results from systematic screening of Vietnamese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Nguyen Thuy; Vinh, Pham Duc; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Thanh, Le Nguyen; Bach, Tran The; Nam, Nguyen Hai; Anh, Nguyen Hoang

    2017-06-01

    To screen Vietnamese medicinal plants for xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and to isolate XO inhibitor(s) from the most active plant. The plants materials were extracted by methanol. The active plant materials were fractionated using different organic solvents, including n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Bioassay-guided fractionation and column chromatography were used to isolate compounds. The compounds structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Three hundreds and eleven methanol extracts (CME) belonging to 301 Vietnamese herbs were screened for XO inhibitory activity. Among these plants, 57 extracts displayed XO inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL with inhibition rates of over 50%. The extracts of Archidendron clypearia (A. clypearia), Smilax poilanei, Linociera ramiflora and Passiflora foetida exhibited the greatest potency with IC 50 values below 30 μg/mL. Chemical study performed on the extract of A. clypearia resulted in the isolation of six compounds, including 1-octacosanol, docosenoic acid, daucosterol, methyl gallate, quercitrin and (-)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan. The compound (-)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan showed the most potent XO inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 25.5 μmol/L. From this investigation, four Vietnamese medicinal plants were identified to have XO inhibitory effects with IC 50 values of the methanol extracts below 30 μg/mL. Compound (-)-7-O- galloyltricetiflavan was identified as an XO inhibitor from A. clypearia with IC 50 value of 25.5 μmol/L. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Jack-and-Master Trait Responses to Elevated CO2 and N: A Comparison of Native and Introduced Phragmites australis

    OpenAIRE

    Mozdzer, Thomas J.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Global change is predicted to promote plant invasions world-wide, reducing biodiversity and ecosystem function. Phenotypic plasticity may influence the ability of introduced plant species to invade and dominate extant communities. However, interpreting differences in plasticity can be confounded by phylogenetic differences in morphology and physiology. Here we present a novel case investigating the role of fitness trait values and phenotypic plasticity to global change factors between conspec...

  15. El género Ormosia Jacks: (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) en el estado de Guerrero, México

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Jiménez-Ramírez, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez la presencia del género Ormosia para el estado de Guerrero, México, con dos especies: Ormosia carinata y O. oaxacana (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, tribe Sophoreae). Se incluyen las descripciones de ambas, datos referentes a los ejemplares, una clave dicotómica para diferenciarlas, y la ilustración de O. carinata. Ormosia carinata era conocida como elemento endémico de los estados de Veracruz y Oaxaca, en las regiones de Los Tuxtlas y de Uxpanapa. Ormosia carinat...

  16. Hi-Jack: a novel computational framework for pathway-based inference of host–pathogen interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Wong, Limsoon; Archer, John A.C.; Kalnis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    also describe host-pathogen interaction principles that can be used in the future for subsequent studies. Our case study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) revealed pathways in human-e.g. carbohydrate metabolism, lipids metabolism and pathways related

  17. Analysis of essential oils of leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Smith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridahanim Mohd Jaafar; Che Puteh Osman; Nor Hadiani Ismail; Khalijah Awang

    2007-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes of Etlingera elatior, an aromatic plant that are widely used in traditional medicine and as a flavour in local dishes were extracted. The essential oils were extracted using the hydro distillation method and analysed by GC-MS. The percentage yield of volatile constituents of the leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes were 0.0735%, 0.0029%, 0.0334% and 0.0021%, respectively. The leaf essential oil contained β- pinene (19.7%), caryophyllene (15.36%) and (E)-β-farnesene (27.90%) as major compounds whereas the stem essential oil were largely dominated by 1,1-dodecanediol diacetate (34.26%) and (E)-5-dodecane (26.99%). The essential oils of the flowers and rhizomes contained the major compounds 1, 1- dodecanediol diacetate (24.38% and 40.37% respectively) and cyclododecane (47.28% and 34.45% respectively). (author)

  18. Held Hostage by Our Students, as Told by One of the Hostages: In Memory of Mr. Jack Ellison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The philosopher Emmanuel Levinas suggested that the most ethical act possible is the discovery that one has assumed responsibility for the other. In fact it is the other that makes possible the genuine exploration of the self, an act dominating the adolescent era of development. Although rarely appearing in educational literature, Levinas has…

  19. Jack Barney award: the effect of fatigue on cognitive and psychomotor skills of trauma residents and attending surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Jodi; Kahol, Kanav; Smith, Marshall; Leyba, Mario J; Ferrara, John J

    2008-12-01

    Fatigue and sleep deprivation and their effects on surgical proficiency have been actively researched areas. Past studies that have focused solely on residents have provided an important insight into how fatigue affects residents' ability to perform. This study aims to quantify the effect of fatigue on attending surgeons. To quantify the effect of fatigue on psychomotor and cognitive skills of surgical residents and attending surgeons, visiohaptic simulations were created to mimic realistic interactions. Both groups showed a significant decrement in proficiency measures postcall. When tasks were separated based on psychomotor versus cognitive-dominated skills, attending surgeons made 25% fewer (P Psychomotor skills were equally affected in both groups. Call-associated fatigue is associated with increased error rates in the cognitive skill domain, although less so in attending surgeons compared with their resident counterparts.

  20. Structure and Principal Components Analyses Reveal an Intervarietal Fusion in Malaysian Mistletoe Fig (Ficus deltoidea Jack Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birifdzi Zimisuhara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure and biodiversity of the medicinal plant Ficus deltoidea have rarely been scrutinized. To fill these lacunae, five varieties, consisting of 30 F. deltoidea accessions were collected across the country and studied on the basis of molecular and morphological data. Molecular analysis of the accessions was performed using nine Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR markers, seven of which were detected as polymorphic markers. ISSR-based clustering generated four clusters supporting the geographical distribution of the accessions to some extent. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficient implied the existence of low diversity (0.50–0.75 in the studied population. STRUCTURE analysis showed a low differentiation among the sampling sites, while a moderate varietal differentiation was unveiled with two main populations of F. deltoidea. Our observations confirmed the occurrence of gene flow among the accessions; however, the highest degree of this genetic interference was related to the three accessions of FDDJ10, FDTT16 and FDKT25. These three accessions may be the genetic intervarietal fusion points of the plant’s population. Principal Components Analysis (PCA relying on quantitative morphological characteristics resulted in two principal components with Eigenvalue >1 which made up 89.96% of the total variation. The cluster analysis performed by the eight quantitative characteristics led to grouping the accessions into four clusters with a Euclidean distance ranged between 0.06 and 1.10. Similarly, a four-cluster dendrogram was generated using qualitative traits. The qualitative characteristics were found to be more discriminating in the cluster and PCA analyses, while ISSRs were more informative on the evolution and genetic structure of the population.

  1. DEKOMPOSISI SAMPAH JANUR KELAPA (Cocos nucifera L. DAN NIBUNG (Oncosperma tigillarium (Jack Ridl. DALAM LUBANG RESAPAN BIOPORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Candra Noviarta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increasing volume of garbage of Balinese Hindu’s offering is still a problem. The garbage, when it is decomposed however could be useful for fertilized. This organic litter can be decomposed in biopore. This research ainied to investigated the decomposition rate of C. nucifera and O. tigillarium litter in biopores. This research was conducted between February and July 2015. Garbage were collected from temples in Jembrana city and treated at Dangin Tukadaya village, Jembrana Distric. Sampels were arranged in a Factorial Randomized Blocked Sampling Design 2 factors i.e: treatments and times (1, 2, 3, 4 and 23 weeks. The result showed that decomposition rate 98,63% of cocos litter and 99,23% of oncosperma litter were decomposed in biopore on week 23 compared to 89,06% of cocos and 75,76 % of oncosperma litter in control. Decomposition mean rate is 9,33 %/week of cocos litter and 9,64 %/week of oncosperma litter were decomposed in biopore but in control is 7,85 %/week of cocos and 8,07 %/week of oncosperma litter. Total cocos and oncosperma litter decomposition took about 23,3 and 23,2 weeks in biopore but for control 25,8 and 30,4 weeks The number of millipedes (Harpaphe haydeniana as decomposer was found higher compared to other decomposers such as earth worms and molusca. Keywords: decomposition, biopore, decomposer, bali, cocos litter, oncosperma litter

  2. Ecological Survey of Avifaunal Resources in University of Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Polyalthia longifolia were the most ecologically distant in Choba Park. Further investigation is required to ascertain why bird species in the various campuses showed no affinity for Cocus nucifera and Polyalthia longifolia. Key words: University of Port Harcourt, avifauna, abundance, diversity, tree-bird interaction ...

  3. Functional categories in the noun phrase: on jacks-of-all-trades and one-trick-ponies in Danish, Dutch and German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with functionally defined modifier categories of the noun phrase in some Germanic languages, in particular Danish, Dutch and German. It is argued that functional categories, unlike semantic or form-based categories, are the only categories that can be applied within and across...... in German: attitudinal arm (e.g. Der arme Junge! ‘The poor boy!’)....

  4. Quantification of SOC and Clay Content Using Visible Near-Infrared Reflectance–Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy With Jack-Knifing Partial Least Squares Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Knadel, Maria; Gislum, René

    2014-01-01

    A total of 125 soil samples were collected from a Danish field varying in soil texture from sandy to loamy. Visible near-infrared reflectance (Vis-NIR) and mid-infrared reflectance (MIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods were used to predict soil organic carbon (SOC) and clay content...

  5. Folksongs as “Jack of all Trades”: About the Meanings of Singing Folksongs in the First World War in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mayer-Hirzberger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During the First World War the singing and collecting of folksongs obviously had importance. There even were projects of collecting them on the front, in prisoner of-war camps and in the hinterland. The functions of that practice were different. Folksongs in their traditional interpretation as a symbol of an innocent idyll could be used for producing a counterword to a problematic reality, and as an expression of a nation they were good for creating identities in varying forms. There are different forms of practicing and publications, which can be regarded as a mirror of desires and utopias of the then protagonists.

  6. Lugar de homem é na cozinha: ethos e status em Rolê gourmet, Menos de vinte e A maravilhosa cozinha de Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Caldas Costa dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho reúne reflexões teóricas conduzidas no âmbito da relação entre memória, discurso e sociedade, a partir da qual são observados episódios de canais de culinária do site youtube apresentados por homens. As formas de subjetivação dos apresentadores nos distintos programas são objetos para a mobilização dos conceitos de ethos e status a partir das elaborações teóricas de Michel Foucault. O estudo é exploratório, constando de etapa de revisão de literatura e análise discursiva de um corpus formado por falas dos apresentadores. Dentre os resultados alcançados, identificam-se três processos de subjetivação voltados para segmentos de mercado distintos, assim como quadros sociais de memória que os abarcam e se mantêm em alimentação constante.

  7. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  8. MO-DE-207B-01: JACK FOWLER JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR COMPETITION WINNER: Between Somatic Mutations and PET-Based Radiomic Features in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, S; Coroller, T; Rios Velazquez, E; Parmar, C; Mak, R; Aerts, H [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, J [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Although PET-based radiomic features have been proposed to quantify tumor heterogeneity and shown promise in outcome prediction, little is known about their relationship with tumor genetics. This study assessed the association of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET-based radiomic features with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) mutations. Methods: 348 NSCLC patients underwent FDG-PET/CT scans before treatment and were tested for genetic mutations. 13% (44/348) and 28% (96/348) patients were found to harbor EGFR (EGFR+) and KRAS (KRAS+) mutations, respectively. We evaluated nineteen PET-based radiomic features quantifying phenotypic traits, and compared them with conventional PET features (metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and maximum-SUV). The association between the feature values and mutation status was evaluated using the Wilcoxcon-rank-sum-test. The ability of each measure to predict mutations was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Noether’s test was used to determine if the AUCs were significantly from random (AUC=0.50). All p-values were corrected for multiple testing by controlling the false discovery rate (FDR{sub Wilcoxon} and FDR{sub Noether}) of 10%. Results: Eight radiomic features, MTV, and maximum-SUV, were significantly associated with the EGFR mutation (FDR{sub Wilcoxon}=0.01–0.10). However, KRAS+ demonstrated no significantly distinctive imaging features compared to KRAS− (FDR{sub Wilcoxon}≥0.92). EGFR+ and EGFR− were significantly discriminated by conventional PET features (AUC=0.61, FDR{sub Noether}=0.04 for MTV and AUC=0.64, FDR{sub Noether}=0.01 for maximum-SUV). Eight radiomic features were significantly predictive for EGFR+ compared to EGFR− (AUC=0.59–0.67, FDR{sub Noether}=0.0032–0.09). Normalized-inverse-difference-moment outperformed all features in predicting EGFR mutation (AUC=0.67, FDR{sub Noether}=0.0032). Moreover, only the radiomic feature normalized-inverse-difference-moment could significantly predict KRAS+ from EGFR+ (AUC=0.65, FDR{sub Noether}=0.05). All measures failed to predict KRAS+ from KRAS− (AUC=0.50–0.54, FDR{sub Noether}≥0.92). Conclusion: PET imaging features were strongly associated with EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Radiomic features have great potential in predicting EGFR mutations. Our study may help develop a non-invasive imaging biomarker for EGFR mutation. R.M. has consulting interests with Amgen.

  9. The earth's oldest known crust - A geochronological and geochemical study of 3900-4200 Ma old detrital zircons from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Roland; Kinny, Peter D.; Williams, Ian S.; Froude, Derek O.; Compston, William

    1992-03-01

    Trace element characteristics were analyzed and inclusions were identified within a suite of pre-3.9 Ga detritral zircons from western Australia representing the earth's oldest-known minerals. A diversity of trace-element compositions was found, particularly in the REE compositions of the old Mt. Narryer zircons, implying a variety of source-rock compositions and hence, the presence of a differentiated crust in the earth 4.15-4.20 Ga ago. Comparisons drawn with data obtained from younger detrital zircons occurring within the same deposits indicate nothing unique about the chemical compositions of the old grains. A number of interelement covariations were observed among the analyzed grains which were independent of age and isotopic characteristics, most notably that occurring between Lu and Hf. A general positive correlation between total LREE and the U + Th contents is also apparent. The findings indicate an origin in felsic igneous rocks, which has implications for early-Archaean crustal evolution.

  10. Analysis of ITER NbTi and Nb3Sn CICCs experimental minimum quench energy with JackPot, MCM and THEA models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagni, T.; Duchateau, J.L.; Breschi, M.; Devred, A.; Nijhuis, A.

    2017-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) for ITER magnets are subjected to fast changing magnetic fields during the plasma-operating scenario. In order to anticipate the limitations of conductors under the foreseen operating conditions, it is essential to have a better understanding of the stability

  11. Effect of post-thaw addition of seminal plasma on motility, viability and chromatin integrity of cryopreserved donkey jack (Equus asinus) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, C; Mari, G; Mislei, B; Love, Cc; Panzani, D; Camillo, F; Rota, A

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy rates in donkeys after artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen are still low, compared to the horse species. Addition of autologous seminal plasma to frozen-thawed semen appeared to improve pregnancy rates. The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity after thawing (T0) and after one and 2 h (T1 and T2) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0) or 70% (SP70) autologous seminal plasma and (2) sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and DNA quality (%COMP-αt) after thawing (T0) and after 2 and 4 h (T2 and T4) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0), 5% (SP5) or 20% (SP20) homologous seminal plasma. In experiment 1, seminal plasma decreased total and progressive sperm motility and plasma membrane intact spermatozoa immediately after dilution and at all following time points (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, total and progressive motility did not differ between treatments immediately after dilution and between SP0 and SP5 at T2, while they were lower in both SP5 and SP20 than in SP0 at T4. Plasma membrane intact sperm cells did not differ between SP0 and SP5 and were lower in SP20 at all time points. DNA quality was not affected by treatment immediately after dilution and was significantly worse for SP20 after 4 h of incubation (p < 0.05). The post-thaw addition of seminal plasma at the tested concentrations did not improve donkey frozen semen characteristics in vitro over time. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Secondary metabolites constituents and antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm grown in different locations of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Ashkani, Sadegh

    2015-09-23

    Etlingera elatior is a well-known herb in Malaysia with various pharmaceutical properties. E. elatior flowers grown in three different locations of Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang and Johor), were investigated for differences in their content of secondary metabolites (total phenolics [TPC], total flavonoids [TFC], and total tannin content [TTC]) as well as for their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were isolated and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities. The anticancer activity of extracts was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. When extracted with various solvents (aqueous and ethanolic), samples from the different locations yielded significantly different results for TPC, TFC, and TTC as well as antioxidant activity. Aqueous extracts of E. elatior flowers collected from Kelantan exhibited the highest values: TPC (618.9 mg/100 g DM), TFC (354.2 mg/100 g DM), TTC (129.5 mg/100 g DM), DPPH (76.4 %), and FRAP (6.88 mM of Fe (II)/g) activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 μg/mL compared with extracts of flowers collected from the other two locations. The most important phenolic compounds isolated in this study, based on concentration, were: gallic acid > caffeic acid > tannic acid > chlorogenic acid; and the most important flavonoids were: quercetin > apigenin > kaempferol > luteolin > myricetin. Extracts of flowers from Kelantan exhibited potent anticancer activity with a IC50of 173.1 and 196.2 μg/mL against the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 respectively, compared with extracts from Pahang (IC50 = 204.5 and 246.2 μg/mL) and Johor samples (IC50 = 277.1 and 296.7 μg/mL). Extracts of E. elatior flowers also showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 30 to >100 μg/mL. In general, therefore, based on the potent antioxidant and anticancer activity of flower extracts, it appears that E. elatior grown in the North-east of Malaysia (Kelantan) is a potential source of therapeutic compounds with anti-cancer activity.

  13. PENGARUH PERSENTASE PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jack DAN KULIT DURIAN (Durio Zibethinus Murr TERHADAP SIFAT FISIKA DAN MEKANIKA PAPAN SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Burhanuddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian sifat fisika meliputi kerapatan, kadar air, penyerapan air dan pengembangan tebal dan sifat mekanika meliputi keteguhan lentur (MoE keteguhan patah (MoR serta  pengurangan tebal akibat tekanan. Rancangan Percobaan Yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 3 perlakuan yaitu 100% pelepah kelapa sawit; 100% kulit durian dan  50% pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit durian dengan 3 kali ulangan. Standar yang digunakan untuk perbandingan  yaitu SNI–03– 2104-1991-A. Hasil penelitian adalah sebagai berikut : Sifat Fisika yaitu kerapatan rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 0,90 gr/ cm3, 0,91 gr/ cm3, 0,81 gr/ cm3, Kadar air rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 7,37%, 6,59%, 7,08%, Penyerapan air rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 49,51%, 44,99%, 50,11%, Pengembangan tebal rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 1,67%, 2,04%, 3,44%, Kerapatan, kadar air, penyerapan air dan pengembangan tebal tidak berpengaruh nyata. Sifat Mekanika yaitu Keteguhan lentur (MoE rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 7.350,68 kg/cm2, 3.590,43 kg/cm2, Keteguhan patah (MoR rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 11,82kg/cm2, 8,66kg/cm2, 4,53 kg/cm2Pengurangan tebal akibat tekanan rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 8,92 %, 10,01 %, 9,92 %, Keteguhan patah (MoR berpengaruh nyata sedangkan keteguhan lentur (MoE dan pengurangan tebal akibat tekanan tidak berpengaruh nyata. Key word : Kerapatan, Kadar Air, Penyerapan Air, Pengembangan Tebal, Keteguhan Lentur (MoE, Keteguhan Patah (MoR dan Pengurangan Tebal Akibat Tekanan

  14. A new genus and species of philometrid (Nematoda) from the subcutaneous tissue of the crevalle jack, Caranx hippos (Osteichthyes), from the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Montoya-Mendoza, J.; Salgado-Maldonado, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2008), s. 1346-1350 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Philometridae * Caranx * Caranginema * Gulf of Mexico Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2008

  15. FISH SPECIES and Other Data from CAPT JACK and Other Platforms From Gulf of Mexico from 19800619 to 19801014 (NODC Accession 8100335)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic (species) records of fish/nekton collected as part of the Brine Disposal Project Study. This study was an examination of the effects of elevated salinity...

  16. Sensory Quality of Wheat and Cassava Breads as Affected by Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of some leguminous seed flours (LSF) on the quality of wheat and cassava breads were investigated. Three LSF, namely Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum, and Mucuna sloanei were added into wheat flour and cassava flour at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of the flour basis. The different flour ...

  17. phytochemical analysis and antibacterial effects of crude extracts of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli ... microorganisms, underpinning the great need for search of novel antimicrobial drugs. ... stem bark of Brachystegia eurycoma was investigated using ... phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, ..... H4IIE hepatoma cells.

  18. Sub-Acute toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This evidence again indicates a tendency by the extract to activate the immune system thus lending further credence to earlier evidences in this regard. In the light of this evidence, the need for future research to screen B. eurycoma extracts for both chronic toxicity and immuno-toxicity has become imperative. This is more so ...

  19. Women's Involvement in Non Timber Forest Products Utilization in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa and Prosopis africana were more important for food and income while Nauclea latifolia, Khaya senegalensis ranked highest for medicine. Woody plants preferred as fuel wood included; Parkia biglobosa, Brachystegia eurycoma and Bridelia feruginea. Community Forest Programmes ...

  20. Anti-nociceptive activity of Hygrophila auriculata (Schum) Heine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hygrophila auriculata (Schum) Heine (syn) Asteracantha longifolia Nees, Acanthaceae was described in ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha, and Kokilasha. The plant was extensively used in traditional system of medicine for various ailments like rheumatism, inflammation, jaundice, hepatic obstruction, pain, etc.

  1. Sexually dimorphic gall structures correspond to differential phytohormone contents in male and female wasp larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dorchin, N.; Hoffmann, J. H.; Stirk, W. A.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; van Staden, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2009), s. 359-369 ISSN 0307-6962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Acacia longifolia * auxin * cytokinin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2009

  2. Deficiência nutricional em bastão-do-imperador (Etlingera elatior (Jack R. M. Smith: efeito na produção de matéria seca e índices biométricos Nutritional deficiency in torch ginger (Etlingera elatior (Jack R. M. Smith: effect on dry matter production and biometrical index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Ellen Morais Frazão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de omissões de nutrientes na produção de matéria seca e nos parâmetros de crescimento do bastão-do-imperador. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação da área experimental do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, no período de janeiro de 2007 a janeiro de 2008. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos: Solução Hoagland & Arnon completa, soluções nutritivas com as omissões de N, de P, de K, de Ca, de Mg, de S e de B. Foram avaliadas a altura das plantas, diâmetro das hastes, número de hastes, número de folhas por hastes e volume da raiz. Posteriormente, as plantas foram divididas em folhas, hastes, rizoma e raiz para determinação da massa de matéria seca de cada parte. A omissão de nutrientes afetou os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas e a produção de matéria seca. Observou-se que o bastão-do-imperador mostrou-se mais exigente em B, K, N, P e S na fase inicial de crescimento do que em Ca e Mg. A redução da matéria seca total das plantas foi influenciada na seguinte ordem: B > K > N > P > S > Mg > Ca.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of simple and multiple nutrient omissions on the dry matter production and growth parameters of torch ginger plants. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at the Soil Science Department of Federal University of Lavras (Lavras-MG. The experiment was started in January 2007 and lasted for 12 months, following a completely randomized design, with four replicates and eight treatments: Complete Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution, and nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and B. Plant height, stem diameter, number of stems, number of leaves per stem, and volume of root were evaluated. Subsequently the plants were divided into leaf + pseudostem, rhizome, root and tillers for dry matter determination. The nutrient omissions affected the growth parameters and dry matter production. It was observed that torch ginger is more demanding in B, K, N, P and S at the initial phase of growth rather than in Ca and Mg. The reduction of the total dry matter weight of the plants was affected in the following order: B> K> N> P> S> Mg> Ca.

  3. Mapping the Flowering of an Invasive Plant Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Is There Potential for Biocontrol Monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno C. de Sá

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasion by alien species is a worldwide phenomenon with negative consequences at both natural and production areas. Acacia longifolia is an invasive shrub/small tree well known for its negative ecological impacts in several places around the world. The recent introduction of a biocontrol agent (Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, an Australian bud-galling wasp which decreases flowering of A. longifolia, in Portugal, demands the development of a cost-efficient method to monitor its establishment. We tested how unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV can be used to map A. longifolia flowering. Our core assumption is as the population of the biocontrol agent increases, its impacts on the reduction of A. longifolia flowering will be increasingly visible. Additionally, we tested if there is a simple linear correlation between the number of flowers of A. longifolia counted in field and the area covered by flowers in the UAV imagery. UAV imagery was acquired over seven coastal areas including frontal dunes, interior sand dunes and pine forests considering two phenological stages: peak and off-peak flowering season. The number of flowers of A. longifolia was counted, in a minimum of 60 1 m2 quadrats per study area. For each study area, flower presence/absence maps were obtained using supervised Random Forest. The correlation between the number of flowers and the area covered by flowering plants could then be tested. The flowering of A. longifolia was mapped using UAV mounted with RGB and CIR Cannon IXUS/ELPH cameras (Overall Accuracy > 0.96; Cohen’s Kappa > 0.85 varying according to habitat type and flowering season. The correlation between the number of flowers counted and the area covered by flowering was weak (r2 between 0.0134 and 0.156. This is probably explained, at least partially, by the high variability of A. longifolia in what regards flowering morphology and distribution. The very high accuracy of our approach to map A. longifolia flowering proved to

  4. Field Spectroscopy in the VNIR-SWIR Region to Discriminate between Mediterranean Native Plants and Exotic-Invasive Shrubs Based on Leaf Tannin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rudolf Karl Lehmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The invasive shrub, Acacia longifolia, native to southeastern Australia, has a negative impact on vegetation and ecosystem functioning in Portuguese dune ecosystems. In order to spectrally discriminate A. longifolia from other non-native and native species, we developed a classification model based on leaf reflectance spectra (350–2500 nm and condensed leaf tannin content. High variation of leaf tannin content is common for Mediterranean shrub and tree species, in particular between N-fixing and non-N-fixing species, as well as within the genus, Acacia. However, variation in leaf tannin content has not been studied in coastal dune ecosystems in southwest Portugal. We hypothesized that condensed tannin concentration varies significantly across species, further allowing for distinguishing invasive, nitrogen-fixing A. longifolia from other vegetation based on leaf spectral reflectance data. Spectral field measurements were carried out using an ASD FieldSpec FR spectroradiometer attached to an ASD leaf clip in order to collect 750 in situ leaf reflectance spectra of seven frequent plant species at three study sites in southwest Portugal. We applied partial least squares (PLS regression to predict the obtained leaf reflectance spectra of A. longifolia individuals to their corresponding tannin concentration. A. longifolia had the lowest tannin concentration of all investigated species. Four wavelength regions (675–710 nm, 1060–1170 nm, 1360–1450 nm and 1630–1740 nm were identified as being highly correlated with tannin concentration. A spectra-based classification model of the different plant species was calculated using a principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA. The best prediction of A. longifolia was achieved by using wavelength regions between 1360–1450 nm and 1630–1740 nm, resulting in a user’s accuracy of 98.9%. In comparison, selecting the entire wavelength range, the best user accuracy only reached 86

  5. Produção de mudas de Etlingera elatior (Jack R.M. Sm. através da cultura de tecidos vegetais in vitro Etlingera elatior seedling production through in vitro tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L.S. Rescarolli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de produtos naturais para o tratamento de doenças é algo que o ser humano já está habituado a realizar desde o início dos tempos. A utilização de Etlingera elatior (Bastão do Imperador, uma herbácea muito comum nos jardins e em áreas de banhado, para o tratamento de dores musculares e reumatismo é citada pela cultura popular, o que incentivou a indústria farmacêutica a começar a investir nos estudos sobre sua atividade. Porém, a produção de biomassa através de plantas sadias e de alta qualidade ainda é incipiente. O uso da biotecnologia vegetal, especialmente a propagação vegetativa in vitro, permite a produção em larga escala de mudas e/ou biomassa vegetal, de alta qualidade genética e fitossanitária, em curto espaço de tempo e pequena área física. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de agentes desinfestantes na obtenção de explantes assépticos, da composição do meio de cultura e do seccionamento do rizoma no desenvolvimento, multiplicação e enraizamento das plantas in vitro, visando estabelecer o processo de micropropagação. Gemas laterais foram submetidas à desinfestação com etanol e hipoclorito de cálcio e de sódio. Os rizomas assépticos foram seccionados longitudinalmente e multiplicados em meio de cultura MS adicionado de BAP (0,0; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1. O estabelecimento das culturas assépticas a partir do uso de etanol 70%, NaClO 1% e CaClO 2 e 5% proporcionaram de 10 a 40% de sobrevivência dos explantes. A taxa de multiplicação obtida nos rizomas, inteiros e seccionados longitudinalmente e cultivados em meio MS, não apresentou diferença significativa para o número de brotos. Já o cultivo do rizoma seccionado em meio MS adicionado de 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP resultou em aumento significativo no número de brotos em relação a rizoma inteiro na mesma concentração de BAP. As plantas cultivadas na presença de BAP apresentaram redução do número de raízes a partir de rizomas inteiros. Apesar do efeito do seccionamento do rizoma e da concentração de BAP, no número de brotos e raízes, as plantas não mostraram diferença no crescimento da planta e das raízes. A micropropagação da espécie Etlingera elatior é possível, possibilitando a produção de mudas em larga escala.The use of natural products to treat diseases has been common for humans since the beginning of times. Etlingera elatior (torch ginger, an herbaceous species very common in gardens and muddy areas, has been cited by the popular culture as treatment for muscular pains and rheumatism, which has stimulated the pharmaceutical industry to start investing in studies on its activity. However, phytomass production by high-quality healthy plants is still incipient. The utilization of plant biotechnology, specially in vitro vegetative propagation, allows the large-scale production of seedlings and/or phytomass of high genetic and phytosanitary quality in a short time and small area. The aim of this work was to evaluate the action of disinfectant agents on the production of aseptic explants, as well as the effect of culture medium composition and rhizome splitting on the development, multiplication and rooting of plants in vitro in order to establish the micropropagation process. Lateral buds were disinfected with ethanol and calcium and sodium hypochlorite. Aseptic rhizomes were longitudinally sectioned and multiplied in MS culture medium containing BAP (0.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1. The establishment of aseptic cultures by using 70% ethanol, 1% NaClO and 1% and 5% CaClO resulted in 10 to 40% explant survival. The multiplication rate obtained for whole and longitudinally sectioned rhizomes cultivated in MS medium did not present significant difference for sprout number. However, sectioned rhizome cultivated in MS medium added of 1.0 mg L-1 BAP had a significant increase in sprout number, relative to whole rhizomes at the same BAP concentration. In the presence of BAP, there was a reduction in root number for whole rhizomes. Although rhizome splitting and BAP concentration affected sprout and root number, there was no difference in the growth of plants and roots. Thus, Etlingera elatior micropropagation is possible, allowing the large-scale production of seedlings.

  6. Sliding wear of steels (used in polished rods of oil pump jack) against polyurethane; Desgaste de deslizamento de acos (usados em hastes de unidade de bombeio de petroleo) contra poliuretano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Gelsoneide da Silva [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Engenharia de Materiais; Farias, Aline Cristina Mendes; Lima da Silva, Ruthilene Catarina; Medeiros, Joao Telesforo Nobrega [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: gelsoneidegg@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: alineastro@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: ruthilene@ufrnet.br, e-mail: medeirosj2@asme.org

    2008-07-01

    Accelerated sliding tests were carried out in the steels AISI 316, AISI 4140, AISI 1045 coated and AISI 4142 coated, in the dry and lubricated with contaminated oil with 10% SiO{sub 2} conditions. Each cylindrical counterbody with angular generatrix of polyurethane slid against a stationary metallic specimen. The contact pressure changed by increment of normal loads of 10,0 and 2,3 N, velocity of 0,91 m/s and distance of 12 km. The wear rates were calculated through of the mass variation from specimens after each test. The wear morphology was characterized by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, where identified damages by abrasion at two and three bodies. The contaminated lubricant increase the wear rate due to action of the abrasive particles. (author)

  7. SV Kommandor Jack cruise Leg 2, 26 Jul-21 Aug 2002. DTI ‘Northern Triangle’ Environmental Survey: seabed survey of the deep waters to the north of Shetland

    OpenAIRE

    Bett, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    This cruise formed part of the continuing Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey (AMES). Thegeneral objective of this cruise was to carry out a seabed environmental survey of the deepwaters to the North of Shetland within the UKCS (United Kingdom Continental Shelf) area. Thecruise carried out seabed sampling and photography:(a) To describe and characterise the ‘iceberg ploughmark zone’ on the North Shetland Slope.(b) To assess alongslope variation in sediments and associated fauna on the North ...

  8. Disposition of two names in Almeidea (Rutaceae Disposição de dois nomes em Almeidea (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Groppo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Examination of type specimens at the P herbarium showed that Almeidea longifolia A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae is an illegitimate substitute name for A. affinis A. St.-Hil. The latter name is proposed here as a heterotypic synonym of A. rubra A. St.-Hil.O estudo dos tipos nomenclatórios no herbário P mostrou que Almeidea longifolia A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae é um nome substituto ilegítimo de Almeidea affinis A. St.-Hil., e este último nome é aqui considerado sinônimo heterotípico de A. rubra A. St.-Hil.

  9. 77 FR 69498 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ...., Houston, 12001000 Hill County Nolan River Bridge 303-4 of the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Railway, Cty. Rd. 1127 at Nolan R., Blum, 12001001 Jack County Jack County Courthouse, 100 N. Main St., Jacksboro...

  10. 77 FR 17116 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...), Michael R. Miller (PA), Jack L. Phippen (WI), Richard A. Purk (CA), Timothy M. Rearick (PA), Jeremy Simmons (MA), Jack A. Tidey (AK), Brian E. Quick (VA) and Timothy W. Work (NY) from the ITDM requirement...

  11. Om beatlitteraturens repræsentationer af jazz: Bidrag til en rekonstruktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Fabian

    2004-01-01

    Jazz, rock, litteratur, populærkultur, raceidentitet, kulturteori, beargenerationen, Jack Kerouac, Charlie Parker, Bob Dylan......Jazz, rock, litteratur, populærkultur, raceidentitet, kulturteori, beargenerationen, Jack Kerouac, Charlie Parker, Bob Dylan...

  12. Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome: Genetic Testing Identifies a Potentially Deadly Hereditary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Lynch Syndrome Follow us A Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome Genetic testing identifies a potentially deadly hereditary disease ... helped Jack learn what was wrong. Jack had Lynch Syndrome—an inherited disorder. Lynch Syndrome increases the risk ...

  13. 76 FR 21232 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ..., AL, Jack Edwards, ILS OR LOC RWY 27, Amdt 1 Gulf Shores, AL, Jack Edwards, RNAV (GPS) RWY 9, Amdt 3 Gulf Shores, AL, Jack Edwards, RNAV (GPS) RWY 27, Amdt 2 Montgomery, AL, Montgomery Rgnl (Dannelly... Williams Memorial, RNAV (GPS) RWY 24, Amdt 1 Vineyard Haven, MA, Marthas Vineyard, RNAV (GPS) RWY 6, Amdt 1...

  14. Okounkov's BC-Type Interpolation Macdonald Polynomials and Their q=1 Limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornwinder, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys eight classes of polynomials associated with A-type and BC-type root systems: Jack, Jacobi, Macdonald and Koornwinder polynomials and interpolation (or shifted) Jack and Macdonald polynomials and their BC-type extensions. Among these the BC-type interpolation Jack polynomials were

  15. 110 intra- and inter- correlative responses among fruits physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    Sapotaceae, foremost economic species seem to be. Vitellaria paradoxa, Baillonella toxisperma and. Madhuca longifolia ... correlates with two or more traits of economic significance. In Vitellaria paradoxa, seedling growth is ..... Hill, A.F. (1952) Economic Botany: A. Textbook of Useful Plants and Plant. Products, 2nd Edition.

  16. Anti-platelet aggregation of mixtures of betulinic oleanolic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2) cell lines ... exhibited low cytotoxic effect on both HEK293 cells (IC50: 724.43, 269.08 and 407.89 mg/mL ..... Triterpenes from the stem bark of Protorhus longifolia.

  17. The effects of drip line depths and irrigation levels on yield, quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different drip irrigation methods and different irrigation levels on yield, quality and water use characteristics of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia cv. Lital) cultivated in a solar greenhouse from 07 October 2009 to 03 December 2009 in the Eastern Mediterranean region ...

  18. CONSTITUYENTES QUÍMICOS, ACTIVIDAD INSECTICIDA Y ANTIFÚNGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinó la composición química de los aceites esenciales de hojas de Ocotea longifolia y O. macrophylla obtenidos mediante destilación por arrastre con vapor, y se evaluó la actividad antifúngica e insecticida de los aceites esenciales para estimar su uso como posibles plaguicidas. El rendimiento del aceite esencial de O. longifolia fue superior al 0,2%, mientras que el rendimiento del aceite esencial de O. macrophylla fue inferior al 0,1%. El análisis de los aceites por CG/EM permitió la identificación de -terpinoleno (80,91% y -felandreno (4,74% como componentes principales del aceite O. longifolia, y espatulenol (15,91%, -muuroleno (15,4% y biciclogermacreno (14,58% como los principales componentes de O. macrophylla. El aceite esencial de O. longifolia mostró actividad fumigante significativa contra Sitophilus zeamais (CL50 280,5 L/L aire. Adicionalmente se evaluó la actividad antifúngica de los aceites esenciales, encontrándose un bajo efecto inhibidor en el crecimiento de los hongos fitopatógenos Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi y Botrytis cinerea.

  19. Anti-quorum sensing activity of some medicinal plants | Al-Haidari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, Psidium guajava and Mentha longifolia extracts showed lower QSI activity. These extracts exhibited significant elimination of pyocyanin formation and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. In addition, they significantly inhibited twitching and swimming motilities of P. aeruginosa PA14.

  20. Estudio etnobotánico y del potencial de uso de la familia Annonaceae en la Amazonía colombiana con énfasis en la región de Araracuara y el municipio de Leticia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Varón López

    2000-01-01

    outstanding categories we mention: Fiber 21.2%, medicinal 18.2%, construction 16.8% and nutritional 11.7%. The more recognized species for their use and potential are Rollinia mucosa, Fusaea longifolia, Unonopsis veneficiorum, Annona dolichophylla y Annona muricata.

  1. A synopsis of Thai Nymphaeaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La-ongsri, Woranuch; Trisonthi, Chusie; Balslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    encountered were cultivated at Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden in Chiang Mai for further observations. Two species of Barclaya (B. longifolia and B. motleyi) the latter being represented by only a single herbarium specimen with uncertain origin, were encountered. In Nymphaea, four native species, the day...

  2. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... The chemical composition of twig essential oils of Xylopia malayana, Xylopia elliptica and Xylopia fusca ... Volatile constituents and bioactivity studies are available in the literature on Xylopia aethiopica (Issakou et al., 2014;. Sylvain et al, 2014; Vyry et al, 2014), Xylopia longifolia. (Fourier et al, 1993), ...

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The aqueous extracts of leaf, unripe pericarp and r longifolia were assessed in vitro for inhibitory a oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi and Pythium aphani rhizome rot specimen of ginger. The antifungal ac poison food technique. The extracts have shown d of mycelial growth of test fungi. The extracts were m. F. oxysporum than P.

  4. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    ... activity as “natural products” with a role in plant defense against bacteria, fungi ... properties of organic extracts and essential oils from M. glyptostroboides such as ..... Polyalthia longifolia seeds; Fitoterapia 76 336–339. Peres M T, Delle ...

  5. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    available on the market are proposed as legal and non-toxic anti-oestrogenic compounds (to counterbalance the side effects of anabolic steroids, mainly based on methoxyflafones (Usui, 2006, as fat lowering products or sexual enhancing compounds based mainly on plant extracts from Commiphora Mukul (Guggulsterone, Eurycoma Longifolia (methoxyflavone, Vitex Agnus Castus and Astragalus Root (isoflavones.Plant sterolsPlant sterols interfere with the uptake of both dietary and biliary cholesterol from the intestinal tract in humans. They appear to decrease the solubility of cholesterol in the oil and micellar phases, thus displacing cholesterol from bile salt micelles and interfering with its absorption.Fish develop infertility when exposed to high levels of wood pulp, which is rich in sitosterol, in the water. High levels of intake of plant sterols may produce an oestrogenic effect, with a significant decrease in testicular weight and sperm concentrations after beta-sitosterol treatment. An increase in the uterine weight of female rats and an increase in basal luteinizing hormone secretion in immature male and female rabbits were also observed following plant sterols treatment.The clinical significance of these findings in humans is unknown, as studies in mammals did not demonstrate any oestrogenic effect in vivo or in vitro (Baker et al., 1999. Plant sterols do not bind to oestrogen receptors. Furthermore, plant sterols do not stimulate transcriptional activity of human oestrogen receptors (Baker et al., 1999. A large number of plant sterols-based preparations are freely available on the market. Most of them are proposed as legal and non-toxic anabolic and fat lowering products, and as sexual enhancing compounds based mainly on plant extracts coming from Gotu Kola, Smilax Officinalis, Muira Puama (which contain fucosterol, stigmasterol, sistosterol, and campesterol.An overviewSome herbal products may be safe and may contain active constituents with beneficial physiologic

  6. Teeling Whiskey Company: A tradition of family entrepreneurship and whiskey distilling

    OpenAIRE

    O'Gorman, Colm; Brophy, Martina; Clinton, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This case explores the origins of a new high-growth, family start-up competing in a traditional industry. Teeling Whiskey Company Ltd (TWC) is the brainchild of entrepreneur Jack Teeling. This new venture stems from another high-profile, family based business named Cooley Distillery. Jack was managing director of Cooley Distillery, the business his father founded in 1987. In Cooley Distillery, Jack acquired a wealth of professional experience in whiskey distilling and selling. When the distil...

  7. 77 FR 58354 - Foreign-Trade Zone 265-Conroe, TX; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Bauer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ..., diesel engines and related parts, hydraulic engines/motors, pumps, compressors, turbochargers, air-conditioner components, heat exchangers, filters, fire extinguishers, hydraulic jacks/hoists, parts of boring...

  8. Nuclear fuel rack lateral support and preload device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral support device for a nuclear fuel rack is described. It is vertically positioned within a walled enclosure which provides a preload to maintain effective support. The device includes a scissors-jack which is mounted so that the drive screw is vertical. Upon rotation of the drive screw the jack expands horizontally, seating a load pad against a vertical wall. The load pad is affixed to the jack by an arm having a stack of spring washers which compress between the pad and the jack, thereby applying a selected preload

  9. Aasta 2000 - meteoor, mis ohustab maailma : Nobeli majanduspreemia värske laureaat soovitab 1. detsembrist külmutada valuutakursid / Robert Mundell ; interv. Marshall Loeb

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mundell, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Nobeli majanduspreemia laureaadi Robert Mundelli intervjuu ajakirja Fortune endisele toimetajale Marshall Loebile teleprogrammis Marketwatch. Aasta 2000 probleem rahaturgudel. Jack Kempi kiri USA presidendile Bill Clintonile

  10. Novedades nomenclaturales en la tribu Stipeae (Poaceae, Pooideae) para la Flora Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Cialdella

    2010-01-01

    Durante la revisión de los géneros de Stipeae (Poaceae) para la flora argentina y de acuerdo a los últimos estudios filogenéticos en la tribu, se confirmó la necesidad de transferir algunos taxones recientemente descriptos de Stipa a Nassella, Jarava o Pappostipa. En este trabajo se presentan 12 nuevas combinaciones: Jarava ichu var. pungens, Nassella brachyglumis, N. macrotricha, Pappostipa arenicola, P. choconensis, P. colloncurensis, P. frigida var. longifolia, P. jucunda, P. kieslingii, P...

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis of a ?Jewel Orchid? Genus Goodyera (Orchidaceae) Based on DNA Sequence Data from Nuclear and Plastid Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chao; Tian, Huaizhen; Li, Hongqing; Hu, Aiqun; Xing, Fuwu; Bhattacharjee, Avishek; Hsu, Tianchuan; Kumar, Pankaj; Chung, Shihwen

    2016-01-01

    A molecular phylogeny of Asiatic species of Goodyera (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae, Goodyerinae) based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and two chloroplast loci (matK and trnL-F) was presented. Thirty-five species represented by 132 samples of Goodyera were analyzed, along with other 27 genera/48 species, using Pterostylis longifolia and Chloraea gaudichaudii as outgroups. Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were used to reveal th...

  12. Relative growth rates of three woody legumes: implications in the process of ecological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Crisóstomo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia longifolia, an Australian leguminous tree, is one of the main invasive plant species in the coast of Portugal and a major threat to the native vegetation in the Reserva Natural das Dunas de São Jacinto. With the establishment of this exotic species, other native woody leguminous species such as Cytisus grandiflorus and Ulex europaeus have been displaced from their original areas. Several factors are involved in the process of biological invasion by exotic species. Plant physiology and development, characteristic of each species, can give certain advantages in the establishment and colonization of new areas. We tested if there are differences in the Relative Growth Rate (RGR of the exotic and native species because this could be relevant in the first stages of the invasion process. Our results showed that A. longifolia was the species with lowest RGR. Therefore, other factors apart from RGR might explain the invasion of coastal dunes by this species. We propose that A. longifolia might be a better competitor than the two native legumes and that this process might be mediated by the interaction with soil organisms.

  13. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Two Australian Persoonia (Proteaceae Species Using Two Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Stingemore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and cross-species transferability assessed for two Persoonia species to evaluate genetic diversity and population genetic structure of these broadly distributed southwest Australian tree species. Methods and Results: Microsatellite-enriched libraries and 454 GS-FLX shotgun sequencing were used to identity nine microsatellite loci for P. elliptica (one 454; eight cloning and six for P. longifolia (three 454; three cloning. These loci were screened for variation in individuals from populations in southwestern Australia. In P. elliptica, observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.46 to 0.93 and 0.42 to 0.88, respectively. For P. longifolia, observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.04 to 0.88 and 0.04 to 0.84, respectively. Conclusions: The microsatellites identified in this study will enable the examination of population and spatial structuring of genetic diversity in P. elliptica and P. longifolia, two priority species for mine site restoration in southwestern Australia.

  14. The CMS team celebrates the arrival of the "Tube". From left to right, sitting: Blanca Perea Solano, Jeannine Muffat-Joly, Ariella Cattai (Tracker Technical Coordinator). Standing: Georges Roiron, Hans Postema, Eric Albert, Paolo Petagna, Arvid Larsson, Nuno Bernardino Rodrigues, Enzo Carrone, Jack Hill.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    CMS: Aerospace goes underground : gleaming aluminium on the outside and carbon black on the inside, as long as a sedan and taller than a man, a strange hollow cylinder arrived at CERN by truck August 26.

  15. An expedient synthesis of N-(1-(5-mercapto-4-((substituted benzylidene)amino)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-2-phenylethyl)benzamides as jack bean urease inhibitors and free radical scavengers: Kinetic mechanism and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Mehfooz, Haroon; Ashraf, Mohammad Haseeb; Abbas, Qamar; Hassan, Mubashir; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-11-01

    In this study, some new azomethine-triazole hybrids 5a-5l derived from N-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine were synthesized and characterized. The synthesized compounds showed first-rate, urease inhibition, and compounds 5c and 5e were found to be most effective inhibitors with 0.0137 ± 0.00082 μm and 0.0183 ± 0.00068 μm, respectively (thiourea 15.151 ± 1.27 μm). The kinetic mechanism of urease inhibition revealed the compounds 5c and 5e to be non-competitive inhibitors, whereas compounds 5d and 5j were found to be of mixed-type inhibitors. Docking studies also indicated better interaction patterns with urease enzyme. The results of enzyme inhibition, kinetic mechanism and molecular docking suggest that these compounds can serve as lead compounds in the design of more effective urease inhibitors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. MATHEMATICAL-Universe-Hypothesis(MUH) BECOME SCENARIO(MUS)!!! (NOT YET A THEORY) VIA 10-DIGITS[ 0 --> 9] SEPHIROT CREATION AUTOMATICALLY from DIGITS AVERAGED-PROBABILITY Newcomb-Benford LOG-Law; UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!!: It's a Jack-in-the-Box Universe: Accidental?/Purposeful?; EMET/TRUTH!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2015-04-01

    Siegel(2012) 10-DIGITS[0 --> 9] AVERAGE PROBABILITY LOG-Law SCALE-INVARIANCE UTTER-SIMPLICITY: Kabbala SEPHIROT SCENARIO AUTOMATICALLY CREATES a UNIVERSE: (1) a big-bang[bosons(BEQS) created from Newcomb[Am.J.Math.4(1),39(1881;THE discovery of the QUANTUM!!!)-Poincare[Calcul des Probabilites,313(12)]-Weyl[Goett.Nach.(14);Math.Ann.77,313(16)] DIGITS AVERAGE STATISTICS LOG-Law[ = log(1 +1/d) = log([d +1]/d)] algebraic-inversion, (2)[initial (at first space-time point created) c = ∞ elongating to timelike-pencil spreading into finite-c light-cone] hidden-dark-energy (HDE)[forming at every-spacetime-point], (3) inflation[logarithm algebraic-inversion-to exponential], (4) hidden[in Siegel(87) ``COMPLEX quantum-statistics in (Nottale-Linde)FRACTAL-dimensions'' expansion around unit-circle/roots-of-unity]-dark-matter(HDM), (4)null massless bosons(E) --> Mellin-(light-speed squared)-transform/Englert-Higgs ``mechanism'' -->(timelike) massive fermions(m), (5) cosmic-microwave-background (CMB)[power-spectrum] Zipf-law HYPERBOLICITY, (6) supersymmetry(SUSY) [projective-geometry conic-sections/conics merging in R/ C projective-plane point at ∞]. UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!!

  17. Fitorremediação de solo contaminado com trifloxysulfuron-sodium por diferentes densidades populacionais de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC. Phytoremediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron-sodium by different populacional densities of jack bean(Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Barbosa dos Santos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a fitorremediação do solo contaminado pelo herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium a campo, pela espécie de adubo verde Canavalia ensiformis (feijão-de-porco cultivada em diferentes densidades populacionais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre quatro densidades de plantio da espécie vegetal feijão-de-porco (0; 8; 20; e 32 plantas m-2 e duas doses do trifloxysulfuron-sodium (0,00 e 15,00 g ha¹. Cinco dias após o preparo do solo, o trifloxysulfuron-sodium foi aplicado antes da semeadura da espécie fitorremediadora, a qual foi mantida na área por 65 dias. Após esse período a área experimental foi novamente sulcada e fertilizada sendo cultivado feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Vermelho Coimbra, espécie sensível ao trifloxysulfuron-sodium. Aos 45 dias após a semeadura do feijão avaliou-se a altura e a biomassa seca da parte aérea das plantas e ao final do ciclo da cultura, foram determinados o rendimento de grãos, o número de vagens por planta e o peso de 100 sementes. O cultivo prévio de C. ensiformis nas densidades populacionais de 8, 20 ou 32 plantas m-2 promoveu a remediação do herbicida. A densidade populacional mínima de C. ensiformis que proporciona maior rendimento de grãos à cultura do feijão é de 20 plantas m-2.This study aimed to evaluate the phytoremediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron-sodium in field, by Canavalia ensiformis cultivated in different populacional density. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme 4 x 2, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of the combination of four sowing densities (0; 8; 20; and 32 plants m-2 and two rates of trifloxysulfuron-sodium (0.00 and 15.00 g ha¹. Five days after soil preparation trifloxysulfuron-sodium was applied, before C. ensiformis sowing, which was kept for 65 days in the area. After this time the experimental area was furrowed, fertilized and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Vermelho Coimbra, specie sensitive to trifloxysulfuron-sodium, was cultivated. After 45 days of bean sowing, plant height and shoot dry biomass were evaluated and at the end of final cycle, grain yield, number of pods per plant and weight of 100 seeds, were determinated. Prior cultivation of C. ensiformis at densities of 8, 20 or 32 plants m-2 promoted herbicide remediation. The minimal of 20 plants m-2 of C. ensiformis provides the highest grain yield.

  18. Correspondence between conformal field theory and Calogero-Sutherland model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Reiho; Shiraishi, Jun'ichi; Arnaudon, Daniel; Frappat, Luc; Ragoucy, Eric

    2005-01-01

    We use the Jack symmetric functions as a basis of the Fock space, and study the action of the Virasoro generators Ln. We calculate explicitly the matrix elements of Ln with respect to the Jack-basis. A combinatorial procedure which produces these matrix elements is conjectured. As a limiting case of the formula, we obtain a Pieri-type formula which represents a product of a power sum and a Jack symmetric function as a sum of Jack symmetric functions. Also, a similar expansion was found for the case when we differentiate the Jack symmetric functions with respect to power sums. As an application of our Jack-basis representation, a new diagrammatic interpretation is presented, why the singular vectors of the Virasoro algebra are proportional to the Jack symmetric functions with rectangular diagrams. We also propose a natural normalization of the singular vectors in the Verma module, and determine the coefficients which appear after bosonization in front of the Jack symmetric functions

  19. Unsupervised selection of informative descriptors in QSAR study of anti-HIV activities of HEPT derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Saeed; Omidikia, Nematollah; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    features of HEPT derivatives. The aims of this procedure are generating a subset of descriptors from a data set with the relevant variables, eliminating redundancy, and reducing multicollinearity. The core of this methodology is based on jack-knife resampling method. In this paper, using jack-knife led...

  20. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  1. Networks for Innovation in Sustainable Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Janne J Liburd, Jack Carlsen, Deborah Edwards Contributors: Paulina Bohdanowicz- Godfrey, Jack Carlsen, Michael KwekuCommeh, Jiayi Du, Deborah Edwards, Paddy Forde, Jane Hansen, AnjaHergesell, Michael Hughes, Janne J Liburd, Larr y Quick, NicoSchulenkorf, Ginger Smith. 2013(1st edition), Tilde Pu...

  2. 76 FR 37265 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ..., AL, Richard Arthur Field, RNAV (GPS) RWY 36, Amdt 1 Gulf Shores, AL, Jack Edwards, VOR-A, Amdt 3, CANCELLED Crossett, AR, Z M Jack Stell Field, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Springerville, AZ..., RNAV (GPS) RWY 10, Amdt 1 Ashland, KY, Ashland Rgnl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 28, Amdt 1 Nantucket, MA, Nantucket...

  3. 75 FR 31775 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...--Suite 100, Conference Room 1529, Boston, MA 02109-3912, from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Washington, DC: Wednesday... NPDES general permit, contact the appropriate EPA Regional Office listed in Section I.F, or contact Jack...- mail: faulk.jack@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This supplementary information section is...

  4. 76 FR 68750 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... general permit, contact the appropriate EPA Regional Office listed in Section I.F, or contact Jack Faulk...: faulk.jack@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This supplementary information section is organized as...--Suite 100, Boston, MA 02109-3912; or at tel.: (617) 918-1579; or email at [email protected

  5. 77 FR 14411 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Energy, Office of Engineering & Construction Management, MA-50, 1000 Independence Ave. SW., Washington... Landholding Agency: Air Force Property Number: 18201210016 Status: Underutilized Directions: 1076 Jack's...: 1077 Jack's Valley Rd. Comments: 512 sq. ft.; current use: vacant; bldg. has no heat Kitchen Center...

  6. Wanted: Low-Income High Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with issues of community-college transfers of students from Alamance Community College to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This article discusses the involvement of the Jack Kent Cooke Foundation in the issue of community-college transfer. The Jack Kent Cooke Foundation, based in Lansdowne, Va., near Washington,…

  7. Manufacturing and QA of adaptors for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhu Murthy, V.; Dwivedi, J.; Goswami, S.G.; Soni, H.C.; Mainaud Durand, H.; Quesnel, J.P.; )

    2006-01-01

    The LHC low beta quadrupoles, have very tight alignment tolerances and are located in areas with strong radiation field. They require remote re-alignment, by motorized jacks, based on the feedback of alignment sensors of each magnet. Jacks designed to support arc cryomagnets of LHC are modified and motorized with the help of adaptors. Two types of adapters, for vertical and transverse axes of the jacks, were developed and supplied through collaboration between RRCAT, DAE, India and CERN, Geneva. This paper describes their functional requirements, manufacture and quality assurance (QA). (author)

  8. Chemical characterisation of PM10 emissions from combustion in a closed stove of common woods grown in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, C.; Alves, C.; Pio, C.; Rzaca, M.; Schmidl, C.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-04-01

    A series of source tests were conducted to determine the wood elemental composition, combustion gases and the chemical constitution of PM10 emissions from the closed stove combustion of four species of woods grown in Portugal: Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia. The burning tests were made in a closed stove with a dilution source sampler. To ascertain the combustion phase and conditions, continuous emission monitors measured O2, CO2, CO, NO, hydrocarbons, temperature and pressure, during each burning cycle. Woodsmoke samples have been collected and analysed to estimate the contribution of plant debris and biomass smoke to atmospheric aerosols. At this stage of work, cellulose, anhydrosugars and humic-like substances (HULIS) have been measured. Cellulose was determined photometrically after its conversion to D-Glucose. The determination of levoglucosan and other anhydrosugars, including mannosan and galactosan, was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. HULIS determination was made with a total organic carbon analyser and an infrared non dispersive detector, after the isolation of substances. Cellulose was present in PM10 at mass fractions (w/w) of 0.13%, 0.13%, 0.05% and 0.08% for Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major anhydrosugar present in the samples, representing mass fractions of 14.71%, 3.80%, 6.78% and 1.91%, concerning the above mentioned wood species, respectively. The levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio, usually used to evaluate the proportion of hardwood or softwood smoke in PM10, gave average values of 34.9 (Eucalyptus globulos), 3.40 (Pinus pinaster), 24.8 (Quercus suber) and 10.4 (Acacia longifolia). HULIS were present at mass fractions of 2.35%, 2.99%, 1.52% and 1.72% for the four wood species listed in the same order as before.

  9. Bioassay-guided isolation of active principles from Nigerian medicinal plants identifies new trypanocides with low toxicity and no cross-resistance to diamidines and arsenicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebiloma, Godwin Unekwuojo; Igoli, John Ogbaji; Katsoulis, Evangelos; Donachie, Anne-Marie; Eze, Anthonius; Gray, Alexander Ian; de Koning, Harry P

    2017-04-18

    Leaves from the plant species studied herein are traditionally used in northern Nigeria against various protozoan infections. However, none of these herbal preparations have been standardized, nor have their toxicity to mammalian cells been investigated. In search of improved and non-toxic active antiprotozoal principles that are not cross-resistant with current anti-parasitics, we here report the results of the in vitro screening of extracts from seven selected medicinal plant species (Centrosema pubescens, Moringa oleifera, Tridax procumbens, Polyalthia longifolia, Newbouldia laevis, Eucalyptus maculate, Jathropha tanjorensis), used traditionally to treat kinetoplastid infections in Nigeria, and the isolation of their bioactive principles. To investigate the efficacies of medicinal plant extracts, and of compounds isolated therefrom, against kinetoplastid parasites, assess cross-resistance to existing chemotherapy, and assay their toxicity against mammalian cells in vitro. Plants were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Active principles were isolated by bioassay-led fractionation, testing for trypanocidal activity, and identified using NMR and mass spectrometry. EC 50 values for their activity against wild-type and multi-drug resistant Trypanosoma brucei were obtained using the viability indicator dye resazurin. Seven medicinal plants were evaluated for activity against selected kinetoplastid parasites. The result shows that crude extracts and isolated active compounds from Polyalthia longifolia and Eucalyptus maculata, in particular, display promising activity against drug-sensitive and multi-drug resistant Trypanosoma brucei. The EC 50 value of a clerodane (16α-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13(14)-Z-dien-15,16-olide) isolated from Polyalthia longifolia was as low as 0.38µg/mL, while a triterpenoid (3β,13β-dihydroxy-urs-11-en-28-oic acid) isolated from Eucalyptus maculata displayed an EC 50 of 1.58µg/mL. None of the isolated compounds displayed toxicity

  10. Dispersión polínica y éxito reproductivo de cuatro especies arbóreas de un bosque xerófito de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Torretta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los "talares" del E de la provincia de Buenos Aires son bosques xerófitos costeros estructurados por pocas especies arbóreas rodeados de una matriz de suelos más bajos y húmedos. Estudiamos los parámetros reproductivos de las especies arbóreas más representativas (Celtis tala, Scutia buxifolia, Jodina rhombifolia y Schinus longifolia. La dispersión polínica fue estudiada a través de trampas para visitantes florales (dispersión biótica y utilizando recolectores gravimétricos de polen (dispersión abiótica. El éxito reproductivo (tasa de formación de frutos de las especies focales fue estudiado a través de embolsado de flores con bolsas de distintos tipos de malla. El sistema reproductivo varió entre las especies. C. tala resultó anemófila y autocompatible, S. buxifolia fue entomófila y dependiente de los visitantes florales. J. rhombifolia fue una especie entomófila, aunque la autogamia espontánea podría favorecer al aseguramiento reproductivo en caso de falta de polinizadores. Finalmente, S. longifolia podría ser una especie ambófila (polinizada por insectos y por el viento. Este sistema dual podría ser el resultado de un mecanismo de flexibilidad del sistema de polinización o una transición evolutiva.Pollen dispersion and reproductive success of four tree species of a xerophytic forest from Argentina. The "talares" in eastern Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are coastal xerophitic forests structured by few arboreal species surrounded by a lower and moister soil matrix. We studied the reproductive parameters of the most representative arboreal species (Celtis tala, Scutia buxifolia, Jodina rhombifolia,and Schinus longifolia. Pollen dispersion was studied through floral visitor traps (biotic dispersion and using gravimetric pollen collectors (abiotic dispersion. The reproductive success (fruit formation rate of the focal species was studied by enclosing flowers with different mesh bags. The reproductive system varied

  11. Novedades nomenclaturales en la tribu Stipeae (Poaceae, Pooideae para la Flora Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Cialdella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la revisión de los géneros de Stipeae (Poaceae para la flora argentina y de acuerdo a los últimos estudios filogenéticos en la tribu, se confirmó la necesidad de transferir algunos taxones recientemente descriptos de Stipa a Nassella, Jarava o Pappostipa. En este trabajo se presentan 12 nuevas combinaciones: Jarava ichu var. pungens, Nassella brachyglumis, N. macrotricha, Pappostipa arenicola, P. choconensis, P. colloncurensis, P. frigida var. longifolia, P. jucunda, P. kieslingii, P. mapuche, P. marqueziana y P. zulmae. Se incluye también una clave para identificar los géneros de Stipeae en la Argentina.

  12. climate change and recent severe flooding in uyo, akwa ibom state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-27

    Aug 27, 2015 ... detailed rainfall analysis was conducted for the study area, Uyo, using statistical distributions ... (pipe-jacking), a lot more needs to be done in terms of provision of infiltration surfaces (green ..... METHODS AND MATERIALS.

  13. Putin predlozhil Nikite rabotu / Anna Skvortsova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skvortsova, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Moskva XXIII rahvusvahelise filmifestivali külaliseks olnud Hollywoodi kuulsused Jack Nicholson, Sean Penn ja mitmed teised tuntud vene ja välismaa filmiinimesed kohtusid Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putiniga Nikita Mihhalkovi suvilas

  14. Üllatavalt mõjus "Uskumatu Hulk" / Alar Niineväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineväli, Alar

    2008-01-01

    Koomiksipõhine seiklusfilm "Unustamatu Hulk" ("The Incredible Hulk") : stsenaristid Stan Lee ja Jack Kirby koomiksisarja alusel Zak Penn ning Edward Norton, kes kehastab ka peategelast : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  15. Roheline koletis / Laurence Lumiere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lumiere, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Koomiksipõhine seiklusfilm "Unustamatu Hulk" ("The Incredible Hulk") : stsenaristid Stan Lee ja Jack Kirby koomiksisarja alusel Zak Penn ning Edward Norton, kes kehastab ka peategelast : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008. Lisatud nimekiri "20 edukamat koomiksifilmi Põhja-Ameerikas"

  16. A New Edition of an Old Favorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishna Sundari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Molecular Biotechnology—Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA , 4th ed.; Bernard R. Glick, Jack J. Pasternak, Cheryl L. Patten; (2010 . ASM Press, Washington, DC. 1000 pages.

  17. Kuula. Kuu artist Duffy. Kuu plaat / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Briti lauljast Aimee Anne Duffy'st. Heliplaatidest: Leslie Da Bass "Nights By Open Windows", Janet Jackson "Discipline", Jack Johnson "Sleep Trough The Static", R.E.M. "Accelerate", Moby "Last Night", Gnarls Barkley "The Odd Couple"

  18. Plaadid / Rein Vader, Heidi Purga, Tiiu Laks...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds "Dig, Lazarus, Dig!", Erykah Badu "New Amerikah Part One", Leslie da Bass "Nights By Open Windows", Jack Johnson "Sleep Througth The Static", Janet Jackson "Discipline", "Rock & Roll City"

  19. Pop / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Janet Jackson "Discipline", Jack Johnson "Sleep Through The Static", The Mars Volta "The Bedlam in Goliath", Christopher Clark "Turning Dragon", Erykah Badu "New Amerykah Part One (4th World War)", Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds "Dig, Lazarus, Dig!!!"

  20. Plaadid / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2002-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Robert Plant "Dreamfield", Roland Gift "Roland Gift", Joe Cocker "Respect Yourself", Piano Circus "Transmission", Tricky "A Ruff Guide", Jack Johnson "Brushfire Fairytales", Yann Tiersen "Amelie from Montmartre", Hall & Oates "The Essential Collection"