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Sample records for euryarchaeon thermoplasma acidophilum

  1. Crystallization behaviour of glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lermark, L.; Degtjarik, Oksana; Steffler, F.; Sieber, V.; Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 12 (2015), s. 1475-1480 ISSN 2053-230X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : TaAlDH * Thermoplasma acidophilum * bioproduction * cell-free enzyme cascade * glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2015

  2. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, T.; Laksanalamai, P.; Jiemjit, A.; Kagawa, H. K.; Alton, T.; Trent, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

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    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph, E-mail: kappock@purdue.edu [Purdue University, 175 South University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2063 (United States)

    2015-09-23

    Citrate synthase from the thermophilic euryarchaeon T. acidophilum fused to a hexahistidine tag was purified and biochemically characterized. The structure of the unliganded enzyme at 2.2 Å resolution contains tail–active site contacts in half of the active sites. Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of transaldolase from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehwess-Litzmann, Anja; Neumann, Piotr; Golbik, Ralph; Parthier, Christoph; Tittmann, Kai

    2011-01-01

    The transaldolase enzyme from T. acidophilum has been crystallized in two different space groups. The metabolic enzyme transaldolase from Thermoplasma acidophilum was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and could be crystallized in two polymorphic forms. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000 as precipitant. Native data sets for crystal forms 1 and 2 were collected in-house to resolutions of 3.0 and 2.7 Å, respectively. Crystal form 1 belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222 1 with five monomers per asymmetric unit and crystal form 2 belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 with ten monomers per asymmetric unit

  5. Structure and Stability of the Dimeric Triosephosphate Isomerase from the Thermophilic Archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ho Park

    Full Text Available Thermoplasma acidophilum is a thermophilic archaeon that uses both non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff (ED pathway and Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP pathway for glucose degradation. While triosephosphate isomerase (TPI, a well-known glycolytic enzyme, is not involved in the ED pathway in T. acidophilum, it has been considered to play an important role in the EMP pathway. Here, we report crystal structures of apo- and glycerol-3-phosphate-bound TPI from T. acidophilum (TaTPI. TaTPI adopts the canonical TIM-barrel fold with eight α-helices and parallel eight β-strands. Although TaTPI shares ~30% sequence identity to other TPIs from thermophilic species that adopt tetrameric conformation for enzymatic activity in their harsh physiological environments, TaTPI exists as a dimer in solution. We confirmed the dimeric conformation of TaTPI by analytical ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography. Helix 5 as well as helix 4 of thermostable tetrameric TPIs have been known to play crucial roles in oligomerization, forming a hydrophobic interface. However, TaTPI contains unique charged-amino acid residues in the helix 5 and adopts dimer conformation. TaTPI exhibits the apparent Td value of 74.6°C and maintains its overall structure with some changes in the secondary structure contents at extremely acidic conditions (pH 1-2. Based on our structural and biophysical analyses of TaTPI, more compact structure of the protomer with reduced length of loops and certain patches on the surface could account for the robust nature of Thermoplasma acidophilum TPI.

  6. Electron cryo-microscopy of VAT, the archaeal p97/CDC48 homologue from Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockel, Beate; Jakana, Joanita; Chiu, Wah; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2002-04-12

    VAT (valosine containing protein-like ATPase from Thermoplasma acidophilum), an archaeal member of the AAA-family (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) that possesses foldase as well as unfoldase-activity, forms homo-hexameric rings like its eukaryotic homologues p97 and CDC48. The VAT-monomer exhibits the tripartite domain architecture typical for type II AAA-ATPases: N-D1-D2, whereby N is the substrate binding N-terminal domain preceding domains D1 and D2, both containing AAA-modules. Recent 3-D reconstructions of VAT and p97 as obtained by electron microscopy suffer from weakly represented N-domains, probably a consequence of their flexible linkage to the hexameric core. Here we used electron cryo-microscopy and 3-D reconstruction of single particles in order to generate a 3-D model of VAT at 2.3 nm resolution. The hexameric core of the VAT-complex (diameter 13.2 nm, height 8.4 nm) encloses a central cavity and the substrate-binding N-domains are clearly arranged in the upper periphery. Comparison with the p97 3-D reconstruction and the recently determined crystal structure of p97-N-D1 suggests a tail-to-tail arrangement of D1 and D2 in VAT. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the metalloregulatory protein DtxR from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Hyun Ku; Kang, Jina; Park, Young Woo; Sung, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jae Young

    2012-01-01

    Orthorhombic crystals of DtxR from T. acidophilum have been obtained. X-ray data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is a metal-ion-dependent transcriptional regulator which regulates genes encoding proteins involved in metal-ion uptake to maintain metal-ion homeostasis. DtxR from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals of N-terminally His-tagged DtxR were obtained by hanging-drop vapour diffusion and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. DtxR was crystallized at 296 K using polyethylene glycol 4000 as a precipitant. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.14, b = 84.61, c = 46.91 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contained approximately one monomer of DtxR, giving a crystal volume per mass (V M ) of 2.22 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 44.6%

  8. Bifunctional phosphoglucose/phosphomannose isomerases from the Archaea Aeropyrum pernix and Thermoplasma acidophilum constitute a novel enzyme family within the phosphoglucose isomerase superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas; Wendorff, Daniel; Schönheit, Peter

    2004-01-16

    The hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Aeropyrum pernix contains phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) activity. However, obvious homologs with significant identity to known PGIs could not be identified in the sequenced genome of this organism. The PGI activity from A. pernix was purified and characterized. Kinetic analysis revealed that, unlike all known PGIs, the enzyme catalyzed reversible isomerization not only of glucose 6-phosphate but also of epimeric mannose 6-phosphate at similar catalytic efficiency, thus defining the protein as bifunctional phosphoglucose/phosphomannose isomerase (PGI/PMI). The gene pgi/pmi encoding PGI/PMI (open reading frame APE0768) was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight analyses; the gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as functional PGI/PMI. Putative PGI/PMI homologs were identified in several (hyper)thermophilic archaea and two bacteria. The homolog from Thermoplasma acidophilum (Ta1419) was overexpressed in E. coli, and the recombinant enzyme was characterized as bifunctional PGI/PMI. PGI/PMIs showed low sequence identity to the PGI superfamily and formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster. However, secondary structure predictions and the presence of several conserved amino acids potentially involved in catalysis indicate some structural and functional similarity to the PGI superfamily. Thus, we propose that bifunctional PGI/PMI constitutes a novel protein family within the PGI superfamily.

  9. The RecJ2 protein in the thermophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum is a 3'-5' exonuclease that associates with a DNA replication complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Hiromi; Ishino, Sonoko; Kohda, Daisuke; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2017-05-12

    RecJ/cell division cycle 45 (Cdc45) proteins are widely conserved in the three domains of life, i.e. in bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea. Bacterial RecJ is a 5'-3' exonuclease and functions in DNA repair pathways by using its 5'-3' exonuclease activity. Eukaryotic Cdc45 has no identified enzymatic activity but participates in the CMG complex, so named because it is composed of Cdc45, minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM) proteins 2-7, and GINS complex proteins (Sld5, Psf11-3). Eukaryotic Cdc45 and bacterial/archaeal RecJ share similar amino acid sequences and are considered functional counterparts. In Archaea, a RecJ homolog in Thermococcus kodakarensis was shown to associate with GINS and accelerate its nuclease activity and was, therefore, designated GAN ( G INS- a ssociated n uclease); however, to date, no archaeal RecJ·MCM·GINS complex has been isolated. The thermophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum has two RecJ-like proteins, designated TaRecJ1 and TaRecJ2. TaRecJ1 exhibited DNA-specific 5'-3' exonuclease activity, whereas TaRecJ2 had 3'-5' exonuclease activity and preferred RNA over DNA. TaRecJ2, but not TaRecJ1, formed a stable complex with TaGINS in a 2:1 molar ratio. Furthermore, the TaRecJ2·TaGINS complex stimulated activity of TaMCM ( T. acidophilum MCM) helicase in vitro , and the TaRecJ2·TaMCM·TaGINS complex was also observed in vivo However, TaRecJ2 did not interact with TaMCM directly and was not required for the helicase activation in vitro These findings suggest that the function of archaeal RecJ in DNA replication evolved divergently from Cdc45 despite conservation of the CMG-like complex formation between Archaea and Eukarya. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Importance of non-conserved distal carboxyl terminal amino acids in two peptidases belonging to the M1 family: Thermoplasma acidophilum Tricorn interacting factor F2 and Escherichia coli Peptidase N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anujith; Bhosale, Manoj; Reddy, Surendranath; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Nandi, Dipankar

    2009-09-01

    Enzymes belonging to the M1 family play important cellular roles and the key amino acids (aa) in the catalytic domain are conserved. However, C-terminal domain aa are highly variable and demonstrate distinct differences in organization. To address a functional role for the C-terminal domain, progressive deletions were generated in Tricorn interacting factor F2 from Thermoplasma acidophilum (F2) and Peptidase N from Escherichia coli (PepN). Catalytic activity was partially reduced in PepN lacking 4 C-terminal residues (PepNDeltaC4) whereas it was greatly reduced in F2 lacking 10 C-terminal residues (F2DeltaC10) or PepN lacking eleven C-terminal residues (PepNDeltaC11). Notably, expression of PepNDeltaC4, but not PepNDeltaC11, in E. coliDeltapepN increased its ability to resist nutritional and high temperature stress, demonstrating physiological significance. Purified C-terminal deleted proteins demonstrated greater sensitivity to trypsin and bound stronger to 8-amino 1-napthalene sulphonic acid (ANS), revealing greater numbers of surface exposed hydrophobic aa. Also, F2 or PepN containing large aa deletions in the C-termini, but not smaller deletions, were present in high amounts in the insoluble fraction of cell extracts probably due to reduced protein solubility. Modeling studies, using the crystal structure of E. coli PepN, demonstrated increase in hydrophobic surface area and change in accessibility of several aa from buried to exposed upon deletion of C-terminal aa. Together, these studies revealed that non-conserved distal C-terminal aa repress the surface exposure of apolar aa, enhance protein solubility, and catalytic activity in two soluble and distinct members of the M1 family.

  11. VAT, the thermoplasma homolog of mammalian p97/VCP, is an N domain-regulated protein unfoldase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerega, Alexandra; Rockel, Beate; Peters, Jürgen; Tamura, Tomohiro; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Zwickl, Peter

    2005-12-30

    The Thermoplasma VCP-like ATPase from Thermoplasma acidophilum (VAT) ATPase is a member of the two-domain AAA ATPases and homologous to the mammalian p97/VCP and NSF proteins. We show here that the VAT ATPase complex unfolds green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled with the ssrA-degradation tag. Increasing the Mg2+ concentration derepresses the ATPase activity and concomitantly stimulates the unfolding activity of VAT. Similarly, the VATDeltaN complex, a mutant of VAT deleted for the N domain, displays up to 24-fold enhanced ATP hydrolysis and 250-fold enhanced GFP unfolding activity when compared with wild-type VAT. To determine the individual contribution of the two AAA domains to ATP hydrolysis and GFP unfolding we performed extensive site-directed mutagenesis of the Walker A, Walker B, sensor-1, and pore residues in both AAA domains. Analysis of the VAT mutant proteins, where ATP hydrolysis was confined to a single AAA domain, revealed that the first domain (D1) is sufficient to exert GFP unfolding indistinguishable from wild-type VAT, while the second AAA domain (D2), although active, is significantly less efficient than wild-type VAT. A single conserved aromatic residue in the D1 section of the pore was found to be essential for GFP unfolding. In contrast, two neighboring residues in the D2 section of the pore had to be exchanged simultaneously, to achieve a drastic inhibition of GFP unfolding.

  12. Comparison of uranium biosorption between scytalidium acidophilum and rhizopus arrhizus. Mineral sciences laboratories division report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salley, J.; McCready, R.G.L.; Cuif, J.P.

    1989-03-01

    Biosorption of uranium from the mine biolixiviant and from complex synthetic uranium solutions by the extremely acid-tolerant fungus Scytalidium acidophilum was studies. Uranium uptake at pH 4 was shown to be three times greater than uptake at pH 2.5. Kinetics of biosorption at different ceg[ centrations were conducted to evaluate the biosorptive capacities of the fungus at pH 4. An uptake of 42 mgU/g was reached within 10 min for a cell concentration of 1.0 g/l. Kinetic studies showed that biosorption is slower and less efficient with mine water compared to synthetic U solution, due to the higher concentrations of competitive ions present in mine water. Uranium biosorption by S. acidophilum was also evaluated with biosorption isotherms and compared to another fungus, Rhizopus arrhizus. At pH 4, R. arrhizus always showed greater uranium uptake than S. acidophilum for both mine water and complex synthetic solution. Uranium uptake was greater than 37 mgU/g and 51 mgU/g with min water for S. acidophilum and R. arrhizus respectively, and 65 mgU/g and 122 mgU/g with complex synthetic uranium solution. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  13. Crystal structure of a DNA binding protein from the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon Methanococcus jannaschii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ganggang; Guo, Rong; Bartlam, Mark; Yang, Haitao; Xue, Hong; Liu, Yiwei; Huang, Li; Rao, Zihe

    2003-01-01

    The Sac10b family consists of a group of highly conserved DNA binding proteins from both the euryarchaeotal and the crenarchaeotal branches of Archaea. The proteins have been suggested to play an architectural role in the chromosomal organization in these organisms. Previous studies have mainly focused on the Sac10b proteins from the crenarchaeota. Here, we report the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of Mja10b from the euryarchaeon Methanococcus jannaschii. The model of Mja10b has been refined to an R-factor of 20.9%. The crystal structure of an Mja10b monomer reveals an α/β structure of four β-strands and two α-helices, and Mja10b assembles into a dimer via an extensive hydrophobic interface. Mja10b has a similar topology to that of its crenarchaeota counterpart Sso10b (also known as Alba). Structural comparison between the two proteins suggests that structural features such as hydrophobic inner core, acetylation sites, dimer interface, and DNA binding surface are conserved among Sac10b proteins. Structural differences between the two proteins were found in the loops. To understand the structural basis for the thermostability of Mja10b, the Mja10b structure was compared to other proteins with similar topology. Our data suggest that extensive ion-pair networks, optimized accessible surface area and the dimerization via hydrophobic interactions may contribute to the enhanced thermostability of Mja10b. PMID:14627741

  14. Effects of iron limitation on the respiratory chain and the membrane cytochrome pattern of the Euryarchaeon Halobacterium salinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubmacher, Dirk; Matzanke, Berthold F; Anemüller, Stefan

    2003-12-01

    The effects of iron limitation on the electron transport chain of the extremely halophilic Euryarchaeon Halobacterium salinarum were analyzed. When iron was growth-limiting, the respiratory rates as well as the inhibition pattern of the membranes were significantly different from membranes of iron replete cells. Changes in the availability of iron cause the formation of different respiratory pathways including different entry sites for electrons, different terminal oxidases of the respiratory chain, and drastic changes of the cytochrome composition and of the relative amounts of cytochromes. Under iron-limiting conditions, mainly low-potential cytochromes were measured. EPR spectroscopic studies revealed that the amount of proteins containing iron-sulfur clusters is reduced in membranes under iron-limiting growth conditions. Taken together, our results strongly suggest for the first time an important role of iron supply for the bioenergetics of an Archaeon.

  15. Isolation and characterization of the first xylanolytic hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon Thermococcus sp. strain 2319x1 and its unusual multidomain glycosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N Gavrilov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes from (hyperthermophiles Thermozymes offer a great potential for biotechnological applications. Thermophilic adaptation does not only provide stability towards high temperature but is also often accompanied by a higher resistance to other harsh physicochemical conditions, which are also frequently employed in industrial processes, such as the presence of e.g. denaturing agents as well as low or high pH of the medium. In order to find new thermostable, xylan degrading hydrolases with potential for biotechnological application we used an in situ enrichment strategy incubating Hungate tubes with xylan as the energy substrate in a hot vent located in the tidal zone of Kunashir Island (Kuril archipelago. Using this approach a hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon, designated Thermococcus sp. strain 2319x1, growing on xylan as sole energy and carbon source was isolated. The organism grows optimally at 85°C and pH 7.0 on a variety of natural polysaccharides including xylan, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, amorphous cellulose (AMC, xyloglucan, and chitin. The protein fraction extracted from the cells surface with Twin 80 exhibited endoxylanase, endoglucanase and xyloglucanase activities. The genome of Thermococcus sp. strain 2319x1 was sequenced and assembled into one circular chromosome. Within the newly sequenced genome, a gene, encoding a novel type of glycosidase (143 kDa with a unique five-domain structure, was identified. It consists of three glycoside hydrolase (GH domains and two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM with the domain order GH5-12-12-CBM2-2 (N- to C-terminal direction. The full length protein, as well as truncated versions, were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and their activity was analyzed. The full length multidomain glycosidase (MDG was able to hydrolyze various polysaccharides, with the highest activity for barley β-glucan (β-1,3/1,4-glucoside, followed by that for carboxymethyl cellulose (β-1,4-glucoside

  16. Phylogeny of metabolic networks: A spectral graph theoretical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-29

    Sep 29, 2015 ... Listeria monocytogenes. Helicobacter pylori 26695. Thermoplasma acidophilum. Clostridium perfringens. Rattus norvegicus. Homo sapiens. Staphylococcus aureus N315. Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS8232. Mycoplasma pulmonis. Halobacte rium sp. Aquifex aeolicus. Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4.

  17. Biochemical characterisation of LigN, an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii that displays maximal in vitro activity at high salt concentrations

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    MacNeill Stuart A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA ligases are required for DNA strand joining in all forms of cellular life. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found primarily in eubacteria but also in some eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage and archaea. Among the archaeal NAD+-dependent DNA ligases is the LigN enzyme of the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, the gene for which was apparently acquired by Hfx.volcanii through lateral gene transfer (LGT from a halophilic eubacterium. Genetic studies show that the LGT-acquired LigN enzyme shares an essential function with the native Hfx.volcanii ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein LigA. Results To characterise the enzymatic properties of the LigN protein, wild-type and three mutant forms of the LigN protein were separately expressed in recombinant form in E.coli and purified to apparent homogeneity by immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. Non-isotopic DNA ligase activity assays using λ DNA restriction fragments with 12 bp cos cohesive ends were used to show that LigN activity was dependent on addition of divalent cations and salt. No activity was detected in the absence of KCl, whereas maximum activity could be detected at 3.2 M KCl, close to the intracellular KCl concentration of Hfx.volcanii cells. Conclusion LigN is unique amongst characterised DNA ligase enzymes in displaying maximal DNA strand joining activity at high (> 3 M salt levels. As such the LigN enzyme has potential both as a novel tool for biotechnology and as a model enzyme for studying the adaptation of proteins to high intracellular salt levels.

  18. Alba from Thermoplasma volcanium belongs to α-NAT's: An insight into the structural aspects of Tv Alba and its acetylation by Tv Ard1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Pathak, Chinar; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki-Young; Jang, Sun-Bok; Nam, Minjoo; Im, Hookang; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2016-01-15

    The Alba superfamily proteins have been regarded as a conserved group of proteins in archaea and eukarya, which have shown to be important in nucleic acid binding, chromatic organization and gene regulation. These proteins often belong to the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) category (N(α)-acetyltransferases or N(ε)-acetyltransferases) and undergo post-translational modifications. Here, we report the crystal structure of Alba from Thermoplasma volcanium (Tv Alba) at 2.4 Å resolution. The acetylation of Tv Alba was monitored and the N-terminal of Tv Alba has been shown to interact with acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA). The chemical shift perturbation experiments of Tv Alba were performed in the presence of Ac-CoA and/or Tv Ard1, another T. volcanium protein that treats Tv Alba as a substrate. To examine the DNA binding capabilities of Tv Alba alone and in the presence of Ac-CoA and/or Tv Ard1, EMSA experiments were carried out. It is shown that although Tv Alba binds to Ac-CoA, the acetylation of Tv Alba is not related with its binding to dsDNA, and the involvement of the N-terminus in Ac-CoA binding demonstrates that Tv Alba belongs to the N(α)-acetyltransferase family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11954-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45063_221( AL445063 |pid:none) Thermoplasma acidophilum complet... 100 1e-19 CP001614_1751( CP001614 |pid:none) Teredinibacter turner...um sp. BNC1, complet... 94 9e-18 CP001614_3545( CP001614 |pid:none) Teredinibacter turnerae T7901, ... 94 9e

  20. Evidence of a novel mevalonate pathway in archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Jeffrey M; Korman, Tyler P; Cao, Zheng; Bowie, James U

    2014-07-01

    Isoprenoids make up a remarkably diverse class of more than 25000 biomolecules that include familiar compounds such as cholesterol, chlorophyll, vitamin A, ubiquinone, and natural rubber. The two essential building blocks of all isoprenoids, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), are ubiquitous in the three domains of life. In most eukaryotes and archaea, IPP and DMAPP are generated through the mevalonate pathway. We have identified two novel enzymes, mevalonate-3-kinase and mevalonate-3-phosphate-5-kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum, which act sequentially in a putative alternate mevalonate pathway. We propose that a yet unidentified ATP-independent decarboxylase acts upon mevalonate 3,5-bisphosphate, yielding isopentenyl phosphate, which is subsequently phosphorylated by the known isopentenyl phosphate kinase from T. acidophilum to generate the universal isoprenoid precursor, IPP.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06970-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7( AE013599 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster chromos... 32 9.3 ( P07347 ) RecName: Full=N-terminal acetyltransferase A compl...095467028753 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 40 3.0 2 ( EU016638 ) Uncultured Group I marine crenarch...445063_57( AL445063 |pid:none) Thermoplasma acidophilum complete... 30 0.61 AE1339( AE1339 ) hypothetical protein lmo2117 [imported...* SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS *** f... 48 0.35 1 ( ER621292 ) 1093017415857 Global-Ocean-Sampli...ng_GS-36-01-01-2... 48 0.35 1 ( ER379277 ) 1094338583213 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-34-01-01-1... 48

  2. Utilization of extremozymes for the bioconversion of renewable sugar to molecular hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Danson, M.; Hough, D.; Ward, N. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    We have recently demonstrated the technical feasibility of the bioconversion of glucose and cellulose to molecular hydrogen using two extremozymes glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and hydrogenase. The utilization of compatible extremozymes is important to obtain the fastest rates of hydrogen production possible. The rate limiting step in the conversion of hydrogen appears to be the rate at which insoluble cellulose is enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose by cellulase since the rate of hydrogen production from soluble starch, hydrolyzed by glucoamylase, was similar to that obtained with glucose at the substrate. Xylose is also a substrate for the GDH used (from Thermoplasma acidophilum expressed in E coli) suggesting that the hemicellulose component of biomass can also be transformed to hydrogen. Current to hydrogen experimentation includes the use of cellulases from extremophiles for the bioconversion of cellulosic substrates to hydrogen and the utilization of enzymatic pathways for obtaining the maximum yield of hydrogen/mol of substrate.

  3. Biosynthesis of ribose-5-phosphate and erythrose-4-phosphate in archaea: a phylogenetic analysis of archaeal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Soderberg

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP pathway, and the chorismate pathway of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, employing data from 13 complete archaeal genomes, provides a potential explanation for the enigmatic phylogenetic patterns of the PPP genes in archaea. Genomic and biochemical evidence suggests that three archaeal species (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Thermoplasma acidophilum and Thermoplasma volcanium produce ribose-5-phosphate via the nonoxidative PPP (NOPPP, whereas nine species apparently lack an NOPPP but may employ a reverse RuMP pathway for pentose synthesis. One species (Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 lacks both the NOPPP and the RuMP pathway but may possess a modified oxidative PPP (OPPP, the details of which are not yet known. The presence of transketolase in several archaeal species that are missing the other two NOPPP genes can be explained by the existence of differing requirements for erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P among archaea: six species use transketolase to make E4P as a precursor to aromatic amino acids, six species apparently have an alternate biosynthetic pathway and may not require the ability to make E4P, and one species (Pyrococcus horikoshii probably does not synthesize aromatic amino acids at all.

  4. Enhancing recombinant protein solubility with ubiquitin-like small archeal modifying protein fusion partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Sándor; Pathare, Ganesh Ramnath; Baka, Erzsébet; Boicu, Marius; Kriszt, Balázs; Székács, András; Zinzula, Luca; Kukolya, József; Nagy, István

    2015-11-01

    A variety of protein expression tags with different biochemical properties has been used to enhance the yield and solubility of recombinant proteins. Ubiquitin, SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) and prokaryotic ubiquitin like MoaD (molybdopterin synthase, small subunit) fusion tags are getting more popular because of their small size. In this paper we report on the use of ubiquitin-like small archaeal modifier proteins (SAMPs) as fusion tags since they proved to increase expression yield, stability and solubility in our experiments. Equally important, they did not co-purify with proteins of the expression host and there was information that their specific JAB1/MPN/Mov34 metalloenzyme (JAMM) protease can recognize the C-terminal VSGG sequence when SAMPs fused, either branched or linearly to target proteins, and cleave it specifically. SAMPs and JAMM proteases from Haloferax volcanii, Thermoplasma acidophilum, Methanococcoides burtonii and Nitrosopumilus maritimus were selected, cloned, expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and tested as fusion tags and cleaving proteases, respectively. Investigated SAMPs enhanced protein expression and solubility on a wide scale. T. acidophilum SAMPs Ta0895 and Ta01019 were the best performing tags and their effect was comparable to the widely used maltose binding protein (MBP) and N utilization substance protein A (NusA) tags. Moreover, H. volcanii SAMP Hvo_2619 contribution was mediocre, whereas M. burtonii Mbur_1415 could not be expressed. Out of four investigated JAMM proteases, only Hvo_2505 could cleave fusion tags. Interestingly, it was found active not only on its own partner substrate Hvo_2619, but it also cleaved off Ta0895. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Diversity of Methanogens in Feedlot Cattle from Ontario and Prince Edward Island, Canada▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, André-Denis G.; Auckland, Clare H.; Lynn, Denis H.

    2007-01-01

    The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in feedlot cattle and the composition of the methanogen populations in these animals from two geographic locations were investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled PCR products from 10 animals in Ontario (127 clones) and 10 animals from Prince Edward Island (114 clones). A total of 241 clones were examined, with Methanobrevibacter ruminantium accounting for more than one-third (85 clones) of the clones identified. From these 241 clones, 23 different 16S rRNA phylotypes were identified. Feedlot cattle from Ontario, which were fed a corn-based diet, revealed 11 phylotypes (38 clones) not found in feedlot cattle from Prince Edward Island, whereas the Prince Edward Island cattle, which were fed potato by-products as a finishing diet, had 7 phylotypes (42 clones) not found in cattle from Ontario. Five sequences, representing the remaining 161 clones (67% of the clones), were common in both herds. Of the 23 different sequences, 10 sequences (136 clones) were 89.8 to 100% similar to those from cultivated methanogens belonging to the orders Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales, and the remaining 13 sequences (105 clones) were 74.1 to 75.8% similar to those from Thermoplasma volcanium and Thermoplasma acidophilum. Overall, nine possible new species were identified from the two clone libraries, including two new species belonging to the order Methanobacteriales and a new genus/species within the order Methanosarcinales. From the present survey, it is difficult to conclude whether the geographical isolation between these two herds or differences between the two finishing diets directly influenced community structure in the rumen. Further studies are warranted to properly assess the differences between these two finishing diets. PMID:17483285

  6. Solution Structure of Archaeoglobus fulgidis Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase(Pth2) Provides Evidence for an Extensive Conserved Family of Pth2 Enzymes in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Robert; Mirkovic, Nebojsa; Goldsmith-Fischman, Sharon; Acton, Thomas; Chiang, Yiwen; Huang, Yuanpeng; Ma, LiChung; Rajan, Paranji K.; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard; Honig, Barry; Murray, Diana; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    The solution structure of protein AF2095 from the thermophilic archaea Archaeglobus fulgidis, a 123-residue (13.6 kDa) protein, has been determined by NMR methods. The structure of AF2095 is comprised of four a-helices and a mixed b-sheet consisting of four parallel and anti-parallel b-strands, where the a-helices sandwich the b-sheet. Sequence and structural comparison of AF2095 with proteins from Homo sapiens, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Sulfolobus solfataricus, reveals that AF2095 is a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth2). This structural comparison also identifies putative catalytic residues and a tRNA interaction region for AF2095. The structure of AF2095 is also similar to the structure of protein TA0108 from archaea Thermoplasma acidophilum, which is deposited in the Protein Database but not functionally annotated. The NMR structure of AF2095 has been further leveraged to obtain good quality structural models for 55 other proteins. Although earlier studies have proposed that the Pth2 protein family is restricted to archeal and eukaryotic organisms, the similarity of the AF2095 structure to human Pth2, the conservation of key active-site residues, and the good quality of the resulting homology models demonstrate a large family of homologous Pth2 proteins that are conserved in eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial organisms, providing novel insights in the evolution of the Pth and Pth2 enzyme families.

  7. Inter-domain orientation and motions in VAT-N explored by residual dipolar couplings and 15N backbone relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Mandar V; John, Michael; Coles, Murray; Peters, Jürgen; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Kessler, Horst

    2006-07-01

    The N-terminal domain of VAT (Valosine-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum), VAT-N (20.5 kDa), is considered to be the primary substrate-recognition site of the complex. The solution structure of VAT-N derived in our laboratory using conventionally obtained NMR restraints shows the existence of two equally sized sub-domains, VAT-Nn and VAT-Nc, together forming a kidney-shaped overall structure. The putative substrate-binding site of VAT-N involves free loops and a highly charged groove located on the surface of the protein. Alternatively, the opening of the cleft between the domains to accommodate substrate has been proposed to be part of the functional mechanism. We have used the residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) obtained in a bicelle medium to refine the structure of VAT-N. The long-range information available from RDCs both defines the sub-domain orientation and probes possible inter-domain motions. In addition, 15N backbone relaxation data were obtained and analysed within the model-free framework. Together, the data provides a refined structure with improved local geometry, but with the overall kidney shape intact. Further, the protein is rigid overall, with no evidence of inter-domain motions. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Unfolding the mechanism of the AAA+ unfoldase VAT by a combined cryo-EM, solution NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Ripstein, Zev A; Augustyniak, Rafal; Lazniewski, Michal; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Kay, Lewis E; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-19

    The AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) enzymes play critical roles in a variety of homeostatic processes in all kingdoms of life. Valosin-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum (VAT), the archaeal homolog of the ubiquitous AAA+ protein Cdc48/p97, functions in concert with the 20S proteasome by unfolding substrates and passing them on for degradation. Here, we present electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) maps showing that VAT undergoes large conformational rearrangements during its ATP hydrolysis cycle that differ dramatically from the conformational states observed for Cdc48/p97. We validate key features of the model with biochemical and solution methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopY (TROSY) NMR experiments and suggest a mechanism for coupling the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to substrate unfolding. These findings illustrate the unique complementarity between cryo-EM and solution NMR for studies of molecular machines, showing that the structural properties of VAT, as well as the population distributions of conformers, are similar in the frozen specimens used for cryo-EM and in the solution phase where NMR spectra are recorded.

  9. Biochemical characterisation of LigN, an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii that displays maximal in vitro activity at high salt concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poidevin, L.; MacNeill, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background DNA ligases are required for DNA strand joining in all forms of cellular life. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found primarily in eubacteria but also in some eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage and archaea. Among the archaeal NAD+-dependent DNA ligases is the LigN enzyme of the halophilic...... assays using ¿ DNA restriction fragments with 12 bp cos cohesive ends were used to show that LigN activity was dependent on addition of divalent cations and salt. No activity was detected in the absence of KCl, whereas maximum activity could be detected at 3.2 M KCl, close to the intracellular KCl...... concentration of Hfx.volcanii cells. Conclusion LigN is unique amongst characterised DNA ligase enzymes in displaying maximal DNA strand joining activity at high (> 3 M) salt levels. As such the LigN enzyme has potential both as a novel tool for biotechnology and as a model enzyme for studying the adaptation...

  10. ADPase activity of recombinantly expressed thermotolerant ATPases may be caused by copurification of adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; Nixon, B.Tracy; (IIT); (Penn)

    2009-10-06

    Except for apyrases, ATPases generally target only the {gamma}-phosphate of a nucleotide. Some non-apyrase ATPases from thermophilic microorganisms are reported to hydrolyze ADP as well as ATP, which has been described as a novel property of the ATPases from extreme thermophiles. Here, we describe an apparent ADP hydrolysis by highly purified preparations of the AAA+ ATPase NtrC1 from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Aquifex aeolicus. This activity is actually a combination of the activities of the ATPase and contaminating adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli, which is present at 1/10 000 of the level of the ATPase. AK catalyzes conversion of two molecules of ADP into AMP and ATP, the latter being a substrate for the ATPase. We raise concern that the observed thermotolerance of E. coli AK and its copurification with thermostable proteins by commonly used methods may confound studies of enzymes that specifically catalyze hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates or triphosphates. For example, contamination with E. coli AK may be responsible for reported ADPase activities of the ATPase chaperonins from Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Methanococcus jannaschii and Thermoplasma acidophilum; the ATP/ADP-dependent DNA ligases from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and Staphylothermus marinus; or the reported ATP-dependent activities of ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase of P. furiosus. Purification methods developed to separate NtrC1 ATPase from AK also revealed two distinct forms of the ATPase. One is tightly bound to ADP or GDP and able to bind to Q but not S ion exchange matrixes. The other is nucleotide-free and binds to both Q and S ion exchange matrixes.

  11. Phylogenomic analysis of proteins that are distinctive of Archaea and its main subgroups and the origin of methanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Radhey S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Archaea are highly diverse in terms of their physiology, metabolism and ecology. Presently, very few molecular characteristics are known that are uniquely shared by either all archaea or the different main groups within archaea. The evolutionary relationships among different groups within the Euryarchaeota branch are also not clearly understood. Results We have carried out comprehensive analyses on each open reading frame (ORFs in the genomes of 11 archaea (3 Crenarchaeota – Aeropyrum pernix, Pyrobaculum aerophilum and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius; 8 Euryarchaeota – Pyrococcus abyssi, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanopyrus kandleri, Methanococcoides burtonii, Halobacterium sp. NCR-1, Haloquadratum walsbyi, Thermoplasma acidophilum and Picrophilus torridus to search for proteins that are unique to either all Archaea or for its main subgroups. These studies have identified 1448 proteins or ORFs that are distinctive characteristics of Archaea and its various subgroups and whose homologues are not found in other organisms. Six of these proteins are unique to all Archaea, 10 others are only missing in Nanoarchaeum equitans and a large number of other proteins are specific for various main groups within the Archaea (e.g. Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Sulfolobales and Desulfurococcales, Halobacteriales, Thermococci, Thermoplasmata, all methanogenic archaea or particular groups of methanogens. Of particular importance is the observation that 31 proteins are uniquely present in virtually all methanogens (including M. kandleri and 10 additional proteins are only found in different methanogens as well as A. fulgidus. In contrast, no protein was exclusively shared by various methanogen and any of the Halobacteriales or Thermoplasmatales. These results strongly indicate that all methanogenic archaea form a monophyletic group exclusive of other archaea and that this lineage likely evolved from Archaeoglobus. In addition, 15 proteins

  12. Structures of three members of Pfam PF02663 (FmdE) implicated in microbial methanogenesis reveal a conserved α+β core domain and an auxiliary C-terminal treble-clef zinc finger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, Herbert L.; Das, Debanu; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The first structures from the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663) reveal that some members of this family form tightly intertwined dimers consisting of two domains (N-terminal α+β core and C-terminal zinc-finger domains), whereas others contain only the core domain. The presence of the zinc-finger domain suggests that some members of this family may perform functions associated with transcriptional regulation, protein–protein interaction, RNA binding or metal-ion sensing. Examination of the genomic context for members of the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663), such as the protein encoded by the fmdE gene from the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, indicates that 13 of them are co-transcribed with genes encoding subunits of molybdenum formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.99.5), an enzyme that is involved in microbial methane production. Here, the first crystal structures from PF02663 are described, representing two bacterial and one archaeal species: B8FYU2-DESHY from the anaerobic dehalogenating bacterium Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2, Q2LQ23-SYNAS from the syntrophic bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus SB and Q9HJ63-THEAC from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Two of these proteins, Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS, contain two domains: an N-terminal thioredoxin-like α+β core domain (NTD) consisting of a five-stranded, mixed β-sheet flanked by several α-helices and a C-terminal zinc-finger domain (CTD). B8FYU2-DESHY, on the other hand, is composed solely of the NTD. The CTD of Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS is best characterized as a treble-clef zinc finger. Two significant structural differences between Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS involve their metal binding. First, zinc is bound to the putative active site on the NTD of Q9HJ63-THEAC, but is absent from the NTD of Q2LQ23-SYNAS. Second, whereas the structure of the CTD of Q2LQ23-SYNAS shows four Cys side chains within coordination distance of the Zn atom, the structure

  13. New taxa of Entoloma from grasslands in Drenthe, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, E.J.M.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen new species and three new variaties of Entoloma from grassland vegetations in the province of Drenthe, The Netherlands, are described: E. acidophilum, E. argenteostriatum, E. calthionis, E. chlorinosum, E. cryptocystidiatum, E. cuniculorum. E. defibulatum, E. farinogustus, E.

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_002689 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ding protein [Thermoplasma volcanium GSS1] ... Length = 128 ... Query: 2 ... DQIVDILTHYKNVAVVGISSNPEKDSYRV...AKYLMEHGFRVIPVNPNLSSWEGLKAYPSVS 61 ... DQIVDILTHYKNVAVVGISSNPEKDSYRVAKYLMEHGFRVIPVNPNLSSWEGLKAYPSVS S...bjct: 1 ... DQIVDILTHYKNVAVVGISSNPEKDSYRVAKYLMEHGFRVIPVNPNLSSWEGLKAYPSVS 60 ... Query: 122 MMKEHIKL 129 ... MMKEHIKL Sbjct: 121 MMKEHIKL 128

  15. The chromosome copy number of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, S.K.; Oost, van der J.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The euryarchaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis is a well-characterized anaerobic hyperthermophilic heterotroph and due to the availability of genetic engineering systems it has become one of the model organisms for studying Archaea. Despite this prominent role among the Euryarchaeota, no data about the

  16. Complete genome sequence of 'Halanaeroarchaeum sulfurireducens' M27-SA2, a sulfur-reducing and acetate-oxidizing haloarchaeon from the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lake Medee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messina, Enzo; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Kublanov, Ilya V.; Toshchakov, Stepan; Lopatina, Anna; Arcadi, Erika; Smedile, Francesco; La Spada, Gina; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M.

    2016-01-01

    Strain M27-SA2 was isolated from the deep-sea salt-saturated anoxic lake Medee, which represents one of the most hostile extreme environments on our planet. On the basis of physiological studies and phylogenetic positioning this extremely halophilic euryarchaeon belongs to a novel genus

  17. Phylogeny of metabolic networks: A spectral graph theoretical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-29

    Sep 29, 2015 ... C.pneumoniae-CWL029. C.pneumoniae-J138. C.muridarum. C.trachomatis. Buchnera.sp.APS. T.acidophilum. T.volcanium. S.tokodaii. S.solfataricus ... APS appears near the branch of chlamydia. Buchnera sp. APS is endocellular symbiote of aphids. Like parasites, Buchnera sp. APS has reduced its.

  18. Biochemical properties and base excision repair complex formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease from Pyrococcus furiosus

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyonari, Shinichi; Tahara, Saki; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Iwai, Shigenori; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2009-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are the most frequently found mutagenic lesions in DNA, and they arise mainly from spontaneous base loss or modified base removal by damage-specific DNA glycosylases. AP sites are cleaved by AP endonucleases, and the resultant gaps in the DNA are repaired by DNA polymerase/DNA ligase reactions. We identified the gene product that is responsible for the AP endonuclease activity in the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. Furthermore, we detected...

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-09-15

    Sep 15, 2005 ... So far, the coal-refuse pile is the only habitat where this organ- ism has been found. Thermoplasma has no cell wall, yet can grow at temperatures of 61°C, and at a pH close to 1 (the acidity of. O.1M hydrochloric acid). Its discovery refuted the belief that cell-wall provides the chief protection against heat.

  20. Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1996-01-01

    A symbiosis-based phylogeny leads to a consistent, useful classification system for all life. "Kingdoms" and "Domains" are replaced by biological names for the most inclusive taxa: Prokarya (bacteria) and Eukarya (symbiosis-derived nucleated organisms). The earliest Eukarya, anaerobic mastigotes, hypothetically originated from permanent whole-cell fusion between members of Archaea (e.g., Thermoplasma-like organisms) and of Eubacteria (e.g., Spirochaeta-like organisms). Molecular biology, life-history, and fossil record evidence support the reunification of bacteria as Prokarya while subdividing Eukarya into uniquely defined subtaxa: Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae.

  1. Archaeal Life on Tangkuban Perahu- Sampling and Culture Growth in Indonesian Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI HANDAYANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the expedition to Tangkuban Perahu, West Java was to obtain archaeal samples from the solfatara fields located in Domas crater. This was one of the places, where scientists from the University of Regensburg Germany had formerly isolated Indonesian archaea, especially Thermoplasma and Sulfolobus species but not fully characterized. We collected five samples from mud holes with temperatures from 57 to 88 oC and pH of 1.5-2. A portion of each sample was grown at the University of Regensburg in modified Allen’s medium at 80 oC. From four out of five samples enrichment cultures were obtained, autotrophically on elemental sulphur and heterotrophically on sulfur and yeast extract; electron micrographs are presented. In the laboratories of Universitas Indonesia the isolates were cultured at 55-60 oC in order to grow tetraetherlipid synthesizing archaea, both Thermoplasmatales and Sulfolobales. Here, we succeeded to culture the same type of archaeal cells, which had been cultured in Regensburg, probably a Sulfolobus species and in Freundt’s medium, Thermoplasma species. The harvested cells are documented by phase contrast microscope equipped with a digital camera. Our next steps will be to further characterize genetically the cultured cells from Tangkuban Perahu isolates.

  2. Archaeal Life on Tangkuban Perahu-Sampling and Culture Growth in Indonesian Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI HANDAYANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the expedition to Tangkuban Perahu, West Java was to obtain archaeal samples from the solfatara fields located in Domas crater. This was one of the places, where scientists from the University of Regensburg Germany had formerly isolated Indonesian archaea, especially Thermoplasma and Sulfolobus species but not fully characterized. We collected five samples from mud holes with temperatures from 57 to 88 °C and pH of 1.5-2. A portion of each sample was grown at the University of Regensburg in modified Allen's medium at 80 °C. From four out of five samples enrichment cultures were obtained, autotrophically on elemental sulphur and heterotrophically on sulfur and yeast extract; electron micrographs are presented. In the laboratories of Universitas Indonesia the isolates were cultured at 55-60 °C in order to grow tetraetherlipid synthesizing archaea, both Thermoplasmatales and Sulfolobales. Here, we succeeded to culture the same type of archaeal cells, which had been cultured in Regensburg, probably a Sulfolobus species and in Freundt's medium, Thermoplasma species. The harvested cells are documented by phase contrast microscope equipped with a digital camera. Our next steps will be to further characterize genetically the cultured cells from Tangkuban Perahu isolates.

  3. Stable archaeal tetraether lipid liposomes for photodynamic application: transfer of carboxyfluorescein to cultured T84 tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Oertl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Archaeal membranes have phytanyl ether lipids instead of common fatty acid-glycerol esters in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Sulfolobus and Thermoplasma species have unique membrane-spanning tetraether lipids (TEL, which form stable liposomes. Recently, we cultured Thermoplasma species from the Indonesian volcano Tangkuban Perahu and isolated TEL. The purpose of this in vitro study is to investigate the transfer of fluorescent dye from stable TEL liposomes to cultured colon carcinoma cells.Methods: TEL was extracted from cultured cells with chloroform-methanol (1:1, then it was fractionated and purified via diethylaminoethyl-cellulose-acetate columns and activated charcoal for the formation of stable liposomes. For the fluorescence exchange assay, TEL liposomes were loaded with water-soluble carboxyfluorescein (CF. Staining experiments were conducted with various cell cultures, and T84 colon carcinoma cells were chosen for the main experiments. Liposome stability was tested by light scattering and electron microscopic size determinations as well as by unspecific CF release at low pH (6.0–7.4 and increased temperature  (4–50°C/70°C.Results: TEL liposomes exhibit high stability and extremely low proton permeability at low pH. CF staining of cultured T84 colon carcinoma cells appeares more intensive from TEL liposomes than from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes.Conclusion: The results of this in vitro study demonstrate CF staining of colon carcinoma cells and high stability of TEL liposomes at low pH, matching the condition in the gastro-intestinal (GI route and in the urogentital (UG tract. For this reason, in vivo studies on liposomal fluorescent photosensitizers for topical application of photodynamic cancer therapy in the GI and UG tracts should be carried out.

  4. S-layer and cytoplasmic membrane – exceptions from the typical archaeal cell wall with a focus on double membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eKlingl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The common idea of typical cell wall architecture in archaea consists of a pseudo-crystalline proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer, situated upon the cytoplasmic membrane. This is true for the majority of described archaea, hitherto. Within the crenarchaea, the S-layer often represents the only cell wall component, but there are various exceptions from this wall architecture. Beside (glycosylated S-layers in (hyperthermophilic cren- and euryarchaea as well as halophilic archaea, one can find a great variety of other cell wall structures like proteoglycan-like S-layers (Halobacteria, glutaminylglycan (Natronococci, methanochondroitin (Methanosarcina or double layered cell walls with pseudomurein (Methanothermus and Methanopyrus. The presence of an outermost cellular membrane in the crenarchaeal species Ignicoccus hospitalis already gave indications for an outer membrane similar to Gram-negative bacteria. Although there is just limited data concerning their biochemistry and ultrastructure, recent studies on the euryarchaeal methanogen Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, cells of the ARMAN group, and the SM1 euryarchaeon delivered further examples for this exceptional cell envelope type consisting of two membranes.

  5. Mechanism of disruption of the Amt-GlnK complex by P(II)-mediated sensing of 2-oxoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Sarah; Schleberger, Paula; Lü, Wei; Wacker, Tobias; Pflüger, Tobias; Litz, Claudia; Andrade, Susana L A

    2011-01-01

    GlnK proteins regulate the active uptake of ammonium by Amt transport proteins by inserting their regulatory T-loops into the transport channels of the Amt trimer and physically blocking substrate passage. They sense the cellular nitrogen status through 2-oxoglutarate, and the energy level of the cell by binding both ATP and ADP with different affinities. The hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus possesses three Amt proteins, each encoded in an operon with a GlnK ortholog. One of these proteins, GlnK2 was recently found to be incapable of binding 2-OG, and in order to understand the implications of this finding we conducted a detailed structural and functional analysis of a second GlnK protein from A. fulgidus, GlnK3. Contrary to Af-GlnK2 this protein was able to bind both ATP/2-OG and ADP to yield inactive and functional states, respectively. Due to the thermostable nature of the protein we could observe the exact positioning of the notoriously flexible T-loops and explain the binding behavior of GlnK proteins to their interaction partner, the Amt proteins. A thermodynamic analysis of these binding events using microcalorimetry evaluated by microstate modeling revealed significant differences in binding cooperativity compared to other characterized P(II) proteins, underlining the diversity and adaptability of this class of regulatory signaling proteins.

  6. Mechanism of disruption of the Amt-GlnK complex by P(II-mediated sensing of 2-oxoglutarate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Maier

    Full Text Available GlnK proteins regulate the active uptake of ammonium by Amt transport proteins by inserting their regulatory T-loops into the transport channels of the Amt trimer and physically blocking substrate passage. They sense the cellular nitrogen status through 2-oxoglutarate, and the energy level of the cell by binding both ATP and ADP with different affinities. The hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus possesses three Amt proteins, each encoded in an operon with a GlnK ortholog. One of these proteins, GlnK2 was recently found to be incapable of binding 2-OG, and in order to understand the implications of this finding we conducted a detailed structural and functional analysis of a second GlnK protein from A. fulgidus, GlnK3. Contrary to Af-GlnK2 this protein was able to bind both ATP/2-OG and ADP to yield inactive and functional states, respectively. Due to the thermostable nature of the protein we could observe the exact positioning of the notoriously flexible T-loops and explain the binding behavior of GlnK proteins to their interaction partner, the Amt proteins. A thermodynamic analysis of these binding events using microcalorimetry evaluated by microstate modeling revealed significant differences in binding cooperativity compared to other characterized P(II proteins, underlining the diversity and adaptability of this class of regulatory signaling proteins.

  7. A euryarchaeal histone modulates strand displacement synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Huang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, the two main lineages of the domain Archaea, encode different chromatin proteins and differ in the use of replicative DNA polymerases. Crenarchaea possess a single family B DNA polymerase (PolB), which is capable of strand displacement modulated by the chromatin proteins Cren7 and Sul7d. Euryarchaea have two distinct replicative DNA polymerases, PolB and PolD, a family D DNA polymerase. Here we characterized the strand displacement activities of PolB and PolD from the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and investigated the influence of HPfA1, a homolog of eukaryotic histones from P. furiosus, on these activities. We showed that both PolB and PolD were efficient in strand displacement. HPfA1 inhibited DNA strand displacement by both DNA polymerases but exhibited little effect on the displacement of a RNA strand annealed to single-stranded template DNA. This is consistent with the finding that HPfA1 bound more tightly to double-stranded DNA than to a RNA:DNA hybrid. Our results suggest that, although crenarchaea and euryarchaea differ in chromosomal packaging, they share similar mechanisms in modulating strand displacement by DNA polymerases during lagging strand DNA synthesis.

  8. S-layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami resemble archaeal S-layer proteins in structure and sequence

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    Alexandra Kristin Perras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncultivated Ca. Altiarchaeum hamiconexum (formerly known as SM1 Euryarchaeon carries highly specialized nano-grappling hooks (hami on its cell surface. Until now little is known about the major protein forming these structured fibrous cell surface appendages, the genes involved or membrane anchoring of these filaments. These aspects were analyzed in depth in this study using environmental transcriptomics combined with imaging methods. Since a laboratory culture of this archaeon is not yet available, natural biofilm samples with high Ca. A. hamiconexum abundance were used for the entire analyses. The filamentous surface appendages spanned both membranes of the cell, which are composed of glycosyl-archaeol. The hami consisted of multiple copies of the same protein, the corresponding gene of which was identified via metagenome-mapped transcriptome analysis. The hamus subunit proteins, which are likely to self-assemble due to their predicted beta sheet topology, revealed no similiarity to known microbial flagella-, archaella-, fimbriae- or pili-proteins, but a high similarity to known S-layer proteins of the archaeal phylum at their N-terminal region (47-44% identity. Our results provide new insights into the structure of the unique hami and their major protein and indicate their divergent evolution with S-layer proteins.

  9. Mercury Methylation and Detoxification by Novel Microorganisms in Mercury Enriched Mesothermal Springs

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    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M.; Wick, R. R.; Schultz, M. B.; Holt, K. E.; Moreau, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have looked at the microbial underpinnings of mercury transformations in geothermal settings. Recent advancements in culture-independent molecular techniques, such as ultra-high-throughput sequencing, allow us to delve deeply into the functional and phylogenetic make-up of these extreme environments. Here we present results from deep metagenomic sequencing of geothermal microbial communities cycling mercury, focussing on the connections between putative metabolisms and mercury methylation, and the evolution of the mer-operon. Presented are data from two adjacent, acidic (pHNew Zealand), extremely enriched in total mercury (>1000 ng L-1), and varying methylmercury concentrations (1-10 ng L-1). Microbial communities of both springs are dominated by mercury resistant acidophilic, sulfur- and iron-cycling microbes: Acidithiobacillus, Thiomonas, and Thermoplasma. Mercury methylation genes (hgcAB) were only detected in the cooler spring (ΔT~10 °C), with an order of magnitude greater methylmercury (10 ng L-1). The hgcAB genes have no known closest relatives (40°C), and methylmercury concentration. We conclude that the relative amount of mercury methylation in each hot spring is controlled by the presence of methylating bacteria and archaea, the release of bioavailable mercury species from sulfide minerals, counterbalanced by microbial mercury demethylation and reduction and mercury sulfide mineralization.

  10. Squalenes, phytanes and other isoprenoids as major neutral lipids of methanogenic and thermoacidophilic 'archaebacteria'

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    Tornabene, T. G.; Langworthy, T. A.; Holzer, G.; Oro, J.

    1979-01-01

    The neutral lipids from nine species of methanogenic bacteria (five methanobacilli, two methanococci, a methanospirillum and a methanosarcina) and two thermoacidophilic bacteria (Thermo-plasma and Sulfolobus) have been analyzed. The neutral lipids were found to comprise a wide range (C14 to C30) of polyisoprenyl hydrocarbons with varying degrees of saturation. The principal components represented the three major isoprenoid series (C20 phytanyl, C25 pentaisoprenyl, and C30 squalenyl), in contrast with the neutral lipids of extreme halophiles, which consist predominantly of C2O (phytanyl, geranylgeraniol), C30 (squalenes), C40 (carotenes) and C50 (bacterioruberins compounds), as reported by Kates (1978). These results, which indicate strong general similarities between genetically diverse organisms, support the classification of these organisms in a separate phylogenetic group. The occurrence of similar isoprenoid compounds in petroleum and ancient sediments and the fact that the methanogens, halophiles and thermoacidophiles live in conditions presumed to have prevailed in archaen times suggest that the isoprenoid compounds in petroleum compounds and sediment may have been directly synthesized by organisms of this type

  11. Grappling archaea: ultrastructural analyses of an uncultivated, cold-loving archaeon and its biofilm

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    Alexandra ePerras

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Similarly to Bacteria, Archaea are microorganisms that interact with their surrounding environment in a versatile manner. To date, interactions based on cellular structure and surface appendages have mainly been documented using model systems of cultivable archaea under laboratory conditions. Here, we report on the microbial interactions and ultrastructural features of the uncultivated SM1 Euryarchaeon, which is highly dominant in its biotope. Therefore, biofilm samples taken from the Sippenauer Moor, Germany, were investigated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM; negative staining, thin-sectioning and scanning electron microscopy (SEM in order to elucidate the fine structures of the microbial cells and the biofilm itself. The biofilm consisted of small archaeal cocci (0.6 µm diameter, arranged in a regular pattern (1.2-2.0 µm distance from cell to cell, whereas each archaeon was connected to 6 other archaea on average. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS were limited to the close vicinity of the archaeal cells, and specific cell surface appendages (hami, Moissl et al., 2005 protruded beyond the EPS matrix enabling microbial interaction by cell-cell contacts among the archaea and between archaea and bacteria. All analyzed hami revealed their previously described architecture of nano-grappling hooks and barb-wire basal structures. Considering the archaeal cell walls, the SM1 Euryarchaea exhibited a double-membrane, which has rarely been reported for members of this phylogenetic domain. Based on these findings, the current generalized picture on archaeal cell walls needs to be revisited, as archaeal cell structures are more complex and sophisticated than previously assumed, particularly when looking into the uncultivated majority.

  12. Novel Large Sulfur Bacteria in the Metagenomes of Groundwater-Fed Chemosynthetic Microbial Mats in the Lake Huron Basin

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    Allison M. Sharrar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about large sulfur bacteria (LSB that inhabit sulfidic groundwater seeps in large lakes. To examine how geochemically relevant microbial metabolisms are partitioned among community members, we conducted metagenomic analysis of a chemosynthetic microbial mat in the Isolated Sinkhole, which is in a deep, aphotic environment of Lake Huron. For comparison, we also analyzed a white mat in an artesian fountain that is fed by groundwater similar to Isolated Sinkhole, but that sits in shallow water and is exposed to sunlight. De novo assembly and binning of metagenomic data from these two communities yielded near complete genomes and revealed representatives of two families of LSB. The Isolated Sinkhole community was dominated by novel members of the Beggiatoaceae that are phylogenetically intermediate between known freshwater and marine groups. Several of these Beggiatoaceae had 16S rRNA genes that contained introns previously observed only in marine taxa. The Alpena fountain was dominated by populations closely related to Thiothrix lacustris and an SM1 euryarchaeon known to live symbiotically with Thiothrix spp. The SM1 genomic bin contained evidence of H2-based lithoautotrophy. Genomic bins of both the Thiothrix and Beggiatoaceae contained genes for sulfur oxidation via the rDsr pathway, H2 oxidation via Ni-Fe hydrogenases, and the use of O2 and nitrate as electron acceptors. Mats at both sites also contained Deltaproteobacteria with genes for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (sat, apr, and dsr and hydrogen oxidation (Ni-Fe hydrogenases. Overall, the microbial mats at the two sites held low-diversity microbial communities, displayed evidence of coupled sulfur cycling, and did not differ largely in their metabolic potentials, despite the environmental differences. These results show that groundwater-fed communities in an artesian fountain and in submerged sinkholes of Lake Huron are a rich source of novel LSB, associated heterotrophic

  13. Engineering of Functional Replication Protein A Homologs Based on Insights into the Evolution of Oligonucleotide/ Oligosaccharide-Binding Folds▿ †

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    Lin, Yuyen; Lin, Li-Jung; Sriratana, Palita; Coleman, Kelli; Ha, Taekjip; Spies, Maria; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) and the archaeal/eukaryotic functional homolog, replication protein A (RPA), are essential for most aspects of DNA metabolism. Structural analyses of the architecture of SSB and RPA suggest that they are composed of different combinations of a module called the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold. Members of the domains Bacteria and Eukarya, in general, contain one type of SSB or RPA. In contrast, organisms in the archaeal domain have different RPAs made up of different organizations of OB folds. Interestingly, the euryarchaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans harbors multiple functional RPAs named MacRPA1 (for M. acetivorans RPA 1), MacRPA2, and MacRPA3. Comparison of MacRPA1 with related proteins in the publicly available databases suggested that intramolecular homologous recombination might play an important role in generating some of the diversity of OB folds in archaeal cells. On the basis of this information, from a four-OB-fold-containing RPA, we engineered chimeric modules to create three-OB-fold-containing RPAs to mimic a novel form of RPA found in Methanococcoides burtonii and Methanosaeta thermophila. We further created two RPAs that mimicked the RPAs in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus through fusions of modules from MacRPA1 and M. thermautotrophicus RPA. Functional studies of these engineered proteins suggested that fusion and shuffling of OB folds can lead to well-folded polypeptides with most of the known properties of SSB and RPAs. On the basis of these results, different models that attempt to explain how intramolecular and intermolecular homologous recombination can generate novel forms of SSB or RPAs are proposed. PMID:18586938

  14. Engineering of functional replication protein a homologs based on insights into the evolution of oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding folds.

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    Lin, Yuyen; Lin, Li-Jung; Sriratana, Palita; Coleman, Kelli; Ha, Taekjip; Spies, Maria; Cann, Isaac K O

    2008-09-01

    The bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) and the archaeal/eukaryotic functional homolog, replication protein A (RPA), are essential for most aspects of DNA metabolism. Structural analyses of the architecture of SSB and RPA suggest that they are composed of different combinations of a module called the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold. Members of the domains Bacteria and Eukarya, in general, contain one type of SSB or RPA. In contrast, organisms in the archaeal domain have different RPAs made up of different organizations of OB folds. Interestingly, the euryarchaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans harbors multiple functional RPAs named MacRPA1 (for M. acetivorans RPA 1), MacRPA2, and MacRPA3. Comparison of MacRPA1 with related proteins in the publicly available databases suggested that intramolecular homologous recombination might play an important role in generating some of the diversity of OB folds in archaeal cells. On the basis of this information, from a four-OB-fold-containing RPA, we engineered chimeric modules to create three-OB-fold-containing RPAs to mimic a novel form of RPA found in Methanococcoides burtonii and Methanosaeta thermophila. We further created two RPAs that mimicked the RPAs in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus through fusions of modules from MacRPA1 and M. thermautotrophicus RPA. Functional studies of these engineered proteins suggested that fusion and shuffling of OB folds can lead to well-folded polypeptides with most of the known properties of SSB and RPAs. On the basis of these results, different models that attempt to explain how intramolecular and intermolecular homologous recombination can generate novel forms of SSB or RPAs are proposed.

  15. Archaea in the foregut of macropod marsupials: PCR and amplicon sequence-based observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieve, A V; Ouwerkerk, D; Maguire, A J

    2012-11-01

    To investigate, using culture-independent techniques, the presence and diversity of methanogenic archaea in the foregut of kangaroos. DNA was extracted from forestomach contents of 42 kangaroos (three species), three sheep and three cattle. Four qualitative and quantitative PCR assays targeting the archaeal domain (16S rRNA gene) or the functional methanogenesis gene, mcrA, were used to determine the presence and population density of archaea in kangaroos and whether they were likely to be methanogens. All ruminal samples were positive for archaea, produced PCR product of expected size, contained high numbers of archaea and high numbers of cells with mcrA genes. Kangaroos were much more diverse and contradictory. Fourteen kangaroos had detectable archaea with numbers 10- to 1000-fold fewer than sheep and cattle. Many kangaroos that did not possess archaea were positive for the mcrA gene and had detectable numbers of cells with this gene and vice versa. DNA sequence analysis of kangaroos' archaeal 16S rRNA gene clones show that many methanogens were related to Methanosphaera stadmanae. Other sequences were related to non-methanogenic archaea (Thermoplasma sp.), and a number of kangaroos had mcrA gene sequences related to methane oxidising archaea (ANME). Discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for archaea and the mcrA gene suggest that the archaeal communities are very diverse and it is possible that novel species exist. Archaea (in general) were below detectable limits in many kangaroos, especially Red kangaroos; when present they are in lower numbers than in ruminants, and the archaea are not necessarily methanogenic. The determination of why this is the case in the kangaroo foregut could assist in reducing emissions from other ecosystems in the future. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Succession of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Microbial Community on Corroding Concrete in Sewer Systems† ▿

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    Okabe, Satoshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Ito, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. A better understanding of the succession of microbial community members responsible for the production of sulfuric acid is essential for the efficient control of MICC. In this study, the succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the bacterial community on corroding concrete in a sewer system in situ was investigated over 1 year by culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques. Results revealed that at least six phylotypes of SOB species were involved in the MICC process, and the predominant SOB species shifted in the following order: Thiothrix sp., Thiobacillus plumbophilus, Thiomonas intermedia, Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Acidiphilium acidophilum, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. A. thiooxidans, a hyperacidophilic SOB, was the most dominant (accounting for 70% of EUB338-mixed probe-hybridized cells) in the heavily corroded concrete after 1 year. This succession of SOB species could be dependent on the pH of the concrete surface as well as on trophic properties (e.g., autotrophic or mixotrophic) and on the ability of the SOB to utilize different sulfur compounds (e.g., H2S, S0, and S2O32−). In addition, diverse heterotrophic bacterial species (e.g., halo-tolerant, neutrophilic, and acidophilic bacteria) were associated with these SOB. The microbial succession of these microorganisms was involved in the colonization of the concrete and the production of sulfuric acid. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of microbial community members revealed that A. thiooxidans was the most dominant throughout the heavily corroded concrete (gypsum) layer and that A. thiooxidans was most abundant at the highest surface (1.5-mm) layer and decreased logarithmically with depth because of oxygen and H2S transport limitations. This suggested that the production of sulfuric acid by A. thiooxidans occurred mainly on the concrete surface and the

  17. Molecular Phylogeny Of Microbes In The Deep-Sea Sediments From Tropical West Pacific Warm Pool

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    Wang, F.; Xiao, X.; Wang, P.

    2005-12-01

    The presence and phylogeny of bacteria and archaea in five deep-sea sediment samples collected from west Pacific Warm Pool area (WP-0, WP-1, WP-2, WP-3, WP-4), and in five sediment layers (1cm-, 3cm-, 6cm-, 10cm-, 12cm- layer) of the 12-cm sediment core of WP-0 were checked and compared. The microbial diversity in the five deep-sea sediments were similar as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and all of them contained members of non-thermophilic marine group I crenarchaeota as the predominant archaeal group. The composition of methylotrophs including methanotrophs, sulfate reducing bacteria in the WP-0 sediment core were further investigated by molecular marker based analysis of mxaF, pmoA, dsrAB, specific anoxic methane oxidation archaeal and sulfate reducing bacterial 16S rRNA genes. From MxaF amino acid sequence analysis, it was demonstrated that microbes belonging to α - Proteobacteria most related to Hyphomicrobium and Methylobacterium were dominant aerobic methylotrophs in this deep-sea sediment; and small percentage of type II methanotrophs affiliating closest to Methylocystis and Methylosinus were also detected in this environment. mxaF quantitative PCR results showed that in the west Pacific WP sediment there existed around 3× 10 4-5 methylotrophs per gram sediment, 10-100 times more than that in samples collected from several other deep-sea Pacific sediment sample, but about 10 times less than that present in samples collected from rice and flower garden soil. Diverse groups of novel archaea (named as WPA), not belonging to any known archaeal lineages were checked out. They could be placed in the euryarchaeota kingdom, separated into two distinct groups, the main group was peripherally related with methanogens, the other group related with Thermoplasma. Possible sulfate reducing bacterial related with Desulfotomaculum, Desulfacinum, Desulfomonile and Desulfanuticus were also detected in our study. The vertical distributions of WPA

  18. The origins of phagocytosis and eukaryogenesis

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    Wolf Yuri I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phagocytosis, that is, engulfment of large particles by eukaryotic cells, is found in diverse organisms and is often thought to be central to the very origin of the eukaryotic cell, in particular, for the acquisition of bacterial endosymbionts including the ancestor of the mitochondrion. Results Comparisons of the sets of proteins implicated in phagocytosis in different eukaryotes reveal extreme diversity, with very few highly conserved components that typically do not possess readily identifiable prokaryotic homologs. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analysis of those proteins for which such homologs do exist yields clues to the possible origin of phagocytosis. The central finding is that a subset of archaea encode actins that are not only monophyletic with eukaryotic actins but also share unique structural features with actin-related proteins (Arp 2 and 3. All phagocytic processes are strictly dependent on remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of branched filaments for which Arp2/3 are responsible. The presence of common structural features in Arp2/3 and the archaeal actins suggests that the common ancestors of the archaeal and eukaryotic actins were capable of forming branched filaments, like modern Arp2/3. The Rho family GTPases that are ubiquitous regulators of phagocytosis in eukaryotes appear to be of bacterial origin, so assuming that the host of the mitochondrial endosymbiont was an archaeon, the genes for these GTPases come via horizontal gene transfer from the endosymbiont or in an earlier event. Conclusion The present findings suggest a hypothetical scenario of eukaryogenesis under which the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes had no cell wall (like modern Thermoplasma but had an actin-based cytoskeleton including branched actin filaments that allowed this organism to produce actin-supported membrane protrusions. These protrusions would facilitate accidental, occasional engulfment of bacteria, one of which

  19. The Geobiochemistry of Methanogen Proteins

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    Prasad, A.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    be performing a structural role [2]. These findings suggest that adaptation of microbes to their geochemical environment is accompanied by minimization of the energetic costs of protein biosynthesis, which can be tested further by including methanogens in other environments like hot springs, submarine hydrothermal vents and peatlands. Comparative analyses will reveal which proteins and protein regions follow this energy-minimization strategy and which are excluded. It will then be possible to characterize proteins in terms of the extent to which their sequences are influenced by external geochemical forces. 1. Dick, J. M. (2008). Calculation of the relative metastabilities of proteins using the CHNOSZ software package. Geochem. Trans, 9(10). DOI: 10.1186/1467-4866-9-10. 2. Zwickl P., Grziwa A., Puehler G., Dahlmann B., Lottspeich F. and Baumeister W. (1992) Primary structure of the Thermoplasma proteasome and its implications for the structure, function, and evolution of the multicatalytic proteinase. Biochemistry 31, 964-972. DOI: 10.1021/bi00119a004.

  20. Microbial Communities and a Novel Symbiotic Interaction in Extremely Acidic Mine Drainage at Iron Mountain, California

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    Baker, B. J.; Banfield, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Culture-independent studies of microbial communities in the acid mine drainage (AMD) system associated with the Richmond ore body at Iron Mountain, CA, demonstrated that the total number of prokaryote lineages is small compared to other environments. Phylogenetic analyses of 232 small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from six clone libraries revealed some novel lines of descent. Many of the novel clones were from libraries constructed from subaerial biofilms associated with fine grained pyrite. The clones form several distinct groups within the order Thermoplasmatales and are most closely related to Ferroplasma spp. and Thermoplasma spp. Another novel group detected in a pH 1.4 pool and a pH 0.8 biofilm falls within the Rickettsiales (alpha-proteobacteria and related to mitochondria) and is most closely related to a-proteobacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. An oligonucleotide rRNA probe designed to target alpha-proteobacteria revealed that these are protist endosymbionts, and that they are associated with a small percentage (2%) of the total eukaryotes in samples from the Richmond mine. Measurements of the internal pH of these protists show that their cytosol is close to neutral. Thus, protists provide a habitat within the AMD system that is at least 5 pH units less acidic than the surroundings. The uncultured AMD endosymbionts have a conserved 273 nucleotide intervening sequence (IVS) in the variable V1 region of their 16S rRNA gene. The IVS does not match any sequence in current databases, but predicted secondary structure form well defined stem loops. The discovery of inserts within a highly conserved gene is extremely rare. At present we have not identified the protist host. However, it is interesting to note that protists previously shown to have a-proteobacterial endosymbionts possess 18S rRNA genes that contain both IVSs and group I introns. The possibility that the IVS in the AMD bacteria is a result of extensive genetic exchange between a