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Sample records for eurosida study regional

  1. Regional differences in self-reported HIV care and management in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Kamilla Grønborg; Mocroft, Amanda; Lazarus, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    for tobacco use, alcohol consumption and drug use (Figure 1). Screening for cervical cancer and for anorectal cancer was low in both regions (Figure 1). CONCLUSIONS: We found significant regional variability in self-reported HIV management across Europe, with less resistance testing, screening for CVD......INTRODUCTION: EuroSIDA has previously reported a poorer clinical prognosis for HIV-positive individuals in Eastern Europe (EE) as compared with patients from other parts of Europe, not solely explained by differences in patient characteristics. We explored regional variability in self-reported HIV...... management at individual EuroSIDA clinics, with a goal of identifying opportunities to reduce the apparent inequalities in health. METHODS: A survey (www.chip.dk/eurosida/csurvey) on HIV management was conducted in early 2014 in all currently active EuroSIDA clinics. Responders in EE were compared...

  2. The EuroSIDA study: Regional differences in the HIV-1 epidemic and treatment response to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients across Europe--a review of published results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Bannister, Wendy; Mocroft, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    EuroSIDA is a pan-European observational study that follows 14,265 HIV-infected patients from 31 European countries, Israel and Argentina, of which 2,560 are patients from eastern Europe (EE). The study group has performed several analyses addressing regional differences in the HIV-epidemic across...

  3. The EuroSIDA study: Regional differences in the HIV-1 epidemic and treatment response to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients across Europe--a review of published results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Bannister, Wendy; Mocroft, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    EuroSIDA is a pan-European observational study that follows 14,265 HIV-infected patients from 31 European countries, Israel and Argentina, of which 2,560 are patients from eastern Europe (EE). The study group has performed several analyses addressing regional differences in the HIV-epidemic across....... Significantly fewer HIV-infected patients in EE, who fulfilled the criteria for starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), actually received cART as compared with other regions of Europe. Those, receiving cART in EE had a lower initial virologic response rate irrespectively of the regimen used......, although it has improved within years. Besides, treatment failure was more common in this region. Thus, improvements in the clinical management of HIV patients in EE are urgently needed. Strategies include creating scientific collaborations for HIV clinicians as well as teaching clinicians about the most...

  4. Temporal changes and regional differences in treatment uptake of hepatitis C therapy in EuroSIDA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, D; Peters, L; Schwarze-Zander, C; Beniowski, M; Pradier, C; Battegay, M; Jevtovic, D; Soriano, V; Lundgren, JD; Rockstroh, JK; Kirk, O; Mocroft, A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives All HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with chronic HCV infection and ≥ F2 fibrosis should be considered for HCV therapy. This study aimed to determine the rate of HCV treatment uptake among coinfected patients in Europe. Methods EuroSIDA patients with viraemic HCV infection were included in the study. Poisson regression was used to identify temporal changes and regional differences in HCV treatment uptake. Results A total of 1984 patients were included in the study, with a median follow-up time of 168 months [interquartile range (IQR) 121–204 months]. To date, 501 (25.3%) HIV/HCV-coinfected patients have received HCV therapy. Treatment incidence rose from 0.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16–0.50] per 100 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in 1998 to 5.93 (95% CI 4.49–7.38) in 2007, falling to 3.78 (95% CI 2.50–5.07) in 2009. After adjustment, CD4 cell count > 350 cells/μL [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.33 (95% CI 1.06–1.67) vs. CD4 count 200−350 cells/μL] and ≥F2 liver fibrosis [IRR 1.60 (95% CI 1.14–2.25; P = 0.0065) vs. < F2 fibrosis] were predictors of anti-HCV treatment initiation. However, 22% of patients who remain untreated for HCV, with fibrosis data available, had ≥F2 fibrosis and should have been considered for treatment, while only 36% of treated patients had ≥F2 fibrosis. Conclusions Although treatment incidence for HCV has increased, there remain a large proportion of patients indicated for treatment who have yet to be treated. PMID:23869664

  5. Temporal changes and regional differences in treatment uptake of hepatitis C therapy in EuroSIDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, D; Peters, L; Schwarze-Zander, C; Beniowski, M; Pradier, C; Battegay, M; Jevtovic, D; Soriano, V; Lundgren, J D; Rockstroh, J K; Kirk, O; Mocroft, A

    2013-11-01

    All HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with chronic HCV infection and ≥ F2 fibrosis should be considered for HCV therapy. This study aimed to determine the rate of HCV treatment uptake among coinfected patients in Europe. EuroSIDA patients with viraemic HCV infection were included in the study. Poisson regression was used to identify temporal changes and regional differences in HCV treatment uptake. A total of 1984 patients were included in the study, with a median follow-up time of 168 months [interquartile range (IQR) 121-204 months]. To date, 501 (25.3%) HIV/HCV-coinfected patients have received HCV therapy. Treatment incidence rose from 0.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.50] per 100 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in 1998 to 5.93 (95% CI 4.49-7.38) in 2007, falling to 3.78 (95% CI 2.50-5.07) in 2009. After adjustment, CD4 cell count > 350 cells/μL [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.33 (95% CI 1.06-1.67) vs. CD4 count 200-350 cells/μL] and ≥F2 liver fibrosis [IRR 1.60 (95% CI 1.14-2.25; P = 0.0065) vs. < F2 fibrosis] were predictors of anti-HCV treatment initiation. However, 22% of patients who remain untreated for HCV, with fibrosis data available, had ≥F2 fibrosis and should have been considered for treatment, while only 36% of treated patients had ≥F2 fibrosis. Although treatment incidence for HCV has increased, there remain a large proportion of patients indicated for treatment who have yet to be treated. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  6. Regional differences in AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality in HIV-positive individuals across Europe and Argentina: the EuroSIDA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Reekie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in access to care and treatment have been reported in Eastern Europe, a region with one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics, compared to the rest of Europe. This analysis aimed to establish whether there are regional differences in the mortality rate of HIV-positive individuals across Europe, and Argentina. METHODS: 13,310 individuals under follow-up were included in the analysis. Poisson regression investigated factors associated with the risk of death. FINDINGS: During 82,212 person years of follow-up (PYFU 1,147 individuals died (mortality rate 14.0 per 1,000 PYFU (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.1-14.8. Significant differences between regions were seen in the rate of all-cause, AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality (global p<0.0001 for all three endpoints. Compared to South Europe, after adjusting for baseline demographics, laboratory measurements and treatment, a higher rate of AIDS related mortality was observed in East Europe (IRR 2.90, 95%CI 1.97-4.28, p<.0001, and a higher rate of non-AIDS related mortality in North Europe (IRR 1.51, 95%CI 1.24-1.82, p<.0001. The differences observed in North Europe decreased over calendar-time, in 2009-2011, the higher rate of non-AIDS related mortality was no longer significantly different to South Europe (IRR 1.07, 95%CI 0.66-1.75, p = 0.77. However, in 2009-2011, there remained a higher rate of AIDS-related mortality (IRR 2.41, 95%CI 1.11-5.25, p = 0.02 in East Europe compared to South Europe in adjusted analysis. INTERPRETATIONS: There are significant differences in the rate of all-cause mortality among HIV-positive individuals across different regions of Europe and Argentina. Individuals in Eastern Europe had an increased risk of mortality from AIDS related causes and individuals in North Europe had the highest rate of non-AIDS related mortality. These findings are important for understanding and reviewing HIV treatment strategies and policies across the European

  7. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  8. Uptake of tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy among HIV-HBV-coinfected patients in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Mocroft, Amanda; Grint, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to guidelines all HIV/HBV co-infected patients should receive tenofovir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to investigate uptake and outcomes of tenofovir-based cART among HIV/HBV patients in the EuroSIDA study. METHODS: All HBsAg+ patients followed up...

  9. The role of antiretroviral therapy in the incidence of pancreatitis in HIV-positive individuals in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Colette J; Olsen, Christian H; Mocroft, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated the incidence of pancreatitis and its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART), focussing on stavudine and didanosine. METHODS: EuroSIDA has collected information on pancreatitis since Summer 2001. All identified cases have been verified by the coordinating centre....... Individuals were followed from June 2001 or the date of entry into EuroSIDA (whichever occurred later) until a diagnosis of pancreatitis or the last study visit. Factors associated with pancreatitis were investigated using Poisson regression. Cumulative lengths of exposure to didanosine without stavudine...

  10. Transmitted drug resistant HIV-1 and association with virologic and CD4 cell count response to combination antiretroviral therapy in the EuroSIDA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (TDR) and factors associated with TDR and to compare virological and CD4 count response to combination antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: In this study, 525 mostly chronically infected EuroSIDA patients...

  11. Temporal changes and regional differences in treatment uptake of hepatitis C therapy in EuroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Peters, L; Schwarze-Zander, C

    2013-01-01

    All HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with chronic HCV infection and ≥ F2 fibrosis should be considered for HCV therapy. This study aimed to determine the rate of HCV treatment uptake among coinfected patients in Europe....

  12. Benchmarking HIV health care: from individual patient care to health care evaluation. An example from the EuroSIDA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlekareva, Daria N; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda; Losso, Marcelo; Rakhmanova, Aza G; Bakowska, Elzbieta; Karpov, Igor A; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Gatell, Jose; Lundgren, Jens D; Kirk, Ole

    2012-09-25

    State-of-the-art care involving the utilisation of multiple health care interventions is the basis for an optimal long-term clinical prognosis for HIV-patients. We evaluated health care for HIV patients based on four key indicators. Four indicators of health care were assessed: Compliance with current guidelines on initiation of: 1) combination antiretroviral therapy (cART); 2) chemoprophylaxis; 3) frequency of laboratory monitoring; and 4) virological response to cART (proportion of patients with HIV-RNA 90% of time on cART). 7097 EuroSIDA patients were included from Northern (n = 923), Southern (n = 1059), West Central (n = 1290) East Central (n = 1366), Eastern (n = 1964) Europe, and Argentina (n = 495). Patients in Eastern Europe with a CD4 Argentina and Eastern Europe, respectively (p Argentina (adjusted OR 0.16 [95%CI 0.11-0.23, p < 0.0001]; 0.20[0.14-0.28, p < 0.0001] respectively). This assessment of HIV health care utilization revealed pronounced regional differences in adherence to guidelines and can help to identify gaps and direct target interventions. It may serve as a tool for the assessment and benchmarking of the clinical management of HIV patients in any setting worldwide.

  13. Uptake of tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy among HIV-HBV-coinfected patients in the EuroSIDA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lars; Mocroft, Amanda; Grint, Daniel; Moreno, Santiago; Calmy, Alexandra; Jevtovic, Djordje; Sambatakou, Helen; Lacombe, Karine; De Wit, Stephane; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Smidt, Jelena; Karpov, Igor; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Haziosmanovic, Vesnadarjan; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Radoi, Roxana; Kuzovatova, Elena; Orkin, Chloe; Ridolfo, Anna Lisa; Zapirain, Jose; Lundgren, Jens

    2018-01-05

    According to guidelines all HIV/HBV co-infected patients should receive tenofovir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to investigate uptake and outcomes of tenofovir-based cART among HIV/HBV patients in the EuroSIDA study. All HBsAg+ patients followed up after 1 March 2002 were included. Changes in the proportion taking tenofovir-based cART over time were described. Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between tenofovir use and clinical events. 953 HIV/HBV patients were included. Median age was 41 years and patients were predominantly male (85%), white (82%) and ART experienced (88%). 697 and 256 were from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. Fifty-five started cART during follow-up, the proportion starting with CD4<350 cells/mm3 decreased from 85% to 52% in the periods 2002-2006 to 2007-2015. Tenofovir use, among those taking cART, increased from 4% in 2002 to 73% in 2015. Compared to West, tenofovir use was lower in East in 2005 (7% vs. 42%), and remained lower in 2015 (63% vs. 76%). Among 602 patients taking tenofovir-based cART during follow-up, 155 (26%) discontinued tenofovir. Twenty-seven of all discontinuations were due to adverse effects. Only 14 started entecavir and/or adefovir after tenofovir discontinuation, whereas ten started PEG-IFN. Tenofovir use was not significantly associated with lower risk of liver-related clinical events (N=51), adjusted IRR 0.64 (95% CI 0.35-1.18) for comparing patients on tenofovir with those off tenofovir. Although use of tenofovir-based cART among HIV/HBV patients has increased across Europe, a substantial proportion are still starting cART late and are receiving suboptimal HBV therapy.

  14. Changing utilization of Stavudine (d4T) in HIV-positive people in 2006-2013 in the EuroSIDA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlekareva, D; Grint, D; Karpov, I; Rakmanova, A; Mansinho, K; Chentsova, N; Zeltina, I; Losso, M; Parczewski, M; Lundgren, J D; Mocroft, A; Kirk, O

    2015-10-01

    The long-term side effects of stavudine (d4T) led to recommendations in 2009 to phase out use of this drug. We aimed to describe temporal patterns of d4T use across Europe. Patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in EuroSIDA with follow-up after 1 January 2006 were included in the study. cART was defined as d4T-containing [d4T plus at least two other antiretrovirals (ARVs) from any class] or non-d4T-containing (at least three ARVs from any class, excluding d4T). Poisson regression was used to describe temporal changes in the prevalence of d4T use and factors associated with initiating d4T. A total of 5850 patients receiving cART on 1 January 2006 were included in the current analysis, rising to 7768 patients on January 1 2013. During this time, the prevalence of d4T use fell from 11.2% to 0.7%, with an overall decline of 19% per 6 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 19-20%]. d4T use declined fastest in Northern Europe [26% (95% CI 23-29%) per 6 months], and slowest in Eastern Europe [17% (95% CI 16-19%) per 6 months]. In multivariable Poisson regression models, new d4T initiations decreased by 14% per 6 months [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 0.86; 95% CI 0.80-0.91]. Factors associated with initiating d4T were residence in Eastern Europe (aIRR 4.31; 95% CI 2.17-9.98) versus other European regions and HIV RNA > 400 copies/mL (aIRR 3.11; 95% CI 1.60-6.02) versus HIV RNA < 400 copies/mL. d4T use has declined sharply since 2006 to low levels in most regions; however, a low but persistent level of d4T use remains in Eastern Europe, where new d4T initiations post 2006 are also more common. The reasons for the regional differences may be multifactorial, but it is important to ensure that all clinicians treating HIV-positive patients are aware of the potential harmful effects associated with d4T. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  15. Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium among HIV-infected patients after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. EuroSIDA Study Group JD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Gatell, J M; Mocroft, A

    2000-01-01

    the introduction of HAART, using data from the EuroSIDA study, a European, multicenter observational cohort of more than 7,000 patients. Overall incidences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were 0.8 and 1.4 cases/100 person-years of follow-up (PYF), decreasing from 1.8 (TB......) and 3.5 cases/100 PYF (MAC) before September 1995 to 0.3 and 0.2 cases/100 PYF after March 1997. After adjustment for changes in CD4 cell count and use of antiretroviral treatment in Cox proportional hazards models, the risk of MAC decreased with increasing calendar time (hazard ratio per calendar year...

  16. Predictors of immunological failure after initial response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Ulrik Bak; Mocroft, Amanda; Vella, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors that determine the immunological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate predictors of immunological failure after initial CD4(+) response. METHODS: Data were from EuroSIDA, a prospective, international...

  17. Changing utilization of Stavudine (d4T) in HIV-positive people in 2006-2013 in the EuroSIDA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podlekareva, D.; Grint, D.; Karpov, I.; Rakmanova, A.; Mansinho, K.; Chentsova, N.; Zeltina, I.; Losso, M.; Parczewski, M.; Lundgren, J.D.; Mocroft, A.; Kirk, O.; Burger, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The long-term side effects of stavudine (d4T) led to recommendations in 2009 to phase out use of this drug. We aimed to describe temporal patterns of d4T use across Europe. METHODS: Patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in EuroSIDA with follow-up after 1 January 2006

  18. Incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in euroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Friis-Møller, Nina; Mocroft, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of abacavir-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) and associated deaths in EuroSIDA HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Poisson regression models were developed to compare incidence of abacavir discontinuation according to the line...... in first-line therapy, which could indicate increased over-diagnosis. HSR incidence has decreased in recent years, which might reflect the wider availability of genetic screening and improved awareness of symptoms. There were no reported deaths due to abacavir HSR....

  19. Short term clinical disease progression in HIV-1 positive patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy : The EuroSIDA risk-score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Ledergerber, B; Zilmer, K

    2007-01-01

    /death in patients taking cART. A score was derived for 4169 patients from EuroSIDA and validated on 5150 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). RESULTS: In EuroSIDA, 658 events occurred during 22 321 person-years of follow-up: an incidence rate of 3.0/100 person-years of follow-up [95% confidence interval...... (CI), 2.7-3.3]. Current levels of viral load, CD4 cell count, CD4 cell slope, anaemia, and body mass index all independently predicted new AIDS/death, as did age, exposure group, a prior AIDS diagnosis, prior antiretroviral treatment and stopping all antiretroviral drugs. The EuroSIDA risk...... in the risk-score was associated with a 2.70 times higher incidence of clinical progression (95% CI, 2.56-2.84) in EuroSIDA and 2.88 (95% CI, 2.75-3.02) in SHCS. CONCLUSIONS: A clinically relevant prognostic score was derived in EuroSIDA and validated within the SHCS, with good agreement. The EuroSIDA risk...

  20. Changing utilization of Stavudine (d4T) in HIV-positive people in 2006-2013 in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Grint, D; Karpov, I

    2015-01-01

    .86; 95% CI 0.80-0.91]. Factors associated with initiating d4T were residence in Eastern Europe (aIRR 4.31; 95% CI 2.17-9.98) versus other European regions and HIV RNA > 400 copies/mL (aIRR 3.11; 95% CI 1.60-6.02) versus HIV RNA ... levels in most regions; however, a low but persistent level of d4T use remains in Eastern Europe, where new d4T initiations post 2006 are also more common. The reasons for the regional differences may be multifactorial, but it is important to ensure that all clinicians treating HIV-positive patients...... are aware of the potential harmful effects associated with d4T....

  1. Regional differences in use of antiretroviral agents and primary prophylaxis in 3122 European HIV-infected patients. EuroSIDA Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Phillips, A N; Vella, S

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about how widely HIV-related drugs are used outside controlled clinical trials. We therefore assessed factors associated with use of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and primary prophylactic regimens to prevent HIV-associated opportunistic infections. Baseline data from a prospective ...

  2. Regional differences in use of antiretroviral agents and primary prophylaxis in 3122 European HIV-infected patients. EuroSIDA Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundgren, J. D.; Phillips, A. N.; Vella, S.; Katlama, C.; Ledergerber, B.; Johnson, A. M.; Reiss, P.; Gatell, J.; Clumeck, N.; Dietrich, M.; Benfield, T. L.; Nielsen, J. O.; Pedersen, C.

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about how widely HIV-related drugs are used outside controlled clinical trials. We therefore assessed factors associated with use of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and primary prophylactic regimens to prevent HIV-associated opportunistic infections. Baseline data from a prospective

  3. Regional differences in use of antiretroviral agents and primary prophylaxis in 3122 European HIV-infected patients. EuroSIDA Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Phillips, A N; Vella, S

    1997-01-01

    differences. In patients without esophageal candidiasis or other invasive fungal infections, antifungal drugs were far less frequently used in patients from southern and central Europe compared with patients from northern Europe (10%, 10%, and 25%, respectively, p

  4. Predictors of having a resistance test following confirmed virological failure of combination antiretroviral therapy: data from EuroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Zoe V; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    these recommendations. Methods: In EuroSIDA, virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed VL>1,000 copies/ml after =4 months continuous use of any antiretroviral in a =3-drug regimen started during or after 2002. We assessed whether a resistance test was performed around VF (from 4 months before to 1 year after VF...

  5. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  6. Andean region study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    New opportunities for climate change mitigation arising from a higher energy integration among Andean Pact nations were analysed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF Project. Apart from the search for regional mitigation actions, the study was mainly aimed at detecting methodological problems which arise when passing from a strictly national view to the co-ordination of regional actions to deal with climate change. In accordance with the available resources and data, and in view of the mainly methodological nature of the project, it was decided to analyse the opportunities to delve into the energy integration of the Region as regards electricity and natural gas industries and their eventual impact on the emission of greenhouse gases. Although possibilities of setting up electricity and natural gas markets are real, their impacts on GHG emission from the energy system would not prove substantially higher than those which the nations could achieve through the use of their own energy resources, in view that the Andean systems are competitive rather than complementary. More in-depth studies and detail information will be required - unavailable for the present study - to be able to properly evaluate all benefits associated with higher energy integration. Nevertheless, the supply of natural gas to Ecuador seems to be the alternative with the highest impact on GHG emission. If we were to analyse the supply and final consumption of energy jointly, we would most certainly detect additional mitigation options resulting from higher co-operation and co-ordination in the energy field. (EHS)

  7. Hepatitis C seroconversions in HIV infection across Europe: which regions and patient groups are affected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesecke, Christoph; Grint, Daniel; Soriano, Vincent; Lundgren, Jens D; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Mitsura, Victor M; Chentsova, Nelly; Hadziosmanovic, Vesnadarjan; Kirk, Ole; Mocroft, Amanda; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Jürgen K

    2015-11-01

    In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection have been described in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). The aims of this study were to determine whether there has been an increase in the number of acute HCV infections in different parts of Europe. HCV seroconversion was defined as an HCV-antibody test change from negative to positive within the observation period in EuroSIDA. Binomial regression was performed to determine factors associated with being tested for HCV and HCV seroconversion. A total of 223 HCV seroconversions were observed from 16,188 tests [1.38% (95%CI 1.20-1.56)] among 5736 patients between 2002 and 2013. Overall the odds of acquiring HCV infection increased by 4% per year (OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.99-1.09]; P = 0.10). Overall 63.2% (141/223) of all seroconversions were seen among MSM. Similar patterns were observed across all European regions (P = 0.69, test for interaction) and HIV transmission risks groups (P = 0.69, test for interaction). In multivariate analysis, North, South and East Europe had higher odds of HCV seroconversion compared with Western Europe [OR 1.90 (1.28-2.81), 1.55 (0.99-2.45) and 1.86 (1.21-2.84); P = 0.0014, P = 0.058 and P = 0.0044 respectively]. Within EuroSIDA a significant increase in HCV seroconversions can be observed after accounting for increased levels of testing for HCV in recent years. This highlights the need for increased HCV prevention efforts among HIV-positive persons in Europe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Regional solid waste management study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  9. Loss to follow-up in an international, multicentre observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Kirk, O; Aldins, P

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to assess loss to follow-up (LTFU) in EuroSIDA, an international multicentre observational cohort study. METHODS: LTFU was defined as no follow-up visit, CD4 cell count measurement or viral load measurement after 1 January 2006. Poisson regression was used...

  10. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF REGIONAL SEISMIC SAFETY (BAIKAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. А. Berzhinsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The article reviews problems of regional seismic safety and current programs aimed at earthquake proofing of buildings, houses, facilities and life-support systems. It describes the main scientific methodological principles for certification of buildings and facilities located in earthquake-prone regions. With reference to case studies of Angarsk, Shelekhov and Baikalsk and data on Ulaan Baatar (jointly studied with ICAG of the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia, examples of the certification method application in practice are described. Special attention is given to monitoring of the technical status of bearing-wall apartment buildings and houses built in 1960s and 1970s. Cooperation between the Laboratory of Earthquake-Proof Construction and leading scientific research institutes of Russia is reviewed specifically within the framework of the Federal Seismic Safety Program and participation of the Laboratory in development of the national standard titled GOST R Earthquake Intensity Scale.  

  11. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luin, M. van; Bannister, W.P.; Mocroft, A.; Reiss, P.; Perri, G. Di; Peytavin, G.; Molto, J.; Karlson, A.; Castagna, A.; Beniowski, M.; Lundgren, J.D.; Burger, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Co1nflicting data exist regarding the effect of efavirenz (EFV) plasma concentrations on central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. We aimed to determine whether patients with high EFV plasma concentrations have an increased likelihood of toxicity-driven EFV discontinuations. METHODS: EFV

  12. A clinically prognostic scoring system for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: results from the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda; Gatell, Jose M

    2002-01-01

    The risk of clinical progression for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons receiving treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is poorly defined. From an inception cohort of 8457 HIV-infected persons, 2027 patients who started HAART during prospective follow-up wer...

  13. Bat study in the Kharaa region, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study objectives were to determine bat species composition and to study the genetic variations and sound characteristics in bats of the Kharaa, Shatan, and Ulgii areas of Mongolia. This study is the first bat survey in this area. Nineteen species were from Mongolia. Six bat species belonged to three genera. We performed mitochondrial DNA sequencing of Myotis bombinus, Myotis gracilis, and Myotis petax to confirm the morphological identification of these species. We also determined the sound frequencies of the six bat species, based on their echolocation calls. The conservation status was determined using World Conservation Union red list categories and criteria. Sixteen bats from three species were ringed during this study and three artificial boxes were placed on trees in the Kharaa River Valley. Other than the northern bat, all species were eastern Palearctic. The northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii species is widespread in the northern Palearctic region.

  14. MAPPING REGIONAL DROUGHT VULNERABILITY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people’s life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time

  15. Mapping Regional Drought Vulnerability: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouz, M.; Zeynolabedin, A.; Olyaei, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people's life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time series. Vulnerabilities

  16. THE STUDY FOR REGIONAL RETAIL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sokolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy organizations are an element of regional pharmaceutical market infrastructure formation. They have different character and activity type, organizational and legal forms, types of properties. The revelation of the features of retail pharmaceutical market of Yaroslavl oblast was the purpose of the study. The analysis of the data of regional department of Federal Service on Surveillance in Healthcare and Social Development of Russian Federation  n Yaroslavl oblast in the beginning of 2014 showed that there are 137 acting commercial entities, which have licenses for pharmaceutical activity. The region has 487  pharmacy organizations which implement pharmaceutical activity of state (14.6%, municipal (7.4%, and private (78.0% forms of ownership. Some companies function in Yaroslavl (43.9% and Rybinsk (22.4% municipal district. The analysis of organization and legal forms revealed that 48.9% of pharmacy organizations are registered as ltd, 14.6% are state, and 14.2% are private entrepreneurs, public limited companies amount to 10.9%, the rest pharmacy organizations are included into municipal unitary enterprises and private limited companies – 7.39% and 4.1% correspondingly. The structure of retail market is represented by single pharmacy organizations (51.1% as well as organizations joined into pharmacy chains from two and more PO (48.9%. The share of commercial entities which include one PO amounted to 14.4% of all PO. Share of pharmacy chains (42.3% which include from 2 to 9 PO are 46.8% of all PO. Pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 retails spots amount to 6.6% of the total number of commercial entities. 38.8% of PO function within them. Pharmacy chains prevalence (42.3%, joined into 9 PO; pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 PO, and include state sector PO (14.6% are the features of the regional market.

  17. Disparities in HIV clinic care across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffery V.; Laut, Kamilla Grønborg; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although advances in HIV medicine have yielded increasingly better treatment outcomes in recent years, HIV-positive people with access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) still face complex health challenges. The EuroSIDA Study Group surveyed its clinics to explore regional differences...... in clinic services. Methods: The EuroSIDA study is a prospective observational cohort study that began enrolling patients in 1994. In early 2014, we conducted a 59-item survey of the 98 then-active EuroSIDA clinics. The survey covered HIV clinical care and other aspects of patient care. The EuroSIDA East...... tuberculosis/HIV treatment integration in the East Europe group (27% versus 84% p

  18. Studies of Regional Phase Propagation in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-31

    respectively. The Kopet Dagh, Shahrud Doruneh, and the Qom region also seem to have a 0 slightly smaller than the average. On the other hand, the Elburz...45.000 , Voe Dag Eas IIIn Iaro Vazd u:~m Fot-Hil Flde Seres Arvnd hat Shahrud ~~ Do ve Iu Bloc Qom~~~~ ar FoddVei Kavi Persin Gul ....1... regions...of 181±12 and 183±18, respectively. The Kopet Dagh, Shahrud Doruneh, and the Qom region also seem to have a Q slightly smaller than the aver- age. On

  19. MHC Region and Its Related Disease Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi

    involved in the above diseases have not, with very few exceptions, been identified. Currently popular next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, comprising massively parallel single-molecule sequencing, can generate billions of bases from amplified single DNA molecules within several days, holding great...... detection as well as HLA gene typing and large structural variation detection using optical mapping technic, to provide comprehensive and accurate information of the MHC region and apply them into disease causal mutation’s fine-mapping....... degree of polymorphisms within the MHC, the detection of variants in this region, and diagnostic HLA typing, still lacks a coherent, standardized, cost effective and high coverage protocol of clinical quality and reliability. And owing to marked linkage disequilibrium of MHC region, genes/mutations...

  20. Editorial for Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick; Batelaan, Okke; Hughes, Denis A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological regimes and processes show strong regional differences. While some regions are affected by extreme drought and desertification, others are under threat of increased fluvial and/or pluvial floods. Changes to hydrological systems as a consequence of natural variations and human activities are region-specific. Many of these changes have significant interactions with and implications for human life and ecosystems. Amongst others, population growth, improvements in living standards and other demographic and socio-economic trends, related changes in water and energy demands, change in land use, water abstractions and returns to the hydrological system (UNEP, 2008), introduce temporal and spatial changes to the system and cause contamination of surface and ground waters. Hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are also undergoing spatial and temporal changes. Climate change has been shown to increase temporal and spatial variations of rainfall, increase temperature and cause changes to evapotranspiration and other hydro-meteorological variables (IPCC, 2013). However, these changes are also region specific. In addition to these climate trends, (multi)-decadal oscillatory changes in climatic conditions and large variations in meteorological conditions will continue to occur.

  1. Nurses' participation in audit: a regional study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheater, F. M.; Keane, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To find out to what extent nurses were perceived to be participating in audit, to identify factors thought to impede their involvement, and to assess progress towards multidisciplinary audit. RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative. METHODS: Focus groups and interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs of audit groups and audit support staff in hospital, community and primary health care and audit leads in health authorities in the North West Region. RESULTS: In total 99 audit le...

  2. [Regional ecological planning and ecological network construction: a case study of "Ji Triangle" Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Han, Zeng-Lin; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2009-05-01

    By the methods of in situ investigation and regional ecological planning, the present ecological environment, ecosystem vulnerability, and ecological environment sensitivity in "Ji Triangle" Region were analyzed, and the ecological network of the study area was constructed. According to the ecological resources abundance degree, ecological recovery, farmland windbreak system, environmental carrying capacity, forestry foundation, and ecosystem integrity, the study area was classified into three regional ecological function ecosystems, i. e., east low hill ecosystem, middle plain ecosystem, and west plain wetland ecosystem. On the basis of marking regional ecological nodes, the regional ecological corridor (Haerbin-Dalian regional axis, Changchun-Jilin, Changchun-Songyuan, Jilin-Songyuan, Jilin-Siping, and Songyuan-Siping transportation corridor) and regional ecological network (one ring, three links, and three belts) were constructed. Taking the requests of regional ecological security into consideration, the ecological environment security system of "Ji Triangle" Region, including regional ecological conservation district, regional ecological restored district, and regional ecological management district, was built.

  3. Regional air quality in the four corners studys region: modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochumson, D.

    1982-01-01

    A two-dimensional Eulerian air pollutant transport model was used in an air quality study of the Four Corners region conducted for the National Commission on Air Quality. The regional modeling methodology and some sample results from the regional air quality analysis are presented. One major advantage of the regional transport model that was employed is that its solution involves the calculation of transfer coefficients that relate emissions to ambient concentrations and deposition and which can be used repeatedly to evaluate alternative scenarios and regulatory policies which represent different emission source configurations. The regional transport model was used in the calculation of the concentration and deposition of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 4/, and primary fine particulates; and these estimates were used as inputs to regional atmospheric visibility and mass budget calculations. Previous studies have shown that the methods used in the regional air quality analysis give good agreement when comparing observed and estimated values.

  4. Health region development from the perspective of system theory - an empirical cross-regional case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Patent Data Visualization: A Regional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Akkucuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance given by the governments to building a sound intellectual property infrastructure is increasing in developing countries and especially in Central Asian countries. This infrastructure is continuously improved to live up to a common standard in collaboration with government agencies, educational institutions and international agencies. In this paper, the infrastructure developments that took place in the Central Asian countries is going to be elaborated and furthermore some statistical analyses will be used in order to compare the differences and similarities between the Central Asian republics within themselves and the rest of the world. Patent based statistical data reveal a broad range of information concerning the innovative capability of countries, regions and firms. The number of patents that a country obtains in different technological fields and the change in this number over the years may provide useful information regarding the growth potential of the country and the ability to follow technological advances. For this purpose, patent statistics collected by institutions like World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO have been analyzed using statistical techniques. In addition to basic statistics, multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS has been applied to the data sets.

  6. Factors associated with development of opportunistic infections in HIV-1 infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Mocroft, A; Dragsted, Ulrik Bak

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on factors predicting the development of opportunistic infections (OIs) at higher-than-expected CD4(+) cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected adults. METHODS: Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to determine factors related...

  7. A comparison of the long-term durability of nevirapine, efavirenz and lopinavir in routine clinical practice in Europe: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, J; Reiss, P; Ledergerber, B

    2011-01-01

    The durability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens can be measured as time to discontinuation because of toxicity or treatment failure, development of clinical disease or serious long-term adverse events. The aim of this analysis was to compare the durability of nevirapine, efav...

  8. Factors associated with development of opportunistic infections in HIV-1 infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Mocroft, A; Dragsted, Ulrik Bak

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on factors predicting the development of opportunistic infections (OIs) at higher-than-expected CD4(+) cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected adults. METHODS: Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to determine factors related to...

  9. Predictors of immunological failure after initial response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Ulrik Bak; Mocroft, Amanda; Vella, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    ], 2.05; 95% CI, 1.83-2.31; Pupdated virus load (per 1 log(10) higher; RH, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.64-1.92; PHIV-1 risk behavior (P=.047 for a global comparison of risk groups). CONCLUSION: The risk of immunological failure in patients with an immunological response to HAART......, observational human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 cohort. RESULTS: Of 2347 patients with an increase in CD4(+) cell count >or=100 cells/microL within 6-12 months of the initiation of HAART, 550 (23%) subsequently experienced immunological failure (CD4(+) count less than or equal to the pre-HAART value...... diminishes with a longer time receiving treatment and is associated with pretreatment CD4(+) cell count, ongoing viral replication, and intravenous drug use....

  10. Factors associated with development of opportunistic infections in HIV-1 infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Mocroft, A; Dragsted, Ulrik Bak

    2006-01-01

    to the development of groups of OIs above their respective traditional upper CD4(+) cell count thresholds: group 1 (>or=100 cells/ microL), OIs caused by cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Toxoplasma gondii; group 2 (>or=200 cells/ microL), Pneumocystis pneumonia and esophageal candidiasis; and group...

  11. Factors associated with development of opportunistic infections in HIV-1 infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Mocroft, A; Dragsted, Ulrik Bak

    2006-01-01

    in all groups, likely by reducing HIV-1 RNA levels (IRR per 1-log(10) copies/mL higher HIV-1 RNA levels for group 1, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.15-1.95]; for group 2, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.40-2.02]; and for group 3, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.40-2.54]). CONCLUSION: Although the absolute incidence is low, the current CD4(+) cell......BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on factors predicting the development of opportunistic infections (OIs) at higher-than-expected CD4(+) cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected adults. METHODS: Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to determine factors related...... 3 (>or=300 cells/ microL), pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. RESULTS: In groups 1, 2, and 3, 71 of 9,219, 125 of 7,934, and 36 of 7,838 patients, respectively, developed >or=1 intragroup OI. The strongest predictor of an OI in groups 1 and 2 was current CD4(+) cell count (for group 1...

  12. Regional climate scenarios for use in Nordic water resources studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rummukainen, Markku; Räisänen, J.; Bjørge, D.

    2003-01-01

    are typically geographically too coarse to well represent many regional or local features. In the Nordic region, climate studies are conducted in each of the Nordic countries to prepare regional climate projections with more detail than in global ones. Results so far indicate larger temperature changes...... in the Nordic region than in the global mean, regional increases and decreases in net precipitation, longer growing season, shorter snow season etc. These in turn affect runoff, snowpack, groundwater, soil frost and moisture, and thus hydropower production potential, flooding risks etc. Regional climate models......According to global climate projections, a substantial global climate change will occur during the next decades, under the assumption of continuous anthropogenic climate forcing. Global models, although fundamental in simulating the response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing...

  13. Ecological sensitivity of the Persian Gulf coastal region (Case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coastal area sensitivity evaluation is in fact, the evaluation of an extraordinary ecological rich region. This study has been based on established criteria and values. The aim of this sensitivity evaluation has been to give objectivity to the Bushehr Province coastline region, so as to be able to pinpoint areas requiring ...

  14. A Study of Some Rostrofacial Indices Related to Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With increasing use of the porcine species as experimental models for improvement of human dental implants, this work will further aid the knowledge of the regional anaesthesia of this species in dental implant studies and could be of value in the surgical intervention of priced animals. Keywords: Rostrofacial, Regional ...

  15. Book Review: Climate Justice: Case Studies in Global and Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Climate Justice: Case Studies in Global and Regional Governance Challenges. Book Author: Randall S. Abate (Ed.) Environmental Law Institute Washington DC 2016. ISBN 978-1-58576-181-4 ...

  16. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS......: Virologic response (viral load ART was analyzed in antiretroviral-naive EuroSIDA patients. Analyses were stratified by region (south, central west, north, east) or time started cART (early, 1996-1997; mid, 1998-1999; late, 2000-1904). RESULTS: Virologic...... suppression was achieved by 60% of 2102 patients: 57% south (n = 560), 61% central west (n = 466), 63% north (n = 606), 58% east (n = 470) (P = 0.091). An increase was observed over time: 52% early cART, 56% mid cART, 69% late cART (P

  17. Regional changes over time in initial virological response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, W; Kirk, O; Gatell, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS......: Virologic response (viral load ART was analyzed in antiretroviral-naive EuroSIDA patients. Analyses were stratified by region (south, central west, north, east) or time started cART (early, 1996-1997; mid, 1998-1999; late, 2000-1904). RESULTS: Virologic...... suppression was achieved by 60% of 2102 patients: 57% south (n = 560), 61% central west (n = 466), 63% north (n = 606), 58% east (n = 470) (P = 0.091). An increase was observed over time: 52% early cART, 56% mid cART, 69% late cART (P

  18. Energy Policy in the Baltics: A Study of Regional Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jessica Annette

    Regionalism, especially in the form of macro-regions, has emerged as a force of cooperation and integration within the European Union. The Baltic states, who have cooperated more closely since acceding to the EU, provide an effective case study for testing the unifying power of regionalism. As small states that have shared a damaging dependence on Russian energy imports, the three Baltic states share the incentive to cooperate as a region and develop their internal gas, oil, and electricity capacities. The Baltic states have displayed uneven tendencies of cooperation when it comes to energy, however. After presenting an overview of regionalism in the EU, this paper examines EU policy regarding energy in the Baltics, energy ties between the Baltics and other countries, and specific energy projects in the Baltics to show that while the Baltics do not yet have a strong tradition of cooperation in the energy sector, they have laid the groundwork to strengthen future ties.

  19. The regional approach and regional studies method in the process of geography teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendzhieva, Stela; Doikov, Martin

    2017-03-01

    We define the regional approach as a manner of relations among the global trends of development of the "Society-man-nature" system and the local differentiating level of knowledge. Conditionally, interactions interlace under the influence of the character of Geography as a science, education, approaches, goals and teaching methods. Global, national and local development differentiates in three concentric circles at the level of knowledge. It is determined as a conception of modern, complex and effective mechanism for young people, through which knowledge develops in regional historical and cultural perspective; self-consciousness for socio-economic and cultural integration is formed as a part of the. historical-geographical image of the native land. This way an attitude to the. native land is formed as a connecting construct between patriotism to the motherland and the same in global aspect. The possibility for integration and cooperation of the educative geographical content with all the local historical-geographical, regional, profession orientating, artistic, municipal and district institutions, is outlined. Contemporary geographical education appears to be a powerful and indispensable mechanism for organization of human sciences, while the regional approach and the application of the regional studies method stimulate and motivate the development and realization of optimal capacities for direct connection with the local structures and environments.

  20. Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: approaches, first results and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a NEESPI megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Needs for SIRS are caused by accelerated warming occurring in Siberia, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence, and lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The SIRS approaches include coordination of different scale national and international projects, capacity building targeted to early career researchers thematic education and training, and development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required in support of multidisciplinary teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for sharing of data, models and knowledge. Coordination within SIRS projects is devoted to major regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes and currently is concentrated on three interrelated problems, whose solution has strong regional environmental and socio-economical impacts and is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics: Permafrost border shift, which seriously threatens the oil and gas transporting infrastructure and leads to additional carbon release; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems changes, which might vary region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime changes, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus causing significant carbon release from the region under study. Some

  1. Study of the global and regional climatic impacts of ENSO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC), Ministry of Climate Change, Islamabad, Pakistan. ... decades resulting in a need to study climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude both at global and regional scales. Hence ... positive phase of ENSO (El Ni˜no) overall strengthens Hadley cell and a reverse is true for the La Ni˜na.

  2. Study and assessment of clusters activity effect on regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babkin A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cluster approach, i.e., forming basic innovative and industrial clusters is widely applied in modern Russian conditions for the development of the economy. These actions are considered as effective measures for implementing the economic policy stimulating regional development by federal and regional authorities. The analysis we carried out showed that the quantitative approach for assessing the efficiency of cluster creation and performance is still insufficiently used. In this paper we establish and quantitatively estimate the influence cluster have on the regional economy using regression analysis with an example of a number of Russian regional clusters. Expanding the practice of creation and the state support of clusters taking into account the revealed quantitative dependences estimating their efficiency is suggested. We have advanced the hypothesis that clustering has a positive influence on regional economy, and confirmed this influence by means of quantitative methods using representative datasets. Our study of course had a selective character as it is not possible to carry out the calculations for all the existing clusters and cluster initiatives of Russia and discuss the results within a single article. At the same time, following the analysis we performed, we concluded that it is effective to initiate cluster creation in Russian regions. It is shown that cluster activity is capable to have of having a positive impact on GRP growth and the budgetary income in the region. Along with that, we note the dissimilarities in the multiplying influence of clusters on the regional development, its dependence on territorial and branch specifics that will be the direction for a further indepth study.

  3. Selecting global climate models for regional climate change studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, David W; Barnett, Tim P; Santer, Benjamin D; Gleckler, Peter J

    2009-05-26

    Regional or local climate change modeling studies currently require starting with a global climate model, then downscaling to the region of interest. How should global models be chosen for such studies, and what effect do such choices have? This question is addressed in the context of a regional climate detection and attribution (D&A) study of January-February-March (JFM) temperature over the western U.S. Models are often selected for a regional D&A analysis based on the quality of the simulated regional climate. Accordingly, 42 performance metrics based on seasonal temperature and precipitation, the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are constructed and applied to 21 global models. However, no strong relationship is found between the score of the models on the metrics and results of the D&A analysis. Instead, the importance of having ensembles of runs with enough realizations to reduce the effects of natural internal climate variability is emphasized. Also, the superiority of the multimodel ensemble average (MM) to any 1 individual model, already found in global studies examining the mean climate, is true in this regional study that includes measures of variability as well. Evidence is shown that this superiority is largely caused by the cancellation of offsetting errors in the individual global models. Results with both the MM and models picked randomly confirm the original D&A results of anthropogenically forced JFM temperature changes in the western U.S. Future projections of temperature do not depend on model performance until the 2080s, after which the better performing models show warmer temperatures.

  4. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  5. 5th Regional Study on Cadastre and Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Skender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 5th Regional Conference on Cadastre and Spatial Data Infrastructure (Banja Luka and Laktaši, Bosnia and Herzegovina, June 6–8, 2012, the Republic Authority for Geodetic and Property Affairs of the Republic of Srpska and the Federal Administration for Geodetic and Real Property Affairs published the 5th Regional Study on Cadastre and Spatial Data Infrastructure. The study was produced in the frame of the Project INSPIRATION – Spatial Data Infrastructure in the Western Balkans, which is being realized for the benefit and with cooperation of representatives of eight geodetic administrations in the region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia by consortium led by German company GFA of Hamburg, in cooperation with GDi GISDATA of Zagreb, experts from the Austrian Environmental Agency and German company con terra GmbH and financed from the European Union IPA funding programme for 2010.

  6. REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIECZKA I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest model version of RegCM is adapted with the ultimate aim of providing climate projection for the Carpathian region with 10 km horizontal resolution. For this purpose, first, coarse resolution reanalysis data and global climate model outputs are used to drive 50 km resolution model experiments, from which the outputs are used to provide necessary boundary conditions for the fine scale model runs. Besides the historical runs (for the period 1981-2010, RCP4.5 scenario is also analyzed in this paper for the 21st century. These experiments are essential since they form the basis of national climate and adaptation strategies by providing detailed regional scale climatic projections and enabling specific impact studies for various sectors.

  7. Bioactivity of arid region honey: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilary, Serene; Habib, Hosam; Souka, Usama; Ibrahim, Wissam; Platat, Carine

    2017-03-29

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of honey have been largely recognized by various studies. Almost all of the potential benefits are associated with polyphenol content. Honey varieties from the arid region are reported to be rich in polyphenols, but data related to its bioactivity in vitro is greatly lacking. This study aimed at establishing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of arid region honey. Four honey varieties from arid region (H1, H2, H3, and H4) and two popular non-arid region honey (H5 and H6) were tested in vitro in this study. The erythrocyte membrane protection effect of honey varieties were measured by hemolysis assay after exposing erythrocytes to a peroxide generator. The subsequent production of MDA (malondialdehyde) content in erythrocytes was measured. Immunomodulatory effect of the honey varieties was tested in prostate cancer cells PC-3 and PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) by measuring the IL-6 (interleukin 6) and NO (nitric oxide) levels in cell culture supernatant after incubation with the honey varieties. PC-3 cell viability was assessed after incubation with honey varieties for 24 h. Arid region honey exhibited superior erythrocyte membrane protection effect with H4 measuring 1.3 ± 0.042mMTE/g and H2 measuring 1.122 ± 0.018mMTE/g. MDA levels were significantly reduced by honey samples, especially H4 (20.819 ± 0.63 nmol/mg protein). We observed a significant decrease in cell population in PC-3 after 24 h in culture on treatment with honey. A moderate increase in NO levels was observed in both cultures after 24 h at the same time levels of IL-6 were remarkably reduced by honey varieties. The results demonstrate the antioxidant effect of arid region honey due to its erythrocyte membrane protection effect and subsequent lowering of oxidative damage as evident from lower levels of lipid peroxidation byproduct MDA. Arid region honey varieties were as good as non-arid region types at decreasing

  8. in ghana: a case study of ashanti region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF ASHANTI REGION. T. Y. Baah-Ennumh', S. E. Owusuz, J. Y. Kokor1. 'Department of Planning. College of Architecture and Planning,. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. zlnstitute of Human Settlements Research (IHSR),. College of Architecture and ...

  9. Studies of Clump Structure of Photodissociation Regions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... This observational evidence led us to assume that emitting regions are finite parallel plane slab in which photons are allowed to escape from both the surfaces (back and front). Therefore, in the present study escape of radiations from both sides of the homogeneous and also clumpy PDR/molecular clouds ...

  10. An ecological study of the vegetation of Gambella Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-10-14

    The vegetation of Gambella Region, southwestern Ethiopia, has been studied through five field trips made between October 14, 1995 and October 10, 1996. Systematic sampling method was used to select homogenous vegetation stands. Cover/abundance data was recorded for all plants from a total of 58 relevès. For each ...

  11. Regional enteritis and gluten-free diet. A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, Christiaan Frederik van der

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to determine whether the use of a gluten-free diet influenced the course and prognosis of regional enteritis. Following a few clinical communications in the Dutch medical literature reporting favourable results obtained with the gluten-free diet in the

  12. Adapted optimization model for planning regional wastewater systems: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, J A; Cunha, M C; Antunes, A P

    2017-09-01

    Wastewater systems are of crucial importance to the promotion of sustainable development. Through an integrated planning approach, the costs can be minimized and the resulting benefits maximized. A planning approach at regional level exploits the economies of scale, while achieving a better environmental performance. In this paper we set out a decision support approach for the planning of regional wastewater systems. Optimization models are used, aimed at finding optimal configurations for the location, type and size of the system's infrastructure: sewers, pump stations, and wastewater treatment plants. Solutions are evaluated in terms of the cost of installing, operating and maintaining the infrastructure, and the water quality in the river that receives the treated wastewater. The river water quality varies in accordance with the effluent discharges, and is assessed using environmental parameters. The models are solved with a simulated annealing algorithm complemented by a local improvement procedure. Its application is illustrated through a case study in the Una river basin region, in Brazil.

  13. [Myxomatosis in Tunisia: seroepidemiological study in the Monastir region (Tunisia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghram, A; Benzarti, M; Amira, A; Amara, A

    1996-01-01

    A sero-epidemiological study of myxomatosis, realized in the region of Monastir, confirmed the existence and the prevalence of the disease in its nodular form. Different strains of the myxomatosis virus were isolated and identified by gel immunodiffusion test (GID) using specific polyclonal sera. Serological analyses using complement fixation (FC) and (GID) tests allowed the detection of specific antibodies in sera from both healthy and sick animals. The results also confirmed the better sensitivity of the FC over the GID. Overall rates infection of herds and animals were 54.9% and 32.63% (p myxomatosis cases suggests that the disease first appeared in the coastal region then moved inside the Sabel area. Breeding and farming conditions, associated with deficiency in sanitary and medical measures, are at the origin of the introduction and the wide distribution of myxomatosis in this region.

  14. Clinicopathological study of jaw cysts in southeast region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Demirkol, Mehmet; Ege, Bilal; Yanik, Saim; Aras, M. Hamdi; Ay, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze clinic and radiologic features and the prevalence of jaw cysts in southeast region of Turkey. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 149 cysts of the jaw diagnosed among 407 individuals who were taken biopsy in our department from October 2008 to December 2012. All cysts were treated by enucleation, marsupialization, or combination, and all cases were histologically examined. Results: One-hundred-and-forty-eight c...

  15. Water and Regional Stability: The Nile a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Basin-Wide Study Final Report ( Dar es Salaam , Tanzania, May 2008), 2-1, 2-2. 30 Global Water Partnership Toolbox IWRM page, http...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t WATER AND REGIONAL STABILITY: THE NILE A CASE STUDY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL JOHN C. CURWEN United...in her remarks to Congress , eloquently described many of the reasons why the United States views water as strategically important1. The 2010 report

  16. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  17. Monitoring road safety development at regional level: A case study in the ASEAN region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Faan; Wang, Jianjun; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zegras, P Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Persistent monitoring of progress, evaluating the results of interventions and recalibrating to achieve continuous improvement over time is widely recognized as being crucial towards the successful development of road safety. In the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region there is a lack of well-resourced teams that contain multidisciplinary safety professionals, and specialists in individual countries, who are able to carry out this work effectively. In this context, not only must the monitoring framework be effective, it must also be easy to use and adapt. This paper provides a case study that can be easily reproduced; based on an updated and refined Road Safety Development Index (RSDI), by means of the RSR (Rank-sum ratio)-based model, for monitoring/reporting road safety development at regional level. The case study was focused on the road safety achievements in eleven Southeast Asian countries; identifying the areas of poor performance, potential problems and delays. These countries are finally grouped into several classes based on an overview of their progress and achievements regarding to road safety. The results allow the policymakers to better understand their own road safety progress toward their desired impact; more importantly, these results enable necessary interventions to be made in a quick and timely manner. Keeping action plans on schedule if things are not progressing as desired. This would avoid 'reinventing the wheel' and trial and error approaches to road safety, making the implementation of action plans more effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-Country Entrepreneurial Intentions Study: The Danube Region Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Šebjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate how entrepreneurial intentions of individuals in the eight countries of the Danube region are shaped by different components of individuals’ personal attitudes, the subjective norm and personal behavioral control. We analyze the internal structure of these components as well as some demographic and human capital factors. Cultural and developmental differences influencing variation in causal effects among variables in the model are analyzed. Structural equation modeling is used for data obtained by adult population surveys within the GEM research. Results of our study show that the entrepreneurial intention model is applicable across countries and that the internal effects among components of motivational antecedents exist, although not all hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Our study suggests that the process from perception to intention is similarly shaped across the eight countries of the Danube region, although there are several differences in the magnitude of causal effects as well as differences regarding influential factors.

  19. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  20. A study of Desert Dermatoses in the Thar Desert Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Manas; Vasudevan, Biju

    2015-01-01

    Desert dermatology describes the cutaneous changes and the diseases affecting those living in the desert. Diurnal variation in temperature is high and is characteristic of the deserts. The lack of water affects daily activities and impacts dermatological conditions. Adaptation to the desert is therefore important to survival. This original article focuses on dermatoses occurring in a population in the Thar desert of India, predominantly located in Rajasthan. This is a descriptive study involving various dermatoses seen in patients residing in the Thar desert region over a duration of 3 years. Infections were the most common condition seen among this population and among them fungal infections were the most common. The high incidence of these infections would be accounted for by the poor hygienic conditions due to lack of bathing facilities due to scarcity of water and the consequent sweat retention and overgrowth of cutaneous infective organisms. Pigmentary disorders, photodermatoses, leishmaniasis and skin tumors were found to be more prevalent in this region. Desert sweat dermatitis was another specific condition found to have an increased incidence. The environment of the desert provides for a wide variety of dermatoses that can result in these regions with few of these dermatoses found in much higher incidence than in other regions. The concept of desert dermatology needs to be understood in more details to provide better care to those suffering from desert dermatoses and this article is a step forward in this regard.

  1. Sustaining Continuous Improvement: A Longitudinal and Regional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Quesada-Pineda

    2013-09-01

    companies, no changes in perception were found during the period of study for any of the factors. For the other two, however, changes were perceived in at least one of the five constructs in the study. Changes were also found across the regions included. By leveraging the quantitative analysis with qualitative data collected through interviews and visits to the case study companies, we were able to explain the changes in perception and single out the best CI management process to sustain CI in the long term.

  2. Intensive survey methods in the framework of a regional project: the Serena Region study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayoral Herrera, Victorino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the survey methods developed in the framework of a research project carried out in the Serena region (Badajoz Province, Spain. We start from a critical use of the notion of archaeological site and an assessment of the meaning of intensive surface collection in the context of the study of the structure of preindustrial agrarian landscapes. We offer a detailed exposition of the survey planning, data capture and spatial analysis. In a first stage we make a global estimate of density of surface finds, locating possible areas of interest. In a second phase detected dispersions are qualified by systematic sampling. Its main purpose is to dismiss selective procedures leading to remarkable biases in surface record. We emphasize the balance achieved between data resolution and effort invested. This method has shown its effectiveness to characterize archaeological entities often not considered in Peninsular regional projects. Other factors affecting the recognition of sherd scatters are discussed, like the so-called “background noise”.

    El propósito de este trabajo es mostrar la metodología de prospección de superficie empleada en el marco de un proyecto regional sobre la evolución del paisaje en la comarca de La Serena (Badajoz. Se parte de una utilización crítica del concepto de sitio arqueológico y de una valoración del significado de estrategias intensivas de prospección de superficie en el contexto del estudio de la estructuración de los paisajes agrarios preindustriales. Se exponen los planteamientos, diseño y ejecución de los últimos trabajos efectuados. En una primera etapa se realiza una estimación global de la densidad de ítems y se determinan los posibles puntos de interés. Posteriormente se caracterizan cualitativamente las dispersiones detectadas mediante un muestreo aleatorio estratificado. Se pretende de este modo desterrar procedimientos selectivos y poco sistemáticos en la

  3. Statistical Study of Corruption in the Region (on the Example of the Rostov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill A. Belokrylov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves the effectiveness of the using of statistical methods for evaluation of the corruption level as a result of its, on the one hand, latency, concealment of official statistical accounting, and on the other - the scale of corruption in Russia. The comparative analysis of the substantial characteristics of the nature of corruption by Russian and foreign scientists, as well as their reflection in the law has allowed to develop a questionnaire to adequately assess the levels, causes and the effectiveness of implementation of the policy on the fight against corruption as the most important social indicator of inefficient institutions. Analysis of the results of the economic and sociological survey of the population of the Rostov region revealed a shift of corruption performance in the region in the direction of the education system as a result of the dominance in the selection of students, but it led to the conclusion about the need to tighten legislation on the fight against corruption (72% of respondents, including the confiscation of the property (79,1%, the dismissal of corrupt officials, the ban on public office. The necessity of further in-depth statistical studies of corruption on the development of more effective measures is improved to combat it as a tool for removal of the Russian economy from the crisis and ensure that it is more sustainable growth than projected in the 2020s (the lost decade 1,5% positive GDP dynamics.

  4. Case study on the components of an innovative region: Öresund Region (Denmark-Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ştefan Săbău

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How can one describe the components of an innovative region? What characterizes a region as being innovative? This paper presents the close relationship between innovation and regional development in an empirical analysis of the Öresund Region (the south-western part of Scandinavia: Sweden and Denmark, arguing the role of the universities, public institutions and R&D companies in placing the Öresund Region on the map as a world-leading player in providing biotech and medical technology.

  5. Nucleon electromagnetic structure studies in the spacelike and timelike regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttmann, Julia

    2013-07-23

    The thesis investigates the nucleon structure probed by the electromagnetic interaction. One of the most basic observables, reflecting the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon, are the form factors, which have been studied by means of elastic electron-proton scattering with ever increasing precision for several decades. In the timelike region, corresponding with the proton-antiproton annihilation into a electron-positron pair, the present experimental information is much less accurate. However, in the near future high-precision form factor measurements are planned. About 50 years after the first pioneering measurements of the electromagnetic form factors, polarization experiments stirred up the field since the results were found to be in striking contradiction to the findings of previous form factor investigations from unpolarized measurements. Triggered by the conflicting results, a whole new field studying the influence of two-photon exchange corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering emerged, which appeared as the most likely explanation of the discrepancy. The main part of this thesis deals with theoretical studies of two-photon exchange, which is investigated particularly with regard to form factor measurements in the spacelike as well as in the timelike region. An extraction of the two-photon amplitudes in the spacelike region through a combined analysis using the results of unpolarized cross section measurements and polarization experiments is presented. Furthermore, predictions of the two-photon exchange effects on the e{sup +}p/e{sup -}p cross section ratio are given for several new experiments, which are currently ongoing. The two-photon exchange corrections are also investigated in the timelike region in the process p anti p → e{sup +}e{sup -} by means of two factorization approaches. These corrections are found to be smaller than those obtained for the spacelike scattering process. The influence of the two-photon exchange corrections on

  6. Geophysical study of the Clear Lake region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of geophysical studies in the Clear Lake region of California, north of San Francisco, have revealed a prominent, nearly circular negative gravity anomaly with an amplitude of more than 25 milligals (mgal) and an areal extent of approximately 250 square miles and, in addition, a number of smaller positive and negative anomalies. The major negative gravity anomaly is closely associated with the Clear Lake volcanic field and with an area characterized by hot springs and geothermal fields. However, the anomaly cannot be explained by mapped surface geologic features of the area. Aeromagnetic data in the Clear Lake region show no apparent correlation with the major negative gravity anomaly; the local magnetic field is affected principally by serpentine. An electrical resistivity low marks the central part of the gravity minimum, and a concentration of earthquake epicenters characterizes the Clear Lake volcanic field area. The primary cause of the major negative gravity anomaly is believed to be a hot intrusive mass, possibly a magma chamber, that may underlie the Clear Lake volcanic field and vicinity. This mass may serve as a source of heat for the geothermal phenomena in the area. Other smaller gravity anomalies in the Clear Lake region are apparently caused by near-surface geologic features, including relatively dense units of the Franciscan Formation and less dense Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rock units.

  7. Aeromagnetic Study of Buenavista de Cuellar, Mining Region, Guerrero, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Marin, J. C., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of the aeromagnetic anomalies south of the central sector of the Mexican Volcanic Belt sheds new light on the knowledge of the mining region of Buenavista de Cuellar, in the state of Guerrero, southeast Mexico. The area is located in the northern part of the Mixteco Terrain characterized by a Paleozoic metamorphic basement and overlain by a sedimentary platform (Guerrero-Morelos Platform). The iron deposits located north of the state, between the cities of Taxco and Iguala have motivated studies in the region. The analyzed region covers a rectangular area of 660 km2 approximately from 440000, 2025000 to 462000, 2055000 UTM. The total field aeromagnetic data was obtained with a Geometrics G-803 proton magnetometer at a flight altitude of 300 m above ground level. For the analysis of the anomalies, the data was further smoothed to construct a 2 km regularly spaced grid. The anomaly map was compared with the surface geology and larger anomalies were correlated with major geologic features. Our main interest was in mapping the subsurface intrusive and plutonic bodies. The total field magnetic anomalies were reduced to the pole by using the double integral Fourier method. The analysis and interpretation of these anomalies allows us to infer the presence of four plutonic bodies of evolved composition that would be associated with metallic mineralized bodies in two new prospective areas.

  8. Prospective study of melanoma in the Paris Region in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souques, M.; Baccard, M.; Barrazza, V.; Havard, S.; Verrier, A.; Wechsler, J. [Prevention et Epidemiologie des Tumeurs en Region Ile de France (PETRI), Domus Medica, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction: Melanoma remains an important public health problem because of its increasing incidence and its responsibility for the deaths of young individuals. A first study was carried out by the P.E.T.R.I. association in 1994 to estimate the incidence of melanoma in the Paris region. A second one was carried out in 2004, with the same methodology, to estimate the increase of melanoma incidence in the Paris region and the main clinical and histological characteristics of these cancers, comparing to 1994 data. Methodology: Every pathologist of the region has been contacted to fill a questionnaire for each primary cutaneous melanoma excised between January 1. and December 31. 2004, from patients living in the Paris region (departments 75, 77, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95). The information requested included melanoma characteristics (localisation, type, Breslow thickness, Clark level, regression signs, pre existence of a nevus) and demographic data (age, sex, zip code of residence). Results: 98 % of pathologists in the region agree to participate in the study. They send 1453 questionnaires, among them 160 were excluded (double, non cutaneous melanoma, secondary lesion, non resident in the region, diagnoses out of the inclusion dates, biopsy followed by exeresis). The analyse included 1293 lesions in 1269 patients. More than 2/3 of diagnoses were confirmed by 2 laboratories and 10 laboratories (on 98) reported 86 % of the diagnoses. Incidence:The crude incidence of melanoma in the Paris region during 2004 was 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex:11.1 per 100 000 males and 12.4 cases per 100 000 females. The sex ratio men/women was 0.82. The crude incidence of invasive melanoma (Clark 2 to 5) was 8,9 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, 9,2 per 100 000 women and 8,6 per 100 000 men, with a sex ratio men/women of 0,93. Demographic characteristics: Melanoma diagnosis was more often in women (54.9 %) than in men (45.1 %). The patients mean age was 59.3 years (S.D.: 17.3). The

  9. Acanthoecid choanoflagellates from the Atlantic Arctic Region - a baseline study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Østergaard, Jette Buch

    2017-01-01

    The examination and statistical analysis of loricate choanoflagellate material collected from Greenland waters during the period 1988-1998 represents a de facto baseline study of heterotrophic nanoflagellates from the Atlantic Arctic Region. The geographic sites sampled are Disko Bay (West...... Greenland) and the high-arctic North-East Water (NEW) and North Water (NOW) polynya. The analyses encompass close to 50 taxa. Some of these are described as new species, i.e. Acanthocorbis glacialis, A. reticulata and Diaphanoeca dilatanda. Two distinct clusters of species that are separated in time...

  10. SOI/MDI studies of active region seismology and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, Ted D.; Title, Alan; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Scherrer, Phil; Zweibel, Ellen

    1995-01-01

    The solar oscillations investigation (SOI) will study solar active regions using both helioseismic and conventional observation techniques. The Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) can perform Doppler continuum and line depth imagery and can produce longitudinal magnetograms, showing either the full disk or a high resolution field of view. A dynamics program of continuous full disk Doppler observations for two months per year, campaign programs of eight hours of continuous observation per day, and a synoptic magnetic program of about 15 full disk magnetograms per day, are planned. The scientific plans, measurements and observation programs, are described.

  11. Urban and regional studies in the experience economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne; Jeannerat, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    is to deconstruct economic value and innovation in regional studies and elaborate on the role of consumers and stages of consumption. Another is the actor perspective and the question of how localized networks of innovative actors evolve and engage in experiential staging. Finally the experience economy is seen...... as an integrated approach in policy and strategic planning on as well as across different scales. Future research should not only trace the evolution of experience offerings, stages and destinations and its possible dependence on specific economic phases and contexts. It should also develop further the potentials...... of the experience economy approach as a new perspective on economic phenomena as well as on territorial development....

  12. Clinicopathological study of jaw cysts in southeast region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkol, Mehmet; Ege, Bilal; Yanik, Saim; Aras, M Hamdi; Ay, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze clinic and radiologic features and the prevalence of jaw cysts in southeast region of Turkey. This study was carried out in 149 cysts of the jaw diagnosed among 407 individuals who were taken biopsy in our department from October 2008 to December 2012. All cysts were treated by enucleation, marsupialization, or combination, and all cases were histologically examined. One-hundred-and-forty-eight cases were classified odontogenic, one was non-odontogenic. There were 89 cysts (59.7%) in men, 60 (40.3%) in women. The mean age was 32.72 years. We found 80 cysts (35 F, 45 M) in the maxillary and 69 (28 F, 41 M) in mandible. It is observed that 94 were radicular cysts (63%), 40 were dentigerous cysts (26.9%), 9 were odontogenic keratocysts (OKC) (6.1%), 5 were residual radicular cysts (3.4%), and 1 was nasopalatine cyst (0.6%). In radicular cysts, 56 of them (59.5%) were located in the anterior region of the jaws; 18 dentigerous cysts and 2 OKCs were found in the posterior region of mandible. Clinically, the chief complaint of patients was expansion and pain. Radiographically, scalloping of the lesion between the teeth was found in 1 case, root resorption was seen in 3 cases, and displacement of the teeth and follicles was observed in 16 cases. We found similar prevalence of jaw cysts that reported in the literature, in which most odontogenic cysts (OCs) were inflammatory origin.

  13. Regional climate signal modified by local factors - multi core study records (Lake Czechowskie region, N Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Plessen, Birgit; Tjallingii, Rik; Słowiński, Michał; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Lake sediments can be utilized as valuable paleoclimate and environmental archives as they contain information of past changes. Multi-proxy analyses of sedimentary compartments (e.g. pollen, diatoms, Cladocera) reveal those changes. However, to decipher the spatial variability of past climate changes and to define the proxies suited for local and regional scale reconstructions archive comparisons are needed. Here we present a detailed multi-proxy study from four different sediment cores covering the Younger Dryas cold period from the Lake Czechowskie region (N Poland). Three cores are located along a transect in the Lake Czechowskie basin from its deepest point towards a former lake bay close to today's shoreline. The fourth lacustrine sediment core was retrieved from the Trzechowskie paleolake, app. 1 km W from Lake Czechowskie. The dataset comprises information from pollen (AP, NAP, Juniperus, Betula-tree, Pinus silvestris), diatom (planktonic/benthic index, diatom valve concentration, dominant species), Cladocera (planktonic/benthic index, dominant species, number of Cladocera species, total sum of specimens) and geochemical (TOC and CaCO3 content, mineral matter, titanium) analyses. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas the AP pollen share decreased and NAP and Juniperus pollen increased in all studied locations. The mineral matter and titanium record showed higher values in two cores taken from the deepest parts of Lake Czechowskie and the core from Trzechowskie paleolake while in the core located at the marginal part of the lake it was already high in Allerød and it did not change much in Younger Dryas. The Cladocera based indexes: total sum of specimens and number of species decreased at the beginning of YD but on the contrary the Cladocera species composition changes were site-specific. The diatoms valve concentration index significantly lowered in core from the deep location while on the contrary increased in core from paleolake Trzechowskie. Our results

  14. Pesticide Consumption in Greenhouses; a Case Study of Kashan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani R. PhD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: In regard to increasing greenhouse area in Iran followed by increased use of pesticides and contaminated crops, this study aimed to determine the frequency and types of consumed pesticides in Kashan region, Iran, greenhouses. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive study in 2011-2012, samples was entered by census method. At the first step, a list of greenhouses was obtained from agricultural organization, 39 active greenhouses were detected, thereafter the questionnaires have been completed in detail by direct interview; obtained data were analyzed in SPSS 23 by descriptive statistics. Findings: 87.1% of greenhouses used chemical methods for controlling pest and diseases of products and 43.5% used non-chemical methods. The most frequent used chemical pesticides were Deltamethrin (37.9% and Permethrin (28.3% as pyrethroid insecticides, Diazinon (23.1% as an organophosphate insecticide and Carbendazim (23.2% as a fungicides. Conclusion: 87.1% of the greenhouses’ owners of Kashan region, Iran, use chemical pesticide for pest control.

  15. Fission product studies in the symmetric mass region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Loss, R.D. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (AU)

    1993-05-01

    Fission yields can be determined by radiochemical or mass spectrometric techniques. Mass spectrometry can provide more accurate data, particularly in the symmetric mass region where the probability of fission is low and uncertainties in isometric ratios occur. Fine structure in the mass distribution can usually only be determined by mass spectrometry. Many of the elements in the valley of symmetry have high ionization potentials and are therefore difficult to measure by solid source mass spectrometry. Analytical techniques have been developed to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small sample sizes available in fission product studies. Cumulative fission yields for ruthenium, palladium, cadmium, tin, and tellurium have been measured by mass spectrometry for the thermal and epicadmium fission of {sup 233}U and for thermal and epicadmium fission of {sup 239}Pu. These fission yields, which span the mass range 101 {le} A {le} 130, can be combined to give a mass yield curve for {sup 235}U in the valley region, which is symmetrical about A = 116.8 and exhibits fine structure in the mass 113 to 114 region. Fine structure in {sup 233}U is also present at mass 111. Mass spectrometric determinations of the fission yields of uranium ore at the Oklo mine site in Gabon enable the nuclear parameters of this natural reactor to be evaluated. This in turn enables the amounts of fission products produced in the reactor zone and the surrounding rocks enables an assessment to be made of the efficiency of this geological repository for containing radioactive waste. The elemental abundances can be determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Unfortunately, the paucity of good fission yield data available for {sup 238}U by fast neutrons is a severe constraint in this evaluation.

  16. A comparative study of linear and region based diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Gottfried

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two categories of objects spatial information science investigates: actual objects and their spatial properties, such as in geography, and abstract objects which are employed metaphorically, as for visual languages. A prominent example of the latter are diagrams that model knowledge of some domain. Different aspects of diagrams are of interest, including their formal properties or how human users work with them, for example, with diagrams representing sets. The literature about diagrammatic systems for the representation of sets shows a dominance of region-based diagrams like Euler circles and Venn diagrams. The effectiveness of these diagrams, however, is limited because region-based diagrams become quite complex for more then three sets. By contrast, linear diagrams are not equally prevalent but enable the representation of a greater number of sets without getting cluttered. Cluttered diagrams exhibit inherent complexity due to overlapping objects, irrelevant details, or other reasons that impinge upon their legibility. This study contrasts both types of diagrammatic systems and investigates whether the performance of users differs for both kinds of diagrams. A significant difference can be shown regarding the number of diagrams that can be drawn within a fixed period of time and regarding the number of errors made. The results indicate that linear diagrams are more effective by being more restrictive and because region based diagrams show much clutter due to overlapping, coincident, and tangentially touching contours, as well as an overwhelming number of empty zones. Linear diagrams are less prone to errors and do not suffer from clutter.

  17. The Roles of Geographical Study in Spatial Arragement and Regional Development (A Case Study in Sukoharjo District)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswaji Dwi Priyono; Retno Woro Kaeksi

    2014-01-01

    The following issue explains the role of geography study in spatial lay-out and regional development, taking the regional development of Sukoharjo regency as the case study. The role of geography study in spatial lay-out and regional development lies mainly in the effort to achieve geo information system, i.e. information of regional landscape with its all characteristics, regional problem, regional development potential and the definitive factor of regional development. Making use of geograp...

  18. Regional concept of environmental protection and waste management, with case studies of South Morava region

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    Nenković-Riznić Marina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional concept of environmental protection and waste management represents a new methodology in spatial interventions which enable an integral view of all of the environmental parameters. In this way, contrary to the prevailing decentralized methodology of environmental protection and negation of the pollution aftereffects, it is recommended to form a unified database of main pollutants for the whole region. This database enables impact detection of specific factors (industrial facilities, waste dumps and other pollutants on a scale which transcends to neighboring municipalities, regions, or the overall country. The state of the environment and waste management in the South Morava region is directly impacted by an array of environmentally degradable factors, with economics being the most prominent one (industrial facilities, which represented the main pollutants in the past, applied little, if any, regard to the environmental protection, dumping their waste on improvised, unprotected waste dumps. On the other hand, low level of employment, rudimentary industrial technology made positive environmental effect in the past 5 to 10 years, because of lack of direct pollution. The subject of this paper will be based on recommendations for better organization on regional level in the environmental and waste management field, and based on examples from Jablanica and Pčinja district, which are located in the South Morava region.

  19. ELECTRONIC RETAILING IN MACEDONIA-CASE STUDY OF OHRID REGION

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    MARGARITA JANESKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With electronic retailing that offers the possibility of direct sales, is no longer need expensive business premises, or paying high rents, or employing a number of vendors. There is also the possibility of selling to final consumers in any geographical region in different countries of the world by establishing instant communication, through presenting an interactive multimedia catalog that can offer numerous information то the customers. However, on the other hand, sales through the Internet can appear certain problems. Many potential buyers in the world still do not use the Internet, others don't have fast connections, others do not speak good English, also it requires the existence of trust between both parties, buyer and seller, as well as security in the execution of transactions. The aim of this paper is to treat electronic retailing in Macedonia which is becoming more popular as worldwide, especially in developed parts of the world like the US and Europe. Macedonian companies are increasingly applying electronic method of sale and communication with customers. The number of Internet users and on-line purchase is rapidly expanding what undoubtedly indicates that there is potential for advancement in this field. Also in this paper will be presented a case study where will be analyzed the current state for development of electronic retailing in Macedonia, especially region of Ohrid.

  20. Floristic study of the Ghalaei -Kashkan region (Lorestan.

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    Mohammad Mehrnia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Collecting plant specimens and the continuation of this gathering lead to a better understanding of ecosystems, raising awareness about biodiversity and it is criterion for evaluating the genetic erosion over time. Ghalaei-Kashkan covers an area about 30,000 km² and is located in the central Zagros Mountains. Herbarium specimens of the area were collected based on common methods of regional floristic studies during years 1991 to 2013, and named by the Floras of Iran and neighboring countries. In this research, 551 species belonging to 355 genera and 73 families were determined. The chorology of species showed that the highest percentage of the species belonging to the Irano-Turanian region. Permanent Kashkan river caused a strip of the wetland plants have been presented in the northern part of the Ghalaei -Kashkan. Quercus infectoria and Cercis siliquastrum belonging to sub-mountain element that grow in the northern parts. In southern parts of the Ghalaei -Kashkan, particular plant species have been distributed at different altitudes and is divided into Alpine and sub-mountain types. Alpine vegetation type includes mountain Bromegrass, onions (Allium jesdianum, Smyrnium cordifolium, Rheum ribes, and also thorn-cushion vegetations such as: Astragalus spp., Acantholimon spp., Onobrychis spp. and Acanthophyllum spp.. In mountainous type, Oak forests associations are formed. Impact of human on sub-mountain ranges is the main cause of degradation. Genetic erosion in the area implies that the three level of biodiversity: ecosystems, species and populations are under serious threat.

  1. German contributions to the study of regional literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Claudio Arendt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches questions concerning categories such as regional and universal and the exhaustion of the latter as qualifying criterion applied to regional literature works. On the other hand, there are theoretical and methodological contributions developed in the German academic field (Scheichel 1993; Stüben 2002; Grywatsch 2008, where the regional literature finds a favoured space in the discussions, and the criteria for measuring the works quality are built relying on sociological aspects of production and reception into regional and supra-regional contexts.

  2. Moessbauer studies of impactites from Huamalies province in Huanuco Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, A., E-mail: abustamanted@unmsm.edu.pe; Espinoza, S. [San Marcos University, Faculty of Physical Sciences (Peru); Morales, G. [Museo de Historia Natural(Museum of Natural History) (Peru); Scorzelli, R. B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (Brazilian Center for Research in Physics) (Brazil)

    2005-11-15

    This report is about the X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer studies of three impactite samples denominated PMe-8, PMe-9 and PMe-11 from Huamalies Province in Huanuco Region, Peru. When terrestrial rocks are submitted to pressures higher than 60 GP, the majority is completely melted, forming a kind of glass called impactites. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of quartz as the principal mineralogical phase in all samples. The {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra at room temperature of samples PMe-8 and PMe-9 show broadened spectra that were fitted using a distribution model. The most probable field of the magnetic component is 34 T, corresponding to the presence of small particles of goethite, confirmed by the 4.2 K spectrum. For the sample PMe-11, the MS showed the presence of well crystallized hematite.

  3. The effects of a regional telepathology project: a study protocol

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    Trudel Marie-Claude

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design

  4. A Study of Streptococcus Viridans in the Maxillofacial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Refoua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Streptococcus viridans is one of the most important microorganisms in the establishment of infections leading to dental caries and heart valve damages. Therefore the diagnosis and prevention of these infections is critical in health care.Purpose: The aim of this in-vivo study was to determine the prevalence of viridans streptococci in abscesses occurring in the maxillofacial region.Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 39 patients with maxillofacial abscesses, referred to the Department of Oral Surgery Faculty of Dentistry Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Dr. Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Extra-oral incision, drainage and pus collection followed by culture, staining and biochemical and sugar fermentation tests were carried out for all participants.Results: In the present study %53.84 and 46.16% of the patients had negative and positive culture results, respectively. In the positive culture group, %2.5 of the viridans streptococci were streptococcus salivarius, %4.6 streptococcus sanguis and %17.9 were streptococcus mutans.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that viridans streptococci are an important factor in the development of metastatic and maxillofacial infections which can pose a significant threat to the patient’s life.

  5. Review of the recent regional climate modelling studies of the Adriatic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettler, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Adriatic region is characterized by the distinct topographical and coastline structures. This leads to the specific climate regimes, and the formation of e.g. strong bora/Bura flows. The results of regional climate models from the EURO-CORDEX initiative and most recent DHMZ simulations using regional climate model RegCM4 will be presented and discussed. Planetary boundary layer quantities such as the near-surface air temperature, total precipitation amount and near-surface wind will be explored in terms of both systematic errors of the RCMs and their possible climate change projections for the rest of the 21st century. Finally, recent results concerning analytical modelling of the katabatic and anabatic flows will be presented, and possible further refinements of these models will be suggested.

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study

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    Perez Roberto SGM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model, standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome 1--the Swiss cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Florian; Bachmann, Lucas M; Weber, Ulrich; Kessels, Alfons G H; Perez, Roberto S G M; Marinus, Johan; Kissling, Rudolf

    2008-06-23

    Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a) to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b) to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c) to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model), standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months). Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery.

  8. Regional Economic Development Impact Model: Phase I Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    and toll road system was developed par- . alleling the waterway. This road system improves the trucking access to the - waterway. Since 1971 when the...industries to relocate in the waterway regions. Easy accessability through the waterway transportation encourages the product mix in favor of the cheaper ma...coefficient in all regions changes in response to a change in transportation cost between any two regions. A 5 percent decrease in transportaion cost

  9. Studies of Stable Octupole Deformations in the Radium Region

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present project is to locate and identify states in the atomic nuclei possessing stable pearshaped octupole deformation. Such states, formally related to the structures known in molecular physics, manifest themselves as families of parity doublets in odd nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ The best possibilities for observing stable octupole deformations are offered in the Ra-region. Both theoretical calculations and experimental indications support such expectations. Such indications are the non-observation of two-phonon octupole vibrational states in the ISOLDE studies of the even-even radium nuclei, and the reversed sign of the decoupling factor of the ground state band in |2|2|5Ra observed in the single-neutron transfer reactions. In order to establish the predicted strong E1 and E3-transitions between the parity doublets in odd nuclei with stable octupole deformations it is proposed to study conversion electrons in odd-mass francium radium and radon isotopes following the @b-decay of francium and astatine. \\...

  10. SOCIAL STUDIES, GRADE 9, WORLD STUDIES--EASTERN CIVILIZATIONS, REGIONAL STUDIES. COURSE OF STUDY AND RELATED LEARNING ACTIVITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    THIS NINTH-GRADE GUIDE FOR THE SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN NEW YORK CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS PROVIDES A STUDY OF CONTEMPORARY WORLD CULTURES. SEVEN MAJOR REGIONS ARE COVERED--THE SOVIET UNION, THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, JAPAN, INDIA, THE MIDDLE EAST, AND SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE AIMED AT DEVELOPING SKILLS IN…

  11. Experimental study on firearm wound in maxillofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Lei, D; Liu, Y; Tan, Y; Gu, X

    1998-02-01

    To make clear the range of firearm wound in the maxillofacial region, the optical repair time and the characteristics of accompanied indirect brain damage, and to offer the principle of emergency treatment and the early repair of war wound. With the aid of the standard Sweden model, 200 dogs were used in the experiment. Varies tissues around the primary canal were harvested chronologically, in different zone and different tissue, for histopathological examination. The necrotic range of various tissues in the maxillofacial region was less than that in the extremities. In the maxillofacial region, there was a significant temporary cavity following the passing of bullet, which caused indirect brain damages. These findings are helpful to the treatment of war wound in the maxillofacial region. Early bone transplantation using microvascular anastomosis in the treatment of gunshot wound in the maxillofacial region is recommendable.

  12. Determinants of the Shadow Economy in the Czech Regions: A Region-Level Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buček Jakub

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the size and development of the shadow economy in the Czech Republic on the state-level base over the 2005-2014 period. The multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC model is used to assess the estimation of the shadow economy size. I investigate how labour market, number of people with at least one distraint, and the burden of taxation might contribute to the existence of the shadow economy. While the former two are important determinants of the shadow economy, I find no evidence to prove any significant impact of distraints on the shadow economy size. As for the country’s particular regions, I find that those surrounding big cities, especially Prague, have, on average, a smaller shadow economy size, whereas regions in the borderlands (former Sudetenland suffer from a larger shadow economy.

  13. Busbar studies for the LHC interaction region quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, P; Fehér, S; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Orris, D; Sylvester, C D; Tompkins, J C; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab (FNAL) and the Japanese high energy physics lab (KEK) are developing the superconducting quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions (IR) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These magnets have a nominal field gradient of 215 T/m in a 70 mm bore and operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. The IR magnets are electrically interconnected with superconducting busbars, which need to be protected in the event of a quench. Experiments to determine the most suitable busbar design for the LHC IR magnets and the analysis of the data are presented. The main purpose of the study was to find a design that allows the inclusion of the superconducting busbars in the magnet quench protection scheme, thus avoiding additional quench protection circuitry. A proposed busbar design that was tested in these experiments consists of a superconducting cable, which is normally used for the inner layer of the Fermilab IR quadrupoles, soldered to similar Rutherford type cables as a stabilizer. A series of prototypes with varyin...

  14. ROAD ACCIDENT AND SAFETY STUDY IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. BANIK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  15. Studi Tentang Kebijakan Upah Minimum Regional di Propinsi Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Lukisari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main policy problem of labor and manpower in Indonesian provinces, as exemplified by the case study in Central Java Province, is the the low rate of Regional Minimum Wage (UMR. The UMR policy are decided through negotiations among three institutions: labor unions, enterpreneur groups, and the government. The bargaining power of labor unions is very much depended upon the internal cohession of its members, meanwhile of the enterpreneur groups are relatively in better positions as they could deal with governmental policy makers by giving rewards through their economic resources. Government officials, who are supposed to back employees, have not played their role as most of them did not act as a good mediator of the conflicts. , Unfortunately, as most of the NGOs are still easily co-opted by the bueaucratic policy makers and the media have not given enough concern to the labor issues, policies regarding UMR do not always help the employees. It can be concluded, therefore, that the low UMR rate in Central Java is caused by patrimonial political culture in the bureaucracy as evidenced in a "collaborative" decisions between entrepreneurs and bureaucrat officials. Moreover, the UMR rate is also worsened by current economic austerity in the province as reflected in low Consumer Price Index (IHK, limited job opportunities and underemployment.

  16. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  17. Building Viable and Sustainable Regional Netchains: Case Studies of Regional Pork Netchains in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannia Nijhoff‐Savvaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to give insight into critical issues contributing to the successful building of viable and sustainable regional netchains, focussing on chain governance mechanisms (coordination mechanisms, quality management systems, information systems and social embedding. It uses three representative case studies from the regional pork sector in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands, illustrating different trajectories to commercially viable and sustainable regional netchains. By analysing the cases on each critical aspect, the present paper describes important issues and proposes specific elements of further research, including on the roles for(nongovernmental organisations.

  18. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.; Holloway, J.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Helsel, D.R.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  19. The Study of Impacts of Water Transferring From Wet Regions To Dry Regions In Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiee-Homayoun, Dr.; Ghomashchi, Dr.

    Iran, with a very diverse ecology and different climate has been classified as a dry- semidry region. Iran's annual average of rain-fall is about 250 mm, while this figure is more than 1000 mm in north and less than 100 mm in the south of the country. Overall, Iran's water resources are low. Rapid population growth, economic growth together with significant urban development, in recent decades, has led to underestimate high demands for water. Therefore, water shortage has been considered more obviously. Such an important scare is rather serious in central and eastern regions of the country. This problem has been determined as a serious challenge for Iran's government and national water authorities, in particular. Although, drinking water supply is only 6 percent of total water resources, due to direct socio-political impacts, drinking water supply, in both quality and quantity, is more serious and important than agricultural water demands. Accordingly, for the following reasons: 1) Desperation and diversity of geographical conditions of urban areas 2) Low access to underground water 3) Inadequate quality surface water supply Difficulties and the costs of supplying urban water in Iran have been sharply increased. Presently, due to unconstrained consuming underground water and negative balance in most under ground resources of the country, more specifically in central and eastern regions, water supply from groundwater resources is very risky and misleading. Furthermore, other reason such as rapid urban population growth and changes in people's every day life and their consumption patterns increase both water consumption and waste water in the circumstances of inadequate sewage systems, make a vast source of pollution for water resources. Due to the influence of extended See (Salty) water, in southern provinces, near to Persian Gulf, accessibility to fresh water is rather difficult and in many cases only after tens of kilometers far from the see, fresh water could be

  20. Obesity Prevelance in West Black Sea Region: The Melen Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Aydın

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the West Black Sea region of Turkey and to display the associated chronic diseases, especially Diabetes Mellitus (DM in this population.Material and Method: We evaluated 2222 (1418 female, 804 male, mean age: 50 participants in Yigilca. The medical histories were recorded and physical examinations were done in all participants. Body weight categories were defined according to the body mass index (BMI as follows: BMI 94 cm in males and >90 cm in females were accepted as the cut-off points for abdominal obesity. Results: The mean BMI of the participants was 30.6 in females and 27.5 in males. According to BMI, obesity prevalence was 53.1% in females and 26.9% in males. The mean obesity prevalence was 43.5% in general. Abdominal obesity prevalence was 63% in females, 46% in males and 57% in all participants. Obesity prevalence increased with age in both sexes. Especially 3/4 (75% of females and 1/3 (33% of males aged 50-59 years were obese. Postmenopausal females had very high (64% obesity prevalence but the rate was %43 in premenopausal women. While DM prevalence was 12.6% according to patient history, DM prevalence increased to 18.8% by adding patients with fasting glucose >126 mg/dl.Discussion: Obesity, especially abdominal obesity and DM prevalence was found to be at exaggerated rates in both sexes being highest in postmenopausal females. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 52-7

  1. Universities' Role in Regional Development: A Case Study of University for Development Studies, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abonyi, Usman Kojo

    2016-01-01

    This study, employing an interpretive research paradigm, sought to investigate into how University for Development Studies (UDS) is responding to its regional development mandate with a specific focus on how it is responding to human capital development, innovation capabilities, and social and environmental development in northern Ghana. A study…

  2. Regional Cluster, Innovation and Export Performance: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luis Prim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional clusters and innovations in product and processes are found in the literature as important determinants of firms’ export performance. However, this relationship is still controversial and very highly constrained by industry, and by regions. Based on a more integrative perspective, the aim of the present article is to investigate the role of agglomeration economies of a regional cluster on the export performance of firms. Furthermore, we will test the mediating effect of innovation and the extent by which the technological intensity of the industry can perform a moderating effect between the constructs. Based on a sample of 100 export companies operating in the manufacturing industries, we use structural equation modeling to estimate the determinants of export performance. The results reveal that the agglomeration economies of a regional cluster have been found determinant factors of the export performance, as well as a significant source to generate innovations by firms. However, we found no evidence between the innovations in products and processes and export performance. The results have also shown that there are no differences among technological intensity of the industries, suggesting that the firms will access agglomeration resources of regional cluster in a complementary way to their internal resources.

  3. Region of Peel Transportation Demand Management study stakeholder workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    As emissions from automobiles steadily increase, Transportation Demand Management (TDM) is becoming a critical component of regional or local transportation strategies. The Regional Municipality of Peel was motivated to update its regional TDM policies to address the problem of traffic congestion and to create a sustainable community. This workshop provided an opportunity for major employers, provincial and municipal staff and other stakeholders to discuss TDM policies and programs. It provided opportunities to create public/private partnerships to manage transportation demand. TDM maximizes the use of existing transportation infrastructure and investment. TDM also reduces traffic congestion, improves personal mobility and facilitates employee retention. The workshop featured 6 presentations, of which 3 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. How safe are regional techniques? Evidence from large studies with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of the safety of regional anaesthetic techniques can only be addressed by a careful examination of the complications that may occur. These injuries can be caused by a variety of mechanisms, including sharp and blunt trauma, drug neurotoxicity (including the wrong drug), compressive injury. (notably spinal ...

  5. Convergence at Dutch regional newspapers: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kerkhoven, M.; Bakker, P.; Salaverría, R.

    2011-01-01

    Regional news media are facing tough times, as they lose readers and advertisers rapidly. In The Netherlands, circulation decreased from 2.7 million in 1990 to 1.8 million in 2010, household penetration declined from 47 percent to 25 percent, and the number of titles went down from 35 to 18 in the

  6. Software for Regional Studies: Adjustment Procedures for Integrated Balances

    OpenAIRE

    Lenko, M.; Kim, K.

    1983-01-01

    This report is devoted to the problem of analysis of sensitivity of balance tables, which arises by mathematical modeling, for example, economic-financial flow within a region, a trade market, a transport system and so on. The report contains both the statement of the problem and the algorithms of solution, including a well detailed software description.

  7. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

    2013-12-01

    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes

  8. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: II. Feeding habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Hua Liang

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of chaetognath species were studied by examining the gut contents of 9466 specimens collected off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State. The greatest proportion of chaetognaths (7119 individuals showed their gut contents empty. Copepods, mollusc eggs, appendicularians, cladocerans and annelids were the most common food items in the gut contents of juveniles and mature stages. Cannibalism occurred in low frequency. In Summer the copepods Temora stylifera and Paracalanus spp were more abundant, whereas Oncaea spp and mollusc eggs were heavily preyed in Winter. There was a clear trend of increasing prey size with the developmental stage.O estudo dos hábitos alimentares das espécies de Chaetognatha foi realizado a partir da análise do trato digestivo de 9466 indivíduos dos estágios 0 - IV. Os quetógnatos foram coletados ao largo da região de Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, com o auxílio da rede Bongo (Malha 0,200 mm e 0,303 mm, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987. Dos 9466 tratos digestivos analisados, 7119 estavam vazios e 2347 apresentaram de 1 a 3 presas. Grande quantidade de material amorfo e semi-digerido também foram detectados. A dieta esteve constituída basicamente de copépodos (Calanoida e Poecilostomatoida, cladóceros, ovos de moluscos, náuplios de crustáceos, apendiculárias e poliquetos, entre outros. O canibalismo foi observado a partir do estágio I, porém com baixa frequência. Os estágios jovens (0-1 mostraram preferência por presas de tamanho pequeno como náuplios e copépodos do gênero Oncaea, enquanto que os estágios maduros por presas maiores como Temora stylifera, Corycaeus sp e Eucalanus pileatus.

  9. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT AT REGIONAL LEVEL IN ROMANIA. CASE STUDY: THE REGION OF SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂCESCU ANIELA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a descriptive statistic of the regional entrepreneurial environment in Romania, focusing on South-West Oltenia, with the aim that surprised the level of entrepreneurship in this area. In this study we considered the demographic analysis of active enterprises at the 8 development regions of Romania, the survival rate of enterprises, the competitiveness, and profile of the entrepreneur. The period under review is 2008-2014, and the main sources of information were the databases of the National Institute of Statistics and the National Trade Register Office

  10. Regional risk assessment approaches to land planning for industrial polluted areas in China: the Hulunbeier region case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiqing; Zhang, Chen; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Zhang, Haibo; Lv, Shihai; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The rapid industrial development and urbanization processes that occurred in China over the past 30years has increased dramatically the consumption of natural resources and raw materials, thus exacerbating the human pressure on environmental ecosystems. In result, large scale environmental pollution of soil, natural waters and urban air were recorded. The development of effective industrial planning to support regional sustainable economy development has become an issue of serious concern for local authorities which need to select safe sites for new industrial settlements (i.e. industrial plants) according to assessment approaches considering cumulative impacts, synergistic pollution effects and risks of accidental releases. In order to support decision makers in the development of efficient and effective regional land-use plans encompassing the identification of suitable areas for new industrial settlements and areas in need of intervention measures, this study provides a spatial regional risk assessment methodology which integrates relative risk assessment (RRA) and socio-economic assessment (SEA) and makes use of spatial analysis (GIS) methodologies and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The proposed methodology was applied to the Chinese region of Hulunbeier which is located in eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Republic of Mongolia. The application results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the identification of the most hazardous and risky industrial settlements, the most vulnerable regional receptors and the regional districts which resulted to be the most relevant for intervention measures since they are characterized by high regional risk and excellent socio-economic development conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. LINGUISTIC STUDIES ON TWEETS GATHERED FROM MUĞLA REGION: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    DALKILIÇ, Feriştah; KARAARSLAN, Enis; HÜRRİYETOĞLU, Ali; KARAARSLAN, Enis; HÜRRİYETOĞLU, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Citizens or visitors of a city can supply significant information with their social media posts by using mobile devices. These data can give information about complaints, touristic attractions, emergency situations etc. Social media analysis will be beneficial for smart city and smart management concept. This study is a first attempt to analyze and understand this touristic Muğla region by using social media. During this study, a sample dataset is formed by collecting the tweets that were sen...

  12. Regional Sensitivity to Neuroinflammation: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liraz-Zaltsman, S.; Biegon, A.; Liraz-Zaltsman, S.; Alexandrovich, A.G.; Trembovler, V.; Fishbein, I.; Yaka, R.; Shohami, E.; Biegon, A.

    2010-11-23

    Neuroinflammation is involved in several acute-onset neuropathologies such as meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, and traumatic brain injury as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. All of these patholologies are associated with cognitive deficits. Using a model of pure neuroinflammation (intracisternal injection of endotoxin in mice), we tested the hypothesis that brain regions involved in cognition are the most vulnerable to inflammatory insults, and this vulnerability is an inherent property of neocortical neurons. Mice (n = 10/group) injected with endotoxin (LPS) or saline in the cisterna magna underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing followed by quantitative autoradiographic assessment of regional neuroinflammation with [3H]PK11195, an established marker of microgliosis. In parallel, cocultures of cortical and striatal neurons taken from embryonic day 19 rat embryos or postnatal day 1 mice expressing green fluorescent protein were exposed for 24 h to the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha, glutamate, or a combination of the two agents. LPS-treated mice exhibited significant deficits in memory and significant increases in specific PK11195 binding in cortical and hippocampal regions, but not in striatum. Cultured neurons of cortical origin showed significantly lower survival rate relative to striatal neurons in response to TNFalpha, glutamate, or a combination of the two agents. Furthermore, TNFalpha exerted neuroprotective rather than neurotoxic effects in the striatal but not in the cortical neurons. These results suggest that the cortex is inherently more sensitive than the striatum to the deleterious effects of neuroinflammation, and may offer an explanation for the preponderance of cognitive deficits in neuropathologies with a neuroinflammatory component.

  13. Initiating Transdisciplinarity in Academic Case Study Teaching: Experiences from a Regional Development Project in Salzburg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhar, Andreas; Vilsmaier, Ulli; Glanzer, Michaela; Freyer, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe experiences with the initiation of transdisciplinarity in academic case study teaching with special reference to regional planning, based on the case study "Leben 2014 (Life 2014)--perspectives for regional development in the national park region Ober-pinz-gau, Salzburg".…

  14. Regional odontodysplasia in early childhood: A clinical and histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana O

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (RO is a rare disorder of dental development. The affected teeth are clinically hypoplastic and hypocalcified, presenting a ghost-like appearance radiographically. The aim of this work was to report a clinical case of a child with both primary and permanent dentition affected by RO. The conducted therapy was based on a conservative approach, which consisted of follow-up clinical evaluations of the anomalous teeth. However, the endodontic treatment of the primary incisors failed. Then, the chosen option for patient rehabilitation became extraction followed by removable of prosthesis confection. The extracted teeth were processed for histological analysis. In spite of the uncertain prognosis, but taking into account the psychological aspects of the patient, a conservative approach in an attempt to maintain those viable teeth in the oral cavity should be established.

  15. Regional Level Influenza Study with Geo-Tagged Twitter Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Haiyan; Xu, Kuai; Raymond, Ross; Chon, Jaime; Fuller, Shaun; Debruyn, Anton

    2016-08-01

    The rich data generated and read by millions of users on social media tells what is happening in the real world in a rapid and accurate fashion. In recent years many researchers have explored real-time streaming data from Twitter for a broad range of applications, including predicting stock markets and public health trend. In this paper we design, implement, and evaluate a prototype system to collect and analyze influenza statuses over different geographical locations with real-time tweet streams. We investigate the correlation between the Twitter flu counts and the official statistics from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and discover that real-time tweet streams capture the dynamics of influenza cases at both national and regional level and could potentially serve as an early warning system of influenza epidemics. Furthermore, we propose a dynamic mathematical model which can forecast Twitter flu counts with high accuracy.

  16. Electroweak and QCD studies in the forward region with LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Bifani, S

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the $Z^{0}$ and $W$ production cross-sections constitute important tests of the Standard Model at the LHC energies. NLO predictions have relative errors of between a few percents and $\\sim 10\\%$, depending on rapidity, where the dominant uncertainty is due to the knowledge of the PDFs. The forward acceptance of the LHCb experiment can provide unique measurements to constrain the PDFs in previously unexplored regions of the $(x, Q^{2})$ space. Determinations of cross-sections and ratios of $Z^{0}$ and $W$ bosons using $\\int\\mathcal{L} = (16.5 \\pm 1.7)$ pb$^{-1}$ of LHCb data at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV collected during 2010 are reported.

  17. Microscopic study of superdeformation in the A = 150 mass region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigollet, C.; Gall, B. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Bonche, P. [CEN Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The authors are presently investigating the properties of superdeformed (SD) nuclear states in the A=150 mass region. For that purpose, they use the cranked HFB method in which pairing correlations are treated dynamically by means of the Lipkin-Nogami prescription. Their goal is to take advantage of the large amount of experimental data to test the predictive power of their microscopic approach and of the effective interaction. In the present communication, they focus on {sup 152}Dy and {sup 153}Dy for which there are recent experimental data. In particular lifetime measurements have allowed to extract electric quadrupole moments. The new Skyrme effective force SLy4 is used to describe the nucleon-nucleon interaction, while for the pairing channel the authors use a density-dependent zero-range interaction.

  18. A Statistical Model for Regional Tornado Climate Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Jagger

    Full Text Available Tornado reports are locally rare, often clustered, and of variable quality making it difficult to use them directly to describe regional tornado climatology. Here a statistical model is demonstrated that overcomes some of these difficulties and produces a smoothed regional-scale climatology of tornado occurrences. The model is applied to data aggregated at the level of counties. These data include annual population, annual tornado counts and an index of terrain roughness. The model has a term to capture the smoothed frequency relative to the state average. The model is used to examine whether terrain roughness is related to tornado frequency and whether there are differences in tornado activity by County Warning Area (CWA. A key finding is that tornado reports increase by 13% for a two-fold increase in population across Kansas after accounting for improvements in rating procedures. Independent of this relationship, tornadoes have been increasing at an annual rate of 1.9%. Another finding is the pattern of correlated residuals showing more Kansas tornadoes in a corridor of counties running roughly north to south across the west central part of the state consistent with the dryline climatology. The model is significantly improved by adding terrain roughness. The effect amounts to an 18% reduction in the number of tornadoes for every ten meter increase in elevation standard deviation. The model indicates that tornadoes are 51% more likely to occur in counties served by the CWAs of DDC and GID than elsewhere in the state. Flexibility of the model is illustrated by fitting it to data from Illinois, Mississippi, South Dakota, and Ohio.

  19. A Statistical Model for Regional Tornado Climate Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, James B; Widen, Holly M

    2015-01-01

    Tornado reports are locally rare, often clustered, and of variable quality making it difficult to use them directly to describe regional tornado climatology. Here a statistical model is demonstrated that overcomes some of these difficulties and produces a smoothed regional-scale climatology of tornado occurrences. The model is applied to data aggregated at the level of counties. These data include annual population, annual tornado counts and an index of terrain roughness. The model has a term to capture the smoothed frequency relative to the state average. The model is used to examine whether terrain roughness is related to tornado frequency and whether there are differences in tornado activity by County Warning Area (CWA). A key finding is that tornado reports increase by 13% for a two-fold increase in population across Kansas after accounting for improvements in rating procedures. Independent of this relationship, tornadoes have been increasing at an annual rate of 1.9%. Another finding is the pattern of correlated residuals showing more Kansas tornadoes in a corridor of counties running roughly north to south across the west central part of the state consistent with the dryline climatology. The model is significantly improved by adding terrain roughness. The effect amounts to an 18% reduction in the number of tornadoes for every ten meter increase in elevation standard deviation. The model indicates that tornadoes are 51% more likely to occur in counties served by the CWAs of DDC and GID than elsewhere in the state. Flexibility of the model is illustrated by fitting it to data from Illinois, Mississippi, South Dakota, and Ohio.

  20. Political Cultural Ecology and the Study of Regions in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábregas Puig, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows why Cultural Ecology, understood as a method to explore the relationships between the environment and cultural processes, has deeply influenced a whole generation of Mexican anthropologists as a result of the teachings of Ángel Palerm and Eric Wolf. The practical application of Steward’s theories to the processes of Mexican regional formation, linked to the use of hydraulic technologies as part of both adaptative cultural strategies and the political control of water in the process of food production, shows that Cultural Ecology, understood as cultural management of natural environments, as it happens with Economy, is designed and politically manipulated in the context of deeply unequal societies with unadaptative consequences.

    El artículo muestra por qué la ecología cultural, entendida como un método para indagar en las relaciones entre el medio ambiente y los procesos culturales ha arraigado en una generación de antropólogos mexicanos como consecuencia del magisterio de Ángel Palerm y Eric Wolf. La aplicación práctica de las teorías de Steward a los procesos de formación regional mexicana vinculados a usos políticos de tecnologías hidráulicas como parte, tanto de estrategias culturales de adaptación como de control político del agua en el proceso de producción de alimentos, ha puesto de manifiesto que la ecología cultural, entendida como manejo cultural de entornos naturales, al igual que la economía, es diseñada y manejada políticamente en el contexto de sociedades profundamente desiguales con consecuencias maladaptantes.

  1. Emergy accounting for regional studies: case study of Canada and its provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini, Navid; Hewage, Kasun

    2013-03-30

    Sustainable regional management (development) requires an understanding of interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems within the boundaries of a region. In this paper, application of emergy (an environmental accounting method) for regional planning is discussed through a case study. Emergy (spelled with an "m") methodology is an environmental accounting technique that evaluates the energy system for the thermodynamics of an open system. Major renewable and non-renewable resource fluxes to a region, including energy, matter, human activities, and money can be converted to emergy by using corresponding transformity functions. As a case study, this paper discusses the emergy accounting of Canada and its provinces with various emergy-based indicators. Moreover, emergy maps were generated in a form of emergy geography. These maps are multi-dimensional illustrations that show resource consumption, emergy per person, and emergy density across Canada under two parameters: (1) the quantities of resources consumed and (2) the location of consumption. Emergy analysis also highlights concentrations of renewable and natural resources in Canada and distinguishes the provinces with the highest resource consumption. Analysis of emergy indicator for Canadian provinces shows that Alberta with the highest EYR (7.35) provides energy to the economy of Canada. However, ELR value of Alberta (8.5) indicates that the province's current economic approach is not sustainable as it relies mainly on non-renewable emergy inputs (mainly from fossil fuels). ELR of British Columbia and Manitoba indicates that these two provinces created a firm balance between emergy use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The characterizations of regions provided in this paper can be used for future land planning and management both in federal and provincial levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional environmental studies: application of the Geoecology Data Base. [County level studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.J.; Klopatek, J.M.; Emerson, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    Regional studies examine the spatial, temporal, and functional characteristics of geographic areas whose size and boundary configuration often depend on the definition of a particular problem. Thus, reference may be made to ecological, urban, economic, political, or abstract regions. To address environmental problems at the regional scale, the county-level Geoecology Data Base was developed. Using selected variables from existing data sources, a standardized digital data base was created for the conterminous United States. Over 1000 variables on file for county-subcounty units provide data on terrain, water resources, forestry, vegetation, wildlife, agriculture, land use, climate, air quality, population, and energy. The data base is described, and the utility of the county-level data base is illustrated with three examples. The Geoecology Data Base is utilized in conjunction with statistical analysis (SAS) and cartographic display (SYMAP, EZMAP, etc.) programs to both characterize regional environmental systems and to delineate possible environmental impacts. Much of the effort involved in creation and expansion of the Geoecology Data Base consists of obtaining and editing diverse inventory and monitoring files. An integral aspect of this activity is the promotion of data exchange through increased awareness of available data and development of more efficient exchange methods. The three examples involve regional environmental studies. First, future patterns of projected levels of SO/sub 2/ are overlaid on SO/sub 2/-sensitive agricultural crops and forest resources. Secondly, those areas of potential natural vegetation of the United States as modified or replaced by current land use are depicted.Finally, an ecological evaluation of potential wilderness areas using a number of county-subcounty ecological parameters is discussed.

  3. Travel industry as a focus on regional development: Case study of the Mediterranean France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a regionalization of the Mediterranean France with regard to tourism, as well as basic economic sectors present in the region. The study included three administrative regions of this part of France: Provence - Alpes - Cote d'Azur, Languedoc - Roussillon and the Island of Corsica, where the travel industry is defined as dominant. The subject of this research is to study the area of the Mediterranean France, primarily from the aspect of tourism. Special attention is focused on the identification of economic and socioeconomic importance that tourism has on the overall economic development of the region, in order to enable the implementation of tourism regionalization. In order to tourism regionalization of this area carried out, it is necessary to include research components, such as geographic environment, tourist motives and attractions that are located in this area, as well as other elements relevant to the separation of the region from the neighboring regions of France.

  4. Spectroscopic studies on nicotine and nornicotine in the UV region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter M; Vas, Carl A; Bui, Tam T T; Drake, Alex F; McAdam, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    The UV absorption and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of (R)- and (S)-nicotine and (S)-nornicotine in aqueous solution were measured to a significantly lower wavelength range than previously reported, allowing the identification of four previously unobserved electronic transitions. The ECD spectra of the two enantiomers of nicotine were equal in magnitude and opposite in sign, while the UV absorption spectra were coincidental. In line with previous observations, (S)-nicotine exhibited a negative cotton effect centered on 263 nm with vibronic structure (π-π1 * transition) and a broad, positive ECD signal at around 240 nm associated with the n-π1 * transition. As expected this band disappeared when the pyridyl aromatic moiety was protonated. Four further electronic transitions are reported between 215 and 180 nm; it is proposed the negative maxima around 206 nm is either an n-σ* transition or a charge transfer band resulting from the movement of charge from the pyrrolidyl N lone pair to the pyridyl π* orbital. The pyridyl π-π2* transition may be contained within the negative ECD signal envelope at around 200 nm. Another negative maximum at 188 nm is thought to be the pyridyl π-π3 * transition, while the lowest wavelength end-absorption and positive ECD may be associated with the π-π4 * transition. The UV absorption spectra of (S)-nornicotine was similar to that of (S)-nicotine in the range 280-220 nm and acidification of the aqueous solution enhanced the absorption. The ECD signals of (S)-nornicotine were considerably less intense compared to (S)-nicotine and declined further on acidification; in the far UV region the ECD spectra diverge considerably. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparative study of ethno-social processes and ethnonational policy in the regions of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Popkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the first results of a comparative study of ethno-social processes in the three regions of the Russian Federation: Novosibirsk region, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous district and the Republic of Altai. The specificity of the regions expressed through particularity of ethno-social situation, the nature of interethnic relations, the attitudes of the inhabitants of regions to migrants, the level and causes of ethnic tension.

  6. Regional Studies Program annual report, January 1 through December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. M.; Parzyck, D. C.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Honea, R. B.; Loebl, A. S.; Peelle, E.

    1977-08-01

    In 1976 the Regional Studies Program focused its attention on the analysis of national and regional effects of energy development and use. The major goal of this work has been to carry out comprehensive regional assessments to identify and evaluate potential environmental, social, and economic effects of energy resource development and use, including the effects of alternative energy technologies. This report presents the results of the assessments completed or under way in 1976, including a discussion of the environmental, social, and economic techniques and methods under development for use in future regional assessments. The report is organized and presented by the four research groups that participate in the Regional Studies Program.

  7. Study of the global and regional climatic impacts of ENSO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC), Ministry of Climate Change, Islamabad, Pakistan. Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Earth System Physics Section, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste, Italy. Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53 University Road, Lucknow 226 007, India.

  8. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix G. Planning Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    polymer with both. For further criteria on chemical application see below relative to nitrification and phosphorus removal. Bovay (1973) also made...pilot plant studies of lime addition and found that approximately 480 mg/l were required with 0.5 mg/i polymer but that recarbonation was required to...Nostrand Reinhold Co. Diaper , E. W. J., 1972. Practical Aspects of Water and Wastewater Treatment by Ozone in "Ozone in Water and Wastewater Treatment

  9. Behavioural models for cycling - Case studies of the Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín

    Bicycle transport has traditionally been underrepresented in traffic models, because historically the main focus has been on modelling more resource-intensive investments in motor traffic roads and public transport. In order to decrease road congestion and to reduce the related health and societal...... parameters across modes, on a dataset including trip information and socioeconomic variables for 7,958 individuals and 10,982 trip chains with five available alternative modes (i.e., walking, cycling, car driver, car passenger, and public transport). The results showed that travellers’ have heterogeneous...... enhancements in GPS device technology, the post-processing of such large data is still difficult. In this study, a fully automatic postprocessing procedure was proposed and applied to extract relevant information for further analysis. It makes it possible to process raw individual-based GPS data...

  10. Laser Spectroscopy Studies in the Neutron-Rich Sn Region

    CERN Multimedia

    Obert, J

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use the powerful laser spectroscopy method to determine the magnetic moment $\\mu$ and the variation of the mean square charge radius ($\\delta\\,\\langle$r$_{c}^{2}\\,\\rangle$) for ground and long-lived isomeric states of the Sn isotopes from A=125 to the doubly-magic $^{132}$Sn isotope and beyond. For these neutron-rich Sn nuclei, numerous $\\delta\\,\\langle$r$^{2}_{c}\\,\\rangle$ curves have already been calculated and the predictions depend upon the effective interactions used. Therefore, a study of the effect of the shell closure N=82 on the $\\delta\\,\\langle$r$^{2}_{c}\\,\\rangle$ values in the Z=50 magic nuclei is of great interest, especially because $^{132}$Sn is located far from the stability valley. It will help to improve the parameters of the effective interactions and make them more suitable to predict the properties of exotic nuclei. \\\\ \\\\The neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced with an uranium carbide target, are ionized using either a hot plasma ion source or the resonant ionization laser ion ...

  11. Importance of using regional and national data in comparative bioaccumulation studies: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawa, A.; Peterson, S.C.; Eich, C.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an investigation to determine whether site-related contaminants are bioaccumulating in fish from Puffer Pond (located at the Sudbury US Army Training Annex, Massachusetts), filet and whole body preparations from yellow perch, chain pickerel, and brown bullhead were analyzed for mercury and other contaminants and compared with levels in the same fish species from Ministers Pond, a nearby off-site ``background`` pond. The mean concentration of mercury was higher in pickerel from Puffer Pond (0.61 {micro}g/g versus 0.50 {micro}g/g). Mercury was also found to be higher an average in perch from Puffer Pond (0.38 {micro}g/g versus 0.24 {micro}g/g) suggesting potential site-related contamination. Results were subsequently compared to Massachusetts clean water reference data, to USEPA national background mercury data, and to nationwide USFWS contaminant biomonitoring program mercury data. Average mercury concentrations were 0.47 {micro}g/g, 0.34 {micro}g/g, and 0.11 {micro}g/g, respectively. The variety of fish species, analytical methods, and times and locations of capture make direct comparison uncertain, but the data provide additional perspective. Specifically, Puffer Pond fish, with a mean mercury concentration of 0.36 {micro}g/g, and Ministers Pond fish, with a mean concentration of 0.37 {micro}g/g, exhibit mercury levels within the range of national and regional background mercury levels. Mercury was not found at detectable concentrations in surface water or sediment of either pond. Bioaccumulation of mercury in Puffer Pond and clean water bodies in Massachusetts is likely related to the low-pH of the water and atmospheric deposition of mercury from global and regional sources rather than from site-related sources. This study emphasizes the importance of consulting regional and national data when drawing conclusions from comparative bioaccumulation studies.

  12. Sensitivity model study of regional mercury dispersion in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencarelli, Christian N.; Bieser, Johannes; Carbone, Francesco; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Matthias, Volker; Travnikov, Oleg; Yang, Xin; Pirrone, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    bogs, etc., is highlighted in this study.

  13. Abnormalities by pulmonary regions studied with computer tomography and clinical correlation following local-regional radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol Bhadra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adjuvant local-regional radiotherapy (RT is commonly recommended for breast cancer patients. Postoperative adjuvant RT for breast cancer is associated with pulmonary side effects. This study was undertaken to measure the RT-induced pulmonary radiological changes with computer tomography (CT scan using a CT-adapted modification of the Arriagada classification system, and to correlate these changes to RT techniques, pulmonary complications, and pulmonary function. The aim of the study is to study pulmonary radiological abnormalities with CT following different RT techniques for breast cancer, and their correlation to pulmonary complications and reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC. Materials and Methods: CT scans of the lungs were performed prior to and 4 months following RT in 53 breast cancer patients treated with local-regional RT. The radiological abnormalities were analyzed with a CT-adapted modification of a classification system originally proposed by Arriagada. The patients were monitored for RT-induced pulmonary complications. FVC was measured prior to and 6 months following RT. Statistical analysis used were that increasing CT scores were correlated with pulmonary complications ( P 0.05. Conclusions: Radiological abnormalities detected on CT images and scored with a modification of Arriagada′s classification system can be used as an objective endpoint for pulmonary side effects in postmastectomy RT.

  14. Assessment of regional climatic changes in the Eastern Himalayan region: a study using multi-satellite remote sensing data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anubha; Sharma, Anu Rani; Tayal, Shresth

    2014-10-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to capture the sensitivity of a mountainous region to elevation-dependent warming and the response of a glacier-laden surface to increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosol concentration. Some of the changes Sikkim has undergone due to urban sprawl are as follows: an increase of ~0.7 ± 0.46 °C temperature in the past 40 years at an altitude of 5.5 km; a 2.21 km(2)/year rate of loss of glacierised area in the past 33 years; an increase in absorbed longwave radiation (6 ± 2.41 W/m(2)); an increase in heat fluxes (2 ± 0.97 W/m(2)); a decrease in albedo during the last 30 years; an increase in the concentrations of carbon dioxide (4.42%), methane (0.61%), ozone (0.67%) and black carbon column optical depth (7.19%); a decrease in carbon monoxide (2.61%) and an increase in aerosol optical depth (19.16%) during the last decade; a decrease in precipitation, water yield, discharge and groundwater; and an increase in evapotranspiration during 1971-2005. Detection of three climate signals (1976, 1997 and 2005) in the entire analysis is the quantification of the fact that the climate of Sikkim is moving away from its inter-annual variability. An increase in temperature (0.23 °C/decade) at higher altitude (~5.5 km), suppression of precipitation, decreasing water availability and rapid loss of glacierised area are the evidences of the fact that air pollution is playing a significant role in bringing about regional climatic changes in Sikkim. In this study, change detection method has been used for the first time for the estimation of change in a glacierised area of the region.

  15. An overview of studies of observed climate change in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Long You

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH hereafter region is characterized by mountainous environments and a variety of regional climatic conditions. High-altitude regions in the HKH have the recent warming amplifications, especially during the global warming hiatus period. The rapid warming cause solid state water (snow, ice, glacier, and permafrost to shrink, leading to increase in meltwater and there have been found more frequent incidences of flash floods, landslides, livestock diseases, and other disasters in the HKH region. Increasing awareness of climate change over the HKH region is reached a consensus. Meanwhile, the HKH region is often referred to as the water towers of Asia as many high-altitude regions store its water in the form of snow and/or glacier, feeding ten major large rivers in Asia. Therefore, the impacts of climate change on water availability in these river basins have huge influences on the livelihood of large number of population, especially in downstream regions. However, the scarcity of basic hydro-meteorological observations particularly in high-altitude regions of HKH limits rigorous analysis of climate change. Most studies used reanalysis data and/or model-reconstructed products to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of hydro-meteorological processes, especially for extreme events. In this study, we review recent climate change in the HKH region, and the scientific challenges and research recommendations are suggested for this high-altitude area.

  16. Haircell non-functionality and dead regions in the cochlea: an exploring study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnaar, Bastiaan; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2008-01-01

    Dead regions (DRs) refer originally to regions in the cochlea without evoked electrical potentials due to non-functional inner hair cells andor fibers of the auditory nerve. The focus of this study is to characterize hair cell non-functionality in the cochlea by means of psychophysical tests. A

  17. East Asia and the Pacific Region Urban Sanitation Review : Philippines Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This Philippines country study forms part of the East Asia and the Pacific region urban sanitation review that focuses on three of the emerging middle income countries of East Asia: Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. The regional review aims to develop a strategic framework to help guide national urban sanitation programs and their implementation in these emerging middle income countries...

  18. A study on an information security system of a regional collaborative medical platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junping; Peng, Kun; Leng, Jinchang; Sun, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Xue, Wanguo; Ren, Lianzhong

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to share the experience of building an information security system for a regional collaborative medical platform (RCMP) and discuss the lessons learned from practical projects. Safety measures are analyzed from the perspective of system engineering. We present the essential requirements, critical architectures, and policies for system security of regional collaborative medical platforms.

  19. Frontolateral Approach Applied to Sellar Region Lesions: A Retrospective Study in 79 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Cheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: FLA was an effective approach in the treatment of sellar region lesions with good preservation of visual function. FLA classification enabled tailored craniotomies for each patient according to the anatomic site of tumor invasion. This study found that FLA had similar outcomes to other surgical approaches of sellar region lesions.

  20. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: regional considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This document constitutes one segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid and remote Western region. This phase of the study discusses regional considerations involved in nuclear energy center development at Green River, Utah. Regional support for NEC development is assessed. In addition, possible regulatory constraints to NEC development are identified and analyzed. Possible resource allocation shortages resulting from NEC development are also considered. A comparison with a similar study on NEC development in the Southeastern United States is also included.

  1. Effects of Climatic Region on Peritonitis Risk, Microbiology, Treatment, and Outcomes: a Multicenter Registry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Badve, Sunil V.; Hawley, Carmel M.; McDonald, Stephen P.; Brown, Fiona G.; Boudville, Neil; Wiggins, Kathryn J.; Bannister, Kym M.; Clayton, Philip; Johnson, David W.

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Background: The impact of climatic variations on peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis has not been studied in detail. The aim of the current study was to determine whether various climatic zones influenced the probability of occurrence or the clinical outcomes of peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Using ANZDATA registry data, the study in cluded all Australian patients receiving PD between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2008. Climatic regions were defined according to the Köppen classification. ♦ Results: The overall peritonitis rate was 0.59 episodes per patient-year. Most of the patients lived in Temperate regions (65%), with others residing in Subtropical (26%), Tropical (6%), and Other climatic regions (Desert, 0.6%; Grassland, 2.3%). Compared with patients in Temperate regions, those in Tropical regions demonstrated significantly higher overall peritonitis rates and a shorter time to a first peritonitis episode [adjusted hazard ratio: 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01 to 1.31]. Culture-negative peritonitis was significantly less likely in Tropical regions [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.73]; its occurrence in Subtropical and Other regions was comparable to that in Temperate regions. Fungal peritonitis was independently associated with Tropical regions (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.22 to 3.90) and Other regions (OR: 3.46; 95% CI: 1.73 to 6.91), where rates of antifungal prophylaxis were also lower. Outcomes after first peritonitis episodes were comparable in all groups. ♦ Conclusions: Tropical regions were associated with a higher overall peritonitis rate (including fungal peritonitis) and a shorter time to a first peritonitis episode. Augmented peritonitis prophylactic measures such as antifungal therapy and exit-site care should be considered in PD patients residing in Tropical climates. PMID:22942270

  2. Loco-regional recurrence from colon cancer: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, Annika; Granath, Fredrik; Cedermark, Björn; Glimelius, Bengt; Holm, Torbjörn

    2007-02-01

    The survival after colon cancer surgery has not improved to the same extent as after rectal cancer treatment and studies on loco-regional recurrence after colon cancer surgery are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the problem of loco-regional recurrence after potentially curative resections for colon cancer, regarding incidence, risk factors, management, and outcome. All 1,856 patients submitted to potentially curative surgery for colon cancer in the Stockholm/Gotland region in Sweden between 1996 and 2000 were followed until January 2005 or until death. Follow-up data were prospectively collected. Risk factors for loco-regional recurrences were analyzed, treatment and outcome for patients with recurrence was studied. The cumulative 5-year incidence of loco-regional recurrence was 11.5%. Tumor locations in the right flexure and in the sigmoid colon, bowel perforation and emergent surgery were identified as independent risk factors for loco-regional recurrence. The risk also increased with increasing T- and N-stage. The median survival for all 192 patients with loco-regional recurrence was 9 months. Surgery was performed in 110 (57%) patients. In 23 (12%) patients a complete tumor clearance was achieved and the estimated 5-year survival in this group was 43%. Loco-regional recurrence from colon cancer is a significant clinical problem. A multidisciplinary treatment approach, including preoperative staging, a complete resection of the recurrence and more effective adjuvant treatments may improve the outcome.

  3. Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in the Outaouais Region (Québec, Canada) - A regional scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcoudiol, N.; Molson, J. W.; Lemieux, J.

    2013-12-01

    rainwater in unconfined aquifers (bromide below detection limit). Secondary processes, related to the bedrock geology, are responsible for exceedances of Canadian drinking water standards. They include the dissolution of F-, U-, Fe- and Mn-bearing minerals known to be abundant in the region (deposits and mines throughout the study area). Chloride contamination was identified in some recharge areas, related to anthropogenic activities. The study has identified Champlain Sea invasion, cation exchange and freshwater recharge as the main geochemical processes affecting groundwater chemistry in this region. Secondary processes were also identified, based on exceedances of Canadian drinking water standards. These results will be applied at the local scale, along a flow path, to relate geochemical evolution to groundwater flow conditions. More data are available at this scale such as stable isotope content (δ18O and δ2H), groundwater age (tritium and 14C) and noble gas content. These additional data will help improve our understanding about groundwater chemical evolution and define a complete conceptual model.

  4. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: financial history and future power requirements for the VACAR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Financial data for the period 1966 to 1981 are presented for the four investor-owned electric utilities in the VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas) region. This region was selected as representative for the purpose of assessing the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power for the future in the United States. The estimated demand for power and planned additions to generating capacity for the region through the year 2000 are also given.

  5. Pain associated with the sacroiliac joint region: a clinical study of 74 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, S; Murray, R

    2003-05-01

    There has been no large study of horses with suspected sacroiliac (SI) joint region pain in which the clinical diagnosis has been supported by either abnormal radiopharmaceutical activity in the SI joint region or by periarticular infiltration of local anaesthetic solution. To describe the clinical features of horses with SI joint region pain, to document the age, breed, sex, discipline, size and conformation of affected horses and to compare these with the author's (SD) normal case population and to document the results of infiltration of local anaesthetic solution around the SI joint region. Horses were selected for inclusion in the study based upon the exclusion of other causes of lameness or poor performance, together with clinical signs suggestive of SI joint pain and abnormal radiopharmaceutical activity in the SI joint region and/or a positive response to periarticular infiltration of local anaesthetic solution. Sacroiliac joint region disease was identified in 74 horses between November 1997 and March 2002. Dressage and showjumping horses appeared to be at particular risk (P bit and poor quality canter were common. Sacroiliac joint region pain was seen alone (47%), or in conjunction with thoracolumbar pain (16%), hindlimb lameness (20%), forelimb lameness (7%) or a combination of problems (10%). Seventy-three horses (99%) had abnormalities of the SI joint region identified using nuclear scintigraphy. Infiltration of local anaesthetic solution around the SI joint region produced profound improvement in gait in all 34 horses in which it was performed. Careful clinical examination combined with scintigraphic evaluation of the SI joint region and local analgesia can enable a more definitive diagnosis of SI joint region pain than has previously been possible.

  6. Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: a case study in the megacity Beijing, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, X. G; Li, J; Qu, Y; Han, T; Hou, L; Gu, J; Chen, C; Yang, Y; Liu, X; Yang, T; Zhang, Y; Tian, H; Hu, M

    2013-01-01

      The main objective of this study is to investigate the formation and evolution mechanism of the regional haze in megacity Beijing by analyzing the process of a severe haze that occurred 20-27 September 2011...

  7. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  8. Applying TEAM in Regional Sketch Planning: Three Case Studies in Atlanta, Orlando, St. Louis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA report documents 3 case studies of the application of TEAM (Travel Efficiency Assessment Method) to develop, assess and quantify regional greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emission reductions from travel efficiency strategies in a cost effecti

  9. GLAMURS - Green Lifestyles, Alternative Models and Upscaling Regional Sustainability. Case Study Exchange

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adela Fofiu; Claudian Dobos

    2015-01-01

      In the period of 17-20 June 2015, the West University of Timisoara hosted the GLAMURS - Green Lifestyles, Alternative Models and Upscaling Regional Sustainability - Case Study Exchange Conference...

  10. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  11. Innervation of periesophageal region of cat's diaphragm - Implication for studies of control of vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L. K.; Miller, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    The extent of the region of the diaphragm around the esophagus that displays greatly reduced activity during the expulsive phase of vomiting was determined from electromyographic studies in cats to be about 0.75-1.0 cm from the esophagus. Horseradish peroxidase injected into this region retrogradely labeled motoneurons throughout most of the rostral-caudal extent of the phrenic nucleus, with the exception of caudal C6 and rostral C7. This widespread intermingling of motoneurons that innervate the region of reduced activity with other phrenic motoneurons creates a difficulty for needed follow-up studies of diaphragmatic control during vomiting.

  12. A Comparison of Tourist Expectations and Satisfaction: A Case Study from Antalya Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın Aksu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For several years the number of tourists visiting Antalya Region has been increasing. It could be argued that Antalya is comparable with a capital city in terms of tourist numbers. Antalya Region hosted over 9 million tourists in 2008. To sustain demand and increase competition of operators in Antalya, it is necessary to create a powerful brand image. This will require a combination effort from all tourism stakeholders. Consequently, it is important to define the current tourist profile visiting Antalya Region, evaluate tourists’ expectations and satisfaction, and identify future tourism related research. These outcomes are all important in developing regional tourism. The aim of this study is comparison of expectation-levels and satisfaction-levels of a selected sample of tourists. The findings culminate from research conducted in Antalya Region from a sample of 10.393 tourists during 2008.

  13. Assessing Regional Sustainability Using a Model of Coordinated Development Index: A Case Study of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic view, this paper addresses a perspective of coordinated development of economy, society, and environment for regional sustainability assessment. Firstly, a comprehensive indicator system for co-evaluating the level of economic, social, and environmental subsystems is presented based on a holistic understanding of regional sustainability. Then, a coordinated development index model focusing on the level of coordination among the subsystems as well as their comprehensive development level is established. Furthermore, an empirical study of all the provinces and municipalities is conducted by collecting the panel data from 2004 to 2010. The result shows that: (1 the coordinated developments of the most developed and the most underdeveloped regions stay stable while the regions with medium development level possess more fluctuant trends during the study years; (2 regional disparities are indicated according to the grading of CDI (the coordinated development index, which are further analyzed to be related to the local economic development patterns; (3 the conditions and causes of economic, social, and environmental development in real situations under different grades of CDI are discussed through detailed case studies of typical regions, which indicate specific suggestions of sustainable development for regions in the same pattern.

  14. Economic Community of West African States Regional Integration Process: A Study of the New Regionalism Phenomenon in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gavua, Innocent Komla

    2007-01-01

    Regional cooperation and integration in the international system has taken new dimensions especially following the end of the Cold War and the example of the successful story of the European Union integration process. This new dynamism in the intra-regional cooperation, which started to emerge in the 1980’s, has been described by some scholars as ‘new regionalism’, with a view to differentiate it from the ‘old’ type of regional cooperation which was prominent from the 1950’s till the late 197...

  15. Modulation of extremes in the Atlantic region by modes of climate variability/change: A mechanistic coupled regional model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-01-09

    During the course of this project, we have accomplished the following: 1) Explored the parameter space of component models to minimize regional model bias 2) Assessed the impact of air-sea interaction on hurricanes, focusing in particular on the role of the oceanic barrier layer 3) Contributed to the activities of the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group 4) Assessed the impact of lateral and lower boundary conditions on extreme flooding events in the U.S. Midwest in regional model simulations 5) Analyzed the concurrent impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Meridional Mode on Atlantic Hurricane activity using observations and regional model simulations

  16. Study of Nurse Education Needs in the Southern New York Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and Hospital Planning Council of Southern New York, Inc., New York.

    The study was undertaken to assess the needs of and facilities for professional nurse education in the 14-county region of Southern New York in order to provide direction for future planning. The information used in the study was a composite of: (1) available statistics, (2) data collected from 855 study participants through interviews, group…

  17. Revitalisation of Orlík reservoir – case study of a regional restoration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Očásková

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This case study describes the bottom-up formation of a regional project for restoring a reservoir. Land use changes in the upper Vltava river basin caused the eutrophication of Orlík reservoir, which resulted in water blooms, which in association with socio-economic changes caused a decline in tourism in this region and serious difficulties for local people. The study examines how public awareness helped in the establishment of a restoration project, its framework and strategy. Regional governance of the project management took into consideration both knowledge-based solutions and the interests of local people and municipalities. The project has the potential for resolving both environmental and socio-economic problems and providing a sustainable win-win strategy for the region, residents, tourists and stakeholders.

  18. Tsunami induced transportation of the coastal marine sediments to distant onshore regions: Some indications from foraminiferal and microbenthic studies of new Wandoor region (Andaman & Nicobar)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    Advances Vol. 2(1) January 2009 Tsunami Induced Transportation of The Coastal Marine Sediments to Distant Onshore Regions: Some Indications from Foraminiferal and Microbenthic Studies of new Wandoor Region (Andaman & Nicobar) Khare N., Chaturvedi S.K. 1... regions. Keywords: Tsunami, impact, sediment transportation, foraminifera, microbenthos, indicator, Andaman, Indian Ocean. Introduction Coastal marine environments are inherently sensitive to climate changes. Consequences of climate changes in coastal...

  19. REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AND COMPETITION POLICY. CASE STUDY: EU, ASEAN AND NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fora Andreea-Florina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The large number of regional trade agreements notified to the World Trade Organization (WTO significantly influenced the flow of world trade. By April 2014 there had been notified 583 regional trade agreements to the WTO, of which only 379 are in force. The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of regional trade agreements in world trade, especially the importance of establishing a regional competition policy in these agreements. The research methodology used is the analysis of legislation governing preferential trade agreements at the level of WTO, the collection and interpretation of statistical data provided by the WTO Secretariat, the case study, namely the study of literature. The paper is structured in three parts. The first part of the paper examines the basic laws based on which regional trade agreements are notified to the WTO and the evolution of these agreements in the period 1958-2013. The second part of the paper is devoted to the analysis of competition policy in regional trade agreements. In this part of the paper, to highlight the patterns of competition policy adopted under these agreements was analyzed by three case studies of competition policy in the EU, ASEAN and NAFTA. The three case studies have revealed that the three preferential trade agreements present regional competition policies with varying degrees of integration. The most complex form of competition policy is found in the European Union, because we are talking about a centralized model of competition policy. ASEAN presents a partially decentralized model, while NAFTA scrolls with a decentralized model of competition policy. The last part of the paper presents the characteristics of the four models of competition policy identified in the preferential trade agreements in force. It should be emphasized that if the initial preferential trade agreements have not put a great emphasis on the rules of competition policy, practice has shown the importance

  20. Study of stable atmospheric boundary layer characterization over highveld region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luhunga, P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER CHARACTERIZATION OVER HIGHVELD REGION OF SOUTH AFRICA Philbert Luhunga1, 2, 3, George Djolov1, Venkataraman Sivakumar1,4,5 1 University of Pretoria, Department of Geography Geoinformatics and Meterology, Lynnwood road, 0001.... INTRODUCTION The stable atmospheric boundary layer (SBL) study over the Highveld South Africa has a special relevance, since it has the majority of the electric power generating plants located in this region. SBL is characterized by a steady wind near...

  1. The Roles of Geographical Study in Spatial Arragement and Regional Development (A Case Study in Sukoharjo District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswaji Dwi Priyono

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following issue explains the role of geography study in spatial lay-out and regional development, taking the regional development of Sukoharjo regency as the case study. The role of geography study in spatial lay-out and regional development lies mainly in the effort to achieve geo information system, i.e. information of regional landscape with its all characteristics, regional problem, regional development potential and the definitive factor of regional development. Making use of geography analysis, Sukoharjo as a brief out line has three geomorphology units with its different physic potential and soial economy, and up  to the present it has a tendency of different land  function. The three units of geomorphology mention above are: alluvial plain, fluvio-volcanic foot plain of Lawu, and shouthern hill slope of Baturagung. And then, to  support the area development of JOGLOSEMAR the future development strategies of Sukoharjo regency is distinguished into three zones, i.e.: industry and comercial zone, urban residential and institution zone, open sphere land and recreation zone.

  2. Histological change and microcirculation in the contrast-enhancement region of cerebral infarction. An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Tetsuya; Takemura, Kiyoshi; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Hori, Yutaka (Nara National Hospital, Nara (Japan)); Yokoyama, Kazuhiro

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to reveal the microcirculation and blood-brain barrier by comparison with the histological findings in the contrast-enhancement region. The microcirculation is studied by carbon perfusion, and the function of the blood-brain barrier is studied by the intravenous administration of fluorescein. According to the carbon perfusion, carbon filling is impaired in the ischemic region of cerebral infarction. However, partially in the ischemic region, there is a good carbon-filling zone, called the carbon deposit, which indicates that the microcirculation develops better in this part of the ischemic region during the contrast-enhancement stage. From the histological point of view, the contrast-enhancement region contains capillaries and phagocytes and has a spongy appearance, an extravasation of red cells, and cavity formations. The density of capillaries might play the most important role in the microcirculation and the function of the blood-brain barrier. The fluorescein stain indicates the extent of the abnormally increased permeability of the capillaries. During the contrast-enhancement stage, the fluorescein stain is found not only in the contrast-enhacement region, but also in the surrounding zone around the contrast-enhancement region. There is an ischemic histological change, shown by the spongy appearance in this surrounding zone with the fluorescein stain. On a CT scan, this surrounding zone is seen as a normodensity area in most experimental models. These results indicate that, during the stage of the contrast-enhancement of cerebral infarction, a histologically evidenced ischemic area is detected not only as a contrast-enhancement region but also as a normodensity area around the contrast-enhancement region.

  3. Role of Air Cargo and Road Feeder Services for Regional Airports – Case Studies from the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although airports play an important role the global and European economies, according to the new guidelines of the EU Commission on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry (EC, 2014, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to get financial public subsidies in the future. The Commission noted that the majority of regional airports experience severe problems to cover their operative costs, resulting from among other things from overlapping of airports’ catchment areas. The main objective of the above mentioned measures is not to close the regional airports, but to motivate them to operate on cost efficient, profitable and more flexible basis, stating however that and that the most inefficient airports will be still closed. In order face upcoming challenges, the regional airports shall reconsider their future development plans. Traditionally, the airports including small and regional airports focus on the passenger traffic and thus, the possible benefits and opportunities of the air cargo market are totally underestimated or even completely ignored. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region act totally isolated and do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market today, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans remain basically hidden. There are some examples when trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports have made huge, but unfortunately unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure, runways, etc. However, the airports’ infrastructural investments alone cannot fulfil the expected “remedy” role for the airports’ sustainability. This paper aims at investigating the positioning and the role of the regional airports in the current hub-and-spoke network, focusing on the relevance and potential of the air cargo sector for the regional airports development. The optional freight value proposition for the development of

  4. Implementing the first regional hospice palliative care program in Ontario: the Champlain region as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Contant, Jocelyne; Barton, Gwen; Klinger, Christopher

    2016-07-26

    Regionalization promotes planning and coordination of services across settings and providers to meet population needs. Despite the potential advantages of regionalization, no regional hospice palliative care program existed in Ontario, Canada, as of 2010. This paper describes the process and early results of the development of the first regional hospice palliative care program in Ontario. The various activities and processes undertaken and the formal agreements, policies and documents are described. A participative approach, started in April 2009, was used. It brought together over 26 health service providers, including residential hospices, a palliative care unit, community and hospital specialist consultation teams, hospitals, community health and social service agencies (including nursing), individual health professionals, volunteers, patients and families. An extensive stakeholder and community vetting process was undertaken that included work groups (to explore key areas such as home care, the hospital sector, hospice and palliative care unit beds, provision of care in rural settings, e-health and education), a steering committee and input from over 320 individuals via e-mail and town-halls. A Transitional Leadership Group was elected to steer the implementation of the Regional Program over the summer of 2010. This group established the by-laws and details regarding the governance structure of the Regional Program, including its role, responsibilities, reporting structures and initial performance indicators that the Local Health Integration Network (LHIN) approved. The Regional Program was formally established in November 2010 with a competency-based Board of 14 elected members to oversee the program. Early work involved establishing standards and performance indicators for the different sectors and settings in the region, and identifying key clinical needs such as the establishment of more residential hospice capacity in Ottawa and a rural framework to ensure

  5. Ecosystem Services and Border Regions. Case Study from Czech – Polish Borderland

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    Marcin Spyra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-use management and planning of cross-border regions is a complex problem. Different legislatures, development visions and interests on both sides of the border make it even more complicated. Introducing ecosystem services concept into land-use planning and management at cross-border regions is a challenge.  However not much is said about this issue in literature.This paper aims to present result of the study concerning to ecosystem services concept in the context of cross-border part of Pradziad Euroregion. The studyed area is situated within Czech – Polish borderland. First part of the research concerns to land-cover analyze of the region. The second one to Czech and Polish land-use strategies, which are binding at NUTS 4 and 5 level in the studyed area.Resoults of the research indicates asymmetry of the cross-border landscape of the analyzed region. The asymmetry is indicated by different types, biodiversities and areas of ecosystems identified on both sides of the border. It is also identified by differences in land-use strategies concerning to the region.It is discussed to what extend ecosystem services concept can be implemented in planning legislature of the cross-border region.

  6. The social representations of suicide in France: An inter-regional study in Alsace and Brittany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp-Bigault, Céline; Walter, Michel; Thevenot, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Suicide is a major worldwide public health issue. Various studies showed that individual attitudes toward suicide change in a region with high suicide rate. Attitudes are one of the components of a global and complex system: social representations (SRs). In France, the Brittany region has an abnormally high death rate due to suicides. Our research focuses on the SRs of suicide in this region. The hypothesis underlying this project is that suicide SRs are different between an area with a high suicide rate and a region less affected by suicide. A comparative study between the Brittany and Alsace regions, with the latter showing a statistically much lower suicide rate. The persons polled responded to a three-word free-association task around the question 'For you, suicide is …?' An analysis of word frequency and evocation rank was then carried out. In confirmation of our hypothesis, SRs were different between Brittany and the control region. The study's results open new avenues of research, specific to Brittany, in terms of the collective or individual effects of suicides, in terms of psycho-pathological conditions - essentially on depression, and in terms of training, on the stereotypes associated with suicide. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Regional lung ventilation in humans during hypergravity studied with quantitative SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, M; Karlsson, L L; Sanchez-Crespo, A; Lindahl, S G E; Linnarsson, D; Mure, M; Petersson, J

    2013-12-01

    Recently we challenged the view that arterial desaturation during hypergravity is caused by redistribution of blood flow to dependent lung regions by demonstrating a paradoxical redistribution of blood flow towards non-dependent regions. We have now quantified regional ventilation in 10 healthy supine volunteers at normal and three times normal gravity (1G and 3G). Regional ventilation was measured with Technegas ((99m)Tc) and quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Hypergravity caused arterial desaturation, mean decrease 8%, pventilation per voxel for non-dependent and dependent lung regions was 0.81±0.12 during 1G and 1.63±0.35 during 3G (mean±SD), pventilation was shifted from dependent to non-dependent regions. We suggest that arterial desaturation during hypergravity is caused by quantitatively different redistributions of blood flow and ventilation. To our knowledge, this is the first study presenting high-resolution measurements of regional ventilation in humans breathing normally during hypergravity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated regional assessment of global climatic change: lessons from the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stewart J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper outlines the potential role integrated regional assessments of global climatic change scenarios could play in building better links between science and related policy concerns. The concept is illustrated through description of an ongoing case study from Canada—the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS). As part of the Government of Canada's Green Plan, the Global Warming Science Program includes a study of regional impacts of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, located in northwestern Canada. The MBIS is a six-year program focussing on potential climate-induced changes in the land and water resource base, and the implications of four scenarios of global climatic change on land use and economic policies in this region. These policy issues include interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities (agriculture, forestry, tourism, etc.), sustainability of ecosystems and infrastructure maintenance. MBIS is due to be completed in 1997. MBIS represents an attempt to address regional impacts by incorporating a "family of integrators" into the study framework, and by directly involving stakeholders in planning and research activities. The experience in organizing and carrying out this project may provide some lessons for others interested in organizing regional or country studies.

  9. A spatial study of networking in the Vistula Lagoon region using geoinformation systems

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    Gritsenko Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Network cooperation — the most efficient form of unlocking the economic and natural potential of territories — is rapidly developing in Russia under the influence of global processes. Due to its unique geopolitical position, the Kaliningrad region is one of the regions where such networks develop at both the regional and international levels. When studying such forms of cooperation, the traditional methods of social sciences as research tools are not sufficient, which is explained by the dynamic nature of network cooperation as well as the fact that it involves a significant number of independent agents. We believe that one of the important tools of research on network cooperation is regional integral geoinformation systems (GIS. Modern GIS are successfully used in related fields, such as environmental and climate studies, geology, urban studies, and serve as rather efficient tools of analysing spatial objects and phenomena. One of such systems has been developed and is successfully functioning at the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, which makes it possible to use it in studying network cooperation in the framework of crossborder development with the involvement of Kaliningrad municipalities. The key objective set by the authors of the article is to justify the need for studying the emerging network cooperation with the help of both traditional methods of geography and modern GIS; a specific case is made of the cross-border Vistula lagoon region — the one that brings together Russian and Polish municipalities. The authors provide with the background for the search of possible development strategies in the region, and note that the creation of a regional GIS structure can become a necessary component of the region’s information and communication structure; this conclusion can be considered the key result of the research conducted. The practical significance of the article lies in justifying the use of modern geoinformation systems

  10. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  11. Modeling for regional ecosystem sustainable development under uncertainty — A case study of Dongying, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K., E-mail: zhangkaibetter@126.com; Li, Y.P., E-mail: yongping.li@iseis.org; Huang, G.H., E-mail: gordon.huang@uregina.ca; You, L., E-mail: youli_ncepu@126.com; Jin, S.W., E-mail: jinshuwei2014@126.com

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a superiority–inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed for planning regional ecosystem sustainable development. STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions; it can be used to analyze various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic penalties when the promised targets are violated. STSP is applied to a real case of planning regional ecosystem sustainable development in the City of Dongying, where ecosystem services valuation approaches are incorporated within the optimization process. Regional ecosystem can provide direct and indirect services and intangible benefits to local economy. Land trading mechanism is introduced for planning the regional ecosystem's sustainable development, where wetlands are buyers who would protect regional ecosystem components and self-organization and maintain its integrity. Results of regional ecosystem activities, land use patterns, and land trading schemes have been obtained. Results reveal that, although large-scale reclamation projects can bring benefits to the local economy development, they can also bring with negative effects to the coastal ecosystem; among all industry activities oil field is the major contributor with a large number of pollutant discharges into local ecosystem. Results also show that uncertainty has an important role in successfully launching such a land trading program and trading scheme can provide more effective manner to sustain the regional ecosystem. The findings can help decision makers to realize the sustainable development of ecological resources in the process of rapid industrialization, as well as the integration of economic and ecological benefits. - Highlights: • Superiority–inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed. • STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions. • STSP is applied to planning

  12. An ecological study of regional variation in work injuries among young workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Peter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The investigation of geographic variation in occupational injuries has received little attention. Young workers 15 to 24 years are of particular concern because they consistently show elevated occupational injury rates compared to older workers. The present study sought to: (a to describe the geographic variation of work injuries; (b to determine whether geographic variation remained after controlling for relevant demographic and job characteristics; (c to identify the region-level factors that correlate with the geographic variation. Methods Using workers compensation claims and census data, we estimated claim rates per 100 full-time equivalents for 15 to 24 year olds in 46 regions in Ontario. A total of 21 region-level indicators were derived primarily from Census and Labour Force Survey data to reflect social and material deprivation of the region as well as demographic and employment characteristics of youth living in those areas. Results Descriptive findings showed substantial geographic variation in young worker injury rates, even after controlling for several job and demographic variables. Region-level characteristics such as greater residential stability were associated with low work injury rates. Also, regions with the lowest claim rates tended to have proportionally fewer cuts and burns than high-claim-rate regions. Conclusion The finding of substantial geographic variation in youth claim rates even after controlling for demographic and job factors can aid in targeting prevention resource. The association between region-level indicators such as residential stability and youth work injury suggests that work injury prevention strategies can be integrated with other local economic development measures. The findings partially support the notion that work safety measures may be unevenly distributed with respect to regional socio-economic factors.

  13. Globalization and suicide: an ecological study across five regions of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; McClure, Rod; De Leo, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The impact of globalization on health is recognized to be influenced by country and regional-level factors. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between globalization and suicide in five world regions. An index measure of globalization was developed at the country level over 1980 to 2006. The association between the index and sex specific suicide rates was tested using a fixed-effect regression model. Over time, the globalization index seemed to be associated with increased suicide rates in Asia and the Eastern European/Baltic region. In contrast, it was associated with decreased rates in Scandinavia. There was no significant relationship between globalization and suicide in Southern and Western Europe. The effects of globalization could be determined by specific regional (i.e., cultural and societal) factors. Identification of these mediators might provide opportunities to protect countries from the adverse impacts of globalization.

  14. The regional distribution of anxiety disorders: implications for the Global Burden of Disease Study, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amanda J; Vos, Theo; Scott, Kate M; Norman, Rosana E; Flaxman, Abraham D; Blore, Jed; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety disorders are increasingly acknowledged as a global health issue however an accurate picture of prevalence across populations is lacking. Empirical data are incomplete and inconsistent so alternate means of estimating prevalence are required to inform estimates for the new Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. We used a Bayesian meta-regression approach which included empirical epidemiological data, expert prior information, study covariates and population characteristics. Reported are global and regional point prevalence for anxiety disorders in 2010. Point prevalence of anxiety disorders differed by up to three-fold across world regions, ranging between 2.1% (1.8-2.5%) in East Asia and 6.1% (5.1-7.4%) in North Africa/Middle East. Anxiety was more common in Latin America; high income regions; and regions with a history of recent conflict. There was considerable uncertainty around estimates, particularly for regions where no data were available. Future research is required to examine whether variations in regional distributions of anxiety disorders are substantive differences or an artefact of cultural or methodological differences. This is a particular imperative where anxiety is consistently reported to be less common, and where it appears to be elevated, but uncertainty prevents the reporting of conclusive estimates. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Methodological approach to the determination of landfill location for municipal solid waste: Case study: Regional landfill in Kolubara region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimović Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodological approach in determining location for regional landfill municipal solid waste. The initial phase of this approach is based on defining the criteria and determining the elimination criteria of elimination (unacceptable to locate a landfill area using GIS tools. Then define the criteria used in multicriteria evaluating potentially suitable locations and perform their grouping in weight classes that have certain specific values - wei ghts. By multiplying the weights with the assessment of individual criteria are obtained quantitative values (rates criteria, whose simple sum received final grades of potential sites. If two or more sites rated approximately the same grade, it is possible to further evaluate the different scenarios that decision-making entities may point out advantages and disadvantages of each of these application scenarios. The research results were applied in selecting the location of a regional landfill for the eleven municipalities of Kolubara regions which received the research applicability.

  16. Learners' Attitudes toward Regional Dialects and Destination Preferences in Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the impact of short-term study abroad on the language attitudes of college-level learners of Arabic in the United States. It investigated students' destination preferences in various Arabic-speaking countries, their attitudes toward learning Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and regional dialects, and the factors that they perceived…

  17. Change Agent Strategies: A Study of the Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peggy Lynne

    This dissertation reports on a study of the planning and development activities of the Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Laboratory (MOREL). The study attempted to assess (1) whether MOREL has accepted a change agent role, and (2) whether it has taken action that indicates recognition of what is known through the literature and research about…

  18. Climate change, water, and agriculture: a study of two contrasting regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.; Zhang, X.

    2009-12-01

    We present a study of potential impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in two contrasting regions, the Aral Sea basin in Central Asia and the Northern Great Plains in the United States. The Aral Sea basin is one of the most anthropogenically modified areas of the world; it is also a zone of a water-related ecological crisis. We concentrate on studying water security of five countries in the region, which inherit their water regulation from the planned economy of USSR. Water management was targeted at maximizing agricultural output through diverting the river flow into an extensive and largely ineffective network of irrigation canals. The current water crisis is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region. In the same way as the Aral Sea basin, the Northern Great Plains is expected to be a region heavily impacted by climate change. We concentrate on

  19. Application of regional geochemical surveys to environmental studies; a case study from the Namaqualand copper district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfse, A. D.; Holdsworth, R.

    1994-04-01

    Data from the Geological Survey of South Africa's regional geochemical programme is discussed with particular reference to environmental and agricultural aspects. Stream sediments from the Okiep copper district, Namaqualand in South Africa show highly elevated copper values as the result of a history of mining activity in the area. The potential for contamination of forage and drinking water was investigated and no obvious clinical evidence of copper excesses was observed in the ecosystem.

  20. Regional Disparities in Sedentary Behaviors and Meal Frequency in Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIAN-III Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmail; Ardalan, Gelayol; Asayesh, Hamid; Larijani, Bagher; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing among Iranian youngsters like other developing countries. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess regional disparities in sedentary behaviors and meal frequency in Iranian adolescents. Patients and Methods: In this national survey, 5682 students aged 10 - 18 years from urban and rural districts of 27 provinces of Iran were selected via stratified multi-stage sampling method. The country was classified into four sub-national regions, based on criteria of the combination of geography and socioeconomic status (SES). Mean of meal frequency and physical activity levels as well as prevalence of omitting meals and sedentary behavior were compared across regions with different SES after stratifying with sex and age group. Results: Meal frequency in lower socio-economic regions was significantly higher than two other regions in 10 - 13 and 10 - 18 years old groups (P trend 0.05). Frequency of adolescents omitting their meals was higher in higher SES regions especially in West Iran (P < 0.001) in 10 - 13 years old age group. Having personal computer and working with it more than two hours per day mainly was observed in central Iran which ranked as the highest SES group. Conclusions: Efforts to ensure Iranian youth meet healthy food habits and screen time guidelines include limiting access to screen technologies and encouraging parents to monitor their own screen time is required. PMID:26195993

  1. An investigation of cancer rates in the Argentia region, Newfoundland and Labrador: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Pauline; Godwin, Marshall; Peach, Mandy; Fortier, Jacqueline; Bornstein, Stephen; Buehler, Sharon; McCrate, Farah; Pike, Andrea; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Cullen, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    The Argentia region of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, was home to a US naval base during a 40-year period between the 1940s and the 1990s. Activities on the base resulted in contamination of the soil and groundwater in the region with chemicals such as heavy metals and dioxins, and residents have expressed concern about higher rates of cancer in their community. This study investigated the rate of cancer diagnosis that is disproportionately high in the Argentia region. Cases of cancer diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were obtained for the Argentia region, two comparison communities, and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Crude and age-standardized incidence rates of cancer diagnosis were calculated and compared. The crude incidence rate was adjusted for differences in age demographics using census data, and age-standardized incidence rates were compared. Although the Argentia region had a higher crude rate of cancer diagnosis, the age-standardized incidence rate did not differ significantly from the comparison communities or the provincial average. Argentia has an aging population, which may have influenced the perception of increased cancer diagnosis in the community. We did not detect an increased burden of cancer in the Argentia region.

  2. An Investigation of Cancer Rates in the Argentia Region, Newfoundland and Labrador: An Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Duke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Argentia region of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, was home to a US naval base during a 40-year period between the 1940s and the 1990s. Activities on the base resulted in contamination of the soil and groundwater in the region with chemicals such as heavy metals and dioxins, and residents have expressed concern about higher rates of cancer in their community. This study investigated the rate of cancer diagnosis that is disproportionately high in the Argentia region. Methods. Cases of cancer diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were obtained for the Argentia region, two comparison communities, and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Crude and age-standardized incidence rates of cancer diagnosis were calculated and compared. The crude incidence rate was adjusted for differences in age demographics using census data, and age-standardized incidence rates were compared. Results. Although the Argentia region had a higher crude rate of cancer diagnosis, the age-standardized incidence rate did not differ significantly from the comparison communities or the provincial average. Argentia has an aging population, which may have influenced the perception of increased cancer diagnosis in the community. Conclusions. We did not detect an increased burden of cancer in the Argentia region.

  3. Spatial inequalities in life expectancy within postindustrial regions of Europe: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulbut, Martin; Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; Parcell, Sophie; Hartmann, Anja; Poirier, Gilles; Strniskova, Dana; Hanlon, Phil

    2014-06-02

    To compare spatial inequalities in life expectancy (LE) in West Central Scotland (WCS) with nine other postindustrial European regions. A cross-sectional observational study. WCS and nine other postindustrial regions across Europe. Data for WCS and nine other comparably deindustrialised European regions were analysed. Male and female LEs at birth were obtained or calculated for the mid-2000s for 160 districts within selected regions. Districts were stratified into two groups: small (populations of between 141 000 and 185 000 people) and large (populations between 224 000 and 352 000). The range and IQR in LE were used to describe within-region disparities. In small districts, the male LE range was widest in WCS and Merseyside, while the IQR was widest in WCS and Northern Ireland. For women, the LE range was widest in WCS, though the IQR was widest in Northern Ireland and Merseyside. In large districts, the range and IQR in LE was widest in WCS and Wallonia for both sexes. Subregional spatial inequalities in LE in WCS are wide compared with other postindustrial mainland European regions, especially for men. Future research could explore the contribution of economic, social and political factors in reducing these inequalities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  5. The role of international development strategies in making regional development policies: Hokkaido as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Saunavaara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, national governments and international institutions have both searched for ways to equalise disparities and revitalise lagging regions. Although ideas and examples of the most effective ways to achieve these goals originate in various places, their influence is inclined to permeate elsewhere. Therefore, the processes involved in policy transfers are highly relevant from the perspective of regional development. This study approaches these processes through the case study of post-war Hokkaido and pays special attention to the role of three international development strategies: the Tennessee Valley Authority model, the Growth Pole Theory and the Industrial Cluster Theory. As a result, this research shows the wide variety of agents involved in policy transfer, analyses the processes of incorporating exogenous ideas into regional development polices and demonstrates the variety of sources from which different agents can draw lessons.

  6. Study of the global and regional climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude using SPEEDY AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar

    2017-03-09

    ENSO is considered as a strong atmospheric teleconnection that has pronounced global and regional circulation effects. It modifies global monsoon system, especially, Asian and African monsoons. Previous studies suggest that both the frequency and magnitude of ENSO events have increased over the last few decades resulting in a need to study climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude both at global and regional scales. Hence, to better understand the impact of ENSO amplitude over the tropical and extratropical regions focussing on the Asian and African domains, ENSO sensitivity experiments are conducted using ICTPAGCM (‘SPEEDY’). It is anticipated that the tropical Pacific SST forcing will be enough to produce ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns; therefore, the model is forced using NINO3.4 regressed SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific only. SPEEDY reproduces the impact of ENSO over the Pacific, North and South America and African regions very well. However, it underestimates ENSO teleconnection patterns and associated changes over South Asia, particularly in the Indian region, which suggests that the tropical Pacific SST forcing is not sufficient to represent ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns over South Asia. Therefore, SST forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean together with air–sea coupling is also required for better representation of ENSO-induced changes in these regions. Moreover, results obtained by this pacemaker experiment show that ENSO impacts are relatively stronger over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) compared to extratropics and high latitude regions. The positive phase of ENSO causes weakening in rainfall activity over African tropical rain belt, parts of South and Southeast Asia, whereas, the La Niña phase produces more rain over these regions during the summer season. Model results further reveal that ENSO magnitude has a stronger impact over African Sahel and South Asia, especially over the Indian region because of its significant

  7. Study of myocardial regional wall motion parameter's accuracy by software perfusion phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, V; Fettich, J; Prepadnik, M

    1992-06-01

    Gated perfusion myocardial scintigraphy permits simultaneous evaluation of perfusion as well as regional contractile function of the left ventricle. Fourier analysis of regional myocardial spatial movement with respect to the myocardial geometric centre gives circular amplitude and phase profiles of ventricular contraction, in addition to regional maximum activity that represents an index of perfusion. To introduce such combined perfusion-contraction analysis the accuracy of the indices mentioned above should be evaluated for different doses of radioactivity typically administered to a patient. A mathematical software phantom, consisting of a half circularly profiled ring activity embedded in uniform background activity and noise generated by a Poisson-shaped random number generator, was constructed and used for this purpose. A 64 x 64 matrix and sequence of 16 frames per study was used. The maximum number of counts per pixel ranged from 10 to 100, simulating low count thallium and high count rate Tc-MIBI-gated studies. The relative standard error analysis (R.S.E.) with a 95.5% confidence level for a thallium type of 10 counts per pixel study exceeded 11%, while it reached acceptable values below 3% for studies with 60 and more counts per pixel. These results indicate that high count rate gated technetium-MIBI myocardial perfusion studies could also be used for reliable left ventricular regional wall motion evaluation.

  8. The impact of regional and neighbourhood deprivation on physical health in Germany: a multilevel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razum Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that individual health is at least partly determined by neighbourhood and regional factors. Mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood, and evidence from Germany is scant. This study explores whether regional as well as neighbourhood deprivation are associated with physical health and to what extent this association can be explained by specific neighbourhood exposures. Methods Using 2004 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP merged with regional and neighbourhood characteristics, we fitted multilevel linear regression models with subjective physical health, as measured by the SF-12, as the dependent variable. The models include regional and neighbourhood proxies of deprivation (i.e. regional unemployment quota, average purchasing power of the street section as well as specific neighbourhood exposures (i.e. perceived air pollution. Individual characteristics including socioeconomic status and health behaviour have been controlled for. Results This study finds a significant association between area deprivation and physical health which is independent of compositional factors and consistent across different spatial scales. Furthermore the association between neighbourhood deprivation and physical health can be partly explained by specific features of the neighbourhood environment. Among these perceived air pollution shows the strongest association with physical health (-2.4 points for very strong and -1.5 points for strong disturbance by air pollution, standard error (SE = 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. Beta coefficients for perceived air pollution, perceived noise and the perceived distance to recreational resources do not diminish when including individual health behaviour in the models. Conclusions This study highlights the difference regional and in particular neighbourhood deprivation make to the physical health of individuals in Germany. The results support the argument that

  9. Possibilities of tourist use of natural and cultural resources in the Lublin Region - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Andrzej; Krukowska, Renata; Tucki, Andrzej; Skowronek, Ewa; Brzezińska-Wójcik, Teresa; Kociuba, Waldemar; Jóźwik, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of previous studies, the possibilities for tourist use of natural and cultural resources of the Lublin Region and presents case studies in this area. The case studies focused on assessing the tourism potential of spatial units of an administrative nature: the Lublin voivodeship, Lublin city and the municipality of Krasnobród, as well as physical-geographical units - the Giełczew Elevation.

  10. Capillary blood gas analysis in complex regional pain syndrome: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Keijzer, M.H. de; Goris, R.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1) is still a matter of debate. An inflammatory reaction may cause the syndrome. Increasing evidence points to a role for impairment of oxygen metabolism in the affected limb. METHODS: In this pilot study (16 patients) we

  11. Study of Y Chromosome Microdeletion in AZF Region in Infertile Males of Isfahan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motovali-Bashi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: One of the main genetic factors of infertility is the deletions in the chromosome Y. Accordingly this study was conducted to determine the frequency of microdeletion of AZF region in infertile men of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, 100 infertile men referred to the Infertility Center of Isfahan and 100 fertile men as controls were randomly selected. Genomic DNA was extracted from their blood and amplified by sequence tagged sites-polymerase chain reaction (STS-PCR method. The presence of microdeletion in AZF locus was diagnosed. Results: No AZFa, AZFb or AZFc deletions were found in the control group. Microdeletions were observed in one patient in AZFb region, eight patients in AZFc region and two patients in AZFa region. Conclusion: The incidence of Yq microdeletions in Iranian population is similar to the international frequency. Our data agree with other studies regarding microdeletions of AZFc, but for microdeletions of AZFa (2% our results show smaller frequency and differ significantly with many studies. Key words: Infertility, Y chromosome, Microdeletion

  12. Learning and Motivation in Thailand: A Comparative Regional Study on Basic Education Ninth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loima, Jyrki; Vibulphol, Jutarat

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research studied regional motivation and learning of the basic education 9th graders in Thailand. Second topic was the school size and its possible effect on motivation. Furthermore, the data gave an opportunity to discuss, whether international research on motivation and learning was valid in Thai classrooms. The informants were…

  13. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Drenthe; Case study in a leading rural region in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Drenthe since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Drenthe increased by 24,500 jobs or with over 20% in the

  14. An automated microlysimeter to study dew formation and evaporation in arid and semiarid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Hillen, W.C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a simple and low-cost portable weighing microlysimeter that makes use of a load cell for automated recording and for studying daily dew formation, rate of accumulation, and subsequent evaporation in arid or semiarid regions during rainless seasons is presented. The sampling cup is

  15. Final Results of the Tisza, Guadiana and Inner Mongolia Regional Case-studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; Bindi, M.; Cots, F.; Dai, X.; Flachner, Z.; Harnos, Z.; Matczak, P.; McEvoy, D.; Moriondo, M.; Lugeri, N.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Neufeldt, H.; Tàbara, J.D.; Trombi, G.; West, J.

    2008-01-01

    This deliverable reports on the work done in ADAM work package P3d. It examines the constraints and opportunities for mainstreaming adaptation to climate change in land use and water management in three study regions: the Guadiana River Basin in Spain and Portugal, the Tisza River Basin in Hungary

  16. A study of some climate change scenarios in northeastern region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues da Silva, V. P.; Santos, D. N.; Silva, R. A.; Almeida, R. S. R.

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the current climate conditions in northeastern region of Brazil and to obtain same climatic scenarios for the 2050 and 2100 years. It was used time series of mean air temperature and rainfall to the 1961 and 2007 period of 89 stations in study region. Also, the annual time series of data observed at surface of global solar radiation and class A pan evaporation for two stations located in the semi-arid area of studied region were analyzed. The non-parametric test of Mann-Kendall was used to assess the statistical significance level of the analyzed time series. Also, the software SEVAP was performed to determine potential evapotranspiration, humidity index, aridity index and hydric index. Results showed an increasing trend in the time series of air temperature which were statistically significant by Mann-Kendall test for the current period and for the 2050 and 2100 scenarios. Mean air temperature has highest rate for current period and for the 2050 scenario and a reduction between from 2050 to 2100 scenarios. The aridity and hydric indexes indicated an increased trend, but the humidity index showed a reduction for two analyzed scenarios in northeastern region of Brazil, principally on the semi-arid area. Results also indicate that observed data in global solar radiation and class A pan evaporation at Petrolina, PE, and Juazeiro, BA, presented an accentuate decrease though study period statistically significant at 1 and 5% significance levels by Mann-Kendall test.

  17. Modelling absorbing aerosol with ECHAM-HAM: Insights from regional studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegen, Ina; Heinold, Bernd; Schepanski, Kerstin; Banks, Jamie; Kubin, Anne; Schacht, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying distributions and properties of absorbing aerosol is a basis for investigations of interactions of aerosol particles with radiation and climate. While evaluations of aerosol models by field measurements can be particularly successful at the regional scale, such results need to be put into a global context for climate studies. We present an overview over studies performed at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research aiming at constraining the properties of mineral dust and soot aerosol in the global aerosol model ECHAM6-HAM2 based on different regional studies. An example is the impact of different sources for dust transported to central Asia, which is influenced, by far-range transport of dust from Arabia and the Sahara together with dust from local sources. Dust types from these different source regions were investigated in the context of the CADEX project and are expected to have different optical properties. For Saharan dust, satellite retrievals from MSG SEVIRI are used to constrain Saharan dust sources and optical properties. In the Arctic region, on one hand dust aerosol is simulated in the framework of the PalMod project. On the other hand aerosol measurements that will be taken during the DFG-funded (AC)3 field campaigns will be used to evaluate the simulated transport pathways of soot aerosol from European, North American and Asian sources, as well as the parameterization of soot ageing processes in ECHAM6-HAM2. Ultimately, results from these studies will improve the representation of aerosol absorption in the global model.

  18. Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ) Stand Dynamics: A Regional Longleaf Growth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Describe and model temporal changes in longleaf pine stand structure. From 1964-1967, the U.S. Forest Service established a regional longleaf pine growth study (RLGS) in the Gulf States. The original objective was to obtain a database for the development of growth and mortality predictions of naturally regenerated, even- aged longleaf pine stands. The...

  19. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 : a study on pain and motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Ribbers (Gerard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis, is compiled of publications on reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), as it was renamed by the committee on taxonomy of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). It is a puzzling syndrome both from a clinical

  20. Advances in the anatomic study of the interscapular region of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Maurizio; Modina, Silvia Clotilde; Bellotti, Andrea; Di Giancamillo, Mauro

    2015-10-05

    New clinical oriented approaches are supported by the integration of advanced imaging techniques, e.g. computed tomography and magnetic resonance, with gross anatomy imaging. The interscapular region of the cat is a typical site of a highly invasive infiltrative pathology, i.e. Feline Injection-Site Sarcoma. Even if chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been considered as pre-surgical therapies, extensive surgery is still the recommended treatment. Evidence suggested that the relationships between muscles, infiltrative mass and adjacent musculoskeletal structures could change according to the forelimb positions: a fact to be duly considered while planning the surgical approach. Anatomic and tomographic atlases provide only images of the interscapular region from cats positioned with their forelimbs extended cranially, which means that, they do not record musculoskeletal modifications due to the forelimb movements. Aim of this study was to provide detailed images of the changes occurring in the musculoskeletal structures of the interscapular region of cats according to their forelimb position by comparing cross-sectional gross anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We provide an atlas of normal cross-sectional anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the interscapular region of the cat, from the fifth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra. We compare and couple the slices obtained both in flexed and extended forelimb positioning with the animal maintained in sternal recumbency. This study shows a new and dynamic way to investigate the interscapular region of the cat and provides anatomical references for in vivo computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, considering changes in the muscular form according to the forelimb positioning. We believe that an in-depth anatomical knowledge of the interscapular region may be helpful to approach the study of any pathology located there and, in particular, to set up

  1. HISTORIOGRAPHY GENERAL, REGIONAL AND SPECIAL STUDIES OF JUDICIAL REFORM IN RUSSIA 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Evgenievich Strakhov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, a crucial role is played by the judiciary. In the period lasting judicial reform, it is important to explore this institution not only at the present stage, but also to trace the history of its development, including - through analysis and synthesis of existing studies of the judiciary and judicial reforms.The purpose of this study - to explore the historiography of general, special and regional studies of judicial reform of1864 inRussia, to classify research on history and on the subject of the study.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the study of this topic will summarize the significant weight of the studies of the judicial reform of 1864 and classified by facilitating orientation interested in individuals in the study subjects.The author uses historical, comparative, hermeneutical, mathematical methods, as well as general methods of scientific research.The author analyzes the historiography of general, special and regional studies of the judicial reform of1864 inRussia, introducing a classification of such studies in chronological order (pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern stages and subject matter (common - affecting all aspects of judicial reform, special - dedicated to a particular aspect (legal agencies, prosecutors, legal, etc. and regional - dedicated to judicial reform, or some aspects of it in some regions of Russia.The results of this study are scientific and practical value, because they can be useful for teaching students - in industry disciplines "judiciary", "advocacy", "notary public", "public prosecutor's supervision" and general theoretical "History of State and Law," "History of the fatherland" ; in science - by picking up information about the historiography of the judicial reform, and in practice - said work can serve as a guide to research judicial reform, which may be useful to practitioners of judicial and investigative bodies, as well as - prosecutors

  2. Modeling for regional ecosystem sustainable development under uncertainty--A case study of Dongying, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; You, L; Jin, S W

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a superiority-inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed for planning regional ecosystem sustainable development. STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions; it can be used to analyze various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic penalties when the promised targets are violated. STSP is applied to a real case of planning regional ecosystem sustainable development in the City of Dongying, where ecosystem services valuation approaches are incorporated within the optimization process. Regional ecosystem can provide direct and indirect services and intangible benefits to local economy. Land trading mechanism is introduced for planning the regional ecosystem's sustainable development, where wetlands are buyers who would protect regional ecosystem components and self-organization and maintain its integrity. Results of regional ecosystem activities, land use patterns, and land trading schemes have been obtained. Results reveal that, although large-scale reclamation projects can bring benefits to the local economy development, they can also bring with negative effects to the coastal ecosystem; among all industry activities oil field is the major contributor with a large number of pollutant discharges into local ecosystem. Results also show that uncertainty has an important role in successfully launching such a land trading program and trading scheme can provide more effective manner to sustain the regional ecosystem. The findings can help decision makers to realize the sustainable development of ecological resources in the process of rapid industrialization, as well as the integration of economic and ecological benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. METHODS: Eight...... monitored and bispectral index responses were registered. Statistical parametric maps and conventional regions of interest analysis were used to determine rGMR differences. RESULTS: All subjects were unconsciousness at 1.0 MAC sevoflurane. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were constant over time...

  4. STUDY ON THE EVOLUTION OF SEASONALITY IN AGRI-TOURISM, BY REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Daniela Matei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourist activity, in general, is influenced by seasonality phenomenon, which means that the company's marketing policy must adapt supply to the specific needs of consumers, no matter the time of year. However, the services demand have identified opportunities in tourism, while implicit threats. It is therefore necessary to analyze the material, financial, technical and managerial aspects of agro pension. These resources illustrates the possibility of upgrading the capacity of existing accommodation. In the study we used as indicators the number of arrivals and the number of overnight stays in agro hostels in Romania, by region, for 2010 and 2014,by months, thus obtaining data on the influence of seasonality. We concluded that agri-tourism records the highest number of tourists in summer (July-September, but in some regions it begins to develop in winter also. The only region with almost permanent activity is Bucharest-Ilfov, which has the lowest number of rural locations.

  5. Reference values of urinary ethylenethiourea in four regions of Italy (multicentric study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, C; Betta, A; Catenacci, G; Lotti, A; Minoia, C; Passini, W; Pavan, I; Saverio Robustelli della Cuna, F; Roggi, C; Ruggeri, R; Soave, C; Sciarra, G; Vannini, P; Vitalone, V

    1996-11-29

    The results of a study in which urinary ethylenethiourea (ETU) was assayed in the general population (167 subjects) of four Regions of Italy (Veneto, Lombardy, Piedmont and Trentino Alto Adige) are reported. The results are compared with those in a population of 97 subjects from Rovescala, a hillside wine-producing town a few kilometers from Pavia, where ethylenebisdithiocarbamates are sprayed by helicopter. It was found that an average of 24% of the populations of the four regions, taken together, had urinary ETU levels above detection limits (1.0 microgram 1(-1)) as compared to 37% of the population of Rovescala. The ranges of concentration were 0.8-8.3 micrograms 1(-1) for the four regions and 0.9-61.4 micrograms 1(-1) for Rovescala. Statistically significant variables for urinary ETU levels were smoking and wine drinking.

  6. Spectroscopy studies of strain-compensated mid-infrared QCL active regions on misoriented substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayer, Justin S.; Meyer, Charles; Cheng, Emily; Triplett, Gregory; Roberts, Denzil; Schunemann, Peter G.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we perform spectroscopic studies of AlGaAs/InGaAs quantum cascade laser structures that demonstrate frequency mixing using strain-compensated active regions. Using a three-quantum well design based on diagonal transitions, we incorporate strain in the active region using single and double well configurations on various surface planes (100) and (111). We observe the influence of piezoelectric properties in molecular beam epitaxy grown structures, where the addition of indium in the GaAs matrix increases the band bending in between injector regions and demonstrates a strong dependence on process conditions that include sample preparation, deposition rates, mole fraction, and enhanced surface diffusion lengths. We produced mid-infrared structures under identical deposition conditions that differentiate the role of indium(strain) in intracavity frequency mixing and show evidence that this design can potentially be implemented using other material systems.

  7. Imbalanced geodemographical structures in Târnave regional system. Case study: population ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-V. CONȚIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The demographic prospects of a regional system, the natural dynamics of the population, the potential of manpower resources, planning and forecast of its use, show a high degree of dependence on the demographical structure by age, the identified imbalances involving an increase in the vulnerability of the regional system and therefore an enhancement of geodemographical risks (acceleration of population ageing, decreasing population trend, disappearance of some rural settlements, socio-economic failures etc.. In this study, a special attention is paid to the analysis of ageing index and demographical dependency ratio, and the share of young and old people to the Târnave regional system, taking into account as milestones, the population censuses from 1910, 1992 2002 and 2011.

  8. The Economy of a Regional Metropolis. Case-Study: Iasi, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia POPESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Iaşi with a population of over 300,000 people is the biggest European Union city at the border with the former-Soviet space. The article, part of an extended study on territorial development of Iaşi and its peri-urban area, focuses on the role of the city to trigger regional growth and to enhance cross border cooperation. Recent processes at work generating economic cohesion and integration are explored drawing on the catalytic factors of development and the specialization of local economies. The paper discusses also the externalities of urban growth such as the urban sprawl that causes land use conflicts at the rural-urban fringe. It argues that human capital and higher birth rates than the national average are the strengths, and low connectivity and accessibility are the weaknesses for regional growth. The regional polarization of the city is based on the supply of high level services over the entire North-East Region and opportunities to cross border cooperation through the expansion of an agro-alimentary supply-chain are highlighted. Building on the main capabilities and assets of the agglomeration economies of Iaşi, the paper finally identifies some of the mechanisms and structures that foster urban and regional growth.

  9. Study on the influences of ionization region material arrangement on Hall thruster channel discharge characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, HU; Ping, DUAN; Jilei, SONG; Wenqing, LI; Long, CHEN; Xingyu, BIAN

    2018-02-01

    There exists strong interaction between the plasma and channel wall in the Hall thruster, which greatly affects the discharge performance of the thruster. In this paper, a two-dimensional physical model is established based on the actual size of an Aton P70 Hall thruster discharge channel. The particle-in-cell simulation method is applied to study the influences of segmented low emissive graphite electrode biased with anode voltage on the discharge characteristics of the Hall thruster channel. The influences of segmented electrode placed at the ionization region on electric potential, ion number density, electron temperature, ionization rate, discharge current and specific impulse are discussed. The results show that, when segmented electrode is placed at the ionization region, the axial length of the acceleration region is shortened, the equipotential lines tend to be vertical with wall at the acceleration region, thus radial velocity of ions is reduced along with the wall corrosion. The axial position of the maximal electron temperature moves towards the exit with the expansion of ionization region. Furthermore, the electron-wall collision frequency and ionization rate also increase, the discharge current decreases and the specific impulse of the Hall thruster is slightly enhanced.

  10. Copayments and physicians visits: A panel data study of Swedish regions 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Svensson, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyzes how primary care physician visits are affected by the level of copayment in Sweden. We use data between the years 2003-2012 from 21 Swedish health care regions that have the mandate to set their own level of copayment. The copayment per visit varies between €10 and €20 for these years and regions. Our strategy to identify the causal effect and deal with unobserved endogeneity of price changes on physician visits is based on a panel data model using fixed effects to control for region and time and regional-variation in time trends. We cannot reject that the copayment has no statistical or economic effect of significance, and we estimate the "zero effect" with very high precision. In a setting with sub-national regions with autonomy to set co-payments the results points to that the copayment is not an important predictor for the number of health care visits. The result is in line with some previous studies on European data where the range of copayments used tends to be relatively low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling and analysis of PET studies with norepinephrine transporter ligands: the search for a reference region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jean [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: logan@bnl.gov; Ding, Y.-S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lin, K.-S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Pareto, Deborah [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Functional Imaging, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fowler, Joanna [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Biegon, Anat [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The development of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been slow compared to the development of radiotracers for others systems, such as the dopamine (DAT) or the serotonin transporters (SERT). The main reason for this appears to be the high nonspecific (non-NET) binding exhibited by many of these tracers, which makes the identification of a reference region difficult. With other PET ligands the use of a reference region increases the reproducibility of the outcome measure in test/retest studies. The focus of this work is to identify a suitable reference region or means of normalizing data for the NET ligands investigated. Methods: We have analyzed the results of PET studies in the baboon brain with labeled reboxetine derivatives (S,S)-[{sup 11}C]O-methyl reboxetine (SS-MRB), (S,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluororeboxetine (SS-FRB) as well as O-[{sup 11}C]nisoxetine and N-[{sup 11}C]nisoxetine (NIS), and, for comparison, the less active (R,R) enantiomers (RR-MRB, RR-FRB) in terms of the distribution volume (DV) using measured arterial input functions. Results: (1) For a given subject, a large variation in DV for successive baseline studies was observed in regions with both high and low NET density. (2) The occipital cortex and the basal ganglia were found to be the regions with the smallest change between baseline (SS-MRB) and pretreatment with cocaine, and were therefore used as a composite reference region for calculation of a distribution volume ratio (DVR). (3) The variability [as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV)=standard deviation/mean] in the distribution volume ratio (DVR) of thalamus (to reference region) was considerably reduced over that of the DV using this composite reference region. (4) Pretreatment with nisoxetine (1.0 mg/kg 10 min prior to tracer) in one study produced (in decreasing order) reductions in thalamus, cerebellum, cingulate and frontal cortex consistent with known NET densities. (5) [{sup

  12. A biosystematic study on lizards fauna of the south east regions of Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Gharzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, lizard fauna of Harsin on the south east of Kermanshah province was investigated. During a two-yeard field work, totally eight different species of lizards including, Laudakia nupta nupta (Agamidae, Trapelus lessonae Cyrtopodion scabrum and Carinatogecko heteropholis (Gekkonidae, Ophisops elegans, Lacerta media and Acanthodactylus boskianous (Lacertidae and Eumeces schneiderii princeps (Scincidae were collected, examined, identified and their biosystematic characters were studied. Based on observations in the field and statistical data of the collected specimens, it was found that the lizards of Lacertidae family with 66% was the most and Scincidae with only 2% was the least abundant species in the studied region. In addition, this study revealed that there was a similarity in terms of snout- vent length (SVL between individuals of this area (Laudakia nupta nupta, Trapelus lessonae, Ophisops elegans and individuals of the regions previously studied.

  13. Air issues scoping study for the Alberta South Saskatchewan land-use planning region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This report deals with an air quality study undertaken in the South Saskatchewan Region (SSR). Some of the work is applicable to the local region only but other parts are applicable at the provincial level. The shift to management at the regional level requires a resolution/understanding of the responsibility and authority of the management entity. In this study is stated that the air quality in the province had deteriorated according to Alberta Environment. In order to have an effective and efficient management of air quality in the SSR, the functionalities of both government and non-government organizations should be integrated and harmonized jointly. Once the objectives of air quality management in the SSR have been set, the relevancy of the broad information gaps reported in this study can be reviewed and can either be adopted as is or modified according to updated stakeholder input. Although this assessment only deals with air quality, the overall management of a Land-use Framework region should also take other environmental factors into consideration to ensure a set of harmonized and integrated methods can be applied.

  14. Radio and infrared study of the star-forming region IRAS 20286+4105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Varsha; Das, S. R.; Tej, A.; Vig, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a multiwavelength investigation of the star-forming complex IRAS 20286+4105, located in the Cygnus X region. Near-infrared K-band data are used to revisit the cluster/stellar group identified in previous studies. Radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz show the presence of a H II region possibly powered by a star of spectral type B0-B0.5. The cometary morphology of the ionized region is explained by invoking the bow-shock model, where the likely association with a nearby supernova remnant is also explored. A compact radio knot with a non-thermal spectral index is detected towards the centre of the cloud. Mid-infrared data from the Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Cygnus X region show the presence of six Class I young stellar objects inside the cloud. Thermal dust emission in this complex is modelled using Herschel far-infrared data to generate dust temperature and column density maps. Herschel images also show the presence of two clumps in this region, the masses of which are estimated to be ∼175 and 30 M⊙. The mass-radius relation and the surface density of the clumps mean that they do not qualify as massive star-forming sites. An overall picture of a runaway star ionizing the cloud and a triggered population of intermediate-mass, Class I sources located towards the cloud centre emerges from this multiwavelength study. Variation in the dust emissivity spectral index is shown to exist in this region and is seen to have an inverse relation with the dust temperature.

  15. Cultural similarities and differences in medical professionalism: a multi-region study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandratilake, Madawa; McAleer, Sean; Gibson, John

    2012-03-01

    Over the last two decades, many medical educators have sought to define professionalism. Initial attempts to do so were focused on defining professionalism in a manner that allowed for universal agreement. This quest was later transformed into an effort to 'understand professionalism' as many researchers realised that professionalism is a social construct and is culture-sensitive. The determination of cultural differences in the understanding of professionalism, however, has been subject to very little research, possibly because of the practical difficulties of doing so. In this multi-region study, we illustrate the universal and culture-specific aspects of medical professionalism as it is perceived by medical practitioners. Forty-six professional attributes were identified by reviewing the literature. A total of 584 medical practitioners, representing the UK, Europe, North America and Asia, participated in a survey in which they indicated the importance of each of these attributes. We determined the 'essentialness' of each attribute in different geographic regions using the content validity index, supplemented with kappa statistics. With acceptable levels of consensus, all regional groups identified 29 attributes as 'essential', thereby indicating the universality of these professional attributes, and six attributes as non-essential. The essentialness of the rest varied by regional group. This study has helped to identify regional similarities and dissimilarities in understandings of professionalism, most of which can be explained by cultural differences in line with the theories of cultural dimensions and cultural value. However, certain dissonances among regions may well be attributable to socio-economic factors. Some of the responses appear to be counter-cultural and demonstrate practitioners' keenness to overcome cultural barriers in order to provide better patient care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  16. Register studies of cancer in the Southern Health Care Region in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Attner, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim was to study different aspect of health care use and health care costs on a population based level for persons with cancer and their partners, and from an individual level to explore the impact of comorbidities in incidence and survival. In the beginning of the study all persons in the Southern Health Care Region in Sweden diagnosed with colon, rectal, breast, prostate and lung cancer during the period 2000 to 2005 were identified via the Swedish Cancer Register. Lately, inclu...

  17. Ovarian Cyst in Crossbred Cattle of Temperate Region- A Retrospective Study of 54 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hiranya Kumar Bhattacharyya; Mujeeb -u- Rehman Fazili; Fayaz Ahmad Bhat

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted with an objective to extract all possible interrelated etiological factors of cystic ovary and to evaluate the best treatment protocol in dairy cattle under field condition of temperate region. A total of 54 cattle (47 cows and 7 heifers), suffering from ovarian cyst were retrospectively used to study prevalence and outcome of the disease over a period of 5 years. Highest prevalence was recorded in crossbred Jersey, in 2nd lactation and during summer. Major cli...

  18. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklay, Abraha; Abera, Balcha; Giday, Mirutse

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between...

  19. Consanguineous Marriages and Reproductive Behaviour: A Study from Vidarbha Region of Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatramana K Sonkar, Uday W Narlawar, Ismail Ali F Inamdar, Mohan K Doibale

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: India has been subdivided in to two major regions with respect to a preference for or avoidance of consanguineous marriage. The deleterious health effects associated with consanguinity are caused by the expression of rare, recessive genes inherited from common ancestors. Objectives: To find out the prevalence and types of consanguinity and reproductive behaviour in rural area of Nagpur district. Methodology: study design: cross sectional study. Setting: Raipura village, a...

  20. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  1. How Does a Regional Climate Model Modify the Projected Climate Change Signal of the Driving GCM: A Study over Different CORDEX Regions Using REMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Teichmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global and regional climate model simulations are frequently used for regional climate change assessments and in climate impact modeling studies. To reflect the inherent and methodological uncertainties in climate modeling, the assessment of regional climate change requires ensemble simulations from different global and regional climate model combinations. To interpret the spread of simulated results, it is useful to understand how the climate change signal is modified in the GCM-RCM modelmodelgeneral circulation model-regional climate model (GCM-RCM chain. This kind of information can also be useful for impact modelers; for the process of experiment design and when interpreting model results. In this study, we investigate how the simulated historical and future climate of the Max-Planck-Institute earth system model (MPI-ESM is modified by dynamic downscaling with the regional model REMO in different world regions. The historical climate simulations for 1950–2005 are driven by observed anthropogenic forcing. The climate projections are driven by projected anthropogenic forcing according to different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs. The global simulations are downscaled with REMO over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX domains Africa, Europe, South America and West Asia from 2006–2100. This unique set of simulations allows for climate type specific analysis across multiple world regions and for multi-scenarios. We used a classification of climate types by Köppen-Trewartha to define evaluation regions with certain climate conditions. A systematic comparison of near-surface temperature and precipitation simulated by the regional and the global model is done. In general, the historical time period is well represented by the GCM and the RCM. Some different biases occur in the RCM compared to the GCM as in the Amazon Basin, northern Africa and the West Asian domain. Both models project similar warming

  2. RESTORATION AND SUSTAINABLE VALORIZATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AND REGIONAL POLICY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA. CASE STUDY OF REVITALIZATION OF THE ORADEA FORTRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dodescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents cultural heritage, cultural tourism potential of North-West Region of Romania face to face with restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage as a major domain of intervention of regional policy in Romania. Due to Romanian regionalization form, the Regional Operational Programme (ROP is currently the only programme of regional policy in Romania in 2007-2013. One of the major domains of intervention of ROP 2007-2013 in Romania was restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage. The first paper specific objective is to explore projects contracted until 31.12.2013 in the field of restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage in North-West Region of Romania and their regional development relevance in the context of existing regional development strategies. The second paper specific objective is to present a model of restoration of cultural heritage in a sustainable way throughout the case study of Revitalization of the Oradea Fortress in order to introduce it in the tourism circuit - that could become an example for other cultural sites around the region and a succes story in the field of cultural tourism based of ROP 2007-2013 experience. Exploring rich cultural heritage of the North-West Region face to face with poor condition of cultural heritage sites and investments required in order to introduce them in touristic circuit, the paper concludes that all contracted projects are relevant for sustainable valorization of regional cultural heritage and cultural tourism potential in the context of existing regional development strategies, but they contributed only partially to regional specific needs. Also, the paper concludes that number of ROP 2007-2013 projects implemented in the field of cultural heritage is surprisingly small, area of interest of these projects is rather narrow and analyzes the most important causes for these gaps. Based on the case study presented, the paper

  3. [Genome-wide association study of bronchial asthma in the Volga-Ural region of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunas, A S; Iunusbaev, B B; Fedorova, Iu Iu; Gimalova, G F; Ramazanova, N N; Gur'eva, L L; Mukhtarova, L A; Zagidullin, Sh Z; Etkina, E I; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2011-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease that is caused by the complex interaction of environmental influences and genetic susceptibility. The first genome-wide association study of bronchial asthma discovered a significant association between SNPs within 17q12-21 genomic region and childhood bronchial asthma in individuals of European descent. Association with this genomic region was then replicated in a number of independent samples of European and Asian descent. Here we report results of the first genome-wide association study of bronchial asthma in the Volga-Ural region of Russia. The present study includes 358 unrelated patients with physician-diagnosed bronchial asthma and 369 disease-free control subjects of different ethnic origin (Russians, Tatars and Bashkirs). Genotyping of DNA samples was carried out using the Illumina Human610 quad array as a part of GABRIEL project (contract from the EC No LSHB-CT-2006-018996). After QC filtering procedures, a final set of 550915 SNPs genotyped in 330 cases and 348 controls was tested for association with bronchial asthma. Five markers on chromosome 17q12-21 showed statistically significant association with bronchial asthma (p < or = 4.79 x 10(-7)). SNP rs7216389 with the strongest evidence for association (p = 1.01 x 10(-7)) is located within the first intron of the GSDMB gene. Evidence for association was stronger with childhood-onset asthma (p = 1.97 x 10(-6) for SNP rs7216389) compared to late-onset asthma (p = 1.8 x 10(-4) for SNP rs7216389). Our replication study using three SNPs within GSDMB gene confirmed association with only childhood-onset asthma. In summary, these results suggest an important role for genetic variants within 17q12-q21 region in the development of bronchial asthma in the Volga-Ural region of Russia.

  4. The role of media and public opinion efforts in the transit field : the Detroit region case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This study, one of seven comprising the report Factors that Inhibit and Enable Effective Regional Transit in Southeastern : Michigan, explores the role of media and public opinion efforts in developing support for regional transit initiatives. The go...

  5. Modeling study on the factors affecting regional air quality during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Cheng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; Pierce, R.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Ramanathan, V.

    2009-12-01

    Chinese government took measures to control emissions of pollutants before and during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in order to get better air quality for the event. A 3-dimensional regional chemical transport model, the University of Iowa’s Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM), is used to evaluate the effects of emission reductions on regional air quality by this event. The emission inventories with and without the consideration of emission reductions are used in case studies. Impacts of the emissions from different regions and sectors on Beijing and regional air quality are discussed in this study. Meteorological factor on the improvement of air quality during this event is also assessed by using the meteorological conditions from different years to drive the model. Model performance is evaluated by comparing the modeled trace gases and aerosols with the surface measurements from Beijing, the field observations from the Cheju ABC Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) during this summer, and satellite data from NASA.

  6. Epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study in Krasnoyarsk region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukhov, Ivan P; Arshukova, Irina L; Dobretsova, Elena A; Dugina, Tatyana A; Shulmin, Andrey V; Demko, Irina V

    2015-01-01

    Krasnoyarsk region is a territory with the widespread risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and occupational exposure. An assessment of COPD prevalence based on medical diagnosis statistics underestimates the true COPD prevalence. This study aims to evaluate how medical examinations may increase the accuracy of estimates of COPD prevalence. True COPD prevalence was estimated as a number of patients with the established disease diagnosis supplemented by the additional disease cases detected during medical examinations per 1,000 inhabitants of the region. Official medical statistics data and the data collected from the Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases program 2011 among 15,000 inhabitants of the region aged 18 years and older were analyzed. This study revealed the COPD cases without official medical diagnosis. The true prevalence of COPD is estimated to be two times higher than the prevalence estimates based on medical diagnosis statistics. Undiagnosed and untreated cases of COPD result in severe COPD forms as well as addition of severe comorbidities. Because of this, there is an increase in the index of potential years of life lost. Conducting special medical examinations may increase the number of COPD cases detected at the early stages of the disease. This, in turn, may reduce the overall burden of the disease for the population of the region.

  7. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Jan E.; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people’s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities. PMID:19826558

  8. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Chevrier-Lamoureux

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD, remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario. Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people‟s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1 place and access to health resources; 2 time and food culture; and 3 itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities.

  9. The historical regional studies, local history and urban history: the demarcation of subject fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Koval’s’ka­Pavelko

    2014-05-01

    It is proved that combines subject field of urban history, historical regional studies and local history in terms of research into the history of urban settlements. In historical research focus of urban history is urban lifestyle that allows you to analyze the city in their integrity – both sociocultural phenomena with their own phases of development, in the broad political and ideological context. It is noted that the historical urban studies urbanization, which are connected with the adoption of urban lifestyles as a phenomenon of culture and modern civilization. Urbanization represented in two dimensions – dynamic and static. Since urbanization is a process that characterize the dynamic parameters (rates of urbanization, while urbanization is characterized by static parameters (the number and proportion of urban population, the number of urban settlements, its area, etc.. This feature of the urban historical approaches to the historical regional studies.

  10. A study of the build-up region of megavoltage radiation beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Wamied

    A phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water(TM) was used for studying the buildup region of megavoltage radiation beams. We investigated the polarity effect produced in the PEEC and found that radiation induced currents, called the Compton current, were the dominant cause of the polarity effect in the PEEC. In the dose build-up region of megavoltage photon beams, the collecting electrode is the primary Compton current source and the magnitude of the current depends on the measurement depth, field size, and photon beam quality. The connecting cable acts as a secondary Compton current source that produces a very small Compton current which depends on the field size and the photon beam quality, becoming the dominant source when the PEEC is placed at depths greater than the depth of maximum dose. A study of the dose build-up region of megavoltage photon beams showed that the percentage depth ionizations obtained from measurements are higher than the percentage depth doses obtained with Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. To validate the MC-calculated percentage depth doses, the design of the PEEC was incorporated in the simulations. While the MC-calculated and measured percentage depth ionizations in the dose build-up region agreed with one another for the 6 MV, a non-negligible difference is observed for the 18 MV x-ray beam. A number of experiments and theoretical studies of various possible effects which could be the source of this discrepancy is investigated. We show that the contribution of contaminating neutrons and protons to the doses in the 18 MV x-ray beam is negligible. Moreover, the MC calculations using the XCOM photon cross sections database and the NIST bremsstrahlung differential cross sections do not explain the discrepancy between the MC calculations and measurement in the dose build-up region for the 18 MV and this discrepancy is yet to be further investigated.

  11. A regional strategy for ecological sustainability: A case study in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Liu, Shiliang; Cheng, Fangyan; Hou, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yueqiu; Dong, Shikui; Liu, Guohua

    2017-10-24

    Partitioning, a method considering environmental protection and development potential, is an effective way to provide regional management strategies to maintain ecological sustainability. In this study, we provide a large-scale regional division approach and present a strategy for Southwest China, which also has extremely high development potential because of the "Western development" policy. Based on the superposition of 15 factors, including species diversity, pattern restriction, agricultural potential, accessibility, urbanization potential, and topographical limitations, the environmental value and development benefit in the region were quantified spatially by weighting the sum of indicators within environmental and development categories. By comparing the scores with their respective median values, the study area was divided into four different strategy zones: Conserve zones (34.94%), Construction zones (32.95%), Conflict zones (16.96%), and Low-tension zones (15.16%). The Conflict zones in which environmental value and development benefit were both higher than the respective medians were separated further into the following 5 levels: Extreme conflict (36.20%), Serious conflict (28.07%), Moderate conflict (12.28%), Minor conflict (6.55%), and Slight conflict (16.91%). We found that 9.04% of nature reserves were in Conflict zones, and thus should be given more attention. This study provides a simple and feasible method for regional partitioning, as well as comprehensive support that weighs both the environmental value and development benefit for China's current Ecological Red Line and space planning and for regional management in similar situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-generational genome wide association studies identify chromosomal regions associated with ascites phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, K J; Dey, S; Kinney, R; Anthony, N B; Rhoads, D D

    2017-06-01

    Ascites is a multi-faceted disease commonly observed in fast growing broilers, which is initiated when the body is insufficiently oxygenated. A series of events follow, including an increase in pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and pericardium. Advances in management practices along with improved selection programs have decreased ascites incidence in modern broilers. However, ascites syndrome remains an economically important disease throughout the world, causing estimated losses of $100 million per year. In this study, a 60 K Illumina SNP BeadChip was used to perform a series of genome wide association studies (GWAS) on the 16th and 18th generation of our relaxed (REL) line descended from a commercial elite broiler line beginning in 1995. Regions significantly associated with ascites incidence were identified on chromosome 2 around 70 megabase pairs (Mbp) and on chromosome Z around 60 Mbp. Five candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were evaluated as indicators for these 2 regions in order to identify association with ascites and right ventricle to total ventricle weight (RVTV) ratios. Chromosome 2 SNP showed an association with RVTV ratios in males phenotyped as ascites resistant and ascites susceptible (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). The chromosome Z region also indicates an association with resistant female RVTV values (P = 0.02). Regions of significance identified on chromosomes 2 and Z described in this study will be used as proposed candidate regions for further investigation into the genetics of ascites. This information will lead to a better understanding of the underlying genetics and gene networks contributing to ascites, and thus advances in ascites reduction through commercial breeding schemes. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Study on probability of failure for RPV nozzle region under severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Il Soon; Oh, Young Jin; Sim, Sang Hoon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Most of previous studies for creep rupture of RPV lower head under severe accident condition, have been focused on global failure of RPV lower head. In contrast, the local failure of the RPV nozzle region has not been studied in detail. This study focused the nozzle failure analysis into creep rupture evaluation of RPV lower head under severe accident condition, and this will help improve the safety assessment of nuclear power plants under severe accident conditions. The existence and features of nozzle failure in LAVA-ICI tested vessel of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and LHF-4 tested vessel of SNL, are examined. To understand the basic mechanical properties of nozzle material and weld metal, the tensile tests in various temperature levels and the creep rupture tests in various temperature and stress levels, are accomplished. The stress and deformation of LAVA-ICI experiments are analysed using measured basic mechanical properties. The failure time of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) in nozzle region was calculated using modified TMI-2 VIP model. Nozzle region failure characteristics was studied for SNL-LHF-4 experimental case using Finite Element Method (FEM). Using characteristics of nozzle failure, a new failure prediction experimental method was proposed for RPV nozzle failure. 19 refs., 43 figs. (Author)

  14. Follow-Up Association Studies of Chromosome Region 9q and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip/Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Govil, Manika; Fonseca, Renata F.; McHenry, Toby; Granjeiro, José M.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Marazita, Mary L.; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip/palate comprises a large fraction of all human birth defects, and is notable for its significant lifelong morbidity and complex etiology. Several studies have shown that genetic factors appear to play a significant role in the etiology of cleft lip/palate. Human chromosomal region 9q21 has been suggested in previous reports to contain putative cleft loci. Moreover, a specific region (9q22.3-34.1) was suggested to present a ∼45% probability of harboring a cleft susceptibility gene. Fine mapping of fifty SNPs across the 9q22.3-34.11 region was performed to test for association with cleft lip/palate in families from United States, Spain, Turkey, Guatemala, and China. We performed family-based analysis and found evidence of association of cleft lip/palate with STOM (rs306796) in Guatemalan families (P=0.004) and in all multiplex families pooled together (P=0.002). This same SNP also showed borderline association in the US families (P=0.04). Under a nominal value of 0.05, other SNPs also showed association with cleft lip/palate and cleft subgroups. SNPs in STOM and PTCH genes and nearby FOXE1 were further associated with cleft phenotypes in Guatemalan and Chinese families. Gene prioritization analysis revealed PTCH and STOM ranking among the top fourteen candidates for cleft lip/palate among 339 genes present in the region. Our results support the hypothesis that the 9q22.32-34.1 region harbors cleft susceptibility genes. Additional studies with other populations should focus on these loci to further investigate the participation of these genes in human clefting. PMID:20583170

  15. Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies: Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Gomes, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Frequently found in southeastern South America during the warm season from October through May, strong and localized precipitation maxima are usually associated with the presence of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) travelling across the region. Flashfloods and landslides can be caused by these extremes in precipitation, with damages to the local communities. Heavily populated, southeastern South America hosts many agricultural activities and hydroelectric production. It encompasses one of the most important river basins in South America, the La Plata River Basin. Therefore, insufficient precipitation is equally prejudicial to the region socio-economic activities. MCCs are originated in the warm season of many regions of the world, however South American MCCs are related to the most severe thunderstorms, and have significantly contributed to the precipitation regime. We used the hourly outputs of Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in the analysis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of MCCs in South America. SRDAS is the 25-km resolution downscaling of a global reanalysis available from January 1998 through December 2010. The Regional Spectral Model is the SRDAS atmospheric component and assimilates satellite-based precipitation estimates from the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique global precipitation analyses. In this study, the SRDAS atmospheric and land-surface variables, global reanalysis products, infrared satellite imagery, and the physical retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), on board of the NASA's Aqua satellite, were used in the evaluation of the MCCs developed in southeastern South America from 2008 and 2010. Low-level circulations and vertical profiles were analyzed together to establish the relevance of the moisture transport in connection with the upper-troposphere dynamics to the development of those MCCs.

  16. Forest cover correlates with good biological water quality. Insights from a regional study (Wallonia, Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogna, D; Dufrêne, M; Michez, A; Latli, A; Jacobs, S; Vincke, C; Dendoncker, N

    2018-01-22

    Forested catchments are generally assumed to provide higher quality water in opposition to agricultural and urban catchments. However, this should be tested in various ecological contexts and through the study of multiple variables describing water quality. Indeed, interactions between ecological variables, multiple land use and land cover (LULC) types, and water quality variables render the relationship between forest cover and water quality highly complex. Furthermore, the question of the scale at which land use within stream catchments most influences stream water quality and ecosystem health remains only partially answered. This paper quantifies, at the regional scale and across five natural ecoregions of Wallonia (Belgium), the forest cover effect on biological water quality indices (based on diatoms and macroinvertebrates) at the riparian and catchment scales. Main results show that forest cover - considered alone - explains around one third of the biological water quality at the regional scale and from 15 to 70% depending on the ecoregion studied. Forest cover is systematically positively correlated with higher biological water quality. When removing spatial, local morphological variations, or population density effect, forest cover still accounts for over 10% of the total biological water quality variation. Partitioning variance shows that physico-chemical water quality is one of the main drivers of biological water quality and that anthropogenic pressures often explain an important part of it (shared or not with forest cover). The proportion of forest cover in each catchment at the regional scale and across all ecoregions but the Loam region is more positively correlated with high water quality than when considering the proportion of forest cover in the riparian zones only. This suggests that catchment-wide impacts and a fortiori catchment-wide protection measures are the main drivers of river ecological water quality. However, distinctive results from the

  17. A comparative study of fire weather indices in a semiarid south-eastern Europe region. Case of study: Murcia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; Díaz-Palmero, José María; Cabezas-Cerezo, Juan de Dios

    2017-07-15

    Forest fires are an important distortion in forest ecosystems, linked to their development and whose effects proceed beyond the destruction of ecosystems and material properties, especially in semiarid regions. Prevention of forest fires has to lean on indices based on available parameters that quantify fire risk ignition and spreading. The present study was conducted to compare four fire weather indices in a semiarid region of 11,314km2 located in southern Spain, characterised as being part of the most damaged area by fire in the Iberian Peninsula. The studied period comprises 3033 wildfires in the region during 15years (2000-2014), of which 80% are >100m2 and 14% >1000m2, resulting around 40km2 of burnt area in this period. The indices selected have been Angström Index, Forest Fire Drought Index, Forest Moisture Index and Fire Weather Index. Likewise, four selection methods have been applied to compare the results of the studied indices: Mahalanobis distance, percentile method, ranked percentile method and Relative Operating Characteristic curves (ROC). Angström index gives good results in the coastal areas with higher temperatures, low rainfall and wider range of variations while Fire Weather Index has better results in inland areas with higher rainfall, dense forest mass and fewer changes in meteorological conditions throughout the year. ROC space rejects all the indices except Fire Weather Index with good performance all over the region. ROC analysis ratios can be used to assess the success (or lack thereof) of fire indices; thus, it benefits operational wildfire predictions in semiarid regions similar to that of the case study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Climate, transports and regions. A study of goal-conflicts and goal-synergies; Klimat, transporter och regioner. En studie om maalkonflikter och maalsynergier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Matts; Hammarqvist, Jarl; Jarlebring, Isak; Algers, Staffan; Baeckstroem, Sebastian; Svalgaard, Stehn; Hultin, Kia [WSP Analys och Strategi, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundgren, Tommy [Dept. of Forest Economics, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    In this report, we address how climate gas emissions and regional development are influenced by policy instruments. We compare costs in terms of decreased regional development with the benefits in CO{sub 2} reductions. Regional development is measured by production and employment within the manufacturing industry, and by the size of the labour markets. For two reasons, we study policy instruments in the transport system: 1. The transport system represents a large and constantly increasing part of CO{sub 2} emissions. 2. Within the transport industry, analytical tools are readily available. We study tax on fossil fuels, three levels of kilometer tax and car benefit tax based on CO{sub 2} emissions. The two first instruments are taken from a Swedish parliamentary investigation on road taxes, the third from an investigation by the Swedish environmental Protection Agency. All instruments have little impact on production. In total, production in the manufacturing industry is decreased by SEK 2 billion annually, or 0.1 per cent of GDP, when the highest kilometer tax is applied. For some industries the effects are noticeable in absolute values, though the largest decrease is only 2.5 percent of the production in the industry (earth and stone). The impact on employment is greater and positive. Employment in the manufacturing industry increases by 1.2 per cent, or 5,000 individuals, with the highest kilometer tax. Labour intense industries grow on behalf of transport intense industries and transports are exchanged for labour within each industry. As shown in the figure on the next page, the greatest increase is in the food and beverage industry and the largest decrease in paper and pulp. Our calculations of goods transport emissions are quite rough. The highest level of kilometer tax will decrease emissions from heavy goods vehicles with 5 to 11 per cent (which means a 1 to 2 percent decrease in emissions from the transport sector), whereas the middle level is decreases

  19. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems - Regional Studies. West Texas and Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases - not generic examples - based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  20. A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in northern region of Nile delta, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E Khalafalla

    Full Text Available A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%, Toxascaris leonina (5%, Dipylidium caninum (5%, Capillaria spp. (3%, Taenia taeniformis (22% and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%, four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%, Sarcocyst spp. (1%, Isospora spp. (2% and Giardia spp. (2% and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2% and mites eggs (13%. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region.

  1. A Survey Study on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Stray Cats in Northern Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Reda E.

    2011-01-01

    A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:21760884

  2. Characterisation of Agri-Landscape Systems at a Regional Level: A Case Study in Northern Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariassunta Galli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Preserving our landscape in sustainable development processes is now widely considered as fundamental. It is a complex and evolving issue that can be tackled from several perspectives. Agronomy can contribute to analyzing the relationships between agricultural production systems (cropping, farming and agricultural systems at different levels (field, farm, and region and the agricultural landscape (in terms of patches, matrixes, dynamics, etc. This is of particular interest where the relationships between “what and how” are produced by agricultural activities and the landscape are changing. In this case their own reciprocity may represent an opportunity to analyze complex systems, such as the characterization of agri-landscapes at a regional level. We propose a case study developed as an up-scaling analytical process from a farm to a regional level. The result was the identification of six main agri-landscape systems highlighting the landscape drivers that are changing the traditional landscape of a rural region in Northern Tuscany (Lunigiana.

  3. Regional salinity management based on shallow groundwater controlling : a case study in the north china plain

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Changming; TANG, Changyuan; SHINDO, Shizuo

    1997-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] This paper deals with regional salinity management of the North China Plain. The authors of present paper paid careful attention to the fact that the basic characteristics of salinity dynamics are in close relation to water. Particularly in semiarid and semihumid flat areas, the water is not only a driving force for salts, but also the most important state variable having a decisive influence on soil salinity. On basis of such principle, the authors studied the approaches to contro...

  4. Multicenter study on the asymmetry of skin temperature in complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chan Woo; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Choi, Eunjoo; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Jang, In-ki; Lee, Chul Joong; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) and American Medical Association (AMA), the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) require the presence of skin temperature asymmetry. In CRPS, it is generally accepted that the temperature of skin of affected limbs changes from warm to cold; however, in our clinical practice, we have experienced many cases with different thermographic characteristics. Therefore, we conducted a retrospectiv...

  5. Modelling spatial accessibility to medical care. Case study of the North-Eastern Region of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Eva; Corneliu Iatu

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Providing the entire population with the same accessibility to services of general interest is among the priorities of EU policy. Among these services, those concerned with medical treatment occupy a special place due to their social and economic importance. The study raises the issue of modelling the population's spatial accessibility to medical services in the NorthEastern Region of Romania. A trans-scalar methodology that has been tailored to the specic features of...

  6. Bacterial dermohypodermitis at the Thies Regional Hospital, Senegal (West Africa): A retrospective study of 425 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline Dioussé; Maodo Ndiaye; Haby Dione; Mariama Bammo; Ousmane Sow; Fatou Seck; Ndiaga Gueye; Assane Diop; Boubacar Ahy Diatta; Mame Thierno Dieng; Bernard Marcel Diop; Mamadou Mourtalla Ka

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bacterial dermohypodermitis (BDH) risk factors identified in the literature on series of national hospitals are: obesity, diabetes, lymphedema, venous insufficiency. We report a series in a regional hospital. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective study, conducted over a period of 9 years from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2015. All data of patients received for BDH including. Socio-demographic, clinical, para-clinical and evolution variables was collected and analy...

  7. A Cytogenetical Study on Some Plants Taxa in Nizip Region (Aksaray, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Meryem; MARTİN, Esra; DİNÇ, Muhittin; DURAN, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    This cytological study was performed in 19 taxa grown naturally in Nizip region (Aksaray). These taxa are Conringia perfoliata (C.A.Mey.) Busch, Alyssum strigosum Banks & Sol. subsp. strigosum, Alyssum murale Waldst. & Kit. subsp. murale var. murale, Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC. subsp. bicornis (Sibth. & Sm.) P.W.Ball., Erysimum thyrsoideum Boiss. subsp. thyrsoideum (Brassicaceae), Silene alba (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause subsp. divaricata (Reichb.) Walters, Silene conoidea L., Sile...

  8. A Cytogenetical Study on Some Plants Taxa in Nizip Region (Aksaray, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Meryem; MARTİN, Esra; DİNÇ, Muhittin; DURAN, Ahmet; ÖZDEMİR, Ayşe; ÇETİN, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    This cytological study was performed in 19 taxa grown naturally in Nizip region (Aksaray). These taxa are Conringia perfoliata (C.A.Mey.) Busch, Alyssum strigosum Banks & Sol. subsp. strigosum, Alyssum murale Waldst. & Kit. subsp. murale var. murale, Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC. subsp. bicornis (Sibth. & Sm.) P.W.Ball., Erysimum thyrsoideum Boiss. subsp. thyrsoideum (Brassicaceae), Silene alba (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause subsp. divaricata (Reichb.) Walters, Silene conoi...

  9. Reconstructing the History of Mesoamerican Populations through the Study of the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya Gorostiza; Víctor Acunha-Alonzo; Lucía Regalado-Liu; Sergio Tirado; Julio Granados; David Sámano; Héctor Rangel-Villalobos; Antonio González-Martín

    2012-01-01

    The study of genetic information can reveal a reconstruction of human population's history. We sequenced the entire mtDNA control region (positions 16.024 to 576 following Cambridge Reference Sequence, CRS) of 605 individuals from seven Mesoamerican indigenous groups and one Aridoamerican from the Greater Southwest previously defined, all of them in present Mexico. Samples were collected directly from the indigenous populations, the application of an individual survey made it possible to remo...

  10. Studies of electric dipole moments in the octupole collective regions of heavy Radiums and Bariums

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoff, P; Kaczarowski, R

    2002-01-01

    %IS386 %title\\ \\It is proposed to study the electric dipole moments in the regions of octupole collective Ra-Th and Ba-Ce nuclei by means of Advanced Time-Delayed (ATD) $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma(t)$ method with a primary goal to provide new and critical data on the properties of E1 moments. The proposal focuses on the nuclei of $^{225,226,229}$Ra, $^{229,233}$Th and $^{149,150}$Ba.\\ \\The ATD $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma$(t) method was first tested at ISOLDE as part of the IS322 study of Fr-Ra nuclei at the limits of octupole deformation region. The results have greatly increased the knowledge of electric dipole moments in the region and demonstrated that new and unique research capabilities in this field are now available at ISOLDE. Based on the experience and new systematics, we propose a specialized study with the aim to determine the missing key aspects of the E1 moment systematics. We propose : \\begin{enumerate}[a)] \\item to measure the lifetimes of the 1$_{1}^{-}$ and 3$_{1}^{-}$ states in $^{226}$Ra with $\\sim$15\\% prec...

  11. Studies on geotechnical properties of subsoil in south east coastal region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Susom; Barik, D. K.

    2017-11-01

    Soil testing and analysis has become essential before commencement of any activity or process on soil i.e. residential construction, road construction etc. It is the most important work particularly in coastal area as these areas are more vulnerable to the natural disastrous like tsunami and cyclone. In India, there is lack of facility to collect and analyse the soil from the field. Hence, to study the various characteristics of the coastal region sub soil, Old Mahabalipuram area, which is the South East region of India has been chosen in this study. The aim of this study is to collect and analyse the soil sample from various localities of the Old Mahabalipuram area. The analysed soil data will be helpful for the people who are working in the field of Geotechnical in coastal region of India to make decision. The soil sample collected from different boreholes have undergone various field and laboratory tests like Pressuremeter Test, Field Permeability Test, Electrical Resistivity Test, Standard Penetration Test, Shear Test, Atterberg Limits etc. are performed including rock tests to know the geotechnical properties of the soil samples for each and every stratum

  12. Linking graph features of anatomical architecture to regional brain activity: A multi-modal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Wen; Xue, Shao-Wei

    2017-06-09

    Previous empirical research has treated regional neural responses and network architecture separately. However, anecdotal reports have suggested a close relationship between the two. This study aims to investigate the influence of structural connectivity on regional spontaneous activities. Datasets of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) of 36 right-handed healthy subjects (average age 27.4) were selected from the NKI Rockland sample. In the sMRI data, the cerebral cortex was parcellated into 70 regions of interest (ROIs) according to an anatomical atlas. Two indices were calculated from rs-fMRI for each ROI: the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF). Diffusion tensor imaging was computed from DWI and was converted to tractography. Four graph indices of structural connectivity were retrieved from the tractography results and the 70 ROIs, as follows: nodal degree, clustering coefficient, local efficiency and betweenness centrality. ReHo values were significantly correlated with all 4 graph features, whereas ALFF values were significantly correlated with nodal degrees and clustering coefficients. Both ReHo and ALFF tended to increase with segregation (clustering coefficient and local efficiency) and decrease with centrality (nodal degree and betweenness centrality). Though derived from local spontaneous activities, ReHo and ALFF may reflect the network properties of the underlying anatomical architecture. The results supported the hypothesis that the properties of the network structure may shape the regional neural response profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional impacts of urbanization on stream channel geometry: A case study in semiarid southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kristine T.; Biggs, Trent W.

    2015-11-01

    Urbanization often increases storm runoff, peak discharges and rates of stream channel erosion. Coastal California has experienced rapid urbanization over the past several decades and has the potential for stream channel degradation. Several counties in California have implemented Hydromodification Management Plans (HMPs) to protect channels from erosion, but few studies have quantified the impact of urbanization on channel geometry in diverse geological settings at the county scale. A synoptic survey of field sites (N = 56) by the California Environmental Data Exchange Network (CEDEN) and additional field surveys (N = 24) were used to develop regional hydraulic geometry curves relating bankfull cross-sectional area (Axs), width (w), mean depth (d), and discharge (Qbf) to watershed area (Aw) in San Diego County. Regional curves were compared for urban and reference sites and to other regional curves developed for southern California. Multiple regression models were used to identify dominant watershed and channel controls on geometry, including Aw, percent impervious cover (I%), mean annual precipitation, underlying geology, longitudinal slope, hydrologic soil group, and channel particle size. For the reference streams, regional curves were statistically significant for w and Axs (p 20%) had significantly larger w, d, Axs, and Qbf for a given watershed size. A majority (68%) of the urban channels and 78% of the small urban channels (Aw differed by channel substrate: sand-bedded channels incised and experienced extreme enlargement of up to 115 × the Axs of reference sites, while gravel-bedded channels widened and showed less enlargement (< 7 × reference Axs). Diverse channel responses to urbanization were observed at the county scales with significant scatter about the regional curves and regression equations. Urban channels have a high probability of enlargement, with greater risk for sand-bedded streams, but the magnitude of enlargement was not predictable from

  14. Circumpolar Region amid Socio-Spatial Transformation of a Territory (Case Study of Yamal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markin Valerii Vasil’evich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the issues of socio-spatial transformation of the Northern territory associated with the development of one of the most important far-reaching oil and gas region of Russian arctic regions. The authors demonstrate the possible solutions to these issues based on interdisciplinary and sociological studies conducted by the authors and their colleagues, including mass surveys of the population of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug by representative sample in 2005, 2010 and 2015 and sociological diagnostics of their results in the context of different social groups of respondents (long-term residents, including representatives of native minorities, new settlers, shift personnel. These studies have helped reveal the social issues characteristic of the Arctic region and requirements to scientific support of possible their possible solutions. The authors provide the authorities with the information necessary for the preparation and adoption of effective managerial decisions in the theoretical, methodological and practical discourse; such information cannot be obtained otherwise, for example, using the statistics. This thesis is illustrated by the current situation of indigenous minorities of the North, other population groups, the development of Yamal social potential, qualified personnel retention and recruiting. Studying the Northern specificity of the quality of life of the Russian circumpolar oil- and gas-rich region, the living conditions and relations between various social groups of participants of future neo-industrial territory’s development suggests a conclusion about the need to significantly strengthen the sociological and interdisciplinary scientific support for the proposed Arctic projects and introduce a new methodological approach to the selection of the most relevant research subjects

  15. Epidemiology of Traumatic Injuries in the Northeast Region of Haiti: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluisio, Adam R; De Wulf, Annelies; Louis, Ambert; Bloem, Christina

    2015-12-01

    More than 90% of traumatic morbidity and mortality occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and lacks contemporary statistics on the epidemiology of traumatic injuries. This study aimed to characterize the burden of traumatic injuries among emergency department patients in the Northeast region of Haiti. Data were collected from the emergency departments of all public hospitals in the Northeast region of Haiti, which included the Fort Liberté, Ouanaminthe, and Trou du Nord sites. All patients presenting for emergent care of traumatic injuries were included. Data were obtained via review of emergency department registries and patient records from October 1, 2013 through November 30, 2013. Data on demographics, mechanisms of trauma, and anatomical regions of injury were gathered using a standardized tool and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Temporal analysis of injury frequency was explored using regression modeling. Data from 383 patient encounters were accrued. Ouanaminthe Hospital treated the majority of emergent injuries (59.3%), followed by Fort Liberté (30.3%) and Trou du Nord (10.4%). The median age in years was 23 with 23.1% of patients being less than 15 years of age. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) and interpersonal violence accounted for 65.8% and 30.1% of all traumatic mechanisms, respectively. Extremity trauma was the most frequently observed anatomical region of injury (38.9%), followed by head and neck (30.3%) and facial (19.1%) injuries. Trauma due to RTA resulted in a single injury (83.8%) to either an extremity or the head and neck regions most frequently. A minority of patients had medical record documentation (37.9%). Blood pressure, respiratory rate, and mental status were documented in 19.3%, 4.1%, and 0.0% of records, respectively. There were 6.3 injuries/day during the data collection period with no correlation between the frequency of emergent trauma cases and day of the

  16. Education in Asia: A Comparative Study of Cost and Financing. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jee-Peng; Mingat, Alain

    Data analyzed in this study are drawn from varied sources including documents provided by governments in the context of the World Bank's operational activity. The data on a basic set of indicators were assembled for a core of 11 Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Sri…

  17. A study of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny measurement in Tosham region Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhjot Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study indoor radon, thoron and their decay products concentrations have been measured using the newly developed LR-115 type-ІІ based Radon-Thoron discriminating twin-cup dosimeters with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS respectively. The annual annihilation dose has been assessed from measured radionuclide concentration to find out major contributor of lung cancer in the study area. The measurements have been carried out in NINETY dwellings of THIRTEEN different villages situated in and around the Tosham region. This region is known to be composed of acidic volcanic and associated granites. Dwellings were selected mainly targeting different type building material used in construction of houses like concrete–brick, mud-brick, and mud-thatches along with an idea of different ventilation conditions which affects the equilibrium factor (EF. The EF in this region has been varying from 0.20 to 0.72 and 0.03–0.13 for indoor radon and thoron respectively. The average inhalation dose observed in dwellings of different villages varies from 1.33 ± 0.31–3.36 ± 0.72 mSv/y that lies within the safe limits recommended by ICRP (2011.

  18. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  19. Vaccination Coverage for Infants: Cross-Sectional Studies in Two Regions of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Objectives. To estimate infant vaccination coverage in the French-speaking region of Belgium (Wallonia and in the Brussels-Capital Region, two cross-sectional studies were performed in 2012. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered by trained investigators. The objective was to evaluate infant vaccination coverage retrospectively in 18- to 24-month-old children. These studies offered the opportunity to assess some factors influencing vaccine uptake in infants. Results and Discussion. Approximately 99% of the children had received the first dose of IPV-DTaP, 90% the fourth dose, 94% the MMR vaccine, 97% the first dose of pneumococcal vaccine, and 90% the third dose. In both regions, when fitting a logistic model, the most associated factor was attendance at maternal and child clinics (MCH. No association was observed between vaccination coverage and the mother’s level of education. For the last immunization session, where the mother was a Belgian native and when she worked more hours, child was better immunized, but only in Brussels. Conclusion. Coverage for the fourth dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib needs to be increased. Indeed, additional effort is needed to increase HIB and pertussis coverage rates because the herd immunity threshold for these two diseases has not been reached.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Carbon Arc: Plasma Properties in the Region of Nanotube Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekselman, Vladislav; Khrabry, Alexander; Kaganovich, Igor; Stratton, Brentley; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2017-10-01

    A carbon arc for nanomaterial synthesis was comprehensively studied using spectroscopic techniques and electrical measurements and modeled by specially modified computationally fluid dynamic (CFD) code ANSYS. The carbon arc plasma is generated and sustained by ablation of the graphite anode. In this study the plasma and carbon composition is fully characterized in the synthesis region that is important for understanding of synthesis of carbon nanomaterials by the arc method. We applied planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostic to obtain instantaneous distribution of C2 in carbon arc. In addition, the arc was characterized by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and fast filtered imaging. Results of the current work revealed two main arc plasma regions defined as the arc core and the arc periphery different by composition of carbon species. The core represents the dense and hot plasma region conducting most of the discharge current which is self-consistently sustained. The arc periphery is colder and characterized by intensive formation of carbon molecules. The resulting radial distribution of carbon molecules has a distinguished hollow profile structure which is preserved regardless of the arc stochastic motion realized in some modes. These results are in agreement with results of two dimensional CFD simulations of the carbon arc under operating conditions used in experiments. This work was supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  1. Alterations of regional homogeneity in pediatric bipolar depression: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weijia; Jiao, Qing; Lu, Shaojia; Zhong, Yuan; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Dali; Xiao, Qian; Yang, Fan; Lu, Guangming; Su, Linyan

    2014-08-06

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has attracted increasing attentions due to its high prevalence and great influence on social functions of children and adolescents. However, the pathophysiology underlying PBD remains unclear. In the present study, the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to detect abnormalities of baseline brain functions in depressed PBD youth. Seventeen youth with PBD-depression aged 10 - 18 years old and 18 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited in this study. The fMRI data under resting state were obtained on a Siemens 3.0 Tesla scanner and were analyzed using the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Correlations between the ReHo values of each survived area and the severity of depression symptoms in patients were further analyzed. As compared with the control group, PBD-depression patients showed decreased ReHo in the medial frontal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, and the right putamen. Significant negative correlations of the mood and feelings questionnaire scores with mean ReHo values in the medial frontal gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus in PBD-depression patients were observed. Our results suggest that extensive regions with altered baseline brain activities are existed in PBD-depression and these brain regions mainly locate in the fronto-limbic circuit and associated striatal structures. Moreover, the present findings also add to our understanding that there could be unique neuropathophysiological mechanisms underlying PBD-depression.

  2. Cysts in Periradicular Region of Deciduous Molars in Mixed Dentition: Retrospective Study of Five Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Ankush; Wadde, Kavita; Dewalwar, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% The cyst in mixed dentition stage cause expansion of buccal cortex, displacement of teeth and may present as case of infection. The cyst in periradicular region of deciduous molar are of frequent occurrence. The differential diagnosis of this lesion is radicular cysts of deciduous molar: developmental or infammatory dentigerous cyst of corresponding unerupted premolar. After going through the available literature of radicular cyst of deciduous molars and dentigerous cysts of developing premolars in mixed dentition we studied the five cases of cyst in periradicular region of deciduous molars in mixed dentition retrospectively for the diagnostic dilemma of radicular cyst verses dentigerous cyst. In conclusion, we can set some criteria for the diagnosis which is particularly important for treatment and for conservation of developing premolar. How to cite this article: Manekar VS, Chavan A, Wadde K, Dewalwar V. Cysts in Periradicular Region of Deciduous Molars in Mixed Dentition: Retrospective Study of Five Cases. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):229-235. PMID:25709310

  3. Competitiveness of tourist destinations: the study of 65 key destinations for the development of regional tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Medeiros Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has reached world importance in the economy. The competition in tourism has intensified between destinations, whether the destinations are cities, regions or countries. In this sense, the evaluation of the tourism competitiveness of these destinations may be helpful in planning and prioritizing actions that will benefit the industry. This article discusses the concept of competitiveness by the multidimensional view of performance, efficiency and unit analysis. Using the theoretical framework lifted, this article shows the 'Study on the competitiveness of the 65 destinations inducers of regional tourism development' prepared by the Tourism Ministry, the Brazilian Support Service to Micro and Small Enterprises (Sebrae and Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV, its assumptions that guided this study as well its methodological aspects. Based on this methodology, it was carried out a diagnosis of these 65 destinations selected by the Brazilian Ministry of Tourism to be inducers of tourism in their respective regions. The result of competitiveness reached by these 65 inductors destinations is presented in this article, providing a map of the level of competitiveness of tourism in Brazil.

  4. Local economic development in theories of regional economies and rural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kačar Bahrija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is a detailed analysis of the basics in the theory of economic development during the period from mid last century until today. It states the most significant theories, points out their ranges, offers a critical review regarding their treatment of development, especially regional, rural and local one. It observes those theories according to different classifications existing in scientific literature, primarily the ascend theory, stagnation theory, balanced economic growth theory; then, short-term and long-term development and growth theories; traditional and endogenous theories; economic growth stages theory emphasized after the WWII; structural changes theory; dependency theory, neo-classic counter-revolution theory and endogenous theory as a new growth theory. The analysis becomes wider with a study on development in regional economy theories and rural studies and it systematizes the classification of those theories according to regional economy academics. Distancing ourselves from any particular division as the most suitable and acceptable one, the theories are treated separately and in an historic context, in order to encircle the time framework which from modern theories, dealing with local level development difficulties, resulted. It asserts The Community-led Rural Development Theory, often referred to as the Community Development Theory, or marked as Bottom-up Partnership Approach. The analysis of development theories asserts that mixed exogenous - endogenous approach to development links the rural/local development to the globalization process mostly due to fast technology changes of the IT and communication sectors.

  5. Halychyna. Journal of Regional Studies: Science, Culture, and Education. Twenty Years of Publishing Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kuhutiak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the twenty-year-long publishing activity of Halychyna. Journal of Regional Studies: Science, Culture and Education, one of the first Ukrainian journals for historians, philologists, art critics that appeared in the independent Ukraine. In Halychyna, there has been published the works by well-known scholars of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University and many other higher educational establishments of Ukraine. The Journal can boast an array of sections – archaeology, history, ethnology, political science, historiography, source studies, documents and materials, culturology, art criticism, historical biography studies, and others. Most of the studies published in Halychyna focus on the issues of the modern and contemporary history of Ukraine, ethnology. A special attention is given to the issues of the Ukrainian national liberation movement in the 20th century, the Ukrainian national revival in the 19th–20th century, the activity of the political parties in Galicia in the late 19th–early 20th century, source studies and historiography in Ukraine, historical regional studies, the problems of modern state formation in Ukraine, and others.

  6. Do regional weather models contribute to better wind power forecasts? A few Norwegian case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremnes, John Bjørnar; Giebel, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    In most operational wind power forecasting systems statistical methods are applied to map wind forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models into wind power forecasts. NWP models are complex mathematical models of the atmosphere that divide the earth’s surface into a grid. The spatial...... resolution of this grid determines how accurate meteorological processes can be modeled and thereby also limits forecast quality. In this study, two global and four regional operational NWP models with spatial horizontal resolutions ranging from 1 to 32 km were applied to make wind power forecasts up to 66...... hours ahead for one offshore and two onshore Norwegian wind farms. A statistical meta-Gaussian method was applied to generate both probabilistic and deterministic wind power forecasts based on the NWP model wind forecasts. The experiments showed that the regional NWP models with higher resolution did...

  7. Great Lakes O shore Wind Project: Utility and Regional Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, Amirhossein [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Loparo, Kenneth A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [General Electric (GE), Albany, NY (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Waligorski, Joseph G. [FirstEnergy, Akron, OH (United States); Baker, Scott [PJM Interconnection, Audubon, PA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project aims to identify transmission system upgrades needed to facilitate offshore wind projects as well as operational impacts of offshore generation on operation of the regional transmission system in the Great Lakes region. A simulation model of the US Eastern Interconnection was used as the test system as a case study for investigating the impact of the integration of a 1000MW offshore wind farm operating in Lake Erie into FirstEnergy/PJM service territory. The findings of this research provide recommendations on offshore wind integration scenarios, the locations of points of interconnection, wind profile modeling and simulation, and computational methods to quantify performance, along with operating changes and equipment upgrades needed to mitigate system performance issues introduced by an offshore wind project.

  8. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  9. An infrared study of the NGC 1977 H II region/molecular cloud interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, P.; Harvey, P. M.; Wilking, B. A.; Evans, N. J., II

    1985-01-01

    The results of an infrared study of the H II region NGC 1977 and the adjacent dense molecular cloud are reported. Extensive far-infrared maps with 45 arcsec resolution allow the spatial structure of the dust temperature and optical depth variations across the ionization front to be delineated. Analysis of the dust energetics indicates that the only significant energy source is the B1 V star HD 37018 which ionizes the H II region. This result, together with a favorable geometry, provides a good opportunity to determine the ratio of ultraviolet absorption efficiency to far-infrared emission efficiency, 790 + 460 or - 180. Analysis of the gas energetics indicates that collisions with warm dust grains can explain the observed gas temperatures.

  10. The Study of Ecological Service Value of Farmland Ecosystem in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C. H.; Li, G. Y.; Li, H. Q.; Li, M.

    2017-10-01

    The coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province has become major national strategy of the CPC central committee and the state council under the new historical conditions. The farmland of Hebei Province has made great contribution to food supply for Beijing and Tianjin in a long time. Hebei Province has played a more important role in the ecological function especially.The geographic grid method was adopted in this study to account the ecosystem service value of farmland in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The result showed that total farmland ecosystem service value in 2015 was 110.3 × 109 yuan and the proportion of ecosystem service value in Hebei Province was the highest which reached up to 92.56%. The results of the evaluation of ecological services could provide the basis for determining the ecological compensation standards for farmland in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

  11. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: ultrastructural study of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Wartchow, Eric P; Mierau, Gary W; Stolzenberg, Ethan D; Gumerlock, Mary Kay; Fung, Kar-Ming

    2012-02-01

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently classified neuroepithelial tumor for which there has been little comprehensive ultrastructural study. Here, we describe the radiographic, intraoperative, histologic, immunohistochemical, and in-depth ultrastructural findings in a case of PTPR. This study corroborates that PTPR has concomitant ependymal, neuroendocrine, and secretory features, and details novel ultrastructural as well as immunohistochemical features that further this argument. Discrepancies with prior descriptions of PTPR are described, as these differences may reflect phenotypic variability in this rare tumor, and the ultrastructural features that relate to the putative ependymal origin of the entity are emphasized.

  12. Constructing Perceptions of Climate Change: a case study of regional political decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D.

    2012-12-01

    This case study of climate change communications assesses the salient means of communication and the message adopted by regional political decision makers on the German Baltic coast. Realizing that cultural factors and local values (and not simply knowledge) are significant influences in explaining attitudes towards climate change, this analysis draws from the records of regional weather, from scientists with a specific focus on the region, from the political decision makers for that region, and the media message reaching the decision makers, ensuring all elements of the analysis are drawn from the same socioeconomic, geophysical, political and cultural context. This is important as the social dynamics surrounding the trust in science is of critical importance and, as such, all elements of the case study are specifically contained within a common context. If the utility of climate change knowledge is to prompt well conceived adaptation/mitigation strategies then the political decision process, or at least the perceptions shaping it, can best be understood by locating it within the world view of the decision makers involved in the production process. Using the results of two survey questionnaires, one of regional climate scientists and one of regional political decision makers, ten years of local weather records, and a summary of the message from mass media circulation, the discord in perceptions of regional climate change are quantitatively explored. The conclusions drawn from the analysis include, compared to the scientific assessment: The decision makers' perceptions of recent past differ from actual observations. The decision makers' perceptions of the future differ from scientific assessments. The decision makers tend to over estimate the magnitude of regional climate change and its impacts. The decision makers tend to over estimate the sense of immediacy for adaptation measures. The conclusions drawn suggest that in the regional political realm, it is often a

  13. Global Source Parameters from Regional Spectral Ratios for Yield Transportability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. S.; Fisk, M. D.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    We use source parameters such as moment, corner frequency and high frequency rolloff as constraints in amplitude tomography, ensuring that spectra of well-studied earthquakes are recovered using the ensuing attenuation and site term model. We correct explosion data for path and site effects using such models, which allows us to test transportability of yield estimation techniques based on our best source spectral estimates. To develop a background set of source parameters, we applied spectral ratio techniques to envelopes of a global set of regional distance recordings from over 180,000 crustal events. Corner frequencies and moment ratios were determined via inversion using all event pairs within predetermined clusters, shifting to absolute levels using independently determined regional and teleseismic moments. The moment and corner frequency results can be expressed as stress drop, which has considerable scatter, yet shows dramatic regional patterns. We observe high stress in subduction zones along S. America, S. Mexico, the Banda Sea, and associated with the Yakutat Block in Alaska. We also observe high stress at the Himalayan syntaxes, the Pamirs, eastern Iran, the Caspian, the Altai-Sayan, and the central African rift. Low stress is observed along mid ocean spreading centers, the Afar rift, patches of convergence zones such as Nicaragua, the Zagros, Tibet, and the Tien Shan, among others. Mine blasts appear as low stress events due to their low corners and steep rolloffs. Many of these anomalies have been noted by previous studies, and we plan to compare results directly. As mentioned, these results will be used to constrain tomographic imaging, but can also be used in model validation procedures similar to the use of ground truth in location problems, and, perhaps most importantly, figure heavily in quality control of local and regional distance amplitude measurements.

  14. Quality of life at the Dead Sea region: the lower the better? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avriel, Avital; Fuchs, Lior; Plakht, Ygal; Cicurel, Assi; Apfelbaum, Armando; Satran, Robert; Friger, Michael; Dartava, Dimitry; Sukenik, Shaul

    2011-05-27

    The Dead Sea region, the lowest in the world at 410 meters below sea level, is considered a potent climatotherapy center for the treatment of different chronic diseases. To assess the prevalence of chronic diseases and the quality of life of residents of the Dead Sea region compared with residents of the Ramat Negev region, which has a similar climate, but is situated 600 meters above sea level. An observational study based on a self-administered questionnaire. Data were collected from kibbutz (communal settlement) members in both regions. Residents of the Dead Sea were the study group and of Ramat Negev were the control group. We compared demographic characteristics, the prevalence of different chronic diseases and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using the SF-36 questionnaire. There was a higher prevalence of skin nevi and non-inflammatory rheumatic diseases (NIRD) among Dead Sea residents, but they had significantly higher HRQOL mean scores in general health (68.7 ± 21 vs. 64.4 ± 22, p = 0.023) and vitality (64.7 ± 17.9 vs. 59.6 ± 17.3, p = 0.001), as well as significantly higher summary scores: physical component score (80.7 ± 18.2 vs. 78 ± 18.6, p = 0.042), and mental component score (79 ± 16.4 vs. 77.2 ± 15, p = 0.02). These results did not change after adjusting for social-demographic characteristics, health-related habits, and chronic diseases. No significant difference between the groups was found in the prevalence of most chronic diseases, except for higher rates of skin nevi and NIRD among Dead Sea residents. HRQOL was significantly higher among Dead Sea residents, both healthy or with chronic disease.

  15. Regional reductions in sleep electroencephalography power in obstructive sleep apnea: a high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie G; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J; Benca, Ruth M

    2014-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significant alterations in neuronal integrity resulting from either hypoxemia and/or sleep loss. A large body of imaging research supports reductions in gray matter volume, alterations in white matter integrity and resting state activity, and functional abnormalities in response to cognitive challenge in various brain regions in patients with OSA. In this study, we used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG), a functional imaging tool that could potentially be used during routine clinical care, to examine the regional distribution of neural activity in a non-clinical sample of untreated men and women with moderate/severe OSA. Sleep was recorded with 256-channel EEG in relatively healthy subjects with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 10, as well as age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls selected from a research population initially recruited for a study on sleep and meditation. Sleep laboratory. Nine subjects with AHI > 10 and nine matched controls. N/A. Topographic analysis of hdEEG data revealed a broadband reduction in EEG power in a circumscribed region overlying the parietal cortex in OSA subjects. This parietal reduction in neural activity was present, to some extent, across all frequency bands in all stages and episodes of nonrapid eye movement sleep. This investigation suggests that regional deficits in electroencephalography (EEG) power generation may be a useful clinical marker for neural disruption in obstructive sleep apnea, and that high-density EEG may have the sensitivity to detect pathological cortical changes early in the disease process.

  16. Prediction of Frost Risks and Plagues using WRF model: a Port Wine region case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. A.; Rocha, A.; Monteiro, A.; Quénol, H.; de Freitas, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    In viticulture where the quality of the wine, the selection of the grapevines or even the characteristics of the farming soil, also depending from local soil features like topography, proximity of a river or water body, will act locally on the weather. Frosts are of significant concern to growers of many cultures crops such as winegrapes. Because of their high latitude and some altitude, the vineyards of the Demarcated Douro Region (DDR) are subjected to the frost, which cause serious damages. But the hazards of vineyard don't confine to the incidents of the fortuitous and meteorological character. The illnesses and plagues affect frequently the vineyards of Demarcated Douro Region due, namely to the weather, to the high power of the regional stocks, to the dense vegetation badly drained and favourable to the setting of numberless fungi, viruses and/or poisonous insects. In the case of DDR it is worth noticing the meteorological conditions due to the weather characteristics. Although there are several illnesses and plagues the most important enemies for the vine in the DDR are the mildew, oidium, grey rottenness, grape moth,. . . , if the climatic conditions favour their appearance and development. For this study, we selected some months for different periods, at the 16 weather stations of the Region of Douro. We use the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to study and possibly predict the occurrence of risk and plagues (mildew) episodes. The model is first validated with the meteorological data obtained at the weather stations. The knowledge of frost and plagues occurrence allows one to decrease its risks not only by selecting the cultural species and varieties but also the places of growth and the planting and sowing dates.

  17. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  18. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies in two neighboring river basins in semiarid regions of Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Vinícius G.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Carvalho, Carlos A., E-mail: vinicius.ferreira@cdtn.br, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br, E-mail: cacf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serviço de Meio Ambiente

    2017-07-01

    Groundwater is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth and the depletion of aquifer systems is a reality, both in semi-arid and humid regions. The hydrology of watersheds is a field of study that is concerned with the movement of waters from the rains and its physical-chemical changes. Groundwater resources in these regions are a sensitive issue, requiring careful management to avoid quality degradation. The present study focuses the groundwater system at the interface of the Pandeiros and Peruaçu river basins in the northwest region of Minas Gerais State. The methods used were the evaluations of the hydrochemistry, as well as isotopic, and physicochemical parameters, allied to geological studies to investigate surface and groundwater, their possible interactions and spatial distribution. The hydrochemical results correlated with the physicochemical measurements show water contrasts in the study area, which is geologically composed from bottom to top by gneisses and granites (Januaria Complex), limestone and siltstones (Bambuí Group), sandstones and eluvial sediments (Urucuia Group), eluvio-coluvial cover and alluvial deposits. It has been observed that waters in the context of sandstones and siliceous sediments are sodium bicarbonate waters, slightly acidic pH and low in TDS, whereas waters in pedological / geologic context of limestones are calcium bicarbonate waters exhibiting basic pH and high TDS. The deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 signatures of the groundwater are compared to the global meteoric water line (GMWL). The average values of the isotopes in the study area are slightly variable, indicating that the isotopic signatures are related to rainfall precipitation. It has been possible to suggest an evaporation line pattern starting from the position of springs, passing though streams and finally ending in the lagoon. The local evaporation line can be represented by the equation δD = 5,8 δ{sup 18}O - 2,4. (author)

  19. Mushroom Poisoning in the Southwest Region of the Caspian Sea, Iran: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Badsar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mushroom poisoning as a medical emergency can be a challengingproblem for physicians. Despite the vast resources of poisonous mushrooms inIran, few studies have been done in this regard, especially in the southwest regionof the Caspian Sea that is very suitable for mushroom growth. Therefore, the aimof this study was to evaluate our experience with mushroom poisoning in thisregion.Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the records of 102 patients who wereadmitted to the Emergency Department of Razi Hospital of Rasht, the only referraldepartment in this region, from May 2006 to May 2011. Data were analyzed byChi-square test, ANOVA, and student’s t-test.Results: The patients’ age ranged from 13 to 75 years and 47 of them were maleand the rest 55 were female. Overall, 57.8% of mushroom poisoning casesoccurred in patients from urban areas. Most incidences were reported betweenSeptember and October, the rainy season in Guilan. Except for four patients withtachycardia, others had stable vital signs. The most frequent symptoms (86.4%were nausea and vomiting. Complete blood cell count revealed that 28.4% of thepatients had leukocytosis but all of them had platelet counts of less than 100000.Conclusions: This study showed that all cases had mild to moderate symptomsthat were treated by simple supportive therapies. This suggested that mushroomspecies in our region are less dangerous but further studies need to establish whattoxins and species are responsible for mushroom toxicity.

  20. A Regional Study of Urban Fluxes from a Coupled WRF-ACASA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.

    2010-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 10 by 10 km. As part of the European Project “BRIDGE”, these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers.Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. In order to more accurately simulate the mass and energy exchanges across larger urban regions, ACASA was coupled with a mesoscale weather model (WRF). Here we present ACASA-WRF simulations of mass and energy fluxes over over two different urban regions: a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic European city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage, a huge tourist flow, and an architectural footprint that remains comparatively constant in time. The in-situ ACASA model was tested over the urban environment at local point scale with very promising results when validated against urban flux measurements. This study shows the application of this methodology at a regional scale with high spatial

  1. Optical polarimetric and near-infrared photometric study of the RCW95 Galactic H II region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-González, J.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Santos, F. P.; Franco, G. A. P.; Santos, J. F. C.; Maia, F. F. S.; Sanmartim, D.

    2018-02-01

    We carried out an optical polarimetric study in the direction of the RCW 95 star-forming region in order to probe the sky-projected magnetic field structure by using the distribution of linear polarization segments which seem to be well aligned with the more extended cloud component. A mean polarization angle of θ = 49.8° ± 7.7°7 was derived. Through the spectral dependence analysis of polarization it was possible to obtain the total-to-selective extinction ratio (RV) by fitting the Serkowski function, resulting in a mean value of RV = 2.93 ± 0.47. The foreground polarization component was estimated and is in agreement with previous studies in this direction of the Galaxy. Further, near-infrared (NIR) images from Vista Variables in the Via Láctea (VVV) survey were collected to improve the study of the stellar population associated with the H II region. The Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis algorithm was employed to derive structural parameters for two clusters in the region, and a set of PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) isochrones was superimposed on the decontaminated colour-magnitude diagrams to estimate an age of about 3 Myr for both clusters. Finally, from the NIR photometry study combined with spectra obtained with the Ohio State Infrared Imager and Spectrometer mounted at the Southern Astrophysics Research Telescope we derived the spectral classification of the main ionizing sources in the clusters associated with IRAS 15408-5356 and IRAS 15412-5359, both objects classified as O4V stars.

  2. A study of flora in rangelands of Gheissari Koohrang region in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Ali Shirmardi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the floristic resources of each region is very important because it serves to identify it’s the genetic potential. The purpose of this study was to introduce floristic list, life forms and endangered species of Gheissari region. This region covers about 9816 ha and lies in the west part of Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari province. Field data were collected in the years between 2009 and 2010. During that period, the plant species were collected and then identified based on families, genera and species using appropriate reference. The results showed that there were 487 plant species belonging to 65 families and 301 genera. The families like Composite, Gramineae, Papilionaceae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Umbeliferae and Caryophyllaceae had 70, 46, 41 39, 38, 30 and 21 species, respectively. These families made up 58.52 percent of the total species. According to Raunkiaer’s life form, species were as below: 50.31% hemicryptophytes (245 species, 23.20% therophytes (113 species, 12.52% cryptophytes (61 species, 7.60% phanerophytes (37 species and 5.75% chamephytes (28 species. The chorology of species showed that 67.15 percent of species belonged to Iran-Turanian, 5.75 percent Polyregional, 2.67 percent Cosmopolitan and the rest belonged to the others. Threatened species included 86 species of the total species from Iran-Turanian. Among them, the endangered class, vulnerable, lower risk and data deficient were 2, 3, 67 and 14 species respectively.

  3. TVT ABBREVO: cadaveric study of tape position in foramen obturatum and adductor region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Petr; Nanka, Ondrej; Masata, Jaromir; Martan, Alois; Svabik, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe fixation of the TVT ABBREVO and establish whether the tape penetrates through obturator muscles and membrane (obturator complex) into the adductor region and, if so, how far it penetrates. Eight formalin-embalmed female cadavers were used to simulate TVT ABBREVO surgery (totalling 16 insertions). Following tape insertion, dissection was performed and ends of the tape were identified. In cases of penetration, the length of tape penetrating into the adductor region was measured. Of the 16 cases, the tape ended in the obturator membrane in eight, in the internal obturator muscle in one, and penetrated through the obturator membrane into the external obturator muscle in five, where it remained. In two cases, it penetrated through the obturator internus muscle, obturator membrane and obturator externus muscle into the group of thigh adductors; one penetration was by 3 mm and the second by 10 mm. No contact with the obturator nerve or its branches was noted in any case. No TVT contact with the obturator nerve was noted; tape penetrated into the adductor region in two of the 16 cases.

  4. Effect of 17β estradiol on hippocampus region of aging female rat brain: Ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Jha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has direct membrane-mediated effects on neurons and its effects are both neuroprotective and neurotrophic. This hormone modulates brain development and aging and affects neurochemical systems which are affected in age-related cognitive decline, AD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of 17β estradiol (E2 in hippocampus region of different age groups of rats. The changes in the hippocampus region of female rat brain of different age groups with and without E2 treatment were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Age dependent changes in myelin sheath, axon and cytoplasm membrane were observed with aging in control group rat brain but the E2 treated rats showed significantly stable myelin sheath, myelin axon and cytoplasm structure. Our results showed that E2 treatment significantly effects hippocampus brain region of aging rats. These analyses revealed that fundamental age-related changes in brain and estrogen have important implications when estrogen levels and hippocampus dependent functions decline.

  5. Experimental Studies on Earthen Architecture Sites Consolidated with BS Materials in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the preservation works on the archaeological sites of Gaochang Ruins, Xinjiang, as background. Based on the soil characteristics analysis on the archaeological sites, experimental studies were conducted on the consolidation effect of the BS-10 consolidation material on the archaeological sites of adobe and rammed earth. The results showed the following:, after consolidation, the wind erosion resistance of the soil on the archaeological sites was substantially increased, and the wind erosion modulus was reduced by 5~8 times; the soil exhibited fine grid structure and significantly reduced degree of permeability, while still maintaining the moisture exchange between inside and outside the soil; there is excellent ageing resistance; the resistance to freezing and thawing was closely related to the soil water content and had little influence in arid regions; the water resistance was improved and could satisfy the requirements for consolidating the sites in arid regions; the unconfined compressive strength was improved moderately, which was the key direction of improvement in the future, and the consolidated soil did not form duricrust on the surface and had good bonding strength with the internal parts. The BS-10 material can meet the consolidation requirements for the earthen archaeological sites in arid regions of northwest China.

  6. Decreased centrality of subcortical regions during the transition to adolescence: a functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Crossley, Nicolas; Amaro Junior, Edson; Mcguire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of brain maturation processes are a key step to understand the cognitive and emotional changes of adolescence. Although structural imaging findings have delineated clear brain developmental trajectories for typically developing individuals, less is known about the functional changes of this sensitive development period. Developmental changes, such as abstract thought, complex reasoning, and emotional and inhibitory control, have been associated with more prominent cortical control. The aim of this study is to assess brain networks connectivity changes in a large sample of 7- to 15-year-old subjects, testing the hypothesis that cortical regions will present an increasing relevance in commanding the global network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected in a sample of 447 typically developing children from a Brazilian community sample who were submitted to a resting state acquisition protocol. The fMRI data were used to build a functional weighted graph from which eigenvector centrality (EVC) was extracted. For each brain region (a node of the graph), the age-dependent effect on EVC was statistically tested and the developmental trajectories were estimated using polynomial functions. Our findings show that angular gyrus become more central during this maturation period, while the caudate; cerebellar tonsils, pyramis, thalamus; fusiform, parahippocampal and inferior semilunar lobe become less central. In conclusion, we report a novel finding of an increasing centrality of the angular gyrus during the transition to adolescence, with a decreasing centrality of many subcortical and cerebellar regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. AHSG gene variation is not associated with regional body fat distribution--a magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssig, K; Staiger, H; Machicao, F; Machann, J; Hennige, A M; Schick, F; Claussen, C D; Fritsche, A; Häring, H-U; Stefan, N

    2009-09-01

    Obesity-resistance in AHSG-knockout mice indicate an important role of alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A (AHSG) in the development of obesity. We studied whether genetic variation within AHSG affects whole-body adiposity and regional fat distribution in humans. We genotyped 321 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs2248690, rs4831, rs2070635, rs4917, and rs1071592. Body fat distribution and ectopic hepatic and intramyocellular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance techniques. AHSG levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. The five chosen SNPs covered 100% of common genetic variation (minor allele frequency >/=0.05) within AHSG (r (2)>/=0.8). All SNPs were significantly associated with AHSG levels (pAHSG levels were associated with liver fat content (p=0.0160) and BMI (p=0.0247) after adjustment for gender and age. While rs2248690 was nominally associated with BMI in the dominant model (p=0.0432), none of the SNPs was associated with regional fat distribution. Common genetic variation within AHSG does not appear to influence regional body fat distribution, but may affect whole-body adiposity in humans. J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  8. Imputation-based analysis of association studies: candidate regions and quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Servin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new framework for the analysis of association studies, designed to allow untyped variants to be more effectively and directly tested for association with a phenotype. The idea is to combine knowledge on patterns of correlation among SNPs (e.g., from the International HapMap project or resequencing data in a candidate region of interest with genotype data at tag SNPs collected on a phenotyped study sample, to estimate ("impute" unmeasured genotypes, and then assess association between the phenotype and these estimated genotypes. Compared with standard single-SNP tests, this approach results in increased power to detect association, even in cases in which the causal variant is typed, with the greatest gain occurring when multiple causal variants are present. It also provides more interpretable explanations for observed associations, including assessing, for each SNP, the strength of the evidence that it (rather than another correlated SNP is causal. Although we focus on association studies with quantitative phenotype and a relatively restricted region (e.g., a candidate gene, the framework is applicable and computationally practical for whole genome association studies. Methods described here are implemented in a software package, Bim-Bam, available from the Stephens Lab website http://stephenslab.uchicago.edu/software.html.

  9. A Regional Study of Wilcox Reservoirs in the Deepwater Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dice, Margaret E.

    The deepwater Wilcox trend covers more than 34,000 mi2, extending from the northwestern block, Alaminos Canyon, to Keathley Canyon, and to the north-central block, Walker Ridge. The Wilcox trend is widely studied in the oil and gas industry as it has significant proven hydrocarbons, but has considerable economic challenges due to the reservoir characteristics. The purpose of this study is to provide a regional study of the Wilcox reservoir economics and quality. Great White Field is the most successful Wilcox field located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico and Jack and St. Malo are the most successful Wilcox fields located in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. This research conducts a detailed field study of Great White Field by gathering and interpreting well logs, core analysis, sequence stratigraphy, and interpretation of 3D seismic surveys, with generation of a cross section and structure, amplitude, and isopach maps, as well as, reserve calculations. These results are then compared to the literature on Jack and St. Malo Fields to provide an evaluation of regional reservoir characteristic variations. There is potential for economic gain in both areas, but well placement is critical to maximizing rock quality with the best locations being high on structure.

  10. Inter-regional changes in the performance and interpretation of spirometry in Spain: 3E study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, José Luis; Soriano, Joan B; Calle, Myriam

    2014-11-01

    This report shows the results of a nation-wide survey on spirometry to assess regional differences. Observational cross-sectional study conducted by means of a telephone survey in 805 primary care (PC) and specialized centers (SC) in all regions. The survey contacted technicians in charge of spirometry and consisted of 36 questions related to the test. The results showed major differences between regions. Most centers had 1-2 spirometers. The number of spirometry tests per week ranged from 2 to 8.9 in PC and between 34.3 and 98.3 in SC. Some training had been given in most centers (63.6-100% in PC and 60.0-100% in SC) but not on a regular basis. Most centers used several short-acting bronchodilators for the bronchodilation test, but with insufficient inhalations (2.0-3.8 in PC and 2.0-3.3 in SC) and frequently incorrect waiting time (29.4-83.3% PC and 33.3-87.5% in SC). Daily calibration was not performed in all centers (0-100% in PC and 66.7-100% in SC). Significant inter-regional differences in spirometry quality criteria were observed, with 6 or more criteria met in 9.1-84.6% of PC centers and 37.5-100% in SC. Our results show the current situation of spirometry in primary and specialized care in Spain, highlighting considerable variability and areas for improvement. This information should be considered by health officials to improve the quality and accessibility of such tests. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD.

  12. Altered DMN functional connectivity and regional homogeneity in partial epilepsy patients: a seventy cases study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chong-Yu; Gao, Xiaoping; Long, Lili; Long, Xiaoyan; Liu, Chaorong; Chen, Yayu; Xie, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chujuan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhe-Yu

    2017-10-06

    Clinically diagnosed partial epilepsy is hard to be functionally diagnosed by regular electroencephalograph (EEG) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By collecting transient brain regional signals, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) function MRI (BOLD-fMRI) can provide brain function change information with high accuracy. By using resting state BOLD-fMRI technique, we aim to investigate the changes of brain function in partial epilepsy patients. BOLD-fMRI scanning was performed in 70 partial epilepsy and 70 healthy people. BOLD-fMRI data was analyzed by using the Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) method and functional connectivity of Default Mode Network (DMN) methods. The abnormal brain functional connectivity in partial epilepsy patients was detected by Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8) analysis. Compared to healthy group, epilepsy patients showed significant decreased ReHo in left inferior parietal lobule/pre- and post-central gyrus, right thalamus/paracentral lobule/Cerebellum anterior and posterior Lobe, bilateral insula. The DMN functional connectivity regions decreased significantly in right uncus, left Inferior parietal lobule, left supramarginal gyrus, left uncus, left parahippocampa gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus, in epilepsy patients, compared to healthy controls. This study clarified that both ReHo and functional connectivity of DMN decreased in partial epilepsy patients compared to healthy controls. While left inferior parietal lobule was detected in both ReHo and DMN, many other identified regions were different by using these two BOLD-fMRI techniques. We propose that both ReHo and DMN patterns in BOLD-fMRI may suggest networks responsible for partial epilepsy genesis or progression.

  13. Regional Prophylaxis with Teicoplanin in Monolateral or Bilateral Total Knee Replacement: an Open Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lalla, Fausto; Viola, Renato; Pellizzer, Giampietro; Lazzarini, Luca; Tramarin, Andrea; Fabris, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    From January 1991 to June 1997, patients undergoing primary elective monolateral or bilateral total knee replacement (TKR) were consecutively enrolled in a prospective, open clinical study on the efficacy and safety of regional prophylaxis with teicoplanin (TEC). Those scheduled for monolateral TKR (115 patients) received 400 mg of TEC in 100 ml of saline as a 5-min infusion into a foot vein of the leg to be operated on immediately after the tourniquet was inflated to 400 mm Hg (ca. 50 kPa). For patients undergoing bilateral surgery (45 patients), regional administration of TEC was also repeated for the second knee operation. Follow-up ranged from a minimum of 2 years to 8 years. None of the patients experienced local or systemic adverse effects following regional administration of TEC. In the immediate postoperative and 2-year follow-up periods, only one superficial infection of the primary site attributable to intraoperative contamination (prophylaxis failure) out of the 205 prostheses implanted was observed. Deep infections involving the prosthesis did not occur. Infectious complications at distant sites were observed in nine cases (urinary tract infection due to Escherichia coli in eight cases, and Salmonella enteritidis gastroenteritis in one case) in the immediate postoperative period; they all were rapidly cured after antibiotic treatment. A delayed prosthetic infection, related to hematogenous spread of the etiological agent and therefore not considered a prophylactic failure, was observed in a patient who had undergone TKR 5 years before. Regional administration of TEC in monolateral and bilateral TKR appears to be a safe and valuable prophylactic technique. PMID:10639356

  14. A study of regional trends in annual and seasonal precipitation and runoff series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveito, O.E.; Hisdal, H.

    1994-03-10

    In this study long and homogeneous time series of runoff and precipitation are studied to identify variations in time and space. The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF-method) is applied. Both annual observations, smoothed (using Gauss filter) and seasonal values are analyzed. The analysis shows that the temporal variations in runoff and precipitation coincide. The deviations occurring in the seasonal values are caused by snow accumulation and snow melt. In the filtered series temporal trends are found. A comparison between the different normal periods has been carried out for precipitation. The 1900-30 and 1960-90 periods differ from the 1930-60 period. This may be caused by different weather types dominating the different periods. The different weather types are reflected in different empirical orthogonal functions. This is verified by regional studies. The coinciding patterns in runoff and precipitation are important aspects in climate studies and for extrapolation purposes. 11 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Will joint regional air pollution control be more cost-effective? An empirical study of China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2015-02-01

    By following an empirical approach, this study proves that joint regional air pollution control (JRAPC) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will save the expense on air pollution control compared with a locally-based pollution control strategy. The evidences below were found. (A) Local pollutant concentration in some of the cities is significantly affected by emissions from their surrounding areas. (B) There is heterogeneity in the marginal pollutant concentration reduction cost among various districts as a result of the cities' varying contribution of unit emission reduction to the pollutant concentration reduction, and their diverse unit cost of emission reduction brought about by their different industry composition. The results imply that the cost-efficiency of air pollution control will be improved in China if the conventional locally based regime of air pollution control can shift to a regionally based one. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A Study of Precipitation Climatology and Its Variability over Europe Using an Advanced Regional Model (WRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Dasari, Hari Prasad

    2015-03-06

    In recent years long-term precipitation trends on a regional scale have been given emphasis due to the impacts of global warming on regional hydrology. In this study, regional precipitation trends are simulated over the Europe continent for a 60-year period in 1950-2010 using an advanced regional model, WRF, to study extreme precipitation events over Europe. The model runs continuously for each year during the period at a horizontal resolution of 25 km with initial/ boundary conditions derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 2.5 degree reanalysis data sets. The E-OBS 0.25 degree rainfall observation analysis is used for model validation. Results indicate that the model could reproduce the spatial annual rainfall pattern over Europe with low amounts (250 - 750 mm) in Iberian Peninsula, moderate to large amounts (750 - 1500 mm) in central, eastern and northeastern parts of Europe and extremely heavy falls (1500 - 2000 mm) in hilly areas of Alps with a slight overestimation in Alps and underestimation in other parts of Europe. The regional model integrations showed increasing errors (mean absolute errors) and decreasing correlations with increasing time scale (daily to seasonal). Rainfall is simulated relatively better in Iberian Peninsula, northwest and central parts of Europe. A large spatial variability with the highest number of wet days over eastern, central Europe and Alps (~200 days/year) and less number of wet days over Iberian Peninsula (≤150 days/year) is also found in agreement with observations. The model could simulate the spatial rainfall climate variability reasonably well with low rainfall days (1 - 10 mm/days) in almost all zones, heavy rainfall events in western, northern, southeastern hilly and coastal zones and extremely heavy rainfall events in northern coastal zones. An increasing trend of heavy rainfall in central, southern and southeastern parts, a decreasing trend in Iberian Peninsula and a steady trend in other

  17. Inter-regional migration and social change: a study of South East England based upon data from the Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, A J

    1989-01-01

    "Data from the [Office of Population Censuses and Surveys] Longitudinal Study are used to trace the social class effects of migration between the South East region and the rest of England and Wales in the period 1971-81. The analysis begins with the migration streams into and out of the South East of those people who were in the labour market (including the unemployed) at both census dates. The paper then proceeds to an analysis of the migration streams of those who entered or left the labour market between 1971 and 1981. Finally, the effects of the migration streams on the social class composition of both the South East and the rest of England and Wales are summarised. The results are interpreted in the light of debates about change in the British urban and regional system." excerpt

  18. Outcomes of telemedicine intervention in a regional intensive care unit: a before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panlaqui, O M; Broadfield, E; Champion, R; Edington, J P; Kennedy, S

    2017-09-01

    Telemedicine consultations in remote intensive care units (ICUs) overseas were found to be effective in reducing mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS). In Australia, there were anecdotal reports of these clinical outcomes. This retrospective before and after study assessed the improvement in patient outcomes with the implementation of a telemedicine program in a regional high dependency unit. Daily virtual consultations were conducted between the rural facility and the intensivists at the regional centre. A total of 525 patients received intensive care support between 2010 and 2015. Hospital and High Dependency Unit mortality showed no evidence of significant differences between the telemedicine group and the baseline (relative risk 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-1.06, P=0.25 and relative risk 1.00, 95% CI 0.98-1.03, P=0.67 respectively). The hospital LOS was lower in the baseline group by 1.5 days. There was no significant difference in High Dependency Unit LOS. To adjust for the covariates in LOS, log linear regression analysis was performed. The telemedicine intervention, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores and inter-hospital transfers were found to contribute significantly to hospital LOS. The most important result of the study was that the proportion of inter-hospital transfers was lower in the telemedicine group (relative risk 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98, P=0.03) compared to baseline. This means that critically ill patients in our regional centre can continue to receive specialist care remotely through tele-ICU consultations thus avoiding the need for patient transport. However, further study is needed to establish the benefits and risks of telemedicine intervention in ICUs in Australia.

  19. [Epidemiological study on urinary stones in the region of Fez and the risk of recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Habbani, R; Chaqroune, A; Sqalli Houssaini, T; Arrayhani, M; El Ammari, J; Dami, F; Chouhani, B A; Lahrichi, A

    2016-04-01

    In Morocco, few works on morpho-constitutional analysis of urinary calculi have been published, especially for patients in the region of Fez. This work aims to make a retrospective epidemiological study on the nature of urinary calculi with patients from the region of Fez and control the urine of the same patients after a period of three months to report on the risk of recurrence. Urinary stones were collected mostly in the nephrology service and urology service at the Hassan II Hospital in Fez. These calculations after being dried for 24 hours at room temperature underwent a morphological analysis, followed by infrared spectroscopic analysis Fourier transform. After a period of about three months, morning urine of the same patients was analyzed by crystalluria to control the presence of crystals that reflect a risk of recurrence. In our series of 123 samples, the age of patients ranges from 2-79 years. The prevalence was higher for men with a sex ratio of 1.3. The results of the analysis calculations showed that 61% were formed of calcium oxalate and 15% of uric acid and 25% of stones were carbapatite, struvite, cystine… The study by crystalluria urine revealed the presence of the crystals in 69% of patients' nephrolithiasis. The results of our study are conformed to the series of results in other regions of Morocco regarding the predominance of calcium oxalate stones. The presence of crystals in the urine of 69% of patients may indicate other recurrences. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of Seismic Clusters at Bahía de Banderas Region, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz-Lopez, M.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2010-12-01

    Given that the coast in the states of Jalisco and south of the state of Nayarit is located within a region of high seismic potential and also because population is increasing, perhaps motivated by the development of tourism, the Civil Defense authorities of Jalisco and the Centro de Sismología y Volcanología de Occidente-SisVOc of Universidad de Guadalajara started in the year 2000 a joint project to study the seismic risk of the region, including the seismic monitoring of Colima volcano (located between the states of Jalisco and Colima). This work focuses on the study of seismicity in the area of Bahía de Banderas and northern coast of Jalisco. To this end, we perform an analysis of available seismograms to characterize active structures, their relationship to surface morphology, and possible reach of these structures into the shallow parts of the bay. The data used in this work are waveforms recorded during the year 2003 during which the seismograph network spanned the region of study. Our method is based on the identification of seismic clusters or families using cross-correlation of waveforms, earthquake relocation and modeling of fault planes. From an initial data set of 404 earthquakes located during 2003, 96 earthquakes could be related to 17 potentially active continental structures. A modeling of fault planes was possible for 11 of these structures. Subgroups of 7 structures are aligned parallel to the Middle America Trench, a possible consequence of oblique subduction. The magnitudes of earthquakes grouped into families is less than 3.6 (Ml), corresponding to fault dimensions of hundreds of meters.

  1. An Incremental Model for Cloud Adoption: Based on a Study of Regional Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Erturk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations that use cloud computing services intend to increase this commitment. A survey was distributed to organizations in Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand to understand their adoption of cloud solutions, in comparison with global trends and practices. The survey also included questions on the benefits and challenges, and which delivery model(s they have adopted and are planning to adopt. One aim is to contribute to the cloud computing literature and build on the existing adoption models. This study also highlights additional aspects applicable to various organizations (small, medium, large and regional. Finally, recommendations are provided for related future research projects.

  2. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Capitalist agriculture between countryside and the city A study of two cases in Argentinean Pampas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ivan Bober

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes transformations in agriculture, agrarian structure and population dynamics in the context of economic expansion in Argentinean Pampas in recent decades. Increase of crops va­lues, new technology packages available and local dynamics generate changes and new relationships between rural and urban areas. The study is a comparison of two different cases: one, is an example of processes of soybean production at Pampas region and the other exposes diversified dynamics of agriculture and urban expansion. 

  4. Nuclear power in Northern Russia: A case study on future energy security in the Murmansk region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, Miia [Haemeenkatu 7 D, 33100 Tampere (Finland)]. E-mail: miia.kinnunen@tse.fi; Korppoo, Anna [Haemeenkatu 7 D, 33100 Tampere (Finland); Imperial College London, Centre for Environmental Policy, RSM Building, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The economy of the Murmansk region in Russia is based on energy intensive industry, mainly metallurgies, and consequently, the region is highly dependant on the ageing Kola nuclear power plant. This interdependence together with other weaknesses in the regional energy system creates threats to the energy supply security of the region. This paper analyses the internal and external threats influencing the region and presents potential solutions. Scenarios further illustrate possible future paths these potential solutions could deliver by the year 2025.

  5. Environmental Radioactivity : a case study in HHP granitic region of Tusham ring complex Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa B., S.; Singh, H.; Singh, J.; Singh, S.; Sonikawade R., G.

    2010-05-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of radon levels in the soil-gas, groundwater and indoor-air in the dwellings of the high heat producing (HHP)-granitic region of Tusham ring complex, Bhiwani District, Haryana. Radon release from soil and groundwater was found to be comparatively higher than the values observed in the nearby non-HHP/non-granitic regions of Punjab. The soil-gas and the groundwater radon concentration of HHP region of Tusham ring conmplex varies from 42.8±0.7 - 71.5±3.2 kBq m-3 with an average value of 61 kBq m-3, and 17.4±1.3 - 49.7±1.7 Bq l-1 with an average of 26.2 Bq l-1respectively, whereas in non-granitic/non-HHP regions the average value 31.5 (16.3±0.8-44.1±1.8) kBq m-3 and 7.9 (4.7±0.7-14.0±1.2) Bql-1 respectively have been observed. Indoor radon concentration in around 155 traditional dwellings in a wide range of villages situated in this HHP region has also been measured using the SSNTDs (LR-115) for two continuous years. Indoor radon levels in these dwellings in these dwellings have been found to be varying from 109 ± 80 to 1006 ± 55 Bq m-3 whereas the annual average radon values vary from 60 ±37 to 235 ±55 Bq m-3 for the dwellings of the villages studied in a non-HHP region of Amritsar District, Punjab. A positive correlation has been observed between the soil-gas and indoor radon levels particularly in the periphery of the exposed HHP rock formations, which may likely be the result of the imfluence of imbeded and exposed HHP granitic rocks and thus the active-soil formations. In the present study, uranium concentration and radon exhalation rate in the wide range of soil/rock samples collected from this region, known to be composed of acid volcanics & associated HHP granites have been estimated. For comparative analysis, the soil samples from some districts of Punjab have also been analyzed for uranium estimation and radon exhalation rate. The ‘ CAN ' technique using plastic track detector LR-115 type-II has

  6. Shape coexistence and shell-model intruder states in the lead region studied by $\\alpha$ -decay

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS336 \\\\ \\\\ Low-lying 0$^+$ states in even-even nuclei near closed shells can be a manifestation of the coexistence of different shapes in the same nucleus. Deformed bandstructures built upon these 0$^+$ states, coexisting at low energy with the ground state band, have been observed in several regions of the nuclear chart, including the Z=82 region. Such structures have been found in the neutron-deficient even Pb nuclei and the mixing between intruder and normal states has been studied by the $\\alpha$- decay of $^{194, 196, 198}$Po towards the 0$^+$ excited and ground states in $^{190, 192, 194}$Pb using $\\alpha$-e-t coincidence events. It is expected that shape coexistence will occur in the light Po isotopes as well. Evidence for a deformed band at low excitation energy in $^{196, 198}$Po has been found in in-beam studies and the $\\alpha$-decay of $^{202}$Rn studied at ISOLDE revealed feeding to a 0$^+$~state at 816~keV in $^{198}$Po. \\\\ \\\\It is our intention to investigate the $^{194, 196}$Po nuclei with ...

  7. Study of the magnetic turbulence in a corotating interaction region in the interplanetary medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Valdés-Galicia

    Full Text Available We study the geometry of magnetic fluctuations in a CIR observed by Pioneer 10 at 5 AU between days 292 and 295 in 1973. We apply the methodology proposed by Bieber et al. to make a comparison of the relative importance of two geometric arrays of vector propagation of the magnetic field fluctuations: slab and two-dimensional (2D. We found that inside the studied CIR this model is not applicable due to the restrictions imposed on it. Our results are consistent with Alfvenic fluctuations propagating close to the radial direction, confirming Mavromichalaki et al.'s findings. A mixture of isotropic and magnetoacoustic waves in the region before the front shock would be consistent with our results, and a mixture of slab/2D and magnetoacoustic waves in a region after the reverse shock. We base the latter conclusions on the theoretical analysis made by Kunstmann. We discuss the reasons why the composite model can not be applied in the CIR studied although the fluctuations inside it are two dimensional.

    Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (magnetic fields · Space plasma physics (turbulence; waves and instabilities

  8. Motor neurone disease in the greater Wellington region: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Viswas; Rosemergy, Ian; Turnbull, Janet

    2015-02-20

    This study investigated the demographic and disease characteristics of motor neurone disease (MND), as well as specific aspects of healthcare provision for MND patients in the greater Wellington region. Data was collected from clinical records of all known patients with a diagnosis of Motor Neurone Disease MND in the Capital and Coast and Hutt Valley district health board catchment zones over a 12-month period. Survival data was collected at 2-year follow-up. The study population consisted of 40 patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 66.2 years (SD of 13.2). Thirty patients (75%) were New Zealand European. Predominantly limb signs were present in 12 (30%), and 11 (27.5%) had bulbar signs, while 14 (35%) had a mixed pattern and a further 3 (7.5%) had respiratory muscle weakness. At 2-year follow-up, the median survival time following symptom onset in the 32 deceased patients was 29 months (range 6-126 months). The demographics and disease characteristics of MND in this cohort of patients from the Wellington region is similar to those found in overseas studies. The majority of patients received care in accordance with established guidelines, although certain aspects of healthcare delivery could be further improved.

  9. Regional risk assessment as a part of the long-term receiving water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Wayne G; Thomas, Jill F

    2009-04-01

    A regional-scale watershed assessment using the relative risk model has now been performed on each of the watersheds that are part of the Long-Term Receiving Waters Study (LTRWS) to generate patterns of risk at each study site. The watersheds assessed included the lower McKenzie and mid-Willamette rivers in Oregon, USA; Codorus Creek in Pennsylvania, USA; and the Leaf River in Mississippi, USA. In each case, the goal was to put the LTRWS into a watershed and regional context, including multiple sources, stressors, habitats, and assessment endpoints. In each instance, the relative risk model provided measures of relative risk and testable hypotheses about patterns within the watersheds. There were similarities among the 3 risk studies. First, land use within the watershed was the most important driver of risk in each instance, even compared with point sources. Second, the list of endpoints was similar for each risk assessment. Water quality was held as important, along with populations critical to recreation or commercial use. At each site, data from the LTRWS and other sources could be used to support the risk patterns predicted from the risk assessment process. However, the sampling design of the LTRWS prevented the confirmation of specific cause-effect relationships. A fundamental conclusion is that risk assessment, using an adaptation of the relative risk model, should be performed as an integral part of any watershed assessment and management effort. These initial watershed risk assessments have led to similar assessments across the world.

  10. Study nonlinear dynamics of stratospheric ozone concentration at Pakistan Terrestrial region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Bulbul; Zai, Muhammad Ayub Khan Yousuf; Afradi, Faisal Khan; Aziz, Zohaib

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the nonlinear dynamics of the stratospheric ozone layer at Pakistan atmospheric region. Ozone considered now the most important issue in the world because of its diverse effects on earth biosphere, including human health, ecosystem, marine life, agriculture yield and climate change. Therefore, this paper deals with total monthly time series data of stratospheric ozone over the Pakistan atmospheric region from 1970 to 2013. Two approaches, basic statistical analysis and Fractal dimension (D) have adapted to study the nature of nonlinear dynamics of stratospheric ozone level. Results obtained from this research have shown that the Hurst exponent values of both methods of fractal dimension revealed an anti-persistent behavior (negatively correlated), i.e. decreasing trend for all lags and Rescaled range analysis is more appropriate as compared to Detrended fluctuation analysis. For seasonal time series all month follows an anti-persistent behavior except in the month of November which shown persistence behavior i.e. time series is an independent and increasing trend. The normality test statistics also confirmed the nonlinear behavior of ozone and the rejection of hypothesis indicates the strong evidence of the complexity of data. This study will be useful to the researchers working in the same field in the future to verify the complex nature of stratospheric ozone.

  11. Multiwavelength study of 20 jets that emanate from the periphery of active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Sargam M.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Del Zanna, Giulio; Mason, Helen

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present a multiwavelength analysis of 20 EUV jets which occurred at the periphery of active regions close to sunspots. We discuss the physical parameters of the jets and their relation with other phenomena such as Hα surges, nonthermal type-III radio bursts and hard X-ray (HXR) emission. Methods: These jets were observed between August 2010 and June 2013 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument that is onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). We selected events that were observed on the solar disk within +/-60° latitude. Using AIA wavelength channels that are sensitive to coronal temperatures, we studied the temperature distribution in the jets using the line of sight (LOS) differential emission measure (DEM) technique. We also investigated the role of the photospheric magnetic field using the LOS magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. Results: It has been observed that most of the jets originated from the western periphery of active regions. Their lifetimes range from 5 to 39 min with an average of 18 min and their velocities range from 87 to 532 km s-1 with an average of 271 km s-1. All the jets are co-temporally associated with Hα surges. Most of the jets are co-temporal with nonthermal type-III radio bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES spacecraft in the frequency range from 20 kHz to 13 MHz. We confirm the source region of these bursts using the potential field source surface (PFSS) technique. Using Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations, we found that half of the jets produced HXR emission and they often shared the same source region as the HXR emission (6-12 keV). Ten out of 20 events showed that the jets originated in a region of flux cancellation and six jets in a region of flux emergence. Four events showed flux emergence and then cancellation during the jet evolution. DEM analyses showed that for most of the spires of the jets, the DEM peaked at around log

  12. An observational and modeling study of the regional impacts of climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Radley M.

    Climate variability has large impacts on humans and their agricultural systems. Farmers are at the center of this agricultural network, but it is often agricultural planners---regional planners, extension agents, commodity groups and cooperatives---that translate climate information for users. Global climate models (GCMs) are a leading tool for understanding and predicting climate and climate change. Armed with climate projections and forecasts, agricultural planners adapt their decision-making to optimize outcomes. This thesis explores what GCMs can, and cannot, tell us about climate variability and change at regional scales. The question is important, since high-quality regional climate projections could assist farmers and regional planners in key management decisions, contributing to better agricultural outcomes. To answer these questions, climate variability and its regional impacts are explored in observations and models for the current and future climate. The goals are to identify impacts of observed variability, assess model simulation of variability, and explore how climate variability and its impacts may change under enhanced greenhouse warming. Chapter One explores how well Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) atmospheric models, forced by historical sea surface temperatures (SST), simulate climatology and large-scale features during the exceptionally strong 1997--1999 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Reasonable performance in this 'proof of concept' test is considered a minimum requirement for further study of variability in models. All model versions produce appropriate local changes with ENSO, indicating that with correct ocean temperatures these versions are capable of simulating the large-scale effects of ENSO around the globe. A high vertical resolution model (VHR) provides the best simulation. Evidence is also presented that SST anomalies outside the tropical Pacific may play a key role in generating remote teleconnections even

  13. Economic valuation of landslide damage in hilly regions: a case study from Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Liesbet; Van Turnhout, Pieter; Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Vandekerckhove, Liesbeth; Poesen, Jean

    2013-03-01

    Several regions around the globe are at risk of incurring damage from landslides, but only few studies have concentrated on a quantitative estimate of the overall damage caused by landslides at a regional scale. This study therefore starts with a quantitative economic assessment of the direct and indirect damage caused by landslides in a 2,910 km study area located west of Brussels, a low-relief region susceptible to landslides. Based on focus interviews as well as on semi-structured interviews with homeowners, civil servants and the owners and providers of lifelines such as electricity and sewage, a quantitative damage assessment is provided. For private properties (houses, forest and pasture land) we estimate the real estate and production value losses for different damage scenarios, while for public infrastructure the costs of measures to repair and prevent landslide induced damage are estimated. In addition, the increase in amenity value of forests and grasslands due to the occurrence of landslides is also calculated. The study illustrates that a minority of land (only 2.3%) within the study area is used for dwellings, roads and railway lines, but that these land use types are responsible for the vast majority of the economic damage due to the occurrence of landslides. The annual cost of direct damage due to landsliding amounts to 688,148 €/year out of which 550,740 €/year for direct damage to houses, while the annual indirect damage augments to 3,020,049 €/year out of which 2,007,375 €/year for indirect damage to real estate. Next, the study illustrates that the increase of the amenity value of forests and grasslands outweighs the production value loss. As such the study does not only provide quantitative input data for the estimation of future risks, but also important information for government officials as it clearly informs about the costs associated with certain land use types in landslide areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. First mesospheric turbulence study using coordinated rocket and MST radar measurements over Indian low latitude region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, H.; Sinha, H.S.S.; Das, U.; Misra, R.N.; Das, S.R. [Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India); Datta, J.; Chakravarty, S.C. [ISRO Headquarters, Bangalore (India); Patra, A.K.; Vekateswara Rao, N.; Narayana Rao, D. [National Atmospheric Research Lab., Tirupati (India)

    2008-07-01

    A campaign to study turbulence in the mesosphere, over low latitudes in India, using rocket-borne measurements and Indian MST radar, was conducted during July 2004. A rocket-borne Langmuir probe detected a spectrum of electron density irregularities, with scale sizes in the range of about 1 m to 1 km, in 67.5-78.0 km and 84-89 km altitude regions over a low latitude station Sriharikota (13.6 N, 80.2 E). A rocket-borne chaff experiment measured zonal and meridional winds about 30 min after the Langmuir probe flight. The MST radar located at Gadanki (13.5 N, 79.2 E), which is about 100 km west of Sriharikota, also detected the presence of a strong scattering layer in 73.5-77.5 km region from which radar echoes corresponding to 3 m irregularities were received. Based on the region of occurrence of irregularities, which was highly collisional, presence of significant shears in zonal and meridional components of wind measured by the chaff experiment, 10 min periodicity in zonal and meridional winds obtained by the MST radar and the nature of wave number spectra of the irregularities, it is suggested that the observed irregularities were produced through the neutral turbulence mechanism. The percentage amplitude of fluctuations across the entire scale size range showed that the strength of turbulence was stronger in the lower altitude regions and decreased with increasing altitude. It was also found that the amplitude of fluctuations was large in regions of steeper electron density gradients. MST radar observations showed that at smaller scales of turbulence such as 3 m, (a) the thickness of the turbulent layer was between 2 and 3 km and (b) and fine structures, with layer thicknesses of about a km or less were also embedded in these layers. Rocket also detected 3-m fluctuations, which were very strong (a few percent) in lower altitudes (67.5 to 71.0 km) and small but clearly well above the noise floor at higher altitudes. Rocket and radar results also point to the

  15. Modulation of Summer Monsoon Circulation over Peninsular India by Western Ghats- A regional Climate modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanayagam, Lorna; Janardanan, Rajesh; Ram Mohan, H. S.

    The aim of the study is to understand the wind pattern over the Peninsular India with the modification of Orography over the region using Regional climate model. The model used in this study is the recent version (Version III) of the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Regional Climate Model RegCM3. The model integration is done on a horizontal resolution of 60 km. . The planetary boundary layer scheme used is that of Holtslag, cumulus parameterization scheme Emanuel of MIT, SUBEX large scale precipitation scheme and BATS ocean flux parameterization scheme. The model is run from 1st May to 30th September. The first month is taken for the spin up. The next four months are taken to study the monsoon. The simulation has been carried out for the 100%, 90%, 60% and 30% Orography (hereafter 100%o,90%o, 60%o, and 30%o) cases with RegCM3. The Zonal wind pattern for the 100%o and 90%o are similar, whereas the pattern changed for the 60% and 30%o. For the 60% and 30%o cases, the Zonal wind strengthened over the south peninsular India gradually increasing towards north. The Meridional component of the wind has a maximum over the Western Ghats between the latitudes 10o N and 15o N for the 100%o. Similar pattern has been observed for the 90%o also. For the 60%o and 30%o, the core has shifted to the northeast of India. The magnitude has decreased for the 30%o and the magnitude of meridional component is zero over the region south of 10o N. Keywords: Orography, Zonal and Meridional wind. References: Giorgi F, Mon. Wea Rev. 121: 2794 (1993) Giorgi F, Marinucci M R and Bates G T , Mon. Wea Rev. 121: 2794 (1993) K. C. Chow, Timing Liu, Johnny C. L. Chan and Yihui Ding, Int. J. Climatol. 26:1339-1359 (2006) K. C. Chow, Hang-Wai Tong and Johnny C. L. Chan, Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-007- 0301-6

  16. An x-ray study of massive star forming regions with CHANDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng

    2007-08-01

    Massive stars are characterized by powerful stellar winds, strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and consequently devastating supernovae explosions, which have a profound influence on their natal clouds and galaxy evolution. However, the formation and evolution of massive stars themselves and how their low-mass siblings are affected in the wind-swept and UV-radiation-dominated environment are not well understood. Much of the stellar populations inside of the massive star forming regions (MSFRs) are poorly studied in the optical and IR wavelengths because of observational challenges caused by large distance, high extinction, and heavy contamination from unrelated sources. Although it has long been recognized that X-rays open a new window to sample the young stellar populations residing in the MSFRs, the low angular resolution of previous generation X-ray telescopes has limited the outcome from such studies. The sensitive high spatial resolution X-ray observations enabled by the Chandra X- ray Observatory and the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) have significantly improved our ability to study the X-ray-emitting populations in the MSFRs in the last few years. In this thesis, I analyzed seven high spatial resolution Chandra /ACIS images of two massive star forming complexes, namely the NGC 6357 region hosting the 1 Myr old Pismis 24 cluster (Chapter 3) and the Rosette Complex including the 2 Myr old NGC 2244 cluster immersed in the Rosette Nebula (Chapter 4), embedded clusters in the Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC; Chapter 5), and a triggered cluster NGC 2237 (Chapter 6). The X-ray sampled stars were studied in great details. The unique power of X-ray selection of young stellar cluster members yielded new knowledge in the stellar populations, the cluster structures, and the star formation histories. The census of cluster members is greatly improved in each region. A large fraction of the X-ray detections have optical or near-infrared (NIR) stellar counterparts

  17. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy

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    Pollio Antonino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries.

  18. [Regional Study of Patient Safety Incidents (ERIDA) in the Emergency Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Martínez, J; Aranaz-Andrés, J M; Martínez-Ros, C; Moreno-Reina, S; Escobar-Álvaro, L; Ortega-Liarte, J V

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the patient safety incidents that occur in the emergency departments of our region. Observational study conducted in all the hospital emergency departments in the Regional Health Service of Murcia. After systematic random sampling, data were collected during care and a week later by telephone survey. Health professionals of each service were trained and collected the information, following the methodology of the National Study of Adverse Events Related to Hospitalization -ENEAS- and the Adverse Events Related to Spanish Hospital Emergency Department Care -EVADUR-. A total of 393 samples were collected, proportional to the cases treated in each hospital. In 10 cases (3.1%) the complaint was a previous safety incident. At least one incident was detected in 47 patients (11.95%; 8.7 to 15.1%). In 3 cases there were 2 incidents, bringing the number of incidents to 50. Regarding the impact, the 51% of incidents caused harm to the patients. The effects more frequent in patients were the need for repeat visits (9 cases), and mismanagement of pain (8 cases). In 24 cases (51.1%) health care was not affected, although 3 cases required an additional test, 11 cases required further consultation, and led to hospitalisation in 2 cases. The most frequent causal factors of these incidents were medication (14) and care (12). The incidents were considered preventable in 60% of cases. A rate of incidents in the emergency departments, representative of the region, has been obtained. The implications of the results for the population means that 12 out of every 100 patients treated in emergency departments have an adverse event, and 7 of these are avoidable. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. CORN (Zea mays L. ADAPTATION STUDIES UNDER IRRIGATED CONDITIONS OF SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

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    A. Öktem

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey has a great agricultural potential. When the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP is complete, 1.7 million hectare area will be irrigated. Corn has a great importance due to have high-yield and being a secondary crop at GAP region which has suitable soil and climate conditions for corn production. The main goal of this study was to determine the suitable corn varieties for GAP region. This research was conducted with 14 hybrid dent corn varieties at Agriculture Faculty in Şanlıurfa province during the growth season of 1997-1998. At this study grain yield, tassel flowering date, plant height, ear length, kernel number of ear, grain weight of ear, 1000 seeds weight and grain moisture at harvest were investigated. Variance analysis results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.01 in grain yield and yield characteristics among tested varieties. According to the average of two years, grain yield varied between 8.83 (Alimax and 13.92 (Rx.770 t /ha and grain moisture at harvest varied from 15.81% (Antbey to 25.92% (P.3394. Antbey had the highest tassel flowering date value (62.3 day and the lowest value was obtained from C.6127 (55.5 day genotype. Plant height varied between 190.5 cm (C.6127 and 243.4 cm (Antbey. Ear length ranged from 18.9 cm (Alimax to 21.8 cm (Tambre. Kernel number of ear varied from 439.0 number/ear (Antbey to 670.9 number/ear (P.3279. The highest grain weight of ear value was obtained from Rx.770 genotype (239.5 g and also the lowest value was 162.1 g (Antbey. 1000 seed weight ranged from 328.9 g (P.3279 to 383.0 g (Tambre. All tested varieties gave over 10 t /ha yield except Alimax, Sele and Antbey varieties.

  20. Study of diffuse H II regions potentially forming part of the gas streams around Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos-Abendaño, J.; López, E.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Báez-Rubio, A.; Aravena, M.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Martín, S.; Llerena, M.; Aldás, F.; Logan, C.; Rodríguez-Franco, A.

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of diffuse extended ionised gas toward three clouds located in the Galactic Centre (GC). One line of sight (LOS) is toward the 20 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.11) in the Sgr A region, another LOS is toward the 50 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.02), also in Sgr A, while the third is toward the Sgr B2 cloud (LOS+0.693). The emission from the ionised gas is detected from Hnα and Hmβ radio recombination lines (RRLs). Henα and Hemβ RRL emission is detected with the same n and m as those from the hydrogen RRLs only toward LOS+0.693. RRLs probe gas with positive and negative velocities toward the two Sgr A sources. The Hmβ to Hnα ratios reveal that the ionised gas is emitted under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in these regions. We find a He to H mass fraction of 0.29±0.01 consistent with the typical GC value, supporting the idea that massive stars have increased the He abundance compared to its primordial value. Physical properties are derived for the studied sources. We propose that the negative velocity component of both Sgr A sources is part of gas streams considered previously to model the GC cloud kinematics. Associated massive stars with what are presumably the closest H II regions to LOS-0.11 (positive velocity gas), LOS-0.02 and LOS+0.693 could be the main sources of UV photons ionising the gas. The negative velocity components of both Sgr A sources might be ionised by the same massive stars, but only if they are in the same gas stream.

  1. Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: a case study in the megacity Beijing, China

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    X. G. Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the formation and evolution mechanism of the regional haze in megacity Beijing by analyzing the process of a severe haze that occurred 20–27 September 2011. Mass concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles as well as aerosol optical properties were concurrently measured at the Beijing urban atmospheric environment monitoring station. Gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO-NO2-NOx, O3, CO and meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity were simultaneously monitored. Meanwhile, aerosol spatial distribution and the height of planetary boundary layer (PBL were retrieved from the signal of satellite and LIDAR (light detection and ranging. Concentrations of NO, NO2, SO2, O3, and CO observed during 23–27 September had exceeded the national ambient air quality standards for residents. The mass concentration of PM2.5 gradually accumulated during the measurement and reached at 220 μg m−3 on 26 September, and the corresponding atmospheric visibility was only 1.1 km. The daily averaged AOD in Beijing increased from ~ 0.16 at λ = 500 nm on 22 September and reached ~ 3.5 on 26 September. The key factors that affected the formation and evolution of this haze episode were stable anti-cyclone synoptic conditions at the surface, decreasing of the height of PBL, heavy pollution emissions from urban area, number and size evolution of aerosols, and hygroscopic growth for aerosol scattering. This case study may provide valuable information for the public to recognize the formation mechanism of the regional haze event over the megacity, which is also useful for the government to adopt scientific approach to forecast and eliminate the occurrence of regional haze in China.

  2. Reconstructing the history of Mesoamerican populations through the study of the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiza, Amaya; Acunha-Alonzo, Víctor; Regalado-Liu, Lucía; Tirado, Sergio; Granados, Julio; Sámano, David; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; González-Martín, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The study of genetic information can reveal a reconstruction of human population's history. We sequenced the entire mtDNA control region (positions 16.024 to 576 following Cambridge Reference Sequence, CRS) of 605 individuals from seven Mesoamerican indigenous groups and one Aridoamerican from the Greater Southwest previously defined, all of them in present Mexico. Samples were collected directly from the indigenous populations, the application of an individual survey made it possible to remove related or with other origins samples. Diversity indices and demographic estimates were calculated. Also AMOVAs were calculated according to different criteria. An MDS plot, based on FST distances, was also built. We carried out the construction of individual networks for the four Amerindian haplogroups detected. Finally, barrier software was applied to detect genetic boundaries among populations. The results suggest: a common origin of the indigenous groups; a small degree of European admixture; and inter-ethnic gene flow. The process of Mesoamerica's human settlement took place quickly influenced by the region's orography, which development of genetic and cultural differences facilitated. We find the existence of genetic structure is related to the region's geography, rather than to cultural parameters, such as language. The human population gradually became fragmented, though they remained relatively isolated, and differentiated due to small population sizes and different survival strategies. Genetic differences were detected between Aridoamerica and Mesoamerica, which can be subdivided into "East", "Center", "West" and "Southeast". The fragmentation process occurred mainly during the Mesoamerican Pre-Classic period, with the Otomí being one of the oldest groups. With an increased number of populations studied adding previously published data, there is no change in the conclusions, although significant genetic heterogeneity can be detected in Pima and Huichol groups

  3. Reconstructing the history of Mesoamerican populations through the study of the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Gorostiza

    Full Text Available The study of genetic information can reveal a reconstruction of human population's history. We sequenced the entire mtDNA control region (positions 16.024 to 576 following Cambridge Reference Sequence, CRS of 605 individuals from seven Mesoamerican indigenous groups and one Aridoamerican from the Greater Southwest previously defined, all of them in present Mexico. Samples were collected directly from the indigenous populations, the application of an individual survey made it possible to remove related or with other origins samples. Diversity indices and demographic estimates were calculated. Also AMOVAs were calculated according to different criteria. An MDS plot, based on FST distances, was also built. We carried out the construction of individual networks for the four Amerindian haplogroups detected. Finally, barrier software was applied to detect genetic boundaries among populations. The results suggest: a common origin of the indigenous groups; a small degree of European admixture; and inter-ethnic gene flow. The process of Mesoamerica's human settlement took place quickly influenced by the region's orography, which development of genetic and cultural differences facilitated. We find the existence of genetic structure is related to the region's geography, rather than to cultural parameters, such as language. The human population gradually became fragmented, though they remained relatively isolated, and differentiated due to small population sizes and different survival strategies. Genetic differences were detected between Aridoamerica and Mesoamerica, which can be subdivided into "East", "Center", "West" and "Southeast". The fragmentation process occurred mainly during the Mesoamerican Pre-Classic period, with the Otomí being one of the oldest groups. With an increased number of populations studied adding previously published data, there is no change in the conclusions, although significant genetic heterogeneity can be detected in Pima and

  4. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Palamalai region of Eastern Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, Rajendran; Ayyanar, Muniappan

    2015-08-22

    During the last few decades there has been an increasing interest in the study of medicinal plants with their traditional use and related pharmacological research all over the World. This paper enumerated folk medicinal plants used by Malayali tribal people in an unexplored and biodiversity rich region of Eastern Ghats in southern India. The aim of this study is to collect and identify the plants used in medicinal therapy by the local people and professional traditional healers with quantitative analysis. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out during January to December 2014 among the Malayali tribal people in four villages of Palamalai region in Eastern Ghats, India. The information was obtained through open and semi-structured face-to-face interviews with the local knowledgeable people and professional traditional healers. The statistical analysis, use value, family use value, informants' consensus factor, fidelity level, frequency of citation, relative frequency citation and informants' agreements ratio were calculated for the quantitative study of ethnomedicinal data. A total of 118 plant species belonging to 95 genera and 55 families dominated by the families like Leguminosae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were enumerated with detailed information on parts used, method of preparation, mode of administration and ailments treated. Leaves were mostly used plant part and predominantly used herbal preparations were decoction and paste. Moringa oleifera Lam. was reported by all the interviewed informants and gives the highest UV of 3.9 with 78 use reports due to its diverse medicinal uses. The present study demonstrated the need for importance of documenting the traditional knowledge of forest dwelling people. As a result of the study, Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet., Andrographis echioides (L.f.) Nees., Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst., Canarium strictum Roxb., Centella asiatica (L.) Urban., Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. and Tribulus terrestris (L.) were recommended for

  5. [Study on the ecological regions of soybean in China. II. Ecological environment and representative varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yusheng; Gai, Junyi

    2002-01-01

    Based on the climatic and geographical condition, cropping system and season sowing types and maturity group (MG) types of 256 varieties in test from total cultivating regions of soybean in China, six ecological regions of soybean were suggested. Those are: Northern single cropping, spring planting eco-region(I), Huanghuaihai double cropping, spring and summer planting eco-region(II), Middle and lower Changjiang valley double cropping, spring and summer planting eco-region(III), Central south multiple cropping, spring, summer and autumn planting eco-region(IV), Southwest plateau double cropping, spring and summer planting eco-region(V), and South China tropical multiple cropping, all season planting eco-region(VI). The cultivating environmental condition and representative varieties were shown, and the characteristics of all ecological regions of soybean in China were also discussed in this paper.

  6. Wind tunnel study of the wind turbine interaction with a boundary-layer flow: Upwind region, turbine performance, and wake region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastankhah, M.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2017-06-01

    Comprehensive wind tunnel experiments were carried out to study the interaction of a turbulent boundary layer with a wind turbine operating under different tip-speed ratios and yaw angles. Force and power measurements were performed to characterize the variation of thrust force (both magnitude and direction) and generated power of the wind turbine under different operating conditions. Moreover, flow measurements, collected using high-resolution particle-image velocimetry as well as hot-wire anemometry, were employed to systematically study the flow in the upwind, near-wake, and far-wake regions. These measurements provide new insights into the effect of turbine operating conditions on flow characteristics in these regions. For the upwind region, the results show a strong lateral asymmetry under yawed conditions. For the near-wake region, the evolution of tip and root vortices was studied with the use of both instantaneous and phase-averaged vorticity fields. The results suggest that the vortex breakdown position cannot be determined based on phase-averaged statistics, particularly for tip vortices under turbulent inflow conditions. Moreover, the measurements in the near-wake region indicate a complex velocity distribution with a speed-up region in the wake center, especially for higher tip-speed ratios. In order to elucidate the meandering tendency of far wakes, particular focus was placed on studying the characteristics of large turbulent structures in the boundary layer and their interaction with wind turbines. Although these structures are elongated in the streamwise direction, their cross sections are found to have a size comparable to the rotor area, so that they can be affected by the presence of the turbine. In addition, the study of spatial coherence in turbine wakes reveals that any statistics based on streamwise velocity fluctuations cannot provide reliable information about the size of large turbulent structures in turbine wakes due to the effect of wake

  7. Soil mapping and classification: a case study in the Tigray Region, Ethiopia

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    Ahmed Harb Rabia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil map is one of the basic tools in any agricultural development planning and generating a digital one is even more effective and more productive for natural resources evaluation. Moreover, remote sensing and GIS have added to soil classification different concept and enforcement. The study aim was to produce digital soil maps for the study area following different classification systems (ST and WRB and to define the spatial distribution and characteristics all the soil classes in the study area, which will be indispensable for future development planning. This work has been done as a part of the 29th Course Professional Master in IAO institution, Florence, Italy. The study area was Kilte Awulaelo district in Tigray region, Ethiopia, Which is characterized by different topographies and geomorphologies with different agro ecological conditions. Eleven main soil groups and sixty soil types were identified in the study area. The main soil groups are: Leptosols, Vertisols, Fluvisols, Stagnosols, Kastanozems, Phaeozems, Calcisols, Luvisols, Arenosols, Cambisols and Regosols.  Regosols and Cambisols are the dominant soils in the study area which is characteristic soils of rainfed agriculture and land affected by erosion. Using spatial distribution map of each soil group was very helpful to connect soil characteristics with soil forming factors. Lastly, GIS and remote sensing were very effective tools in this study and gave higher value for the final study results.

  8. A complex regional intervention to implement advance care planning in one town's nursing homes: Protocol of a controlled inter-regional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In der Schmitten, Jürgen; Rothärmel, Sonja; Mellert, Christine; Rixen, Stephan; Hammes, Bernard J; Briggs, Linda; Wegscheider, Karl; Marckmann, Georg

    2011-01-24

    Advance Care Planning (ACP) is an emerging strategy to ensure that well-reflected, meaningful and clearly documented treatment preferences are available and respected when critical decisions about life-sustaining treatment need to be made for patients unable to consent. In Germany, recent legislation confirms that advance directives (AD) have to be followed if they apply to the medical situation, but implementation of ACP has not yet been described. In a longitudinal controlled study, we compare 1 intervention region (4 nursing homes [n/hs], altogether 421 residents) with 2 control regions (10 n/hs, altogether 985 residents). Inclusion went from 01.02.09 to 30.06.09, observation lasted until 30.06.10. Primary endpoint is the prevalence of ADs at follow-up, 17 (12) months after the first (last) possible inclusion. Secondary endpoints compare relevance and validity of ADs, process quality, the rate of life-sustaining interventions and, in deceased residents, location of death and intensity of treatment before death. The regional multifaceted intervention on the basis of the US program Respecting Choices® comprises training of n/h staff as facilitators, training of General Practitioners, education of hospital and ambulance staff, and development of eligible tools, including Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment in case of Emergency (POLST-E). Participation data: Of 1406 residents reported to live in the 14 n/hs plus an estimated turnover of 176 residents until the last possible inclusion date, 645 (41%) were willing to participate. Response rates were 38% in the intervention region and 42% in the control region. Non-responder analysis shows an equal distribution of sex and age but a bias towards dependency on nursing care in the responder group. Outcome analysis of this study will become available in the course of 2011. Implementing an ACP program for the n/hs and related health care providers of a region requires a complex community intervention with the

  9. A complex regional intervention to implement advance care planning in one town's nursing homes: Protocol of a controlled inter-regional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briggs Linda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advance Care Planning (ACP is an emerging strategy to ensure that well-reflected, meaningful and clearly documented treatment preferences are available and respected when critical decisions about life-sustaining treatment need to be made for patients unable to consent. In Germany, recent legislation confirms that advance directives (AD have to be followed if they apply to the medical situation, but implementation of ACP has not yet been described. Methods/Design In a longitudinal controlled study, we compare 1 intervention region (4 nursing homes [n/hs], altogether 421 residents with 2 control regions (10 n/hs, altogether 985 residents. Inclusion went from 01.02.09 to 30.06.09, observation lasted until 30.06.10. Primary endpoint is the prevalence of ADs at follow-up, 17 (12 months after the first (last possible inclusion. Secondary endpoints compare relevance and validity of ADs, process quality, the rate of life-sustaining interventions and, in deceased residents, location of death and intensity of treatment before death. The regional multifaceted intervention on the basis of the US program Respecting Choices® comprises training of n/h staff as facilitators, training of General Practitioners, education of hospital and ambulance staff, and development of eligible tools, including Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment in case of Emergency (POLST-E. Participation data: Of 1406 residents reported to live in the 14 n/hs plus an estimated turnover of 176 residents until the last possible inclusion date, 645 (41% were willing to participate. Response rates were 38% in the intervention region and 42% in the control region. Non-responder analysis shows an equal distribution of sex and age but a bias towards dependency on nursing care in the responder group. Outcome analysis of this study will become available in the course of 2011. Discussion Implementing an ACP program for the n/hs and related health care providers of a

  10. Mass measurements of exotic ions in the heavy mass region for nuclear structure studies at ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgmann, Christopher

    2012-11-07

    The mass is a unique fingerprint of each nucleus as it reflects the sum of all interactions within it. Comparing experimental mass values with theoretical calculations provides an important benchmark of how well the role of these interactions is already understood. By investigating differences of experimental binding energies, such as two-neutron separation energies (S{sub 2n}), valuable indications for nuclear-structure studies are provided. The present thesis contributes to these studies providing new high-precision mass measurements especially in the heavy-mass region. Here, nuclear theory is heavily challenged due to the large number of nucleons. The data have been obtained at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP located at the radioactive-ion-beam facility Isolde at CERN. For the determination of the masses, the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance technique has been applied. While the new mass data for {sup 122-124}Ag continue existing trends in the S{sub 2n} energies, the new mass values for {sup 207,208}Fr render them more precisely. In the case of the mass values for {sup 184,186,190,193-195}Tl a new interesting odd-even effect has been revealed. The comparison of the measured mass values with theoretical models furthermore demonstrates significant problems in reproducing the strength of the pairing correctly. This is of special interest for the discussion about shape coexistence in the region around the doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb.

  11. Effects of pinacidil on reentrant arrhythmias generated during acute regional ischemia: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trénor, Beatriz; Ferrero, José M; Rodríguez, Blanca; Montilla, Fulgencio

    2005-07-01

    Many experimental studies have pointed out the controversy involving the arrhythmogenic effects of potassium channel openers (KCOs) in ischemia. KCOs activate the ATP-sensitive potassium current [IK(ATP)], resulting in action potential duration (APD) shortening, especially under pathological conditions such as ischemia. Acute myocardial ischemia leads to electrophysiological inhomogeneities in APD, conduction velocity, and refractoriness, which provide the substrate for reentry initiation and maintenance and may lead to malignant arrhythmias. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the KCO pinacidil on vulnerability to reentry during acute regional ischemia using computer simulations. We use a two-dimensional virtual heart tissue with implementation of acute regional ischemia conditions. Membrane kinetics are represented by a modified version of Luo-Rudy (phase II) action potential model that incorporates the effect of pinacidil on IK(ATP). The vulnerable window (VW) for reentry is quantified for different doses of pinacidil. Our results show that for doses below 3 micromol/l the VW widens with increasing pinacidil concentration, whereas for higher doses of pinacidil the VW decreases, becoming zero for concentrations above 10 micromol/l. The ionic mechanisms involved in this behavior are explored. This study demonstrates that the effect of pinacidil on arrhythmogenesis is strongly dose-dependent, and that high doses of pinacidil exert a strong antiarrhythmic effect.

  12. A medicolegal study of domestic violence in south region of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hawari, Hasan; El-Banna, Asmaa

    2017-01-01

    Domestic violence is a forced pattern of behavior that happened in domestic settings to gain or maintain power and control over an individual. The aim of this work is to study the magnitude of domestic violence in south region of Jordan. The retrospective study was retrieved from the medico-legal reports of domestic violence cases referred to the Directorate of Forensic Medicine in south region of Jordan during six years period starting from 1st of January 2010 till the end of December 2015. The total number of cases was 128. The majority was females (77.3%), high prevalence (41.4%) was found in adult age group (18 years and above) in both genders. The prevalence was higher in rural areas (75%). Sexual abuse was the commonest method of domestic violence in both genders (41.4%). Nearly a quarter of cases (23.4%) leaving home as an outcome. Spring months represented the highest percentage of domestic violence occurrence (28.1%). Family and financial problems were reported in 71.1% of cases. Domestic violence rate in South Jordan is much lower than in other areas but still considered a problem and should be given high priority with regard to prevention, investigation and treatment.

  13. How to Support Forest Management in a World of Change: Results of Some Regional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, C.; Lorz, C.; Vacik, H.; Potocic, N.; Makeschin, F.

    2010-12-01

    This article presents results of several studies in Middle, Eastern and Southeastern Europe on needs and application areas, desirable attributes and marketing potentials of forest management support tools. By comparing present and future application areas, a trend from sectoral planning towards landscape planning and integration of multiple stakeholder needs is emerging. In terms of conflicts, where management support tools might provide benefit, no clear tendencies were found, neither on local nor on regional level. In contrast, on national and European levels, support of the implementation of laws, directives, and regulations was found to be of highest importance. Following the user-requirements analysis, electronic tools supporting communication are preferred against paper-based instruments. The users identified most important attributes of optimized management support tools: (i) a broad accessibility for all users at any time should be guaranteed, (ii) the possibility to integrate iteratively experiences from case studies and from regional experts into the knowledge base (learning system) should be given, and (iii) a self-explanatory user interface is demanded, which is also suitable for users rather inexperienced with electronic tools. However, a market potential analysis revealed that the willingness to pay for management tools is very limited, although the participants specified realistic ranges of maximal amounts of money, which would be invested if the products were suitable and payment inevitable. To bridge the discrepancy between unwillingness to pay and the need to use management support tools, optimized financing or cooperation models between practice and science must be found.

  14. [Study on ecological suitability regionalization of Corni Fructus based on Maxent and ArcGIS model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Chen, Sui-Qing; Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong

    2017-08-01

    Through planting regionalization the scientific basis for planting area of high-quality medicinal materials was predicted. Through interview investigation and field survey, the distribution information of Corni Fructus in China was collected,and 89 sampling point from 14 producing areas were collected. Climate and topography of Corni Fructus were analyzed, the ecological adaptability of study was conducted based on ArcGIS and Maxent. Different suitability grade at potential areas and regionalization map were formulated. There are nine ecological factors affecting the growth of Corni Fructus, for example precipitation in November and March and vegetation type. The results showed that the most suitable habitats are Henan, Shaanxi, Zhejiang, Chongqing, Hubei, Sichuan, Anhui, Hunan and Shandong province. Using the spatial analysis method,the study not only illustrates the most suitable for the surroundings of Corni Fructus,but also provides a scientific reference for wild resource tending, introduction and cultivation, and artificial planting base and directing production layout. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. RISMUR II: New seismic hazard and risk study in Murcia Region after the Lorca Earthquake, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Belen; Gaspar, Jorge; Rivas, Alicia; Quiros, Ligia; Ruiz, Sandra; Hernandez, Roman; Torres, Yolanda; Staller, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The Murcia Region, is one of the highest seimic activity of Spain, located SE Iberian Peninsula. A system of active faults are included in the región, where the most recent damaging eartquakes took place in our country: 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2011. The last one ocurred in Lorca, causing 9 deads and notably material losses, including the artistic stock. The seismic emergency plann of the Murcia Region was developed in 2006, based of the results of the risk Project RISMUR I, which among other conslusions pointed out Lorca as one of the municipalities with highest risk in the province,. After the Lorca earthquake in 2011, a revisión of the previous study has been developed through the Project RISMUR II, including data of this earthquake , as well as updted Data Base of: seismicity, active faults, strong motion records, cadastre, vulnerability, etc. In adittion, the new study includes, some methodology innovations: modelization of faults as independent units for hazard assessment, analytic methods for risk estimations using data of the earthquake for calibration of capacity and fragility curves. In this work the results of RISMUR II are presented, which are compared with those reached in RISMUR I. The main conclusions are: Increasing of the hazard along the central system fault SW-NE (Alhama de Murcia, Totana nad Carracoy), which involve highest expected damages in the nearest populations to these faults: Lorca, Totana, Alcantarilla and Murcia.

  16. Active tectonics around the Mediterranean region: site studies and application of new methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 25 years have passed since the definition of Active Tectonics as "tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society", formulated in a milestone book by the National Research Council on this topic (Studies in Geophysics, Active Tectonics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1986, and those words have still to be considered the most suitable and exhaustive way to explain this branch of the Earth Sciences. Indeed only bridging together basic studies ("tectonic movements", rates of occurrence ("time span" and hazard assessment ("society" can we fully evaluate ongoing tectonic activity and its associated hazards. The broad Mediterranean Sea region is a paradigmatic area from this point of view, as on one hand this region displays in a relatively limited geographic extent a great variety of tectonic processes such as plate collision, subduction, volcanic activity, large-magnitude earthquakes, active folding and faulting, vertical uplift and/or subsidence. On the other hand, all the above mentioned tectonic processes can potentially affect a total population of about 450 million, mostly concentrated in fast-growing urban areas and/or close to industrial compounds and critical facilities often located nearby hazard sources. […

  17. Drug Use during Acute Illness in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia: A Household Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrham Wondimu

    Full Text Available Drug use study in the community enables health authorities to understand pattern of drug utilization and its related aspects. This, in turn, can help to develop rational drug policies to be harmonized in accordance to the need of the community.The aim of this study was to assess drug use during acute illness by the general population in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia.A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken in April 2013 in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. A total of 1034 households were interviewed in the study. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select households. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model.Out of 1000 households, 210(21% reported an episode of acute illness. The prevalence of acute illnesses in rural areas 126(25% (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.21-2.76 was significantly higher than that of urban areas 84(17%. Cough, runny nose, sore throat, earache, fever and headache added up to 155(52% of all reported symptoms of acute illnesses. The majority of the patients 162 (77% took modern medications for the managements of their diseases. Half 105(50% of the consumed medications were antibiotics. The large proportions 173(83% of medicines for acute illness were taken orally. The greater proportions 150(93% of medications were prescribed by health professionals. Thirty-four households (21% reported treatment discontinuation.The prevalence of acute illnesses in this study was found to be 21%. Acute illnesses were more common in rural areas than urban areas. Antibiotics were the most frequently used drugs for acute illnesses.

  18. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M E

    2005-03-21

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  19. Hopelessness as a basis for tuberculosis diagnostic delay in the Arkhangelsk region: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir N; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Mariandyshev, Andrej O; Johansson, Eva; Enarson, Donald A; Bjune, Gunnar A

    2013-08-02

    Data about delayed tuberculosis diagnosis in Northern Russia are scarce yet such knowledge could enhance the care of tuberculosis. The Arkhangelsk region is situated in the north of Russia, where the population is more than one million residents.The aim of the study was to understand factors influencing diagnostic delay among patients with tuberculosis in the Arkhangelsk region and to develop a theoretical model in order to explain diagnostic delay from the patients' perspectives. Twenty-three patients who had experienced diagnostic delay of tuberculosis were interviewed in Arkhangelsk. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted focus-group discussions for data gathering using Grounded Theory with the Paradigm Model to analyse the phenomenon of diagnostic delay. The study resulted in a theoretical model of the pathway of delay of tuberculosis diagnosis in the Arkhangelsk region in answer to the question: "Why and how do patients in the Arkhangelsk region delay tuberculosis diagnosis?" The model included categories of causal conditions, context and intervening conditions, action/interaction strategies, and consequences. The causal condition and main concern of the patients was that they were overpowered by hopelessness. Patients blamed policy, the administrative system, and doctors for their unfortunate life circumstances. This was accompanied by avoidance of health care, denial of their own health situations, and self-treatment. Only a deadly threat was a sufficient motivator for some patients to seek medical help. "Being overpowered by hopelessness" was identified as the core category that affected their self-esteem and influenced their entire lives, including family, work and social relations, and appeared even stronger in association with alcohol use. This category reflected the passive position of many patients in this situation, including their feelings of inability to change anything in their lives, to obtain employment, or to qualify for disability benefits

  20. Numerical simulation study of ozone episodes in complex terrain and coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Ping

    Ozone episodes occurred from 1999 to 2004 were investigated using the PATH (Pollutants in the Atmosphere and their Transport over Hong Kong) model system. PATH is consisted of three main modules: a meso-scale meteorological model (MM5), an emission processing module (EMS-95) and an Eulerian transport and chemistry model (SAQM). The synoptic patterns conducive to the occurrence of O3 episodes in Hong Kong were categorized by an inspection of the weather charts during the 6-year period from 1999 to 2004. They included Cyclonic, Anti-cyclonic and Trough synoptic patterns. About 56% of ozone episodes over the past 6 years were resulted from cyclonic (C) weather patterns. About 28% of ozone episodes were attributed to the anti-cyclonic (A) synoptic pattern, and the remaining high ozone episodes (about 16%) happened when the low-pressure trough (T) extended over south China sea. As an example, a typhoon-related ozone episode occurred in 1999 was studied in detail using PATH model system. The direct observation-simulation comparisons and statistical evaluations suggested very good performance on modeling of meteorology and acceptable performance on simulations of surface ozone concentrations. The integrated process rate (IPR) analysis method was implemented in SAQM to identify the relative contribution of regional transport and local chemical reactions to O3 formation during the O3 episode. The integrated reaction rate (IRR) was applied to examine the O3-NO x-VOC relationship through quantifying NOx-cycle and OH-cycle in both urban and rural areas in Hong Kong. IPR analysis was employed to three different synoptic patterns of ozone episodes occurred from year 2000 to year 2004 to identify the relative contributions of regional transport and chemical reactions to the ozone formation in Hong Kong. They included twenty-four cases related to the activities of tropical cyclones or typhoons traveling over the South China Sea and Northwestern Pacific, fifteen cases associated

  1. Transport of anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A: a climatology and regional case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, D. L.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Carmichael, G. R.; Diskin, G. S.

    2011-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission during 2008 as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY). The purpose of ARCTAS was to study the factors responsible for changes in the Arctic's atmospheric composition and climate. A major emphasis was to investigate Arctic haze, which is most pronounced during winter and early spring. This study focuses on the spring phase of ARCTAS (ARCTAS-A) that was based in Alaska during April 2008. Although anthropogenic emissions historically have been associated with Arctic haze, biomass burning dominated the ARCTAS-A period and has been the focus of many ARCTAS related studies. This study determines the common pathways for anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A. Trajectories (air parcels) are released each day from three historically significant regions of anthropogenic emissions (Asia, North America, and Europe). These fifteen day forward trajectories are calculated using data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 45 km horizontal resolution. The trajectories then are examined to determine: origins of emissions that reach the Arctic (defined as north of 70° N) within fifteen days, pathways of the emissions reaching the Arctic, Arctic entry locations, and altitudes at which the trajectories enter the Arctic. These results serve as regional "climatologies" for the ARCTAS-A period. Three cases during the ARCTAS-A period (one for each of the regions above) are examined using backward trajectories and chemical fingerprinting based on in situ data sampled from the NASA DC-8. The fingerprinting utilizes volatile organic compounds that represent pure anthropogenic tracers, Asian anthropogenic pollution, incomplete combustion, and natural gas emissions. We determine flight legs containing anthropogenic emissions and the pathways travelled by these emissions. Results show that the DC-8

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bendifallah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and one pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in leucoanthocyanins, in glucosids, alcaloids, flavonoïds and in saponosids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against some species.

  3. Study on probability of failure for RPV nozzle region under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Il Soon; Jeong, Kwang Jin; Oh, Young Jin; Kwon, Seung Uk; Jun, Hyun Chul [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Most of previous study for creep rupture of RPV lower head under severe accident condition, have been focused on global failure of RPV lower head. In contract, the local failure of the RPV nozzle region has not been studied in detail. The existence and features of nozzle failure in LAVA-ICI specimen of KAERI and LHF-4 specimen of Sandia National Lab., are observed. It is confirmed that the nozzle failure of LHF-4 specimen is due to the hoop stress in the RPV. The tensile tests in various temperatures and the creep rupture tests in various temperatures and stresses, are accomplished. The finite element analysis for LAVA-ICI experiment was confirmed, and the stress and deformation analysis results are used in LAVA-ICI experiment. 17 refs., 34 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  4. Pilot study of the association between the HLA region and testicular carcinoma among Croatian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Kristina; Grubic, Zorana; Kastelan, Zeljko; Stingl, Katarina; Kulis, Tomislav; Krhen, Ivan; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Kastelan, Maja; Zunec, Renata

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the distribution of HLA alleles and HLA microsatellite alleles in Croatian patients with testicular carcinoma, compare it with that of healthy controls and investigate whether the polymorphism within the HLA region could be associated with the development of testicular cancer. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood of 24 patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Patients and controls were typed for HLA class I and class II polymorphism by the PCR-SSO method. Nine HLA microsatellites were analyzed by PCR and electrophoresis in an automated sequencer. No significant deviation in the distribution of frequencies at HLA class I alleles was observed between patients and controls. Among HLA class II alleles, a statistically significant increase in the frequency of the HLA-DPB1*1701 allele was found among patients. The frequency of the HLA-DRB1*07-DQA1*0201-DQB1*0202 haplotype was increased in patients in comparison to the controls. Analysis of HLA microsatellites showed an increased frequency of D6S291-3 allele (p(corr) = 0.0455, OR = 3.05) among patients. The observed association of the disease and the DPB1*1701 allele as well as with the D6S291-3 allele suggests that this part of the HLA region might be involved in the pathogenesis of TGCT. Our data provide a basis for further studies about the correlation between the HLA region and testicular cancer. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Magnetotelluric Studies for Hydrocarbon and Geothermal Resources: Examples from the Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Prasanta K.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) and the other related electrical and electromagnetic methods play a very useful role in resource exploration. This review paper presents the current scenario of application of MT in the exploration for hydrocarbons and geothermal resources in Asia. While seismics is the most preferred method in oil exploration, it is, however, beset with several limitations in the case of sedimentary targets overlain by basalts or evaporate/carbonate rocks where the high-velocity layers overlying the lower velocity layers pose a problem. In such cases, MT plays an important and, in some cases, a crucial role in mapping these potential reservoirs because of significant resistivity contrast generally observed between the basalts and the underlying sedimentary layers. A few case histories are presented that typically illustrate the role of MT in this context. In the case of geothermal exploration, MT is known to be highly effective in deciphering the target areas because of the conductivity structures arising from the presence and circulation of highly conductive fluids in the geothermal target areas. A few examples of MT studies carried out in some of the potential areas of geothermal significance in the Asian region are also discussed. While it is a relatively favorable situation for application of EM and MT methods in the case of exploration of the high-enthalpy region due to the development of well-defined conceptual models, still the low-enthalpy regions need to be understood well, particularly because of more complex structural patterns and the fluid circulation under relatively low-temperature conditions. Currently, a lot of modeling in both geothermal and hydrocarbon exploration is being done using three-dimensional techniques, and it is the right time to go for integration and three-dimensional joint inversion of the geophysical parameters such as resistivity, velocity, density, from MT, electromagnetics (EM), seismics and gravity.

  6. Future projection of drought conditions in Europe: A comprehensive study using the ENSEMBLES regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Georg; Gobiet, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Drought is a natural recurrent phenomenon which occurs in a variety of different temporal and spatial scales and significantly affects natural and socio-economic systems. Under the aspect of the human induced climate change it is of high interest to decision makers how drought conditions might change at regional scale in order to map out adequate mitigation and adaption strategies. For this study, the most recent regional climate scenarios for Europe with a horizontal resolution of approximately 25 km are used (provided by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES - http://ensembles-eu.org/). Based on seasonal temperature and precipitation climate change signals, eight scenarios out of the entire ensemble are selected in order to span a large fraction of the uncertainty range. These eight scenarios are analysed in more detail. A quantile mapping approach based on the E-OBS observational dataset is applied to daily temperature and precipitation to reduce model errors before investigating drought conditions in nine European sub regions. Two commonly used drought indices are calculated as drought indicators - the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which is solely based on precipitation and the self calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) which is additionally based on temperature and available water capacity of the soil. The SPI is calculated for various time scales, accounting for different drought types, and the scPDSI is calculated on monthly basis. Both indices are calibrated in the past (1951 - 2000) and then applied to the future scenarios (2021 - 2050) according to the concept of relative drought indices. The temporal and spatial characteristics of projected future drought conditions are analysed with focus on moderately and extremely dry and wet conditions and the uncertainty in the projections. Finally, first results will be presented. Acknowledgement: "The ENSEMBLES data used in this work was funded by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES

  7. Factors Affecting Visual Field Outcome Post-Surgery in Sellar Region Tumors: Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Prabu Rau; Sellamuthu, Puliventhan; Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izani

    2017-12-01

    Despite the broad category of differentials for sellar region, most of them present with similar clinical signs and symptoms. Headache and visual disturbance are among the frequently seen as presenting symptom. Visual field (VF) assessment is one of the crucial component of neuroophtalmologic assessment and mean deviation (MD) value from automated perimetry allows quantification of the visual field defect. We formulated a study to look into the factors that affect the visual field outcome after surgery. All patients with sellar region tumor who has underwent surgery in Queen Elizabeth Hospital from July 2010 to July 2016 were retrospectively analysed through hospital notes. VF assessment via Humphrey visual assessment for these patient pre and post-surgery were reviewed for MD value. Eighty four patients were recruited and out of them, 151 eyes were taken into analysis after excluding eyes with missing data. Mean age of patients were 45.4 years with 70.2% of them were male. Visual disturbance is the commonest presenting symptom with mean duration of symptom prior to surgery is 9.7 months. Majority of them were pituitary adenomas (75%) followed by sellar meningioma (19%), craniopharyngioma (4.8%), and rathke cleft cyst (1.2%). 70.9% of patients showed improvement in VF based on MD outcome. Mean MD for pre surgery and post-surgery were -14.0 dB and -12.4 dB, respectively. Univariate analysis reveals younger age, female sex, shorter duration of symptom, pituitary adenoma, transsphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach favours improvement in VF. Multivariate analysis shows only shorter symptom duration, transphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach are significant for favourable VF outcome when other factors adjusted. Symptom duration and surgical approach were independent factors that affects the visual field after surgery in patients with sellar region tumors.

  8. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO 3 -N) and phosphate (PO 4 -P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of

  9. Quantifying internal variability in a regional climate model: a case study for Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretat, Julien; Macron, Clemence; Pohl, Benjamin; Richard, Yves [Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, CNRS/Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

    2011-10-15

    This study aims at presenting various methodologies to separate the reproducible and irreproducible components of seasonal and intraseasonal climate variability simulated by a regional climate model over Southern Africa (south of 15 S), during an austral summer rainy season representative of the climatology. To that end, a 30-member ensemble simulation is performed using WRF laterally forced by the ERA40 reanalyses. Retained metrics include the analysis of weather regimes, signal-to-noise ratio, inter-member standard deviation and coefficient of variation. At the seasonal timescale, simulated rainfall amounts generally show a strong reproducibility, except in the subtropics and over the southern part of the Mozambique Channel. There, the number of rainy days is roughly similar in all members, while their average intensity varies extensively. At the intraseasonal timescale, the chronology of weather regimes, derived from the 500 hPa geopotential height, is highly reproducible. Rainfall variability is much less reproducible, especially in the central parts of the domain and near its outflow boundaries. Analysis of a South African regional index nonetheless indicates that both wet and dry spells tend to be accurately simulated and occur in phase in most members, demonstrating that they are embedded in large-scale variability patterns. Internal variability is lastly related to the lateral forcings along the domain boundaries. An objective classification of inflow/outflow mass fluxes allows identification of the recurrent synoptic configurations that favor strong or weak regional reproducibility. The main uncertainties concern the basic morphological features of rain-bearing systems (i.e., their spatial extension, location and propagation speed). Consequences for tropical-temperate interactions are then discussed. (orig.)

  10. Prevalence of diabetes in three regions of Venezuela. The VEMSOLS study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Brajkovich, Imperia; Ugel, Eunice; Risques, Alejandro; Florez, Hermes; González-Rivas, Juan Pablo

    2017-12-14

    The prevalence of diabetes in multiple regions of Venezuela is unknown. To determine the prevalence of diabetes in five populations from three regions of Venezuela. During 2006-2010, 1334 subjects ≥20years were selected by multistage stratified random sampling from all households from 3 regions of Venezuela. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical analysis were obtained. Statistical methods were calculated using SPSS 20 software. Mean (SE) age was 44.8 years (0.39) and 68.5% were females. The prevalence of diabetes was 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9%-10.0%), higher in men than women (11.2% and 7.0% respectively; p=0.01). The prevalence adjusted by age and gender was 8.0% (95% CI, 6.9%-9.9%). This figure increased with age, with the lowest prevalence in the 20-29year old group (1.8% [95% CI, 0.6%-4.8%]) and the highest in the oldest group (26.8% [95% CI, 16.2%-40.5%]). Subjects with overweight or obesity had no increased risk of diabetes compared with those with normal weight. However, in women, the presence of abdominal obesity was associated with an increase of the risk of diabetes by 77% (OR 1.77 [95% CI, 1.1%-2.9%]). The prevalence of prediabetes was 14.6% (95% CI, 12.8%-16.7%), and only 48.2% were aware of their diabetes condition. In this study, 8.3% of the subjects had diabetes and 14.6% prediabetes. Less than half of the subjects with diabetes were aware of their condition. These results point to a major public health problem, requiring the implementation of diabetes prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetotelluric Studies for Hydrocarbon and Geothermal Resources: Examples from the Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Prasanta K.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) and the other related electrical and electromagnetic methods play a very useful role in resource exploration. This review paper presents the current scenario of application of MT in the exploration for hydrocarbons and geothermal resources in Asia. While seismics is the most preferred method in oil exploration, it is, however, beset with several limitations in the case of sedimentary targets overlain by basalts or evaporate/carbonate rocks where the high-velocity layers overlying the lower velocity layers pose a problem. In such cases, MT plays an important and, in some cases, a crucial role in mapping these potential reservoirs because of significant resistivity contrast generally observed between the basalts and the underlying sedimentary layers. A few case histories are presented that typically illustrate the role of MT in this context. In the case of geothermal exploration, MT is known to be highly effective in deciphering the target areas because of the conductivity structures arising from the presence and circulation of highly conductive fluids in the geothermal target areas. A few examples of MT studies carried out in some of the potential areas of geothermal significance in the Asian region are also discussed. While it is a relatively favorable situation for application of EM and MT methods in the case of exploration of the high-enthalpy region due to the development of well-defined conceptual models, still the low-enthalpy regions need to be understood well, particularly because of more complex structural patterns and the fluid circulation under relatively low-temperature conditions. Currently, a lot of modeling in both geothermal and hydrocarbon exploration is being done using three-dimensional techniques, and it is the right time to go for integration and three-dimensional joint inversion of the geophysical parameters such as resistivity, velocity, density, from MT, electromagnetics (EM), seismics and gravity.

  12. Case-control study on radon exposure and lung cancer in an Italian region. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F; Nuccetelli, C. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Physics Lab.; Forastiere, F.; Mallone, S.; Sera, F.

    2000-05-01

    The present estimates of the lung cancer risk for the general population due to radon exposure in dwellings are generally obtained by extrapolating the risk estimates derived from epidemiologic studies on miner cohorts. However, due to uncertainties related to this extrapolation, numerous case-control studies in Europe and North America were planned to estimate directly the risk in dwellings. Most of these studies are still underway and, thanks to their similar design and compatible protocols, it will be possible to perform a pooled analysis in order to improve statistical power. One of these projects is being conducted in the Lazio region of Italy, which is one of the Italian regions with the highest levels of radon indoors. A total of 408 cases and 424 controls older than 34 years, who lived for 25 years or longer in the Lazio Region, were recruited in a hospital of Rome. Detailed information regarding smoking, and occupational exposure of the subjects were collected by interviews in hospital. Residential histories (periods and addresses) during the 35 years preceding the enrolment were ascertained for all study members from the local Register and from a short questionnaire to the subjects or to the next-of-kin, resulting in 2068 dwellings to be monitored within the Lazio region. The distribution of the number of dwellings among cases and controls was the following: 25.7% of the cases and 27.3% of the controls had lived all the preceding 35 years in a single dwelling, whereas only a minority (7.9%) changed five addresses or more. The mean number of dwellings was very similar among cases (2.47) and controls (2.50). In each dwelling, radon dosemeters were placed in both the main bedroom and living room for two consecutive six-month periods. In the second six-month period, two thermoluminescent dosemeters were also collocated in each monitored room to measure gamma radiation emitted by the building materials, in order to evaluate more comprehensively the exposure of

  13. Aplikasi Manajemen Risiko pada Pembangunan Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum (SPAM Regional Jawa Tengah (Studi Kasus pada Pembangunan Jaringan Transmisi SPAM Regional Bregas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernoni Septiani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for drinking water and undistributed raw water source needs solution with SPAM, Central Java Region. One of it is SPAM Bregas Region which the service locations are in Brebes Districts, Tegal City, and Tegal District. In the process of the transmission network development, there come some risks that hamper so that it needs for further research. This research aims to identify risks, analyze the amount of risk probability and give policy recommendations. The responden of study are government agencies as providers the transmission pipelines development projects of Bregas Regional SPAM, also the supervision consultants and contractors as a service providers. The method used is to spread the questionnaire to each stakeholder for structuring the risk of using RBS (Risk Breakdown Structure and multiplying the value of the impact and frequency to obtain the value of the level of risk for each risk factor. The results showed the risks that happened in transmission network development in Bregas Regional SPAM are different from each stakeholder. Risks from perception of the supervising consultant 21.95% is accepted, 18.29% mitigated, and 59.76% avoided. Risk from owner perseption 32.93% is accepted, 23.17% mitigated, and 43.90% avoided. Rizks from contractor perseption 23.17% is accepted, 29.27 mitigated, and 47.56% avoided. Overall stakeholder’s biggest risk is land acquisition.

  14. A study of the Würm glaciation focused on the Valais region (Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Becker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, the glaciation in the European Alps reached maximum ice extent. We already simulated the steady states of the Alpine ice coverage for several climate drivers in Becker et al. (2016 and heighten in this article such studies for the Swiss Valais region. To this end, we employ the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM, which combines the shallow ice approximation (SIA with basal sliding elements of the shallow shelf approximation (SSA, and subject this model to various external driving mechanisms. We further test the sensitivity of this kind of the ice coverage in the Valais region to a temporally constant climate and to monotonic ice sheet build-up from inception to steady state as well as to the Dye 3 temperature driving during the past 120 000 years. We also test differences in the precipitation patterns exerted to the northern and southern catchment areas of the Rhone and Toce rivers to possible transfluence changes in ice from the northern to the southern catchment areas and vice versa. Moreover, we study the effect of the ice deformability and estimate the removal up to 1000 m of sediment in the Rhone Valley and study the removal of rock hindering the flow through the valley cross section at the knee of Martigny. All these studies took place because of a discrepancy in the ice height prediction of the modelled ice sheet with its geomorphologically reconstructed counterpart with proxy data obtained by Bini et al. (2009 as well as a difference in ice height between the two of up to 800 m. Unfortunately, all the scenarios in the model do not sufficiently reduce this discrepancy in the height prediction and the geomorphological reconstruction. The model results have discovered an ice dynamical discrepancy with the land map in Bini et al. (2009.

  15. Hemodialysis-Induced Regional Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Inflammation : A Cross-sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assa, Solmaz; Hummel, Yoran M.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Kuipers, Johanna; Westerhuis, Ralf; Groen, Henk; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; van Oeveren, Wim; Struck, Joachim; de Jong, Paul E.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Hemodialysis may acutely induce regional left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, which is associated with increased mortality and progressive heart failure. We tested the hypothesis that hemodialysis-induced regional LV systolic dysfunction is associated with inflammation and

  16. [Preliminary study on ecological footprint in Bashang region of Zhangjiakou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengchun; Zhang, Yongchun; Miao, Xubo; Shen, Weishou; Ma, Ronghua

    2003-02-01

    The ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity in Bashang region of Zhangjiakou city were calculated with the statistical data of the region in 1999. Based on calculation, the balance between ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity was analyzed, and the threshold values of the ecological carrying capacity and population capacity of the region at the current production level were determined. Strategies on reducing ecological deficit in this region were also brought forward.

  17. THE STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (CASE STUDY: ARDABIL REGIONAL WATER COMPANY'S MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ebrahimpoor‎

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among dimensions of social intelligence, social skills, social information processing, social awareness, social desirability of organizational performance. Methods: This research was a descriptive study. The population in this study comprised all experts, assistants and managers of regional water companies in Ardabil province, and was about 164 randomly selected people. And to gather data from field methods the means of questionnaires were used. Tromso questionnaire was chosen and designed to measure social intelligence and organizational performance by assessing specific questions about Balanced Scorecard as independent variable. To achieve the multiplier effect of each variable on the dependent variable, Pearson correlation test was performed. Results indicated that social skills, social information processing, social awareness and social desirability of improving organizational performance had the most important part in social information processing, and social awareness and social skills played a secondary role in improving performance.

  18. NEW HORIZONS IN CULTURAL ECONOMICS: SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION IN UPPER MESOPOTAMIA AS A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bulent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When rich cultural structure, geo-politic, geo-strategic structures of the region are considered will have an important role in the cultural economy of the region. For this reason, it is important to assemble the cultural economy effectively and to use it for the development of the region which has important historical ruins such as Zeugma and Hasankeyf.

  19. Regional Governance in Education: A Case Study of the Metro Area Learning Community in Omaha, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Diem, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the first regional governance reform in public education, created in the Omaha, Nebraska metropolitan area in 2007. The legislation creating this regional reform, which is called the Learning Community, established a regional governing body, the Learning Community Coordinating Council, consisting of an elected 21-member…

  20. Quantitative sensory studies in complex regional pain syndrome type 1/RSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, A J; Schwartzman, R J; Hopp, J L; Grothusen, J R

    2000-12-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPSD1) may have thermal allodynia after application of a non-noxious thermal stimulus to the affected limb. We measured the warm, cold, heat-evoked pain threshold and the cold-evoked pain threshold in the affected area of 16 control patients and patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1/RSD to test the hypothesis that allodynia results from an abnormality in sensory physiology. A contact thermode was used to apply a constant 1 degrees C/second increasing (warm and heat-evoked pain) or decreasing (cold and cold-evoked pain) thermal stimulus until the patient pressed the response button to show that a temperature change was felt by the patient. Student t test was used to compare thresholds in patients and control patients. The cold-evoked pain threshold in patients with CRPSD1/RSD (p RSD than in control patients). The heat-evoked pain threshold in patients with CRPS1/RSD was (p RSD were similar to the thresholds in control patients. This study suggests that thermal allodynia in patients with CRPS1/RSD results from decreased cold-evoked and heat-evoked pain thresholds. The thermal pain thresholds are reset (decreased) so that non-noxious thermal stimuli are perceived to be pain (allodynia).

  1. Regionalization as an approach to regulatory systems strengthening: a case study in CARICOM member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Charles; Chahal, Harinder S; Porrás, Analia; Cargill, Lucette; Hinds, Maryam; Olowokure, Babatunde; Cummings, Rudolph; Hospedales, James

    2016-05-01

    Improving basic capacities for regulation of medicines and health technologies through regulatory systems strengthening is particularly challenging in resource-constrained settings. "Regionalization"-an approach in which countries with common histories, cultural values, languages, and economic conditions work together to establish more efficient systems-may be one answer. This report describes the Caribbean Regulatory System (CRS), a regionalization initiative being implemented in the mostly small countries of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM). This initiative is an innovative effort to strengthen regulatory systems in the Caribbean, where capacity is limited compared to other subregions of the Americas. The initiative's concept and design includes a number of features and steps intended to enhance sustainability in resource-constrained contexts. The latter include 1) leveraging existing platforms for centralized cooperation, governance, and infrastructure; 2) strengthening regulatory capacities with the largest potential public health impact; 3) incorporating policies that promote reliance on reference authorities; 4) changing the system to encourage industry to market their products in CARICOM (e.g., using a centralized portal of entry to reduce regulatory burdens); and 5) building human resource capacity. If implemented properly, the CRS will be self-sustaining through user fees. The experience and lessons learned thus far in implementing this initiative, described in this report, can serve as a case study for the development of similar regulatory strengthening initiatives in resource-constrained environments.

  2. Spectral studies of erbium doped soda lime silicate glasses in visible and near infrared regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y. K.; Surana, S. S. L.; Singh, R. K.; Dubedi, R. P.

    2007-02-01

    Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of Er 3+ doped soda lime silicate glasses of the composition (in wt.%) 68.94SiO 2-22.55Na 2O-1.91CaO-4.96K 2O-0.85B 2O 3-0.29As 2O 3- xEr 2O 3 where x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 have been studied in the UV-VIS/NIR regions. From the measured intensities of the various absorption bands of these glasses, the Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6 have been evaluated. Judd-Ofelt theory has been successfully applied to characterize the absorption and luminescence spectra of these glasses. From this theory various radiative properties like spontaneous emission probability, radiative life time, fluorescence branching ratio and stimulated emission cross-section for various emission bands of these glasses in the visible and NIR spectral regions have been determined and reported. An attempt has been made to through some light on the environment of Er 3+ in this glass system. Radiative properties of fluorescence band at ˜1.54 μm suggest the suitability of this glass system for broadband amplifier in the third telecom window.

  3. A survey and a molecular dynamics study on the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Unlike most other amyloid forming neurodegenerative diseases, these can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in a variety of species. They include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Kuru, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep and goats, etc. Transmission across the species barrier to humans, especially in the case of BSE in Europe, CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK, is a major public health concern. Fortunately, scientists reported that the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions. This article gives a detailed survey on PrP hydrophobic region and does molecular dynamics studies of human PrP(110-136...

  4. Pilot age and geographic region of commuter and air taxi crashes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebok, George W; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of major airline and general aviation crashes have identified a host of risk factors. We examined risk factors related to crashes involving commuter air carrier and air taxi flights. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of pilot age, total flight time, and geographic region with commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes (14 CFR Part 135) from 1983-2002 in the United States. A total of 2033 commuter air carrier or air taxi crashes from the National Transportation Safety Board aviation crash database were identified as eligible cases. Controls were randomly selected incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) aviation incident database coded under Part 135 operation. Relative to controls, commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes were less likely to occur in pilots under 30 yr of age (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.88) after adjusting for geographic region and total flight time. With adjustment for pilot age and total flight time, the commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes with pilot error were nearly 13 times as likely to be in Alaska as their matched controls (adjusted odds ratio 12.84, 95% confidence interval 5.24-31.45). These results suggest that pilot age may be associated with risk of crash involvement in Part 135 operations. The excess crash risk in Alaska with or without pilot error underscores the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety.

  5. Simulation of transport and chemical transformation of aircraft exhaust at the tropopause region: Box model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, H.; Lippert, E.; Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1997-12-01

    Within the framework of the STRATFLUT project (Simulation of the transport and the chemical transformation of aircraft exhaust at the tropopause region) a chemistry mechanism for applications in the tropopause region was developed and continuously improved (CHEST/CHEST2). This mechanism has been applied in various sensitivity studies and to the evaluation of effective aircraft emission indices. In particular, an increase of ozone production due to airtraffic induced NO{sub x} emissions is found. This increase depends in a non-linear manner on the atmospheric background conditions into which the exhaust is released, on the altitude of release (absolute and relative to the tropopause), on the emission amount, on the daytime of release, on season and on aerosol loading. The effect of NO{sub x} released during one day by a fleet of 10 aircrafts into a box on ozone was found to vary between 0.05 ppbv and 2.3 ppbv (relative changes between approximately 0.02% and 6.57%) depending on the specific assumptions for the respective experiment. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  6. Field Studies of Broadband Aerosol Optical Extinction in the Ultraviolet Spectral Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross sections and complex refractive indices. In the case of brown carbon, its wavelength-dependent absorption in the ultraviolet spectral region has been suggested as an important component of aerosol radiative forcing. We describe a new field instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360-390 and 385-420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED) and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We deployed this instrument during the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment during Fall 2012 to measure biomass burning aerosol, and again during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study in summer 2013 to measure organic aerosol in the Southeastern U.S. In both field experiments, we determined aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength and can interpret this together with size distribution and composition measurements to characterize the aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing.

  7. Identification and systematical studies of the electron-capture delayed fission (ECDF) in the lead region

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauwels, D B; Lane, J

    2008-01-01

    In our recent experiment (March 2007) at the velocity filter SHIP(GSI) we observed the electron-capture delayed fission of the odd-odd isotope $^{194}$At. This is the first unambiguous identification of this phenomenon in the very neutron-deficient nuclei in the vicinity of the proton shell closure at Z=82. In addition, the total kinetic energy (TKE) for the daughter nuclide $^{194}$Po was measured, despite the fact that this isotope does not decay via spontaneous fission. Semi-empirical analysis of the electron-capture Q$_{EC}$ values and fission barriers B$_{f}$ shows that a relatively broad island of ECDF must exist in this region of the Nuclide Chart, with some of the nuclei having unusually high ECDF probabilities. Therefore, this Proposal is intended to initiate the systematic identification and study of $\\beta$-delayed fission at ISOLDE in the very neutron-deficient lead region. Our aim is to provide unique low-energy fission data (e.g. probabilities, TKE release, fission barriers and their isospin dep...

  8. Implementation of a regional virtual tumor board: a prospective study evaluating feasibility and provider acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Christy L; Petersen, Nancy J; Naik, Aanand D; Vander Velde, Nancy; Artinyan, Avo; Albo, Daniel; Berger, David H; Anaya, Daniel A

    2014-08-01

    Tumor board (TB) conferences facilitate multidisciplinary cancer care and are associated with overall improved outcomes. Because of shortages of the oncology workforce and limited access to TB conferences, multidisciplinary care is not available at every institution. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptance of using telemedicine to implement a virtual TB (VTB) program within a regional healthcare network. The VTB program was implemented through videoconference technology and electronic medical records between the Houston (TX) Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) (referral center) and the New Orleans (LA) VAMC (referring center). Feasibility was assessed as the proportion of completed VTB encounters, rate of technological failures/mishaps, and presentation duration. Validated surveys for confidence and satisfaction were administered to 36 TB participants to assess acceptance (1-5 point Likert scale). Secondary outcomes included preliminary data on VTB utilization and its effectiveness in providing access to quality cancer care within the region. Ninety TB case presentations occurred during the study period, of which 14 (15%) were VTB cases. Although one VTB encounter had a technical mishap during presentation, all scheduled encounters were completed (100% completion rate). Case presentations took longer for VTB than for regular TB cases (p=0.0004). However, VTB was highly accepted with mean scores for satisfaction and confidence of 4.6. Utilization rate of VTB was 75%, and its effectiveness was equivalent to that observed for non-VTB cases. Implementation of VTB is feasible and highly accepted by its participants. Future studies should focus on widespread implementation and validating the effectiveness of this model.

  9. Considerations about gust wind thresholds related to social impact: study of different regions in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberia, Laura; Amaro, Jéssica; Aran, Montserrat; Llasat, Maria del Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Severe weather events can cause several damages on a territory and its population, affecting urban infrastructure and housing, among others. In particular, wind is one of the most important phenomena which cause remarkable economic losses. Since 2008, different studies conducted by the Social Impact Research Group, in the frame of HYMEX project, determined that requests related to damage claims which are received in Meteorological Services are a good proxy indicator of social impact. However, the strong wind studies took into account a unique threshold, which proved to be insufficient. It was found that it was necessary to define a threshold for each area, according to its vulnerability and exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study is to define, for each county in Catalonia, thresholds of gust wind speed for which a remarkable social impact is observed. To accomplish this, the database of requests received in the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) between 2011 and 2015 has been used. For each request, the most representative automatic weather stations are associated. Statistical treatments of the gust wind data recorded by these stations have been carried out in order to determine which values are related to social impact. As an example, one of the first results shows that in a populated area like Barcelona, the average gust is approximately 70 km/h. On the contrary, in other less populated counties and usually more exposed to strong winds, the mean is over 85 km/h. Besides, the relation between gusts and requests has been analyzed to detect significant slope changes. In general, it has been detected an increase of requests at certain gust wind values. These results, which vary depending on the region's vulnerability and exposure, could be used to establish new thresholds for Civil Protection alarms. Therefore, a higher accuracy by region will be reached.

  10. Microscopic colitis in Uppsala health region, a population-based prospective study 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thörn, Mari; Sjöberg, Daniel; Ekbom, Anders; Holmström, Tommy; Larsson, Märit; Nielsen, Anne-Lie; Holmquist, Lars; Thelander, Ulrika; Wanders, Alkwin; Rönnblom, Anders

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the incidence of microscopic colitis (MC), any possible relation with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), concomitant drug consumption, related diseases and the clinical course of the diseases. Both new cases of IBD and MC were registered at the same time in the same geographical area. The study started in the county of Uppsala 2005-2006, and other parts of the surrounding health region were included 2007-2009. Established morphological criteria were used, i.e. a layer of subepithelial collagen band ≥ 10 μm in collagenous colitis (CC) with concomitant inflammation and at least 20 lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells in lymphocytic colitis (LC). The authors found 272 new cases of MC, 154 with CC and 118 with LC. The mean age-adjusted incidence was 7.0/1,000,000 for CC and 4.8/100,000 for LC. The clinical course was dominated by single episodes with diarrhea or intermittent symptoms, but 14% suffered from chronic diarrhea. In 10% of the cases, diagnosis was made in individuals without chronic watery diarrhea. Although not systematically tested, concomitant celiac disease was found in approximately 5% of the patients. The incidence of MC in Uppsala health region is similar to other studied areas. The majority of patients had a self-limiting or easily treated condition, but 14% need a more or less continuous medication. Ten percent of the patients demonstrate other symptoms than chronic watery diarrhea. The possibility of concomitant celiac disease should be considered in new cases of MC.

  11. Using isotope methods to study alpine headwater regions in the Northern Caucasus and Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rets, Ekaterina; Chizhova, Julia N.; Loshakova, Nadezhda; Tokarev, Igor; Kireeva, Maria B.; Budantseva, Nadine A.; Vasil'chuk, Yurij K.; Frolova, Natalia; Popovnin, Viktor; Toropov, Pavel; Terskaya, Elena; Smirnov, Andrew M.; Belozerov, Egor; Karashova, Maria

    2017-09-01

    High mountain areas provide water resources for a large share of the world's population. The ongoing deglaciation of these areas is resulting in great instability of mountainous headwater regions, which could significantly affect water supply and intensify dangerous hydrological processes. The hydrological processes in mountains are still poorly understood due to the complexity of the natural conditions, great spatial variation and a lack of observation. A knowledge of flow-forming processes in alpine areas is essential to predict future possible trends in hydrological conditions and to calculate river runoff characteristics. The goal of this study is to gain detailed field data on various components of natural hydrological processes in the alpine areas of the North Caucasus and Central Tien Shan, and to investigate the possibility that the isotopic method can reveal important regularities of river flow formation in these regions. The study is based on field observations in representative alpine river basins in the North Caucasus (the Dzhankuat river basin) and the Central Tien Shan (the Chon-Kyzyl-Suu river basin) during 2013-2015. A mixing-model approach was used to conduct river hydrograph separation. Isotope methods were used to estimate the contribution of different nourishment sources in total runoff and its regime. d18O, dD and mineralization were used as indicators. Two equation systems for the study sites were derived: in terms of water routing and runoff genesis. The Dzhankuat and Chon-Kyzyl-Suu river hydrographs were separated into 4 components: liquid precipitation/meltwaters, surface routed/subsurface routed waters.

  12. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  13. Coping Strategies for Landslide and Flood Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Mt. Elgon Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuret, Jimmy; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Mayega, Roy William; Ssentongo, Julius; Tumuhamye, Nathan; Mongo Bua, Grace; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bazeyo, William

    2016-07-11

    The occurrence of landslides and floods in East Africa has increased over the past decades with enormous Public Health implications and massive alterations in the lives of those affected. In Uganda, the Elgon region is reported to have the highest occurrence of landslides and floods making this area vulnerable. This study aimed at understanding both coping strategies and the underlying causes of vulnerability to landslides and floods in the Mt. Elgon region. We conducted a qualitative study in three districts of Bududa, Manafwa and Butalejja in the Mt. Elgon region in eastern Uganda. Six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and eight Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. We used trained research assistants (moderator and note taker) to collect data. All discussions were audio taped, and were transcribed verbatim before analysis. We explored both coping strategies and underlying causes of vulnerability. Data were analysed using latent content analysis; through identifying codes from which basis categories were generated and grouped into themes. The positive coping strategies used to deal with landslides and floods included adoption of good farming methods, support from government and other partners, livelihood diversification and using indigenous knowledge in weather forecasting and preparedness. Relocation was identified as unsustainable because people often returned back to high risk areas. The key underlying causes of vulnerability were; poverty, population pressure making people move to high risk areas, unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness and, cultural beliefs affecting people's ability to cope. This study revealed that deep rooted links to poverty, culture and unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness were responsible for failure to overcome the effects to landslides and floods in disaster prone communities of Uganda. However, good farming practices and support from the government and implementation partners were shown to be effective

  14. [Regional differences in patterns of alcohol consumption: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank study on half a million people from 10 regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2014-08-01

    To describe the regional differences on patterns of alcohol consumption across 10 study in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) areas involving half a million adults. The baseline survey of CKB took place in 5 urban and 5 rural areas across China during 2004-2008. Detailed information on alcohol consumption of 512 891 participants aged 30-79 years was gathered and analyzed. were directly standardized on age (in 10-age groups) and education (5 groups) structure of the study population for different sex. The overall prevalence rates of regular drinking (i.e., at least weekly) were 33.1% among men and 2.2% among women. Among men, the prevalence rate was seen highest in Harbin (52.0%) and Sichuan (50.2%), but lowest in Gansu (8.1%) and Haikou (18.8%). Most regular drinkers in Sichuan, Hunan, and Gansu habitually drank strong spirits (≥ 40% alcohol content), whereas beer was most commonly consumed in Harbin and Qingdao, with rice wine most commonly used in the southern regions (Haikou, Suzhou,Zhejiang and Liuzhou). Mean alcohol consumption was highest in Sichuan (414.6 g/week). Although the mean alcohol consumptions appeared lower on regular occasion in Gansu (195.2 g/week) and Henan (239.6 g/week) than in other regions, the amount consumed on special occasions in these two regions were the highest (Henan:202.3 g/day; Gansu:171.2 g/day). Similar patterns were also seen in women. Of all the regular drinkers, 82.6% of men and 56.6% of women reported heavy drinking episodes (men: >60 g, women: >40 g) on special occasions. The patterns of alcohol consumption including prevalence, frequency, amount, binge drinking pattern, and type of alcohol beverage varied greatly among the ten areas of CKB under study.

  15. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacaster, A.J. (ed.)

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. University Support in the Development of Regional Entrepreneurial Activity: An Exploratory Study from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical literature has explored the potential benefits of the interaction between universities and entrepreneurs and there is some empirical evidence that supports the positive impact of entrepreneurship education in the subsequent propensity to become an entrepreneur. The purpose of this paper is study if higher education for entrepreneurship is reflected in entrepreneurship activities at the regional level. Replicating the methodology used by Coduras, Urban, Rojas and Martínez (2008 in Spain, we compare, in an exploratory way, the experience in Chile using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM. The main results indicate that there is low interaction between entrepreneurs and universities and there is not enough impact to significantly affect entrepreneurial activity. Moreover, entrepreneurship education does not increase intentions to be an entrepreneur.

  17. E-Commerce Experiences in the Real Estate Industry: a preliminary study in regional Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Van Akkeren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems have become commonplace in most SMEs and technology is increasingly becoming a part of doing business. In recent years, the Internet has become readily available to businesses; consequently there has been growing pressure on SMEs to take up e-commerce. However, e-commerce is perceived by many as being unproven in terms of business benefit. This research aims to determine what, if any, benefits are derived from assimilating e-commerce technologies into SME business processes. This paper presents three in-depth case studies from the Real Estate industry in a regional setting. Overall, findings were positive and identified the following experiences: enhanced business efficiencies, cost benefits, improved customer interactions and increased business return on investment.

  18. Commuting behaviour and urban form: a longitudinal study of a polycentric urban region in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunfelder, Julien; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an empirical investigation of the relation between urban form and commuting behaviour in a polycentric urban region. It explores to what extent urban form and location variables help to explain commuting time, distance and mode based on an empirical case, East Jutland, which....... For instance, two of the important findings are that the distance to the closest urban centre is an important factor which affects the three selected aspects of commuting, while the distance from the residence to the closest large city (i.e. second-ranked city) is associated with a relatively short commuting...... selected aspects of commuting. However, urban form variables have greater explanatory power in explaining commuting modes than commuting time and commuting distance. No general trends in commuting were detectable from the data. Finally, the empirical findings revealed specificities of the case study...

  19. Integrated economic model of waste management: Case study for South Moravia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřebíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and discusses the developed integrated economic model of municipal waste management of the Czech Republic, which was developed by authors as a balanced network model for a set of sources (mostly municipalities of municipal solid waste connected with a set of chosen waste treatment facilities processing their waste. Model is implemented as a combination of several economic submodels including environmental and economic point of view. It enables to formulate the optimisation problem in a concise way and the resulting model is easily scalable. Model involves submodels of waste prevention, collection and transport optimization, submodels of waste energy utilization (incineration and biogas plants and material recycling (composting and submodel of landfilling. Its size (number of sources and facilities depends only upon available data. Its application is used in the case study of the South Moravia region with verification of using time series waste data. The results enable to improve decision making in waste management sector.

  20. Study of major volatiles in wines and discriminant analysis applied to classification according to region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Díaz-Regañon, M D; Salinas Fernández, M R; Masoud, T

    1997-12-01

    The major volatiles of eighty eight wines (white, rosè and red) from Madrid were studied. The samples came from the three districts forming the "Vinos de Madrid" DO (Denominación de Origen) region: Arganda, Navalcarnero and San Martín, and were analyzed by gas chromatography. The resulting data were treated by Stepwise Discriminant Analysis (SDA) in order to ascertain the efficacity of these compounds in classifying the wines according to their geographical origin. The results confirm that the above components were of little use in classifying the red and white wines and, although a correct classification percentage of 90.91% was obtained for the rosés when all the variables were used, this too was considered unsatisfactory.

  1. Introductory Study on the Rock-hewn Vestiges of Buzău Region, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Radu-Buterez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rural area of Aluniş-Colţi-Nucuand Bozioru, Buzău region is the centre of a rock-hewn vestige complex which spreads across the entire northern part of Buzău County. Between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, this area was home to a large monastic community, concentrated around the rock-hewn vestiges. The hermitages which existed there have confronted with harsh geographic conditions and endless conflicts with local landowners, therefore many of them were decommissioned or have been moved. Having also disappeared from historical documents, some hermitages have vanished completely and their old locations are currently difficult to identify. The present study aims to establish some theoretical aspects regarding the rock-hewn vestiges, as well as the context in which the monastic life appeared and to reunite all the known information about the lost hermitages in order to have a better understanding of their distribution across time and space.

  2. Studies of particle production in pp collisions in the forward region at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072725

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector at the LHC has a pseudorapidity coverage $(2 < \\eta < 5)$ which allows it to perform particle production measurements in a kinematic region where QCD models have large uncertainties. Selected analyses on particle production measurements in $pp$ collisions are summarised in these proceedings. The energy flow has been measured separately for different event classes allowing to probe multi-parton interactions at large $\\eta$. The measured prompt hadron ratios are important for hadronisation models, while the $ \\bar {p}/p$ ratio is a good observable to test models of baryon number transport. Charm production has been studied to determine cross-sections and production ratios. All measurements are compared to a variety of theory predictions.

  3. Nonlinear Correction Schemes for the Phase 1 LHC Insertion Region Upgrade and Dynamic Aperture Studies

    CERN Document Server

    de Maria, R; Tomás, R

    2009-01-01

    The Phase 1 LHC Interaction Region (IR) upgrade aims at increasing the machine luminosity essentially by reducing the beam size at the Interaction Point (IP). This requires a total redesign of the full IR. A large set of options has been proposed with conceptually different designs. This paper reports on a general approach for the compensation of the multipolar errors of the IR magnets in the design phase. The goal is to use the same correction approach for the different designs. The correction algorithm is based on the minimization of the differences between the IR transfer map with errors and the design IR transfer map. Its performance is tested using the dynamic aperture as figure of merit. The relation between map coefficients and resonance terms is also given as a way to target particular resonances by selecting the right map coefficients. The dynamic aperture is studied versus magnet aperture using recently established relations between magnetic errors and magnet aperture.

  4. Continuous venovenous hemodialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation in patients with liver failure: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Liver failure patients might be at risk for citrate accumulation during continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) with regional citrate anticoagulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive capability of baseline liver function parameters regarding citrate accumulation, expressed as an increase in the calcium total/calcium ionized (Catot/Caion) ratio ≥2.5, and to describe the feasibility of citrate CVVHD in liver failure patients. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study in medical ICU patients treated in a German university hospital. We performed 43 CVVHD runs using citrate for regional anticoagulation in 28 critically ill patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis or acute liver failure (maximum of two CVVHD runs per patient). Liver function was characterized before CVVHD using laboratory parameters, calculation of Child-Pugh and Model of End-stage Liver Disease scores, and determination of the plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green. In addition to blood gas analysis, we measured total calcium and citrate in serum at baseline and after definitive time points for each CVVHD run. Results Accumulation of citrate in serum correlated with an increase in the Catot/Caion ratio. Although the critical upper threshold of Catot/Caion ratio ≥2.5 was exceeded 10 times in seven different CVVHD runs, equalization of initial metabolic acidosis was possible without major disturbances of acid-base and electrolyte status. Standard laboratory liver function parameters showed poor predictive capabilities regarding citrate accumulation in terms of an elevated Catot/Caion ratio ≥2.5. In contrast, serum lactate ≥3.4 mmol/l and prothrombin time ≤26% predicted an increase in the Catot/Caion ratio ≥2.5 with high sensitivity (86% for both lactate and prothrombin time) and specificity (86% for lactate, 92% for prothrombin time). Conclusions Despite substantial accumulation of citrate in serum, CVVHD with regional citrate

  5. Study on environmental pollution in slurry ponds in the region of Murcia (Spain); Estudio sobre contaminacion ambiental en balsas de purines en la Region de Murcia (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, A. B.; Faz, A.; Ramos, G.

    2009-07-01

    In Murcia the importance of the pig industry is both economically and environmentally, as it involves the proper management of organic waste produced. The necessary protection of the environment makes the development of appropriate studies to define the effects that this type of waste produced in the subsoil, in order to make appropriate recommendations to ensure the continuation of this activity, in a sustainable manner. In this way, this work studies different locations representing the Region on the slurry to be deposited, either with or without artificial waterproofing to check to what extent it has affected the underground waste. (Author) 10 refs.

  6. A regional cohort study of the treatment of critically ill children with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher L; Faustino, Edward Vincent S; Pinto, Matthew G; Sala, Kathleen A; Canarie, Michael F; Li, Simon; Giuliano, John S; The Northeast Pediatric Critical Care Research Consortium

    2016-12-01

    To describe the treatment practices in critically ill children with RSV bronchiolitis across four regional PICUs in the northeastern United States, and to determine the factors associated with increased ICU length of stay in this population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children who were admitted with RSV bronchiolitis between July 2009 and July 2011 to the PICUs of Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital, and Baystate Children's Hospital. Data were collected regarding clinical characteristics and intensive care course among these hospitals. During the study period, 323 children were admitted to one of the four ICUs with RSV bronchiolitis. Despite similar mortality risk scores among ICUs, there was considerable variation in the use of therapies, particularly intubation and mechanical ventilation, in which there was greater than a 3.5-fold increased risk of intubation between sites with the highest and lowest frequency of intubation (odds ratio: 3.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.2-6.4). Albuterol was the most commonly used respiratory treatment, followed by chest physiotherapy, high-flow nasal cannula, and hypertonic saline. Longer stays in the ICU were associated with more frequent use of therapies, specifically invasive mechanical ventilation, inhaled corticosteroids, intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, and chest physiotherapy. Even within a close geographic region, there is significant variation in the treatment provided to critically ill children with RSV bronchiolitis. None of these treatments were associated with shorter durations of hospitalization in this population and some, such as mechanical ventilation, were associated with longer ICU lengths of stay.

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis B in insular regions of southeast China: a community-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a significant public health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroepidemiology of HBV in people living in the insular regions, and to provide the most recent baseline data for planning and monitoring of health. METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based survey was conducted without age restriction, on two isolated islands, Zhoushan and Yuhuan, China. The study sample was selected by random multistage cluster sampling. Serological samples and demographic information were collected from 15878 participants. RESULTS: The prevalences of anti-HBV core antibody (anti-HBc, hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg, and anti-HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs were 33.1, 10.4, and 56.1%, respectively. We found statistically significant differences of HBV markers in men versus women (P38 IU/L in 15.6% and 7.2% of the HBsAg-positive and negative groups, respectively. Elevated ALT levels were significantly higher in males (12.0% compared with females (5.8% (P<0.01. The α-fetoprotein (AFP positivity rate was 0.6% in HBsAg-positive participants over the age of 30. CONCLUSION: Due to the geographic location, we found that the HBV prevalence and potential for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma remained high in insular regions of southeast China, and are far above the national figures. Although a vaccination program has been in effect over the last 20 years, several additional measures should be adopted by the government to limit the spread of hepatitis B. These include the management of high risk persons and the floating population living on the islands, expansion of the immune population, and increased health education for fisherman.

  8. Dental Aesthetic Index of school students in Telangana region - An epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita, G; Kumar, G Anil; Reddy, Vamsi; Reddy, T Praveen Kumar; Rao, M S Rama; Wankhade, Swapnil B

    2013-12-01

    Malocclusion should be identified at its earliest before it produces any detrimental effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the orthodontic status and treatment need of school children in Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh, using Dental Aesthetic Index. One thousand children in the age group of 12 - 14 years who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered. The demographic details of the students along with the information on the orthodontic status were collected using a predesigned questionnaire by a single orthodontist. The information on orthodontic status was obtained using Dentofacial Anomalies with the criteria of Dental Aesthetic Index (W H O Oral Health Assessment form 1997). RESULTS were subjected to ANOVA, Tukeys test and chi square test using SPSS, version 16. 86.1% of the subjects had DAI score of less than 25, suggesting 'no treatment'; 10% had DAI score of 26-30, suggesting 'elective treatment'; 3% had DAI score of 31-35, suggesting 'highly desirable treatment'; 0.9% had DAI score of >36, indicating 'mandatory treatment'; Higher prevalence of malocclusion among females than males. It is necessary to identify this abnormality at its earliest before it produces detrimental effects. It is also essential to know the prevalence of malocclusion in any society, as it reveals the true extent of the problem and guides in overcoming it. The general public can, then, be educated on widespread occurrence of malocclusion and its deleterious effects, so that appropriate preventive and corrective measures can be instituted. How to cite this article: Anita G, Kumar GA, Reddy V, Reddy TP, Rao MS, Wankhade SB. Dental Aesthetic Index of school students in Telangana region - An epidemiological study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):55-60 .

  9. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Jaramillo, S A; Hirsch, C; Stefanick, M L; Murray, A M; Ockene, J; Davatzikos, C

    2009-01-13

    To determine whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) affects regional brain volumes, including hippocampal and frontal regions. Brain MRI scans were obtained in a subset of 1,403 women aged 71-89 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). WHIMS was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, which consisted of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in one daily tablet. Scans were performed, on average, 3.0 years post-trial for the CEE + MPA trial and 1.4 years post-trial for the CEE-Alone trial; average on-trial follow-up intervals were 4.0 years for CEE + MPA and 5.6 years for CEE-Alone. Total brain, ventricular, hippocampal, and frontal lobe volumes, adjusted for age, clinic site, estimated intracranial volume, and dementia risk factors, were the main outcome variables. Compared with placebo, covariate-adjusted mean frontal lobe volume was 2.37 cm(3) lower among women assigned to HT (p = 0.004), mean hippocampal volume was slightly (0.10 cm(3)) lower (p = 0.05), and differences in total brain volume approached significance (p = 0.07). Results were similar for CEE + MPA and CEE-Alone. HT-associated reductions in hippocampal volumes were greatest in women with the lowest baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (scores equine estrogens with or without MPA are associated with greater brain atrophy among women aged 65 years and older; however, the adverse effects are most evident in women experiencing cognitive deficits before initiating hormone therapy.

  10. Determinants of land take at the regional scale: a study concerning Sardinia (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, Corrado, E-mail: zoppi@unica.it; Lai, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrinalai@unica.it

    2015-11-15

    In its “Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe” (Communication COM(2011) 571 of 20 September 2011), the European Commission (EC) established an ambitious goal for the European Union (EU), that of achieving no land take by 2050; towards this aim, a key milestone for the year 2020 was set, by stating that European policies in the programming period 2014–2020 ought to consider both their direct and their indirect impacts on land use in the EU. Within this framework, this paper builds upon the findings of a previous paper (Zoppi and Lai, 2014), in which we estimated the magnitude of land take over a short period of time (2003–2008) in Sardinia, an Italian NUTS2 region, and we assessed whether and how land take is related to a set of variables that are regarded as important determinants in the literature, such as parcel size, accessibility, and proximity to main cities and towns, to the coastline, or to protected areas. In this paper we study the land-taking process taking Sardinia as a case study, in two larger time periods, 1960–1990 and 1990–2008. We assess if, and to what extent, these factors reveal similar, or different, effects in the two periods, and try to identify consistencies concerning the determinants of land take. - Highlights: • Population density and parcel size significantly affect the magnitude of land take. • The presence of nature conservation areas hinders land taking processes. • Extensive urbanization might effectively preserve non-artificial land. • Balanced accessibility of settlements and nature conservation regional policies can effectively contrast land take. • Size of non-artificial land parcels that become artificial is negatively and significantly connected to land take.

  11. Library Collection Assessment: A Case Study of Two Universities in the Region of Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Collection development is one of the important activities in academic libraries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception and the needs of users’ from library collections of print and electronic resources, including users’ awareness of library collection development policy and procedure. The study highlighted various library resources used by the respondents and their degrees of satisfaction. The scope of the study was limited to two universities in the region of Punjab, India, i.e., Panjab University, Chandigarh and Punjabi University, Patiala. The respondents were postgraduate students from all disciplines of these two universities. A stratified random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through a questionnaire and personal discussions with the respondents about their opinions in collection development of university libraries. The major findings of the study are: the majority of the respondents are not aware of library collection development policy and procedures. Hence, it is recommended that libraries should involve users in collection development, seeking users’ feedback and suggestions and evaluating collections on a regular basis.

  12. Influence of lateral and top boundary conditions on regional air quality prediction: A multiscale study coupling regional and global chemical transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Youhua; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Thongboonchoo, Narisara; Chai, Tianfeng; Horowitz, Larry W.; Pierce, Robert B.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Pfister, Gabriele; Vukovich, Jeffrey M.; Avery, Melody A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Holloway, John S.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Flocke, Frank M.; Weber, Rodney J.; Huey, L. Gregory; Dibb, Jack E.; Streets, David G.; Brune, William H.

    2007-05-01

    The sensitivity of regional air quality model to various lateral and top boundary conditions is studied at 2 scales: a 60 km domain covering the whole USA and a 12 km domain over northeastern USA. Three global models (MOZART-NCAR, MOZART-GFDL and RAQMS) are used to drive the STEM-2K3 regional model with time-varied lateral and top boundary conditions (BCs). The regional simulations with different global BCs are examined using ICARTT aircraft measurements performed in the summer of 2004, and the simulations are shown to be sensitive to the boundary conditions from the global models, especially for relatively long-lived species, like CO and O3. Differences in the mean CO concentrations from three different global-model boundary conditions are as large as 40 ppbv, and the effects of the BCs on CO are shown to be important throughout the troposphere, even near surface. Top boundary conditions show strong effect on O3 predictions above 4 km. Over certain model grids, the model's sensitivity to BCs is found to depend not only on the distance from the domain's top and lateral boundaries, downwind/upwind situation, but also on regional emissions and species properties. The near-surface prediction over polluted area is usually not as sensitive to the variation of BCs, but to the magnitude of their background concentrations. We also test the sensitivity of model to temporal and spatial variations of the BCs by comparing the simulations with time-varied BCs to the corresponding simulations with time-mean and profile BCs. Removing the time variation of BCs leads to a significant bias on the variation prediction and sometime causes the bias in predicted mean values. The effect of model resolution on the BC sensitivity is also studied.

  13. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  14. Anthropogenic emissions during Arctas-A: mean transport characteristics and regional case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, D. L.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Carmichael, G. R.; Diskin, G. S.

    2011-08-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission during 2008 as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY). The purpose of ARCTAS was to study the factors responsible for changes in the Arctic's atmospheric composition and climate. A major emphasis was to investigate Arctic haze, which is most pronounced during winter and early spring. This study focuses on the spring phase of ARCTAS (ARCTAS-A) that was based in Alaska during April 2008. Although anthropogenic emissions historically have been associated with Arctic haze, biomass burning emissions dominated the ARCTAS-A period and have been the focus of many ARCTAS related studies. This study determines mean transport characteristics of anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A. Trajectories are initiated each day from three significant regions of anthropogenic emissions (Asia, North America, and Europe). The fifteen day forward trajectories are calculated using data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 45 km horizontal resolution. The trajectory calculations indicate: origins of emissions that reach the Arctic (defined as north of 70° N) within fifteen days, pathways of these emissions, Arctic entry locations, and altitudes at which the trajectories enter the Arctic. Three cases during the ARCTAS-A period (one for each of the regions above) are examined using backward trajectories and chemical fingerprinting based on in situ data sampled from the NASA DC-8. The fingerprinting utilizes volatile organic compounds that represent pure anthropogenic tracers, Asian anthropogenic pollution, incomplete combustion, and natural gas emissions. We determine flight legs containing anthropogenic emissions and the pathways travelled by these emissions. Results show that the DC-8 sampled anthropogenic emissions from Asia, North America, and Europe during the spring phase of ARCTAS. The

  15. Anthropogenic emissions during Arctas-A: mean transport characteristics and regional case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Harrigan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA conducted the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission during 2008 as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY. The purpose of ARCTAS was to study the factors responsible for changes in the Arctic's atmospheric composition and climate. A major emphasis was to investigate Arctic haze, which is most pronounced during winter and early spring. This study focuses on the spring phase of ARCTAS (ARCTAS-A that was based in Alaska during April 2008. Although anthropogenic emissions historically have been associated with Arctic haze, biomass burning emissions dominated the ARCTAS-A period and have been the focus of many ARCTAS related studies.

    This study determines mean transport characteristics of anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A. Trajectories are initiated each day from three significant regions of anthropogenic emissions (Asia, North America, and Europe. The fifteen day forward trajectories are calculated using data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model at 45 km horizontal resolution. The trajectory calculations indicate: origins of emissions that reach the Arctic (defined as north of 70° N within fifteen days, pathways of these emissions, Arctic entry locations, and altitudes at which the trajectories enter the Arctic.

    Three cases during the ARCTAS-A period (one for each of the regions above are examined using backward trajectories and chemical fingerprinting based on in situ data sampled from the NASA DC-8. The fingerprinting utilizes volatile organic compounds that represent pure anthropogenic tracers, Asian anthropogenic pollution, incomplete combustion, and natural gas emissions. We determine flight legs containing anthropogenic emissions and the pathways travelled by these emissions. Results show that the DC-8 sampled anthropogenic emissions from Asia, North America, and Europe during the

  16. Mapping Social Vulnerability to Air Pollution: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain sparse. With reference to research achievements of social vulnerability, this study made a new trial regarding social vulnerability assessment to air pollution. With the projection pursuit cluster (PPC model, the top three factors contributing to social vulnerability index (SVI were discovered and SVI and SVI dimensions (susceptibility, exposure, and adaptability were evaluated. Results revealed that adaptability values are higher than susceptibility and exposure values. SVI is in a poor condition as, for the whole region, most values belong to the high-medium level. High SVI values mainly appear in the northern and the southern ends of study area. SVI in Shanghai is lower than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. On the scale of prefecture-level city, it can be found that the low-value centers of SVI always occurred in urban core areas. The spatial variation and inequality in social vulnerability provide policy-makers a scientific basis for air pollution prevention and sustainable management.

  17. Regional Charging Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Raghavan, Sesha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Given the complex issues associated with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and options in deploying charging infrastructure, there is interest in exploring scenarios of future charging infrastructure deployment to provide insight and guidance to national and regional stakeholders. The complexity and cost of PEV charging infrastructure pose challenges to decision makers, including individuals, communities, and companies considering infrastructure installations. The value of PEVs to consumers and fleet operators can be increased with well-planned and cost-effective deployment of charging infrastructure. This will increase the number of miles driven electrically and accelerate PEV market penetration, increasing the shared value of charging networks to an expanding consumer base. Given these complexities and challenges, the objective of the present study is to provide additional insight into the role of charging infrastructure in accelerating PEV market growth. To that end, existing studies on PEV infrastructure are summarized in a literature review. Next, an analysis of current markets is conducted with a focus on correlations between PEV adoption and public charging availability. A forward-looking case study is then conducted focused on supporting 300,000 PEVs by 2025 in Massachusetts. The report concludes with a discussion of potential methodology for estimating economic impacts of PEV infrastructure growth.

  18. Autologous fat transplantation in the facial region--clinical and morphological studies of 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Regina H; Atanassova, Pepa K; Anastassov, Yourii K

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a clinicomorphological study of autologous fat transplantation in the face region. The aim was to investigate and compare adipose tissue morphology after it was purified by two methods--centrifugation and serum lavage, and to find a correlation between the histological outcomes and the postoperative results. The evaluation was performed on a series of 30 patients assigned into two groups of 15 patients. Centrifuged adipose tissue was transplanted in one of the groups, and noncentrifuged (saline solution washed) in the other group. In all cases fat was obtained by syringe liposuction of subgluteal zones, processed by one of the two methods and then transplanted. Part of the material was fixed between vitaline membranes and embedded in paraffin. Histological analysis was performed after hematoxylin eosin staining of the slides. Post-operative effect was assessed by comparison of the pre- and postoperative photos on a 4-grade scale. The morphological analysis revealed that adipose tissue was damaged by neither of the purification methods but the serum lavage preserved greater number of non-differentiated fat cells and connective tissue fragments. Furthermore, our clinical results suggested clearly that the noncentrifuged adipose tissue transplantation was more advantageous than the other type of transplantation. The present study is an attempt to make a contribution towards a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in fat graft preservation.

  19. Using Buoy and Radar Data to Study Sudden Wind Gusts Over Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Georgios; Chronis, Themis; Lang, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Significant sudden wind gusts can pose a threat to aviation near the coastline, as well as small (sailing) boats and commercial ships approaching the ports. Such cases can result in wind speed changes of more than an order of magnitude within 5 minutes, which can then last up to 20 minutes or more. Although the constellation of scatterometers is a good means of studying maritime convection, those sudden gusts are not easily captured because of the low time resolution. The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) provides continuous measurements of wind speed and direction along the US coastal regions every 6 minutes. Buoys are platforms placed at specific places on the seas, especially along coastlines, providing data for atmospheric and oceanic studies. Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs), after the recent upgrade of the network to dual-pol systems, offer enhanced capabilities to study atmospheric phenomena. NEXRADs provide continuous full-volume scans approximately every 5 minutes and therefore are close to the time resolution of the buoy measurements. Use of single- Doppler retrievals might also provide a means of further validation.

  20. Qualitative study of peer workers within the 'Partners in Recovery' programme in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, John; Cashin, Andrew; Mills, Jem; Hutchinson, Marie; Kozlowski, Desiree; Graham, Iain

    2016-12-21

    In Australia and internationally, Peer Workers are increasingly being incorporated into the mental health workforce. Underpinning this trend is the conviction that the inclusion of workers with lived experience in overcoming mental health challenges is central to transforming service delivery. Given there are few identified Australian studies into the experiences of Peer Workers, this paper reports findings from qualitative interviews conducted in a Partners In Recovery programme in one regional area in Australia. The interviews formed part of a larger mixed-method study evaluating Peer Worker roles in the programme. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts with Peer Workers and other staff employed in the programme (n = 22) was undertaken. Central to the five themes that emerged was the concept of lived experience expertise in overcoming mental health challenges. The themes were: (i) role variance, (ii) the challenges and opportunities for Peer Worker, (iii) the processes Peer Workers employed as they attempted to shape an identify and language, (iv) the inconsistencies and challenges of employing lived experience as a defining feature of the peer worker role, and (v) the nature of trust arising from lived experience relationships. From this study, it is evident that the Peer Worker role remains underdeveloped. The difficulties experienced by Peer Workers in establishing a homogenous identity and role is not unique. The process and lack of clarity around role identity revealed from the narratives, parallels the experiences of Mental Health Nursing. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. Functional Regions of Interest in Electrical Impedance Tomography: A Secondary Analysis of Two Clinical Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Becher

    Full Text Available Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS typically show a high degree of ventilation inhomogeneity, which is associated with morbidity and unfavorable outcomes. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT is able to detect ventilation inhomogeneity, but it is unclear which method for defining the region of interest (ROI should be used for this purpose. The aim of our study was to compare the functional region of interest (fROI method to both the lung area estimation method (LAEM and no ROI when analysing global parameters of ventilation inhomogeneity. We assumed that a good method for ROI determination would lead to a high discriminatory power for ventilation inhomogeneity, as defined by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, comparing patients suffering from ARDS and control patients without pulmonary pathologies.We retrospectively analysed EIT data from 24 ARDS patients and 12 control patients without pulmonary pathology. In all patients, a standardized low-flow-pressure volume maneuver had been performed and was used for EIT image generation. We compared the AUC for global inhomogeneity (GI index and coefficient of variation (CV between ARDS and control patients using all EIT image pixels, the fROI method and the LAEM for ROI determination.When analysing all EIT image pixels, we found an acceptable AUC both for the GI index (AUC = 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.58-0.94 and the CV (AUC = 0.74; 95% CI 0.55-0.92. With the fROI method, we found a deteriorating AUC with increasing threshold criteria. With the LAEM, we found the best AUC both for the GI index (AUC = 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-1.0 and the CV (AUC = 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-1.0 using a threshold criterion of 50% of the maximum tidal impedance change.In the assessment of ventilation inhomogeneity with EIT, functional regions of interest obscure the difference between patients with ARDS and control patients without pulmonary pathologies. The LAEM is preferable

  2. REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS VERSUS TERRITORIAL COMPETITIVENESS: PROJECT TAONABA CASE STUDY - TOWN OF ABYMES, GUADELOUPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neffati Houda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Territorial intelligence can be defined as the ability of a territory to anticipate socio-economic changes and the resulting knowledge management as well as to generate policies, know-how and innovations that will ultimately create a polycentric area of expertise and service capabilities to enhance the competitiveness of companies located there. It is created by setting up a sustainable development process to review business competitiveness with all the inherent consequences in managing, making, planning and implementing decisions. Territorial competitiveness is an integrated and proactive approach to shaping the future of territories, regions and larger geographies – . to some degree it can also be referred to as spatial planning. It goes beyond traditional regional policy as it brings together economic, social and environment opportunities and in addition to other factors which influence where activities takes place, concerns how different places function and are connected, and what social and business conditions are available Territorial competitiveness strategies can help in exploring the potential for economic growth and job creation and at the same time support an enhanced quality of life by helping to meet the challenge of sustainable development. The article reports on an action research to support the urban community of Cap Excellence in Guadeloupe in its local sustainable development project. After summarizing the terms of the debate surrounding sustainable development and presenting the region, the research is placed back in the context of a more general approach of territorial intelligence.. The limits of developing a local Agenda 21 in the form of a "programmed action plan" give the opportunity to improve territorial intelligence with the concept of agency arising from Foucault's 'dispositif' or apparatus, Deleuze's theory of agency and the actor-network. A discussion on this ontology social will be initiated. We will give

  3. Empirical Studies on Regional Differences in the Health Care Expenditures of China

    OpenAIRE

    李, 華; 李, 鳳月; 李, 国軍

    2014-01-01

    The reform of health care systems has been promoted in China along with the economic development. But there are much differences by region because each local government principally must provide health care services on their own responsibility. The level of services in a region depends upon its level of economy and public finance. This paper intends to examine the actual conditions and their factors of regional differences in the public financial expenditures of health care services.

  4. Methodological Problems Of Statistical Study Of Regional Tourism And Tourist Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Olegovich Ovcharov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the analysis of the problems of regional tourism statistics. The subject of the research is the tourism expenditure, the specificity of their recording and modeling. The methods of statistical observation and factor analysis are used. The article shows the features and directions of statistical methodology of tourism. A brief review of international publications on statistical studies of tourist expenditure is made. It summarizes the data from different statistical forms and shows the positive and negative trends in the development of tourism in Russia. It is concluded that the tourist industry in Russia is focused on outbound tourism rather than on inbound or internal. The features of statistical accounting and statistical analysis of tourism expenditure in Russian and international statistics are described. To assess the level of development of regional tourism the necessity of use the coefficient of efficiency of tourism. The reasons of the prevalence of imports over exports of tourism services are revealed using the data of the balance of payments. This is due to the raw material orientation of Russian exports and low specific weight of the account “Services” in the structure of the balance of payments. The additive model is also proposed in the paper. It describes the influence of three factors on the changes in tourist expenditure. These factors are the number of trips, the cost of a trip and structural changes in destinations and travel purposes. On the basis of the data from 2012–2013 we estimate the force and the direction of the influence of each factor. Testing of the model showed that the increase in tourism exports caused by the combined positive impact of all three factors, chief of which is the growing number of foreigners who visited Russia during the concerned period.

  5. Bacterial dermohypodermitis at the Thies Regional Hospital, Senegal (West Africa: A retrospective study of 425 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Dioussé

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacterial dermohypodermitis (BDH risk factors identified in the literature on series of national hospitals are: obesity, diabetes, lymphedema, venous insufficiency. We report a series in a regional hospital. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective study, conducted over a period of 9 years from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2015. All data of patients received for BDH including. Socio-demographic, clinical, para-clinical and evolution variables was collected and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 20 software. Results: Of the 35,692 patients received in consultation, 425 had BDH (1.19% and 33.7% were hospitalized. The mean age was 40.6 ± 17.02 years. The age groups 16-59 years were 81% of the cases. There was a female predominance (74% with a sex ratio H/F = 0.35. The average time to consultation was 8.1 ± 9.5 days for BDH. The lesion were located in the lower limbs in 90.4% cases. The average hospital stay was 8.6 ± 4.7 days. Artificial skin bleaching (p = 0.003, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (p = 0.001, high blood pressure (p = 0.013, obesity (p = 0.028 were the risk factors identified in our series. Conclusions: Our series shows that the emergence of BDH also affects regional hospitals in West Africa. It also confirms that artificial skin bleaching, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, high blood pressure, obesity are aggravating factors.

  6. Maternal depression and child development: Evidence from São Paulo's Western Region Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentani, Alexandra; Fink, Günther

    2016-09-01

    While a growing body of evidence has investigated the relationship between maternal mental health and child development, evidence on children's early life outcomes remains mixed. We analyze the empirical relationship between maternal depression and children's development at age one using data from the São Paulo Western Region Cohort project. Seven hundred and ninety-eight (798) mother-child dyads living in the Butantã-Jaguaré' region of São Paulo were assessed through a home visit between January and March 2015. Maternal mental health was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Mothers were classified as "possibly depressed" if their EPDS score was between 10 and 13 and as "likely depressed" if their EPDS score was > 13. The child outcomes analyzed were height, weight, and overall development as assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Height and weight were age-normalized using WHO growth standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score (HAZ) 2. Adjusted and unadjusted linear regression models were used to assess the associations between Edinburgh scores and child outcomes. No association was found between maternal depression variables and children's height, weight, stunting, and obesity. Positive associations were found between possible depression and ASQ (delta = 0.33; 95CI 0.11-0.54; p-valuechild development in the study setting analyzed. Further research will be needed to understand this lack of association: while it is possible that caregivers' mental health did not affect caregiving behavior, it is possible that the effect of maternal depression can vary according to timing, persistence, and intensity. It is also possible that the EPDS instrument may fail to identify mothers with clinical depression, or that children with depressed mothers get increased support from other family members or public early childhood focused programs.

  7. A case–control study of epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. Methods: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007. Results: There was significant association of illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.14–2.89, working in waterlogged fields during the reference season (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6–17.9, swimming/bathing in canals, open air defecation practices, storage of cow dung in or surrounding house, residence in the house made up of cow dung walls, households with access of food to rodents, injuries over hands/foot during the endemic season (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.8–4.8, and history of skin disease during the endemic season (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2–8.5, with leptospirosis. Only 10% of individuals had gumboots for protection. A total of 83 (83% cases and 240 (80% controls had taken oral doxycycline chemoprophylaxis (P > 0.05. Cases had taken chemoprophylaxis for a median 4 weeks (range: 1–8 while controls had taken the same for median 8 weeks (range = 1–8 (P < 0.002. Conclusions: Although the commonly established factors appear to be associated with leptospirosis, the role of host factors seems to play a more important role in determining susceptibility to leptospirosis in exposed individuals.

  8. A case-control study of epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, K T; Patel, F; Patel, P B; Nayak, S; Patel, N B; Bansal, R K

    2016-01-01

    The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300). A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007. There was significant association of illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.14-2.89), working in waterlogged fields during the reference season (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6-17.9), swimming/bathing in canals, open air defecation practices, storage of cow dung in or surrounding house, residence in the house made up of cow dung walls, households with access of food to rodents, injuries over hands/foot during the endemic season (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.8-4.8), and history of skin disease during the endemic season (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2-8.5), with leptospirosis. Only 10% of individuals had gumboots for protection. A total of 83 (83%) cases and 240 (80%) controls had taken oral doxycycline chemoprophylaxis (P > 0.05). Cases had taken chemoprophylaxis for a median 4 weeks (range: 1-8) while controls had taken the same for median 8 weeks (range = 1-8) (P < 0.002). Although the commonly established factors appear to be associated with leptospirosis, the role of host factors seems to play a more important role in determining susceptibility to leptospirosis in exposed individuals.

  9. The AIDS epidemic in the Amazon region: a spatial case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze spatial changes in the risk of AIDS and the relationship between AIDS incidence and socioeconomic variables in the state of Rondonia, Amazon region. METHODS A spatial, population case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil, based on 1,780 cases reported to the Epidemiological Surveillance System and controls based on demographic data from 1987 to 2006. The cases were grouped into five consecutive four-year periods. A generalized additive model was adjusted to the data; the dependent variable was the status of the individuals (case or control, and the independent variables were a bi-dimensional spline of the geographic coordinates and some municipality-level socioeconomic variables. The observed values of the Moran’s I test were compared to a reference distribution of values generated under conditions of spatial randomness. RESULTS AIDS risk shows a marked spatial and temporal pattern. The disease incidence is related to socioeconomic variables at the municipal level in Rondônia, such as urbanization and human capital. The highest incidence rates of AIDS are in municipalities along the BR-364 highway and calculations of the Moran’s I test show positive spatial correlation associated with proximity of the municipality to the highway in the third and fourth periods (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS Incidence of the disease is higher in municipalities of greater economic wealth and urbanization, and in those municipalities bisected by Rondônia’s main roads. The rapid development associated with the opening up of once remote regions may be accompanied by an increase in these risks to health.

  10. Validation study of genes with hypermethylated promoter regions associated with prostate cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Zhao, Shanshan; Wright, Jonathan L; Kolb, Suzanne; Bibikova, Marina; Klotzle, Brandy; Ostrander, Elaine A; Fan, Jian-Bing; Feng, Ziding; Stanford, Janet L

    2014-07-01

    One challenge in prostate cancer is distinguishing indolent from aggressive disease at diagnosis. DNA promoter hypermethylation is a frequent epigenetic event in prostate cancer, but few studies of DNA methylation in relation to features of more aggressive tumors or prostate cancer recurrence have been completed. We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip to assess DNA methylation in tumor tissue from 407 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy. Recurrence status was determined by follow-up patient surveys, medical record review, and linkage with the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. The methylation status of 14 genes for which promoter hypermethylation was previously correlated with advanced disease or biochemical recurrence was evaluated. Average methylation level for promoter region CpGs in patients who recurred compared with those with no evidence of recurrence was analyzed. For two genes with differential methylation, time to recurrence was examined. During an average follow-up of 11.7 years, 104 (26%) patients recurred. Significant promoter hypermethylation in at least 50% of CpG sites in two genes, ABHD9 and HOXD3, was found in tumors from patients who recurred compared with those without recurrence. Evidence was strongest for HOXD3 (lowest P = 9.46 × 10(-6)), with higher average methylation across promoter region CpGs associated with reduced recurrence-free survival (P = 2 × 10(-4)). DNA methylation profiles did not differ by recurrence status for the other genes. These results validate the association between promoter hypermethylation of ADHB9 and HOXD3 and prostate cancer recurrence. Tumor DNA methylation profiling may help to distinguish patients with prostate cancer at higher risk for disease recurrence. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Geographic region, weather, pilot age, and air carrier crashes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohua; Pressley, Joyce C; Qiang, Yandong; Grabowski, Jurek G; Baker, Susan P; Rebok, George W

    2009-04-01

    Information about risk factors of aviation crashes is crucial for developing effective intervention programs. Previous studies assessing factors associated with crash risk were conducted primarily in general aviation, air taxis, and commuter air carriers. A matched case-control design was used to examine the associations of geographic region, basic weather condition, and pilot age with the risk of air carrier (14 CFR Part 121) crash involvement. Cases (N = 373) were air carrier crashes involving aircraft made by Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Airbus recorded in the National Transportation Safety Board's aviation crash database during 1983 through 2002, and controls (N = 746) were air carrier incidents involving aircraft of the same three makes selected at random from the Federal Aviation Administration's aviation incident database. Each case was matched with two controls on the calendar year when the index crash occurred. Conditional logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. With adjustment for basic weather condition, pilot age, and total flight time, the risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska was more than three times the risk for other regions ladjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-7.49]. Instrument meteorological conditions were associated with an increased risk for air carrier crashes involving pilot error (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15-4.44) and a decreased risk for air carrier crashes without pilot error (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37-0.96). Neither pilot age nor total flight time were significantly associated with the risk of air carrier crashes. The excess risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska and the effect of adverse weather on pilot-error crashes underscore the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety.

  12. A regional model for sustainable biogas production. Case study: North Savo, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huopana, T.; Niska, H.; Jaeskelaeinen, A.; Loonik, J.; Den Boer, E.; Song, H.; Thorin, E.

    2012-11-15

    This report is one of the outputs from the REMOWE (Regional Mobilizing of Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Production) project. REMOWE is one of the projects within the Baltic Sea Region Programme. The overall objective of the REMOWE project is, on regional levels, to contribute to a decreased negative effect on the environment by reduction of carbon dioxide emission by creating a balance between energy consumption and sustainable use of renewable energy sources. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and use of renewable energy sources are broad areas and this project will focus on energy resources from waste and actions to facilitate implementation of energy efficient technology in the Baltic Sea region within the waste-to-energy area. The focus is to utilize waste from cities, farming and industry for energy purposes in an efficient way. The problem addressed by the project concerns how to facilitate the implementation of sustainable systems for waste-to-energy in the Baltic Sea region and specifically, in a first step, in the project partner regions. The project partnership consists of the Maelardalen University, with the School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology coordinating the project, and The County Administrative Board of Vaestmanland in Sweden, Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for North Savo, and University of Eastern Finland (UEF) in Finland, Marshal Office of Lower Silesia in Poland, Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences in Wolfenbuettel in Germany, Klaipeda University in Lithuania, and Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS) in Estonia. This report is based on the modelling work performed in the work package 5 ('Model of sustainable regional waste-to-energy production') of the REMOWE project. The key objective has been on developing a regional model based on available geographic information for

  13. Analysing Regional Land Surface Temperature Changes by Satellite Data, a Case Study of Zonguldak, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, S.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, climate change is one of the most important problems that the ecological system of the world has been encountering. Global warming and climate change have been studied frequently by all disciplines all over the world and Geomatics Engineering also contributes to such studies by means of remote sensing, global positioning system etc. Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing satellites is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and there are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. Generally three algorithms are used to obtain LST by using Landsat 5 TM data. These algorithms are radiative transfer equation method, single channel method and mono-window algorithm. Radiative transfer equation method is not applicable because during the satellite pass, atmospheric parameters must be measured in-situ. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Acquisition date of the image is 28.08.2011 and our study area is Zonguldak, Turkey. High resolution images are used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of these analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperature than the city center and arid land. Because different surface properties like reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank are all together in city center, LST differs about 10 ºC in the city center. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature because of land cover structure. Thanks to this

  14. Evaluating climate variables, indexes and thresholds governing Arctic urban sustainability: case study of Russian permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Kokorev, V.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing Arctic urban sustainability today forces planners to deal with the complex interplay of multiple factors, including governance and economic development, demography and migration, environmental changes and land use, changes in the ecosystems and their services, and climate change. While the latter can be seen as a factor that exacerbates the existing vulnerabilities to other stressors, changes in temperature, precipitation, snow, river and lake ice, and the hydrological regime also have direct implications for the cities in the North. Climate change leads to reduced demand for heating energy, on one hand, and heightened concerns about the fate of the infrastructure built upon thawing permafrost, on the other. Changes in snowfall are particularly important and have direct implications for the urban economy, as together with heating costs, expenses for snow removal from streets, airport runways, roofs and ventilation corridors underneath buildings erected on pile foundations on permafrost constitute the bulk of the city's maintenance budget. Many cities are located in river valleys and are prone to flooding that leads to enormous economic losses and casualties, including human deaths. The severity of the northern climate has direct implications for demographic changes governed by regional migration and labor flows. Climate could thus be viewed as an inexhaustible public resource that creates opportunities for sustainable urban development. Long-term trends show that climate as a resource is becoming more readily available in the Russian North, notwithstanding the general perception that globally climate change is one of the challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In this study we explore the sustainability of the Arctic urban environment under changing climatic conditions. We identify key governing variables and indexes and study the thresholds beyond which changes in the governing climatic parameters have significant impact on the economy

  15. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to surface albedo parameterization: a study with a regional climate model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Angelen, J.H; Lenaerts, J.T.M; Lhermitte, S; Fettweis, X; Kuipers Munneke, P; van den Broeke, M.R; van Meijgaard, E; Smeets, C.J.P.P

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitivity study of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as modeled using a regional atmospheric climate model, to various parameter settings in the albedo scheme...

  16. Sociodemographic and nutritional correlates of neurobehavioral development: a study of young children in a rural region of Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handal, Alexis J; Lozoff, Betsy; Breilh, Jaime; Harlow, Siobán D

    2007-01-01

    ... region of Cayambe-Tabacundo, Ecuador. Women in the study communities who had a child 3 to 61 months of age completed a questionnaire about maternal and child health and sociodemographic characteristics...

  17. Ethnopharmacological study of Stryphnodendron rotundifoliumin two communities in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Rakelly de Oliveira

    Full Text Available This work describes the local knowledge of the medicinal use of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart., Fabaceae, according to informants in two areas of the Araripe bioregion, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. We used interviews to investigate the ethnomedicinal use of the local species to determine the mode of use, frequency of administration, duration of treatment and restrictions of use. In traditional medicine, the use of S. rotundifoliumis associated with the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. The part of the plant most used was the stem bark (86.11%, the predominant mode of preparation was immersion in water (52.83%, and oral administration was the most cited (48.43%. For inflammatory and infectious diseases, the treatment lasted 3-10 days and the frequency of administration was 2-3 times/day. For gastroprotective effects, treatment lasted up to 30 days, and the herb was administered 1-3 times/day. For pain complaints, the therapy varied from 2-3 days to continuous administration.The informants (46.87% did not mention restrictions of use, except for pregnant women, with a rate of 25%. A comparison of these results with the ethnopharmacological information from other studies showed that some of the traditional indications are scientifically supported by the literature or clinical studies. Nevertheless, the results showed that pharmacologists have not fully investigated all the possible bioactivities that healers credit to this plant.

  18. [Social participation and health promotion: a case study in the region of Paranapiacaba and Parque Andreense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elaine Cristina da; Pelicioni, Maria Cecília Focesi

    2013-02-01

    Community participation is considered a key condition for communities to assume control of their health within the scope of health promotion. This study sought to identify and analyze the perceptions of residents of the watershed areas of Santo André/São Paulo with respect to the actions of health education and environmental education developed by the public authorities of the city, and how the local community participates in these processes. Data collection was conducted via structured and semi-structured interviews with civil servants and local residents. The methodology of content analysis proposed by Bardin was used for data interpretation. The main results showed that the health measures developed in the region studied are still predominantly viewed from the standpoint of prevention and not as an educational process able to support and achieve some of the goals of health promotion, such as the development of personal skills and support for community action. Data analysis showed the importance of intersectorial activity and conducting emancipatory educational measures as a key factor for participative procedures and the empowerment of the population.

  19. Drinking water contamination from perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): an ecological mortality study in the Veneto Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrantonio, Marina; Bai, Edoardo; Uccelli, Raffaella; Cordiano, Vincenzo; Screpanti, Augusto; Crosignani, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a heterogeneous group of highly stable man-made chemicals, have been widely used since 1960s and can be detected almost ubiquitously in all environmental matrices. In Italy, on January 2014, drinking water contamination in an area of the Veneto Region was detected mainly due to the drain of fluorinated chemicals by a manufacturing company operating since 1964. The present ecological mortality study was aimed at comparing mortality for some causes of death selected on the basis of previous reported associations, during the period 1980-2013, in municipalities with PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated drinking water on the basis of the levels indicated by the Italian National Health Institute (ISS). Sex-specific number, standardized mortality rates and rate ratios (RR) for PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated areas were computed for each cause of death through the ENEA epidemiological database. In both sexes, statistically significant RRs were detected for all causes mortality, diabetes, cerebrovascular diseases, myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease. In females, RRs significantly higher than 1.0 were also observed for kidney and breast cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Increased risk, although not statistically significant, was observed for bladder cancer in both sexes, and for testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer and leukemia in males only. Higher mortality levels for some causes of death, possibly associated with PFAS exposure, were detected in contaminated municipalities in comparison with uncontaminated ones with similar socioeconomic status and smoking habits. These results warrant further individual level analytic studies to delineate casual associations.

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B in insular regions of southeast China: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Yu, Chengbo; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shigui; Ren, Jingjing; Xu, Weijian; Luo, Zhuanbo; Li, Lanjuan

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a significant public health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroepidemiology of HBV in people living in the insular regions, and to provide the most recent baseline data for planning and monitoring of health. A cross-sectional, community-based survey was conducted without age restriction, on two isolated islands, Zhoushan and Yuhuan, China. The study sample was selected by random multistage cluster sampling. Serological samples and demographic information were collected from 15878 participants. The prevalences of anti-HBV core antibody (anti-HBc), hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) were 33.1, 10.4, and 56.1%, respectively. We found statistically significant differences of HBV markers in men versus women (Panti-HBc positivity between the two islands (P38 IU/L) in 15.6% and 7.2% of the HBsAg-positive and negative groups, respectively. Elevated ALT levels were significantly higher in males (12.0%) compared with females (5.8%) (Pgovernment to limit the spread of hepatitis B. These include the management of high risk persons and the floating population living on the islands, expansion of the immune population, and increased health education for fisherman.

  1. Ecosystem studies in the Kalkalpine Alpine region - altitude profile Achenkirch; Oekosystemare Studien im Kalkalpin - Hoehenprofile Achenkirch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F. [Forstliche Bundesversuchsanstalt, Wien (Austria)

    1993-11-01

    The interdisciplinary project ``Ecosystem Studies in the Kalkalpin Alpine region - altitude profile Achenkirch`` organised by the Bundesversuchsanstalt is the follow-up project of the ``Altitude profile Zillertal`` project whithin which the ecosystem of the Kalkalps has been continously studied since 1990. By including different reseach branches and by interdisciplinary evaluation of results one attempts to make a contribution to the protection of forests especially in terms of reafforestation in high altitudes and dynamics of forest ecosystems. Indicator values which characterise stresses of the ecosystem will be set up in order to provide a basis for legal measures. (orig./EW) [Deutsch] Das interdisziplinaere Projekt ``Oekosystemare Studien im Kalkalpin - Hoehenprofile Achenkirch`` der Forstlichen Bundesversuchsanstalt ist das Folgeprojekt des ``Hoehenprofil Zillertal``, in dessen Rahmen seit 1990 die oekosystemaren Untersuchungen im Kalkalpin fortgesetzt werden. Durch den vernetzten Forschungsansatz und die interdisziplinaere Auswertung der Ergebnisse soll ein Beitrag zur Schutzwaldsanierung, zu Fragen der Hochlagenaufforstung und Dynamik von Waldoekosystemen erarbeitet werden. Weiteres sollen auf der Basis der Schadstoffbelastungen und der Kenntnis von Zeigerwerten zur Charakterisierung der Stressbelastung Grundlagen fuer legislative Massnahmen gegeben werden. (orig.)

  2. The oasis effect and summer temperature rise in arid regions - case study in Tarim Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xingming; Li, Weihong; Deng, Haijun

    2016-10-14

    This study revealed the influence of the oasis effect on summer temperatures based on MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and meteorological data. The results showed that the oasis effect occurs primarily in the summer. For a single oasis, the maximum oasis cold island intensity based on LST (OCI LST ) was 3.82 °C and the minimum value was 2.32 °C. In terms of the annual change in OCI LST , the mean value of all oases ranged from 2.47 °C to 3.56 °C from 2001 to 2013. Net radiation (R n ) can be used as a key predictor of OCI LST and OCI temperature (OCI based on air temperature). On this basis, we reconstructed a long time series (1961-2014) of OCI temperature and T base (air temperature without the disturbance of oasis effect). Our results indicated that the reason for the increase in the observed temperatures was the significant decrease in the OCI temperature over the past 50 years. In arid regions, the data recorded in weather stations not only underestimated the mean temperature of the entire study area but also overestimated the increasing trend of the temperature. These discrepancies are due to the limitations in the spatial distribution of weather stations and the disturbance caused by the oasis effect.

  3. A study of cysts in the oral region. Cysts of the jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Ishida, J; Nakano, Y; Ishii, T; Fukumoto, M; Izumi, H; Kaneko, K

    1995-03-01

    Clinical cases of cysts of the jaw treated in the Department of Oral Surgery of our university during the 10 y between 1980 and 1989 were studied clinically. Patients with radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst and postoperative maxillary cyst, which were found at relatively high frequencies, were further analyzed with regard to age, sex and anatomical distribution. A diagnosis of cyst was established in 1,444 patients during the above period, and 1,234 (85.5%) of them had cysts of the jaw. According to a pathological classification by Ishikawa's method, these patients included 509 (41.2%) with radicular cyst, 259 (27.0%) with dentigerous cyst, 95 (7.7%) with odontogenic keratocyst and 267 (21.6%) with postoperative maxillary cyst. The pattern of age distribution in cases of radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst and postoperative maxillary cyst was similar to that found in previous studies. Among patients with dentigerous cyst, those aged under 20 y accounted for about 60%. Radicular cyst occurred most frequently in the maxillary lateral incisors, dentigerous cyst in the mandibular wisdom teeth, and odontogenic keratocyst in the region between the mandibular molar and the ramus of the mandible.

  4. The economic efficiency of forest energy wood chip production in regional use – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Šafařík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This regional project case study deals with the limiting factors of economic efficiency in the production of forest energy wood chips. The evaluation of production efficiency made use of data obtained from the Lesy města Brna, a.s. (Forest of the City of Brno, Corp., which were subjected to two static methods of investment evaluation: an analysis of the tipping point and determination of the limit of variable costs and a dynamic modified tipping point analysis using cash flow (i.e. cash break even analysis. The results have confirmed an established hypothesis, namely that the decisive factor in the profitability of the production of forest energy wood chips hinges on the costs incurred in the gathering of raw material and the distribution of the produced chips. The results include a further limiting factor: transportation costs to the final consumption location. The output of the study is a recommendation that the concentration of residual forest materials not exceed a distance of 250 m from the place of production to the point of disintegration and that the transport distance of energy chips not exceed 50 km from the place of disintegration to the final consumption point. These limiting values help quantify the full internal costs per cost unit, full internal cost profitability, total revenue profitability and annual profitability expressed in terms of fixed assets depreciation without factoring in financial aid.

  5. Sero-epidemiology study of leptospirosis in febrile patients from Terai region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Lalmani; Pandey, Kishor; Malla, Meena; Khanal, Santosh; Pandey, Basu Dev

    2017-09-18

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic strains of bacteria belonging to genus Leptospira whose symptoms can range from mild clinical manifestations to a severe life threatening illness. This disease may be under-recognized in resource poor settings like Nepal where many clinical laboratories lack appropriate equipment, technology and personnel for proper diagnosis. We used IgM ELISA to estimate the sero-prevalence of leptospirosis in a group of febrile patients in a western region of Nepal. We also tested for possible co-infection with two other common febrile diseases endemic to Nepal including dengue and typhoid fever. Among samples from 144 febrile patients, 30 (21%) were positive for leptospiral IgM. In univariate analysis, leptospirosis was significantly associated with being of working age (p = 0.019), farming (p = 0.045) and water and animal contact (p = 0.0001). Widal and dengue serological study showed that the majority of leptospirosis infections did not have an alternative diagnosis. As indicated by the study, regular surveillance of animal reservoirs in collaboration with veterinary department and inclusion of leptospirosis as a differential diagnosis of febrile illness is thus recommended based on the current findings.

  6. Idealized numerical studies of gravity wave alteration in the tropopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, Vera; Spichtinger, Peter

    2017-04-01

    When travelling through the tropopause region, characterised by strong gradients in static stability, wind shear and trace gases, the properties of gravity waves often change drastically. Within this work, the EULAG model (Prusa et al., 2008) is used to provide an idealized setup for sensitivity studies on these modifications. The characteristics of the tropopause are introduced by specifiying environmental profiles for Brunt-Väisälä frequency and horizontal wind speed, partly extracted from measurement and reanalysis data. Tropospheric and stratospheric wave spectra extracted for flows under varying tropopause sharpness are analysed, respectively. In particular, different regimes for transmission behaviour are classified for a series of Brunt-Väisälä frequency profiles showing a tropopause inversion layer (TIL, see e.g. Birner et al., 2002). Furthermore, this study focusses on the comparison of transmission coefficients deduced from numerical simulations with values derived from asymptotical analysis of the governing equations and investigates where the threshold of linear behaviour are for the respective setups, The wave generation is implemented in the model both through topography at the lower model domain and through the prescription of wave packets at initialization of the simulations. References: Prusa, J. M., P. K. Smolarkiewicz, P. K. and A. A. Wyszogrodzki, 2008: EULAG, a computational model for multiscale flows, Computers & Fluids 37, 1193-1207 Birner, T., A. Doernbrack, and U. Schumann, 2002: How sharp is the tropopause at midlatitudes?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1700, doi:10.1029/2002GL015142.

  7. Mass measurements of exotic Ions in the heavy mass region for nuclear structure studies at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Borgmann, Christopher

    The mass is a unique fingerprint of each nucleus as it reflects the sum of all interactions within it. Comparing experimental mass values with theoretical calculations provides an important benchmark of how well the role of these interactions is already understood. By investigating differences of experimental binding energies, such as two-neutron separation energies (S$_{2n}$), valuable indications for nuclear-structure studies are provided. The present thesis contributes to these studies providing new high-precision mass measurements especially in the heavy-mass region. Here, nuclear theory is heavily challenged due to the large number of nucleons. The data have been obtained at the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP located at the radioactive-ion-beam facility ISOLDE at CERN. For the determination of the masses, the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance technique has been applied. While the new mass data for $^{122−124}$Ag continue existing trends in the S$_{2n}$ energies, the new mass values for $...

  8. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó hAiseadha, Coilín

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources.

  9. The Niger Delta Region and the Woman's Predicament: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through the machination of patriarchy and culture, Agary exposes women in the region as victims of circumstances beyond their making and further expounds the racial prejudice in the region. The women in Agary's fiction are treated with suspicion and exploited by local and foreign men. This paper seeks to explore the ...

  10. Modelling cloud effects on ozone on a regional scale : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, J.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Meijer, E.W.; Boersen, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of clouds on ozone on a regional scale (Europe) with a regional scale photochemical dispersion model (LOTOS). The LOTOS-model calculates ozone and other photo-oxidant concentrations in the lowest three km of the troposphere, using actual meteorologic data and

  11. EPA Region 7 and Four States Water Quality Standards Review Process Kaizen Event Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June, 2007, participants from EPA headquarters, EPA Region 7, and the four States in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, and NE) conducted a Lean business kaizen event on the EPA–State process for developing and revising water quality standards (WQS).

  12. Regional differences in severe postpartum hemorrhage : A nationwide comparative study of 1.6 million deliveries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prick, Babette W.; von Schmidt auf Altenstadt, Joost F.; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W P M; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Steegers, Eric A P; Mol, Ben W.; Schutte, Joke M.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Duvekot, Johannes J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is increasing. Regional variation may be attributed to variation in provision of care, and as such contribute to this increasing incidence. We assessed reasons for regional variation in severe PPH in the Netherlands. Methods: We used

  13. Regional differences in severe postpartum hemorrhage: A nationwide comparative study of 1.6 million deliveries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.W. Prick (Babette); J.F. von Schmidt auf Altenstadt (Joost F.); C.W.P.M. Hukkelhoven (Chantal); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); B.W. Mol (Ben W.); J.M. Schutte (Joke); K.W.M. Bloemenkamp (Kitty); J.J. Duvekot (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The incidence of severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is increasing. Regional variation may be attributed to variation in provision of care, and as such contribute to this increasing incidence. We assessed reasons for regional variation in severe PPH in the Netherlands.

  14. [Prospective regional study of an epidemic of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, M; Cornet, B; Milou, C; Gouyon, J B

    2002-06-01

    This prospective study was designed to identify risk factors associated with admission in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) among infants hospitalized for treatment of RSV induced bronchiolitis. This study was population-based and was conducted in Burgundy, a French region with 1,800,000 inhabitants where passive immunoprophylaxis for RSV bronchiolitis was not set up at the time of the study. From December 1st 1999 to April 30th 2000, 484 infants were hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis in Burgundy: 19.6% were born prematurely (gestational age [GA] below 37 weeks) and at admission, 68.3% had a postnatal age below six months (mean = 5 +/- 5.9 months; median value = 3 months). The duration of hospitalization was 7.3 +/- 12.4 days (median value = 6 days). Among the 484 infants, 31 (6.4%) needed admission in PICU, eight needed mechanical ventilation (1.7%) and one died (0.2%). Univariate analysis identified anamnestic risk factors associated with admission in PICU: prematurity; low birth weight; past history of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS); mechanical ventilation for RDS treatment; bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and congenital heart disease. Multivariate analysis identified three independent factors associated with an increased risk for admission in PICU: GA below 32 weeks; RDS and congenital heart disease. This study suggests that population at risk for severe RSV bronchiolitis with PICU admission should include all very preterm infants with RDS whatever the outcome of RDS (with or without BPD). These epidemiological data could be helpful to set up indications for passive immunoprophylaxis of RSV induced bronchiolitis.

  15. Empathy and burnout of emergency professionals of a health region: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuguero, Oriol; Forné, Carles; Esquerda, Montserrat; Pifarré, Josep; Abadías, María José; Viñas, Joan

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the association between levels of empathy and burnout of emergency professionals in all the assistance levels.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the health region of Lleida and the Pyrenees with 100 professionals from the field of Urgency. Participation reached 40.8%. Empathy and burnout were measured using the Spanish versions of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) respectively. The total MBI score and its 3 dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) were analyzed. The JSPE and MBI scores were categorized into tertiles that were identified as "low," "moderate," and "high" levels.The median (interquartile range) was 112 (102-123) and 37 (27-53.5) for the JSPE and MBI scores respectively. Professionals with high burnout (MBI≥47) showed the lowest levels of empathy, that is, JSPE score of 105 (98-114); those with moderate burnout (31≤MBI empathy were associated with the lowest levels of burnout, especially in depersonalization, and to a lesser extent in personal accomplishment. There were no differences in empathy and burnout for any of the other study variables.Our findings suggest that the empathy of emergency professionals is associated with burnout. Hence, reducing professional burnout could help keep emergency professionals' empathy levels high, which in turn would ensure a better quality of care. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to carry out prospective studies to describe the profiles of burnout and empathy as well as their association and evolution.

  16. Fracture patterns in the maxillofacial region: a four-year retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The facial bones are the most noticeable area in the human body, and facial injuries can cause significant functional, aesthetic, and psychological complications. Continuous study of the patterns of facial bone fractures and changes in trends is helpful in the prevention and treatment of maxillofacial fractures. The purpose of the current clinico-statistical study is to investigate the pattern of facial fractures over a 4-year period. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of 1,824 fracture sites was carried out in 1,284 patients admitted to SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center for facial bone fracture from January 2010 to December 2013. We evaluated the distributions of age/gender/season, fracture site, cause of injury, duration from injury to treatment, hospitalization period, and postoperative complications. Results The ratio of men to women was 3.2:1. Most fractures occurred in individuals aged between teens to 40s and were most prevalent at the middle and end of the month. Fractures occurred in the nasal bone (65.0%), orbital wall (29.2%), maxillary wall (15.3%), zygomatic arch (13.2%), zygomaticomaxillary complex (9.8%), mandibular symphysis (6.5%), mandibular angle (5.9%), mandibular condyle (4.9%), and mandibular body (1.9%). The most common etiologies were fall (32.5%) and assault (26.0%). The average duration of injury to treatment was 6 days, and the average hospitalization period was 5 days. Eighteen postoperative complications were observed in 17 patients, mainly infection and malocclusion in the mandible. Conclusion This study reflects the tendency for trauma in the Seoul metropolitan region because it analyzes all facial fracture patients who visited our hospital regardless of the specific department. Distinctively, in this study, midfacial fractures had a much higher incidence than mandible fractures. PMID:26734557

  17. New results of studying of the Devonian shale formation in the Volga-Ural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Pronin, Nikita; Morozov, Vladimir; Nosova, Fidania

    2015-04-01

    The objects of the study are Upper Devonian carbonate rocks in the territory of South-Tatar arch and Melekess basin in the Volga- Urals region. We studied core material and organic matter of Domanicoid facies from the sediments of Semilukskiy and Rechitskiy (Domanik) horizons of the Upper Devonian. Basic analytical research methods included the following: study of the composition, structural and textural features of the rocks, the structure of their voids, filter and reservoir properties and composition of the fluid. The complex research consisted of macroscopic description of the core material, optical microscopy analysis, radiographical analysis, thermal analysis, x-ray tomography, electron microscopy, gas-liquid chromatography, chromate-mass spectrometry, isotopic analysis of oil and organic matter, light hydrocarbons analysis using paraphase assay, adsorbed gases analysis, and thermal vacuum degassing method. In addition, we performed isotopic studies of hydrocarbons saturating shale rocks. The study of biomarkers was carried out with the help of chromato-mass spectrometry in the Laboratory of Geochemistry of Fossil Fuels, Kazan Federal University. GC/MS method was used in oil to investigate the individual composition of naphthenic hydrocarbons, primarily steranes and terpanes and another new biological markers. In this study we used several informative parameters characterizing the depositional environment, the type of source OM and its maturity. In the evaluation of the facial conditions of sedimentation and the degree of catagenetic conversion of the OM, the quantitative characteristics based not only on the distribution of steranes and terpanes, which are related to the lithology and maturity of the OM.New biomarkers parameters (carotenoids) were used to study the conditions of formation of shale strata. Based on these new data, a new model of geological and environmental conditions for the formation of shale strata saturated bituminous matter (organic

  18. CLUSTER AND MULTICRITERIAL COMPARATIVE REGIONAL ANALYSIS – CASE STUDY OF CROATIAN COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Jurun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia as EU accession country is divided into three Nomenclature des unites territoriales statistiques (NUTS 2 regions which are quite different from twenty one official administrative Croatian Counties. Furthermore, Croatian Counties show significant economic and social disproportions. These disproportions are in the focus of the extended on-going scientific research. The focus of this paper is regional multimethodological approach and its results comparative analysis. After Croatian Counties classification by hierarchical Cluster analysis, multicriterial comparative approach is used. Weighting process within Croatian Counties ranking is based on statistical linkage of a set of regional variables (regional GDP per capita, employment, gross investment, production of more important agricultural products, GVA per person employed, construction works value, exports, imports, foreign tourists arrivals, foreign tourists nights, ecology…. Subsequently, comparative rank analysis is realized by rank correlation coefficient hypothesis testing and Friedman test. At the end of this research phase all multimethodological approach results are compared with existing regional administrative division of Croatian territory.

  19. Study of Dislocations in the Minicrystallized Regions in Multicrystalline Silicon Grown by the Directional Solidification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Directionally solidified multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si-based solar cells have dominated the global photovoltaic market in recent years. The photovoltaic performance of mc-Si solar cells is strongly influenced by their crystalline defects. The occurrence of minicrystallization results in much smaller grain size and, therefore, a larger number of grain boundaries in mc-Si ingots. Dislocations in the minicrystallized regions have been rarely investigated in the literature. In this work, optical microscopy was used to investigate dislocations in the mincrystallized regions in mc-Si ingots grown by the directional solidification method. The distribution of dislocations was found to be highly inhomogeneous from one grain to another in the mincrystallized regions. High inhomogeneity of dislocation distribution was also observed in individual grains. Serious shunting behavior was observed in the mc-Si solar cells containing minicrystallized regions, which strongly deteriorates their photovoltaic properties. The shunting was found to be highly localized to the minicrystallized regions.

  20. Study on the China regional economic growth and energy consumption intensity difference convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Mei; Wu, Lu

    2017-04-01

    Based on theory of convergence, firstly, per-capita GDP difference convergence model of underdeveloped regions and developing regions compared with developed regions are established, then, convergence model of energy consumption intensity difference compared with per-capita GDP difference is built, from which, it is found that China's regional per-capita GDP growth shows convergence trend, and convergence rate of energy consumption intensity is slightly slower than the per-capita GDP. So, it is suggested that the local government should fully consider the convergence characteristics of regional energy consumption difference to guarantee not only economic growth but also energy saving and emission reduction in order to ensure sustained economic growth in the implementation of energy-saving emission reduction strategies.

  1. The importance of the orthopaedic doctors' appearance: a cross-regional questionnaire based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Stuart A; Tinning, Craig G; Gupta, Sanjay; Medlock, Gareth; Wood, Alexander M; Aitken, Margaret A

    2014-02-01

    Critics of the Department of Health 'bare below the elbow' guidelines have raised concerns over the impact of these dress regulations on the portrayed image and professionalism of doctors. However, the importance of the doctor's appearance in relation to other professional attributes is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the opinion of patients on the importance of appearance and the style of clothing worn by doctors. Patient questionnaire survey, administered across four Scottish regions. Orthopaedic outpatient departments. 427 patients and accompanying relatives. The absolute and relative importance of the doctors' appearance, as reported using a 5-point Likert scale. The absolute and relative importance of the style of clothing worn by doctors, as reported using a 5-point Likert scale. The rank preferences for four different styles of doctors' attire as illustrated by standardised clinical photographs. The study was appropriately powered to identify a 0.5 difference in mean rank values with 0.90 power at a = 0.05. The majority of participants felt the doctors' appearance was important but not as important as compassion, politeness and knowledge. Only 50% felt that the style of doctors clothing mattered; what proved more important was an impression of cleanliness and good personal hygiene. In terms of how patients would prefer doctors to dress in clinic, the most popular choice proved to be the smart casual style of dress, which conforms with the 'bare below the elbows' dress code policy. The smart casual clothing style was the highest ranked choice irrespective of patient age, gender, regional or socioeconomic background. The doctors' appearance is of importance to patients and their relatives, but they view many other attributes as more important than how we choose to dress. While not specifically addressing the role of doctors clothing in the transmission of infection, our results do support the preference of patients for 'bare below

  2. Is kiwifruit allergy a matter in kiwifruit-cultivating regions? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haktanir Abul, Mehtap; Dereci, Selim; Hacisalihoglu, Sadan; Orhan, Fazil

    2017-02-01

    Although kiwifruit is known as a common cause of food allergy, population-based studies concerning the prevalence of kiwifruit allergy do not exist. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy in 6-18-year-old urban schoolchildren in a region where kiwifruit is widely cultivated. This cross-sectional study recruited 20,800 of the randomly selected 6-18-year-old urban schoolchildren from the Rize city in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey during 2013. Following a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents and the child, consenting children were invited for skin prick tests (SPTs) and oral food challenges (OFCs). Children with suspected IgE-mediated kiwifruit were skin prick tested with kiwifruit (commercial allergen and prick-to-prick test with fresh kiwifruit) and a pre-defined panel of allergens (banana, avocado, latex, sesame seed, birch, timothy, hazel, cat, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Dermatophagoides farinae). All children with a positive SPT to kiwifruit were invited for an open OFC. The prevalence of IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy was established using open OFCs. The response rate to the questionnaire was 75.9% (15783/20800). The estimated prevalence of parental-perceived IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy was 0.5% (72/15783) (95% CI, 0.39-0.61%). Of the 72 children, 52 (72.2%) were skin tested, and 17 (32.7%) were found to be positive to kiwifruit with both commercial extract and kiwifruit. The most frequently reported symptoms in kiwifruit SPT-positive children were cutaneous (n = 10, 58.8%) followed by gastrointestinal (n = 6, 35.3%) and bronchial (n = 4, 23.5%). Oral symptoms were reported in six (35.3%) children. All children who were kiwifruit positive by SPT were found positive during the oral challenge. The confirmed prevalence of IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy by means of open OFC in 6-18-year-old urban schoolchildren living in Rize city was 0.10% (95% CI, 0

  3. ASSESSMENT OF INTER-REGIONAL CONVERGENCE IN THE SOCIAL WELFARE BASED ON THE A. SEN FUNCTION: RUSSIAN CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Malkina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is estimation of social welfare in Russian regions in 2004-2014 based on the A. Sen abbreviated function, the assessment of regions convergence in welfare and factors contributing to it. We adjusted the A. Sen welfare function by the cost of living in regions and presented it as a four-factor multiplicative model. By use of the coefficient of variation (CV we estimated the inter-regional inequality in welfare in statics and dynamics. The technique of decomposition of the squared CV for logarithm of welfare function enabled us to evaluate the contribution of main and intersect factors to Russian regions' convergence in welfare. As a result we assessed Russian regions social welfare in dynamics and evaluated factors contributing to its growth. Based on the weighted CV we discovered the negative impact of the recession of 2009 on the regions convergence in welfare, and unweighted CV even more revealed the turning point in the convergence tendency occurring in 2012. We discovered that in statics the redistributive factor makes the greatest and increasing contribution to inter-regional convergence in welfare, whilst the cost of living and intraregional income inequality factors have moderate and decreasing influence on it. The dynamic analysis revealed two factors predominantly contributing to regions' temporal convergence in welfare, namely growing convergence in GRP per capita and significant but unstable influence of distributive factor. Two other factors, the cost of living and intra-regional income inequality, counteracted to temporal convergence mainly due to attenuation of their negative correlation to nominal and real income per capita respectively. The results obtained may be applicable to both inter-budgetary and regional policy development.

  4. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region with reference studies from Europe and the USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...... transformed from natural to urban land in Denmark. A driving force behind this is the emergence of metropolitan regions, which integrate vast parts of rural areas into the urban system. Peri-urban areas are one of the hot spots of change. Agricultural and nature areas are under significant transformation...... and options for spatial planning. The main case was the metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Other cases from Europe and the USA were used as reference studies. The methods included quantitative analyses of register and land use data as well as general case study work to investigate options for spatial...

  5. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core-shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ±6% and ±14% for external mixture and ±9% and ±31% for core-shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Influence of Habits on Depression in the Peruvian Medical Student: Study in Seven Administrative Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mariela; Talledo-Ulfe, Lincolth; Heredia, Paula; Quispe-Colquepisco, Sarita; Mejia, Christian R

    To determine the influence of habits on depression in medical students from 7 Peruvian Regions. Analytical cross-sectional study of a secondary data analysis. The diagnosis of depression was obtained according to the Zung test result, with any level of this condition being considered positive. This was also compared with other social and educational variables that were important according to previous literature. Of the 1922 respondents, 54.5% (1047) were female. The median age was 20 [interquartile range, 18-22] years, and 13.5% (259) had some degree of depression according to the Zung scale. In the multivariate analysis, the frequency of depression increased with the hours of study per day (RPA=1.03; 95%CI; 1.01-1.04; P<.001) and the student work (RPA=1.98; 95%CI; 1.21-3.23; P=.006). On the other hand, decreased the frequency of depression decreased on having similar meal schedules (RPA=0.59; 95%CI; 0.38-0.93; P=.022), and having a fixed place in which to get food (RPA=0.66; 95%CI; 0.46-0.96; P=.030), adjusted for the year of college entrance. Some stressors predisposed to depression were found (the work and studying more hours a day). On the other hand, to have order in their daily routine decreased this condition (having a set place and times for meals). Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. How fault zones impact regional permeability and groundwater systems: insights from global database of fault zone studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibek, J.; McKenzie, J. M.; Gleeson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Regional and continental scale groundwater flow models derive aquifer permeability distributions from datasets based on hydraulic tests and calibrated local and regional flow models, however, much of this data does not account for barrier/conduit effects of fault zones, local and regional geothermal flow cells, and other fault-controlled flow systems. In this study we researched and compiled fault zone permeability and conceptual permeability models in different geologic settings from published multidisciplinary literature (structural- and hydro-geology, engineering geology of tunnels and mines, and geothermal projects among others). The geospatial database focuses on data-rich regions such as North America, Europe, and Japan. Regionalization of the dominant conceptual models of fault zones was regionalized based on geological attributes and tested conceptually with simple numerical models, to help incorporate the effect of fault zones on regional to continental flow models. Results show that for large regional and continental scale flow modeling, the fault zone data can be generalized by geology to determine the relative importance of fault conduits vs fault barriers, which can be converted to effective anisotropy ratios for large scale flow, although local fault-controlled flow cells in rift zones require appropriate upscaling. The barrier/conduit properties of fault zones are present in all regions and rock types, and the barrier effect must be properly conceptualized in large scale flow models. The fault zone data from different geologic disciplines have different biases (e.g. outcrop studies, deep drillhole tests, tunnels, etc.) depending on scale of hydraulic tests. Finally, the calibrated recharge estimates for fault controlled flow systems may be lower than for unfaulted flow systems due to predominant barrier (regional anisotropy or permeability reduction), suggesting a "scaling effect" on recharge estimates.

  8. Regional differences in the psychological recovery of Christchurch residents following the 2010/2011 earthquakes: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lara M; Milojev, Petar; Huang, Yanshu; Stronge, Samantha; Osborne, Danny; Bulbulia, Joseph; Grimshaw, Michael; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    We examined changes in psychological distress experienced by residents of Christchurch following two catastrophic earthquakes in late 2010 and early 2011, using data from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS), a national probability panel study of New Zealand adults. Analyses focused on the 267 participants (172 women, 95 men) who were living in central Christchurch in 2009 (i.e., before the Christchurch earthquakes), and who also provided complete responses to our yearly panel questionnaire conducted in late 2010 (largely between the two major earthquakes), late 2011, and late 2012. Levels of psychological distress were similar across the different regions of central Christchurch immediately following the September 2010 earthquake, and remained comparable across regions in 2011. By late 2012, however, average levels of psychological distress in the regions had diverged as a function of the amount of property damage experienced within each given region. Specifically, participants in the least damaged region (i.e., the Fendalton-Waimairi and Riccarton-Wigram wards) experienced greater drops in psychological distress than did those in the moderately damaged region (i.e., across the Spreydon-Heathcote and Hagley-Ferrymead wards). However, the level of psychological distress reported by participants in the most damaged region (i.e., across Shirley-Papanui and Burwood-Pegasus) were not significantly different to those in the least damaged region of central Christchurch. These findings suggest that different patterns of psychological recovery emerged across the different regions of Christchurch, with the moderately damaged region faring the worst, but only after the initial shock of the destruction had passed.

  9. Regional differences in the psychological recovery of Christchurch residents following the 2010/2011 earthquakes: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara M Greaves

    Full Text Available We examined changes in psychological distress experienced by residents of Christchurch following two catastrophic earthquakes in late 2010 and early 2011, using data from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS, a national probability panel study of New Zealand adults. Analyses focused on the 267 participants (172 women, 95 men who were living in central Christchurch in 2009 (i.e., before the Christchurch earthquakes, and who also provided complete responses to our yearly panel questionnaire conducted in late 2010 (largely between the two major earthquakes, late 2011, and late 2012. Levels of psychological distress were similar across the different regions of central Christchurch immediately following the September 2010 earthquake, and remained comparable across regions in 2011. By late 2012, however, average levels of psychological distress in the regions had diverged as a function of the amount of property damage experienced within each given region. Specifically, participants in the least damaged region (i.e., the Fendalton-Waimairi and Riccarton-Wigram wards experienced greater drops in psychological distress than did those in the moderately damaged region (i.e., across the Spreydon-Heathcote and Hagley-Ferrymead wards. However, the level of psychological distress reported by participants in the most damaged region (i.e., across Shirley-Papanui and Burwood-Pegasus were not significantly different to those in the least damaged region of central Christchurch. These findings suggest that different patterns of psychological recovery emerged across the different regions of Christchurch, with the moderately damaged region faring the worst, but only after the initial shock of the destruction had passed.

  10. OPTIMASI MODEL TRANSPORTASI DALAM PENGUKURAN KINERJA MANAJEMEN RANTAI PASOKAN BERAS: STUDI KASUS DI PERUM BULOG DIVISI REGIONAL JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galuh Chandra Dewi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The purpose of this study was to analyze the ability of West Java on providing the needs of rice through all over West Java as well as the surrounding regions; and to evaluate optimal rice distribution among the regions. It was predicted that the rice production volume in West Java and Banten Provinces tend to decrease, each for 3 806.33 Tons per quartile and 1 662.85 Tons per quartile. The optimal rice transportation network should be conducted through rice distribution from Cirebon Sub Regional Division to Ciamis Sub Regional Division or from Karawang Sub Regional Division to Cianjur Sub Regional Division. Rice distribution could be conducted from Cirebon, Indramayu, Karawang and Subang Sub Regional Divisions to Jakarta Raya Sub Regional Division

  11. [Injunction to care. Results of a study carried out in the regions of Alsace and Lorraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halleguen, O; Baratta, A

    2014-02-01

    The act of June 17, 1998 created a new form of compulsory treatment: the injunction to care. This is a legal measure intended to fight against recidivism of offenders and sex offenders through medical measures. The only therapies that have demonstrated partial efficacy are cognitive behavioural therapy and treatment with anti-hormone. In France, psychodynamic therapies are paramount in the treatment of perpetrators of sexual violence, although such treatments have not demonstrated effectiveness in reducing sexual recidivism. Very few studies are available regarding the implementation of court-ordered treatment in France. The recent report by the General Inspectorate of Social Affairs (IGAS) in 2011 confirms the absence of medical statistics on the implementation of court-ordered care. We conducted a study on the procedure of the injunction to care in the regions of Alsace and Lorraine. The aim of the study is to develop an inventory coordinator for practitioners (number, type of exercise) and the profile of patients undergoing the injunction of care (type of offense convicted for, psychiatric comorbidity identified for example). We first identified the practicing coordinator doctors by contacting the High Courts in the geographic area studied. We then sent out a questionnaire by post to coordinator doctors to profile their patients on care injunctions. We identified 16 practicing coordinator doctors in two study areas: 13 are state hospital doctors and three are private practice. Of the 16 doctors contacted, six returned the completed questionnaires (38% of the sample). This allows characterizing a sample of 50 patients on care injunctions. The majority of convicted crimes are of a sexual nature (92% of cases). This is mostly for crimes or sexual offenses involving minors aged under 15 (83% of cases). Psychiatric comorbidity is the most frequently identified paedophile primary (38%) followed by mental retardation (14%), dissocial personality disorder (6%) and a

  12. Burns in mobile home fires--descriptive study at a regional burn center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Robert F; Alarm, Badrul; Huq Mian, Mohammad Anwarul; Samples, Jancie M; Friedman, Bruce C; Shaver, Joseph R; Brandigi, Claus; Hassan, Zaheed

    2009-01-01

    Death from fires and burns are the sixth most common cause of unintentional injury death in the United States. More than (3/4) of burn deaths occurring in the United States are in the home. Mobile home fires carry twice the death rate as other dwellings. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of deaths and injuries in mobile home fire admitted in a regional Burn Center and to identify possible risk factors. A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out among all burn patients admitted to a regional Burn Center between January 2002 and December 2004 (3469 patients). The study included patients who suffered a burn injury from a mobile home fire. The demographic characteristics of the patients, location of mobile home, associated inhalation injury, source of fire, comorbidity of the victims, employment status, insurance status, family history of burns, and outcomes of the treatment were incorporated in a data collection record. There were 65 burn patients in mobile home fires admitted to the Burn Center during the studied period. The average age of the patients was 39 years (ranging from 2 to 81 years, SD=16.06), 77% were male, 67% were white, and 79% were the residents in the suburban areas of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Florida. The average TBSA of burns was about 21% (ranging from 1 to 63%, SD=17.66), 63% of the patients had associated inhalation, three inhalation injury only, and 69% patients required ventilator support. The average length of stay per TBSA percentage of burn was 1.01 days (P=0.00), controlling for age, preexisting medical comorbidities, and inhalation injury. About 88% of the patients had preexisting medical comorbid conditions, 74% were smokers, 64% reported as alcoholic, and 72% had at least some form of health insurance coverage. In 40% of the cases, the cause of the fire was unknown, 31% were caused by accidental explosions, such as electric, gasoline, or kerosene appliances, and 29% were due to other

  13. Study of AKR hollow pattern characteristics at sub-auroral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Sawas, Sami; Galopeau, Patrick; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Schwingenschuh, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is expected to exhibit a hollow pattern similar to that reported for the comparable emissions from Jupiter (e.g. Jovian decametric emissions - DAM). The hollow pattern is a hollow cone beam with apex at the point of AKR emission, axis tangent to the magnetic field direction, and an opening angle of the order of 80°. The properties of the hollow cone can be derived from the so-called dynamic spectrum which displays the radiation versus the observation time and the frequency. We analyze the auroral kilometric radiation recorded by the electric field experiment (ICE) onboard DEMETER micro-satellite. The dynamic spectra lead us to study the occurrence of the AKR recorded in the sub-auroral regions when the micro-satellite was at altitudes of about 700 km. We address in this contribution issues concerning the characteristics (occurrence, latitude and longitude) of the AKR hollow beam and their relations to the seasonal and solar activity variations.

  14. A study of Quaternary structures in the Qom region, West Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Safaei, H.; Yassaghi, A.; Vafa, H.; Naeimi, A.; Madanipour, S.; Ahmadi, M.

    2010-12-01

    West Central Iran comprises numerous Quaternary faults. Having either strike-slip or thrust mechanisms, these faults are potentially active and therefore capable of creating destructive earthquakes. In this paper, we use satellite images as well as field trips to identify these active faults in the Qom region. The Qom and Indes faults are the main NW-trending faults along which a Quaternary restraining step-over zone has formed. Kamarkuh, Mohsen Abad, and Ferdows anticlines are potentially active structures that formed in this restraining step-over zone. There are some thrusts and anticlines, such as the Alborz anticline and Alborz fault, which are parallel to strike-slip faults such as the Qom fault, indicating deformation partitioning in the area. In addition to NW-trending structures, there is an important NE-trending fault known as the Qomrud fault that has deformed Quaternary deposits and affected Kushk-e-Nosrat fault, Alborz anticline, and Qomrud River. The results of this study imply that the major Quaternary faults of West Central Iran and their restraining step-over zones are potentially active.

  15. Spectroscopic study of honey from Apis mellifera from different regions in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Casillas-Peñuelas, R.; Quintanar-Stephano, JL; Macías-López, E.; Bujdud-Pérez, JM; Medina-Ramírez, I.

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze by Raman and UV-Vis-NIR Spectroscopic techniques, Mexican honey from Apis Mellífera, using representative samples with different botanic origins (unifloral and multifloral) and diverse climates. Using Raman spectroscopy together with principal components analysis, the results obtained represent the possibility to use them for determination of floral origin of honey, independently of the region of sampling. For this, the effect of heat up the honey was analyzed in relation that it was possible to greatly reduce the fluorescence background in Raman spectra, which allowed the visualization of fructose and glucose peaks. Using UV-Vis-NIR, spectroscopy, a characteristic spectrum profile of transmittance was obtained for each honey type. In addition, to have an objective characterization of color, a CIE Yxy and CIE L*a*b* colorimetric register was realized for each honey type. Applying the principal component analysis and their correlation with chromaticity coordinates allowed classifying the honey samples in one plot as: cutoff wavelength, maximum transmittance, tones and lightness. The results show that it is possible to obtain a spectroscopic record of honeys with specific characteristics by reducing the effects of fluorescence.

  16. Nuclear Structure Studies in the 132Sn Region: Safe Coulex with Carbon Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmond, James M [ORNL; Stuchbery, Andrew E [ORNL; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Radford, David C [ORNL; Batchelder, J. C. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Stone, N. J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Varner, Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The collective and single-particle structure of nuclei in the 132Sn region was recently studied by Coulomb excitation and heavy-ion induced transfer reactions using carbon, beryllium, and titanium targets. In particular, Coulomb excitation was used determine a complete set of electromagnetic moments for the first 2+ states and one-neutron transfer was used to probe the purity and evolution of single-neutron states. These recent experiments were conducted at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL using a CsI-HPGe detector array (BareBall- CLARION) to detect scattered particles and emitted gamma rays from the in-beam reactions. A Bragg-curve detector was used to measure the energy loss of the various beams through the targets and to measure the radioactive beam compositions. A sample of the Coulomb excitation results is presented here with an emphasis placed on 116Sn. In particular, the safe Coulex criterion for carbon targets will be analyzed and discussed.

  17. THE OBJECTIVE OF ISLAMIC BANK: A CASE STUDY IN SURAKARTA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fatwa Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were for exploring the perception of the Islamic Banking stakeholders relatedwith the objective of Islamic Banking that operated in the dual banking system, Indonesia and for measuringthe gap between the perception and expectation of the stakeholders toward the objective of Islamic bank. Theprimary data was collected by questionnaires. The Respondents were limited only in the Surakarta region.They were customers, lecturers, students, employees, bank managers, regulators, and ulama (Moslem religiousteachers. Factor analysis was conducted for grouping or classifying the variables into the same group whichhad the same characters while Kruskall Wallis test was used for examining the different perception among thestakeholders. At last, paired sample t-test was used to measure the gap between perception and expectationamong the stakeholders. The findings of this study were first, stakeholders concluded that social objective ofIslamic was more important than the commercial one; second, there was a significant different perception on theIslamic Banking objective among the stakeholders; and third, there was a gap between the perception andexpectation of the stakeholders about Islamic Banking objectives.

  18. [A MULTICENTER STUDY ON CHILDHOOD ALLERGIC RHINITIS TREATMENT IN THE TOHOKU REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Atsushi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ohta, Nobuo; Oshima, Takeshi; Honda, Kohei; Satoh, Morito; Ichikawa, Yoko; Shimizu, Yukitoshi; Morikawa, Miki; Komatsu, Masaki; Yoshida, Shinichi; Tsuruta, Yasushi; Tamura, Gen

    2015-08-01

    We performed a multicenter study in order to clarify the present conditions of the childhood allergic rhinitis treatment in many departments of otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics/internal medicine in the Tohoku region, northern Japan. We performed a questionnaire survey about patient backgrounds, nasal symptoms, QOL disturbance, and treatment agents, for childhood allergic rhinitis patients under age 12. The total number of cases was 814, the mean age of the patients seen in pediatrics/internal medicine departments was significantly lower than that in otorhinolaryngology. The merger rate of bronchial asthma of the patients seen in pediatrics/internal medicine was significantly higher, and nasal symptoms and QOL disturbance of the patients seen in otorhinolaryngology were significantly more severe. For therapeutic agents, antihistamines were most prescribed, and the combination of LT receptor antagonist and intranasal steroids was used for the cases in which nasal symptoms were severe. The nasal symptoms in the combination group were significantly improved compared with the antihistamine monotherapy group. It was indicated that the combination therapy was useful in the severe cases of childhood allergic rhinitis.

  19. Complex regional pain syndrome of the lower extremity: a retrospective study of 33 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D J; Fallat, L M

    1999-01-01

    Even when diagnosed early and treated appropriately, patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a condition that can lead to severe painful dysfunction of the limb, may continue to have long-term pain. A retrospective study was conducted of 33 patients with a positive history of CRPS I, CRPS II, or sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) of the lower limb who were treated in either a clinical setting or a pain management center. The average age of individuals diagnosed with CRPS was 43.5 +/- 12.6 (mean +/-SD) years with 60% being female. The most common diagnosis was CRPS I (75.8%) followed by SMP (21.2%), and finally CRPS II (3.0%). The dominant etiology was confirmed as trauma (73%), with the remaining nine cases resulting from elective foot surgery. Fractures were the most common type of injury (45%) and excision of neuroma was the most frequent elective surgical procedure (30%). Time from injury to diagnosis in patients with foot and ankle trauma was 3.9 +/- 3.0 months and from elective surgery to diagnosis was 9.1 +/- 4.0 months (t test, p CRPS who seem to be successfully treated, and are discharged from care, still have severe pain years later.

  20. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-07-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  1. A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lowman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation.

  2. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Atmospheric Deposition Studies in Tula Region Using Moss Biomonitors Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitors technique was used in air pollution studies in Tula Region (Central Russia), applying NAA, AAS. Moss samples were collected at 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy adopted in European projects on biomonitoring atmospheric deposition. A wide set of trace elements in mosses was determined. The method of epithermal neutron activation at IBR-2 reactor of FLNP JINR has made it possible to identify 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) in the large-scale concentration range - from 10000 ppm for K to 0,001 ppm for Tb and Ta. Cu, Cd and Pb were determined by the flame AAS in the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology. Using the graphical technique and principal component analysis allowed to separate plant, crustal and general pollution components in the moss. The obtained data will be used for constructing coloured maps of the distribution of elements over t...

  3. Further study on the effect of buffer zone size on regional climate modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Zhong [PLA University of Science and Technology, Research Center for Applied Geophysics, Institute of Meteorology, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing (China); Wang, Xiaodan; Lu, Wei; Hu, Yijia [PLA University of Science and Technology, Research Center for Applied Geophysics, Institute of Meteorology, Nanjing (China)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, the effect of buffer zone size on the performance of a regional climate model (RCM) was investigated. In contrast to carrying out simulations where the buffer zone expands inward, numerical experiments were performed with the buffer zone expanded outward, which ensured an objective comparison on the effect of buffer zone sizes. Case simulations on the abnormal 1998 East Asian summer monsoon demonstrated that an RCM's performance depended on the outward expansion of the buffer zone. Moreover, a broader buffer zone is able to improve large-scale circulation simulation in the upper troposphere; however, a narrower buffer zone shows better performance in the middle and lower troposphere. Numerical experiments show that the performance of RCMs in simulating the seasonal evolution of rainbands over eastern China is not completely consistent with that of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH). A possible reason why the configuration with the buffer zone expanding inward can improve the extension/withdrawal of the summer monsoon and the associated precipitation evolution over eastern China is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Thermal Study on Extensive Green Roof Integrated Irrigation in Northwestern Arid Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Selection of xerophils and drought tolerant plants is highly crucial in green roof techniques in the drought prone regions of Northwest China. In this study, the thermal performance under the natural conventional climate in summer was analyzed using a self-made simulation experimental platform through comparison of the internal surface temperature with and without green roofs. The distribution frequency of internal surface temperature was investigated by dividing internal surface temperature into several ranges. Statistical analysis showed that the frequency of internal surface temperature lower than 33 °C