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Sample records for eurotrans proton driver

  1. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  2. Physics at a new Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    In 2004, motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics, the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future. At the end of 2004 the APS ''Study on the Physics of Neutrinos'' concluded that the future US neutrino program should have, as one of its components, ''A proton driver in the megawatt class or above and neutrino superbeam with an appropriate very large detector capable of observing Cp violation and measuring the neutrino mass-squared differences and mixing parameters with high precision''. The presently proposed Fermilab Proton Driver is designed to accomplish these goals, and is based on, and would help develop, Linear Collider technology. In this paper the Proton Driver parameters are summarized, and the potential physics program is described.

  3. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  4. EURISOL 100 kW Target Stations Operation and Implications for its Proton Driver Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Lettry, Jacques; Lindroos, Mats; Stora, Thierry

    EURISOL, the next European radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility calls for the development of target and ion source assemblies to dissipate deposited heat and to extract and ionize isotopes of interest efficiently. The EURISOL 100 kW direct targets should be designed for a goal lifetime of up to three weeks. Target operation from the moment it is installed on a target station until its exhaustion involves several phases with specific proton beam intensity requirements. This paper discusses operation of the 100 kW targets within the ongoing EURISOL Design Study, with an emphasis on the requirements for the proton driver beam.

  5. A first analysis of 3-bunches and 1-bunch scenario for the SPL based Proton Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M

    2008-01-01

    The SPL based proton driver for a future neutrino factory has been proposed and studied. The use of the SPL proton driver requires an accumulator and an compressor for forming the output time structure required for the neutrino factory. While the number of bunches per burst could be varied in a range of 1-6, it is preferred to be as small as possible for the muon accelerators and storage ring. Thus a scenario of fewer number of bunches is discussed in this note based on the results from the study of 6-bunches scenario. The new scenario enables to have two operation modes, 3-bunches and 1-bunch, using the same accumulator and compressor. Although not everything is covered in this first analysis, the 3-bunches and 1-bunch scenario seems achievable.

  6. Space charge and beam stability issues of the Fermilab proton driver in Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Y. Ng

    2001-08-24

    Issues concerning beam stability of the proposed Fermilab Proton Driver are studied in its Phase I. Although the betatron tune shifts are dominated by space charge, these shifts are less than 0.25 and will therefore not drive the symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the beam envelope into instability. The longitudinal space charge force is large and inductive inserts may be needed to compensate for the distortion of the rf potential. Although the longitudinal impedance is space charge dominated, it will not drive any microwave instability, unless the real part of the impedance coming from the inductive inserts and wall resistivity of the beam tube are large enough. The design of the beam tube is therefore very important in order to limit the flow of eddy current and keep wall resistivity low. The transverse impedance is also space charge dominated. With the Proton Driver operated at an imaginary transition gamma, however, Landau damping will never be canceled and beam stability can be maintained with negative chromaticities.

  7. A Family of L-band SRF Cavities for High Power Proton Driver Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Rimmer, Frank Marhauser

    2009-05-01

    Recent global interest in high duty factor or CW superconducting linacs with high average beam power highlights the need for robust and reliable SRF structures capable of delivering high average RF power to the beam with moderate HOM damping, low interception of halo and good efficiency. Potential applications include proton or H- drivers for spallation neutron sources, neutrino physics, waste transmutation, subcritical reactors, and high-intensity high-energy physics experiments. We describe a family of SRF cavities with a range of Betas capable of transporting beam currents in excess of 10 mA CW with large irises for minimal interception of halo and HOM and power couplers capable of supporting high average power operation. Goals include an efficient cell shape, high packing factor for efficient real-estate gradient and strong HOM damping to ensure stable beam operation,

  8. Towards the optimal energy of the proton driver for a neutrino factory and muon collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Strait

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cross section data from the HARP experiment for pion production by protons from a tantalum target have been convoluted with the acceptance of the front-end channel for the proposed neutrino factory or muon collider and integrated over the full phase space measured by HARP, to determine the beam-energy dependence of the muon yield. This permits a determination of the optimal beam energy for the proton driver for these projects. The cross section data are corrected for the beam-energy dependent amplification due to the development of hadronic showers in a thick target. The conclusion is that, for constant beam power, the yield is maximum for a beam energy of about 7 GeV, but it is within 10% of this maximum for 4

  9. Study of a power coupler for superconducting RF cavities used in high intensity proton accelerator; Etude et developpement d'un coupleur de puissance pour les cavites supraconductrices destinees aux accelerateurs de protons de haute intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souli, M

    2007-07-15

    The coaxial power coupler needed for superconducting RF cavities used in the high energy section of the EUROTRANS driver should transmit 150 kW (CW operation) RF power to the protons beam. The calculated RF and dielectric losses in the power coupler (inner and outer conductor, RF window) are relatively high. Consequently, it is necessary to design very carefully the cooling circuits in order to remove the generated heat and to ensure stable and reliable operating conditions for the coupler cavity system. After calculating all type of losses in the power coupler, we have designed and validated the inner conductor cooling circuit using numerical simulations results. We have also designed and optimized the outer conductor cooling circuit by establishing its hydraulic and thermal characteristics. Next, an experiment dedicated to study the thermal interaction between the power coupler and the cavity was successfully performed at CRYOHLAB test facility. The critical heat load Qc for which a strong degradation of the cavity RF performance was measured leading to Q{sub c} in the range 3 W-5 W. The measured heat load will be considered as an upper limit of the residual heat flux at the outer conductor cold extremity. A dedicated test facility was developed and successfully operated for measuring the performance of the outer conductor heat exchanger using supercritical helium as coolant. The test cell used reproduces the realistic thermal boundary conditions of the power coupler mounted on the cavity in the cryo-module. The first experimental results have confirmed the excellent performance of the tested heat exchanger. The maximum residual heat flux measured was 60 mW for a 127 W thermal load. As the RF losses in the coupler are proportional to the incident RF power, we can deduce that the outer conductor heat exchanger performance is continued up to 800 kW RF power. Heat exchanger thermal conductance has been identified using a 2D axisymmetric thermal model by comparing

  10. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  11. DRIVER INATTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  12. Mesures de taux de production d'éléments gazeux et volatiles lors de réactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles épaisses de plomb-bismuth liquides

    CERN Document Server

    Tall, Yoro

    2008-01-01

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6th Euratom Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target which one molten lead-bismuth concept is studied by the SUBATECH (physique SUBAtomique et des TECHnologies associées) laboratory in Nantes. The irradiation of molten lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-b...

  13. Driver circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Raymond T. (Inventor); Higashi, Stanley T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A driver circuit which has low power requirements, a relatively small number of components and provides flexibility in output voltage setting. The driver circuit comprises, essentially, two portions which are selectively activated by the application of input signals. The output signal is determined by which of the two circuit portions is activated. While each of the two circuit portions operates in a manner similar to silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR), the circuit portions are on only when an input signal is supplied thereto.

  14. Protonated nitrosamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, H.; Carlsen, L.; Øgaard Madsen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The protonated nitrosamide, NH3NO+, has been generated by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Although a direct search for this species in ammonia flames has proved negative, fast proton transfer to major flame constituents is supported experimentally as well as by MO calculations....

  15. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy is one of the most precise and advanced forms of radiation treatment available. How Proton Therapy is Delivered The patient is positioned on a table with a head frame or face mask covering the head. As the cyclotron smashes atoms, the protons released are directed toward ...

  16. Proton interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Energetic proton beams may provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because: they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and proton beams can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections for delayed neutrons and gamma-rays using the 800 MeV proton beam from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Results will be presented.

  17. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  18. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  19. Proton scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This note presents analytic estimates of the performance of proton beams in remote surveillance for nuclear materials. The analysis partitions the analysis into the eight steps used by a companion note: (1) Air scattering, (2) Neutron production in the ship and cargo, (3) Target detection probability, (4) Signal produced by target, (5) Attenuation of signal by ship and cargo, (6) Attenuation of signal by air, (7) Geometric dilution, and (8) Detector Efficiency. The above analyses indicate that the dominant air scattering and loss mechanisms for particle remote sensing are calculable with reliable and accepted tools. They make it clear that the conversion of proton beams into neutron sources rapidly goes to completion in all but thinnest targets, which means that proton interrogation is for all purposes executed by neutrons. Diffusion models and limiting approximations to them are simple and credible - apart from uncertainty over the cross sections to be used in them - and uncertainty over the structure of the vessels investigated. Multiplication is essentially unknown, in part because it depends on the details of the target and its shielding, which are unlikely to be known in advance. Attenuation of neutron fluxes on the way out are more complicated due to geometry, the spectrum of fission neutrons, and the details of their slowing down during egress. The attenuation by air is large but less uncertain. Detectors and technology are better known. The overall convolution of these effects lead to large but arguably tolerable levels of attenuation of input beams and output signals. That is particularly the case for small, mobile sensors, which can more than compensate for size with proximity to operate reliably while remaining below flux limits. Overall, the estimates used here appear to be of adequate accuracy for decisions. That assessment is strengthened by their agreement with companion calculations.

  20. National Driver Register (NDR) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  1. Driver beam-led EURISOL target design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Catherall, Richard; Kadi, Yacine; Kharoua, Cyril; Lettry, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The EURISOL (European Isotope Separation Online) Design Study is addressing new high power target design challenges. A three-step method [1] was proposed to split the high power linac proton driver beam into one $H^{-}$ branch for the 4 $MW_{b}$ [2] mercury target that produces radioactive ion beams (RIB) via spallation neutroninduced fission in a secondary actinide target and three 100 $kW_{b}$ $H^{+}$ branches for the direct targets producing RIBs via fragmentation and spallation reactions. This scheme minimises transient thermo-mechanical stresses on targets and preserves the cw nature of the driver beam in the four branches. The heat load for oxides, carbides, refractory metal foils and liquid metals is driven by the incident proton driver beam while for actinides, exothermic fission reactions are an additional contribution. This paper discusses the constraints that are specific to each class of material and the target design strategies.

  2. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  3. Proton movies

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A humorous short film made by three secondary school students received an award at a Geneva film festival. Even without millions of dollars or Hollywood stars at your disposal, it is still possible to make a good science fiction film about CERN. That is what three students from the Collège Madame de Staël in Carouge, near Geneva, demonstrated. For their amateur short film on the LHC, they were commended by the jury of the video and multimedia festival for schools organised by the "Media in education" service of the Canton of Geneva’s Public Education Department. The film is a spoof of a television news report on the LHC start-up. In sequences full of humour and imagination, the reporter conducts interviews with a very serious "Professor Sairne", some protons preparing for their voyage and even the neutrons that were rejected by the LHC. "We got the idea of making a film about CERN at the end of the summer," explains Lucinda Päsche, one of the three students. "We did o...

  4. Internet driver education study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Incorporating technology through online courses, including drivers education (DE), is the wave of the future for : learning. While many states allow online DE as an accepted method of learning, Wisconsin currently only allows it on a : limited bas...

  5. NEW SYSTEM, NEW DRIVERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL ELJAIEK

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seated out as objective to locate the discourses that the users of Transmilenio use to contribute to theconstruction of the identity of the system´s driver, considering that such discourses give account of the work identitiesconstructed from the practice of the driver. The work was made with written texts and oral stories (telephoneinterviews of users of the Transmilenio system, which used the Call Center of the organization in the lapse of oneweek, in order to inform about the drivers´ performance. The technique of Discourse Analysis was used to identify thediscourses of the users, which were then used to analyze the political implications that they have in the construction ofa part of the identity of the drivers.

  6. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  7. Evaluating driver drowsiness countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, John G; Brown, Timothy L; Schwarz, Chris W; Lee, John D; Kang, Julie; Higgins, James S

    2017-05-29

    Driver drowsiness contributes to a substantial number of fatal and nonfatal crashes, with recent estimates attributing up to 21% of fatal crashes to drowsiness. This article describes recent NHTSA research on in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures. Recent advances in technology and state detection algorithms have shown success in detecting drowsiness using a variety of data sources, including camera-based eye tracking, steering wheel position, yaw rate, and vehicle lane position. However, detection is just the first step in reducing drowsy driving crashes. Countermeasures are also needed to provide feedback to the driver, modify driver behavior, and prevent crashes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures in reducing drowsy lane departures. The tested countermeasures included different warning modalities in either a discrete or staged interface. Data were collected from 72 young adult drivers (age 21-32) in the high-fidelity full-motion National Advanced Driving Simulator. Drivers completed a 45-min simulated nighttime drive at 2 time points, late night and early morning, where drowsiness was manipulated by continuous hours awake. Forty-eight drivers were exposed to one of 6 countermeasures that varied along 2 dimensions, type and modality. The countermeasures relied on a steering-based drowsiness detection algorithm developed in prior NHTSA research. Twenty-four drivers received no countermeasure and were used as a baseline comparison. System effectiveness was measured by lane departures and standard deviation in lateral position (SDLP). There was a reduction in drowsy lane departure frequency and lane position variability for drivers with countermeasures compared to the baseline no-countermeasure group. Importantly, the data suggest that multistage alerts, which provide an indication of increasing urgency, were more effective in reducing drowsy lane departures than single-stage discrete alerts, particularly

  8. Graduated Driver Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Allen, Siobhan; Armstrong, Kerry; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Davey, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group. PMID:25364543

  9. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  10. CrossRef Neutrino factory proton driver and target design

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, Roland; Thomason, John; Davenne, Tristan; Caretta, Ottone; Back, John J

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinos are very elusive particles belonging to the lepton family. They exist in different types corresponding to the different charged leptons, namely electrons, muons and taus. Contrary to electrons, neutrinos hardly interact with matter which makes them very difficult to detect and study. To the best of today’s knowledge, neutrinos have hardly any mass and they can change from one type to another (so-called “neutrino oscillation”). Most physicists think that this oscillation occurs because neutrinos have mass. A Neutrino Factory [1] is a special facility producing a large amount of neutrinos every year (typically 10$^{21}$ neutrinos/year). Its main purpose is to study the change of type of neutrinos between the place where they are generated and a remote location. In a Neutrino Factory, neutrinos result from the decay of muons, unstable particles with a mean lifetime of 2.2 $\\mu$s in their rest frame. Sharp beams of high energy neutrinos are obtained at the end of the long straight sections of a mu...

  11. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  12. Proton pump inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a ...

  13. Proton: The Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  14. Proton: the particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Seven Performance Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Recent work with automotive e-commerce clients led to the development of a performance analysis methodology called the Seven Performance Drivers, including: standards, incentives, capacity, knowledge and skill, measurement, feedback, and analysis. This methodology has been highly effective in introducing and implementing performance improvement.…

  16. Beginning teenage drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Teen drivers have the highest crash risk of any age group. Per mile traveled, they have the highest involvement rates in all types of crashes, from those involving only property damage to those that are fatal. The problem is worst among 16 year-olds,...

  17. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  18. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  19. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  20. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  1. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  2. A Fast 650V Chopper Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Paoluzzi, M M

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of Linac4 and the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) studies at CERN, the design for a beam chopper has been carried out1. The chopper is basically a kicker that deviates part of the beam towards a dump. It is made of two 50 , slow wave lines facing each other, matching the beam velocity and driven with a minimum of 500 V. Due to the bunch spacing of 2.84 ns, a system rise and fall time (3 %-90 %) below 2.5 ns is required with pulse lengths ranging from 8 ns to hundreds of μs. Although different solutions for the driver amplifier where devised in the past, none of the achievements was entirely satisfactory. This paper describes a new design and prototype that meets all the required specifications.

  3. Education and driver-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the driver are manifested in his/her behaviour. For safe driving one must have a driver's knowledge. The contents of educational material are determined by law, and are both theoretical and practical, yet frequently they do not suffice to meet the requirements of safe driving. In this paper, the author suggests that, in the training of drivers, more educational elements should be included, such a would have  an effective influence on the driver's moti ves and attitudes. The driver's motives - which may result in incorrect driving­ are diverse: most often, the default is overspeeding, even though the drivers always over-estimate the potential time gain. In fact, over-fast driving is a way of satisfying other, different needs; and, above all, it is a form of compensation for unsettled life problems, and at the same time an indication of the driver's personal inability to cope with stress.

  4. Sleepiness of occupational drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Drowsiness and sleeping at the wheel are now identified as the reasons behind fatal crashes and highway accidents caused by occupational drivers. For many years, fatigue has been associated to risk of accidents but the causes of this symptom were unclear. Extensive or nocturnal driving was associated to accidents but few reports differentiated fatigue from sleepiness. In the early nineties, epidemiological data started investigating sleepiness and sleep deprivation as cause of accidents. Sleepiness at the wheel, sleep restriction and nocturnal driving have been incriminated in 20% of traffic accidents. Drugs affecting the central nervous system (i.e., narcotic analgesics, antihistamine drugs), nocturnal breathing disorders and narcolepsy have been also associated with an increasing risk of accidents. Treatments improving daytime vigilance (i.e., nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) reduce significantly the risk of traffic accidents for a reasonable economical cost. Sleep disorders among occupational drivers need to be systematically investigated. Chronic daytime sleepiness is still under diagnosed and sleep disorders (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) are not enough explored and treated in this exposed population of sedentary males. Drivers education and work schedules integrating notions of sleep hygiene as well as promotion of sleep medicine could significantly improve road safety.

  5. Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In the last five decades, proton–proton and proton–antiproton colliders have been the most powerful tools for high energy physics investigations. They have also deeply catalyzed innovation in accelerator physics and technology. Among the large number of proposed colliders, only four have really succeeded in becoming operational: the ISR, the SppbarS, the Tevatron and the LHC. Another hadron collider, RHIC, originally conceived for ion–ion collisions, has also been operated part-time with polarized protons. Although a vast literature documenting them is available, this paper is intended to provide a quick synthesis of their main features and key performance.

  6. Protons in Jupiter's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodisch, K. M.; Bagenal, F.; Dougherty, L.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind, the icy moons and Jupiter's ionosphere are all potential sources of protons found in the Jovian magnetosphere. In an attempt to quantify the relative importance of these different sources we explore the spatial distribution of density and temperature of the protons in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Through re-analysis of Voyager 1 and 2 Plasma Science (PLS) data obtained between 4 and 40 RJ we produce temperature and density profiles of protons in those regions. By combining profiles of protons and heavy ions (under the assumption of anisotropic Maxwellian distributions) we extrapolate the ion densities along the magnetic field to create global maps of proton density and temperature. Using these models of plasma distributions in the Jovian magnetosphere we predict the proton conditions likely encountered by the Juno spacecraft along its trajectory.

  7. The proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gil

    2017-09-01

    In 2010 the proton charge radius was extracted for the first time from muonic hydrogen, a bound state of a muon and a proton. The value obtained was five standard deviations away from the regular hydrogen extraction. Taken at face value, this might be an indication of a new force in nature coupling to muons, but not to electrons. It also forces to reexamine our understanding of the structure of the proton. In this talk I will describe an ongoing theoretical research effort that seeks to address and resolve this ''proton radius puzzle''. In particular, I will present a reevaluation of the proton structure effects, correcting 40 years of such calculations, and the development of new effective field theoretical tools that would allow to directly connect muonic hydrogen and muon-proton scattering.

  8. Giving Protons a Boost

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first of LHC's superconducting radio-frequency cavity modules has passed its final test at full power in the test area of building SM18. These modules carry an oscillating electric field that will accelerate protons around the LHC ring and help maintain the stability of the proton beams.

  9. Proton-Proton Physics with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the ALICE experiment at LHC is to study strongly interacting matter at high energy densities as well as the signatures and properties of the quark-gluon plasma. This goal manifests itself in a rich physics program. Although ALICE will mainly study heavy-ion collisions, a dedicated program will concentrate on proton-proton physics. The first part will introduce the ALICE experiment from a pp measurement's point of view. Two unique properties are its low pT cut-off and the excellent PID capabilities. The various topics of the proton-proton physics program, which will allow a close scrutiny of existing theoretical models, will be described. Furthermore, the interpretation of measurements of heavy-ion collisions necessitates the comparison to measurements of pp collisions. The second part will concentrate on the day-1 physics program of ALICE. At startup, neither the LHC luminosity nor its energy will have their nominal values. Furthermore, the ALICE detector is in the process of being aligned and cal...

  10. Screening Approach to the Activation of Soil and Contamination of Groundwater at Linear Proton Accelerator Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, Thomas

    The activation of soil and the contamination of groundwater at proton accelerator sites with the radionuclides 3H and 22Na are estimated with a Monte-Carlo calculation and a conservative soil- and ground water model. The obtained radionuclide concentrations show that the underground environment of future accelerators must be adequately protected against a migration of activation products. This study is of particular importance for the proton driver accelerator in the planned EURISOL facility.

  11. Motorcoach Driver Fatigue Study, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Eighty-four commercial motorcoach drivers participated in a month-long study of duty start time, total duty time, total sleep time per 24 hours, with sleepiness, fatigue, and performance measured as they were going on and off duty. Drivers worked the...

  12. Forecasting E > 50-MeV proton events with the proton prediction system (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Stephen W.; White, Stephen M.; Ling, Alan G.

    2017-11-01

    Forecasting solar energetic (E > 10-MeV) particle (SEP) events is an important element of space weather. While several models have been developed for use in forecasting such events, satellite operations are particularly vulnerable to higher-energy (≥50-MeV) SEP events. Here we validate one model, the proton prediction system (PPS), which extends to that energy range. We first develop a data base of E ≥ 50-MeV proton events >1.0 proton flux units (pfu) events observed on the GOES satellite over the period 1986-2016. We modify the PPS to forecast proton events at the reduced level of 1 pfu and run PPS for four different solar input parameters: (1) all ≥M5 solar X-ray flares; (2) all ≥200 sfu 8800-MHz bursts with associated ≥M5 flares; (3) all ≥500 sfu 8800-MHz bursts; and (4) all ≥5000 sfu 8800-MHz bursts. The validation contingency tables and skill scores are calculated for all groups and used as a guide to use of the PPS. We plot the false alarms and missed events as functions of solar source longitude, and argue that the longitude-dependence employed by PPS does not match modern observations. Use of the radio fluxes as the PPS driver tends to result in too many false alarms at the 500 sfu threshold, and misses more events than the soft X-ray predictor at the 5000 sfu threshold.

  13. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  14. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  15. Lorentz contracted proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro, D. Bedoya; Kelkar, N.G.; Nowakowski, M. [Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1E No. 18A-10, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia)

    2015-09-30

    The proton charge and magnetization density distributions can be related to the well known Sachs electromagnetic form factors G{sub E,M}(/emph {q}{sup 2}) through Fourier transforms, only in the Breit frame. The Breit frame however moves with relativistic velocities in the Lab and a Lorentz boost must be applied before extracting the static properties of the proton from the corresponding densities. Apart from this, the Fourier transform relating the densities and form factors is inherently a non-relativistic expression. We show that the relativistic corrections to it can be obtained by extending the standard Breit equation to higher orders in its 1/c{sup 2} expansion. We find that the inclusion of the above corrections reduces the size of the proton as determined from electron proton scattering data by about 4%.

  16. Inauguration of Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    On 5 February 1960, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) was formally inaugurated. The great Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, releases a bottle of champagne against a shielding block to launch the PS on its voyage in physics.

  17. Proton computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of protons or other heavy charged particles instead of x rays in computed tomography (CT) is explored. The results of an experimental implementation of proton CT are presented. High quality CT reconstructions are obtained at an average dose reduction factor compared with an EMI 5005 x-ray scanner of 10:1 for a 30-cm-diameter phantom and 3.5:1 for a 20-cm diameter. The spatial resolution is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering to about 3.7 mm FWHM. Further studies are planned in which proton and x-ray images of fresh human specimens will be compared. Design considerations indicate that a clinically useful proton CT scanner is eminently feasible.

  18. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  19. Jovian proton aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, M. G.; Edgar, B. C.; Green, A. E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Auroral and polar cap emissions in a model Jovian atmosphere are determined for proton precipitation. The incident protons, which are characterized by representative spectra, are degraded in energy by applying the continuous slowing down approximation. All secondary and higher generation electrons are assumed to be absorbed locally and their contributions to the total emissions are included. Volume emission rates are calculated from the total direct excitation rates with corrections for cascading applied. Results show that most molecular hydrogen and helium emissions for polar cap precipitation are below the ambient dayglow values. Charge capture by precipitating protons is an important source of Lyman alpha and Balmer alpha emissions and offers a key to the detection of large fluxes of low energy protons.

  20. Proton conduction in phosphatidylethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, N; Gonda, K; Kagami, I; Koga, S

    1977-08-01

    The dc conductivity of polycrystalline phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was measured in the temperature range 60-120 degrees C. Since no conclusive evidence had so far been obtained for the presence of proteon conduction in this phospholipid, hydrogen gas was shown in the present experiment to evolve during the electrolysis in its premelted state between 91 and 124 degrees C. In this temperature range molecules assume rotation around the molecular axes and proton conduction of the Grotthus type takes place possibly along two chains of intermolecular hydrogen bonds running in parallel. Zwitter-ions behave cooperatively as proton donors and acceptors in transferring proton from molecule and molecule via the hydrogen bond networks. This efficient push-pull way of proton transferring seems to account for the fact that no polarization was observed in the dc conduction experiments. The amount of devolved gas appears to be not exactly in accordance with Faraday's law and discussions are made on possible causes for this slight deviation.

  1. The Proton Radius Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downie E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton radius puzzle is the difference between the proton radius as measured with electron scattering and in the excitation spectrum of atomic hydrogen, and that measured with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. Since the inception of the proton radius puzzle in 2010 by the measurement of Pohl et al.[1], many possible resolutions to the puzzle have been postulated, but, to date, none has been generally accepted. New data are therefore necessary to resolve the issue. We briefly review the puzzle, the proposed solutions, and the new electron scattering and spectroscopy experiments planned and underway. We then introduce the MUSE experiment, which seeks to resolve the puzzle by simultaneously measuring elastic electron and muon scattering on the proton, in both charge states, thereby providing new information to the puzzle. MUSE addresses issues of two-photon effects, lepton universality and, possibly, new physics, while providing simultaneous form factor, and therefore radius, measurements with both muons and electrons.

  2. HOM Dampers or not in Superconducting RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  3. HOM Dampers or not in SUPERCONDUCTING RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  4. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  5. The physics of proton therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Newhauser, Wayne D; ZHANG, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes a...

  6. Rosalind Driver studentships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The School of Education at King's College London can now offer funded studentships to those wishing to undertake research in science education. These studentships, which are funded through the generous benefaction of the late Rosalind Driver, can be for a full-time student (over a maximum of three years) or several part-time students (a maximum of six years). Applications from anyone working in science education are welcome but preference will be given to those originating from practising science teachers. Applicants will be expected to register for the award of a MPhil/PhD or EdD and are normally expected to have a first degree. Preliminary ideas about a topic for investigation would also be helpful. Further details and application forms are obtainable from Chiz Dube, School of Education, King's College London, Franklin - Wilkins Building, Waterloo Road, London SE1 8WA (tel: 020-7848-3089, e-mail: chiz.dube@kcl.ac.uk). The deadline for the first round of applications was the middle of October, but preliminary informal enquiries may be made to Dr Jonathan Osborne at the School of Education (tel: 020-7848-3094, e-mail: jonathan.osborne@kcl.ac.uk).

  7. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  8. Roundabout design and elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Many drivers are apprehensive to accept a roundabout as a viable form of intersection, but their : safety and mobility benefits are increasing their popularity among designers. This thesis is an indepth study of a specific approach at a roundabout in...

  9. Older-driver foot movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study explored how drivers 60 and older control the accelerator and brake while driving and parking. It built upon : the findings of a study documenting the prevalence and characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes : (Lococo, S...

  10. Journal of Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each published articleFree access to published articles for all readers without any access barriers or subscriptionThe views and opinions expressed in articles are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Journal of Proton Therapy.Authors are encouraged to submit articles for publication in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Proton Therapy by online or email to editor@protonjournal.comOfficial Website of Journal of Proton Therapy: http://www.protonjournal.org/

  11. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch-Pedersen, M J; Pedersen, B P; Veierskov, B; Nissen, P; Palmgren, M G

    2009-01-01

    The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded ATPases extrude protons from cells of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. The recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Taking the biochemical and structural data together, we are now able to describe the basic molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological proton pumps emerge. Most notably, the minimal pumping apparatus of all pumps consists of a central proton acceptor/donor, a positively charged residue to control pK(a) changes of the proton acceptor/donor, and bound water molecules to facilitate rapid proton transport along proton wires.

  12. Proton relativistic model; Modelo relativistico do proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1995-12-31

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author) 42 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 49 CFR 380.109 - Driver testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver testing. 380.109 Section 380.109....109 Driver testing. (a) Testing methods. The driver-student must pass knowledge and skills tests in... LCV driver-instructor. (d) Guidance for testing methods and proficiency determinations. Motor carriers...

  14. The physics of proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-21

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  15. The physics of proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  16. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Nissen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded ATPases extrude protons from cells...... of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. The recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Taking the biochemical and structural data together, we are now able to describe the basic...... molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological...

  17. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  18. Proton Radiography (pRad)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose more than 300 dynamic experiments in support...

  19. Proton therapy in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

  20. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  1. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Proton-pump inhibitors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) work by binding irreversibly to the. H+/K+-ATPase pump of the parietal cell, leading to inhibition of acid production in approximately 70% of active pumps.1The result is a dramatic increase in gastric pH mitigating the deleterious effects of acid in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and.

  3. Proton transfer events in GFP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Donato, M.; van Wilderen, L.J.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Stuart, T. C.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Proton transfer is one of the most important elementary processes in biology. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) serves as an important model system to elucidate the mechanistic details of this reaction, because in GFP proton transfer can be induced by light absorption. Illumination initiates proton

  4. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamonti, C., E-mail: cinzia.talamonti@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Reggioli, V. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Menichelli, D. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-01-11

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  5. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  6. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  7. Report of the Snowmass M6 Working Group on high intensity proton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiren Chou and J. Wei

    2002-08-20

    The U.S. high-energy physics program needs an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver (PD), by the end of this decade. This machine will serve as a stand-alone facility that will provide neutrino superbeams and other high intensity secondary beams such as kaons, muons, neutrons, and anti-protons (cf. E1 and E5 group reports) and also serve as the first stage of a neutrino factory (cf. M1 group report). It can also be a high brightness source for a VLHC. Based on present accelerator technology and project construction experience, it is both feasible and cost-effective to construct a 1-4 MW Proton Driver. Two recent PD design studies have been made, one at FNAL and the other at the BNL. Both designed PD's for 1 MW proton beams at a cost of about U.S. $200M (excluding contingency and overhead) and both designs were upgradeable to 4 MW. An international collaboration between FNAL, BNL and KEK on high intensity proton facilities is addressing a number of key design issues. The superconducting (sc) RF cavities, cryogenics, and RF controls developed for the SNS can be directly adopted to save R&D efforts, cost, and schedule. PD studies are also actively being pursued at Europe and Japan.

  8. Biological drivers of zooplankton patchiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folt; Burns

    1999-08-01

    Until recently, biological drivers of plankton aggregation were under-appreciated, because most studies concentrated on physical processes. New technological advances, novel experiments and theory have shifted focus to the pivotal role of behaviour in plankton patch dynamics. Our review highlights four biological drivers of zooplankton spatial patchiness and brings together recent research on well studied marine and freshwater taxa, primarily copepods and cladocerans. Diverse and powerful behavioural responses by zooplankton to physical and chemical signals are shown to contribute to the formation and breakdown of zooplankton patches over several different spatial scales.

  9. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the largest passenger loads, i.e. bus drivers.[6]. To address these challenges, practical interventions are required, especially to promote the child's safe travel to and from school in SA and further afield. These include the protection of vehicle occupants by means of functioning seat belts and use thereof, airbag use and.

  10. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa (SA), the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of ...

  11. Antideuteron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Duperray, R. P.; K. V. Protasov; Voronin, A. Yu.(P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 53 Leninsky Prospekt, 117924 Moscow, Russia)

    2002-01-01

    The experimental data of the antideuteron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions are analyzed within a simple model based on the diagrammatic approach to the coalescence model. This model is shown to be able to reproduce most of existing data without any additional parameter.

  12. Proton therapy in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaney, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    The clinical advantage for proton radiotherapy over photon approaches is the marked reduction in integral dose to the patient, due to the absence of exit dose beyond the proton Bragg peak. The integral dose with protons is approximately 60% lower than that with any external beam photon technique. Pediatric patients, because of their developing normal tissues and anticipated length of remaining life, are likely to have the maximum clinical gain with the use of protons. Proton therapy may also allow treatment of some adult tumors to much more effective doses, because of normal tissue sparing distal to the tumor. Currently, the most commonly available proton treatment technology uses 3D conformal approaches based on (a) distal range modulation, (b) passive scattering of the proton beam in its x- and y-axes, and (c) lateral beam-shaping. It is anticipated that magnetic pencil beam scanning will become the dominant mode of proton delivery in the future, which will lower neutron scatter associated with passively scattered beam lines, reduce the need for expensive beam-shaping devices, and allow intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy. Proton treatment plans are more sensitive to variations in tumor size and normal tissue changes over the course of treatment than photon plans, and it is expected that adaptive radiation therapy will be increasingly important for proton therapy as well. While impressive treatment results have been reported with protons, their cost is higher than for photon IMRT. Hence, protons should ideally be employed for anatomic sites and tumors not well treated with photons. While protons appear cost-effective for pediatric tumors, their cost-effectiveness for treatment of some adult tumors, such as prostate cancer, is uncertain. Comparative studies have been proposed or are in progress to more rigorously assess their value for a variety of sites. The utility of proton therapy will be enhanced by technological developments that reduce its cost

  13. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ and ...... problematic groups of the population in the attempt to improve road safety nationwide....... others, as well as heterogeneity across the population was observed. The present findings highlight the need to look into driver’s attitudes towards safety, in order to improve the motivation to drive safely. Information from this study is useful for interventions to be able to target specific...

  14. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well...

  15. Fast proton decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

    2010-10-01

    We consider proton decay in the testable flipped SU(5)×U(1)X models with TeV-scale vector-like particles which can be realized in free fermionic string constructions and F-theory model building. We significantly improve upon the determination of light threshold effects from prior studies, and perform a fresh calculation of the second loop for the process p→eπ from the heavy gauge boson exchange. The cumulative result is comparatively fast proton decay, with a majority of the most plausible parameter space within reach of the future Hyper-Kamiokande and DUSEL experiments. Because the TeV-scale vector-like particles can be produced at the LHC, we predict a strong correlation between the most exciting particle physics experiments of the coming decade.

  16. The proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognini, A.; Amaro, F. D.; Biraben, F.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Covita, D. S.; Dax, A.; Dhawan, S.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Giesen, A.; Graf, T.; Hänsch, T. W.; Indelicato, P.; Julien, L.; Kao, C.-Y.; Knowles, P.; Kottmann, F.; Le Bigot, E.-O.; Liu, Y.-W.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Ludhova, L.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mulhauser, F.; Nebel, T.; Nez, F.; Rabinowitz, P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Schaller, L. A.; Schuhmann, K.; Schwob, C.; Taqqu, D.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Pohl, R.

    2011-09-01

    By means of pulsed laser spectroscopy applied to muonic hydrogen (μ- p) we have measured the 2SF = 11/2 - 2PF = 23/2 transition frequency to be 49881.88(76) GHz [1]. By comparing this measurement with its theoretical prediction [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] based on bound-state QED we have determined a proton radius value of rp = 0.84184(67) fm. This new value differs by 5.0 standard deviations from the COD ATA value of 0.8768(69) fm [8], and 3 standard deviation from the e-p scattering results of 0.897(18) fm [9]. The observed discrepancy may arise from a computational mistake of the energy levels in μp or H, or a fundamental problem in bound-state QED, an unknown effect related to the proton or the muon, or an experimental error.

  17. Pion, Kaon, Proton and Antiproton Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Inclusive pion, kaon, proton, and antiproton production from proton-proton collisions is studied at a variety of proton energies. Various available parameterizations of Lorentz-invariant differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity are compared with experimental data. The Badhwar and Alper parameterizations are moderately satisfactory for charged pion production. The Badhwar parameterization provides the best fit for charged kaon production. For proton production, the Alper parameterization is best, and for antiproton production the Carey parameterization works best. However, no parameterization is able to fully account for all the data.

  18. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  19. Heavy quarks in proton

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)655637

    The measurement of prompt photon associated with a b jet in proton-proton interactions can provide us insight into the inner structure of proton. This is because precision of determination of parton distribution functions of b quark and gluon can be increased by such a measurement. The measurement of cross-section of prompt photon associated with a b jet (process $pp\\longrightarrow \\gamma + b + X$) at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector is presented. Full 8 TeV dataset collected by ATLAS during the year 2012 was used in this analysis. Corresponding integrated luminosity is 20.3 $fb^{-1}$. Fiducial differential cross-section as a function of photon transverse momentum at particle level was extracted from data and compared with the prediction of leading order event generator Pythia 8. Cross-section extracted from data is normalised independently on the Monte Carlo prediction. Values of data distribution lie above Monte Carlo values. The difference can be explained by presence of higher order effects not ...

  20. Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald C. Nelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of what the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA calls "indirect and direct drivers" of change in ecosystem services at a global level. The MA definition of a driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem processes. An indirect driver operates more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers. Global driving forces are categorized as demographic, economic, sociopolitical, cultural and religious, scientific and technological, and physical and biological. Drivers in all categories other than physical and biological are considered indirect. Important direct drivers include changes in climate, plant nutrient use, land conversion, and diseases and invasive species. This paper does not discuss natural drivers such as climate variability, extreme weather events, or volcanic eruptions.

  1. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the SBIR program is to develop a new Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver to be used in driver electronics of a deformable...

  2. Managing drivers of innovation in construction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Various drivers of construction innovation are distinguished and classified in four distinctive categories: environmental pressure, technological capability, knowledge exchange, and boundary spanning. Innovation drivers in these categories are active at the transfirm, intrafirm, and interfirm level

  3. Older drivers' foot movements : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study explored how older drivers use their accelerator and : brake pedals, to identify characteristics that could pose an increased : risk of a pedal application error. The study also explored whether : driver-vehicle fit was related to these ch...

  4. Security Threat Assessments for Hazmat Drivers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rothberg, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    ...). This provision seeks to reduce some of the security risks associated with hazardous materials (hazmat) transportation by requiring a security threat assessment of drivers with a hazmat endorsement on their commercial drivers license...

  5. Multi-proton bunch driven hollow plasma wakefield acceleration in the nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangmei; Xia, Guoxing; Lotov, Konstantin V.; Sosedkin, Alexander P.; Hanahoe, Kieran; Mete-Apsimon, Oznur

    2017-10-01

    Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration has been demonstrated in simulations to be capable of accelerating particles to the energy frontier in a single stage, but its potential is hindered by the fact that currently available proton bunches are orders of magnitude longer than the plasma wavelength. Fortunately, proton micro-bunching allows driving plasma waves resonantly. In this paper, we propose using a hollow plasma channel for multiple proton bunch driven plasma wakefield acceleration and demonstrate that it enables the operation in the nonlinear regime and resonant excitation of strong plasma waves. This new regime also involves beneficial features of hollow channels for the accelerated beam (such as emittance preservation and a uniform accelerating field) and long buckets of stable deceleration for the drive beam. The regime is attained at a proper ratio between plasma skin depth, driver radius, hollow channel radius, and micro-bunch period.

  6. [Why proton therapy? And how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariat, Juliette; Habrand, Jean Louis; Lesueur, Paul; Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Kammerer, Emmanuel; Lecomte, Delphine; Batalla, Alain; Balosso, Jacques; Tessonnier, Thomas

    2018-02-05

    Proton therapy is a radiotherapy, based on the use of protons, charged subatomic particles that stop at a given depth depending on their initial energy (pristine Bragg peak), avoiding any output beam, unlike the photons used in most of the other modalities of radiotherapy. Proton therapy has been used for 60 years, but has only become ubiquitous in the last decade because of recent major advances in particle accelerator technology. This article reviews the history of clinical implementation of protons, the nature of the technological advances that now allows its expansion at a lower cost. It also addresses the technical and physical specificities of proton therapy and the clinical situations for which proton therapy may be relevant but requires evidence. Different proton therapy techniques are possible. These are explained in terms of their clinical potential by explaining the current terminology (such as cyclotrons, synchrotrons or synchrocyclotrons, using superconducting magnets, fixed line or arm rotary with passive diffusion delivery or active by scanning) in basic words. The requirements associated with proton therapy are increased due to the precision of the depth dose deposit. The learning curve of proton therapy requires that clinical indications be prioritized according to their associated uncertainties (such as range uncertainties and movement in lung tumors). Many clinical indications potentially fall under proton therapy ultimately. Clinical strategies are explained in a paralleled manuscript. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -haul truck drivers and bus drivers had higher SHR for intervertebral disc disorders (SHR: 133, 95% CI: 114-155/SHR: 141, 95% CI: 129-154, respectively) than other truck drivers (SHR: 109, 95% CI: 102-116). The SHR for carpal tunnel syndrome was high among long-haul drivers (SHR: 163, 95% CI: 101...

  8. Proton Radiography Imager:Generates Synthetic Proton Radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-12

    ProRad is a computer program that is used to generate synthetic images of proton (or other charged particles) radiographs. The proton radiographs arc images that arc obtained by sending energetic protons (or electrons or positrons, for example) through 11 plasma where electric and/or magnetic fields alter the particles trajectory, Dnd the variations me imaged on RC film, image plate, or equivalent

  9. OPTO-22 DRIVER. OPTO-22 Driver for LabView

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-01-28

    OPTO-22 DRIVER consists of a set of LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) virtual instruments (VIs) that handle low-level communications with signal conditioning equipment by Opto-22 (Huntington Beach, CA). The OPTOMUX protocol is support, which requires the use of a serial port and supports multidrop communications. With this package, users can connect hundreds of Opto-22 modules to their LabVIEW system and access all features of the hardware, including analog and digital input and outputs.

  10. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  11. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High risks for locomotor diseases have been reported for bus and truck drivers in general; however, little is known about the specific risks of long-haul truck drivers. METHODS: Standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for different locomotor diseases of bus drivers, long-haul truck...... drivers and other truck drivers were compared with each other and with the general Danish working population. RESULTS: Intervertebral disc disorders were more common among professional drivers (SHR: 119, 95% CI: 114-125) and of similar magnitude for cervical and non-cervical disorders. Both long......-haul truck drivers and bus drivers had higher SHR for intervertebral disc disorders (SHR: 133, 95% CI: 114-155/SHR: 141, 95% CI: 129-154, respectively) than other truck drivers (SHR: 109, 95% CI: 102-116). The SHR for carpal tunnel syndrome was high among long-haul drivers (SHR: 163, 95% CI: 101...

  12. Measurement of small-angle antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos, N.; Block, M.M.; Bobbink, G.J.; Botje, M.A.J.; Favart, D.; Leroy, C.; Linde, F.; Lipnik, P.; Matheys, J-P.; Miller, D.

    1985-01-01

    Antiproton-proton and proton-proton small-angle elastic scattering was measured for centre-of-mass energies at the CERN Intersectung Storage Rings. In addition, proton-proton elastic scattering was measured at . Using the optical theorem, total cross sections are obtained with an accuracy of about

  13. Physics controversies in proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsman, Martijn; Schwarz, Marco; Dong, Lei

    2013-04-01

    The physical characteristics of proton beams are appealing for cancer therapy. The rapid increase in operational and planned proton therapy facilities may suggest that this technology is a "plug-and-play" valuable addition to the arsenal of the radiation oncologist and medical physicist. In reality, the technology is still evolving, so planning and delivery of proton therapy in patients face many practical challenges. This review article discusses the current status of proton therapy treatment planning and delivery techniques, indicates current limitations in dealing with range uncertainties, and proposes possible developments for proton therapy and supplementary technology to try to realize the actual potential of proton therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  15. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  16. Age affects drivers' response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan; Vojvoda, Alenka; Jerman, Janez

    2009-06-01

    In Slovenia the number of drivers over 65 is increasing every year. With age comes a decrease in psychophysical abilities, which include sensory and motoric functions and the ability of processing visual information. These changes increase the response time and decrease the driving capacity. The aim of this study was to establish a correlation between age and response time and to determine the difference in response times between men and women. In the research participated 573 randomly chosen drivers aged 19-80 with a valid driving license. We measured their response times, when stimulated by a red traffic light, on a simulator The results clearly demonstrate that a correlation between age and the response time exists. The results show that a significant increase in response times occurs after the age of 65. In all age groups, except the oldest, women achieved longer response times than men.

  17. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  18. Work engagement: drivers and effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Schelvis, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of work engagement fits into the tradition of positive psychology, a recent paradigm shift in psychology which focuses on mental health rather than mental illness. This article gives an introduction to the concept of work engagement. Different definitions and viewpoints of the work engagement concept are discussed. This article will discuss the drivers of work engagement, as well as the associated effects that work engagement has on the health and wellbeing of workers and organisa...

  19. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  20. Beam dynamics studies on the EURISOL driver accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Facco, A; Paparella, R; Zenere, D; Biarrotte, J. L; Bousson, S; Ponton, A; Berkovits, D; Rodnizki, J; Duperrier, R; Uriot, D; Zvyagintsev, V

    A 1 GeV, 5 mA cw superconducting proton/H- linac, with the capability of supplying cw primary beam to up to four targets simultaneously by means of a new beam splitting scheme, is under study in the framework of the EURISOL DS project which aims to produce an engineering-oriented design of a next generation European Radioactive beam facility. The EURISOL driver accelerator would be able to accelerate also a 100 μA, 3He beam up to 2.2 GeV, and a 5 mA deuteron beam up to 264 MeV. The linac characteristics and the status of the beam dynamics studies will be presented.

  1. Driver competence performance indicators using OTMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan EL Rashidy, R.A.

    2016-07-01

    The current practice for assessing driver competence performance is in-cab riding by driver managers. However, this paper investigates whether real-world driving data extracted from on-train monitoring recorders data (OTMR) can be used to assess the driver performance. A number of indicators were used to evaluate the drivers’ performance. These include: their use of the emergency bypass switch, the driver's reminder appliance as well as the driver’s reaction time. A study case illustrated the applicability of OTMR data to estimate the proposed indicators, which suggests that the indicators can be useful in the driver management system in addition to the current indicators. Furthermore, the proposed indicators could be used to tailor the driver training schemes up to their individual needs and evaluate their effectiveness. They could even be used for improving driver competence performance and reducing crash involvement by revealing potentially detrimental driving performance. (Author)

  2. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  3. Experimental Research in Boost Driver with EDLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    The supply used in servo systems tends to have a high voltage in order to reduce loss and improve the response of motor drives. We propose a new boost motor driver that comprises EDLCs. The proposed driver has a simple structure, wherein the EDLCs are connected in series to the supply, and comprises a charge circuit to charge the EDLCs. The proposed driver has three advantages over conventional boost drivers. The first advantage is that the driver can easily attain the stable boost voltage. The second advantage is that the driver can reduce input power peaks. In a servo system, the input power peaks become greater than the rated power in order to accelerate the motor rapidly. This implies that the equipments that supply power to servo systems must have sufficient power capacity to satisfy the power peaks. The proposed driver can suppress the increase of the power capacity of supply facilities. The third advantage is that the driver can store almost all of the regenerative energy. Conventional drivers have a braking resistor to suppress the increase in the DC link voltage. This causes a considerable reduction in the efficiency. The proposed driver is more efficient than conventional drivers. In this study, the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed driver and showed that the drive performance of the proposed driver is the same as that of a conventional driver. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the results of the simulation of a model of the EDLC module, whose capacitance is dependent on the frequency, correspond well with the experimental results.

  4. Vibrational spectroscopy on protons and deuterons in proton conducting perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, M.; Poulsen, F.W.; Berg, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    A short review of IR-spectroscopy on protons in perovskite structure oxides is given. The nature of possible proton sites, libration and combination tones and degree of hydrogen bonding is emphasised. Three new spectroscopic experiments and/or interpretations are presented. An IR-microscopy exper...

  5. Effects of relativity in proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinus, G.H.; Scholten, O.; Tjon, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the influence of negative-energy states in proton-proton bremsstrahlung in a fully relativistic framework using the T matrix of Fleischer and Tjon. The contribution from negative-energy states in the single-scattering diagrams is shown to be large, indicating that relativistic effects

  6. Proton-proton virtual bremsstrahlung in a relativistic covariant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinus, GH; Scholten, O; Tjon, J

    1999-01-01

    Lepton-pair production (virtual bremsstrahlung) in proton-proton scattering is investigated using a relativistic covariant model. The effects of negative-energy slates and two-body currents are studied. These are shown to have large effects in some particular structure functions, even at the

  7. Electromagnetic off-shell effects in proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondratyuk, S.A.; Martinus, G.H.; Scholten, O.

    1998-01-01

    We study the influence of the off-shell structure of the nucleon electromagnetic vertex on proton-proton bermsstrahlung observables. Realistic choices for the off-shell behavior are found to have considerable influences on observables such as cross sections and analyzing powers. The rescattering

  8. [Proton imaging applications for proton therapy: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, R; Floquet, V; Angellier, G; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Hérault, J

    2015-04-01

    Proton therapy allows a highly precise tumour volume irradiation with a low dose delivered to the healthy tissues. The steep dose gradients observed and the high treatment conformity require a precise knowledge of the proton range in matter and the target volume position relative to the beam. Thus, proton imaging allows an improvement of the treatment accuracy, and thereby, in treatment quality. Initially suggested in 1963, radiographic imaging with proton is still not used in clinical routine. The principal difficulty is the lack of spatial resolution, induced by the multiple Coulomb scattering of protons with nuclei. Moreover, its realization for all clinical locations requires relatively high energies that are previously not considered for clinical routine. Abandoned for some time in favor of X-ray technologies, research into new imaging methods using protons is back in the news because of the increase of proton radiation therapy centers in the world. This article exhibits a non-exhaustive state of the art in proton imaging. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficient energetic proton generation driven by ultrashort ultraintense ti:Sapphire laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, I. W.; Kim, C. M.; Jeong, T. M.; Yu, T. J.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Hafz, N.; Pae, K. H.; Ko, D. K.; Lee, J. [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Nishiuchi, M.; Daido, H.; Yogo, A.; Orimo, S.; Ogura, K.; Ma, J.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kiriyama, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto (Japan); Oishi, Y.; Nemoto, K. [Central Research Institute of Electronic Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Significant progress on laser driven proton generation has been made in the past few years. Proton acceleration driven by ultrashort ultraintense laser pulse has been a promising technology for realizing a compact accelerator. Laser driven protons have several unique properties, such as shot pulse duration of ∼ps, high peak current in kA range, low transverse emittance below 10{sup -}2{sup m}m mrad, and good laminarity. For practical applications, the proton beam should be optimized to obtain higher energy, narrower energy spread, larger number and conversion efficiency. Maximum proton energy of 58 MeV has been demonstrated using PW class laser pulse, and quasi monoenergetic protons were produced from microstructured target. We have performed series of experiments to generate energetic proton beam by collaborating with JAEA and CRIEPI groups. Energetic protons were produced by the interaction of ultrashort ultraintense laser pulse with thin solid targets. Laser pulse with maximum energy of 1.7 J and minimum pulse duration of 34 FS, giving maximum peak intensity 3x10{sup 1}9{sup W}/cm{sup 2,} was focused using an off axis parabolic mirror at 45 degree incident angle with p polarization. The target used was one of 5μm thick copper of 7.5, 12.5, 25μm thick polyimide foils. Fresh Surface of target was supplied by moving the target with tape target driver for every laser shot, performing repetitive laser shooting without breaking vacuum. In order to investigate optimal generation conditions, we varied the laser pulse width and changed target position with respect to a tight focus position of laser beam. Main proton diagnostic was proton time of flight spectrometer to facilitate real time optimization of the laser and target conditions. Energetic protons with maximum energy of up to 4 MeV are generated by the interaction of laser pulse with a 7.5μm thick Polyimide target. The conversion efficiency from the laser energy into the proton kinetic energies is achieved to

  10. Slope analysis for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Okorokov, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    The diffraction slope parameter is investigated for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering based on the all available experimental data at intermediate square of momentum transfer in the main. Energy dependence of the elastic diffraction slope is approximated by various analytic functions in a model-independent fashion. The expanded standard logarithmic approximations allow to describe experimental slopes in all available energy range at qualitative level reasonably. Various f...

  11. Transverse spin effects in proton-proton scattering and $Q \\bar Q$ production

    OpenAIRE

    Goloskokov, S. V.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss transverse spin effects caused by the spin-flip part of the Pomeron coupling with the proton. The predicted spin asymmetries in proton-proton scattering and QQ production in proton-proton and lepton-proton reactions are not small and can be studied in future polarized experiments.

  12. Proton minibeam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie

    2016-03-08

    The risk of developing adverse side effects in the normal tissue after radiotherapy is often limiting for the dose that can be applied to the tumor. Proton minibeam radiotherapy, a spatially fractionated radiotherapy method using sub-millimeter proton beams, similar to grid therapy or microbeam radiation radiotherapy (MRT) using X-rays, has recently been invented at the ion microprobe SNAKE in Munich. The aim of this new concept is to minimize normal tissue injuries in the entrance channel and especially in the skin by irradiating only a small percentage of the cells in the total irradiation field, while maintaining tumor control via a homogeneous dose in the tumor, just like in conventional broad beam radiotherapy. This can be achieved by optimizing minibeam sizes and distances according to the prevailing tumor size and depth such that after widening of the minibeams due to proton interactions in the tissue, the overlapping minibeams produce a homogeneous dose distribution throughout the tumor. The aim of this work was to elucidate the prospects of minibeam radiation therapy compared to conventional homogeneous broad beam radiotherapy in theory and in experimental studies at the ion microprobe SNAKE. Treatment plans for model tumors of different sizes and depths were created using the planning software LAPCERR, to elaborate suitable minibeam sizes and distances for the individual tumors. Radiotherapy-relevant inter-beam distances required to obtain a homogeneous dose in the target volume were found to be in the millimeter range. First experiments using proton minibeams of only 10 μm and 50 μm size (termed microchannels in the corresponding publication Zlobinskaya et al. 2013) and therapy-conform larger dimensions of 100 μm and 180 μm were performed in the artificial human in-vitro skin model EpiDermFT trademark (MatTek). The corresponding inter-beam distances were 500 μm, 1mm and 1.8 mm, respectively, leading to irradiation of only a few percent of the cells

  13. Proton therapy - Present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Radhe; Grosshans, David

    2017-01-15

    In principle, proton therapy offers a substantial clinical advantage over conventional photon therapy. This is because of the unique depth-dose characteristics of protons, which can be exploited to achieve significant reductions in normal tissue doses proximal and distal to the target volume. These may, in turn, allow escalation of tumor doses and greater sparing of normal tissues, thus potentially improving local control and survival while at the same time reducing toxicity and improving quality of life. Protons, accelerated to therapeutic energies ranging from 70 to 250MeV, typically with a cyclotron or a synchrotron, are transported to the treatment room where they enter the treatment head mounted on a rotating gantry. The initial thin beams of protons are spread laterally and longitudinally and shaped appropriately to deliver treatments. Spreading and shaping can be achieved by electro-mechanical means to treat the patients with "passively-scattered proton therapy" (PSPT) or using magnetic scanning of thin "beamlets" of protons of a sequence of initial energies. The latter technique can be used to treat patients with optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), the most powerful proton modality. Despite the high potential of proton therapy, the clinical evidence supporting the broad use of protons is mixed. It is generally acknowledged that proton therapy is safe, effective and recommended for many types of pediatric cancers, ocular melanomas, chordomas and chondrosarcomas. Although promising results have been and continue to be reported for many other types of cancers, they are based on small studies. Considering the high cost of establishing and operating proton therapy centers, questions have been raised about their cost effectiveness. General consensus is that there is a need to conduct randomized trials and/or collect outcomes data in multi-institutional registries to unequivocally demonstrate the advantage of protons. Treatment planning and plan

  14. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R; Bohl, T; Bracco, C; Buttenschön, B; Butterworth, A; Caldwell, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Cipiccia, S; Feldbaumer, E; Fonseca, R A; Goddard, B; Gross, M; Grulke, O; Gschwendtner, E; Holloway, J; Huang, C; Jaroszynski, D; Jolly, S; Kempkes, P; Lopes, N; Lotov, K; Machacek, J; Mandry, S R; McKenzie, J W; Meddahi, M; Militsyn, B L; Moschuering, N; Muggli, P; Najmudin, Z; Noakes, T C Q; Norreys, P A; Öz, E; Pardons, A; Petrenko, A; Pukhov, A; Rieger, K; Reimann, O; Ruhl, H; Shaposhnikova, E; Silva, L O; Sosedkin, A; Tarkeshian, R; Trines, R M G N; Tückmantel, T; Vieira, J; Vincke, H; Wing, M; Xia G , G

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN { the AWAKE experiment { has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

  15. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R; Bohl, T; Bracco, C; Buttenschon, B; Butterworth, A; Caldwell, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Cipiccia, S; Feldbaumer, E; Fonseca, R A; Goddard, B; Gross, M; Grulke, O; Gschwendtner, E; Holloway, J; Huang, C; Jaroszynski, D; Jolly, S; Kempkes, P; Lopes, N; Lotov, K; Machacek, J; Mandry, S R; McKenzie, J W; Meddahi, M; Militsyn, B L; Moschuering, N; Muggli, P; Najmudin, Z; Noakes, T C Q; Norreys, P A; Oz, E; Pardons, A; Petrenko, A; Pukhov, A; Rieger, K; Reimann, O; Ruhl, H; Shaposhnikova, E; Silva, L O; Sosedkin, A; Tarkeshian, R; Trines, R M G N; Tuckmantel, T; Vieira, J; Vincke, H; Wing, M; Xia, G

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN -- the AWAKE experiment -- has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

  16. Optimization of Steering Elements in the RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    SchnirmanLessner, Eliane; Ostroumov, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from protons at about 1 GeV to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver’s real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids.* The algorithm has been fully integrated in the tracking code TRACK** and is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements...

  17. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W. E-mail: mackay@bnl.govhttp://www.rhichome.bnl.gov/People/waldowaldo@bnl.gov; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N

    2003-03-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to {radical}s=500 GeV.

  18. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  19. JDBC Driver for AIPS++ Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J.; Young, W. K.; Waters, B.

    2005-12-01

    Integrating Java with AIPS++ can provide many advantages that cannot be realized with AIPS++ alone. Beyond simplifying architecture and code, use of Java in astronomical processing is promising because of its standardized nature, widely available tool packages and its exceptional GUI rendering abilities. We have implemented a Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) driver for the AIPS++ table system. This allows us to use the Table Query Language (TaQL), which is similar to SQL, to query and manipulate the database from Java and provides a standard interface between the AIPS++ table system and future Java applications.

  20. AN INTELLIGENT CO-DRIVER SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Rothkrantz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many car manufacturers developed digital co-drivers , which are able to monitor the driving behaviour of a car. Sensors in the car measure if a car passes speed limits, leaves its lane, or violates other traffic rules. A new generation of co-drivers is based on sensors in the car which are able to monitor the driver behaviour. Driving a car is a sequence of actions. In case a driver doesn’t show one of the actions the co-driver generates a warning signal. Experiments in the car simulator TORC were performed to extract the actions of a car driver. These actions were used to develop probabilistic models of the driving behaviour. A prototype of a warning system has been developed and tested in the car simulator. The experiments and test results will be reported in this paper.

  1. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    In a modern operating system (OS), device drivers can make up over 70% of the source code. Driver code is also heavily dependent on the rest of the OS, for functions and data structures defined in the kernel and driver support libraries. These properties pose a significant problem for OS evolution......, as any changes in the interfaces exported by the kernel and driver support libraries can trigger a large number of adjustments in dependent drivers. These adjustments, which we refer to as collateral evolutions, may be complex, entailing substantial code reorganizations. As to our knowledge there exist...... no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch...

  2. Monitoring Car Drivers' Condition Using Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kazumasa; Yamamto, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Osami; Nakano, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Shin

    We have developed a car driver monitoring system for measuring drivers' consciousness, with which we aim to reduce car accidents caused by drowsiness of drivers. The system consists of the following three subsystems: an image capturing system with a pulsed infrared CCD camera, a system for detecting blinking waveform by the images using a neural network with which we can extract images of face and eye areas, and a system for measuring drivers' consciousness analyzing the waveform with a fuzzy inference technique and others. The third subsystem extracts three factors from the waveform first, and analyzed them with a statistical method, while our previous system used only one factor. Our experiments showed that the three-factor method we used this time was more effective to measure drivers' consciousness than the one-factor method we described in the previous paper. Moreover, the method is more suitable for fitting parameters of the system to each individual driver.

  3. Studies on the benefit of extended capabilities of the driver accelerator for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, K.-H; Lukic, S; Ricciardi, M. V; Veselsky, M

    Possibilities are studied for the optimization of EURISOL rare nuclide yields in specific regions of the nuclear chart by building the driver accelerator in a way that enables accelerating several additional beam species, to specific energies, besides the baseline 1 GeV proton beam. Nuclide production rates with these driver beams are compared to the production rates expected with the 1 GeV proton beam in the direct-production and the high-power-converter scenarios. Arguments are presented to show that several additional driver-beam scenarios could provide substantial benefit for the production of nuclides in specific regions of the nuclear chart. The quantitative values in this report are preliminary in the sense that they depend on assumptions on the values of some key parameters which are subject to technical development, e.g. maximum beam intensities or limits on the target heat load. The different scenarios are compared from the aspect of nuclide yields. The arguments presented here, when complemented by...

  4. "CHOKING UNDER PRESSURE" IN OLDER DRIVERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Anderson, Steven W; Rusch, Michelle L; Aksan, Nazan S; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-06-01

    Aging can impair executive control and emotion regulation, affecting driver decision-making and behavior, especially under stress. We used an interactive driving simulator to investigate ability to make safe left-turns across oncoming traffic under pressure in 13 older (> 65 years old) and 16 middle-aged (35-56 years old) drivers. Drivers made left-turns at an uncontrolled intersection with moderately heavy oncoming traffic. Gaps between oncoming vehicles varied and increased gradually from 2 s to 10 s. Drivers made two left-turns with a vehicle honking aggressively behind (pressure condition), and two left-turns without the honking vehicle (control condition). Results showed that middle-aged drivers made more cautious turning decisions under pressure (by waiting for larger and safer gaps, p < .001), but older drivers did not. Further, older driver turning paths deviated under pressure compared to the control condition (p < .05), but the middle-aged group did not. Moreover, across all subjects, better executive function was significantly correlated with larger increases of accepted gap size from control to honking (p < .01). The findings suggest that older drivers are more sensitive to traffic challenges from environmental pressure and that neural models of older driver performance and safety must factor in age-related changes in executive control and emotion processing.

  5. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-12-14

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-{beta} region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the {phi}{sub s}=0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs

  6. Fusion of optimized indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for driver drowsiness detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daza, Iván García; Bergasa, Luis Miguel; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, Jose Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS...

  7. Effect of freeway level of service and driver education on truck driver stress : phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This research primarily deals with truck driver stress and its nature, stressors, and their mutual relationship. During the : study, the different demands of driving that are related to roads, vehicle, traffic conditions, driver predisposition to : s...

  8. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  9. The underlying event in proton-proton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, F.

    2009-05-15

    In this thesis, studies of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s) = 10 TeV are presented. Crucial ingredient to underlying event models are multiple parton-parton scatters in single proton-proton collisions. The feasibility of measuring the underlying event was investigated with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using charged particles and charged-particle jets. Systematic uncertainties of the underlying event measurement due to detector misalignment and imperfect track reconstruction are found to be negligible after {integral}Ldt=1 pb{sup -1} of data are available. Different model predictions are compared with each other using fully simulated Monte Carlo samples. It is found, that distinct models differ strongly enough to tell them apart with early data. (orig.)

  10. The proton-proton scattering without Coulomb force renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckle W.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate numerically that proton-proton (pp scattering observables can be determined directly by standard short range methods using a screened pp Coulomb force without renormalization. We numerically investigate solutions of the 3-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS equation for an exponentially screened Coulomb potential. For the limit of large screening radii we confirm analytically predicted properties for off-shell, half-shell and on-shell elements of the Coulomb t-matrix.

  11. Driver Anger Scale (DAS Among Car Drivers: How Serious Are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambak Kamarudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, anger while driving on the road is a crucial issue in Malaysia. The anger of driver may lead to traffic crashes. Road accident issue is an important agenda in every country. Driver behaviour and attitude such as impatience, hasty and hot-tempered on the road has become one of the causes in road accidents. Uncontrolled anger will affect the behavior of oneself during driving and could cause an individual to display aggressive attitude. Therefore, this study is aimed to identify contributing factor in anger of drivers and evaluate the Driver Anger Scale (DAS in Batu Pahat, Johor. In addition, this study also analyzes the relationship between driver anger and the factor of DAS. Cross sectional study method was conducted in this study by distributing 250 questionnaires to car drivers. The data collectied was analyzed by descriptive, chi-square test, correlation and regression analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. The findings show that the discourtesy was reported as the most dominant factor contributing to driver anger. As a recommendation, to overcome driver anger issue, the authorities should prepare an action plan, promote and nurture public to practice good driving behaviour. Moreover, curriculum and driver training lesson should be improved to create better attitude among drivers. Drivers also should change their driving attitude by becoming safe drivers and exhibiting defensive driving skills on the road.

  12. Proton radiography to improve proton radiotherapy: Simulation study at different proton beam energies

    CERN Document Server

    Biegun, A K; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; van Beuzekom, M; Visser, J; Brandenburg, S

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quality of cancer treatment with protons, a translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images into a map of the proton stopping powers needs to be more accurate. Proton stopping powers determined from CT images have systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a patient of typically 3-4\\% and even up to 10\\% in region containing bone~\\cite{USchneider1995,USchneider1996,WSchneider2000,GCirrone2007,HPaganetti2012,TPlautz2014,GLandry2013,JSchuemann2014}. As a consequence, part of a tumor may receive no dose, or a very high dose can be delivered in healthy ti\\-ssues and organs at risks~(e.g. brain stem)~\\cite{ACKnopf2013}. A transmission radiograph of high-energy protons measuring proton stopping powers directly will allow to reduce these uncertainties, and thus improve the quality of treatment. The best way to obtain a sufficiently accurate radiograph is by tracking individual protons traversing the phantom (patient)~\\cite{GCirrone2007,TPlautz2014,VSipala2013}. In our simulations ...

  13. Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Ladra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric sarcomas represent a distinct group of pathologies, with approximately 900 new cases per year in the United States alone. Radiotherapy plays an integral role in the local control of these tumors, which often arise adjacent to critical structures and growing organs. The physical properties of proton beam radiotherapy provide a distinct advantage over standard photon radiation by eliminating excess dose deposited beyond the target volume, thereby reducing both the dose of radiation delivered to non-target structures as well as the total radiation dose delivered to a patient. Dosimetric studies comparing proton plans to IMRT and 3D conformal radiation have demonstrated the superiority of protons in numerous pediatric malignancies and data on long-term clinical outcomes and toxicity is emerging. In this article, we review the existing clinical and dosimetric data regarding the use of proton beam radiation in malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

  14. Protonation Equilibrium of Linear Homopolyacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Požar J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a short summary of investigations dealing with protonation equilibrium of linear homopolyacids, in particularly those of high charge density. Apart from the review of experimental results which can be found in the literature, a brief description of theoretical models used in processing the dependence of protonation constants on monomer dissociation degree and ionic strength is given (cylindrical model based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, cylindrical Stern model, the models according to Ising, Högfeldt, Mandel and Katchalsky. The applicability of these models regarding the polyion charge density, electrolyte concentration and counterion type is discussed. The results of Monte Carlo simulations of protonation equilibrium are also briefly mentioned. In addition, frequently encountered errors connected with calibration of of glass electrode and the related unreliability of determined protonation constants are pointed out.

  15. Proton Football European Championship 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Check out the European championship of proton football 2016 at CERN. Produced by: CERN Audiovisual Productions Service Director: Jacques Fichet Editor: Jacques Fichet Music : Burnt of Jingle Punks You can follow us on:

  16. Kaon photoproduction off proton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoupil Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently constructed our version of the Regge-plus-resonance (RPR model and two variants of an isobar model for photoproduction of kaons on the proton, utilizing new experimental data from CLAS, LEPS, and GRAAL collaborations for adjusting free parameters of the models. Higher-spin nucleon (3/2 and 5/2 and hyperon (3/2 resonances were included using the consistent formalism by Pascalutsa and found to play an important role in data description. The set of chosen nucleon resonances in our new isobar models agrees well with the set of the most probable contributing states determined in the Bayesian analysis with the RPR model whilst only 6 out of 10 N*’s selected in the RPR fit of ours overlap with the nucleon resonant states in the Bayesian analysis. Results of two versions of the isobar model are compared to the new version of the RPR model and experimental data in the third-resonance region and their properties are discussed. We place an emphasis on the choice of resonances, the predictions in the forward- and backward-angle region as well as the choice of the hadron form factor.

  17. Parametric Model for Astrophysical Proton-Proton Interactions and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Niklas [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Observations of gamma-rays have been made from celestial sources such as active galaxies, gamma-ray bursts and supernova remnants as well as the Galactic ridge. The study of gamma rays can provide information about production mechanisms and cosmic-ray acceleration. In the high-energy regime, one of the dominant mechanisms for gamma-ray production is the decay of neutral pions produced in interactions of ultra-relativistic cosmic-ray nuclei and interstellar matter. Presented here is a parametric model for calculations of inclusive cross sections and transverse momentum distributions for secondary particles--gamma rays, e±, ve, $\\bar{v}$e, vμ and $\\bar{μ}$e--produced in proton-proton interactions. This parametric model is derived on the proton-proton interaction model proposed by Kamae et al.; it includes the diffraction dissociation process, Feynman-scaling violation and the logarithmically rising inelastic proton-proton cross section. To improve fidelity to experimental data for lower energies, two baryon resonance excitation processes were added; one representing the Δ(1232) and the other multiple resonances with masses around 1600 MeV/c2. The model predicts the power-law spectral index for all secondary particle to be about 0.05 lower in absolute value than that of the incident proton and their inclusive cross sections to be larger than those predicted by previous models based on the Feynman-scaling hypothesis. The applications of the presented model in astrophysics are plentiful. It has been implemented into the Galprop code to calculate the contribution due to pion decays in the Galactic plane. The model has also been used to estimate the cosmic-ray flux in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on HI, CO and gamma-ray observations. The transverse momentum distributions enable calculations when the proton distribution is anisotropic. It is shown that the gamma-ray spectrum and flux due to a

  18. Proton Structure and PHENIX Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Jian-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We briefly summarize the important and critical roles that PHENIX Experiment has played in determining the proton's internal structure in terms of quarks and gluons, and their dynamics. Some pioneering measurements by PHENIX Experiment on the motion and polarization of quarks and gluons, as well as their correlations inside a fast moving proton are presented. Some future opportunities and potentials of PHENIX Experiment are also discussed.

  19. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  20. Cedar Avenue driver assist system evaluation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of the Driver Assist System (DAS) used by the Minnesota Valley Transit Authority (MTVA) for bus shoulder operations. The DAS is a GPS-based technology suite that provides lane-position feedback to the driver via a ...

  1. Malaria parasitaemia among long distance truck drivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    truck drivers in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of malaria .... environments provide habitats suitable for mosquito breeding. More so, most of these remote communities ... outreach education, and life skill programmes in the halting point where these drivers meet in order to.

  2. Intelligent Speed Adaptation for involuntary drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The Danish Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) trial ISA C included 26 commercial cars and 51 drivers a number of whom were involuntary. After a baseline period, ISA was activated for one year. The drivers should identify themselves with a personal key ID before driving. As well as being informati...

  3. The drivers of plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Engemann

    In this thesis we use a “big data” approach to describe and explain large-scale patterns of plant diversity. The botanical data used for the six papers come from three different databases covering the New World, North America, and Europe respectively. The data on plant distributions were combined...... and beta diversity over time for woody forest communities in North America, using a 20 year forest plot dataset from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory and Analysis program. To assess functional diversity, we combined the plot data with data on four functional traits. Over time...... with environmental data on climate, soil, topography, and disturbance to identify the drivers of macroecological plant diversity patterns. Unless otherwise stated, the botanical data used in the papers come from the Botanical Information and Ecology Network. Paper I describes how we compiled a new plant growth form...

  4. Generation of proton aurora by magnetosonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Qiugang; Wang, Yongfu; He, Zhaoguo; Su, Zhenpeng; Yang, Chang; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-06-05

    Earth's proton aurora occurs over a broad MLT region and is produced by the precipitation of low-energy (2-10 keV) plasmasheet protons. Proton precipitation can alter chemical compositions of the atmosphere, linking solar activity with global climate variability. Previous studies proposed that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves can resonate with protons, producing proton scattering precipitation. A long-outstanding question still remains whether there is another mechanism responsible for the proton aurora. Here, by performing satellite data analysis and diffusion equation calculations, we show that fast magnetosonic waves can produce trapped proton scattering that yields proton aurora. This provides a new insight into the mechanism of proton aurora. Furthermore, a ray-tracing study demonstrates that magnetosonic wave propagates over a broad MLT region, consistent with the global distribution of proton aurora.

  5. When the proton becomes larger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has just confirmed that, at high energy, protons behave as if they were becoming larger. In more technical terms, their total cross-section – a parameter linked to the proton-proton interaction probability – increases with energy. This phenomenon, expected from previous measurements performed at much lower energy, has now been confirmed for the first time at the LHC’s unprecedented energy.   One arm of a TOTEM T2 detector during its installation at interaction point 5. A composite particle like the proton is a complex system that in no way resembles a static Lego construction: sub-components move inside and interactions keep the whole thing together, but in a very dynamic way. This partly explains why even the very common proton can still be hiding secrets about its nature, decades after its discovery. One way of studying the inner properties of protons is to observe how they interact with each other, which, in technical terms, i...

  6. Parent-taught driver education in Texas : a comparative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    An evaluation of the Parent-Taught Driver Education (PTDE) program in Texas was conducted using three different research techniques: (1) focus groups with driver education instructors, teen drivers, and their parents; (2) statewide mail survey of you...

  7. Research notes : study recommends changes to Oregon's driver improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the Oregon Department of Transportation-Driver and Motor Vehicle Services (DMV) Driver Improvement Program (DIP) is to improve traffic safety by temporarily restricting unsafe drivers or removing them from Oregons highways through t...

  8. Sparse-view proton computed tomography using modulated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiseoc; Kim, Changhwan; Cho, Seungryong, E-mail: scho@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byungjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, 110–746 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, 138–736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon; Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 410–769 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungyong [Proton Therapy Center, McLaren Cancer Institute, Flint, Michigan 48532 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Proton imaging that uses a modulated proton beam and an intensity detector allows a relatively fast image acquisition compared to the imaging approach based on a trajectory tracking detector. In addition, it requires a relatively simple implementation in a conventional proton therapy equipment. The model of geometric straight ray assumed in conventional computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction is however challenged by multiple-Coulomb scattering and energy straggling in the proton imaging. Radiation dose to the patient is another important issue that has to be taken care of for practical applications. In this work, the authors have investigated iterative image reconstructions after a deconvolution of the sparsely view-sampled data to address these issues in proton CT. Methods: Proton projection images were acquired using the modulated proton beams and the EBT2 film as an intensity detector. Four electron-density cylinders representing normal soft tissues and bone were used as imaged object and scanned at 40 views that are equally separated over 360°. Digitized film images were converted to water-equivalent thickness by use of an empirically derived conversion curve. For improving the image quality, a deconvolution-based image deblurring with an empirically acquired point spread function was employed. They have implemented iterative image reconstruction algorithms such as adaptive steepest descent-projection onto convex sets (ASD-POCS), superiorization method–projection onto convex sets (SM-POCS), superiorization method–expectation maximization (SM-EM), and expectation maximization-total variation minimization (EM-TV). Performance of the four image reconstruction algorithms was analyzed and compared quantitatively via contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and root-mean-square-error (RMSE). Results: Objects of higher electron density have been reconstructed more accurately than those of lower density objects. The bone, for example, has been reconstructed

  9. The pros and cons of safe electronuclear station with accelerator as a driver

    CERN Document Server

    Svistunov, Y A; Gavrish, Y N; Kudinovich, I V; Struev, V P

    2001-01-01

    Creation of 200 MW compact safe energetic installation on a base of a high-temperature, gas-cooled,subcritical reactor was discussed in paper. Chain reaction was initiated by the outer neutron flow. It was proposed to obtain such a source by irradiation of different substances with an intensive proton beam from the linac. Now possibilities of such a scheme are considered in more details.Structure of the reactor active zone is discussed. The use of the cyclotron as a driver is considered as an alternative variant. Problems of reliability, radiation safety and cost of installation are taken into account too.

  10. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured by...... driving behaviors, and vice versa. The present findings highlight the need to look into driver’s attitudes towards safety, and to devise differential interventions targeting specific problematic groups of the population in the attempt to improve road safety nationwide....

  11. Understanding novice driver policy agenda setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliff, R; Poulos, R; Ivers, R Q; Senserrick, T

    2011-04-01

    Despite the acute impact of road trauma involving novice drivers, there have been few efforts to identify the main factors influencing the novice driver policy agenda. Increasing the transparency of such policy dynamics may help inform future novice driver policy agenda-setting processes, as well as those in other public health settings. Forty interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2009 with individuals involved in novice driver policy debates and processes in four Australian states. An increasing body of positive evaluations from other jurisdictions was seen to provide an initial stimulus for Australian novice driver policy activities. The dissemination of evidence by researchers, lobbying and advocacy by other influential stakeholders, and media reporting of multiple-fatality novice driver crashes were seen as other factors central to policy agenda setting. Australian graduated driver licensing (GDL) policy initiatives may only be acted upon once adequate political support is identified in terms of community demand for action and public acceptance of GDL policy in neighboring states. As such, researcher encouragement of community support for unpopular evidence-based policies during windows of opportunity for policy reform may act as an influential agenda-setting force. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Linear Magnetic Field Scan Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quine, Richard W; Czechowski, Tomasz; Eaton, Gareth R

    2009-02-01

    A linear magnetic field scan driver was developed to provide a rapidly scanning magnetic field for use in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The driver consists of two parts: a digitally synthesized ramp waveform generator and a power amplifier to drive the magnetic field coils. Additionally, the driver provides a trigger signal to a data collection digitizer that is synchronized to the ramp waveform. The driver can also drive an arbitrary current waveform supplied from an external source. The waveform generator is computer controlled through a serial data interface. Additional functions are controlled by the user from the driver front panel. The frequency and amplitude of the waveform are each separately controlled with 12-bit resolution (one part in 4,096). Several versions of the driver have been built with different frequency and amplitude ranges. Frequencies range from 500 to 20,000 Hz. Field sweep amplitudes range up to 80 G(pp). This article also gives a brief description of the field coils that are driven by the driver.

  13. Proton-proton Scattering Above 3 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Sibirtsev, J. Haidenbauer, H.-W. Hammer S. Krewald ,Ulf-G. Meissner

    2010-01-01

    A large set of data on proton-proton differential cross sections, analyzing powers and the double-polarization parameter A{sub NN} is analyzed employing the Regge formalism. We find that the data available at proton beam momenta from 3 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c exhibit features that are very well in line with the general characteristics of Regge phenomenology and can be described with a model that includes the {rho}, {omega}, f{sub 2}, and a{sub 2} trajectories and single-Pomeron exchange. Additional data, specifically for spin-dependent observables at forward angles, would be very helpful for testing and refining our Regge model.

  14. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  15. A simple solution of the proton crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Pankovic, Vladan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we suggest a simple theoretical model of the proton able to effectively solve proton spin crisis. Within domain of applicability of this simple model proton consists only of two u quarks and one d quarks (two of which have spin opposite to proton and one identical to proton) and one neutral vector phi meson (with spin two times larger than proton spin and directed identically to proton spin). This model is in full agreement not only with existing DIS experiments, but also with spin and electric charge conservation as well as in a satisfactory agreement with rest mass-energy conservation (since phi meson mass is close to proton rest mass). Our model opens an interesting possibility of the solution of the quarks and leptons families problem (proton is not an absolutely non-strange particle, but only a particle with almost totally effectively hidden strange).

  16. Education for older drivers in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Keskinen

    2014-07-01

    Five presumptions have to be considered when addressing future education for older drivers: 1. Driving a car will continue to be one element of mobility in the future; 2. Older people want to be able to keep driving; 3. Safety will be an even more important factor in mobility in the future; 4. Ecological values will be more important in the future; and 5. Innovative technological applications will be more important in the future. Hierarchical models of driving are suitable in increasing understanding of older drivers' needs and abilities. The highest levels of the driving hierarchy in the Goals for Driver Education (GDE model are especially important for the safety of both young and elderly drivers. In these highest levels goals for life, skills for living, and social environment affect everyday decision making in general but also driving, which has an impact on driver safety. Giving up driving is very much a social decision and should be taken as such. However, the highest levels of the driving hierarchy are by nature inaccessible to teacher-centered instruction These levels require more coaching-like education methods where the learner takes the central role and the teacher helps the drivers understand their own abilities and limitations in traffic. Testing and selecting older drivers to enhance safety is not, according to research findings, working in a proper way. Older drivers do not so much need more information concerning traffic rules, etc., but rather better understanding of themselves, their health restrictions, their skills, and their abilities to ensure daily mobility. Their closest companions also need tools to help them in discussions of traffic safety issues affecting older drivers.

  17. Approaches of truck drivers and non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers.

  18. LHC Report: Ions cross protons

    CERN Multimedia

    Reyes Alemany Fernandez for the LHC team

    2013-01-01

    The LHC starts the New Year facing a new challenge: proton-lead collisions in the last month before the shutdown in mid-February.    The first stable beams were achieved on 20 January with 13 individual bunches per beam. In the next fill, the first bunch-trains were injected and stable beams were achieved with 96 proton on 120 ion bunches.  This fill was very important because we were able to study the so-called moving long-range beam-beam encounters. Long-range encounters, which are also seen in proton-proton runs, occur when the bunches in the two beams “see” each other as they travel in the same vacuum chamber at either side of the experiments.  The situation becomes more complicated with proton-lead ions because the two species have different revolution times (until the frequencies are locked at top energy- see “Cogging exercises”) and thus these encounters move. We found that this effect does not cause significant beam losses...

  19. Towards a proton imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civinini, C., E-mail: Carlo.Civinini@fi.infn.i [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Candiano, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Capineri, L. [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Mazzaglia, E. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Menichelli, D.; Pieri, S. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Hadron therapy for tumor treatment is nowadays used in several medical centres. The main advantage in using protons or light ions beams is the possibility of tightly shaping the radiation dose to the target volume. Presently the spatial accuracy of the therapy is limited by the uncertainty in stopping power distribution, which is derived, for each treatment, from the photon attenuation coefficients measured by X-ray tomography. A direct measurement of the stopping powers will help in reducing this uncertainty. This can be achieved by using a proton beam and a detection system able to reconstruct a tomography image of the patient. As a first step towards such a system an apparatus able to perform a proton transmission radiography (pCR) has been designed. It consists of a silicon microstrip tracker, measuring proton trajectories, and a YAG:Ce calorimeter to determine the particle residual energy. Proton beam and laboratory tests have been performed on the system components prototypes: the main results will be shown and discussed.

  20. The Structure of the Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, E. E.; Hofstadter, R.

    1956-04-01

    The structure and size of the proton have been studied by means of the methods of high-energy electron scattering. The elastic scattering of electrons from protons in polyethylene has been investigated at the following energies in the laboratory system: 200, 300, 400, 500, 550 Mev. The range of laboratory angles examined has been 30 degrees to 135 degrees. At the largest angles and the highest energy, the cross section for scattering shows a deviation below that expected from a point proton by a factor of about nine. The magnitude and variation with angle of the deviations determine a structure factor for the proton, and thereby determine the size and shape of the charge and magnetic-moment distributions within the proton. An interpretation, consistent at all energies and angles and agreeing with earlier results from this laboratory, fixes the rms radius at 0.77 {plus or minus} 0.10 x 10{sup -13} cm for each of the charge and moment distributions. The shape of the density function is not far from a Gaussian with rms radius 0.70 x 10{sup -13} cm or an exponential with rms radius 0.80 x 10 {sup -13} cm. An equivalent interpretation of the experiments would ascribe the apparent size to a breakdown of the Coulomb law and the conventional theory of electromagnetism.

  1. Driver drowsiness detection using ANN image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesselenyi, T.; Moca, S.; Rus, A.; Mitran, T.; Tătaru, B.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents a study regarding the possibility to develop a drowsiness detection system for car drivers based on three types of methods: EEG and EOG signal processing and driver image analysis. In previous works the authors have described the researches on the first two methods. In this paper the authors have studied the possibility to detect the drowsy or alert state of the driver based on the images taken during driving and by analyzing the state of the driver’s eyes: opened, half-opened and closed. For this purpose two kinds of artificial neural networks were employed: a 1 hidden layer network and an autoencoder network.

  2. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  3. Optimizing the Universal Robots ROS driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Timm

    In this report I will examine both the current and the possible performance of one of the most popular robotics platforms in research, the Universal Robot manipulator. I will solely focus on the ROS based approaches and show how the current driver can be improved. I will look at performance...... improvement both in terms of faster reaction as well as making it possible to control the robot using either ros_control or ordinary joint speed commands, which is required for many types of sensory based control like visual servoing. The developed driver is compared to the drivers already existing in the ROS...

  4. ATLAS proton-proton event containing four muons

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    An event with four identified muons from a proton-proton collision in ATLAS. This event is consistent with coming from two Z particles decaying: both Z particles decay to two muons each. Such events are produced by Standard Model processes without Higgs particles. They are also a possible signature for Higgs particle production, but many events must be analysed together in order to tell if there is a Higgs signal. This view is a zoom into the central part of the detector. The four muons are picked out as red tracks. Other tracks and deposits of energy in the calorimeters are shown in yellow.

  5. Concept for a Future Super Proton-Proton Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jingyu; Chai, Weiping; Chen, Fusan; Chen, Nian; Chou, Weiren; Dong, Haiyi; Gao, Jie; Han, Tao; Leng, Yongbin; Li, Guangrui; Gupta, Ramesh; Li, Peng; Li, Zhihui; Liu, Baiqi; Liu, Yudong; Lou, Xinchou; Luo, Qing; Malamud, Ernie; Mao, Lijun; Palmer, Robert B.; Peng, Quanling; Peng, Yuemei; Ruan, Manqi; Sabbi, GianLuca; Su, Feng; Su, Shufang; Stratakis, Diktys; Sun, Baogeng; Wang, Meifen; Wang, Jie; Wang, Liantao; Wang, Xiangqi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Ming; Xing, Qingzhi; Xu, Qingjin; Xu, Hongliang; Xu, Wei; Witte, Holger; Yan, Yingbing; Yang, Yongliang; Yang, Jiancheng; Yuan, Youjin; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yuhong; Zheng, Shuxin; Zhu, Kun; Zhu, Zian; Zou, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, new large colliders are being studied by the international high-energy community to explore Higgs physics in detail and new physics beyond the Standard Model. In China, a two-stage circular collider project CEPC-SPPC is proposed, with the first stage CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) focused on Higgs physics, and the second stage SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) focused on new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper discusses this second stage.

  6. Concept for a Future Super Proton-Proton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jingyu; et al.

    2015-07-12

    Following the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, new large colliders are being studied by the international high-energy community to explore Higgs physics in detail and new physics beyond the Standard Model. In China, a two-stage circular collider project CEPC-SPPC is proposed, with the first stage CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) focused on Higgs physics, and the second stage SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) focused on new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper discusses this second stage.

  7. ATLAS proton-proton event containing two high energy photons

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    An event where two energetic photons ("gammas") are produced in a proton-proton collision in ATLAS. Many events of this type are produced by well-understood Standard Model processes ("backgrounds") which do not involve Higgs particles. A small excess of events of this type with similar masses could indicate evidence for Higgs particle production, but any specific event is most likely to be from the background. The photons are indicated, in the different projections and views, by the clusters of energy shown in yellow.

  8. Child passengers and driver culpability in fatal crashes by driver gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasalo, Ida; Lehtonen, Esko; Pekkanen, Jami; Summala, Heikki

    2016-07-03

    Studies based on accident statistics generally suggest that the presence of a passenger reduces adult drivers' accident risk. However, passengers have been reported to be a source of distraction in a remarkable portion of distraction-related crashes. Although the effect of passengers on driving performance has been studied extensively, few studies have focused on how a child passenger affects the driver.  A child in a car is a potential distractor for parents, especially for mothers of small children, who often suffer from sleep deficit. The aim of this study was to examine how the presence of child passengers of different ages is associated with a higher driver culpability, which was expected due to child-related distraction and fatigue. The analysis was based on the comprehensive data of fatal crashes studied in-depth by multidisciplinary road accident investigation teams in Finland during 1988-2012. Teams determine the primary party who had the most crucial effect on the origin of the event. We define the primary party as culpable and the others involved as nonculpable drivers. The culpability rate was defined as the percentage of culpable drivers and rates were compared for drivers with a child/teen passenger aged 0-17 years (N = 348), with an adult passenger without children (N = 324), and when driving alone (N = 579), grouped by child age and driver gender.  Drivers with specific risk-related behavior (substantial speeding, driving when intoxicated, unbelted, or without a license) were excluded from the analyses, in order to make the drivers with and without children comparable. Only drivers 26-47 years old were included, representing parents with children 0-9 years of age. Male drivers were less often culpable with 0- to 17-year-old passengers in the car than alone or with adults. This was not the case with female drivers. The gender difference in culpability was most marked with small children age 0-4 years. Female drivers' culpability rate with a 0

  9. Modeling multiturn stripping injection and foil heating for high intensity proton drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Drozhdin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available H^{-} stripping injection into the Fermilab recycler ring, combined with a beam phase painting technique, has been considered. The multiparticle three-dimensional beam dynamics with space charge has been studied numerically, using STRUCT and ORBIT codes, for different painting scenarios. In order to achieve a uniform (quasi-KV phase-space distribution and to reduce the foil heating, the following parameters were investigated: the number of turns, strengths and temporal forms of kicker magnets, and foil geometry. Performance of the stripping foil is a crucial parameter of the whole injection scheme, so that the latter has been designed to minimize the hit number on the foil. The temperature regime has been evaluated both semianalytically and numerically using Monte Carlo codes MARS and MCNPX, with radiation cooling and transport of δ electrons taken into account. That all results agreed well proves the consistency of the models. It has been shown that the stripping foil can survive during injection with the parameters chosen for Project X at Fermilab.

  10. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  11. Driver education program status report : software system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    In April of 1980, a joint decision between Research Council personnel and representatives of the Department of Education was reached, and a project was undertaken by the Research Council to provide a software system to process the annual Driver Educa...

  12. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program leverages on our extensive expertise in developing high-performance driver ASICs for deformable mirror systems and seeks to expand the capacities of the...

  13. The importance of sight for drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pas-Wyroślak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sight is the basic sense for drivers. Condition of the eye determines correct, comfortable and safe performance of the work as drivers. This article presents various factors influencing the sight condition. There are two groups of factors, external (environment, the kind and time of work, stress caused by work and internal (systemic and local disorders. All these factors can reduce significantly visual functions, such as visual acuity, field of vision, color vision, strereoscopic vision, twilight vision and glare sensitivity. There are also presented actual requirements for drivers and causes of the car accidents in various age groups. Impairments in vision functions can be dangerous for both the driver and other road users. Med Pr 2013;64(3:419–425

  14. Four Phases Driver for Stepper Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Morar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two pulse distributors are remarkable for simplicity, highreliability, multifunctional facilities and a unipolar bilevel R/L- driver circuit for four phases stepper motor.

  15. Probabilistic validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a methodological approach for validation of advanced driver assistance systems, based on randomized algorithms. The new methodology is more efficient than conventional validation by simulations and field tests, especially with increasing system complexity. The methodology consists of

  16. 49 CFR 177.816 - Driver training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 390 through 397 and the procedures necessary for the safe operation of that motor vehicle. Driver..., parking, smoking, routing, and incident reporting; and (6) Loading and unloading of materials, including...

  17. Protons in near earth orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Béné, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Cavalletti, R; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Chiarini, A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Da Cunha, J P; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; D'Antone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, Pierre; Favier, Jean; Feng, C C; Fiandrini, E; Finelli, F; Fisher, P H; Flaminio, R; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu Hong Tao; Lolli, M; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Massera, F; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mezzanotte, F; Mezzenga, R; Mihul, A; Molinari, G; Mourão, A M; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Pancaldi, G; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pilastrini, R; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Postolache, V; Prati, E; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Recupero, S; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Santos, D; Sartorelli, G; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torromeo, G; Torsti, J; Trümper, J E; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Van den Hirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Von Gunten, H P; Waldmeier-Wicki, S; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan Lu Guang; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye Shu Wei; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A

    2000-01-01

    The proton spectrum in the kinetic energy range 0.1 to 200 GeV was measuredby the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) during space shuttle flight STS-91 atan altitude of 380 km. Above the geomagnetic cutoff the observed spectrum isparameterized by a power law. Below the geomagnetic cutoff a substantial secondspectrum was observed concentrated at equatorial latitudes with a flux ~ 70m^-2 sec^-1 sr^-1. Most of these second spectrum protons follow a complicatedtrajectory and originate from a restricted geographic region.

  18. Proton aurora and substorm intensifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, J.C.; Xu, B.; Lyons, L.R.; Newell, P.T.; Creutzberg, F.

    1993-10-01

    Ground based measurements from the CANOPUS array of meridian scanning photometers and precipitating ion and electron data from the DMSP F9 satellite show that the electron arc which brightens to initiate substorm intensifications is formed within a region of intense proton precipitation that is well equatorward (approximately four to six degrees) of the nightside open-closed field line boundary. The precipitating protons are from a population that is energized via earthward convection from the magnetotail into the dipolar region of the magnetosphere and may play an important role in the formation of the electron arcs leading to substorm intensifications on dipole-like field lines.

  19. Proton aurora and substorm intensifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, J.C.; Lyons, L.R.; Newell, P.T.; Creutzberg, F.; Xu, B. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada) Aerospace Corp., Space and Environmental Technology Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States) National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Inst. of Astrophysics, Ottawa (Canada) Canadian Network for Space Research, Edmonton (Canada))

    1992-11-01

    Ground based measurements from the CANOPUS array of meridian scanning photometers and precipitating ion and electron data from the DMSP F9 satellite show that the electron arc which brightens to initiate substorms intensifications is formed within a region of intense proton precipitation that is well equatorward (about 4-6 deg) of the nightside open-closed field line boundary. The precipitating protons are from a population that is energized via Earthward convection from the magnetotail into the dipolar region of the magnetosphere and may play an important role in the formation of the electron arcs leading to substorm intensifications on dipolelike field lines. 12 refs.

  20. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  1. Proton-antiproton collider physics

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    1989-01-01

    This volume reviews the physics studied at the CERN proton-antiproton collider during its first phase of operation, from the first physics run in 1981 to the last one at the end of 1985. The volume consists of a series of review articles written by physicists who are actively involved with the collider research program. The first article describes the proton-antiproton collider facility itself, including the antiproton source and its principle of operation based on stochastic cooling. The subsequent six articles deal with the various physics subjects studied at the collider. Each article descr

  2. Search for Sphalerons in Proton-Proton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2016-04-14

    In a recent paper, Tye and Wong (TW) have argued that sphaleron-induced transitions in high-energy proton-proton collisions should be enhanced compared to previous calculations, based on a construction of a Bloch wave function in the periodic sphaleron potential and the corresponding pass band structure. Here we convolute the calculations of TW with parton distribution functions and simulations of final states to explore the signatures of sphaleron transitions at the LHC and possible future colliders. We calculate the increase of sphaleron transition rates in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 13/14/33/100 TeV for different sphaleron barrier heights, while recognising that the rates have large overall uncertainties. We use a simulation to show that LHC searches for microscopic black holes should have good efficiency for detecting sphaleron-induced final states, and discuss their experimental signatures and observability in Run 2 of the LHC and beyond. We recast the early ATLAS Run-2 search...

  3. Proton beam therapy how protons are revolutionizing cancer treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Yajnik, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Proton beam therapy is an emerging technology with promise of revolutionizing the treatment of cancer. While nearly half of all patients diagnosed with cancer in the US receive radiation therapy, the majority is delivered via electron accelerators, where photons are used to irradiate cancerous tissue. Because of the physical properties of photon beams, photons may deposit energy along their entire path length through the body. On the other hand, a proton beam directed at a tumor travels in a straight trajectory towards its target, gives off most of its energy at a defined depth called the Bragg peak, and then stops. While photons often deposit more energy within the healthy tissues of the body than within the cancer itself, protons can deposit most of their cancer-killing energy within the area of the tumor. As a result, in the properly selected patients, proton beam therapy has the ability to improve cure rates by increasing the dose delivered to the tumor and simultaneously reduce side-effects by decreasing...

  4. An Automatic Monitoring System for Vehicle Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Selime Ozaktas; Feyza Galip; Ibrahim Furkan Ince; Md. Haidar Sharif

    2016-01-01

    — it is a key issue to prevent life and property from the accidents caused by vehicle drivers. Alcohol can, speed, drowsy driving, and sudden heart attack are the major reasons for road accidents, which can lead to severe physical injuries, deaths, and serious economic losses. Various methods have been proposed to detect automatically those causes to prevent accidents. We have addressed an automatic system to provide protection of drivers and travelers by dint of computer vision techniques al...

  5. Monitoring System for Drivers of Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Selime Ozaktas; Feyza Galip; Ibrahim Furkan Ince; Sahin Uyaver; Adil Guler; Md. Haidar Sharif

    2016-01-01

    It is a key important issue to prevent life and property from the accidents caused by vehicles of drivers. Alcohol can, speed, drowsy driving, and sudden heart attack are the major causes for road accidents, which can lead to severe physical injuries, deaths and significant economic losses. Various methods have been proposed to detect automatically those causes to prevent accidents. We have addressed an automatic system to provide protection of drivers and travelers by dint of computer vision...

  6. An Automatic Monitoring System for Vehicle Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Selime Ozaktas; Feyza Galip; Ibrahim Furkan Ince; Md. Haidar Sharif

    2016-01-01

    It is a key issue to prevent life and property from the accidents caused by vehicle drivers. Alcohol can, speed, drowsy driving, and sudden heart attack are the major reasons for road accidents, which can lead to severe physical injuries, deaths, and serious economic losses. Various methods have been proposed to detect automatically those causes to prevent accidents. We have addressed an automatic system to provide protection of drivers and travelers by dint of computer vision techniques alon...

  7. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoneim, Youssef A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC). The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates b...

  8. Identification of drivers for modular production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Bossen, Jacob; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Todays competitive environment in industry creates a need for companies to enhance their ability to introduce new products faster. To increase rampup speed reconfigurable manufacturing systems is a promising concept, however to implement this production platforms and modular manufacturing...... is required. This paper presents an analysis whether and which module drivers from general product development can be applied to the development process of a modular manufacturing system. The result is a compiled list of modular drivers for manufacturing and examples of their use....

  9. Important information for drivers in France

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    From 1 July 2012, any driver of a motorised road vehicle, excluding two- or three-wheeled vehicles whose engine capacity does not exceed 50cm3, must be in possession of a breathalyser in full working order. With effect from 1 November 2012*, drivers failing to produce a breathalyser run the risk of being served with an 11 euro fine. A breathalyser is used to measure the alcohol content in the motorist's breath. The permissible level of alcohol for drivers is less than 0.5 g of alcohol per litre of blood, or 0.25 mg of alcohol per litre of air exhaled. The obligation to have a breathalyser on board the vehicle also applies to all drivers on the French part of the CERN site. All vehicles belonging to or leased by the Organization must also carry a breathalyser together with all the requisite documentation (cf. Operational Circular No. 4). Drivers of privately owned vehicles can obtain breathalysers from car accessory dealers, service stations or pharmacies, etc. Drivers of vehicles belonging to or l...

  10. A roadside study of observable driver distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullman, Mark J M; Prat, Francesc; Tasci, Duygu Kuzu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of observable distractions while driving and the effect of drivers' characteristics and time-related variables on their prevalence. Using roadside observation, 2 independent observers collected data at 4 randomly selected locations in St. Albans, UK. Of the 10,984 drivers observed, 16.8% were engaged in a secondary task, with talking to passengers being the most common distraction (8.8%), followed by smoking (1.9%) and talking on a hands-free mobile phone (1.7%). An additional 1.0% were observed talking on a handheld phone, and the rest of the distractions (e.g., texting, drinking) were recorded in less than 1% of the drivers observed. Gender-related differences were found for a number of different distractions (i.e., talking to passengers, drinking, and handheld mobile phone conversations), but age emerged as a significant predictor for most secondary tasks, including talking to passengers, smoking, hands-free mobile phone use, handheld mobile phone use, texting/keying numbers, drinking, and engagement in any type of distraction (all distractions combined). The overall pattern for age was that middle-aged and older drivers were less likely to be distracted than younger drivers. This work provides further evidence of the relatively high rate of distracted driving in the UK. The findings clearly indicate that younger drivers are more likely to drive distracted, which probably contributes to their higher crash rates.

  11. Graduated Driver Licensing: An international review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Graduated driver licensing (GDL aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group.

  12. Quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Conesa del Valle, Z; Fleuret, F; Ferreiro, E G; Kartvelishvili, V; Kopeliovich, B Z; Lansberg, J P; Lourenço, C; Martinez, G; Papadimitriou, V; Satz, H; Scomparin, E; Ullrich, T; Teryaev, O; Vogt, R; Wang, J X

    2011-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the most relevant current issues related to quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions along with some perspectives. After reviewing recent experimental and theoretical results on quarkonium production in pp and pA collisions, we discuss the emerging field of polarisation studies. Thereafter, we report on issues related to heavy-quark production, both in pp and pA collisions, complemented by AA collisions. To put the work in a broader perspective, we emphasize the need for new observables to investigate quarkonium production mechanisms and reiterate the qualities that make quarkonia a unique tool for many investigations in particle and nuclear physics.

  13. Quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa del Valle, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Corcella, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E.Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Fleuret, F. [LLR, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Ferreiro, E.G. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas and IGFAE, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Kartvelishvili, V. [Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB,United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Kopeliovich, B. [Departamento de Fisica Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias e Ingenieria and Centro, Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Lansberg, J.P. [IPNO, Universite Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay (France); Lourenco, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Martinez, G. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Universite de Nantes, CNRS-IN2P3, Nantes (France); Papadimitriou, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois, 60510, U.S.A (United States); Satz, H. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Scomparin, E. [INFN Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino, I-10125 (Italy); Ullrich, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Teryaev, O. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Vogt, R. [Physics Divsion, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Physics Department, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wang, J.X. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918(4), Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2011-05-15

    We present a brief overview of the most relevant current issues related to quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions along with some perspectives. After reviewing recent experimental and theoretical results on quarkonium production in pp and pA collisions, we discuss the emerging field of polarisation studies. Afterwards, we report on issues related to heavy-quark production, both in pp and pA collisions, complemented by AA collisions. To put the work in broader perpectives, we emphasize the need for new observables to investigate the quarkonium production mechanisms and reiterate the qualities that make quarkonia a unique tool for many investigations in particle and nuclear physics.

  14. Estimating total manoeuvring time of drivers using Gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ages of drivers, service period of vehicles, and pavement conditions were also obtained by interviewing the drivers. A model of cumul-ative response times of driver-vehicle-road interaction developed indicated that TMT was contributed by the interactions of driver perception-reaction time, steering time and vehicle ...

  15. ASACUSA Anti-protonic Helium_Final

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Production Service; CERN AD; Paola Catapano; Julien Ordan, Arzur Catel; Paola Catapano; ASACUSA COLLABORATION

    2016-01-01

    Latest precision measurement of the mass of the proton and the anti proton though the production of antiprotonic helium by the ASACUSA experiment at CERN's antimatter factory, with a beam from the Antiproton Decelerator

  16. Determining the mechanism of cusp proton aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Qiugang; Su, Zhenpeng; Yang, Chang; He, Zhaoguo; Wang, Yongfu; Gao, Zhonglei

    2013-01-01

    Earth's cusp proton aurora occurs near the prenoon and is primarily produced by the precipitation of solar energetic (2-10 keV) protons. Cusp auroral precipitation provides a direct source of energy for the high-latitude dayside upper atmosphere, contributing to chemical composition change and global climate variability. Previous studies have indicated that magnetic reconnection allows solar energetic protons to cross the magnetopause and enter the cusp region, producing cusp auroral precipitation. However, energetic protons are easily trapped in the cusp region due to a minimum magnetic field existing there. Hence, the mechanism of cusp proton aurora has remained a significant challenge for tens of years. Based on the satellite data and calculations of diffusion equation, we demonstrate that EMIC waves can yield the trapped proton scattering that causes cusp proton aurora. This moves forward a step toward identifying the generation mechanism of cusp proton aurora.

  17. Polarized protons and parity violating asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueman, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for utilizing parity violating effects, associated with polarized protons, to study the standard model, proton structure, and new physics at the SPS Collider is summarized. 24 references.

  18. Low-Energy Proton Testing Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Heidel, David F.; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Xapsos, M.A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie; Kim, Hak S.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Use of low-energy protons and high-energy light ions is becoming necessary to investigate current-generation SEU thresholds. Systematic errors can dominate measurements made with low-energy protons. Range and energy straggling contribute to systematic error. Low-energy proton testing is not a step-and-repeat process. Low-energy protons and high-energy light ions can be used to measure SEU cross section of single sensitive features; important for simulation.

  19. Dilepton and double-photon production in proton-proton scattering at 190 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caplar, R.; Bacelar, J.C.S; Castelijns, R.J.J.; Ermisch, K.; Gasparic, I.; Harakeh, M.N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Löhner, H.; Mahjour Shafiei, M.

    2004-01-01

    The first high-statistics measurement of dilepton and double-photon yields in proton-proton scattering below the pion threshold has been performed. The data obtained allow a detailed study of off-shell effects in the proton-proton interaction.

  20. TOTEM: The experiment to measure the total proton-proton cross section at LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Lami, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The current large uncertainty on the extrapolation of the proton-proton total cross section at the LHC energy will be resolved by the precise measurement by the TOTEM experiment. Its accurate studies on the basic properties of proton-proton collisions at the maximum accelerator energy could provide a significant contribution to the understanding of cosmic ray physics.

  1. Playing with Protons CREATIONS Demonstrator

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2017-01-01

    This document describes Playing with Protons, a CMS education initiative that seeks to enhance teachers’ pedagogical practice with creative, hands-on methodologies through which 10-12 year old students can, in turn, get engaged effectively with science, technology and innovation.

  2. Proton irradiation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Chiba, Shunya [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Tanaka, Naomi

    1999-02-01

    A curative effect of high dose proton irradiation for hepatoma was investigated. In cases of single nodular type HCC, radiation field was limited to tumor, and in cases of multi nodular type HCC, irradiation was also fractionated. An average dose of radiation was 4 Gy/time, average times were 16, and an average total dose was 72 Gy. Tumor size reduction rate at 6 months after proton irradiation (123 cases) was CR (17.9%), PR (52.0%), NC (29.3%) and PD (0.8%). And the reduction rate of tumor size in monotherapy cases was 100% (after 3 weeks), 96% (after 1 year) and 88% (after 2 years). The local control rate was 99.1% (after 1 year) and 91.4% (after 3-5 years). AFP value significantly decreased from 571.0{+-}1266.6 ng/ml before radiation to 145.4{+-}346.3 ng/ml after radiation (p<0.0005). The recurrence after radiation occurred more at outside of radiation field, significantly. Indication basis of proton irradiation was showed in this article. Because selective radiation is possible, the proton irradiation should be optimum therapy in specific carcinomas of deep organ. (K.H.)

  3. Emerging technologies in proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Jacobus M.; Lomax, Antony J.

    An increasing number of proton therapy facilities are being planned and built at hospital based centers. Most facilities are employing traditional dose delivery methods. A second generation of dose application techniques, based on pencil beam scanning, is slowly being introduced into the

  4. Proton pump inhibitors and gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hassing (Robert); A. Verbon (Annelies); H. de Visser (Herman); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAn association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and bacterial gastroenteritis has been suggested as well as contradicted. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of PPIs and occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis in the prospective Rotterdam

  5. High current polarized proton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Polarized proton sources are now being used more frequently on linacs. In pulsed operation up to 10 mA of /rvec H//sup +/ and 0.4 mA of /rvec H//sup /minus// have been produced. The present status of these sources, and developments to reach even higher intensities, are reviewed. 39 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Proton radiation therapy in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grein, E.; Duzenli, C.; Pickles, T.; Ma, R.; Paton, K.; Kwa, W.; Harrison, R.; Blackmore, E. [BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    The development, commissioning, and implementation of the first Canadian Proton Radiation Therapy facility at TRIUMF in British Columbia is described. This was a collaborative project by the cyclotron physicists and staff at TRIUMF, the medical physicists and radiation oncologists of the Cancer Agency and the ocular oncology physicians of the Eye Care Center at Vancouver Hospital. (author)

  7. Assessing drivers' response during automated driver support system failures with non-driving tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in automated driver support systems, drivers are shifting from operating their vehicles to supervising their automation. As a result, it is important to understand how drivers interact with these automated systems and evaluate their effect on driver responses to safety critical events. This study aimed to identify how drivers responded when experiencing a safety critical event in automated vehicles while also engaged in non-driving tasks. In total 48 participants were included in this driving simulator study with two levels of automated driving: (a) driving with no automation and (b) driving with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) systems engaged; and also two levels of a non-driving task (a) watching a movie or (b) no non-driving task. In addition to driving performance measures, non-driving task performance and the mean glance duration for the non-driving task were compared between the two levels of automated driving. Drivers using the automated systems responded worse than those manually driving in terms of reaction time, lane departure duration, and maximum steering wheel angle to an induced lane departure event. These results also found that non-driving tasks further impaired driver responses to a safety critical event in the automated system condition. In the automated driving condition, driver responses to the safety critical events were slower, especially when engaged in a non-driving task. Traditional driver performance variables may not necessarily effectively and accurately evaluate driver responses to events when supervising autonomous vehicle systems. Thus, it is important to develop and use appropriate variables to quantify drivers' performance under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  8. Proton Testing: Opportunities, Pitfalls and Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Although proton SEE testing can place constraints on some heavy-ion SEE susceptibilities, it is important to quantify residual risk that protons may not reveal all SEE susceptibilities in a system. We examine the relative strengths and limitations of proton and heavy-ion SEE testing and how these may be affected by technology scaling and high-Z materials in the device.

  9. Shrink-wrapping water to conduct protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, George K. H.

    2017-11-01

    For proton-conducting metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to find application as the electrolyte in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, materials with better stability and conductivity are required. Now, a structurally flexible MOF that is also highly stable is demonstrated to possess high proton conductivity over a range of humidities.

  10. Are cellular phone blocking applications effective for novice teen drivers?

    OpenAIRE

    Creaser, J.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving is a significant concern for novice teen drivers. Although cellular phone bans are applied in many jurisdictions to restrict cellular phone use, teen drivers often report making calls and texts while driving. Method The Minnesota Teen Driver Study incorporated cellular phone blocking functions via a software application for 182 novice teen drivers in two treatment conditions. The first condition included 92 teens who ran a driver support application on a smartphone that als...

  11. Towards quantitative simulations of high power proton cyclotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Bi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a large scale simulation effort using Object Oriented Parallel Accelerator Library, that leads to a better quantitative understanding of the existing Paul Scherrer Institut high power proton cyclotron facility. The 1.3 MW of beam power on target poses stringent constraints on the controlled and uncontrolled beam losses. We present initial conditions for the Ring simulation, obtained from the new time-structure measurement and the many profile monitors of the 72 MeV transfer line. A trim coil model is developed, including trim coil TC15, which is needed to avoid the dangerous ν_{r}=2ν_{z} resonance. By properly selecting the injection position and angle (eccentric injection, the flattop voltage, and phase, very good agreement between simulations and measurements at the radial probe RRE4 is obtained. We report on 3–4 orders of magnitude in dynamic range when comparing simulations with measurements. The relation between beam intensity, rms beam size, and accelerating voltage is studied and compared with measurement. The demonstrated capabilities are mandatory in the design and operation of the next generation high power proton drivers. In an outlook we discuss our future plans to include more physics into the model, which eventually leads to an even larger dynamic range in the simulation.

  12. Status of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) Cryo-Module

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V; Capatina, O; Chambrillon, J; Montesinos, E; Schirm, K; Vande Craen, A; Vandoni, G; Van Weelderen, R

    2014-01-01

    The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) is an R&D effort conducted by CERN in partnership with other international laboratories, aimed at developing key technologies for the construction of a multi-megawatt proton linac based on state-of-the-art SRF technology. Such an accelerator could serve as a driver in new physics facilities for neutrinos and/or radioactive ion beams [1]. Amongst the main objectives of this effort, are the development of 704 MHz bulk niobium beta=1 elliptical cavities (operating at 2 K and providing an accelerating gradient of 25 MV/m) and the test of a string of cavities integrated in a machine-type cryo-module. In an initial phase, only four out of the eight cavities of the SPL cryo-module will be tested in a half-length cryo-module developed for this purpose, which nonetheless preserves the main features of the full size module. This paper presents the final design of the cryo-module and the status of the construction of the main cryostat parts. Preliminary plans for the assembly a...

  13. Assisting Driver Sovereignty : A Fail-Safe Design Approach to Driver Distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gijssel, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of a fail-safe approach to driver distraction through novel interface concepts for integrated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Traffic accidents are a negative side effect of the universal and economical desire for mobility. The year 2009 saw the

  14. Assessing driver's ability to estimate compliance rates to in-car, advisory driver support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, M.; Martens, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In-car support systems focus increasingly on improving traffic flow and throughput. Advisory systems allow for fast market penetration, advising drivers how to drive in order to improve general flow. By following the advice, drivers cannot create a beneficial effect by themselves but rely

  15. DriverDB: an exome sequencing database for cancer driver gene identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Chung; Chung, I-Fang; Chen, Chen-Yang; Sun, Hsing-Jen; Fen, Jun-Jeng; Tang, Wei-Chun; Chang, Ting-Yu; Wong, Tai-Tong; Wang, Hsei-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Exome sequencing (exome-seq) has aided in the discovery of a huge amount of mutations in cancers, yet challenges remain in converting oncogenomics data into information that is interpretable and accessible for clinical care. We constructed DriverDB (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/driverdb/), a database which incorporates 6079 cases of exome-seq data, annotation databases (such as dbSNP, 1000 Genome and Cosmic) and published bioinformatics algorithms dedicated to driver gene/mutation identification. We provide two points of view, 'Cancer' and 'Gene', to help researchers to visualize the relationships between cancers and driver genes/mutations. The 'Cancer' section summarizes the calculated results of driver genes by eight computational methods for a specific cancer type/dataset and provides three levels of biological interpretation for realization of the relationships between driver genes. The 'Gene' section is designed to visualize the mutation information of a driver gene in five different aspects. Moreover, a 'Meta-Analysis' function is provided so researchers may identify driver genes in customer-defined samples. The novel driver genes/mutations identified hold potential for both basic research and biotech applications.

  16. Association between Supervisory Driver Offences and Novice Driver Crashes Post-Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn; Williamson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This research explore associations between driving offences of learner supervisory drivers and subsequent crashes as novice independent drivers in a prospective cohort of 20,822 drivers aged 17–24 in New South Wales, Australia, on their first independent driver licence. Information on demographics, primary supervisory drivers, and various risk factors was collected via an online questionnaire and subsequently linked to police-reported crashes two years later. Poisson regression determined that the unadjusted relative risk of crash was 1.35 (CI 1.14–1.60) for novices whose supervisors had offences, with this association remaining when adjusting for supervisor age, gender and relationship to the novice (RR=1.37, CI 1.16–1.63), but not when additionally controlling for novice driver demographics and characteristics (RR=1.50, CI 0.83–2.70). These findings suggest newly-licensed drivers previously supervised by drivers with recent traffic offences have a one-third higher risk of crashing. This risk is independent of the supervisor demographics, but mitigated by the young drivers’ personal characteristics. Careful consideration should be given to policy developments regarding supervised driving requirements that rely heavily on parents to adopt this role. PMID:21050613

  17. Pair angular correlations for pions, kaons and protons in proton-proton collisions in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Zaborowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the correlation functions in $\\Delta\\eta\\, \\Delta\\phi$ space for pairs of pions, kaons and protons. The studies were carried out on the set of proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, obtained in ALICE, A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The analysis was performed for two charge combinations (like-sign pairs and unlike-sign pairs) as well as for three multiplicity ranges. Angular correlations are a rich source of information about the elementary particles behaviour. They result in from the interplay of numerous effects, including resonances’ decays, Coulomb interactions and energy and momentum conservation. In case of identical particles quantum statistics needs to be taken into account. Moreover, particles differ in terms of quark content. Kaons, carrying the strange quark obey the strangeness conservation law. In the production of protons baryon number must be conserved. These features are reflected...

  18. Dielectron production in proton-proton collisions with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, Markus K

    Ultrarelativistic hadron collisions, such as delivered since a couple of years at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), provide new insights into the properties of strongly interacting matter at high temperatures and densities, which is expected to have existed a few of a millionth seconds after the big bang. Electromagnetic probes, such as leptons and photons, are emitted during the entire collision. Since they do not undergo strong interactions, they reflect the entire evolution of the collision.\\\\ Pairs of leptons, so called dileptons, have the advantage compared to real photons, that they do not only carry momentum, but also have a non-zero invariant mass. The invariant mass spectrum of dileptons is a superposition of several components and allows to address different characteristics of the medium.\\\\ To understand dielectron production in heavy-ion collisions, reference measurements in proton-proton (pp) collisions are necessary. pp collisions reflect the vacuum contribution of the particles produced in heavy-...

  19. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, D.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bollmann, R.; Büßer, K.; Cloth, P.; Daniel, R.; Diehl, O.; Dohrmann, F.; Engelhardt, H. P.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P. D.; Gasthuber, M.; Gebel, R.; Greiff, J.; Groß, A.; Groß-Hardt, R.; Heider, S.; Heine, A.; Hinterberger, F.; Igelbrink, M.; Jahn, R.; Jeske, M.; Lahr, U.; Langkau, R.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mosel, F.; Müller, M.; Münstermann, M.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Roß, U.; von Rossen, P.; Scheid, H.; Schirm, N.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwandt, F.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Sterzenbach, G.; Trelle, H. J.; Wellinghausen, A.; Wiedmann, W.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R.

    1997-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta pp (energies Tp) from 1100 to 3300 MeV/c (500 to 2500 MeV) in the angular range 35°<=Θc.m.<=90° with a detector providing ΔΘc.m.~1.4° resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH2 fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of Tp. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found.

  20. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisplinghoff, J.; Daniel, R.; Diehl, O.; Engelhardt, H.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P.; Gro-Hardt, R.; Heider, S.; Heine, A.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Jeske, M.; Lahr, U.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mosel, F.; Rohdje, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Ro, U.; Scheid, H.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwandt, F.; Schwarz, V.; Trelle, H.; Wiedmann, W.; Ziegler, R. [Inst.fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Albers, D.; Bollmann, R.; Bueer, K.; Dohrmann, F.; Gasthuber, M.; Greiff, J.; Gro, A.; Igelbrink, M.; Langkau, R.; Lindlein, J.; Mueller, M.; Muenstermann, M.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K. [I. Inst.fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Cloth, P.; Gebel, R.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; von Rossen, P.; Sterzenbach, G. [Inst.fuer Kernphysik, KFA Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta p{sub p} (energies T{sub p}) from 1100 to 3300MeV/c (500 to 2500MeV) in the angular range 35{degree}{le}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{le}90{degree} with a detector providing {Delta}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{approx}1.4{degree} resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH{sub 2} fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of T{sub p}. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Search for Sphalerons in Proton-Proton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Satco, Daria

    2017-01-01

    In view of new possibilities becoming more realistic with FCC design and of recent promising results regarding $(B+L)$-violating processes detection we concentrated our research on generation and analysis of sphaleron transitions. The existence of instanton and sphaleron solutions which are associated with transitions between different vacuum states is well known since 1980s. However first calculations of instanton rate killed any hope to detect them even at very high energies while the calculation of sphaleron transitions rate is a tricky problem which continue being widely discussed. In our research we used HERBVI package to generate baryon- and lepton-number violating processes in proton-proton collisions at typical energies 14, 33, 40 and 100 TeV in order to estimate the upper limit on the sphaleron cross-section. We considered the background processes and determined the zero background regions.

  2. Proton radiation damage in optical filter glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillot, Patrick N.; Rosenberg, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Schott BG-39 and Hoya CM-500 blue-green filter glass were subjected to proton radiation to determine their acceptability for spaceflight. Initial testing done with 2.7 MeV protons showed negligible change in optical transmittance with doses as high as 5.2 x 10 to the 14th protons per sq cm. Irradiation with protons of energy up to 63 MeV caused a significant reduction in transmittance in the Schott samples at doses of 5.3 x 10 to the 12th protons per sq cm, while negligible change occurred in the Hoya samples.

  3. Proton conduction in biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Jin Jung [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Lee, Kyu Won; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Cheol Eui, E-mail: rscel@korea.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seunho [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology and UBITA, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Chanho [Naraebio Research Laboratories, 177 Dangha-ri, Bongdam-eup, Hawseong-si 445-892 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-07

    Protonic currents play a vital role in electrical signalling in living systems. It has been suggested that succinoglycan plays a specific role in alfalfa root nodule development, presumably acting as the signaling molecules. In this regard, charge transport and proton dynamics in the biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan have been studied by means of electrical measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In particular, a dielectric dispersion in the system has revealed that the electrical conduction is protonic rather electronic. Besides, our laboratory- and rotating-frame {sup 1}H NMR measurements have elucidated the nature of the protonic conduction, activation of the protonic motion being associated with a glass transition.

  4. Microscopic dynamics of a base protonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsgaard, Bjørn; Petersen, Christian; Thøgersen, Jan; Keiding, Søren Rud; Jensen, Svend J. Knak

    2008-10-01

    The protonation of the base peroxynitrite in aqueous solution is investigated by way of the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics technique. It is found that the protonation proceeds through an increase in the vibration amplitude of the hydrogen bond between the base and the hydronium ion. When the amplitude gets sufficiently large a proton may oscillate a few times between the base and the hydronium ion before it remains as part of peroxynitrous acid. The start of the protonation requires a certain orientation of the hydrogen bond. The estimated protonation time agrees well with the one obtained from femtosecond UV experiments.

  5. Loss of protons in thin absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Renberg, P U; Measday, D F; Pepin, M; Serre, Claude; Schwaller, P

    1972-01-01

    Proton losses due to nuclear inelastic interactions have been measured in Al and Cu absorbers of thicknesses less than half the proton range, for incident proton energies of 250 and 560 MeV. It is shown that the data can be used to obtain absorption corrections in proton counter telescopes for other energies in this energy interval. The absorption correction would be found from the loss calculated from the proton reaction cross-sections by multiplying by an experimentally determined ratio which is given by the present measurement. (5 refs).

  6. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  7. Drivers of the virtual water trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Carr, J. A.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Through the international trade of food commodities, countries virtually export or import the water used for food production, known as "virtual water." The international trade network thus implies a network of virtual water flows from exporting to importing countries. The purpose of this study is to identify some controlling factors of the virtual water network by means of multivariate regression analyses, or gravity laws, as often named in economics. Starting from the FAOSTAT database, we reconstruct 25 years (1986-2010) of international virtual water trade values; we then analyze the dependence of the exchanged fluxes on: population, gross domestic product, arable land, virtual water embedded in agricultural production and dietary demand, and geographical distance between countries. Significant drivers are identified for each country considering separately export and import fluxes; temporal trends are outlined and the relative importance of drivers is assessed by a commonality analysis. Results indicate that population, gross domestic product and geographical distance are the major drivers of virtual water fluxes, with a minor (nonnegligible) contribution given by the agricultural production of exporting countries. Such drivers have become relevant for an increasing number of countries throughout the years, with an increasing variance explained by the distance between countries and a decreasing role of the gross domestic product. The worldwide adjusted coefficient of determination of fitted gravity-law model is 0.57 (in 2010), and it has increased in time, confirming the good descriptive capability of selected drivers for the virtual water trade.

  8. Self-regulation of driving speed among distracted drivers: An application of driver behavioral adaptation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark; Washington, Simon

    2017-08-18

    The adaptive behavior of mobile phone-distracted drivers has been a topic of much discussion in the recent literature. Both simulator and naturalistic studies suggest that distracted drivers generally select lower driving speeds; however, speed adaptation is not observed among all drivers, and the mechanisms of speed selection are not well understood. The aim of this research was to apply a driver behavioral adaptation model to investigate the speed adaptation of mobile phone-distracted drivers. The speed selection behavior of drivers was observed in 3 phone conditions including baseline (no conversation) and hands-free and handheld phone conversations in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Speed adaptation in each phone condition was modeled as a function of secondary task demand and self-reported personal/psychological characteristics with a system of seemingly unrelated equations (SURE) accounting for potential correlations due to repeated measures experiment design. Speed adaptation is similar between hands-free and handheld phone conditions, but the predictors of speed adaptation vary across the phone conditions. Though perceived workload of secondary task demand, self-efficacy, attitude toward safety, and driver demographics were significant predictors of speed adaptation in the handheld condition, drivers' familiarity with the hands-free interface, attitude toward safety, and sensation seeking were significant predictors in the hands-free condition. Drivers who reported more positive safety attitudes selected lower driving speeds while using phones. This research confirmed that behavioral adaptation models are suitable for explaining speed adaptation of mobile phone distracted drivers, and future research could be focused on further theoretical refinement.

  9. Simulated driving performance under alcohol: Effects on driver-risk versus driver-skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, Jennifer R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2015-09-01

    Those who place their vehicles closer to others on the roadway are said to have high risk acceptance, and this contributes to motor vehicle crashes. However, the effect of alcohol on this risky driving behavior is understudied. Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to risky driving are also not well understood. Further, whether increased risk-taking behavior in a driver co-occurs with pronounced impairment in the driver's skill is unknown. The study examined the effect of alcohol on driver risk and skill and whether riskier drivers were also those who showed high skill impairment. The relationship between driving behavior and inhibitory control was also tested. Participants completed two driving simulations. In the first drive test, risky driving was encouraged and in the second test, skill-based performance was emphasized. The cued go/no-go task provided a measure inhibitory control. Tests were completed under a 0.65g/kg alcohol and 0.0g/kg (placebo) dose of alcohol. Alcohol impaired a measure of driving skill and increased driver risk taking. It was also found that riskier drivers were not necessarily those who showed the greatest impairments in skill. Poorer inhibitory control was associated with greater driver risk in the sober state. Alcohol-induced risk-taking behaviors can be dissociable from impairing effects on driver skill and poor inhibitory control is selectively related to risky driving. As such, a distinction between driver risk and driver skill needs to be made in the investigation of problems concerning DUI-related accidents and fatalities in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Principles and practice of proton beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Indra J

    2015-01-01

    Commissioned by The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) for their June 2015 Summer School, this is the first AAPM monograph printed in full color. Proton therapy has been used in radiation therapy for over 70 years, but within the last decade its use in clinics has grown exponentially. This book fills in the proton therapy gap by focusing on the physics of proton therapy, including beam production, proton interactions, biology, dosimetry, treatment planning, quality assurance, commissioning, motion management, and uncertainties. Chapters are written by the world's leading medical physicists who work at the pioneering proton treatment centers around the globe. They share their understandings after years of experience treating thousands of patients. Case studies involving specific cancer treatments show that there is some art to proton therapy as well as state-of-the-art science. Even though the focus lies on proton therapy, the content provided is also valuable to heavy charged particle th...

  11. Very energetic protons in Saturn's radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Mcilwain, C.

    1980-01-01

    Very energetic protons are trapped in the inner Saturnian radiation belt. The University of California at San Diego instrument on Pioneer 11 has definitely identified protons of energy greater than 80 MeV on channel M3 and has tentatively detected protons of energy greater than 600 MeV on channel C3. The spatial distribution of the protons is distinct from that of the trapped electrons, the main difference being that the protons are strongly absorbed by the innermost moons and that the electrons are not. The source strength for injecting protons by the decay of cosmic ray albedo neutrons generated in the rings of Saturn has been estimated. The required proton lifetime is approximately 20 years.

  12. Drivers of the Technology Adoption In Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pascualote Lemos de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a theoretical framework for the study of the diffusion of ICT in management and assistance services in healthcare and empirically verifies its applicability in studying adoption of technology in this area. There was a review of literature in the period 2004-2014. Based on this framework, the researchers verified empirically the applicability of organizational drivers proposed in the prior conditions, through a case study conducted by interviews with 13 managers of a Brazilian public hospital that is adopting a nursing prescription module. Through the content analysis, eight organizational drivers of the technology adoption were confirmed. For future research, it is relevant to verify the applicability of the organizational and individual drivers in the other phases of the framework organized according to Rogers (1983, as well as in the prior conditions, either by new case studies or by developing quantitative research instruments about the management process of technology adoption in organizations.

  13. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  14. Proton Radiography at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos National Lab uses high energy protons to acquire multiple frame flash radiographic sequences at megahertz speeds: that is, it can make movies of the inside of explosions as they happen. The facility is primarily used to study the damage to and failure of metals subjected to the shock forces of high explosives as well as to study the detonation of the explosives themselves. Applications include improving our understanding of the underlying physical processes that drive the performance of the nuclear weapons in the United States stockpile and developing novel armor technologies in collaboration with the Army Research Lab. The principle and techniques of pRad will be described, and examples of some recent results will be shown.

  15. Proton affinities of hydrated molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadbeigi, Younes

    2016-09-01

    Proton affinities (PA) of non-hydrated, M, and hydrated forms, M(H2O)1,2,3, of 20 organic molecules including alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones and amines were calculated by the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. For homogeneous families, linear correlations were observed between PAs of the M(H2O)1,2,3 and the PAs of the non-hydrated molecules. Also, the absolute values of the hydration enthalpies of the protonated molecules decreased linearly with the PAs. The correlation functions predicted that for an amine with PA amine with PA > 1100 kJ/mol the PA(M(H2O)) is smaller than the PA.

  16. Drivers and moderators of business decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reports of business failure elicit various reactions, while research in this domain often appears to be limited by a lack of access to information about failure and by the negativity that surrounds it. Those who have experienced failure do not readily talk about it, or they disappear from the radar screen of researchers. Yet failure is preceded by decline which, when focused on strategically, can reduce eventual failures if early action is taken. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework or typology of the drivers and moderators of business decline. Design/methodology/approach: After applying the "grounded theory" approach to the academic literature on decline and failure, a conceptual framework for the variables that drive and moderate business decline is proposed. Findings: The study proposes that decline has three core drivers, three peripheral drivers and four moderators. The core drivers identified are: resource munificence; leadership as origin; and causality (strategic versus operational origin of decline. The three peripheral drivers are: unique preconditions; continuous decisions impact; and extremes dichotomy. The study describes four moderators of the drivers: life cycle stage; stakeholder perspective; quantitative versus qualitative nature of signs and causes; and finally the age and size effects. Research limitations/implications: The proposed conceptual framework is based on literature only, although it has found support during discussions with practitioners. It is proposed to readers of this journal for scrutiny and validation. Practical implications: Strategists need to understand what drives decline in order to act timeously; practitioners who have an insight into the moderators with their impacts could make better decisions in response to decline in organisations and possibly avoid business failure. Originality/Value: Understanding business decline is still a huge theoretical challenge, which

  17. Comparison of visual status of Iranian military and commercial drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mohammad; Hoseini Yazdi, Seyed Hosein; Heravian, Javad; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Rezaee, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    There is no legal requirement for Iranian military truck drivers to undergo regular visual checkups as compared to commercial truck drivers. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of drivers' visual checkups by comparing the visual function of Iranian military and commercial truck drivers. In this comparative cross-sectional study, two hundred military and 200 commercial truck drivers were recruited and their Visual Acuity (VA), Visual Field (VF), color vision and Contrast Sensitivity (CS) were assessed and compared using the Snellen chart, confrontation screening method, D15 test and Pelli-Robson letter chart, respectively. A questionnaire regarding driving exposure and history of motor-vehicle crashes (MVCs) was also filled by drivers. Results were analyzed using an independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA (assessing difference in number of MVCs across different age groups), chi-square test and Pearson correlation at statistical significance level of P truck drivers and 43.4 ± 10.9 for commercial truck drivers (P > 0.05). No significant difference between military and commercial drivers was found in terms of driving experience, number of MVCs, binocular VA, frequency of color vision defects and CS scores. In contrast, the last ocular examination was significantly earlier in military drivers than commercial drivers (P < 0.001). In addition, 4% of military drivers did not meet the national standards to drive as opposed to 2% of commercial drivers. There was a significant but weak correlation between binocular VA and age (r = 0.175, P < 0.001). However, CS showed a significantly moderate correlation with age (r = -0.488, P < 0.001). The absence of legal requirement for regular eye examination in military drivers caused the incompetent drivers to be missed in contrast to commercial drivers. The need for scientific revision of VA standard for Iranian drivers is also discussed. The CS measurement in visual checkups of older drivers deserves to be investigated more

  18. Proton Resonance Spectroscopy -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, Jr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    2009-07-27

    This report summarizes work supported by the DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER40990 during its duration from June 1996 to May 2009. Topics studied include (1) statistical descriptions of nuclear levels and measurements of proton resonances relevant to such descriptions, including measurements toward a complete level scheme for 30P, (2) the development of methods to estimate the missing fraction of levels in a given measurement, and (3) measurements at HRIBF relevant to nuclear astrophysics.

  19. Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

    In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

  20. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are novel compounds that strongly inhibit the H+/K+-ATPase in the gastric parietal cells to cause profound suppression of acid secretion. Acid-generating ATPase, also known as vacuolar-type ATPase, is located in the lysozomes of leukocytes and osteoclasts and its activity is also reportedly influenced by treatment with PPIs. This concept is supported by the results of studies using autoradiography in which 3H-Lansoprazole uptake sites were clearly detected in the...

  1. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  2. Solid-state proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. A comparison of the cell phone driver and the drunk driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Drews, Frank A; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the relative impairment associated with conversing on a cellular telephone while driving. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the relative risk of being in a traffic accident while using a cell phone is similar to the hazard associated with driving with a blood alcohol level at the legal limit. The purpose of this research was to provide a direct comparison of the driving performance of a cell phone driver and a drunk driver in a controlled laboratory setting. We used a high-fidelity driving simulator to compare the performance of cell phone drivers with drivers who were intoxicated from ethanol (i.e., blood alcohol concentration at 0.08% weight/volume). When drivers were conversing on either a handheld or hands-free cell phone, their braking reactions were delayed and they were involved in more traffic accidents than when they were not conversing on a cell phone. By contrast, when drivers were intoxicated from ethanol they exhibited a more aggressive driving style, following closer to the vehicle immediately in front of them and applying more force while braking. When driving conditions and time on task were controlled for, the impairments associated with using a cell phone while driving can be as profound as those associated with driving while drunk. This research may help to provide guidance for regulation addressing driver distraction caused by cell phone conversations.

  4. Enhancing digital driver models: identification of distinct postural strategies used by drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Gyouhyung; Nussbaum, Maury A; Babski-Reeves, Kari L

    2010-03-01

    Driver workspace design and evaluation is, in part, based on assumed driving postures of users and determines several ergonomic aspects of a vehicle, such as reach, visibility and postural comfort. Accurately predicting and specifying standard driving postures, hence, are necessary to improve the ergonomic quality of the driver workspace. In this study, a statistical clustering approach was employed to reduce driving posture simulation/prediction errors, assuming that drivers use several distinct postural strategies when interacting with automobiles. 2-D driving postures, described by 16 joint angles, were obtained from 38 participants with diverse demographics (age, gender) and anthropometrics (stature, body mass) and in two vehicle classes (sedans and SUVs). Based on the proximity of joint angle sets, cluster analysis yielded three predominant postural strategies in each vehicle class (i.e. 'lower limb flexed', 'upper limb flexed' and 'extended'). Mean angular differences between clusters ranged from 3.8 to 52.4 degrees for the majority of joints, supporting the practical relevance of the distinct clusters. The existence of such postural strategies should be considered when utilising digital human models (DHMs) to enhance and evaluate driver workspace design ergonomically and proactively. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study identified drivers' distinct postural strategies, based on actual drivers' behaviours. Such strategies can facilitate accurate positioning of DHMs and hence help design ergonomic driver workspaces.

  5. The use of hand held mobile phones by drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D; O'Farrell, A; Downey, J; McKeown, N; Howell, F

    2005-01-01

    The use of mobile phones by drivers has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this study was to identify the use of hand held mobiles phones by drivers in Ireland. Their use was investigated by a direct observation survey of drivers. The study showed that 3.6% of drivers were using hand held mobile phones while driving. This rate is high compared to other studies. Van drivers were three times more likely than other drivers to use a mobile phone whilst driving. Legislation needs to be introduced to ban their use and thereby reduce the risk of crashes.

  6. Designated-driver programs: college students' experiences and opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoff, M A; Knight, S M; Jenkins, L K

    1994-09-01

    We investigated the experiences and opinions of college students regarding the use of designated drivers. Although using designated drivers appeared to be common, results indicated that in many instances the designated driver did not abstain from drinking alcoholic beverages. The opinions of the participants indicated that the nondrivers in a drinking group may in fact drink more when there is a designated driver. Our findings lead us to question the overall value of currently practiced designated-driver programs for college student drinkers. Developing programs on how to be a designated driver are among our recommendations.

  7. [Occupational stress situation analysis of different types of train drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the status of occupational stress in different types of train drivers. By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 339 train drivers (including 289 passenger train drivers, 637 freight trains drivers, 339 passenger shunting train drivers, and 74 high speed rail drivers) from a Railway Bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, occupational stress factors, stress response factors and stress mitigating factors. The occupational stress factors, stress response factors and mitigating factors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. By using the method of covariance analysized the difference of occupational stress factors of all types train drivers, the method of Stepwise regression was used to analyze the effection (R(2)) of occupational stress factors and stress mitigating factors on stress response factors. Covariance analysis as covariates in age, education level, length of service and marital status showed that the scores of ERI (1.58 ± 0.05), extrinsic effort (19.88 ± 0.44), rewards (23.43 ± 0.43), intrinsic effort (17.86 ± 0.36), physical environment (5.70 ± 0.22), social support (30.51 ± 0.88) and daily tension (10.27 ± 0.38 ) of high speed rail drivers were higher than other drivers (F values were 6.06, 11.32, 7.05, 13.25, 5.20, 9.48 and 6.14 respectively, P P P high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.64), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.44), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.39), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.38); job satisfaction of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.68), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.62), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.43), passenger shunting train drivers(R(2) = 0.38); to daily tension of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.54), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.37), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.33), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0

  8. One-proton halo in 26P and two-proton halo in 27S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhongzhou; Chen, Baoqiu; Ma, Zhongyu; Xu, Gongou

    1996-02-01

    Proton-drip-line nuclei 26P and 27S are studied in the nonlinear relativistic mean-field theory. Calculations show that the mean-square radius of protons in the 2s1/2 state is approximately 18-20 fm2 which is abnormally large as compared with the mean-square radii of proton, neutron, and matter distributions, giving a strong evidence for proton halos in 26P and 27S. This indicates that the size of proton halos is as large as that of neutron halos although there exists the Coulomb barrier in proton-drip-line nuclei.

  9. An application of the driver behavior questionnaire to Chinese carless young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Wang, Yifan; Man, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers turn into carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has become a matter of great concern in China. Because few studies have examined the driving behaviors of these drivers, this study aims to utilize the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) to investigate the self-reported driving behaviors of Chinese carless young drivers. A total of 523 Chinese carless young drivers (214 females, 309 males) with an average age of 21.91 years completed a questionnaire including the 27-item DBQ and demographics. The data were first randomized into 2 subsamples for factor analysis and then combined together for the following analyses. Both an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, n = 174) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, n = 349) were performed to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between the demographics and the DBQ scales' variables. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression were performed to investigate the prediction of the DBQ scales and crash involvement in the previous year. The EFA produced a 4-factor structure identified as errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses, and the CFA revealed a good model fit after the removal of one item with a low factor loading and the permission of the error covariance between some items. The Chinese carless young drivers reported a comparatively low level of aberrant driving behaviors. The 3 most frequently reported behaviors were all lapses and the 3 least were all violations. Gender was the only significant predictor of the 2 lapses scales and lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of the violations scale. Only the

  10. Cross- sections of large-angle hadron production in proton- and pion-nucleus interactions III: tantalum nuclei and beam momenta from $\\pm$ 3 GeV/c to $\\pm$ 15 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakova, A.; Chelkov, G.; Dedovitch, D.; Elagin, A.; Gostkin, M.; Guskov, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nikolaev, K.; Zhemchugov, A.; Dydak, F.; Wotschack, J.; De Min, A.; Ammosov, V.; Gapienko, V.; Koreshev, V.; Semak, A.; Sviridov, Yu.; Usenko, E.; Zaets, V.

    2009-01-01

    We report on double-differential inclusive cross-sections of the production of secondary protons, charged pions, and deuterons, in the interactions with a 5% $\\lambda_{abs}$ thick stationary tantalum target, of proton and pion beams with momentum from $\\pm{3} GeV/c to \\pm{15} GeV/c$. Results are given for secondary particles with production angles 20° &lt; heta &lt; 125° . They are of particular relevance for the optimization of the design parameters of the proton driver of a neutrino factory.

  11. Drivers of Diversification in Individual Life Courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Pacheco, Raisa; Steiner, Ulrich K

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages durin...

  12. Math on the Job. Local Truck Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of local truck drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to the…

  13. CARess, a gentle touch informs the driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    A prototype of Human Machine Interface (HMI) used to de- liver information to the driver in cars is described in this paper. The de- livery of information is based on the Informative Interruptive Cue (IIC) approach. The interface is a matrix of 4 x 3 vibrating motors, controlled through a real-ti...

  14. Driver Education for Motorcycle Operation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council, Forrest M.; And Others

    A three-year pilot project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a statewide off-road motorcycle training program for beginning drivers in North Carolina. The first year of the program involved approximately 422 students from five locations, the second year involved seven sites across the State. The three basic criteria for the…

  15. Driver electronic device use in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The 2008 hand-held cell phone use rate translates into 812,000 vehicles being driven by someone using a hand-held cell phone at any given daylight moment.1 It also translates into an estimated 11 percent of the vehicles whose drivers were using some ...

  16. Line driver with adaptive output impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    1996-01-01

    A line driver comprising: an input terminal for receiving an input signal, an output terminal for connecting a load, a first and a second transconductance-controlled transconductor having substantially equal transconductances, each transconductor having a non-inverting input, an inverting input, an

  17. Field testing driver night vision devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Kolletzki, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the available methodologies to field test driver night vision devices ranging from vehicle mounted camera’s to head-mounted NVG’s. As in flight trials, a formidable challenge is to collect meaningful performance measures. Night vision systems for land and air systems show many

  18. Innovation drivers and barriers in food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The food processing industry, confronted with increased global competition and more stringent customer demands, is pressurized to improve the pace and quality of its innovation processes. This paper aims to find out what factors constitute the main drivers and barriers to innovation and to

  19. The future: six drivers of global change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gore, Albert

    2013-01-01

    .... Once we turn, though, where will we be? That is the compelling question Al Gore sets out to answer by examining the drivers of global change, connecting the dots among the social, economic, and political forces shaping our present and future...

  20. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  1. Drivers of change for lakewater clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence A. Baker; Johanna E. Schussler; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2008-01-01

    Lakes in the Upper Midwest have undergone extensive lakeshore development over the past 30 years, raising concerns about eutrophication. We examined 11 case study lakes in Minnesota that had undergone substantial shoreline development over the past 30 years to evaluate drivers of change in clarity. Relationships between current Secchi disk transparency (SDT) and the...

  2. Compulsory treatment of 50 alcoholic drunken drivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-12

    Feb 12, 1983 ... Fifty alcoholic drunken drivers receivi~g treatment as part of a suspended sentence were studied to assess the efficacy of compulsory treatlJlent. Twenty-six showed improvement in drinking beha- viour, 12 did not co-op!'lrate and were referred back to court, 7 were re-arrested on further charges of drunken ...

  3. Vehicle automation: a remedy for driver stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, G; Matthews, G; Warm, J S; Emo, A K

    2007-08-01

    The present study addressed the effects of stress, vehicle automation and subjective state on driver performance and mood in a simulated driving task. A total of 168 college students participated. Participants in the stress-induction condition completed a 'winter' drive, which included periodic loss of control episodes. Participants in the no-stress-induction condition were not exposed to loss of control. An additional, independent manipulation of vehicle speed was also conducted, consisting of two control conditions requiring manual speed regulation and a third in which vehicle speed was automatically regulated by the simulation. Stress and automation both influenced subjective distress, but the two factors did not interact. Driver performance data indicated that vehicle automation impacted performance similarly in the stress and no-stress conditions. Individual differences in subjective stress response and performance were also investigated. Resource theory provides a framework that partially but not completely explains the relationship between vehicle automation and driver stress. Implications for driver workload, safety and training are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of Beginner Driver Education in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mayhew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although driver education (DE is widely accepted as an effective teen driver safety measure and widely available in the United States, Canada and elsewhere, evaluations have generally failed to show that such formal programs actually produce safer drivers. To address the issue of safety effects as part of a larger investigation, two studies were conducted to examine whether the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT-approved DE program was associated with reductions in collisions and convictions. In the first study, DE status among a relatively small sample of teens who completed an online survey was not found to have a significant effect on collisions and convictions. In the second study, of a much larger population of teen drivers, DE status was associated with a lower incidence of collisions and convictions. On balance, this suggests that the safety effects of DE are either neutral, based on the results of the first Oregon study, or cautiously optimistic based on the results of the second study. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of making improvements in DE that are evidence-based, and the need for further evaluation to establish that improved and new programs meet their safety objectives.

  5. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Zampaglione, V. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Ferrari, M. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Gallina, M. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Mazzone, G. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Nardi, C. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Petrizzi, L. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Rado, V. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Violante, V. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Daenner, W. (NET Team, Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)); Lorenzetto, P. (NET Team, Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)); Gierszewski, P. (CFFTP, Mississauga, ON (Canada)); Gratt

    1993-07-01

    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  6. Driver Circuit For High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzer, Kevin A.

    1991-01-01

    Driver circuit generates rapid-voltage-transition pulses needed to switch high-power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) modules rapidly between full "on" and full "off". Rapid switching reduces time of overlap between appreciable current through and appreciable voltage across such modules, thereby increasing power efficiency.

  7. Driver behaviour with adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Young, Mark S

    2005-08-15

    This paper reports on the evaluation of adaptive cruise control (ACC) from a psychological perspective. It was anticipated that ACC would have an effect upon the psychology of driving, i.e. make the driver feel like they have less control, reduce the level of trust in the vehicle, make drivers less situationally aware, but workload might be reduced and driving might be less stressful. Drivers were asked to drive in a driving simulator under manual and ACC conditions. Analysis of variance techniques were used to determine the effects of workload (i.e. amount of traffic) and feedback (i.e. degree of information from the ACC system) on the psychological variables measured (i.e. locus of control, trust, workload, stress, mental models and situation awareness). The results showed that: locus of control and trust were unaffected by ACC, whereas situation awareness, workload and stress were reduced by ACC. Ways of improving situation awareness could include cues to help the driver predict vehicle trajectory and identify conflicts.

  8. Secondary Behavior of Drivers on Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cell phone use by drivers leads to changes in the frequency of other types of potentially distracting behavior. There were 2 main questions of interest: (1) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent on other distracting behavior? (2) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent looking away from the driving task? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. The amount of driving time during each trip spent on tasks secondary to driving (or looking away from the driving task) was correlated to the amount of time on a cell phone, taking into account the relationships among trips taken by the same driver. Drivers spent 42% of the time engaging in at least one secondary activity. Drivers were talking on a cell phone 7% of the time, interacting in some other way with a cell phone 5% of the time, and engaging in some other secondary activity (sometimes in conjunction with cell phone use) 33% of the time. Other than cell phone use, the most common secondary activities were interacting with a passenger (12% of driving time), holding but not otherwise interacting with an object (6%), and talking/singing/dancing to oneself (5%). Drivers were looking straight forward 81% of the time, forward left or right 5% of time, in a mirror 4% of the time, and elsewhere (eyes off driving task) 10% of time. On average, for each 1 percentage point increase in cell phone talking, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.28 percentage points (P phone interaction per trip, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.08 percentage points (P =.0558), but the rate of eyes off driving task increased by 0.06 percentage points (P phone can be distracting from the driving task, other secondary activities can be equally or more distracting, at least as measured by eye glances away from the

  9. The ATLAS Forward Proton Detector (AFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstein, S.; AFP Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector will identify events in which one or two protons emerge intact from the proton-proton collisions at the LHC. Tracking and timing detectors will be placed 2-3 mm from the beam, 210 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. The silicon-based tracker will provide momentum measurement, while the time of flight system is used to reduce the background from multiple proton-proton collisions. The study of soft and hard diffractive events at low luminosities (μ ≈ 1) is the core of the AFP physics program. This paper presents an overview of the project with particular emphasis on the qualification of the pixel and timing systems.

  10. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foote Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.

  11. Methodology to evaluate teen driver training programs : [brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, teenage drivers are more at risk of being involved in crashes than : any other age group. Statistics reveal a clear need for improving teenagers driving : skills, judgment and behavior. Driver education programs are a crucial...

  12. Driver education practices in selected states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Teen drivers have the highest crash rate per mile driven of any : age group (Williams, Ferguson, & Wells, 2005). Immaturity and : inexperience are two explanations for why novice teen drivers : have such a high crash risk (Arnett, 1992; Mayhew, Simps...

  13. 78 FR 72149 - Qualification of Drivers; Application for Exemptions; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Idaho. Norman Estes Mr. Estes, 60, holds a Class A commercial driver's license (CDL) in Alabama. David... a Class A commercial driver's license (CDL) in Nebraska. William Symonds Mr. Symonds, 55, holds a...

  14. European advanced driver training programs: Reasons for optimism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Washington, Simon; Cole, Robert J; Herbel, Susan B

    2011-01-01

    Post license advanced driver training programs in the US and early programs in Europe have often failed to accomplish their stated objectives because, it is suspected, that drivers gain self perceived...

  15. Issuance of driver licenses and identification cards to prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    In 2009, the Oregon Legislature passed House Bill 2489, requiring the Oregon Driver and Motor Vehicle (DMV) Services Division and the Department of Corrections (DOC) to enter into agreements and adopt rules to assist offenders in obtaining a driver l...

  16. Development of a statistical method for predicting human driver decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As autonomous vehicles enter the fleet, there will be a long period when these vehicles will have to interact with : human drivers. One of the challenges for autonomous vehicles is that human drivers do not communicate their : decisions well. However...

  17. 78 FR 63285 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  18. 78 FR 78479 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  19. 78 FR 63280 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  20. 78 FR 65034 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  1. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated : characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by com...

  2. 78 FR 63295 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... individuals for exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  3. The Effect of Passengers on Teen Driver Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...

  4. Aggregate driver model to enable predictable behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A.; Chakravarty, T.; Banerjee, T.; Balamuralidhar, P.

    2015-09-01

    The categorization of driving styles, particularly in terms of aggressiveness and skill is an emerging area of interest under the broader theme of intelligent transportation. There are two possible discriminatory techniques that can be applied for such categorization; a microscale (event based) model and a macro-scale (aggregate) model. It is believed that an aggregate model will reveal many interesting aspects of human-machine interaction; for example, we may be able to understand the propensities of individuals to carry out a given task over longer periods of time. A useful driver model may include the adaptive capability of the human driver, aggregated as the individual propensity to control speed/acceleration. Towards that objective, we carried out experiments by deploying smartphone based application to be used for data collection by a group of drivers. Data is primarily being collected from GPS measurements including position & speed on a second-by-second basis, for a number of trips over a two months period. Analysing the data set, aggregate models for individual drivers were created and their natural aggressiveness were deduced. In this paper, we present the initial results for 12 drivers. It is shown that the higher order moments of the acceleration profile is an important parameter and identifier of journey quality. It is also observed that the Kurtosis of the acceleration profiles stores major information about the driving styles. Such an observation leads to two different ranking systems based on acceleration data. Such driving behaviour models can be integrated with vehicle and road model and used to generate behavioural model for real traffic scenario.

  5. Statistical analysis of SAMPEX PET proton measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrard, V; Heynderickx, D; Kruglanski, M; Looper, M; Blake, B; Mewaldt, D

    2000-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the distributions of proton counts from the Proton-Electron Telescope aboard the low-altitude polar satellite SAMPEX. Our statistical analysis shows that histograms of observed proton counts are generally distributed according to Poisson distributions but are sometimes quite different. The observed departures from Poisson distributions can be attributed to variations of the average flux or to the non-constancy of the detector lifetimes.

  6. Driver behaviour modelling and cognitive engineering tools development in order to assess driver sitation awareness

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGEON, Olivier L.; Bellet, Thierry; Mille, Alain; Letisserand, Daniel; Martin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Our global objective is to define a framework for car driving behaviour analysis in order to assess driver's situation awareness. We present models, methods and software tools inspired from the "Experience Based Reasoning" theory coming from the field of artificial intelligence. It allows a construction of a representation of the driving activity including data collected in real driving situations as well as interpretations made on the driver's mental model of the situ...

  7. DriverDB: an exome sequencing database for cancer driver gene identification

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Wei-Chung; Chung, I-Fang; Chen, Chen-Yang; Sun, Hsing-Jen; Fen, Jun-Jeng; Tang, Wei-Chun; Chang, Ting-Yu; Wong, Tai-Tong; Wang, Hsei-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Exome sequencing (exome-seq) has aided in the discovery of a huge amount of mutations in cancers, yet challenges remain in converting oncogenomics data into information that is interpretable and accessible for clinical care. We constructed DriverDB (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/driverdb/), a database which incorporates 6079 cases of exome-seq data, annotation databases (such as dbSNP, 1000 Genome and Cosmic) and published bioinformatics algorithms dedicated to driver gene/mutation identification. We ...

  8. Level of neurotic disorders among drivers causing traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Filipović Danka

    2007-01-01

    Different aspects of driver personality may affect traffic safety. Extended driver reaction time causes deceleration of the reflexes, which is a major cause of traffic accidents. Cornell index was used in 30 drivers responsible for traffic accidents, with the aim to measure their level of neurotic disorder and compare them with results of controls (drivers not responsible for traffic accidents). Reaction time was measured and compared among subjects with normal results of Cornell test and tho...

  9. Monitoring the driver's activity using 3D information

    OpenAIRE

    Peláez Coronado, Gustavo Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Driver supervision is crucial in safety systems for the driver. It is important to monitor the driver to understand his necessities, patterns of movements and behaviour under determined circumstances. The availability of an accurate tool to supervise the driver’s behaviour allows multiple objectives to be achieved such as the detection of drowsiness (analysing the head movements and blinking pattern) and distraction (estimating where the driver is looking by studying the head and eyes positio...

  10. Evaluation of drivers\\' behavior performing a curve under mental workload

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Sartori Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Driving under distraction may lead drivers to wrong actions that can result in serious accidents. The objective of this thesis was to apply a driving simulator to verify variations in drivers\\' behavior while driving. Behavior to drive on a curve was measured by variation in drivers\\' speed profile in a virtualized highway. The comparison was performed between two identical simulations, one involving drivers distracted with a mental workload, and other in which they were full aware of driving...

  11. Very Forward proton-proton interactions with the LHCf detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, Alessia

    2013-01-01

    The LHCf experiment has been designed to precisely measure very forward neutral particle spectra produced in proton-proton collisions at LHC up to an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass system. These measurements are of fundamental importance to calibrate the Monte Carlo models widely used in the high energy cosmic ray (HECR) field, up to an equivalent laboratory energy of the order of 1017 eV. In 2009-2010 the experiment has completed the p-p data taking at sqrt{s} = 0.9 TeV and sqrt{s}=7 TeV and the detectors have later on been removed from the tunnel region, when the LHC luminosity increased above 1030 cm-2s-1. In this paper the most up-to-date results on the inclusive photon spectra and the pi0 spectra measured by LHCf are reported. Comparison of these spectra with the model expectations and the impact on high energy cosmic ray (HECR) Physics are discussed. In addition, perspectives for future analyses as well as the program for the next data taking period, in particular the foreseen data taking in p-P...

  12. ππ Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorodko, T.; Bashkanov, M.; Bogoslowsky, D.; Calén, H.; Cappellaro, F.; Clement, H.; Demiroers, L.; Ekström, C.; Fransson, K.; Greiff, J.; Gustafsson, L.; Höistad, B.; Ivanov, G.; Jacewicz, M.; Jiganov, E.; Johansson, T.; Kaskulov, M. M.; Keleta, S.; Khakimova, O.; Koch, I.; Kren, F.; Kullander, S.; Kupść, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Meier, R.; Morosov, B.; Oelert, W.; Pauly, C.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Ruber, R. J. M. Y.; Schwick, A.; Scobel, W.; Shafigullin, R.; Shwartz, B.; Sopov, V.; Stepaniak, J.; Tchernyshev, V.; Thörngren-Engblom, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Turowiecki, A.; Wagner, G. J.; Wolke, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Zabierowski, J.; Złomanćzuk, J.

    At CELSIUS-WASA the two-pion production in proton-proton collisisons has been measured exclusively from threshold up to the energy regime, where both of the collision partners are expected to be excited to the Δ state. The measurements constitute the first kinematically complete data samples of solid statistics in this energy range. Most of the data have been obtained for the π+π- and π0π0channels. Whereas at near-threshold energies the differential distributions can be succesfully explained by chiral dynamics and Roper excitation, respectively, the data for the π+π- channel in the ΔΔ region can be described only, if the special configuration (ΔΔ)0+ is assumed. The data for the π0π0 channel moreover exhibit a low-mass enhancement in the π0π0 invariant mass spectrum, which is reminiscent of the ABC-effect found in double-pionic fusion to light nuclei.

  13. Transverse relaxation of scalar-coupled protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Takuya F; Baishya, Bikash; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-10-25

    In a preliminary communication (B. Baishya, T. F. Segawa, G. Bodenhausen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 17538-17539), we recently demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clean echo decays of protons in biomolecules despite the presence of homonuclear scalar couplings. These unmodulated decays allow one to determine apparent transverse relaxation rates R(2) (app) of individual protons. Herein, we report the observation of R(2) (app) for three methyl protons, four amide H(N) protons, and all 11 backbone H(α) protons in cyclosporin A. If the proton resonances overlap, their R(2) (app) rates can be measured by transferring their magnetization to neighboring (13)C nuclei, which are less prone to overlap. The R(2) (app) rates of protons attached to (13)C are faster than those attached to (12)C because of (13)C-(1)H dipolar interactions. The differences of these rates allow the determination of local correlation functions. Backbone H(N) and H(α) protons that have fast decay rates R(2) (app) also feature fast longitudinal relaxation rates R(1) and intense NOESY cross peaks that are typical of crowded environments. Variations of R(2) (app) rates of backbone H(α) protons in similar amino acids reflect differences in local environments.

  14. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, M B; Arendse, G J; Cowley, A A; Richter, W A; Lawrie, J J; Newman, R T; Pilcher, J V; Smit, F D; Steyn, G F; Koen, J W; Stander, J A

    1999-01-01

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  15. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training, safety incentivisation, and vehicle roadworthy modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A van Niekerk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa (SA, the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of legal speeds or at inappropriate speeds; driving while under the influence of alcohol, while sleepy or fatigued; or driving without using protective equipment for vehicle occupants. There are currently very few SA interventions that specifically target this important industry role-player. The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive driver training, eye- testing, vehicle roadworthy inspections with selected upgrades, incentives for safe performance, and implementation of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour information updates. This quasi-experimental study offers an evaluation of the initial impact on safety performance of this telematics-based driver and vehicle safety intervention in terms of speeding, acceleration, braking, cornering, and time-of-day driving, and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that some school transport vehicles are used for multiple purposes outside of school transport duties, at night, and for longer distances, overall these vehicles recorded lower percentages of speeding, lower harsh braking, and lower average harsh cornering and acceleration than general drivers.

  16. Saturating Cronin effect in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Gabor; Levai, Peter; Fai, George

    1999-01-01

    Pion and photon production cross sections are analyzed in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions at energies 20 GeV < s^1/2 < 60 GeV. We separate the proton-proton and nuclear contributions to transverse-momentum broadening and suggest a new mechanism for the nuclear enhancement in the high transverse-momentum region.

  17. Storage ring proton EDM experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity of 10^-29 e-cm.  The strength of the method originates from the fact that there are high intensity polarized proton beams available and the fact that the so-called geometric phase systematic error background cancels with clock-wise and counter-clock-wise storage possible in electric rings. The ultimate sensitivity of the method is 10^-30 e-cm. At this level it will either detect a non-zero EDM or it will eliminate electro-weak baryogenesis.

  18. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Trotter, Steven

    2017-09-01

    In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  19. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  20. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2010-09-21

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  1. High frequency MOSFET gate drivers technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    This book describes high frequency power MOSFET gate driver technologies, including gate drivers for GaN HEMTs, which have great potential in the next generation of switching power converters. Gate drivers serve as a critical role between control and power devices.

  2. Driver medical review practices across the United States : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    There were 38.4 million licensed older drivers in 2014a 31% : increase from 10 years earlier (2005). Furthermore, older drivers as : a percentage of all licensed drivers increased from 15% in 2005 to : 18% in 2014 (National Center for Statistics a...

  3. Prevalence of Psychoactive Drug Use by Taxi Drivers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To ascertain the prevalence and nature of psychoactive drug use amongst taxi drivers in Nigeria. Materials and Method: A total of 192 taxi drivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria was studied using a questionnaire. Information obtained from the questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the drivers, ...

  4. Licensing and Other Controls of the Drinking Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.

    Driver licensing, the only state program with the opportunity for routine personal contact with every driver, has unmatched potential for both general and specific countermeasures to the problem of drunk driving. General countermeasures apply to large groups of drivers prior to the occurrence of any infraction. They may be considered basically…

  5. 49 CFR 380.111 - Substitute for driver training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitute for driver training. 380.111 Section 380.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...-General § 380.111 Substitute for driver training. (a) Grandfather clause. The LCV driver-training...

  6. Pattern of Eye Diseases among Commercial Intercity Vehicle Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of eye diseases among commercial intercity vehicle drivers (CIVDs) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methodology: Out of the estimated 450 drivers operating in the five major motor parks for CIVDs in Ilorin, 399 consecutive drivers participated in the study.

  7. 18- to 24-year-olds : young drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The fatality rate (fatalities per distance travelled) of young drivers (18- to 24-year-olds) is more than five times higher than that of drivers between the ages of 30 and 59 years. The fatality rate of young males is even as much as ten times higher. The high risk of young drivers is due to both

  8. Traffic safety issues in North Dakota : phase II : driver knowledge, attitude, behavior and beliefs : focus group : young male drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Traffic safety is a widespread social concern. Tackling the problem requires understanding the people : who are driving. This includes information about driver behavior, but also about perceptions these drivers : hold regarding their driving. North D...

  9. Influence of proton scattering angles on the energy radiograph in proton radiotherapy : A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, A.K.; Takatsu, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; van der Graaf, E.R.; van Goethem, M-J.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment quality of cancer patients with a proton beam critically depends on accurate predictions of proton stopping powers. Uncertainties in proton range that occur from translation of an X-ray CT patient image, of typical 3–4% or more, lead to necessary enlargements of contours around the

  10. Proton energy and scattering angle radiographs to improve proton treatment planning : a Monte Carlo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra; Takatsu, Jun; Nakaji, Taku; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van der Graaf, Emiel; Koffeman, E.; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    2016-01-01

    The novel proton radiography imaging technique has a large potential to be used in direct measurement of the proton energy loss (proton stopping power, PSP) in various tissues in the patient. The uncertainty of PSPs, currently obtained from translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) images,

  11. Charged-Particle Multiplicity Distributions over Wide Pseudorapidity Range in Proton-Proton and Proton-Lead Collisions with ALICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaccolo, Valentina

    The charged–particle distribution (P(Nch) as a function of Nch), producedin high energy collisions between protons (pp) and between protons and heavynucleus (pPb), depends on the fundamental processes, which lead to the formationof the observed particles. In particular, the so–called multiplicity...

  12. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton production in proton-proton collisions at root s=7 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, J.; Adamova, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R. Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Pedrosa, F. Baltasar Dos Santos; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoeldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Martinez, H. Bello; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Boettger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Diaz, L. Calero; Caliva, A.; Villar, E. Calvo; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; del Valle, Z. Conesa; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Maldonado, I. Cortes; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Albino, R. Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Denes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dnigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhoje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Dziadus, E. Gladysz; Glaessel, P.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Gonzalez Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. -Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Uysal, A. Karasu; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Koehler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Meethaleveedu, G. Koyithatta; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kravcakova, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Monzon, I. Leon; Leoncino, M.; Levai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Lu, X. -G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marin, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Blanco, J. Martin; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M. I.; Garcia, G. Martinez; Pedreira, M. Martinez; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Perez, J. Mercado; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; De Godoy, D. A. Moreira; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muehlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mueller, H.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Da Costa, H. Pereira; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Lara, C. E. Perez; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasanen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. -P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Manso, A. Rodriguez; Roed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Roehrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Castro, X. Sanchez; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Sogaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Stassinaki, M. Spyropoulou; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; De Toledo, A. Szanto; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Takaki, J. D. Tapia; Peloni, A. Tarantola; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Munoz, G. Tejeda; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thaeder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Palomo, L. Valencia; Vallero, S.; Van der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Limon, S. Vergara; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Vlkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I. -K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of primary pi(+/-), K-+/-, p and (p) over bar production at mid-rapidity (|y| <0.5) in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV performed with a large ion collider experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) is reported. Particle identification is performed using the specific

  13. The fatal injuries of car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, A; Chambost, M; Chiron, M

    2009-01-30

    We often refer to road fatalities without knowing exactly what injuries are responsible for them. Based on the Rhône Road Trauma Registry this paper sets out to describe the topography, nature and frequency of the fatal injuries sustained by car drivers. Mean annual mortality at the wheel of a car, computed by dividing the total number of drivers killed (n=383) by the population of the Rhône Département (1.6 million) during the period 1996-2004 was 5.41 males per 100,000 and 1.41 females per 100,000, with 78% of the casualties residing in the Département. A reduction has been observed since 2003. Three-quarters of the casualties died at the scene of the crash. The results confirm the effectiveness of seat belts. The observed lethality was 0.43% for unbelted drivers and 2.7% for belted drivers (RR=0.16 [0.12; 0.21]). The injuries were analyzed for the 287 killed drivers whose deaths could be explained by the described injuries (at least one AIS 4+ injury). Of these, 41% had an ISS of 75 (at least one AIS 6 injury), 21% had an ISS of between 40 and 74, 33% an ISS of between 25 and 40, and 6% an ISS of between 16 and 24. In the case of all the AIS 4+ injuries, the three most frequent locations for injuries were the thorax only (30% of casualties), the head only (23%) and a combination of the two (18%). Abdominal injuries occurred in only 10% of casualties and spinal injuries in 9% of casualties. In the thorax, the most common injury was flail chest with haemothorax or pneumothorax. In the case of the head, the most frequent injuries were to the brain (haemorrhage, haematoma and axonal injuries). Complex fractures of the base of the skull were the second most common craniocephalic injuries. In spite of the use of restraint devices, the thorax and head are still the priority vital areas for protection in the case of car drivers. For one in four of the fatalities, death cannot be explained by any of the injuries we know about. As road traffic accidents are considered

  14. Proton pump inhibitors and osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjarne Nesgaard; Johansen, Per Birger; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. This review focuses, in particular, on new studies published in the last 18 months and a di......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. This review focuses, in particular, on new studies published in the last 18 months...... and a discussion of these findings and how this has influenced our understanding of this association, the clinical impact and the underlying pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have further strengthened existing evidence linking use of PPIs to osteoporosis. Short-term use does not appear to pose a lower...... risk than long-term use. There is a continued lack of conclusive studies identifying the pathogenesis. Direct effects on calcium absorption or on osteoblast or osteoclast action cannot at present plausibly explain the mechanism. SUMMARY: The use of PPIs is a risk factor for development of osteoporosis...

  15. The ATLAS Forward Proton Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebinski, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton Programme - talk for the Low-x 2012 Meeting Quartic anomalous couplings measurement at μ = 46 and a total luminosity of 300 fb−1 is possible. The full AFP simulation in presence of pile-up confirms the gain in sensitivity between one and two orders of magnitude with respect to the standard (non-AFP) ATLAS methods. The use of the AFP allows reaching the values expected in Higgs-less or extra-dimension models. The production of exclusive dijet for μ = 23 and a total luminosity of 40 fb−1 the measurement is possible and interesting due to the huge model uncertainties at present level of the theory understanding. The measurement of the W asymmetry in a specific configuration at low μ allows to get a decisive understanding on the diffractive exchange. For all physics cases, AFP capabilities in terms of proton tagging and timing resolution are key and unique features unprecedented sensitivity to quartic anomalous coupling or novel QCD measurements.

  16. Compliance With and Enforcement of Graduated Driver Licensing Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Allison E.; Pfeiffer, Melissa R.; Elliott, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is the most effective strategy to reduce the burden of young driver crashes, but the extent to which young intermediate (newly licensed) drivers comply with and police enforce important GDL passenger and night-time restrictions is largely unknown. Population-level rates of intermediate drivers’ compliance were estimated as well as police enforcement among crash-involved drivers who were non-compliant. Methods New Jersey’s statewide driver licensing and crash databases were individually linked. The quasi-induced exposure method’s fundamental assumption—that non-responsible young intermediate drivers in clean (i.e., only one responsible driver) multivehicle crashes are reasonably representative of young intermediate drivers on the road—was borrowed. Incidence was then estimated among the 9,250 non-responsible intermediate drivers who were involved in clean multivehicle crashes from July 2010 through June 2012. The proportion of crash-involved non-compliant intermediate drivers who were issued a GDL citation, by crash responsibility, was calculated. Data were collected in 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Results Overall, 8.3% (95% CI=7.8%, 8.9%) of intermediate drivers’ trips were non-compliant with New Jersey’s passenger restriction and 3.1% (95% CI=2.8%, 3.5%) with its night-time restriction; compliance was significantly lower among those residing in low-income and urban areas, among male drivers, on weekends, and in summer months. The proportion of crash-involved non-compliant intermediate drivers who were issued a GDL citation was low (non-responsible drivers, 10.3%; responsible drivers, 19.0%). Conclusions The vast majority of intermediate driver trips are in compliance with GDL restrictions. Outreach activities should consider targeting higher-risk situations and groups with higher non-compliance rates. PMID:27746012

  17. Do young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills more than experienced drivers? : different methods lead to different conclusions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors argue that drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills, in order to sufficiently adapt to their task demands in traffic. There are indications that drivers in general, but novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. However, study

  18. Do young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills more than experienced drivers? Different methods lead to different conclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Craen, S.; Twisk, D. A. M.; Hagenzieker, M. P.; Elffers, H.; Brookhuis, K. A.

    In this study we argue that drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills, in order to sufficiently adapt to their task demands in traffic. There are indications that drivers in general, but novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. However, study results

  19. A COOPERATIVE ASSISTANCE SYSTEM BETWEEN VEHICLES FOR ELDERLY DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohisa HASHIMOTO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new concept of elderly driver assistance systems, which performs the assistance by cooperative driving between two vehicles, and describes some experiments with elderly drivers. The assistance consists of one vehicle driven by an elderly driver called a guest vehicle and the other driven by a assisting driver called a host vehicle, and the host vehicle assists or escorts the guest vehicle through the inter-vehicle communications. The functions of the systems installed on a single-seat electric vehicle are highly evaluated by subjects of elderly drivers in virtual streets on a test track.

  20. Data fusion for driver behaviour analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José María

    2015-10-14

    A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  1. Cell-intrinsic drivers of dendrite morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Sidharth V; Bonni, Azad

    2013-12-01

    The proper formation and morphogenesis of dendrites is fundamental to the establishment of neural circuits in the brain. Following cell cycle exit and migration, neurons undergo organized stages of dendrite morphogenesis, which include dendritic arbor growth and elaboration followed by retraction and pruning. Although these developmental stages were characterized over a century ago, molecular regulators of dendrite morphogenesis have only recently been defined. In particular, studies in Drosophila and mammalian neurons have identified numerous cell-intrinsic drivers of dendrite morphogenesis that include transcriptional regulators, cytoskeletal and motor proteins, secretory and endocytic pathways, cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin ligases, and components of other signaling cascades. Here, we review cell-intrinsic drivers of dendrite patterning and discuss how the characterization of such crucial regulators advances our understanding of normal brain development and pathogenesis of diverse cognitive disorders.

  2. Electromagnetic propulsion alternatives. [in mass drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Fine, K.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1979-01-01

    Mass drivers can serve to propel massive objects by expelling any available material as reaction mass, however, mass driver engines have several limitations such as relatively large payload size and dynamic stability problems. A number of alternative acceleration mechanisms exist which offer advantages for certain applications, such as higher acceleration at a sacrifice in efficiency, smaller possible size and decreased complexity at a sacrifice in service life, etc. The alternative concepts include several variants of the railgun, a family of superconducting slingshot oscillators, a momentum transformer, an impulse induction motor, and a family of hybrid synchronous accelerators. A potential application of considerable interest is the earth-based launching of space cargo or nuclear waste by using off-peak generating capacity to accelerate one ton cargo cylinders at intervals of several minutes.

  3. The driver landscape of sporadic chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey, Patrick S; Behjati, Sam; Young, Matthew D; Martincorena, Inigo; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Farndon, Sarah J; Guzzo, Charlotte; Hardy, Claire; Latimer, Calli; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Shlien, Adam; Futreal, P Andrew; Shah, Sohrab; Bashashati, Ali; Jamshidi, Farzad; Nielsen, Torsten O; Huntsman, David; Baumhoer, Daniel; Brandner, Sebastian; Wunder, Jay; Dickson, Brendan; Cogswell, Patricia; Sommer, Josh; Phillips, Joanna J; Amary, M Fernanda; Tirabosco, Roberto; Pillay, Nischalan; Yip, Stephen; Stratton, Michael R; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Campbell, Peter J

    2017-10-12

    Chordoma is a malignant, often incurable bone tumour showing notochordal differentiation. Here, we defined the somatic driver landscape of 104 cases of sporadic chordoma. We reveal somatic duplications of the notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T) in up to 27% of cases. These variants recapitulate the rearrangement architecture of the pathogenic germline duplications of T that underlie familial chordoma. In addition, we find potentially clinically actionable PI3K signalling mutations in 16% of cases. Intriguingly, one of the most frequently altered genes, mutated exclusively by inactivating mutation, was LYST (10%), which may represent a novel cancer gene in chordoma.Chordoma is a rare often incurable malignant bone tumour. Here, the authors investigate driver mutations of sporadic chordoma in 104 cases, revealing duplications in notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T), PI3K signalling mutations, and mutations in LYST, a potential novel cancer gene in chordoma.

  4. Data Fusion for Driver Behaviour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carmona

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  5. Identifying driver mutations in sequenced cancer genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raphael, Benjamin J; Dobson, Jason R; Oesper, Layla

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing is revolutionizing the study of cancer and enabling the measurement of the somatic mutations that drive cancer development. However, the resulting sequencing datasets are large and complex, obscuring the clinically important mutations in a background of errors, noise......, and random mutations. Here, we review computational approaches to identify somatic mutations in cancer genome sequences and to distinguish the driver mutations that are responsible for cancer from random, passenger mutations. First, we describe approaches to detect somatic mutations from high-throughput DNA...... sequencing data, particularly for tumor samples that comprise heterogeneous populations of cells. Next, we review computational approaches that aim to predict driver mutations according to their frequency of occurrence in a cohort of samples, or according to their predicted functional impact on protein...

  6. Driver Behavior Modeling: Developments and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah AbuAli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in wireless communication schemes, mobile cloud and fog computing, and context-aware services boost a growing interest in the design, development, and deployment of driver behavior models for emerging applications. Despite the progressive advancements in various aspects of driver behavior modeling (DBM, only limited work can be found that reviews the growing body of literature, which only targets a subset of DBM processes. Thus a more general review of the diverse aspects of DBM, with an emphasis on the most recent developments, is needed. In this paper, we provide an overview of advances of in-vehicle and smartphone sensing capabilities and communication and recent applications and services of DBM and emphasize research challenges and key future directions.

  7. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbel, Stephen T; Berry, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver's license.

  8. Centroid theory of transverse electron-proton two-stream instability in a long proton bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Sen F. Wang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical investigation of the transverse electron-proton (e-p two-stream instability in a proton bunch propagating through a stationary electron background. The equations of motion, including damping effects, are derived for the centroids of the proton beam and the electron cloud by considering Lorentzian and Gaussian frequency spreads for the particles. For a Lorentzian frequency distribution, we derive the asymptotic solution of the coupled linear centroid equations in the time domain and study the e-p instability in proton bunches with nonuniform line densities. Examples are given for both uniform and parabolic proton line densities.

  9. The quark fraction of the proton spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandula, J.E. (Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High Energy Physics)

    1992-05-01

    We report on a lattice QCD estimate of the fraction of the proton spin that the quark spin is responsible for. The estimate is arrived at by means of a lattice QCD simulation of the polarized proton matrix element of the anomaly, F[sub [mu][nu

  10. LHC Availability 2017: Standard Proton Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; Walsh, David John; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period from restart to the end of standard proton physics in 2017. This covers the whole standard proton physics production period. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  11. Proton Therapy Research and Treatment Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodnight, J.E. Jr. (University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center); Alonso, J.R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This Grant proposal outlines the steps that will be undertaken to bring the UC Davis Proton Therapy Research and Treatment, known locally as the Proton Therapy Facility (PTF), through its design and construction phases. This application concentrates on the design phase of the PTF project.

  12. Electron and proton transport by NADPH oxidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaurex, Nicolas; Petheö, Gábor L

    2005-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase is the main weapon of phagocytic white blood cells that are the first line of defence of our body against invading pathogens, and patients lacking a functional oxidase suffer from severe and recurrent infections. The oxidase is a multisubunit enzyme complex that transports electrons from cytoplasmic NADPH to molecular oxygen in order to generate superoxide free radicals. Electron transport across the plasma membrane is electrogenic and is associated with the flux of protons through voltage-activated proton channels. Both proton and electron currents can be recorded with the patch-clamp technique, but whether the oxidase is a proton channel or a proton channel modulator remains controversial. Recently, we have used the inside–out configuration of the patch-clamp technique to record proton and electron currents in excised patches. This approach allows us to measure the oxidase activity under very controlled conditions, and has provided new information about the enzymatic activity of the oxidase and its coupling to proton channels. In this chapter I will discuss how the unique characteristics of the electron and proton currents associated with the redox activity of the NADPH oxidase have extended our knowledge about the thermodynamics and the physiological regulation of this remarkable enzyme. PMID:16321802

  13. Proton radioactivity with analytically solvable potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    been carried out to study the proton radioactivity from proton-rich nuclei [2]. The existing theoretical studies can be classified into two broad categories. In the first category different theoretical approaches are based on quantum mechanical foun- dation such as transmission through a potential barrier [3], distorted wave Born.

  14. Configuration Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S. Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W. W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Svirida, D.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present our design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. We provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  15. CONFIGURATION MANUAL POLARIZED PROTON COLLIDER AT RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROSER,T.; MACKAY,W.W.; ALEKSEEV,I.; BAI,M.; BROWN,K.; BUNCE,G.; CAMERON,P.; COURANT,E.; ET AL.

    2001-03-01

    In this report, the authors present their design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. They provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  16. [Interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsze, A.M.; Boer, A. de; Boot, H.; Deneer, V.H.; Heringa, M.; Mol, P.G.; Schalekamp, T.; Verduijn, M.M.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Comte, M. le

    2011-01-01

    The drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel has been the subject of much study in recent years. Contradictory results regarding the effect of proton pump inhibitors on platelet reactivity and on clinical outcome in clopidogrel-treated patients have been reported in

  17. Drivers of Symbiotic Quality in Wild Bradyrhizobium

    OpenAIRE

    Gano, Kelsey Annette

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of variation in symbiont quality is a fundamental objective in the study of mutualisms. Eukaryotic hosts express control traits that can selectively favor beneficial symbionts over ineffective genotypes, but bacterial symbionts range widely in beneficial quality. Evolutionary instability in symbiotic function and/or context dependency in the expression of symbiotic traits are predicted to contribute to this variation. The Acmispon-Bradyrhizobium mutualism is a model ...

  18. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Emerson, Jamie L; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y; Anderson, Steven W; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and to predict older drivers performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. A total of 203 drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years and older) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40 to 64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than did middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers.Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors, and executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older drivers' management of driving tasks at multiple levels and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers.

  19. Aging and fatal accidents in male and female drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L

    1994-11-01

    The effect of aging on fatal accident characteristics of male and female drivers was investigated using Finnish fatal-accident case study material from the period 1984-1990. Age-bound changes in accident characteristics (e.g., increase of at-fault accidents and of collisions in intersections) appeared in both sexes but seemed to affect female drivers at an earlier age and to a higher degree. When the sexes differed in accident characteristics, those of female drivers were more like the ones typically found in older drivers. The female drivers were also both quantitatively and qualitatively less experienced as drivers than their male counterparts. Thus, the lower resistance of women to the effects of aging on driving may be explained by their lower skill level. In future cohorts of old drivers, decrease of sex differences in experience will presumably attenuate the sex differences in accident characteristics.

  20. Driving drowsy also worsens driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Clare; Horne, James A

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory-based studies show that drowsiness increases the propensity to become distracted. As this phenomenon has not been investigated in drowsy drivers, we underwent a pilot study under realistic monotonous driving conditions to see if distraction was more apparent when drowsy; if so, how does it affect driving performance? A repeated measures counterbalanced design whereby participants drove for two hours in a fully interactive car simulator during the bi circadian afternoon drive, after a night of either normal (baseline) or restricted sleep to five hours (sleep restriction). Videos of drivers' faces were analysed blind for short (3 s) distractions, in which drivers took their eyes off the road ahead. These results were compared with the likelihood of simultaneous lane-drifting incidents, when at least two wheels left the driving lane. More distractions occurred after restricted sleep (pdriving incidents for both conditions but with significantly more distraction-related incidents after sleep restriction (pdriving performance as evidenced by the car leaving the driving lane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  2. Minimizing driver's irritation at a roadblock

    CERN Document Server

    Vleugels, C J J; Anthonissen, M J H; Seidman, T I

    2013-01-01

    Urban traffic is a logistic issue which can have many societal implications, especially when, due to a too high density of cars, the network of streets of a city becomes blocked, and consequently, pedestrians, bicycles, and cars start sharing the same traffic conditions potentially leading to high irritations (of people) and therefore to chaos. In this paper we focus our attention on a simple scenario: We model the driver's irritation induced by the presence of a roadblock. As a natural generalization, we extend the model for the two one-way crossroads traffic presented by M.E. Fouladvand and M. Nematollahi to that of a roadblock. Our discrete model defines and minimizes the total waiting time. The novelty lies in introducing the (total) driver's irritation and its minimization. Finally, we apply our model to a real-world situation: rush hour traffic in Hillegom, The Netherlands. We observe that minimizing the total waiting time and minimizing the total driver's irritation lead to different traffic light stra...

  3. Underlying substance abuse problems in drunk drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snenghi, Rossella; Forza, Giovanni; Favretto, Donata; Sartore, Daniela; Rodinis, Silvia; Terranova, Claudio; Nalesso, Alessandro; Montisci, Massimo; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate polydrug use in drunk drivers. The experimental study was conducted on 2,072 drunk drivers undergoing a driving license reissue protocol at the Department of Legal Medicine of Padova University Hospital in the period between January 2011 and December 2012. The study protocol involved anamnesis, clinical examination, toxicological history, and toxicological analyses on multiple biological samples. One thousand eight hundred seventy-seven subjects (90.6%) were assessed as fit to drive, and 195 (9.5%) were declared unfit. Among those unfit, 32 subjects (1.6%) were declared unfit due to recent use of an illicit drug (time span drive after completeness of the protocol was established in 1.2% of cases for alcohol disorders and in 5.7% of cases for illicit drug abuse; only one subject was included in both subgroups. Cocaine was the most widely used substance, followed by cannabis, opiates, and psychotropic pharmaceutical drugs. The application of the protocol presented in this study allowed the identification of underlying polydrug use in drunk drivers. The study led to the identification of 6.8% unfit subjects on the basis of alcohol disorders and/or drug abuse, compared to 1.2% of identifiable unfitness if the protocol were limited to the mere assessment of alcohol consumption. The frequent association of alcohol and cocaine is different from other patterns of use in North Europe countries.

  4. Electron injection by relativistic protons in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Marek; Kirk, John G.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Schneider, Peter

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that protons with Lorentz factors larger than about 1,000,000 are cooled very rapidly by collisions with soft photons in the environment of an AGN. If the energy distribution of accelerated protons is sufficiently flat, then most of the energy contained in relativistic protons will be transformed to pairs, and then to radiation. Under these conditions, proton cooling due to p-gamma interactions is much more important than energy losses due to inelastic proton-proton collisions.

  5. Track Reconstruction and the Proton Radius Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven; Cline, Ethan; Gilman, Ron; MUSE Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    In 2010, Pohl et al. measured the proton charge radius to be 0.84184(67) fm using muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. This value differs about 5 σ from the CODATA proton radius from measurements with electrons. Other experiments with muons and electrons have confirmed the difference and the discrepancy has been termed the `Proton Radius Puzzle.' Currently there are no explanations for the puzzle. The MUon proton Scattering Experiment (MUSE) will make a significant measurement of the proton radius with muon scattering for the first time. The experiment tracks elastic scattering of electrons and muons off of liquid hydrogen. Particle tracks are reconstructed with track fitting software GenFit. Using a simulation of MUSE, GenFit has been determined to be proficient at track reconstruction. This project has been supported by funding from National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1560077.

  6. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S [South Jordan, UT; Nair, Balakrishnan G [Sandy, UT; Small, Troy [Midvale, UT; Heck, Brian [Salt Lake City, UT

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  7. Status of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project

    CERN Document Server

    Choi Byung Ho

    2005-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) approved and launched by the Korean government in July 2002 includes a 100MeV proton linear accelerator development and a program for its utilization. The first phase of the project, running from 2002 to 2005, was the design of a 100MeV proton linear accelerator and a part of development to 20 MeV. This consists of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a 20MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The 50 keV injector and the 3 MeV RFQ has been installed and tested, and the 20 MeV DTL is being assembled and tuned for beam tests. At the same time, the utilization programs using the proton beam have been planned, and some are now under way. The status and progress of the project are reported in detail.

  8. Graduated driver licensing for reducing motor vehicle crashes among young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kelly F; Vandermeer, Ben; Hartling, Lisa

    2011-10-05

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) has been proposed as a means of reducing crash rates among novice drivers by gradually introducing them to higher risk driving situations. To examine the effectiveness of GDL in reducing crash rates among young drivers. Studies were identified through searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Healthstar, Web of Science, NTIS Bibliographic Database, TRIS Online, SIGLE, the World Wide Web, conference proceedings, consultation with experts and reference lists in relevant published literature. The searches were conducted from the time of inception to May 2009, and the Cochrane Injuries Group conducted an updated search of the TRANSPORT database in September 2009. Studies were included if: 1) they compared outcomes pre- and post-implementation of a GDL program within the same jurisdiction, 2) comparisons were made between jurisdictions with and without GDL, or 3) both. Studies had to report at least one objective, quantified outcome. Results were not pooled due to substantial heterogeneity. Percentage change was calculated for each year after the intervention, using one year prior to the intervention as baseline. Results were adjusted by internal controls. Analyses were stratified by denominators (population, licensed drivers). Results were calculated for the different crash types and presented for 16 year-olds alone as well as all teenage drivers. We included 34 studies evaluating 21 GDL programs and 2 analyses of >40 US states. GDL programs were implemented in the US (n=16), Canada (n=3), New Zealand (n=1), and Australia (n=1) and varied in their restrictions during the intermediate stage. Based on the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) classification, eleven programs were good, four were fair, five were marginal, one was poor and two could not be assessed. Reductions in crash rates were seen in all jurisdictions and for all crash types. Among 16 year-old drivers, the median decrease in per population adjusted overall crash rates

  9. Driver sleepiness on YouTube: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, A N; Filtness, A J

    2017-02-01

    Driver sleepiness is a major contributor to severe crashes and fatalities on our roads. Many people continue to drive despite being aware of feeling tired. Prevention relies heavily on education campaigns as it is difficult to police driver sleepiness. The video sharing social media site YouTube is extremely popular, particularly with at risk driver demographics. Content and popularity of uploaded videos can provide insight into the quality of publicly accessible driver sleepiness information. The purpose of this research was to answer two questions; firstly, how prevalent are driver sleepiness videos on YouTube? And secondly, what are the general characteristics of driver sleepiness videos in terms of (a) outlook on driver sleepiness, (b) tone, (c) countermeasures to driver sleepiness, and, (d) driver demographics. Using a keywords search, 442 relevant videos were found from a five year period (2nd December 2009-2nd December 2014). Tone, outlook, and countermeasure use were thematically coded. Driver demographic and video popularity data also were recorded. The majority of videos portrayed driver sleepiness as dangerous. However, videos that had an outlook towards driver sleepiness being amusing were viewed more often and had more mean per video comments and likes. Humorous videos regardless of outlook, were most popular. Most information regarding countermeasures to deal with driver sleepiness was accurate. Worryingly, 39.8% of videos with countermeasure information contained some kind of ineffective countermeasure. The use of humour to convey messages about the dangers of driver sleepiness may be a useful approach in educational interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Iván G.; Bergasa, Luis M.; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, J. Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study. PMID:24412904

  11. High density scintillating glass proton imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. J.; Goranson, K.; Turney, A.; Xie, Q.; Tillman, I. J.; Thune, Z. L.; Dong, A.; Pritchett, D.; McInally, W.; Potter, A.; Wang, D.; Akgun, U.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, proton therapy has achieved remarkable precision in delivering doses to cancerous cells while avoiding healthy tissue. However, in order to utilize this high precision treatment, greater accuracy in patient positioning is needed. An accepted approximate uncertainty of +/-3% exists in the current practice of proton therapy due to conversions between x-ray and proton stopping power. The use of protons in imaging would eliminate this source of error and lessen the radiation exposure of the patient. To this end, this study focuses on developing a novel proton-imaging detector built with high-density glass scintillator. The model described herein contains a compact homogeneous proton calorimeter composed of scintillating, high density glass as the active medium. The unique geometry of this detector allows for the measurement of both the position and residual energy of protons, eliminating the need for a separate set of position trackers in the system. Average position and energy of a pencil beam of 106 protons is used to reconstruct the image rather than by analyzing individual proton data. Simplicity and efficiency were major objectives in this model in order to present an imaging technique that is compact, cost-effective, and precise, as well as practical for a clinical setting with pencil-beam scanning proton therapy equipment. In this work, the development of novel high-density glass scintillator and the unique conceptual design of the imager are discussed; a proof-of-principle Monte Carlo simulation study is performed; preliminary two-dimensional images reconstructed from the Geant4 simulation are presented.

  12. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  13. Do young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills more than experienced drivers? Different methods lead to different conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craen, S; Twisk, D A M; Hagenzieker, M P; Elffers, H; Brookhuis, K A

    2011-09-01

    In this study we argue that drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills, in order to sufficiently adapt to their task demands in traffic. There are indications that drivers in general, but novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. However, study results differ on the subject of self-assessment of skills. The objectives of this paper are (1) to study whether novice drivers indeed overestimate their driving skills more than experienced drivers; and (2) to evaluate the influence of the method to measure self-assessment of skills (i.e. comparison to 'average' and 'peer' driver versus independent measures of own performance). The results show that the conclusion of whether novice drivers overestimate their driving skills is highly affected by the method chosen to measure self-assessment of skills. When drivers are asked to compare themselves to the average and peer driver, we can conclude that novice drivers are not as optimistic about their driving skills as has been reported in the past. They seem to recognize that they are not as skilled (yet) as the average driver. However, when comparing their self-assessment with their actual behaviour there are indications that they overestimate their driving skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploratory multinomial logit model-based driver injury severity analyses for teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Ci, Yusheng; Wu, Lina; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Alcántara, Adélamar Dely

    2016-05-18

    Teenage drivers are more likely to be involved in severely incapacitating and fatal crashes compared to adult drivers. Moreover, because two thirds of urban vehicle miles traveled are on signal-controlled roadways, significant research efforts are needed to investigate intersection-related teenage driver injury severities and their contributing factors in terms of driver behavior, vehicle-infrastructure interactions, environmental characteristics, roadway geometric features, and traffic compositions. Therefore, this study aims to explore the characteristic differences between teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes, identify the significant contributing attributes, and analyze their impacts on driver injury severities. Using crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011, 2 multinomial logit regression models were developed to analyze injury severities for teenage and adult drivers, respectively. Elasticity analyses and transferability tests were conducted to better understand the quantitative impacts of these factors and the teenage driver injury severity model's generality. The results showed that although many of the same contributing factors were found to be significant in the both teenage and adult driver models, certain different attributes must be distinguished to specifically develop effective safety solutions for the 2 driver groups. The research findings are helpful to better understand teenage crash uniqueness and develop cost-effective solutions to reduce intersection-related teenage injury severities and facilitate driver injury mitigation research.

  15. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  16. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  17. Dielectron production in proton-proton collisions with ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Markus Konrad

    2015-10-01

    Ultrarelativistic hadron collisions, such as delivered since a couple of years at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), provide new insights into the properties of strongly interacting matter at high temperatures and densities, which is expected to have existed a few of a millionth seconds after the big bang. Electromagnetic probes, such as leptons and photons, are emitted during the entire collision. Since they do not undergo strong interactions, they reflect the entire evolution of the collision. Pairs of leptons, so called dileptons, have the advantage compared to real photons, that they do not only carry momentum, but also have a non-zero invariant mass. The invariant mass spectrum of dileptons is a superposition of several components and allows to address different characteristics of the medium. To understand dielectron production in heavy-ion collisions, reference measurements in proton-proton (pp) collisions are necessary. pp collisions reflect the vacuum contribution of the particles produced in heavy-ion collisions. The analysis of pp collisions is an essential step towards the extraction of medium influences on the vector meson spectral functions and the thermal radiation in heavy-ion collisions. In this thesis, the production of electron-positron pairs (dielectrons) in pp collisions at a collision energy of 7 TeV in the ALICE central barrel is analysed. ALICE has unique particle identification capabilities at low momentum. Electrons and positrons are identified with a high purity and combined to pairs. The invariant mass distribution of dielectrons is corrected for detector effects and the selection criteria in the analysis with Monte Carlo simulations. The dielectron invariant mass spectrum of known hadronic sources is calculated based on the cross sections measured in other decay channels using the known decay kinematics. This so called hadronic cocktail represents the dielectron spectrum at the moment of kinematic freeze-out and can be compared to the

  18. A development of power button device driver based on Windows CE device driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Samsu; Chon, Sunghwan; Choi, Hyunsok; Ham, Woonchul

    2005-12-01

    In recent decade, there has been many researches for embedding a small size operating system for mobile hand held systems. In near future, small size operating system will be embedded in every electronic machine for the easiness of developing a man-machine interface. This paper introduced one of the new hot issuing small size operating systems, called as "wince OS", which was developed by Microsoft company and develop a simple device driver based on wince OS which can handles a simple matrix type push button input device. It also demonstrated the well functioning of the proposed device driver in working environment such as Microsoft word processing.

  19. Proton induced defect formation in quartz glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulamova, R.R.; Gasanov, E.M.; Alimov, R. [Uzbekian AS, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    1996-12-31

    The contributions of ionization energy losses and elastic collisions to radiation induced defect formation along the proton track were considered in quartz glasses irradiated by protons with different energies. It is shown that on a larger part of the proton track the color and luminescence center formation by means of recharging of the native defects is due to the ionization energy losses. Generation of structural defects like displaced atoms and their vacancies by elastic collisions with protons and recoil atoms dominates for proton energies < 5 MeV. At proton energies > 10 MeV the color and luminescence center formation due to ionization energy losses prevails, and generation of the alumina-alkaline centers, causing an increase of the optical absorption at 550 nm and the thermoluminescence peak at 360 C and a band at 460 nm, occurs. At the proton energies E{sub p} < 10 MeV generation of the displaced atoms and their vacancies by elastic collisions dominates, leading to an increase of the E{prime}-centers and to the destruction and transformation of the alumina-alkaline centers.

  20. Absolute proton affinity of some polyguanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksic; Kovacevic

    2000-06-02

    The problem of the absolute proton affinity (APA) of some polyguanides is addressed by the MP2(fc)/6-311+G//HF/6-31G theoretical model. It is shown that the linear chain polyguanides exhibit increased basicity as a function of the number of guanide subunits. However, the saturation effect yields an asymptotic APA value of 254 kcal/mol. Branched polyguanides on the other hand have higher APAs than their linear counterparts. The largest proton affinity is found in a doubly bifurcated heptaguanide, being as high as 285 kcal/mol, thus potentially representing one of the strongest organic bases. Finally, it is found that all polyguanides protonate at imino nitrogen atoms, since they are apparently susceptible the most to the proton attack. The origin of their very high intrinsic basicity is traced down to a dramatic increase in the resonance interaction of the corresponding conjugate bases. For instance, the increase in the resonance energy in the protonated guanidine is estimated to be in a range of 24-27 kcal/mol, which is higher than the aromatic stabilization in benzene. The proton affinity of some polycyclic guanides including Schwesinger proton sponge and porphine is briefly discussed.

  1. Nerve Conduction Through Dendrites via Proton Hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Lemont B

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies of nerve conduction conducted by proton hopping, we have considered the axon, soma, synapse and the nodes of Ranvier. The role of proton hopping described the passage of information through each of these units of a typical nerve system. The synapse projects information from the axon to the dendrite and their associated spines. We have invoked the passage of protons via a hopping mechanism to illustrate the continuum of the impulse through the system, via the soma following the dendrites. This is proposed to be a continuum invoked by the proton hopping method. With the proposal of the activity through the dendrites, via proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve function is invoked. At each step to the way, a water pathway is present and is invoked in the proposed model as the carrier of the message via proton hopping. The importance of the dendrites is evident by the presence of a vast number of spines, each possessing the possibility to carry unique messages through the nervous system. With this model of the role of dendrites, functioning with the presence of proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve system is presented. The validity of this model will be available for further studies and models to assess it's validity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Investigation of Proton Focusing and Conversion Efficiency for Proton Fast Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, Teresa Jean

    Recent advances in generating high energy (> 50 MeV) protons from intense laser-matter interactions has opened up new areas of research, with applications in radiography, high energy density physics, and ion-proton beam fast ignition (FI). The ability to focus the proton beam has made these applications more attractive. Fast ignition (FI) is an evolved concept of conventional inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In proton FI, a collimated beam of protons is used to deliver the necessary ignition energy to the compressed Deuterium-Tritium (DT) fuel capsule instead of the original concept of a beam composed of relativistic electrons. In cone-guided FI, a cone is embedded into the side of the fuel capsule where the proton source foil is placed within the cone. The cone provides a clear path to the dense core and protects the proton source foil from radiation during the compression of the capsule. The proton source foil is a segment of a hemispherical shell target used to help focus the proton beam to the core to spark ignition. The viability of proton FI requires focusing of the generated proton beam to a 40 mum spot at the compressed fuel and a laser to proton conversion efficiency of ˜15%. Here, proton focusing and the laser to proton conversion efficiency are investigated using flat foils and hemispherical shell targets. Experiments were conducted on the 200 TW short pulse laser at Los Alamos Laboratory. The 1053 nm laser pulse delivered 70--80 J on target in 500--600 fs focused by an f/8 parabolic mirror. The generated proton beam from the target was examined by placing a mesh downstream of the target, which the proton beam would pass though and then imaged with a pack of radiochromic film (RCF). A 3D ray-tracing technique was developed to determine the focal position and focal spot size of the generated proton beam by tracing the proton trajectories from the image of the mesh collected by the RCF back through the mesh to the central axis. The focal position

  3. Proton computed tomography images with algebraic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Civinini, C.; Scaringella, M. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Bonanno, D. [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Chemistry and Pharmacy Department, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Maccioni, G. [INFN – Cagliari Division, Cagliari (Italy); Pallotta, S. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Chemistry and Pharmacy Department, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Talamonti, C. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E. [Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Senese, Siena (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    A prototype of proton Computed Tomography (pCT) system for hadron-therapy has been manufactured and tested in a 175 MeV proton beam with a non-homogeneous phantom designed to simulate high-contrast material. BI-SART reconstruction algorithms have been implemented with GPU parallelism, taking into account of most likely paths of protons in matter. Reconstructed tomography images with density resolutions r.m.s. down to ~1% and spatial resolutions <1 mm, achieved within processing times of ~15′ for a 512×512 pixels image prove that this technique will be beneficial if used instead of X-CT in hadron-therapy.

  4. The quark fraction of the proton spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.

    We report on a lattice QCD estimate of the fraction of the proton spin that the quark spin is responsible for. The estimate is arrived at by means of a lattice QCD simulation of the polarized proton matrix element of the anomaly, F μνoverlineFμν. The preliminary result of the simulation is that this fraction is rather small. This is in accord with the interpretation of the EMC experiment that the quark spins are responsible for very little, if any, of the proton spin.

  5. Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an unus......Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....

  6. Neutron scattering from polarised proton domains

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Brandt, B; Kohbrecher, J; Konter, J A; Mango, S; Glattli, H; Leymarie, E; Grillo, I; May, R P; Jouve, H; Stuhrmann, H B; Stuhrmann, H B; Zimmer, O

    2002-01-01

    Time-dependent small-angle polarised neutron scattering from domains of polarised protons has been observed at the onset of dynamic nuclear polarisation in a frozen solution of 98% deuterated glycerol-water at 1 K containing a small concentration of paramagnetic centres (EHBA-Cr sup V). Simultaneous NMR measurements show that the observed scattering arises from protons around the Cr sup V -ions which are polarised to approx 10% in a few seconds, much faster than the protons in the bulk. (authors)

  7. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihovilovič Miha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  8. Superfocusing of channeled protons and crystal rainbows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neskovic, N. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: nnesko@vinca.rs; Petrovic, S.; Borka, D. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2009-08-15

    This study is devoted to the effect of superfocusing of protons having the energy of 2 MeV in a <1 0 0> channel of a Si crystal. The analysis is performed by the theory of crystal rainbows. We analyze the superfocusing effect in the first rainbow cycle. The evolution of the spatial distribution of channeled protons is examined by the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse position plane. We demonstrate that the superfocusing effect is a reduced crystal rainbow effect, in which the rainbow line comes to a point.

  9. Space Environments and Effects: Trapped Proton Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, S. L.; Kauffman, W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An improved model of the Earth's trapped proton environment has been developed. This model, designated Trapped Proton Model version 1 (TPM-1), determines the omnidirectional flux of protons with energy between 1 and 100 MeV throughout near-Earth space. The model also incorporates a true solar cycle dependence. The model consists of several data files and computer software to read them. There are three versions of the mo'del: a FORTRAN-Callable library, a stand-alone model, and a Web-based model.

  10. Probing the Spin Structure of the Proton Using Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions and the Production of W Bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumier, Michael J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This thesis discusses the process of extracting the longitudinal asymmetry, A$W±\\atop{L}$ describing W → μ production in forward kinematic regimes. This asymmetry is used to constrain our understanding of the polarized parton distribution functions characterizing $\\bar{u}$ and $\\bar{d}$ sea quarks in the proton. This asymmetry will be used to constrain the overall contribution of the sea-quarks to the total proton spin. The asymmetry is evaluated over the pseudorapidity range of the PHENIX Muon Arms, 2.1 < |η| 2.6, for longitudinally polarized proton-proton collisions at 510 GeV √s. In particular, I will discuss the statistical methods used to characterize real muonic W decays and the various background processes is presented, including a discussion of likelihood event selection and the Extended Unbinned Maximum Likelihood t. These statistical methods serve estimate the yields of W muonic decays, which are used to calculate the longitudinal asymmetry.

  11. High-quality electron beam generation in a proton-driven hollow plasma wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Xia, G.; Lotov, K. V.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Hanahoe, K.; Mete-Apsimon, O.

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerators have demonstrated substantially higher accelerating gradients compared to conventional accelerators and the viability of accelerating electrons to the energy frontier in a single plasma stage. However, due to the strong intrinsic transverse fields varying both radially and in time, the witness beam quality is still far from suitable for practical application in future colliders. Here we demonstrate the efficient acceleration of electrons in proton-driven wakefields in a hollow plasma channel. In this regime, the witness bunch is positioned in the region with a strong accelerating field, free from plasma electrons and ions. We show that the electron beam carrying the charge of about 10% of 1 TeV proton driver charge can be accelerated to 0.6 TeV with a preserved normalized emittance in a single channel of 700 m. This high-quality and high-charge beam may pave the way for the development of future plasma-based energy frontier colliders.

  12. Application of International Linear Collider superconducting cavities for acceleration of protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Beam acceleration in the International Linear Collider (ILC will be provided by 9-cell 1300 MHz superconducting (SC cavities. The cavities are designed for effective acceleration of charged particles moving with the speed of light and are operated on π-mode to provide a maximum accelerating gradient. A significant research and development effort has been devoted to develop ILC SC technology and its rf system which resulted in excellent performance of ILC cavities. Therefore, the proposed 8-GeV proton driver in Fermilab is based on ILC cavities above ∼1.2  GeV. The efficiency of proton beam acceleration by ILC cavities drops fast for lower velocities and it was proposed to develop squeezed ILC-type (S-ILC cavities operating at 1300 MHz and designed for β_{G}=0.81, geometrical beta, to accelerate protons or H^{-} from ∼420  MeV to 1.2 GeV. This paper discusses the possibility of avoiding the development of new β_{G}=0.81 cavities by operating ILC cavities on 8/9π-mode of standing wave oscillations.

  13. Protonic conductors for proton exchange membrane fuel cells: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Ramon Jose

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, Nation, which is a perfluorinated polymer, is one of the few materials that deliver the set of chemical and mechanical properties required to perform as a good electrolyte in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs. However, Nation presents some disadvantages, such as limiting the operational temperature of the fuel system (So°C, because of its inability to retain water at higher temperatures and also suffers chemical crossover. In addition to these restrictions, Nation membranes are very expensive. Reducing costs and using environmentally friendly materials are good reasons to make a research effort in this field in order to achieve similar or even better fuel-cell performances. Glass materials of the ternary system SiO2-ZrO2-P2O5, hybrid materials based on Nation, and nanopore ceramic membranes based on SiO2 TiO2, Al2O3, etc. are considered at present, as promising candidates to replace Nation as the electrolyte in PEMFCs. These types of materials are generally prepared by sol-gel processes in order to tailor their channel-porous structure and pore size. In this communication, the possible candidates in the near future as electrolytes (including other polymers different than Nation in PEMFCs are briefly reviewed. Their preparation methods, their electrical transport properties and conduction mechanisms are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of these materials with respect to Nation are also discussed.

  14. Conscientious personality and young drivers' crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Fox Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne; Perlus, Jessamyn G; O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G

    2015-09-01

    Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate, and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants' KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c=-0.034, p=.09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a=-0.040, p=.09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a=-0.053, p=.03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b=0.376, p=.02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c'=-0.025, p=.20). Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, and suffered fewer CNC. Part of the variability in crash risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage drivers' personality into account when providing guidance, and establishing norms and

  15. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  16. Ludic interfaces. Driver and product of gamification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Fuchs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of non-standard and playful interface devices like Wii Remote, Move, and Kinect is an indicator of a process that demonstrates that ludic interfaces might be the core driver for a transformation in the sector of video games cultures and beyond. Yet, ludic interfaces are drivers—as well as driven by social developments known as the ludification (Raessens, 2006; Fuchs & Strouhal, 2008, or the gamification of society (Schell, 2010; Bogost, 2010; Ionifides, 2011; Deterding, Khaled, Nacke, & Dixon, 2011.

  17. Drowsy Driver Detection via Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina ABDUL RAHIM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to produce a safety system especially for fatigue car driver so as to prevent from accidents. The statistic on road fatality shows that human error constitute of 64.84 % road accidents fatality and 17.4 % due to technical factors. These systems encompassed the approach of hand pressure applied on the steering wheel. The steering will be installed with pressure sensors. At the same time these sensors can be used to measure gripping force while driving.

  18. Solid state light source driver establishing buck or boost operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Fred

    2017-08-29

    A solid state light source driver circuit that operates in either a buck convertor or a boost convertor configuration is provided. The driver circuit includes a controller, a boost switch circuit and a buck switch circuit, each coupled to the controller, and a feedback circuit, coupled to the light source. The feedback circuit provides feedback to the controller, representing a DC output of the driver circuit. The controller controls the boost switch circuit and the buck switch circuit in response to the feedback signal, to regulate current to the light source. The controller places the driver circuit in its boost converter configuration when the DC output is less than a rectified AC voltage coupled to the driver circuit at an input node. The controller places the driver circuit in its buck converter configuration when the DC output is greater than the rectified AC voltage at the input node.

  19. Real-time driver fatigue detection based on face alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Guiying; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Yi

    2017-07-01

    The performance and robustness of fatigue detection largely decrease if the driver with glasses. To address this issue, this paper proposes a practical driver fatigue detection method based on face alignment at 3000 FPS algorithm. Firstly, the eye regions of the driver are localized by exploiting 6 landmarks surrounding each eye. Secondly, the HOG features of the extracted eye regions are calculated and put into SVM classifier to recognize the eye state. Finally, the value of PERCLOS is calculated to determine whether the driver is drowsy or not. An alarm will be generated if the eye is closed for a specified period of time. The accuracy and real-time on testing videos with different drivers demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust and obtain better accuracy for driver fatigue detection compared with some previous method.

  20. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow......-up study was also conducted. All hospital discharges with a peptic ulcer diagnosis among the bus drivers were registered from the Danish National Patient Register. All Danish men were used as reference group. On the basis of the 1978-questionnaire association between occupational and psychosocial factors...... and subsequent hospital discharge with a peptic ulcer diagnosis was studied. The prevalence of abdominal pain alleviated by food intake was 12% among bus drivers and 6% in the reference group. The incidence of hospital discharge with duodenal ulcer among younger bus drivers was twice the incidence among Danish...

  1. A CGC/saturation approach for angular correlations in proton-proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Potashnikova, I. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-09-15

    We generalized our model for the description of hard processes, and calculate the value of the azimuthal angular correlations (Fourier harmonics v{sub n}), for proton-proton scattering. The energy and multiplicity independence, as well as the value of v{sub n}, turns out to be in accord with the experimental data, or slightly larger. Therefore, before making extreme assumptions on proton-proton collisions, such as the production of a quark-gluon plasma in large multiplicity events, we need to understand how these affect the Bose-Einstein correlations, which have to be taken into account since the Bose-Einstein correlations are able to describe the angular correlations in proton-proton collisions, without including final state interactions. (orig.)

  2. Effect of state anxiety on driver behavior with regard to self-reported in Iranian drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Pourabdian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded from the results (according to the relationship between SA with error and lapses factor that SA is destructive and affects the memory performance and mental process in the drivers and causes absent mindedness and imperfect memory function and process in these people during driving.

  3. Causes, consequences and countermeasures to driver fatigue in the rail industry: The train driver perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filtness, A J; Naweed, A

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is an important workplace risk management issue. Within the rail industry, the passing of a stop signal (signal passed at danger; SPAD) is considered to be one of the most major safety breaches which can occur. Train drivers are very aware of the negative consequences associated with a SPAD. Therefore, SPADs provide a practical and applied safety relevant context within which to structure a discussion on fatigue. Focus groups discussing contributing factors to SPADs were undertaken at eight passenger rail organisations across Australia and New Zealand (n = 28 drivers). Data relating to fatigue was extracted and inductively analysed identifying three themes: causes, consequences, and countermeasures (to fatigue). Drivers experienced negative consequences of fatigue, despite existing countermeasures to mitigate it. Organisational culture was a barrier to effective fatigue management. A fatigue assessment tool consistently informed rostering, however, shift swapping was commonplace and often unregulated, reducing any potential positive impact. In discussing fatigue countermeasure strategies, drivers talked interchangeably about mitigating task related fatigue (e.g. increasing cognitive load) and sleepiness (e.g. caffeine). Ensuring the concepts of fatigue and sleepiness are properly understood has the potential to maximise safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Profiles in driver distraction: effects of cell phone conversations on younger and older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Drews, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    Our research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. We found that driving performance of both younger and older adults was influenced by cell phone conversations. Compared with single-task (i.e., driving-only) conditions, when drivers used cell phones their reactions were 18% slower, their following distance was 12% greater, and they took 17% longer to recover the speed that was lost following braking. There was also a twofold increase in the number of rear-end collisions when drivers were conversing on a cell phone. These cell-phone-induced effects were equivalent for younger and older adults, suggesting that older adults do not suffer a significantly greater penalty for talking on a cell phone while driving than compared with their younger counterparts. Interestingly, the net effect of having younger drivers converse on a cell phone was to make their average reactions equivalent to those of older drivers who were not using a cell phone. Actual or potential applications of this research include providing guidance for recommendations and regulations concerning the use of mobile technology while driving.

  5. Inaccuracy of Federal Highway Administration's licensed driver data: implications on young driver trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Allison E; Kim, Konny H; Pfeiffer, Melissa R

    2014-09-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) collects and publishes annual state-based counts of licensed drivers, which have been used to estimate per-driver crash rates and document a decline in young licensed drivers. The accuracy of these data has been questioned. We compared the number of young licensed drivers as reported by the FHWA (2006-2012) with that generated directly from New Jersey (NJ) administrative licensing data. Census data were used to estimate the proportion of NJ adolescents who were licensed. FHWA data showed a decline in the proportion of licensed 17- to 20-year olds over the 7-year period (77%-63%), whereas analysis of NJ licensing data revealed a more stable trend (75%-74%). We advise against use of FHWA licensing data for research purposes and encourage FHWA to work with state licensing agencies to review and enhance data collection and quality control procedures with the goal of ensuring the accuracy of licensing data. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Driver support in congestion. An assessment of user needs and impacts on driver and traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility is a key factor for modern societies. However, it also brings about problems, such as congestion, accidents and pollution. High expectations rest on in-vehicle systems to contribute to solving these problems. These so-called driver support systems use advanced information and communication

  7. Prototyping smart assistance with Bayesian autonomous driver models

    OpenAIRE

    Möbus, Claus; Eilers, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The Human or Cognitive Centered Design (HCD) of intelligent transport systems requires digital Models of Human Behavior and Cognition (MHBC) enabling Ambient Intelligence e.g. in a smart car. Currently MBHC are developed and used as driver models in traffic scenario simulations, in proving safety assertions and in supporting risk-based design. Furthermore, it is tempting to prototype assistance systems (AS) on the basis of a human driver model cloning an expert driver. To that end we propose ...

  8. Child passenger deaths involving alcohol-impaired drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Kyran; Shults, Ruth A; Rudd, Rose A

    2014-06-01

    Approximately 1 in 5 child passenger deaths in the United States involves an alcohol-impaired driver, most commonly the child's own driver. The objective of this study was to document recent trends and state-specific rates of these deaths. A descriptive analysis of 2001-2010 Fatality Analysis Reporting System data for child passengers aged alcohol-impaired driving crashes. Driver impairment was defined as a blood alcohol concentration of ≥0.08 g/dL. During 2001-2010, 2344 children alcohol-impaired driver. Of these children, 1515 (65%) were riding with an impaired driver. Annual deaths among children riding with an alcohol-impaired driver decreased by 41% over the decade. Among the 37 states included in the state-level analysis, Texas (272) and California (135) had the most children killed while riding with an impaired driver and South Dakota (0.98) and New Mexico (0.86) had the highest annualized child passenger death rates (per 100 000 children). Most (61%) child passengers of impaired drivers were unrestrained at the time of the crash. One-third of the impaired drivers did not have a valid driver's license. Alcohol-impaired driving remains a substantial threat to the safety of child passengers in the United States, and typically involves children being driven by impaired drivers. This risk varies meaningfully among states. To make further progress, states and communities could consider increased use of effective interventions and efforts aimed specifically at protecting child passengers from impaired drivers. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Artefacts of questionnaire-based psychological testing of drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łuczak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this article is to draw attention to a significant role of social approval variable in the qustionnairebased diagnosis of drivers' psychological aptitude. Material and Methods: Three questionnaires were used: Formal Characteristics of Behavior - Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R(S and Impulsiveness Questionnaire (Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness, Empathy - IVE. Three groups of drivers were analyzed: professional "without crashes" (N = 46, nonprofessional "without crashes" (N = 75, and nonprofessional "with crashes" (N = 75. Results: Nonprofessional drivers "without crashes" significantly stood up against other drivers. Their personality profile, indicating a significantly utmost perseveration, emotional reactivity, neuroticism, impulsiveness and the lowest endurance did not fit in to the requirements to be met by drivers. The driver safety profile was characteristic of professional drivers (the lowest level of perseveration, impulsiveness and neuroticism and the highest level of endurance. Similar profile occurred among nonprofessional drivers - the offenders of road crashes. Compared to the nonprofessional "without crashes" group, professional drivers and offenders of road crashes were also characterized by a significantly higher score on the Lie scale, determining the need for social approval. This is likely to result from the study procedure according to which the result of professional drivers testing had an impact on a possible continuity of their job and that of nonprofessional drivers "with crashes" decided about possible recovery of the driving license. Conclusions: The variable of social approval can be a significant artifact in the study of psychological drivers' testing and reduce the reliability of the results of questionnaire methods. Med Pr 2014;65(3:373–385

  10. What Really Prevents Proton Transport through Aquaporin? Charge Self-Energy versus Proton Wire Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Burykin, Anton; Warshel, Arieh

    2003-01-01

    The nature of the control of water/proton selectivity in biological channels is a problem of a fundamental importance. Most studies of this issue have proposed that an interference with the orientational requirements of the so-called proton wire is the source of selectivity. The elucidation of the structures of aquaporins, which have evolved to prevent proton transfer (PT), provided a clear benchmark for exploring the selectivity problem. Previous simulations of this system have not examined,...

  11. Centroid theory of transverse electron-proton two-stream instability in a long proton bunch

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Sen F. Wang; Channell, Paul J.; Robert J. Macek; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of the transverse electron-proton (e-p) two-stream instability in a proton bunch propagating through a stationary electron background. The equations of motion, including damping effects, are derived for the centroids of the proton beam and the electron cloud by considering Lorentzian and Gaussian frequency spreads for the particles. For a Lorentzian frequency distribution, we derive the asymptotic solution of the coupled linear centroid equation...

  12. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X. Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To ‘scan’ the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient’s body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20 m s-1, changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed.

  13. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  14. Hydrogen-bond dynamics and proton transfer in nanoconfinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loop, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Proton transfer is of fundamental importance to both biology and chemistry. Much is known about proton transfer in large water volumes but often proton transfer reactions take place in very small nanometer sized volumes for example between lipid layers and in proton channels in mitochondria and

  15. A NOVEL PROTON TRANSFER COMPOUND (A NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2011-11-22

    . ITS X-RAY STRUCTURE. Iran Sheikhshoaie* and Mahdeieh Ghazizadeh. Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran. (Received November 22, 2011; revised August 14, 2012). ABSTRACT. A novel proton transfer ...

  16. Solvent control of intramolecular proton transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Y.; Marciniak, Heinz; Tschierlei, S.

    2017-01-01

    The solvent dependent excited state dynamics of 4-hydroxy-3-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)-1-naphthaldehyde (compound 2), a candidate for a molecular switch based on intramolecular proton transfer, was investigated by ultrafast spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations. In acetonitrile a mixture...... of molecules in the enol and zwitterionic proton transfer (PT) form exists in the ground state. However, the zwitterion is the energetically favored one in the electronically excited state. Optical excitation of the enol form results in intramolecular proton transfer and formation of the PT form within 1.4 ps....... In addition we observe the appearance of a long living species with a rate of 1/(330 ps) which returns to the original ground state on time scales beyond 2 ns and which is attributed to the triplet state. In toluene the enol form is the only observed ground state tautomer, but no light induced proton transfer...

  17. Polarized proton beams since the ZGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses research involving polarized proton beams since the ZGS`s demise. He begins by reminding the attendee that in 1973 the ZGS accelerated the world`s first high energy polarized proton beam; all in attendance at this meeting can be proud of this accomplishment. A few ZGS polarized proton beam experiments were done in the early 1970`s; then from about 1976 until 1 October 1979, the majority of the ZGS running time was polarized running. A great deal of fundamental physics was done with the polarized beam when the ZGS ran as a dedicated polarized proton beam from about Fall 1977 until it shut down on 1 October 1979. The newly created polarization enthusiats then dispersed; some spread polarized seeds al over the world by polarizing beams elsewhere; some wound up running the High Energy and SSC programs at DOE.

  18. Proton tunnelling in intermolecular hydrogen bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsewill, A.J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Johnson, M.R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Trommsdorff, H.P. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)

    1997-04-01

    The wavefunctions of particles extend beyond the classically accessible regions of potential energy-surfaces (PES). A manifestation of this partial delocalization is the quantum-mechanical tunneling effect which enables a particle to escape from a metastable potential-well. Tunnelling is most important for the lightest atoms, so that the determination of its contribution to proton transfer, one of the most fundamental chemical reactions, is an important issue. QENS and NMR techniques have been employed to study the motion of protons in the hydrogen bond of benzoic-acid crystals, a system which has emerged as a particularly suitable model since proton transfer occurs in a near symmetric double-well potential. The influence of quantum tunnelling was revealed and investigated in these experiments. This work provides an experimental benchmark for theoretical descriptions of translational proton-tunnelling. (author). 7 refs.

  19. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene membrane prepared by plasma polymerization process. BHABESH KUMAR NATH, AZIZ KHAN, JOYANTI CHUTIA. ∗. , ARUP RATAN PAL,. HEREMBA BAILUNG, NEELOTPAL SEN SARMA, DEVASISH CHOWDHURY and NIRAB CHANDRA ADHIKARY.

  20. Investigation of proton response of CR-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Physics; Abu-Jarad, F.; Hallak, A.B.; Coban, A.; Islam, M. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Laboratory, Research Inst.

    1993-12-31

    CR-39 type super grade PM-355 samples have been irradiated at normal incidence with monoenergetic protons at selected energies in the range of 0.2 to 5 MeV. The sensitivity function and its variation with energy have been experimentally determined. A clear shift was observed in the maximum sensitivity towards higher proton energies with the increase in etching time. The critical angle for proton registration decreases rapidly between 0.2 MeV and 0.5 to 0.8 MeV depending on the etching time. For higher energies the critical angle increases gradually. The CR-39 detection efficiency for protons was fond to be about 100% within experimental accuracy for all energies in comparison with that of a surface barrier detector. (author).

  1. Investigation of proton response of CR-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. (Dept. of Physics, King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)); Abu-Jarad, F.; Hallak, A.B.; Coban, A.; Islam, M. (Energy Research Lab., Research Inst., King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-04-01

    CR-39 type super grade PM-355 samples have been irradiated at normal incidence with monoenergetic protons at selected energies in the range from 0.2 to 5 MeV. The sensitivity function and its variation with energy have been experimentally determined. A clear shift was observed in the maximum sensitivity towards higher proton energies with the increase in etching time. The critical angle for proton registration decreases rapidly between 0.2 MeV and 0.5 to 0.8 MeV depending on the etching time. For higher energies for critical angle increases gradually. The CR-39 detection efficiency for protons was found to be about 100% within the experimental accuracy for all energies in comparison with that of a surface barrier detector. (orig.).

  2. Constraining the proton structure at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Tricoli, Alessandro; Viehhauser, Georg

    Particle physics is at a pivotal moment: the origin of mass and new physics scenarios beyond the Standard Model or particle physics could be unveiled in the coming year. In 2007 the most powerful particl e accelerator, the Large Hadron Coolider (LHC), will start colliding proton beams reaching the ihghest energy and luminosity ever in collider particle physics. The ATLAS detector is one of two general pu rpose detectors placed along the collider ring to fully exploit the LHC potential. The theoretical uncertainties on most of the LHC physics progream are dominated by the proton structure uncertaintiy. This thesis demonstrates that $W^{\\pm}$ boson productionis an ideal process to constr ain the proton strcuture uncertainty. The rapidity distributions of electrons and positrons originating respectively from the $W^-$ and $W^+$ decays have been analysed. The results show that the current uncertainty on the gluon content of the proton can be reduced by a very significant amount if the total systematic uncertaint...

  3. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Camilo de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials.

  4. Proton tracking in a high-granularity Digital Tracking Calorimeter for proton CT purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, H.E.S., E-mail: helge.pettersen@helse-bergen.no [Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Postbox 1400, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Alme, J. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Biegun, A. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Brink, A. van den [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chaar, M.; Fehlker, D. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Meric, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Bergen University College, Postbox 7030, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Odland, O.H. [Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Postbox 1400, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Peitzmann, T.; Rocco, E. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ullaland, K. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Wang, H. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yang, S. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, C. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Röhrich, D. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2017-07-11

    Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2–3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. In this study, a Digital Tracking Calorimeter is benchmarked for proof-of-concept for proton CT purposes. The Digital Tracking Calorimeter was originally designed for the reconstruction of high-energy electromagnetic showers for the ALICE-FoCal project. The presented prototype forms the basis for a proton CT system using a single technology for tracking and calorimetry. This advantage simplifies the setup and reduces the cost of a proton CT system assembly, and it is a unique feature of the Digital Tracking Calorimeter concept. Data from the AGORFIRM beamline at KVI-CART in Groningen in the Netherlands and Monte Carlo simulation results are used to in order to develop a tracking algorithm for the estimation of the residual ranges of a high number of concurrent proton tracks. High energy protons traversing the detector leave a track through the sensor layers. These tracks are spread out through charge diffusion processes. A charge diffusion model is applied for acquisition of estimates of the deposited energy of the protons in each sensor layer by using the size of the charge diffused area. A model fit of the Bragg Curve is applied to each reconstructed track and through this, estimating the residual range of each proton. The range of the individual protons can at present be estimated with a resolution of 4%. The readout system for this prototype is able to

  5. The PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) collaboration: Development of a proton Computed Tomography apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaringella, M., E-mail: scaringella@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze biomediche, sperimentali e cliniche, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); INFN sezione di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Cuttone, G. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Pallotta, S. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze biomediche, sperimentali e cliniche, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Pugliatti, C. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [Centro Studi e Ricerche e Museo Storico della Fisica, Rome (Italy); Sipala, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); INFN sezione di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); and others

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a proton Computed Tomography (pCT) apparatus able to reconstruct a map of stopping power useful for accurate proton therapy treatment planning and patient positioning. This system is based on two main components: a silicon microstrip tracker and a YAG:Ce crystal calorimeter. Each proton trajectory is sampled by the tracker in four points: two upstream and two downstream the object under test; the particle residual energy is measured by the calorimeter. The apparatus is described in details together with a discussion on the characterization of the hardware under proton beams with energies up to 175 MeV.

  6. Two-Photon Interactions in Proton$-$Proton Collisions with the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)703452; Przybycien, Mariusz

    As a significant part of the thesis, measurement of exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow \\ell^+\\ell^- (\\ell=e,~\\mu)$ production cross section in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV is presented using 4.6 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The results are compared to the theory predictions that take into account proton absorptive effects (due to the finite size of colliding protons). Moreover, the simulated performance of fully integrated ATLAS+AFP (upgrade) detector setup is detailed.

  7. Proton tracking in a high-granularity Digital Tracking Calorimeter for proton CT purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, H. E. S.; Alme, J.; Biegun, A.; van den Brink, A.; Chaar, M.; Fehlker, D.; Meric, I.; Odland, O. H.; Peitzmann, T.; Rocco, E.; Ullaland, K.; Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Zhang, C.; Röhrich, D.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2-3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. In this study, a Digital Tracking Calorimeter is benchmarked for proof-of-concept for proton CT purposes. The Digital Tracking Calorimeter was originally designed for the reconstruction of high-energy electromagnetic showers for the ALICE-FoCal project. The presented prototype forms the basis for a proton CT system using a single technology for tracking and calorimetry. This advantage simplifies the setup and reduces the cost of a proton CT system assembly, and it is a unique feature of the Digital Tracking Calorimeter concept. Data from the AGORFIRM beamline at KVI-CART in Groningen in the Netherlands and Monte Carlo simulation results are used to in order to develop a tracking algorithm for the estimation of the residual ranges of a high number of concurrent proton tracks. High energy protons traversing the detector leave a track through the sensor layers. These tracks are spread out through charge diffusion processes. A charge diffusion model is applied for acquisition of estimates of the deposited energy of the protons in each sensor layer by using the size of the charge diffused area. A model fit of the Bragg Curve is applied to each reconstructed track and through this, estimating the residual range of each proton. The range of the individual protons can at present be estimated with a resolution of 4%. The readout system for this prototype is able to

  8. Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries in Proton-Proton Collisions at the AFTER@LHC Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kanazawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results for transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions at kinematics relevant for AFTER, a proposed fixed-target experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. These include predictions for pion, jet, and direct photon production from analytical formulas already available in the literature. We also discuss specific measurements that will benefit from the higher luminosity of AFTER, which could help resolve an almost 40-year puzzle of what causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions.

  9. Shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Shiu, Li-Jie; Li, Yu-Ling; Tung, Kuan-Yeng; Chan, Kwan-Yu; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chen, Shiuan-Chih; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Professional bus drivers are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the underlying causes are unclear. Professional bus drivers often follow shift schedules. Especially, an association between shift work and early manifestations of cardiovascular disease has not been elucidated. Thus we investigated the links between shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers. Questionnaires were administered to 184 bus drivers on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and occupational history from 5 transportation companies in Taiwan. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using a volume-plethysmographic apparatus. Body mass index, waist circumference, biochemical variables, and blood pressure were also measured. Arteriosclerotic risk factors (age, weekly driving hours, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin level) differed in part among different groups of drivers. Long-term shift drivers had higher baPWV compared to regular drivers and short-term shift drivers (1594 cm/s vs. 1497 and 1432, pshift driving. Long-term shift work could increase the risk of arteriosclerosis in professional bus drivers. Larger studies would be necessary to provide further evidence regarding this finding.

  10. A 5 Gb/s Radiation Tolerant Laser Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, L; Da Silva, S; Mazza, G; Meroli, S; Moreira, P; Rivetti, A; Troska, J; Wyllie, K

    2009-01-01

    A laser driver for data transmission at 5 Gb/s has been developed as a part of the Giga Bit Transceiver (GBT) project. The Giga Bit Laser Driver (GBLD) targets High Energy Physics (HEP) applications for which radiation tolerance is mandatory. The GBLD ASIC can drive both VCSELs and some types of edge emitting lasers. It is essentially composed of two drivers capable of sinking up to 12 mA each from the load at a maximum data rate of 5 Gb/s, and of a current sink for the laser bias current. The laser driver include also pre-emphasis and duty cycle control capabilities.

  11. Drivers and barriers of public innovation in crime prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Aagaard

    2012-01-01

      Public managers experience a growing demand for innovation. According to the public innovation literature, the barriers and drivers of public innovation are path dependently shaped by institutions...

  12. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramukumba, Tendani S; Mathikhi, Makwena S

    2016-11-30

    Taxi driving seems to be a strenuous occupation. There was evidence-based paucity of literature on health assessment of taxi drivers. Meanwhile taxi drivers of South Africa were burdened by communicable and non-communicable diseases including high-level exposure to injuries and criminal attacks. Health assessment of this cohort group enables mitigation to engage in appropriation of relevant interventions related to the occupational needs of taxi drivers. The objective of the study was to conduct health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane to identify health risk factors. An exploratory, descriptive and quantitative survey was conducted and anthropometric measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference were monitored and recorded on a convenience sample of 69 taxi drivers in Tshwane Municipality. Consent was sought from individual taxi drivers who participated in the study, while taxi rank queue marshals assisted with smooth running of the process. Data were gathered using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using statistical STATA II with the assistance of a statistician. The study found that taxi drivers were obese, hypertensive, had type II diabetes-related risk factors, including unhealthy life style practices. The results indicate that the general health of taxi drivers impacts their occupation. The findings implicate that the health status of taxi operators in Tshwane was a serious concern and urgent concerted effort is needed to engage in lifestyle modification of taxi drivers. The need for health promotion and formalised occupational health services was recommended.

  14. Collimator effects in proton planning

    CERN Document Server

    Matsinos, Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    The present paper pertains to corrections which are due to the presence of beam-limiting and beam-shaping devices in a proton-treatment plan. Two types of corrections are considered: those which are due to the nonzero thickness of such devices (geometrical effects) and those relating to the scattering of beam particles off their material. The application of these two types of corrections is greatly facilitated by decomposing the physical effects (i.e., the contribution to the fluence) of two-dimensional objects (i.e., of the apertures of the devices) into one-dimensional, easily-calculable contributions. To minimise the time requirements in the derivation of the scattering corrections, a two-step process is introduced. The first step occurs at beam-configuration time and comprises the analysis of half-block fluence measurements; subsequently, a number of Monte-Carlo runs lead to the determination of the parameters of a convenient parameterisation of the relevant fluence contributions. The second step involves...

  15. Antiproton-Proton Glory Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures @*p and K|-p backwards scattering between 8 and 16 GeV/c in the Omega spectrometer using the S1 beam, with sensitivities of several events per nanobarn. The mechanism responsible for backward scattering in channels not mediated by particle exchange is not understood, and could be almost energy-independent glory scattering, especially since relatively high cross sections of 190~(@*p) and 120~(K|-p)nb have been measured earlier at 5~GeV/c. @p|-p backwards scattering is measured for monitoring purposes. The trigger requires a forward particle of momentum close to the beam momentum. Absence of light in the two forward Cerenkov counters indicates that the particle is a proton. Combinations of an incident @p|- and an outgoing K|+, or an incident K|- or @* and an outgoing @p|+, cover the following byproducts: @*p~@A~@p|+@p|- which is an (allowed) baryon exchange reaction, and the exotic exchange reactions @p|-p~@A~K|+Y K|-p~@A~@p|+Y|-, where Y|- may be the @S|- or the Y*|-(1385).

  16. Proton MRS in neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonavita, S.; Di Salle, F.; Tedeschi, G

    1999-05-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) permits the acquisition of the signal arising from several brain metabolites. At long echo-time (TE) {sup 1}H MRS can detect N-acetyl-aspartate containing compounds, choline containing compounds, creatine+phosphocreatine and lactate. At short TE, lipids, tryglicerides, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, GABA, scyllo-inositol, glucose, myo-inositol, carnosine and histydine are visible. {sup 1}H MRS can be performed with single-voxel, multivoxel, single slice and multislice techniques. With single voxel {sup 1}H MRS it is possible to measure metabolites relaxation time, which allows the measurement of metabolite concentrations. This technique can be useful in the study of focal lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) such as epilepsy (pre-surgical identification of epileptic focus), brain tumors (evaluation of recurrence and radiation necrosis), stroke, multiple sclerosis, etc. Single slice and multislice {sup 1}H MRS imaging ({sup 1}H MRSI) can be performed only at long TE and permits the mapping of the brain metabolites distribution which makes them particularly useful in studying diffuse diseases and heterogeneous lesions of the CNS. {sup 1}H MRS can also be useful in the evaluation of 'ischemic penumbra' of stroke; developmental (myelin and neuronal dysgenesis); head trauma (evaluation of cerebral damage not visible with MRI); degenerative disorders (identification of microscopic pathology not visible with MRI); and metabolic diseases (metabolic disturbances with specific metabolic patterns)

  17. Proton-conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Coffey, G.W.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Single-cell solid oxide fuel cells were constructed using strontium cerate as the electrolyte and their performance tested. Like certain zirconates, hafnates, and tantalates, the cerate perovskites are among a class of solid electrolytes that conduct protons at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature and chemical environment, these ceramics also support electronic and oxygen ion currents. A maximum power output of {approx}100 mW per cm{sup 2} electrolyte surface area was obtained at 900{degrees}C using 4% hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. A series of rare earth/ceria/zirconia were prepared and their electrical properties characterized. Rare earth dopants included ytterbia, yttria, terbia, and europia. Ionic conductivities were highest for rare earth/ceria and rare earth zirconia compositions; a minimum in ionic conductivity for all series were found for equimolar mixtures of ceria and zirconia. Cerium oxysulfide is of interest in fossil energy applications because of its high chemical stability and refractory nature. An alternative synthesis route to preparing cerium oxysulfide powders has been developed using combustion techniques.

  18. Does attention capacity moderate the effect of driver distraction in older drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenen, Ariane; Jongen, Ellen M M; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Lutin, Mark; Van Vlierden, Karin; Wets, Geert

    2015-04-01

    With age, a decline in attention capacity may occur and this may impact driving performance especially while distracted. Although the effect of distraction on driving performance of older drivers has been investigated, the moderating effect of attention capacity on driving performance during distraction has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether attention capacity has a moderating effect on older drivers' driving performance during visual distraction (experiment 1) and cognitive distraction (experiment 2). In a fixed-based driving simulator, older drivers completed a driving task without and with visual distraction (experiment 1, N=17, mean age 78 years) or cognitive distraction (experiment 2, N=35, mean age 76 years). Several specific driving measures of varying complexity (i.e., speed, lane keeping, following distance, braking behavior, and crashes) were investigated. In addition to these objective driving measures, subjective measures of workload and driving performance were also included. In experiment 1, crash occurrence increased with visual distraction and was negatively related to attention capacity. In experiment 2, complete stops at stop signs decreased, initiation of braking at pedestrian crossings was later, and crash occurrence increased with cognitive distraction. Interestingly, for a measure of lane keeping (i.e., standard deviation of lateral lane position (SDLP)), effects of both types of distraction were moderated by attention capacity. Despite the decrease of driving performance with distraction, participants estimated their driving performance during distraction as good. These results imply that attention capacity is important for driving. Driver assessment and training programs might therefore focus on attention capacity. Nonetheless, it is crucial to eliminate driver distraction as much as possible given the deterioration of performance on several driving measures in those with low and high attention capacity

  19. Real-time driver drowsiness feedback improves driver alertness and self-reported driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Eugene; Chadunow, Carolyn; Johnson, Kayla; Reece, John

    2015-08-01

    Driver drowsiness has been implicated as a major causal factor in road accidents. Tools that allow remote monitoring and management of driver fatigue are used in the mining and road transport industries. Increasing drivers' own awareness of their drowsiness levels using such tools may also reduce risk of accidents. The study examined the effects of real-time blink-velocity-derived drowsiness feedback on driver performance and levels of alertness in a military setting. A sample of 15 Army Reserve personnel (1 female) aged 21-59 (M=41.3, SD=11.1) volunteered to being monitored by an infra-red oculography-based Optalert Alertness Monitoring System (OAMS) while they performed their regular driving tasks, including on-duty tasks and commuting to and from duty, for a continuous period of 4-8 weeks. For approximately half that period, blink-velocity-derived Johns Drowsiness Scale (JDS) scores were fed back to the driver in a counterbalanced repeated-measures design, resulting in a total of 419 driving periods under "feedback" and 385 periods under "no-feedback" condition. Overall, the provision of real-time feedback resulted in reduced drowsiness (lower JDS scores) and improved alertness and driving performance ratings. The effect was small and varied across the 24-h circadian cycle but it remained robust after controlling for time of day and driving task duration. Both the number of JDS peaks counted for each trip and their duration declined in the presence of drowsiness feedback, indicating a dynamic pattern that is consistent with a genuine, entropy-reducing feedback mechanism (as distinct from random re-alerting) behind the observed effect. Its mechanisms and practical utility have yet to be fully explored. Direct examination of the alternative, random re-alerting explanation of this feedback effect is an important step for future research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing a structural model of young driver willingness to uptake Smartphone Driver Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervick, Aoife A; Hogan, Michael J; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in the potential value of using phone applications that can monitor driver behaviour (Smartphone Driver Support Systems, 'SDSSs') in mitigating risky driving by young people. However, their value in this regard will only be realised if young people are willing to use this technology. This paper reports the findings of a study in which a novel structural model of willingness to use SDSSs was tested. Grounded in the driver monitoring and Technology Acceptance (TA) research literature, the model incorporates the perceived risks and gains associated with potential SDSS usage and additional social cognitive factors, including perceived usability and social influences. A total of 333 smartphone users, aged 18-24, with full Irish driving licenses completed an online questionnaire examining willingness or Behavioural Intention (BI) to uptake a SDSS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling indicated that perceived gains and social influence factors had significant direct effects on BI. Perceived risks and social influence also had significant indirect effects on BI, as mediated by perceived gains. Overall, this model accounted for 72.5% of the variance in willingness to uptake SDSSs. Multi-group structural models highlighted invariance of effects across gender, high and low risk drivers, and those likely or unlikely to adopt novel phone app technologies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the willingness of young drivers to adopt and use SDSSs, and highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioural change interventions seeking to improve usage rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Bangerter, R.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bock, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  2. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bock, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  3. Driver fatigue through nightshifts in succession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabbott, N.; Lloyd, B. [ARRB Group Ltd., Leederville, WA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Coal Services (Health and Safety Trust) funded ARRB Transport Research Ltd. to investigate fatigue and performance of truck drivers over consecutive shifts. The main questions were to assess: What is the most important contributor to acute fatigue in mining? Is it length of shift or is it time of day? What is the limit of successive day or night shifts before chronic fatigue affects operator performance in open cut mines? The project methodology included utilising ARRB Fatigue Monitoring Devices in eight haul trucks, testing 24 subjects over several weeks. Each subject filled in a Fatigue Risk Questionnaire on lifestyle and health. Operators worked a 14 night, 1 day off, 13 day roster of 12-hour shifts in a fly-in, fly-out operation with excellent opportunities for restorative sleep between shifts. A total of 3,500 hours of real-time data was collected, representing the first set of objective, real-time driver performance data for Australian mining. The major finding within this study is the combined influence of circadian rhythms and individual variability on performance. The lifestyle habits and the health of individuals have a profound effect on operator performance as shown by the strong positive correlation between high fatigue risk scores from the Fatigue Risk Questionnaire and poor performance. An individualistic approach would appear to have the best chance of reducing high potential incidents due to fatigue through successive nightshifts. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Reducing whole body vibration in forklift drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motmans, R

    2012-01-01

    Forklift drivers in warehouses are often exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) during the total day. There is however an association between working as a forklift operator and the development of low back pain. In this study the exposure to WBV was measured in five forklift drivers who performed a standardised order picking task during 10 minutes. The effect of driving surface (uneven concrete vs. new flat concrete), driving speed (15 km/h vs. 8 km/h) and seat suspension (mechanical suspension vs. air suspension) was investigated. Improving the driving surface was the most effective preventive measure by reducing the whole body vibration with 39%, from 1.14 to 0.69 m/s2. Lowering the speed limit resulted in a reduction of WBV with 26% (1.05 vs. 0.78 m/s2). An air suspension seat was 22% more effective compared to mechanical suspension (1.02 vs. 0.80 m/s2). On uneven concrete an air suspension seat performed even better by reducing the WBV by 29% (1.33 vs. 0.95 m/s2). A combination of a new driving surface, limiting the maximum speed and the introduction of an air suspension seat reduced the whole body vibrations below the action limit of 0.5 m/s2 as mentioned in the European directive. None of the interventions were effective enough on their own.

  5. Driving continuity in cognitively impaired older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sangyoon; Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Lee, Songchul; Harada, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Ryo; Bae, Seongryu; Nakakubo, Sho; Uemura, Kazuki; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive impairment can negatively affect driving performance and increase the risk of driving errors, leading to vehicle crashes. We used a population-based survey to identify the prevalence of cognitive impairments in older drivers. A total of 10,073 older adults were enrolled in the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology - Study of Geriatric Syndromes. We characterized general cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We also used the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool, which includes six tasks to assess word list memory, logical memory, attention and executive function, processing speed, and visuospatial skill. Just 15% of older women with moderate cognitive decline (MMSE ≤20) drove, whereas 61% of older men with moderate cognitive decline drove. Cognitively normal participants (MMSE score 27 and over) scored significantly better on six cognitive tests compared with those with mild (MMSE score 21-26) or moderate cognitive decline, and those in the mild cognitive decline group scored significantly better on six cognitive tests than those in the moderate cognitive decline group. A total of 61% of older men with moderate cognitive decline did not cease driving. These older drivers showed poor cognitive performance in multiple domains compared with those with normal and mild cognitive decline. Further studies are required to clarify the relationships between cognitive decline and car crashes in these high-risk populations. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Key business restart drivers in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pilková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of business restart, also referred to as second chance, proved to be an integral part of entrepreneurial dynamics. Considering the high level of individual entrepreneurial activity (14.2% in 2011, 10.2% in 2012 accompanied with high discontinuance rate in Slovakia (7.0% in 2011, 4.7% in 20121, it is important to further investigate key factors which influence business restart in our country. These findings could unveil what helps to preserve the current entrepreneurial activity, which is besides producing more new entrepreneurs another option to secure self-employment and job creation through individual business activities, with positive impact on economic growth in the country.The main aim of our paper is to analyze the issue of business restart in Slovakia through dynamics measured on individual level and to identify the key drivers of restart activity. These findings represent a good information basis for policy makers helping them better understand the characteristics of business restart phenomenon and develop relevant entrepreneurship policies, as well as for further entrepreneurship research.Our research is primarily based on Slovak Global entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM 2011 and 2012 individual level data. We applied binominal logistic regression to analyze relationships between business restart and its potential drivers.

  7. Treatment planning optimisation in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, S E; Burnet, N G; Lomax, A J

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The goal of radiotherapy is to achieve uniform target coverage while sparing normal tissue. In proton therapy, the same sources of geometric uncertainty are present as in conventional radiotherapy. However, an important and fundamental difference in proton therapy is that protons have a finite range, highly dependent on the electron density of the material they are traversing, resulting in a steep dose gradient at the distal edge of the Bragg peak. Therefore, an accurate knowledge of the sources and magnitudes of the uncertainties affecting the proton range is essential for producing plans which are robust to these uncertainties. This review describes the current knowledge of the geometric uncertainties and discusses their impact on proton dose plans. The need for patient-specific validation is essential and in cases of complex intensity-modulated proton therapy plans the use of a planning target volume (PTV) may fail to ensure coverage of the target. In cases where a PTV cannot be used, other methods of quantifying plan quality have been investigated. A promising option is to incorporate uncertainties directly into the optimisation algorithm. A further development is the inclusion of robustness into a multicriteria optimisation framework, allowing a multi-objective Pareto optimisation function to balance robustness and conformity. The question remains as to whether adaptive therapy can become an integral part of a proton therapy, to allow re-optimisation during the course of a patient's treatment. The challenge of ensuring that plans are robust to range uncertainties in proton therapy remains, although these methods can provide practical solutions. PMID:23255545

  8. Characterization of the IOTA Proton Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Samantha [Chicago U.

    2017-08-11

    This project focuses on characterizing the IOTA proton source through changing the parameters of four various components of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). Because of an inecient lament, current was limited to 2 mA when 40 mA is ultimately desired. Through an investigation of the solenoids and trims of the LEBT, we sought more knowledge about the optimum settings for running the IOTA proton source.

  9. Periods of High Intensity Solar Proton Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.; Jordan, Thomas M.; Adams, James H.; Dietrich, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis is presented for times during a space mission that specified solar proton flux levels are exceeded. This includes both total time and continuous time periods during missions. Results for the solar maximum and solar minimum phases of the solar cycle are presented and compared for a broad range of proton energies and shielding levels. This type of approach is more amenable to reliability analysis for spacecraft systems and instrumentation than standard statistical models.

  10. Proton-induced noise in digicons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Becher, J.; Fowler, W. B.; Flemming, K.

    1981-01-01

    The Space Telescope, which carries four Digicons, will pass several times per day through a low-altitude portion of the radiation belt called the South Atlantic Anomaly. This is expected to create interference in what is otherwise anticipated to be a noise-free device. Two essential components of the Digicon, the semiconductor diode array and the UV transmitting window, generate noise when subjected to medium-energy proton radiation, a primary component of the belt. These trapped protons, having energies ranging from 2 to 400 Mev and fluences at the Digicon up to 4,000 P+/sec-sq cm, pass through both the window and the diode array, depositing energy in each. In order to evaluate the effect of these protons, engineering test models of Digicon tubes to be flown on the High Resolution Spectrograph were irradiated with low-flux monoenergetic proton beams at the University of Maryland cyclotron. Electron-hole pairs produced by the protons passing through the diodes or the surrounding bulk caused a background count rate. This is the result of holes diffusing over a distance of many diode spacings, causing counts to be triggered simultaneously in the output circuits of several adjacent diodes. Pulse-height spectra of these proton-induced counts indicate that most of the bulk-related counts overlap the single photoelectron peak. A geometrical model will be presented of the charge collection characteristics of the diode array that accounts for most of the observed effects.

  11. Proton conductivity in ampullae of Lorenzini jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josberger, Erik E; Hassanzadeh, Pegah; Deng, Yingxin; Sohn, Joel; Rego, Michael J; Amemiya, Chris T; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In 1678, Stefano Lorenzini first described a network of organs of unknown function in the torpedo ray-the ampullae of Lorenzini (AoL). An individual ampulla consists of a pore on the skin that is open to the environment, a canal containing a jelly and leading to an alveolus with a series of electrosensing cells. The role of the AoL remained a mystery for almost 300 years until research demonstrated that skates, sharks, and rays detect very weak electric fields produced by a potential prey. The AoL jelly likely contributes to this electrosensing function, yet the exact details of this contribution remain unclear. We measure the proton conductivity of the AoL jelly extracted from skates and sharks. The room-temperature proton conductivity of the AoL jelly is very high at 2 ± 1 mS/cm. This conductivity is only 40-fold lower than the current state-of-the-art proton-conducting polymer Nafion, and it is the highest reported for a biological material so far. We suggest that keratan sulfate, identified previously in the AoL jelly and confirmed here, may contribute to the high proton conductivity of the AoL jelly with its sulfate groups-acid groups and proton donors. We hope that the observed high proton conductivity of the AoL jelly may contribute to future studies of the AoL function.

  12. Proton clouds to measure long-range contacts between nonexchangeable side chain protons in solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnige, Tessa; Daniëls, Mark; Baldus, Marc; Weingarth, Markus

    2014-03-26

    We show that selective labeling of proteins with protonated amino acids embedded in a perdeuterated matrix, dubbed 'proton clouds', provides general access to long-range contacts between nonexchangeable side chain protons in proton-detected solid-state NMR, which is important to study protein tertiary structure. Proton-cloud labeling significantly improves spectral resolution by simultaneously reducing proton line width and spectral crowding despite a high local proton density in clouds. The approach is amenable to almost all canonical amino acids. Our method is demonstrated on ubiquitin and the β-barrel membrane protein BamA.

  13. How Drivers Respond to Alarms Adapted to Their Braking Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Genya; Itoh, Makoto

    Determining appropriate alarm timing for Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) may play an important role in enhancing system acceptance by drivers. It is not always true that a common alarm trigger logic is suitable for all drivers, because presented alarms may be differently viewed for each driver, i.e., paying attention or requiring appropriate actions. The current study focused on adaptive alarm timing which was adjusted in response to braking behaviour for collision avoidance for the individual. In Experiment I, the braking performance of individual driver was measured repeatedly to assess the variation of each performance. We utilised the following two indices: elapsed time from the deceleration of the lead car to release of the accelerator (accelerator release time) and elapsed time to application of the brakes (braking response time). Two alarm timings were then determined based on these two indices: (i) the median of the accelerator release time of the driver and (ii) the median of the braking response time of the driver. Experiment II compared the two alarm timings for each driver in order to investigate which timing is more appropriate for enhancing driver trust in the driver-adaptive FCWS and the system effectiveness. The results showed that the timing of the accelerator release time increased the trust ratings more than the timing of braking response. The timing of the braking response time induced a longer response time to application of the brakes. Moreover, the degree to which the response time was longer depended on alarm timing preference of the driver. The possible benefit and drawback of driver-adaptive alarm timing are discussed.

  14. Proton tracking in a high-granularity Digital Tracking Calorimeter for proton CT purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Helge Egil Seime; Brink, Anthony van den; Chaar, Mamdouh; Fehlker, Dominik; Meric, Ilker; Odland, Odd Harald; Peitzmann, Thomas; Rocco, Elena; Wang, Hongkai; Yang, Shiming; Zhang, Chunhui; Röhrich, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2-3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. In this study, a Digital Tracking Calorimeter is benchmarked for proof-of-concept for proton CT purposes. The Digital Tracking Calorimeteris applied for reconstruction of the tracks and energies of individual high energy protons. The presented prototype forms the basis for a proton CT system using a single technology for tracking and calorimetry. This advantage simplifies the setup and reduces the cost o...

  15. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  16. On electromagnetic off-shell effects in proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    OpenAIRE

    Kondratyuk, S.; Martinus, G.; Scholten, O.

    1997-01-01

    We study the influence of the off-shell structure of the nucleon electromagnetic vertex on proton-proton bremsstrahlung observables. Realistic choices for these off-shell effects are found to have considerable influences on observables such as cross sections and analyzing powers. The rescattering contribution diminishes the effects of off-shell modifications in negative-energy states.

  17. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung cross-sections including the kinematical singularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Castelijns, R.; Ermisch, K.; van Garderen, E. D.; Gasparic, I.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Loehner, H.; Scholten, O.

    Integrated cross-section data for proton-proton bremsstrahlung including the points with the phase-space singularity, which occurs close to the maximum non-coplanarity angle, are presented. A numerical integration of theoretical cross-sections is performed over the non-coplanarity angle to integrate

  18. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  19. Two-Pion Production in Proton--Proton Collisions Near Threshold at CELSIUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, R.; Brodowski, W.; Calen, H.; Clement, H.; Dyring, J.; Ekstroem, C.; Fransson, K.; Greiff, J.; Gustafsson, L.; Haeggstroem, S.; Hoeistad, B.; Johanson, J.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kilian, K.; Koch, I.; Kullander, S.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Morosov, B.; Moertsell, A.; Oelert, W.; Ruber, R.; Schubert, U.; Shwartz, B.; Stepaniak, J.; Sukhanov, A.; Sundberg, P.; Turowiecki, A.; Wagner, G.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Zabierowski, J.; Zernov, A.; Zlomanczuk, J.

    1998-11-01

    Two-pion production reactions in proton-proton collisions near threshold are measured using an internal cluster-jet hydrogen target and the WASA/PROMICE detector at the CELSIUS storage ring. Four out of the five possible two-pion production reactions are measured simultaneously.

  20. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M; Pluth, Janice M; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  1. Channeling of protons through carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borka, D; Petrovic, S; Neskovic, N [Laboratory of Physics (010), Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P. O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mowbray, D J; Miskovic, Z L [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: dusborka@vin.bg.ac.yu

    2008-10-01

    We investigate how dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons influences both the angular and spatial distributions of protons channeled in a (11, 9) single-wall carbon nanotube placed in vacuum and in different dielectric media. Proton speeds between 3 and 10 a.u., corresponding to energies of 0.223 and 2.49 MeV, are chosen with the nanotube length varied between 0.1 and 1 {mu}m. In all performed calculations we describe the interaction between proton and carbon atoms on the nanotube wall using the Doyle-Turner potential. The image force on a proton is calculated using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the dynamic response of the nanotube valence electrons and the dielectric media surrounding the nanotube. The angular distributions of channeled protons are generated using a computer simulation method which solves the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane numerically. The best level of ordering and straightening of carbon nanotube arrays is often achieved when they are grown in a dielectric matrix. Consequently, we investigate here how the dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons in the presence of various surrounding dielectric media affects the angular distributions of protons channeled through (11, 9) single-wall carbon nanotubes. Our analysis shows that the inclusion of the image interaction, gives rise to a number of rainbow maxima in the corresponding angular and spatial distribution. Our analysis shows that the presence of dielectric media surrounding the nanotube influences the positions and appearance of rainbows in the corresponding angular and spatial distributions. In addition, we analyze the possibility of production of nano-sized beams by carbon nanotubes.

  2. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption AGENCY... a separate action, has denied U.S. Custom Harvesters, Inc.'s (USCHI) suggestion for a pilot program... not obtained an HM endorsement for their commercial driver's license (CDL) as required by current...

  3. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  4. 78 FR 12815 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... right eye and his long experience as a commercial truck driver, I am comfortable stating that he does... these individuals to operate commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce without meeting the... qualify as drivers of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. DATES: Comments must be...

  5. Behavioural impacts of advanced driver assistance systems : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; Waard, D. de; Janssen, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is that driver error will be reduced or even eliminated, and efficiency in traffic and transport is enhanced. The benefits of ADAS implementations are potentially considerable because of a significant decrease in human suffering, economical

  6. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    found to be above the Danish legal limit in 4.9% of injured drivers. Young men (median age 31 years) were over-represented among injured drivers who violated Danish law for alcohol and drugs. Diazepam (4.4%), tramadol (3.2%), and clonazepam (3.0%) were the medicinal drugs most frequently detected...

  7. Highly automated driving, secondary task performance, and driver state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merat, Natasha; Jamson, A Hamish; Lai, Frank C H; Carsten, Oliver

    2012-10-01

    A driving simulator study compared the effect of changes in workload on performance in manual and highly automated driving. Changes in driver state were also observed by examining variations in blink patterns. With the addition of a greater number of advanced driver assistance systems in vehicles, the driver's role is likely to alter in the future from an operator in manual driving to a supervisor of highly automated cars. Understanding the implications of such advancements on drivers and road safety is important. A total of 50 participants were recruited for this study and drove the simulator in both manual and highly automated mode. As well as comparing the effect of adjustments in driving-related workload on performance, the effect of a secondary Twenty Questions Task was also investigated. In the absence of the secondary task, drivers' response to critical incidents was similar in manual and highly automated driving conditions. The worst performance was observed when drivers were required to regain control of driving in the automated mode while distracted by the secondary task. Blink frequency patterns were more consistent for manual than automated driving but were generally suppressed during conditions of high workload. Highly automated driving did not have a deleterious effect on driver performance, when attention was not diverted to the distracting secondary task. As the number of systems implemented in cars increases, an understanding of the implications of such automation on drivers' situation awareness, workload, and ability to remain engaged with the driving task is important.

  8. Taxi 'sugar daddies' and taxi queens: Male taxi driver attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheryl Potgieter, Anna Strebel, Tamara Shefer, and Claire Wagner

    2012-12-14

    Dec 14, 2012 ... Abstract. Media reports are emerging on the phenomenon of young girls who travel with older mini-bus taxi drivers, and who are thought to have sex with the drivers in exchange for gifts and money. The extent to which such relationships might facilitate unsafe sexual practices and increased risks for both ...

  9. Priming Drivers before Handover in Semi-Autonomous Cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, R.M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412755416; Iqbal, Shamsi T.; Janssen, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412781654

    2017-01-01

    Semi-autonomous vehicles occasionally require control to be handed over to the driver in situations where the vehicle is unable to operate safely. Currently, such handover requests require the driver to take control almost instantaneously. We investigate how auditory pre-alerts that occur well

  10. Kantian Critique as a possible Driver for Planned Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Lund; Bordum, Anders

    In this article it is revealed that planned change approaches operate with multiple drivers for change, but often neglect critique as a relevant driver for change. This is in contradistinction to approaches within the social sciences, where critique is often seen as a relevant approach to creatin...

  11. 49 CFR 383.51 - Disqualification of drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., including but not limited to the crimes of motor vehicle manslaughter, homicide by motor vehicle and... offenses and periods for which a driver must be disqualified, depending upon the type of vehicle the driver... motor vehicle and is convicted of: For a first conviction or refusal to be tested while operating a CMV...

  12. Density-dependent feedbacks can mask environmental drivers of populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Petter

    I present some results from studies identifying environmental drivers of vital rates and population dynamics when controlling for intraspecific density statistically or experimentally, show that density dependence can be strong even in populations of slow-growing species in stressful habitats......, and argue that controlling for density will often be necessary for identifying spatial variation in environmental drivers of demographic patterns in plants....

  13. Defensive Tips in the War against Drunk Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkivich, Robert R.

    The purpose of this book, written by a retired law enforcement officer, is to educate the public about drunk drivers, drinking drivers, and high-speed driving, in an effort to prevent injury, death, and suffering. It is intended to be an instructional manual and a practical, common-sense survival guide for the average individual. National…

  14. Green ICT drivers and inhibitors perceived by the Czech SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Buchalcevova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With regard to minimizing negative ICT impacts, a number of Green ICT initiatives have been raised. This article presents selected results of a survey conducted in the Czech SMEs that show which drivers and inhibitors influence Green ICT diffusion. First, drivers and inhibitors of Green ICT diffusion are established. Then, the survey results are discussed.

  15. Providing over-the-horizon awareness to driver support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eenennaam, Martijn; Heijenk, Geert

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications is a promising technique for driver support systems to increase traffic safety and efficiency. A proposed system is the Congestion Assistant [1], which aims at supporting drivers when approaching and driving in a traffic jam. Studies have shown great potential for

  16. Driver Compliance with Traffic Signal Indications in Two Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Driver response to signal indications was monitored at a selected number of signalised intersections and signal-controlled pedestrian crossings within the Kumasi and Accra metropolitan areas. The objective of the study was to establish the scale of red-light running among drivers in the two cities. Out of 189,628 vehicle ...

  17. The nature of occupational violence against taxicab drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    This research sought to expand evidence about the nature of occupational violence against taxicab drivers and provide further understanding of occupational violence from their perspective. Qualitative research using hermeneutic analysis was conducted. Sixteen taxicab drivers were interviewed, transcripts were analyzed, and the themes describing the nature of occupational violence were identified. Study participants reported exposure to violence, including incidents that involved money, interpersonal violence, encounters during night shift, and physical violence and weapons. Verbatim quotes illustrated violent acts that taxicab drivers experienced. The study findings reveal that taxicab drivers are commonly exposed to violence on the job. Acts that the participants reported as violence included racism, disrespect, verbal abuse, and physical violence. These incidents highlighted the perception of foreign-born drivers that their risk for violence on the job is increased because they are members of a visible minority. Community/public health nursing practice implications include actions that: (a) reduce psychosocial risks and disparities from exposure to occupational violence, (b) develop effective prevention measures that reduce exposure of taxicab drivers to violence, (c) consider this worker population when planning community violence prevention programs, and (d) influence public policy related to taxicab driver safety. The investigator advocates and offers recommendations for future research about the nature, effects, and prevention of occupational violence against taxicab drivers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Work patterns, sleeping hours and excess weight in commercial drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, M K; Hege, A; Perko, M; Sönmez, S; Apostolopoulos, Y

    2015-12-01

    Work and sleep patterns for commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers often include long working hours, shift work and diminished sleep duration and quality, which have been linked to overweight, obesity and other problems. To explore possible connections between work, sleep and obesity among CMV drivers. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from male long-haul CMV drivers in central North Carolina, USA, over a period of 6 months. Drivers' body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of total body obesity and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as a measure of central adiposity. Among the 260 study subjects, mean BMI was 33.1 (64% were obese or morbidly obese) and mean SAD was 32.3cm, classifying 89% of drivers as being at high or very high cardiometabolic risk. About 83% of drivers worked an irregular daily schedule, 64% worked irregular total daily hours, 32% worked irregular days of the week and 46% reported getting sleep during work nights. Significant predictors of BMI included the number of hours worked daily (P sleep quality included the extent of shift work (P sleep duration (P sleep configurations appear to affect the weight status of CMV drivers. Shift work and sleep duration are both associated with the weight status of CMV drivers, and both appear to function as indicators of their sleep quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 32 CFR 636.6 - Remedial driver training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Remedial driver training program. 636.6 Section... Stewart, Georgia § 636.6 Remedial driver training program. For this installation remedial driving training program referenced in § 634.12(b) of this subchapter is operated by the Installation Safety Office...

  20. Analyzing the drivers of green manufacturing with fuzzy approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Diabat, Ali; Madan Shankar, K.

    2015-01-01

    India, and aided by their replies; a pair-wise comparison was made among the drivers. The pair-wise comparison is used as an input data and the drivers were analyzed on its basis. The analysis resorted to the use of a fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approach. The obtained results...

  1. Fitness to drive in older drivers with cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withaar, FK; Brouwer, WH; Van Zomeren, AH

    This paper is a literature review on assessment of fitness to drive in older drivers with cognitive impairment. Early studies on dementia and driving generally failed to distinguish between safe and unsafe drivers on the basis of cognitive test performance. Predictive studies demonstrated that

  2. The QUELCE Method: Using Change Drivers to Estimate Program Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    TRADEMARK , OR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT. [Distribution Statement A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution...Policies, and Standards These change drivers are unanticipated conditions or events that could change the practices, poli- cies, standards, laws , and...Contracting These change drivers are unanticipated conditions or events related to the program’s process of setting up a mutually binding legal

  3. 75 FR 82170 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... highway safety, FMCSA anticipates an additional benefit from reducing allowable daily and weekly work... hours spent sleeping, and truck drivers working high-intensity schedules get significantly less than the... some extent, mortality among these drivers. These benefits should be counted as outcomes of reductions...

  4. Drivers and Interpretations of Doctoral Education Today: National Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Lesley; Bengtsen, Søren S. E.; del Pilar Gallego Castaño, Liliana; Crossouard, Barbara; Keefer, Jeffrey M.; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, doctoral education has undergone a sea change with several global trends increasingly apparent. Drivers of change include massification and professionalization of doctoral education and the introduction of quality assurance systems. The impact of these drivers, and the forms that they take, however, are dependent on doctoral…

  5. Truck Drivers' Use of the Internet: A Mobile Health Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Karen; Combs, Bryan; Griffin, Russell

    2017-06-01

    Because of their social isolation, irregular and unpredictable schedules, limited access to health care, and long periods of travel, long-haul truckers may benefit from the use of mobile health applications on Internet-capable devices. The purpose of this study was to determine Internet access and usage among a sample of long-haul truck drivers. In this cross-sectional study, truck drivers completed a pencil and paper survey with questions on demographics, work and health histories, and Internet access and usage for both personal and job reasons. A total of 106 truck drivers were recruited from trucking industry trade shows, by word of mouth, and directly from trucking companies. Overall, the truck drivers' use of the Internet was limited. Their usage for personal and job-related reasons differed. Social connectivity and access to health and wellness information were important during personal usage time. Job-related Internet use was highly practical, and applied to seeking information for directions and maps, fuel stops and pricing, and communicating with employers or transmitting documents. Age and experience were associated with Internet use. Younger, less-experienced drivers used the Internet more than older, experienced drivers. Targeted mobile health messaging may be a useful tool to inform truck drivers of health conditions and plans, and may provide links to primary care providers needing to monitor or notify drivers of diagnostic results or treatment plans.

  6. Malaria parasitaemia among long distance truck drivers in the Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria among long distance truck drivers in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Methods: A total of one hundred consecutively recruited long distance truck drivers aged ...

  7. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.17 Driver and bus monitor... performance; and (2) before bus monitors assigned to vehicles used to provide such services begin their duties...

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Commercial Drivers in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: The objective of this study was, first, to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of commercial drivers in Dar es Salaam with regard to medicines that impair driving, and second, to evaluate the adequacy of antihistamine label information. Methods: Drivers were interviewed using a questionnaire after obtaining ...

  9. Design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents new tools and methods for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). ADASs aim to improve driving comfort and traffic safety by assisting the driver in recognizing and reacting to potentially dangerous traffic situations. A major challenge in

  10. The definition of and drivers of new product performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    In the last three decades academic research on new product development has tried to identify the drivers of new product development performance. This body of research is characterised by a vast amount of different definitions of both the drivers of new product performance and the performance...

  11. 49 CFR 383.23 - Commercial driver's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... all times accompanied by the holder of a valid CDL; (2) He/she either holds a valid automobile driver... does not operate a commercial motor vehicle transporting hazardous materials as defined in § 383.5. [53... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial driver's license. 383.23 Section 383.23...

  12. Graduated driver licensing. [previously called: The graduated driving licence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Young novice drivers have a very high risk of being involved in a road crash. In the United States (US), Canada, Australia and New Zealand this problem has been tackled by first letting learner drivers gain driving experience under safe conditions before allowing them to take the driving test. The

  13. The CMS Tracker Readout Front End Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Foudas, C.; Ballard, D.; Church, I.; Corrin, E.; Coughlan, J.A.; Day, C.P.; Freeman, E.J.; Fulcher, J.; Gannon, W.J.F.; Hall, G.; Halsall, R.N.J.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Leaver, J.; Noy, M.; Pearson, M.; Raymond, M.; Reid, I.; Rogers, G.; Salisbury, J.; Taghavi, S.; Tomalin, I.R.; Zorba, O.

    2004-01-01

    The Front End Driver, FED, is a 9U 400mm VME64x card designed for reading out the Compact Muon Solenoid, CMS, silicon tracker signals transmitted by the APV25 analogue pipeline Application Specific Integrated Circuits. The FED receives the signals via 96 optical fibers at a total input rate of 3.4 GB/sec. The signals are digitized and processed by applying algorithms for pedestal and common mode noise subtraction. Algorithms that search for clusters of hits are used to further reduce the input rate. Only the cluster data along with trigger information of the event are transmitted to the CMS data acquisition system using the S-LINK64 protocol at a maximum rate of 400 MB/sec. All data processing algorithms on the FED are executed in large on-board Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Results on the design, performance, testing and quality control of the FED are presented and discussed.

  14. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: - The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers that induce companies to change their rules for managing product development. Most companies use a form of rule-based management approach, but surprisingly little is known about what makes companies change these rules...... 10 years based on three rounds of interviews with 40 managers. Findings: - Previous research has assumed that the dynamics of product development rules are based on internal learning processes, and that increasingly competent management will stimulate the implementation of newer and more complex rule...... indicate that many factors influence the modification of rules, and that there is no simple linear progression from one generation to another. Organizational learning is one among several other factors that influences the dynamics of rules for managing product development. Further research is needed...

  15. Power Plant Retirements: Trends and Possible Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    This paper synthesizes available data on historical and planned power plant retirements. Specifically, we present data on historical generation capacity additions and retirements over time, and the types of plants recently retired and planned for retirement. We then present data on the age of plants that have recently retired or that have plans to retire. We also review the characteristics of plants that recently retired or plan to retire vs. those that continue to operate, focusing on plant size, age, heat rate, and SO2 emissions. Finally, we show the level of recent thermal plant retirements on a regional basis and correlate those data with a subset of possible factors that may be contributing to retirement decisions. This basic data synthesis cannot be used to precisely estimate the relative magnitude of retirement drivers. Nor do we explore every possible driver for retirement decisions. Moreover, future retirement decisions may be influenced by different factors than those that have affected past decisions. Nonetheless, it is clear that recently retired plants are relatively old, and that plants with stated planned retirement dates are—on average—no younger. We observe that retired plants are smaller, older, less efficient, and more polluting than operating plants. Based on simple correlation graphics, the strongest predictors of regional retirement differences appear to include SO2 emissions rates (for coal), planning reserve margins (for all thermal units), variations in load growth or contraction (for all thermal units), and the age of older thermal plans (for all thermal units). Additional apparent predictors of regional retirements include the ratio of coal to gas prices and delivered natural gas prices. Other factors appear to have played lesser roles, including the penetration variable renewable energy (VRE), recent non-VRE capacity additions, and whether the region hosts an ISO/RTO.

  16. Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sun's energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10(33) ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process.

  17. Inelastic and diffraction dissociation cross-sections in proton-proton collisions with ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    ALICE results on proton-proton inelastic and diffractive cross-section measurements performed at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 TeV, 2.76 TeV and 7 TeV are presented. The relative rates of single- and double- diffractive processes are measured by studying properties of gaps in the pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles. ALICE trigger efficiencies are determined for various classes of events, using a detector simulation validated with experimental data. The results are presented together with earlier measurements at proton-antiproton and proton-proton colliders at lower energies and with the measurements by other LHC experiments. Predictions by different theoretical models are compared to the data. We will also discuss the main theoretical problems in the field and present some of the recent developments.

  18. Closing the RN engagement gap: which drivers of engagement matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Reynaldo R; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Boyle, Suzanne M

    2011-06-01

    This study focused on the relationship between RNs' perceptions of drivers of engagement and their workplace engagement. In multiple studies, mostly not in healthcare, researchers found that employees engaged in their work are in the minority. This phenomenon is referred to as the engagement gap. Drivers of engagement and levels of nurse engagement were measured among 510 RNs from a large urban academic university center. The greatest difference between engaged and not-engaged nurses was in the manager action index; the smallest difference was in the salary and benefits index. The passion-for-nursing index was the only significant driver related to RN levels of engagement when controlling for all the other drivers. Nurse managers play a critical role in promoting employee engagement. The nurses' passion for nursing is an important dimension of engagement. Salary and benefits were not primary drivers in employee engagement. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  19. Research on Taxi Driver Strategy Game Evolution with Carpooling Detour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of taxi carpooling detour, this paper studies driver strategy choice with carpooling detour. The model of taxi driver strategy evolution with carpooling detour is built based on prospect theory and evolution game theory. Driver stable strategies are analyzed under the conditions of complaint mechanism and absence of mechanism, respectively. The results show that passenger’s complaint mechanism can effectively decrease the phenomenon of driver refusing passengers with carpooling detour. When probability of passenger complaint reaches a certain level, the stable strategy of driver is to take carpooling detour passengers. Meanwhile, limiting detour distance and easing traffic congestion can decrease the possibility of refusing passengers. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to formulating taxi policy.

  20. Driver usage and understanding of adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Annika F L

    2012-05-01

    Automation, in terms of systems such as adaptive/active cruise control (ACC) or collision warning systems, is increasingly becoming a part of everyday driving. These systems are not perfect though, and the driver has to be prepared to reclaim control in situations very similar to those the system easily handles by itself. This paper uses a questionnaire answered by 130 ACC users to discuss future research needs in the area of driver assistance systems. Results show that the longer drivers use their systems, the more aware of its limitations they become. Moreover, the drivers report that ACC forces them to take control intermittently. According to theory, this might actually be better than a more perfect system, as it provides preparation for unexpected situations requiring the driver to reclaim control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.