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Sample records for european x-ray monitor

  1. JEM-X: Joint European X-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    1998-01-01

    JEM-X is the X-ray monitor for INTEGRAL. It is being built by a large European consortium led by the Danish Space Research Institute. It consists of two identical, independent coded mask X-ray telescopes with an energy span from 3 keV to 60 keV. Each system has a microstrip gas detector and a mask...... with a 25% transparent hexagonal uniformly redundant pattern based on a bi-quadratic residue set situated 3.4 m above the detector. The fully illuminated field-of-view is circular and 4.8 degrees across. The mechanical properties and source detection sensitivities are reviewed....

  2. Joint European x-ray monitor (JEM-X): x-ray monitor for ESA's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnopper, H.W.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1996-01-01

    JEM-X will extend the energy range of the gamma ray instruments on ESA's INTEGRAL mission (SPI, IBIS) to include the x-ray band. JEM-X will provide images with arcminute angular resolution in the 2 - 60 keV band. The baseline photon detection system consists of two identical, high pressure, imagi...

  3. X-ray area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nintrakit, N.

    1983-01-01

    The X-ray area monitor is a nuclear electronic device that is essential in radiation protection in high radiation laboratories, e.g. in medical diagnosis using X-rays and in industrial X-radiography. Accidentally the level of X-radiator may arise above the safe permissible level and in such a case the alarm system of the area monitor will work and disconnect the ac power supply form the X-ray unit. Principally the device is a radiation counter using G.M.tube as radiation detector with high voltage supply variable form 200 to 2,000 volts. The maximum count rate of the scaler is 1.5 MHz and the total count is displayed on 4 digit LED's. A time base is used to control the counting time, the frequency multiplier, radiation safety limit, comparator and the radiation hazard warning signal. The reliability of the instrument is further enhanced through the addition of the random correction circuit, and it is applicable both in X- and γ -radiation

  4. X-ray tube monitor apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, W.P.; Pellergrino, A.

    1981-01-01

    An x-ray tube with a rotating anode target is provided with a detector of x-rays located outside a port of a housing of the tube and positioned at or near a tangent line to the radiating surface for observing variations in the radiation intensity due to rotation of the target, the variations being pronounced due to the heel effect of the radiation pattern. The x-ray detector can employ a scintillation material and be coupled by a light guide to a photodetector which is removed from the path of the radiation and detects scintillations of the x-ray detector. Alternatively, the photodetector and light pipe may be replaced by a detector of germanium, silicon or an ion chamber which converts x-ray photons directly to an electric current. An electronic unit determines the speed of rotation from the electric signal and can also, by fourier transform and signature analysis techniques, monitor the state of the radiating surface. (author)

  5. Preliminary background prediction for the INTEGRAL x-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.

    1996-01-01

    The JEM-X (joint European x-ray monitor) experiment will be flown onboard the ESA's INTEGRAL satellite. The instrumental background level of the two JEM-X twin detectors will depend on several parameters, among which the satellite orbit and mass distribution, and the detectors materials play...

  6. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  7. X-ray astronomy 2000: Wide field X-ray monitoring with lobster-eye telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inneman, A.; Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Gorenstein, P.

    2001-01-01

    The recently available first prototypes of innovative very wide field X-ray telescopes of Lobster-Eye type confirm the feasibility to develop such flight instruments in a near future. These devices are expected to allow very wide field (more than 1000 square degrees) monitoring of the sky in X-rays (up to 10 keV and perhaps even more) with faint limits. We will discuss the recent status of the development of very wide field X-ray telescopes as well as related scientific questions including expected major contributions such as monitoring and study of X-ray afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

  8. Novel X-ray telescopes for wide-field X-ray monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.; Sveda, L.

    2005-01-01

    We report on fully innovative very wide-field of view X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The prototypes are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. The Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  9. The background simulations for the integral X-ray monitor JEM-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Costa, E.

    1999-01-01

    The JEM-X experiment (Joint European X-ray Monitor, Lund et al. (1998) and Westergaard and Lund (1998)) is the X-ray monitor of the INTEGRAL satellite. It is a coded aperture, high pressure microstrip proportional counter. It will operate in the primary energy range from 3 to 35 keV (with...

  10. VPD residue search by monitoring scattered x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Yamagami, M.; Yamada, T.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, VPD-TXRF has come into wide use for semiconductor analysis. In VPD-TXRF technique, adjusting the mechanical measuring point to the center of dried residue is of importance for accurate determination. Until now, the following searching methods have been used: monitoring light scattering under bright illumination, using laser scattering particle mapper, applying internal standard as a marker. However, each method has individual disadvantage. For example, interference of Kβ line (ex. Sc-Kβ to Ti-Kα) occurs in the internal standard method. We propose a new searching method 'scattered x-ray search' which utilizes x-ray scattering form the dried residue as a marker. Since the line profile of x-ray scattering agrees with that of fluorescent x-rays, scattered x-ray can be used as an alternative marker instead of internal standard. According to our experimental results, this search method shows the same accuracy as internal standard method. The merits are as follows: 1) no need to add internal standard, 2) rapid search because of high intensity of scattered x-rays, 3) searching software for internal standard can be applied without any modification. In this method, diffraction of incident x-rays by substrate causes irregular change over the detected scattering x-rays. Therefore, this method works better under x-y controlled stage than r-Θ one. (author)

  11. Monitoring variable X-ray sources in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade, it has been possible to monitor variable X-ray sources in nearby galaxies. In particular, since the launch of Chandra, M31 has been regularly observed. It is perhaps the only nearby galaxy which is observed by an X-ray telescope regularly throughout operation. With 10 years of observations, the center of M31 has been observed with Chandra for nearly 1 Msec and the X-ray skies of M31 consist of many transients and variables. Furthermore, the X-ray Telescope of Swift has been monitoring several ultraluminous X-ray sources in nearby galaxies regularly. Not only can we detect long-term X-ray variability, we can also find spectral variation as well as possible orbital period. In this talk, I will review some of the important Chandra and Swift monitoring observations of nearby galaxies in the past 10 years. I will also present a "high-definition" movie of M31 and discuss the possibility of detecting luminous transients in M31 with MAXI.

  12. UHV photoelectron x-ray beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Oversluizen, T.

    1989-01-01

    As part of our research program to develop viable beam position monitors for both the X-ray and VUV beamlines at the NSLS, we have constructed vertical photon beam position monitors which are presently mounted in two front-ends in the X-ray ring. These area-type detectors are located before the safety shutters and are, therefore, able to monitor the beam position even during injection. The features of this type of monitor which contribute to its long-term stability, position sensitivity, and immunity to horizontal beam motion have been examined and will be discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs

  13. Long X-ray burst monitoring with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary systems. In the frame of the INTEGRAL observational Key Programme over the Galactic Center a good number of the known X-ray bursters are frequently being monitored. An international...... collaboration lead by the JEM-X team at the Danish National Space Center has proposed to exploit the improved sensitivity of the INTEGRAL instruments to investigate the observational properties and physics up to high energies of exceptional burst events lasting between a few tens of minutes and several hours....... Of special interest are low luminosity bursting sources that exhibit X-ray bursts of very different durations allowing to study the transition from a hydrogen-rich bursting regime to a pure helium regime and from helium burning to carbon burning. I will present results obtained from INTEGRAL archive data...

  14. Next generation x-ray all-sky monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priedhorsky, W. C.; Peele, A. G.; Nugent, K. A.

    1997-01-01

    We set forth a conceptual design for x-ray all-sky monitor based on lobster-eye wide-field telescopes. This instrument, suitable for a small satellite, would monitor the flux of objects as faint as 2x10 -15 W/m 2 (0.5-2.4 keV) on a daily basis with a signal-to-noise of 5. Sources would be located to 1-2 arc-minutes. Detailed simulations show that crosstalk from the cruciform lobster images would not significantly compromise performance. At this sensitivity limit, we could monitor not just x-ray binaries but fainter classes of x-ray sources. Hundreds of active galactic nuclei, coronal sources, and cataclysmic variables could be tracked on a daily basis. Large numbers of fast transients should be visible, including gamma-ray bursts and the soft x-ray breakout of nearby type II supernovae. Long-term x-ray measurements will advance our understanding of the geometries and perhaps masses of AGN, and coronal energy sources in stars

  15. THE SWIFT/BAT HARD X-RAY TRANSIENT MONITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Palmer, D. M.; Sakamoto, T.; Stamatikos, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations

  16. THE SWIFT/BAT HARD X-RAY TRANSIENT MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Romano, P. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Kennea, J. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Ukwatta, T. N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Palmer, D. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, B244, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sakamoto, T. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Stamatikos, M. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations.

  17. The Swift/BAT Hard X-ray Transient Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R.H.D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as ne as 64 seconds. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the ux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public web page. Since 2005 February, 242 sources have been detected in the monitor, 149 of them persistent and 93 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 16 were previously unknown and discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and ltering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries and present basic data analysis and interpretations for those sources with previously unpublished results.

  18. The Swift-BAT Hard X-Ray Transient Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure.We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations.

  19. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Lund, Niels; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2004-01-01

    The INTEGRAL X-ray monitor, JEM-X, (together with the two gamma ray instruments, SPI and IBIS) provides simultaneous imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3-35 keV band. The good angular resolution and low energy response of JEM-X plays an important role in the detection and identifica......The INTEGRAL X-ray monitor, JEM-X, (together with the two gamma ray instruments, SPI and IBIS) provides simultaneous imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3-35 keV band. The good angular resolution and low energy response of JEM-X plays an important role in the detection...

  20. Computerized x-ray dose-monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, R.H.; Wesenberg, R.L.; Amundson, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    An x-ray dose-monitoring system using a small digital computer is described. Initially, and for every 6 months afterward, the system is calibrated using an exposure meter. For each exposure, the computer receives values of x-ray technique and beam geometry from the x-ray generator through a specially designed electronic interface. Then, by means of calibration data, entrance exposure, area exposure product, and integral dose are obtained and printed for each patient examined. The overall accuracy of the system is better than +/-20%. Operation is semiautomatic, requiring minimum operator intervention. Over 2000 patients have been monitored with the device. Because the system is computer-based, it offers the opportunity for statistical analysis of the data base created, as the results for each patient are stored on computer disk

  1. X-ray facility for the ground calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loffredo, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Frontera, F.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the X-ray facility developed for the calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparatus allowed the scanning of the detector geometric area with a pencil beam of desired energy over the major part of the passband of the instrument. The monochromatic...

  2. Monitoring the Galactic - Search for Hard X-Ray Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Francis

    Hard X-ray transients with fluxs from ~1 to ~30 mCrab are a common feature of the galactic plane with apparent concentrations in specific regions of the plane. Concentrations in the Scutum and Carina fields probably indicate an enhancement of Be X-ray binaries along the tangent direction of two spiral arms. The frequency of outbursts suggest that at any one time 1 or 2 transients are active in the Scutum field alone. We propose weekly scans of the galactic plane to understand this population of sources. The scans will also monitor about 50 already known sources with better spectral information than available with the ASM.

  3. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor aboard INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2003-01-01

    The JEM-X monitor provides X-ray spectra and imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3 to 35 keV band. The good angular resolution and the low energy response of JEM-X plays an important role in the identification of gamma ray sources and in the analysis and scientific interpretation...

  4. Method for reducing x-ray background signals from insertion device x-ray beam position monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Decker

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A method is described that provides a solution to the long-standing problem of stray radiation-induced signals on photoemission-based x-ray beam position monitors (BPMs located on insertion device x-ray beam lines. The method involves the introduction of a chicane into the accelerator lattice that directs unwanted x radiation away from the photosensitive x-ray BPM blades. This technique has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source, and experimental confirmation of the technique is provided.

  5. Scintillator materials for x-ray detectors and beam monitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martin, T.; Koch, A.; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2017), s. 451-456 ISSN 0883-7694 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * X-ray detector * beam monitor * synchrotron * thin film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 5.199, year: 2016

  6. Diffracted X-ray tracking for monitoring intramolecular motion in individual protein molecules using broad band X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Sasaki, Yuji C. [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Masato; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohta, Noboru [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hoshisashi, Kentaro; Jae-won, Chang; Tokue, Maki; Matsushita, Yufuku [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Nishijima, Masaki; Inoue, Yoshihisa [Department of Applied Chemistry and Office for University-Industry Collaboration, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yagi, Naoto [Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) enables the tilting and twisting motions of single protein molecules to be monitored with micro- to milliradian resolution using a highly brilliant X-ray source with a wide energy bandwidth. We have developed a technique to monitor single molecules using gold nanocrystals attached to individual protein molecules using the BL28B2 beamline at SPring-8. In this paper we present the installation of a single toroidal X-ray mirror at BL28B2 to focus X-rays in an energy range of 10–20 keV (△E/E = 82% for an X-ray with a wide energy bandwidth). With this beamline we tracked diffraction spots from gold nanocrystals over a wide angle range than that using quasi-monochromatic X-rays. Application of the wide angle DXT technique to biological systems enabled us to observe the on-site motions of single protein molecules that have been functionalized in vivo. We further extend the capability of DXT by observing the fractional tilting and twisting motions of inner proteins under various conditions. As a proof of this methodology and to determine instrumental performance the intramolecular motions of a human serum albumin complex with 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid was investigated using the BL28B2 beamline. The random tilting and twisting intramolecular motions are shown to be directly linked to the movement of individual protein molecules in the buffer solution.

  7. Swift X-ray monitoring of stellar coronal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brendan; Hagen, Cedric; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    We used California Planet Search Ca II H and K core emission measurements to identify and characterize chromospheric activity cycles in a sample of main-sequence FGK stars. About a dozen of these with existing ROSAT archival data were targeted with Swift to obtain a current epoch X-ray flux. We find that coronal variability by a factor of several is common on decade-long timescales (we attempt to link to the chromospheric cycle phase) but can also occur on short timescales between Swift visits to a given target, presumably related to stellar rotation and coronal inhomogeneity or to small flares. Additionally, we present new Swift monitoring observations of two M dwarfs with known exoplanets: GJ 15A and GJ 674. GJ 15A b is around 5.3 Earth masses with an 11.4 day orbital period, while GJ 674 is around 11.1 Earth masses with a 4.7 day orbital period. GJ 15A was observed several times in late 2014 and then monitored at approximately weekly intervals for several months in early 2016, for a total exposure of 18 ks. GJ 674 was monitored at approximately weekly intervals for most of 2016, for a total exposure of 40 ks. We provide light curves and hardness ratios for both sources, and also compare to earlier archival X-ray data. Both sources show significant X-ray variability, including between consecutive observations. We quantify the energy distribution for coronal flaring, and compare to optical results for M dwarfs from Kepler. Finally, we discuss the implications of M dwarf coronal activity for exoplanets orbiting within the nominal habitable zone.

  8. European X-ray spectroscopy and polarimetry payload for Spacelab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, R D; Whitcomb, G [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Brinkman, A C [Space Research Laboratory, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Beuermann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching/Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Extraterrestrische Physik; Culhane, J L [University Coll., London (UK). Mullard Space Science Lab.; Griffiths, R [Leicester Univ. (UK); Manno, V [ESA Headquarters, Paris, France; Rocchia, R [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1976-08-01

    A group of instruments for X-ray spectroscopy and polarimetry studies of a number of cosmic X-ray sources is being designed for possible use on Spacelab. Large area Bragg spectrometers and polarimeters for photon energies above 2 keV are described. For the energy range below 2 keV, both dispersive and non-dispersive spectrometers are employed at the common focus of a nested array of paraboloids. Following a brief outline of the scientific background to the mission, the properties of the individual instruments are discussed.

  9. Production of transform-limited X-ray pulses through self-seeding at the European X-ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    An important goal for any advanced X-ray FEL is an option for providing Fourier-limited X-ray pulses. In this way, no monochromator is needed in the experimental hall. Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. These are important for many experiments including 3D diffraction imaging.We discuss the implementation of a single-crystal self-seeding scheme in the hard X-ray lines of the European XFEL. For this facility, transform-limited pulses are particularly valuable since they naturally support the extraction of more FEL power than at saturation by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulators. Tapering consists of a stepwise change of the undulator gap from segment to segment. Based on start-to-end simulations dealing with the up-to-date parameters of the European XFEL, we show that the FEL power reaches about 400 GW, or one order of magnitude higher power than the SASE saturation level (20 GW). This analysis indicates that our self-seeding scheme is not significantly affected by non-ideal electron phase-space distribution, and yields about the same performance as in the case for an electron beam with ideal parameters. The self-seeding scheme with a single crystal monochromator is extremely compact (about 5 m long), and cost estimations are low enough to consider adding it to the European XFEL capabilities from the very beginning of the operation phase. (orig.)

  10. Production of transform-limited X-ray pulses through self-seeding at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-09-01

    An important goal for any advanced X-ray FEL is an option for providing Fourier-limited X-ray pulses. In this way, no monochromator is needed in the experimental hall. Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. These are important for many experiments including 3D diffraction imaging.We discuss the implementation of a single-crystal self-seeding scheme in the hard X-ray lines of the European XFEL. For this facility, transform-limited pulses are particularly valuable since they naturally support the extraction of more FEL power than at saturation by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulators. Tapering consists of a stepwise change of the undulator gap from segment to segment. Based on start-to-end simulations dealing with the up-to-date parameters of the European XFEL, we show that the FEL power reaches about 400 GW, or one order of magnitude higher power than the SASE saturation level (20 GW). This analysis indicates that our self-seeding scheme is not significantly affected by non-ideal electron phase-space distribution, and yields about the same performance as in the case for an electron beam with ideal parameters. The self-seeding scheme with a single crystal monochromator is extremely compact (about 5 m long), and cost estimations are low enough to consider adding it to the European XFEL capabilities from the very beginning of the operation phase. (orig.)

  11. Digital optical correlator x-ray telescope alignment monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Tomasz; Gaskin, Jessica; Jasper, John; Gregory, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    The High-Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) program is a balloon-borne x-ray telescope mission to observe hard x-rays (˜20 to 70 keV) from the sun and multiple astrophysical targets. The payload consists of eight mirror modules with a total of 114 optics that are mounted on a 6-m-long optical bench. Each mirror module is complemented by a high-pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counter. Attached to the payload is a camera that acquires star fields and then matches the acquired field to star maps to determine the pointing of the optical bench. Slight misalignments between the star camera, the optical bench, and the telescope elements attached to the optical bench may occur during flight due to mechanical shifts, thermal gradients, and gravitational effects. These misalignments can result in diminished imaging and reduced photon collection efficiency. To monitor these misalignments during flight, a supplementary Bench Alignment Monitoring System (BAMS) was added to the payload. BAMS hardware comprises two cameras mounted directly to the optical bench and rings of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) mounted onto the telescope components. The LEDs in these rings are mounted in a predefined, asymmetric pattern, and their positions are tracked using an optical/digital correlator. The BAMS analysis software is a digital adaption of an optical joint transform correlator. The aim is to enhance the observational proficiency of HEROES while providing insight into the magnitude of mechanically and thermally induced misalignments during flight. Results from a preflight test of the system are reported.

  12. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  13. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  14. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1999-01-01

    and identification of gamma ray sources as well as in the analysis and scientific interpretation of the combined X-ray and gamma ray data. JEM-X is a coded aperture X-ray telescope consisting of two identical detectors. Each detector has a sensitive area of 500 cm(2), and views the sky (6.6 deg FOV, FWHM) through...

  15. Optics for nano-satellite X-ray monitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, V.; Burrows, D.N.; Prieskorn, Z.; Hudec, René

    Roč. 24, č. 2 ( 2015 ), s. 242-250 ISSN 1392-0049 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : X-ray optics * Schmidt lobster eye telescopes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2015

  16. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Peter; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Pauling, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  17. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revesz, Peter, E-mail: pr20@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Temnykh, Alexander B. [Cornell University, Laboratory for Elem-Particle Physics, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Pauling, Alan K. [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States)

    2011-09-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  18. Wide field monitoring of the X-ray sky using Rotation Modulation Collimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Brandt, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Wide field monitoring is of particular interest in X-ray astronomy due to the strong time-variability of most X-ray sources. Not only does the time-profiles of the persistent sources contain characteristic signatures of the underlying physical systems, but, additionally, some of the most intrigui...

  19. Self-seeding scheme for the soft X-ray line at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    This paper discusses the potential for enhancing the capabilities of the European FEL in the soft X-ray regime. A high longitudinal coherence will be the key to such performance upgrade. In order to reach this goal we study a very compact soft X-ray self-seeding scheme originally designed at SLAC. The scheme is based on a grating monochromator, and can be straightforwardly installed in the SASE3 undulator beamline at the European XFEL. For the European XFEL fully-coherent soft X-ray pulses are particularly valuable since they naturally support the extraction of more FEL power than at saturation by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap SASE3 undulator. Tapering consists of a stepwise change of the undulator gap from segment to segment. Based on start-to-end simulations we show that soft X-ray FEL power reaches about 800 GW, that is about an order of magnitude higher than the SASE level at saturation (100 GW). The self-seeding setup studied in this work is extremely compact (about 5 m long), and cost-effective. This last characteristic may justify to consider it as a possible addition to the European XFEL capabilities from the very beginning of the operation phase. (orig.)

  20. Self-seeding scheme for the soft X-ray line at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2012-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential for enhancing the capabilities of the European FEL in the soft X-ray regime. A high longitudinal coherence will be the key to such performance upgrade. In order to reach this goal we study a very compact soft X-ray self-seeding scheme originally designed at SLAC. The scheme is based on a grating monochromator, and can be straightforwardly installed in the SASE3 undulator beamline at the European XFEL. For the European XFEL fully-coherent soft X-ray pulses are particularly valuable since they naturally support the extraction of more FEL power than at saturation by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap SASE3 undulator. Tapering consists of a stepwise change of the undulator gap from segment to segment. Based on start-to-end simulations we show that soft X-ray FEL power reaches about 800 GW, that is about an order of magnitude higher than the SASE level at saturation (100 GW). The self-seeding setup studied in this work is extremely compact (about 5 m long), and cost-effective. This last characteristic may justify to consider it as a possible addition to the European XFEL capabilities from the very beginning of the operation phase. (orig.)

  1. Exploratory X-ray Monitoring of z>4 Radio-Quiet Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemmer, Ohad

    2017-09-01

    We propose to extend our exploratory X-ray monitoring project of some of the most distant radio-quiet quasars by obtaining one snapshot observation per Cycle for each of four sources at z>4. Combining these observations with six available X-ray epochs per source will provide basic temporal information over rest-frame timescales of 3-5 yr. We are supporting this project with Swift monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at z=1.3-2.7 to break the L-z degeneracy and test evolutionary scenarios of the central engine in active galactic nuclei. Our ultimate goal is to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of luminous quasars at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as the benchmark for X-ray variability studies of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  2. Monitoring body iron burden using X-ray fluorescence (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquharson, M.J.; Bagshaw, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence, using Cu K alpha and K beta radiation, has been used to measure the Fe content of skin of two groups of rats, one Fe overloaded and one control group. These skin Fe levels were compared to the liver and heart Fe levels measured using colorimetry. Correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.88 respectively were found indicating that skin Fe levels may be a potential marker for body iron burden.

  3. INTEGRAL monitoring of unusually long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the accreted material, these bursts may be explained by either the unstable burning of a large pile of mixed hydrogen and helium, or the ignition of a thick pure helium layer. Long duration bursts are particularly expected at very low accretion rates and make possible to study the transition from a hydrogen......Thermonuclear bursts on the surface of accreting neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries have been studied for many years and have in a few cases confirmed theoretical models of nuclear ignition and burning mechanisms. The large majority of X-ray bursts last less than 100s. A good number......-rich bursting regime to a pure helium regime. Moreover, a handful of long bursts have shown, before the extended decay phase, an initial spike similar to a normal short X-ray burst. Such twofold bursts might be a sort of link between short and super-bursts, where the premature ignition of a carbon layer could...

  4. Spectral and correlation analysis of soft X-ray signals from the Joint European Torus tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, J.; Pazsit, I.

    1997-01-01

    Tomographic methods applied to soft X-rays emitted from a fusion plasma have long been used to diagnose and interpret magnetohydrodynamic and other plasma activities. However, fluctuation analysis has recently been proposed as a complementary method to tomography. The novelty of the suggested method is that the various modes can be determined without tomographic inversion. This paper reports on the results of correlation and spectral analysis of soft X-ray data. The seven measurements analyzed were made by the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking using their old soft X-ray measurement system. Auto power spectral densities and phase relations were evaluated from the measured signals as functions of the lines of sight. The fundamental mode m=n=1 was identified in several measurements. The corresponding frequency and toroidal rotation velocity were determined. Higher order modes were also observed and identified. Furthermore, simple model calculations were performed and the results compared with evaluated auto-spectra. (orig.)

  5. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  6. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Paolillo, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II di Napoli, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kaspi, Shai [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università degli studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Gibson, Robert R., E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  7. MOXE: An X-ray all-sky monitor for Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Moss, C. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Holt, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    A Monitoring Monitoring X-Ray Equipment (MOXE) is being developed for the Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission. MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor based on array of pinhole cameras, to be provided via a collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives are to alert other observers on Spectrum-X-Gamma and other platforms of interesting transient activity, and to synoptically monitor the X-ray sky and study long-term changes in X-ray binaries. MOXE will be sensitive to sources as faint as 2 milliCrab (5 sigma) in 1 day, and cover the 2 to 20 KeV band.

  8. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-07-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scattering. The self-seeding scheme with the wake monochromator is extremely compact, and takes almost no cost and time to be implemented. The upgrade proposed in this paper could take place during the commissioning stage of the European XFEL, opening a vast new range of applications from the very beginning of operations.We present feasibility study and examplifications for the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  9. Modelling of X-ray emission supernova remnants observed by the European satellite XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassam-Chenai, G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the X-ray emission of supernova remnants (SNRs) observed by the European satellite XMM-Newton. In SNRs, the matter heated to millions of degrees shines brightly in X-rays. This emission depends on the hydrodynamical evolution of the SNR, on the chemical composition of the ejected matter and on the ambient medium. Moreover, the blast-wave is considered to be the prime site of the production and the acceleration of cosmic-rays in our Galaxy. XMM-Newton is one of the first to allow the investigation of these different aspects thanks to its spatially-resolved spectroscopy and its very good sensitivity. l first studied Kepler's SNR (SN 1604) whose X-ray emission is dominated by the ejecta. Its observation has allowed to obtain information on the nucleosynthesis products, on their spatial distribution and on the temperature structure in the shocked ejecta. This gives strong constraints on the physics of the explosion and on the progenitor's type. l have shown also that the X-ray emission at the shock is likely to be non-thermal. Then, l studied the SNR G347.3-0.5 whose X-ray emission is entirely due to the synchrotron radiation of relativistic (TeV) electrons accelerated at the shock. From five pointing, l made a full mapping of the X-ray emission characteristics (brightness, absorption and spectral index) at small scale. Combined to radio observations, these results have indicated a clear interaction between the SNR and molecular clouds located at 1 kpc and not at 6 kpc as previously estimated. Lastly, in the framework of a self-similar hydrodynamical model coupled with non-linear particle acceleration, l have obtained the synchrotron emission profile in SNRs, including the adiabatic and radiative losses of the accelerated electrons. (author) [fr

  10. The RF-Station Interlock for the European X-ray laser

    CERN Document Server

    Grevsmühl, T; Duval, P; Hensler, O; Kahl, J; Kaiser, F R; Kretzschmann, A; Rehlich, K; Schwendicke, U; Simrock, S; Weisse, S

    2004-01-01

    The RF-station interlock for the European X-ray laser will be based on a 19"- 3U crate incorporating a controller with the 32-bit RISC NIOS-processor (ALTERA). The main task of the interlock system is to prevent any damage from the components of the RF station and connected cavities. The interlock system must also guarantee a maximum time of operation of the RF stations which implies the implementation of self diagnostics and repair strategies on a module basis. Additional tasks are: collection and temporary storage of status information of the individual channels of the interlock system, transfer of this information to the control system, slow control functions (e.g. HV setting and monitoring) and control of inputs and outputs from and to other subsystems. In this paper we present the implementation using an ALTERA-FPGA running a 32-bit RISC NIOS-processor. Connection to the accelerator main control is provided by Ethernet using BSD-style socket routines based on ALTERA's plugs-library. The layout o...

  11. Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono, Kensuke; Kudo, Togo; Yabashi, Makina; Tachibana, Takeshi; Feng, Yiping; Fritz, David; Hastings, Jerome; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2011-02-01

    We have developed an x-ray beam-position monitor for detecting the radiation properties of an x-ray free electron laser (FEL). It is composed of four PIN photodiodes that detect backscattered x-rays from a semitransparent diamond film placed in the beam path. The signal intensities from the photodiodes are used to compute the beam intensity and position. A proof-of-principle experiment at a synchrotron light source revealed that the error in the beam position is reduced to below 7 μm by using a nanocrystal diamond film prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Owing to high dose tolerance and transparency of the diamond film, the monitor is suitable for routine diagnostics of extremely intense x-ray pulses from the FEL.

  12. LOBSTER EYE: New approach to monitor GRBs in X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Hudcova, V.; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.

    2003-01-01

    The detection of X-ray afterglows for the large majority of GRBs allows a novel X-ray experiment to be considered to monitor and to detect GRBs based on their X-ray emission. Such an experiment could provide not only a superior localization accuracy if compared with gamma ray instruments, but probably also a higher rate based on the theoretical assumption that the beaming in gamma rays is narrower if compared with lower energies. We describe and discuss the LOBSTER EYE X-ray telescope project including results of the development and tests of the telescope prototype. Considerations for a space experiment on a small scientific satellite of a Nadezhda type are also presented and discussed. The scientific aspects of such experiment regarding the GRB study and statistics are addressed

  13. Swift Monitoring of NGC 4151: Evidence for a Second X-Ray/UV Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, R. [University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Gelbord, J. [Spectral Sciences Inc., 4 Fourth Avenue, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States); Cackett, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Connolly, S.; McHardy, I. [University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Done, C.; Gardner, E. [University of Durham, Center for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Fausnaugh, M.; Peterson, B. M. [The Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gehrels, N. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Goad, M.; Vaughan, S. [University of Leicester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Horne, K. [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom); Vestergaard, M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Breeveld, A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Barth, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bentz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Bottorff, M. [Physics Department, Southwestern University, Georgetown, TX 78626 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberly College of Science, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Crawford, S. M. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); and others

    2017-05-01

    Swift monitoring of NGC 4151 with an ∼6 hr sampling over a total of 69 days in early 2016 is used to construct light curves covering five bands in the X-rays (0.3–50 keV) and six in the ultraviolet (UV)/optical (1900–5500 Å). The three hardest X-ray bands (>2.5 keV) are all strongly correlated with no measurable interband lag, while the two softer bands show lower variability and weaker correlations. The UV/optical bands are significantly correlated with the X-rays, lagging ∼3–4 days behind the hard X-rays. The variability within the UV/optical bands is also strongly correlated, with the UV appearing to lead the optical by ∼0.5–1 days. This combination of ≳3 day lags between the X-rays and UV and ≲1 day lags within the UV/optical appears to rule out the “lamp-post” reprocessing model in which a hot, X-ray emitting corona directly illuminates the accretion disk, which then reprocesses the energy in the UV/optical. Instead, these results appear consistent with the Gardner and Done picture in which two separate reprocessings occur: first, emission from the corona illuminates an extreme-UV-emitting toroidal component that shields the disk from the corona; this then heats the extreme-UV component, which illuminates the disk and drives its variability.

  14. Study of X-ray transients with Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. C. RAMADEVI

    MS received 1 September 2017; accepted 19 December 2017; published online 10 February 2018. Abstract. Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard AstroSat is an X-ray sky monitor in the ..... 31(2–3), 99. Ramadevi M. C., Seetha S., Babu V. C., Ashoka B. N., Sreeku- mar P. 2006, Optimization of Gas Proportional Coun-.

  15. In-flight calibration system for the INTEGRAL x-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Barbanera, L.

    1996-01-01

    of Amptek Cool-X15 X-ray generators. The latter is a novel product, based on a pyroelectric crystal used to generate energetic electrons that produce fluorescence lines by hitting a metallic target. We plan to use the four low intensity radioactive sources for monitoring the four independent anode chains......JEM-X is the x-ray monitor serving the two gamma-ray experiments imager and spectrometer onboard the ESA's INTEGRAL satellite. Due to the intrinsic weakness of the celestial sources in the gamma energy range they will need very long integration times. During these long pointings JEM-X will be able...... to detect very small variations on most x-ray sources, but only if accurately calibrated. The in- flight calibration system of the JEM-X experiment is devoted to measure the response of the detection chain (detector plus electronics) in a small set of positions and energies. The data from this system...

  16. Corrosion monitoring in insulated pipes using x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad; Abd Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Suffian Saad; Shaharuddin Sayuti; Shukri Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    In engineering plants, detection of corrosion and evaluation of deposit in insulated pipes using radiography method are considered as very challenging tasks. In general, this degradation problem is attributed to water condensation. It causes the formation of deposit and scale inside the pipe, as well as between the insulation and pipe in cold temperature pipes. On the other hand, for hot temperature pipes the main problem is mainly due to corrosion/erosion attack inside the pipe. In the study of corrosion in pipelines, one of the most important parameters to be monitored and measured is the wall thickness. Currently, most pipeline corrosion monitoring and evaluation for both insulated and non-insulated pipes is performed using an ultrasonic method. The most notable disadvantage of using this method is that the insulation covering the pipe has to be removed before the inspection can be carried out and this is considered as not so cost effective. Due to this reason, the possibility of employing other alternative NDT method, namely radiographic testing method was studied. The technique used in this studied are known as tangential technique. In this study it was found that the result found using tangential technique is consistent with the actual thickness of the pipe. Besides the thickness, types of corrosion can also be identified easily. Result of this study is presented and discussed in this paper. (Author)

  17. Circular polarization control for the European XFEL in the soft X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The possibility of producing X-ray radiation with high degree of circular polarization is an important asset at XFEL facilities. Polarization control is most important in the soft X-ray region.However, the baseline of the European XFEL, including the soft X-ray SASE3 line, foresees planar undulators only, yielding linearly-polarized radiation. It is clear that the lowest-risk strategy for implementing polarization control at SASE3 involves adding an APPLE II-type undulator at the end of the planar undulator, in order to exploit the micro bunching from the baseline FEL. Detailed experience is available in synchrotron radiation laboratories concerning the manufacturing of 5 m-long APPLE II undulators. However, the choice of a short helical radiator leads to the problem of background suppression. The driving idea of our proposal is that the background radiation can be suppressed by spatial filtering. This operation can be performed by inserting slits behind the APPLE II radiator, where the linearly-polarized radiation spot size is about 30 times larger than the radiation spot size from the helical radiator. The last 7 cells of the SASE3 undulator are left with an open gap in order to provide a total 42 m drift section for electron beam and radiation. Due to the presence of the drift the linearly-polarized radiation spot size increases, and the linearly polarized background radiation can be suppressed by the slits. At the same time, the microbunch structure is easily preserved, so that intense (100 GW) coherent radiation is emitted in the helical radiator. We propose a filtering setup consisting of a pair of water cooled slits for X-ray beam filtering and of a 5 m-long magnetic chicane, which creates an offset for slit installation immediately behind the helical radiator. Electrons and X-rays are separated before the slits by the magnetic chicane, so that the electron beam can pass by the filtering setup without perturbations. Based on start-to-end simulations we

  18. Circular polarization control for the European XFEL in the soft X-ray regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-06-01

    The possibility of producing X-ray radiation with high degree of circular polarization is an important asset at XFEL facilities. Polarization control is most important in the soft X-ray region.However, the baseline of the European XFEL, including the soft X-ray SASE3 line, foresees planar undulators only, yielding linearly-polarized radiation. It is clear that the lowest-risk strategy for implementing polarization control at SASE3 involves adding an APPLE II-type undulator at the end of the planar undulator, in order to exploit the micro bunching from the baseline FEL. Detailed experience is available in synchrotron radiation laboratories concerning the manufacturing of 5 m-long APPLE II undulators. However, the choice of a short helical radiator leads to the problem of background suppression. The driving idea of our proposal is that the background radiation can be suppressed by spatial filtering. This operation can be performed by inserting slits behind the APPLE II radiator, where the linearly-polarized radiation spot size is about 30 times larger than the radiation spot size from the helical radiator. The last 7 cells of the SASE3 undulator are left with an open gap in order to provide a total 42 m drift section for electron beam and radiation. Due to the presence of the drift the linearly-polarized radiation spot size increases, and the linearly polarized background radiation can be suppressed by the slits. At the same time, the microbunch structure is easily preserved, so that intense (100 GW) coherent radiation is emitted in the helical radiator. We propose a filtering setup consisting of a pair of water cooled slits for X-ray beam filtering and of a 5 m-long magnetic chicane, which creates an offset for slit installation immediately behind the helical radiator. Electrons and X-rays are separated before the slits by the magnetic chicane, so that the electron beam can pass by the filtering setup without perturbations. Based on start-to-end simulations we

  19. AN EXTENDED AND MORE SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR PERIODICITIES IN ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER/ALL-SKY MONITOR X-RAY LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Alan M.; Bradt, Hale V.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Harris, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic search in ∼14 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor (ASM) data for evidence of periodicities. Two variations of the commonly used Fourier analysis search method have been employed to significantly improve upon the sensitivity achieved by Wen et al. in 2006, who also searched for periodicities in ASM data. In addition, the present search is comprehensive in terms of sources studied and frequency range covered, and has yielded the detection of the signatures of the orbital periods of eight low-mass X-ray binary systems and of ten high-mass X-ray binaries not listed in the tables of Wen et al. Orbital periods, epochs, signal amplitudes, modulation fractions, and folded light curves are given for each of these systems. Seven of the orbital periods are the most precise reported to date. In the course of this work, the 18.545 day orbital period of IGR J18483-0311 was co-discovered, and the first detections in X-rays were made of the ∼3.9 day orbital period of LMC X-1 and the ∼3.79 hr orbital period of 4U 1636-536. The results inform future searches for orbital and other periodicities in X-ray binaries.

  20. Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure as a suitable probe to monitor live organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oger, Phil M.; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopies are very powerful tools to determine the chemistry of complex dilute solutes in abiotic and biotic systems. We have assayed their suitability to monitor the chemistry of complex solutions in a live biotic system. The impact of the probe on cells was quantified for 4 different cellular organisms differing in their resistance level to environmental stresses. We show that none of the organisms tested can survive the radiation doses needed for the acquisition of meaningful spectroscopic data. Therefore, on one hand, X-ray spectroscopy cannot be applied to the monitoring of single cells, and cellular damages have to be taken into account in the interpretation of the evolution of such systems. On the other hand, due to the limited extension of X-ray induced cellular damages in the culture volume, it is possible to probe a population of live cells provided that the culture to beam probe ratio is large enough to minimize the impact of mortality on the evolution of the biological system. Our results suggest that it could be possible to probe the volume in the close vicinity of a cell without affecting its activity. Using this setup we could monitor the reduction of selenite by the X-ray sensitive bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58, for 24 h. This method has a great potential to monitor the respiration of various metals, such as iron, manganese and arsenic, in situ under relevant environmental conditions by live microorganisms

  1. Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure as a suitable probe to monitor live organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oger, Phil M. [Laboratoire de Sciences de la Terre, UMR CNRS 5570, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69364 (France)], E-mail: poger@ens-lyon.fr; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A. [Laboratoire de Sciences de la Terre, UMR CNRS 5570, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69364 (France)

    2008-04-15

    X-ray spectroscopies are very powerful tools to determine the chemistry of complex dilute solutes in abiotic and biotic systems. We have assayed their suitability to monitor the chemistry of complex solutions in a live biotic system. The impact of the probe on cells was quantified for 4 different cellular organisms differing in their resistance level to environmental stresses. We show that none of the organisms tested can survive the radiation doses needed for the acquisition of meaningful spectroscopic data. Therefore, on one hand, X-ray spectroscopy cannot be applied to the monitoring of single cells, and cellular damages have to be taken into account in the interpretation of the evolution of such systems. On the other hand, due to the limited extension of X-ray induced cellular damages in the culture volume, it is possible to probe a population of live cells provided that the culture to beam probe ratio is large enough to minimize the impact of mortality on the evolution of the biological system. Our results suggest that it could be possible to probe the volume in the close vicinity of a cell without affecting its activity. Using this setup we could monitor the reduction of selenite by the X-ray sensitive bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58, for 24 h. This method has a great potential to monitor the respiration of various metals, such as iron, manganese and arsenic, in situ under relevant environmental conditions by live microorganisms.

  2. Ion beam induced surface graphitization of CVD diamond for x-ray beam position monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chian; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wen, L.; Melendres, C.A.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at ANL is a third-generation synchrotron facility that generates powerful x-ray beams on its undulator beamlines. It is important to know the position and angle of the x- ray beam during experiments. Due to very high heat flux levels, several patented x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) exploiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been developed. These XBPMs have a thin layer of low-atomic-mass metallic coating so that photoemission from the x rays generate a minute but measurable current for position determination. Graphitization of the CVD diamond surface creates a very thin, intrinsic and conducting layer that can stand much higher temperatures and minimal x-ray transmission losses compared to the coated metallic layers. In this paper, a laboratory sputter ion source was used to transform selected surfaces of a CVD diamond substrate into graphite. The effect of 1-5 keV argon ion bombardment on CVD diamond surfaces at various target temperatures from 200 to 500 C was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and in-situ electrical resistivity measurements. Graphitization after the ion bombardment has been confirmed and optimum conditions for graphitization studied. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the overall diamond structure in the bulk of CVD diamond substrate after the ion bombardments. It was found that target temperature plays an important role in stability and electrical conductivity of the irradiated CVD diamonds

  3. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomer, Chris, E-mail: chris.bloomer@diamond.ac.uk; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  4. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomer, Chris; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  5. The European X-ray Free Electron Laser Project at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    On February 5, 2003, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research decided that the X-ray free-electron laser XFEL, proposed by the International TESLA Collaboration, should be realized as a European project and located at DESY/Hamburg. The ministry also announced that in view of the locational advantage, Germany is prepared to cover half of the investment and personnel costs for the XFEL. In the course of the last year work has concentrated on the following areas: setting up of an organizational structure at DESY for the preparation of the project, discussions with potential European partners on several levels, selection of a new site for the XFEL facility and the preparation of the 'plan approval procedure'. The present status of the technical layout of the Linear Accelerator, the SASE Undulator and Photon Beamlines and the experiment stations will be presented.

  6. Optimization of a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We recently proposed a basic concept for design and layout of the undulator source for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European XFEL. The goal of the optimized scheme proposed here is to enable experimental simplification and performance improvement. The core of the scheme is composed by soft and hard X-ray self-seeding setups. Based on the use of an improved design for both monochromators it is possible to increase the design electron energy up to 17.5 GeV in photon energy range between 2 keV and 13 keV, which is the most preferable for life science experiments. An advantage of operating at such high electron energy is the increase of the X-ray output peak power. Another advantage is that 17.5 GeV is the preferred operation energy for SASE1 and SASE2 beamline users. Since it will be necessary to run all the XFEL lines at the same electron energy, this choice will reduce the interference with other undulator lines and increase the total amount of scheduled beam time. In this work we also propose a study of the performance of the self-seeding scheme accounting for spatiotemporal coupling caused by the use of a single crystal monochromator. Our analysis indicates that this distortion is easily suppressed by the right choice of diamond crystal planes and that the proposed undulator source yields about the same performance as in the case for a X-ray seed pulse with no coupling. Simulations show that the FEL power reaches 2 TW in the 3 keV-5 keV photon energy range, which is the most preferable for single biomolecule imaging.

  7. Optimization of a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2012-09-01

    We recently proposed a basic concept for design and layout of the undulator source for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European XFEL. The goal of the optimized scheme proposed here is to enable experimental simplification and performance improvement. The core of the scheme is composed by soft and hard X-ray self-seeding setups. Based on the use of an improved design for both monochromators it is possible to increase the design electron energy up to 17.5 GeV in photon energy range between 2 keV and 13 keV, which is the most preferable for life science experiments. An advantage of operating at such high electron energy is the increase of the X-ray output peak power. Another advantage is that 17.5 GeV is the preferred operation energy for SASE1 and SASE2 beamline users. Since it will be necessary to run all the XFEL lines at the same electron energy, this choice will reduce the interference with other undulator lines and increase the total amount of scheduled beam time. In this work we also propose a study of the performance of the self-seeding scheme accounting for spatiotemporal coupling caused by the use of a single crystal monochromator. Our analysis indicates that this distortion is easily suppressed by the right choice of diamond crystal planes and that the proposed undulator source yields about the same performance as in the case for a X-ray seed pulse with no coupling. Simulations show that the FEL power reaches 2 TW in the 3 keV-5 keV photon energy range, which is the most preferable for single biomolecule imaging.

  8. A beam intensity monitor for the evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imazono, Takashi; Moriya, Naoji; Harada, Yoshihisa; Sano, Kazuo; Koike, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation Beamline for Soft X-Ray Optical Elements (BL-11) at the SR Center of Ritsumeikan University has been operated to measure the wavelength and angular characteristics of soft x-ray optical components in a wavelength range of 0.65-25 nm using a reflecto-diffractometer (RD). The beam intensity monitor that has been equipped in BL-11 has observed the signal of the zero-th order light. For the purpose of more accurate evaluation of the performance of optical components, a new beam intensity monitor to measure the intensity of the first order light from the monochromator in BL-11 has been developed and installed in just front of RD. The strong positive correlation between the signal of the beam monitor and a detector equipped in the RD is shown. It is successful that the beam intensity of the first order light can be monitored in real time.

  9. Scheme for generating and transporting THz radiation to the X-ray experimental hall at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decking, Winfried; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The design of a THz edge radiation source for the European XFEL is presented.We consider generation of THz radiation from the spent electron beam downstream of the SASE2 undulator in the electron beam dump area. In this way, the THz output must propagate at least for 250 meters through the photon beam tunnel to the experimental hall to reach the SASE2 X-ray hutches. We propose to use an open beam waveguide such as an iris guide as transmission line. In order to efficiently couple radiation into the iris transmission line, generation of the THz radiation pulse can be performed directly within the iris guide. The line transporting the THz radiation to the SASE2 X-ray hutches introduces a path delay of about 20 m. Since THz pump/X-ray probe experiments should be enabled, we propose to exploit the European XFEL baseline multi-bunch mode of operation, with 222 ns electron bunch separation, in order to cope with the delay between THz and X-ray pulses. We present start-to-end simulations for 1 nC bunch operation-parameters, optimized for THz pump/X-ray probe experiments.Detailed characterization of the THz and SASE X-ray radiation pulses is performed. Highly focused THz beams will approach the high field limit of 1 V/atomic size. (orig.)

  10. Monitoring and Detecting X-ray Transients with the Swift Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Swift is a multi-wavelength observatory specifically designed to detect transients sources in the gamma-ray energy band 15-200 keV. The primary goals of the mission involve gamma ray burst (GRB) astronomy, namely to determine the origin of GRBs and their afterglows, and use bursts to probe the early Universe. However, Swift will also discover new X-ray transient sources, and it will be possible to bring Swift's considerable multi-wavelength capabilities to bear on these sources, and those discovered by other means. The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is a coded mask instrument sensitive to 15-200 keV gamma rays, and has a field of view which covers approximately 1/8th of the sky in a single pointing. Over a typical observing day, the almost the entire sky will be observed and monitored for new transient sources. Sources will be detected within several hours of observation. The two narrow field instruments, the X-ray Telescope and Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope, can provide sensitive simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy observations in the optical through soft X-ray bands. The Swift science operations team will entertain requests for targets of opportunity for sources which are astrophysically significant. Swift will be ideally suited for the detection of transients which produce hard X-rays, such as black hole binaries and some neutron star systems.

  11. Preparatory procedure and equipment for the European x-ray free electron laser cavity implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reschke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The European x-ray free electron laser is under construction at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY. The electron beam energy of up to 17.5 GeV will be achieved by using superconducting accelerator technology. Final prototyping, industrialization, and new infrastructure are the actual challenges with respect to the accelerating cavities. This paper describes the preparation strategy optimized for the cavity preparation procedure in industry. For the industrial fabrication and preparation, several new hardware components have been already developed at DESY. The design and construction of a semiautomated rf-measurement machine for dumbbells and end groups are described. In a collaboration among FNAL, KEK, and DESY, an automatic cavity tuning machine has been designed and four machines are under construction. The functionality of these machines with special attention to safety aspects is described in this paper. A new high pressure rinsing system has been developed and is operational.

  12. An X-ray beam position monitor based on the photoluminescence of helium gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Peter; White, Jeffrey A.

    2005-03-01

    A new method for white beam position monitoring for both bend magnet and wiggler synchrotron X-ray radiation has been developed. This method utilizes visible light luminescence generated as a result of ionization by the intense X-ray flux. In video beam position monitors (VBPMs), the luminescence of helium gas at atmospheric pressure is observed through a view port using a CCD camera next to the beam line. The beam position, profile, integrated intensity and FWHM are calculated from the distribution of luminescence intensity in each captured image by custom software. Misalignment of upstream apertures changes the image profile making VBPMs helpful for initial alignment of upstream beam line components. VBPMs can thus provide more information about the X-ray beam than most beam position monitors (BPMs). A beam position calibration procedure, employing a tilted plane-parallel glass plate placed in front of the camera lens, has also been developed. The accuracy of the VBPM system was measured during a bench-top experiment to be better than 1 μm. The He-luminescence-based VBPM system has been operative on three CHESS beam lines (F hard-bend and wiggler, A-line wiggler and G-line wiggler) for about a year. The beam positions are converted to analog voltages and used as feedback signals for beam stabilization. In our paper we discuss details of VBPM construction and describe further results of its performance.

  13. High temperature monitoring of silicon carbide ceramics by confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • X-ray scattering was used for monitoring oxidation situation of SiC ceramics. • A calibration curve was obtained. • The confocal X-ray scattering technology was based on polycapillary X-ray optics. • The variations of contents of components of SiC ceramics were obtained. - Abstract: In the present work, we presented an alternative method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics at various high temperatures in air by measuring the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratios (I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra}) and effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}) of SiC ceramics with the confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. A calibration curve of the relationship between I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra} and Z{sub eff} was established by using a set of 8 SiC calibration samples. The sensitivity of this approach is so high that it can be easily distinguished samples of Z{sub eff} differing from each other by only 0.01. The linear relationship between the variation of Z{sub eff} and the variations of contents of C, Si and O of SiC ceramics were found, and the corresponding calculation model of the relationship between the ΔZ and the ΔC{sub C}, ΔC{sub Si}, and ΔC{sub O} were established. The variation of contents of components of the tested SiC ceramics after oxidation at high temperature was quantitatively calculated based on the model. It was shown that the results of contents of carbon, silicon and oxygen obtained by this method were in good agreement with the results obtained by XPS, giving values of relative deviation less than 1%. It was concluded that the practicality of this proposed method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of SiC ceramics at high temperatures was acceptable.

  14. Real-time algorithms for JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, A.; Pereira, R.C.; Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Carvalho, B.B.; Sousa, J.; Kiptily, V.; Correia, C.M.B.A.; Gonçalves, B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Real-time tools and mechanisms are required for data handling and machine control. • A new DAQ system, ATCA based, with embedded FPGAs, was installed at JET. • Different real-time algorithms were developed for FPGAs and MARTe application. • MARTe provides the interface to CODAS and to the JET real-time network. • The new DAQ system is capable to process and deliver data in real-time. - Abstract: The steady state operation with high energy content foreseen for future generation of fusion devices will necessarily demand dedicated real-time tools and mechanisms for data handling and machine control. Consequently, the real-time systems for those devices should be carefully selected and their capabilities previously established. The Joint European Torus (JET) is undertaking an enhancement program, which includes tests of relevant real-time tools for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a key experiment for future fusion devices. In these enhancements a new Data AcQuisition (DAQ) system is included, with real-time processing capabilities, for the JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor. The DAQ system is composed of dedicated digitizer modules with embedded Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. The interface between the DAQ system, the JET control and data acquisition system and the JET real-time data network is provided by the Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). This paper describes the real-time algorithms, developed for both digitizers’ FPGAs and MARTe application, capable of meeting the DAQ real-time requirements. The new DAQ system, including the embedded real-time features, was commissioned during the 2012 experiments. Results achieved with these real-time algorithms during experiments are presented

  15. Real-time algorithms for JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A., E-mail: anaf@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, R.C.; Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Carvalho, B.B.; Sousa, J. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kiptily, V. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Correia, C.M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Dept. de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, B. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Real-time tools and mechanisms are required for data handling and machine control. • A new DAQ system, ATCA based, with embedded FPGAs, was installed at JET. • Different real-time algorithms were developed for FPGAs and MARTe application. • MARTe provides the interface to CODAS and to the JET real-time network. • The new DAQ system is capable to process and deliver data in real-time. - Abstract: The steady state operation with high energy content foreseen for future generation of fusion devices will necessarily demand dedicated real-time tools and mechanisms for data handling and machine control. Consequently, the real-time systems for those devices should be carefully selected and their capabilities previously established. The Joint European Torus (JET) is undertaking an enhancement program, which includes tests of relevant real-time tools for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a key experiment for future fusion devices. In these enhancements a new Data AcQuisition (DAQ) system is included, with real-time processing capabilities, for the JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor. The DAQ system is composed of dedicated digitizer modules with embedded Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. The interface between the DAQ system, the JET control and data acquisition system and the JET real-time data network is provided by the Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). This paper describes the real-time algorithms, developed for both digitizers’ FPGAs and MARTe application, capable of meeting the DAQ real-time requirements. The new DAQ system, including the embedded real-time features, was commissioned during the 2012 experiments. Results achieved with these real-time algorithms during experiments are presented.

  16. Design of a New Collimation System to Prevent Interference between X-ray Machines and Radiation Portal Monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a new collimation system that allows radiation portal monitors (RPMs) installed near x-ray machines to operate with a negligible false-positive alarm rate. RPMs are usually installed as far as possible from x-ray machines because false alarms are triggered by escaping x-rays; however, constraints at the installation site sometimes make it necessary that RPMs be installed near x-ray machines. Such RPMs are often plagued by high alarm rates resulting from the simultaneous operation of the RPMs and x-ray machines. Limitations on pedestrian flow, x-ray machine orientation, and RPM location often preclude a simple solution for lowering the alarm rate. Adding additional collimation to the x-ray machines to stop the x-rays at the source can reduce the alarm rate without interfering with site operations or adversely affecting the minimum detectable quantity of material (MDQ). A collimation design has been verified by measurements conducted at a RPM installation site and is applicable to all new and existing RPM installations near x-ray machines.

  17. A computer programme to monitor the performance of an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpolo, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    A BASIC computer programme has been developed that measures the long- and short-term stability of an X-ray spectrometer and operational errors (and compares them with the limits specified by the manufacturer) and the dead time of the associated detectors. The programme also carries out checks on the spectrometer with regard to the performance of different combinations of the crystals, the detectors, the collimators, the sin 2 THETA angles, the apertures, the tracking of the sin 2 THETA amplifier, the operation of the second-order spectrum circuits, the operation of the automatic pulse-height analyser, the condition of the detectors, the condition of the X-ray tube, spectral contamination by the tube spectrum, and physical contamination by analytical specimens. Although the measurements take 15 hours, there is no disruption to normal, routine laboratory work since the measurements can be made automatically after routine work has been completed. Only four sample positions are required for this monitoring programme

  18. Possible use of CdTe detectors in kVp monitoring of diagnostic X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmar, M.; Bucalovic, N.; Baucal, M.; Jovancevic, N.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that kVp of diagnostic X-ray devices (or maximal energy of X-ray photon spectra) should be monitored routinely; however a standardized non-invasive technique has yet to be developed and proposed. It is well known that the integral number of Compton scattered photons and the intensities of fluorescent X-ray lines registered after irradiation of some material by an X-ray beam are a function of the maximal beam energy. CdTe detectors have sufficient energy resolution to distinguish individual X-ray fluorescence lines and high efficiency for the photon energies in the diagnostic region. Our initial measurements have demonstrated that the different ratios of the integral number of Compton scattered photons and intensities of K and L fluorescent lines detected by CdTe detector are sensitive function of maximal photon energy and could be successfully applied for kVp monitoring.

  19. Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Sekutowicz, J.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-03-01

    The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion since many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R and D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Aangstrom FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with the energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in sub-Aangstrom regime. As an option for generation of brilliant photon beams at short wavelengths we also consider harmonic lasing that has recently attracted a significant attention.

  20. Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, R.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Sekutowicz, J.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-03-15

    The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion since many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R and D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Aangstrom FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with the energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in sub-Aangstrom regime. As an option for generation of brilliant photon beams at short wavelengths we also consider harmonic lasing that has recently attracted a significant attention.

  1. X-ray and γ-radiation personnel monitoring by means of ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilovskij, L.P.; Nikitin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Several sets of condensator ionization chambers for measuring a dose of short-wave X-ray and gamma radiations within the limits of 0.005-50 R is described in short. In particular the following sets for personnel monitoring are described: the KID-2 set intended for determining an exposure dose of roentgen and gamma radiations of 150 keV - 2 MeV energy within the limits of 0.005-1R; the DK-02 set providing the measurement of personnel exposure doses of X-ray and gamma radiations within the limits of 0.02-200 mR in the energy range of 100 keV-2 MeV; the DP-22 V, DP-24 sets providing the measurement of an exposure dose of X-ray and gamma radiations within the limits of 1-50 R at a power of 0.5-200 R/h in the energy range of 0.1-2 MeV. An order of work with the sets is described [ru

  2. Large aperture Fizeau interferometer commissioning and preliminary measurements of a long x-ray mirror at European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M., E-mail: maurizio.vannoni@xfel.eu; Freijo Martín, I. [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The European XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser) is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 ms long pulse train at 10 Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale), and high average brilliance (1.6 ⋅ 10{sup 25} (photons s{sup −1} mm{sup −2} mrad{sup −2})/0.1% bandwidth). The beam has very high pulse energy; therefore, it has to be spread out on a relatively long mirror (about 1 m). Due to the very short wavelength, the mirrors need to have a high quality surface on their entire length, and this is considered very challenging even with the most advanced polishing methods. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mount, we equipped a metrology laboratory with a large aperture Fizeau interferometer. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter beam. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been taken in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. We report the first commissioning of the instrument, its calibration, and performance characterization, together with some preliminary results with the measurement of a 950 mm silicon substrate. The intended application is to characterize the final XFEL mirrors with nanometer accuracy.

  3. The INTEGRAL long monitoring of persistent ultra compact X-ray bursters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Bird, A. J.; Natalucci, L.; Sguera, V.

    2008-12-01

    Context: The combination of compact objects, short period variability and peculiar chemical composition of the ultra compact X-ray binaries make up a very interesting laboratory to study accretion processes and thermonuclear burning on the neutron star surface. Improved large optical telescopes and more sensitive X-ray satellites have increased the number of known ultra compact X-ray binaries allowing their study with unprecedented detail. Aims: We analyze the average properties common to all ultra compact bursters observed by INTEGRAL from 0.2 keV to 150 keV. Methods: We have performed a systematic analysis of the INTEGRAL public data and Key-Program proprietary observations of a sample of the ultra compact X-ray binaries. In order to study their average properties in a very broad energy band, we combined INTEGRAL with BeppoSAX and SWIFT data whenever possible. For sources not showing any significant flux variations along the INTEGRAL monitoring, we build the average spectrum by combining all available data; in the case of variable fluxes, we use simultaneous INTEGRAL and SWIFT observations when available. Otherwise we compared IBIS and PDS data to check the variability and combine BeppoSAX with INTEGRAL /IBIS data. Results: All spectra are well represented by a two component model consisting of a disk-blackbody and Comptonised emission. The majority of these compact sources spend most of the time in a canonical low/hard state, with a dominating Comptonised component and accretion rate dot {M} lower than 10-9 {M⊙}/yr, not depending on the model used to fit the data. INTEGRAL is an ESA project with instruments and Science Data Center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

  4. X-ray beam monitor made by thin-film CVD single-crystal diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; Kachkanov, V; Tartoni, N; Benetti, M; Cannatà, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2012-11-01

    A novel beam position monitor, operated at zero bias voltage, based on high-quality chemical-vapor-deposition single-crystal Schottky diamond for use under intense synchrotron X-ray beams was fabricated and tested. The total thickness of the diamond thin-film beam monitor is about 60 µm. The diamond beam monitor was inserted in the B16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (UK). The device was characterized under monochromatic high-flux X-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV and a micro-focused 10 keV beam with a spot size of approximately 2 µm × 3 µm square. Time response, linearity and position sensitivity were investigated. Device response uniformity was measured by a raster scan of the diamond surface with the micro-focused beam. Transmissivity and spectral responsivity versus beam energy were also measured, showing excellent performance of the new thin-film single-crystal diamond beam monitor.

  5. Radiographic x-ray flux monitoring during explosive experiments by copper activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goosman, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    During radiographic experiments involving explosives, it is valuable to have a method of monitoring the X-ray flux ratio between the dynamic experiment and an X-ray taken of a static object for comparison. The standard method of monitoring with thermoluminescent detectors suffers the disadvantages of being sensitive to temperature, shock, UV radiation, cleanliness and saturation. We are studying an additional flux monitoring system which is not subject to any of the above disadvantages and is based upon the 63 Cu(photon,n) 62 Cu reaction. The 62 Cu has a 10 min. half-life and is counted by a nuclear pulse-counting system within a few minutes of an explosive test. 170 MicroCoulomb of 19.3 MeV electrons hitting 1.18mm of Ta produces X-rays which illuminate a 0.8mm thick by 1.6cm diameter Cu disk placed 46cm from the Ta. The activated Cu is placed in a counting system with a window between 400-600 keV and produces about 42500 counts in the first 100 sec counting period. Less than 0.2% of the initial activity is due to other reactions. Photo-induced neutrons in Be parts of the system are shown to produce a negligible effect in the Cu. The main disadvantage of the Cu activation is its sensitivity to electron energy. Monte-Carlo calculations of the excitation function for our accelerator are shown, along with excitation functions for three other configurations

  6. Radiographic x-ray flux monitoring during explosive experiments by copper activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goosman, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    During radiographic experiments involving explosives, it is valuable to have a method of monitoring the x-ray flux ratio between the dynamic experiment and an x-ray taken of a static object for comparison. The standard method of monitoring with thermoluminescent detectors suffers the disadvantages of being sensitive to temperature, shock, uv radiation, cleanliness and saturation. A flux monitoring system is being studied which is not subject to any of the above disadvantages and is based upon the 63Cu(photon,n)62Cu reaction. The 62Cu has a 10 min half life and is counted by a nuclear pulse counting system within a few minutes of an explosive test. 170 microcoulomb of 19.3 MeV electrons hitting 1.18 mm of Ta produces x-rays which illuminate a 0.8mm thick by 1.6 cm diameter Cu disk placed 46 cm from the Ta. The activated Cu is placed in a counting system with a window between 400 to 600 keV and produces about 42,500 counts in the first 100 sec. counting period. Less than 0.2% of the initial activity is due to other reactions. Photo-induced neutrons in Be parts of the system are shown to produce a negligible effect in the Cu. The main disadvantage of the Cu activation is its sensitivity to electron energy. Monte-Carlo calculations of the excitation function for our accelerator are shown, along with excitation functions for three other configurations

  7. Implementation of a patient dose monitoring system in conventional digital X-ray imaging: initial experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmaier, Christina; Zuber, Niklaus; Weishaupt, Dominik [Stadtspital Triemli Zurich, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose was to report on the initial experience after implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging. A dose-monitoring system collected dose data relating to different radiographs (one projection) and studies (two or more projections). Images were acquired on digital X-ray systems equipped with flat-panel detectors. During period 1, examinations were performed in a routine fashion in 12,614 patients. After period 1, technical modifications were performed and radiographers underwent training in radiation protection. During period 2, examinations were performed in 14,514 patients, and the radiographers were advised to read dose data after each radiograph/study. Dose data were compared by means of kerma area product (KAP, gray x centimetre squared) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK, milligray). During period 1, 13,955 radiographs and 8,466 studies were performed, and in period 2 16,090 radiographs and 10,389 studies. In period 2, KAP values for radiographs were an average of 25 % lower and for studies 7 % lower, and ESAK values for radiographs were 24 % lower and for studies 5 % lower. The reduction in KAP was significant in 8/13 radiographs and in 6/14 studies, and the reduction in ESAK was significant in 6/13 radiographs and 5/14 studies. Implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging allows easy data collection, supports dose reduction efforts, and may increase radiographers' dose awareness. (orig.)

  8. The APS x-ray undulator photon beam position monitor and tests at CHESS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron radiation sources, like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide significant increases in brilliance over existing synchrotron sources. The APS x-ray undulators will increase the brilliance in the 3-40 KeV range by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of the photon beam position monitor is a challenging engineering task. The beam position monitors must withstand the high thermal load, be able to achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while maintaining their stability, and be compatible with both undulators and wigglers. A preliminary APS prototype photon beam position monitor consisting of a CVD-diamond-based, tungsten-coated blade was tested on the APS/CHESS undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Radiation Source (CHESS) and on the NSLS X-13 undulator beamline. Results from these tests, as well as the design of this prototype APS photon beam position monitor, will be discussed in this paper

  9. The APS X-ray undulator photon beam position monitor and tests at CHESS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The advent of thirs generation synchrotron sources, like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide significant increases in brilliance over existing synchrotron sources. The APS X-ray undulators will increase the brilliance in the 3-40 keV range by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of the photon beam position monitor is a challenging engineering task. The beam position monitors must withstand the high thermal load, be able to achieve submicron spatial resolution while maintaining their stability, and be compatible with both undulators and wigglers. A preliminary APS prototype photon beam position monitor consisting of a CVD-diamond-based, tungsten-coated blade was tested on the APS/CHESS undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Radiation Source (CHESS) and on the NSLS X-13 undulator beamline. Results from these tests, as well as the design of this prototype APS photon beam position monitor, will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  10. Smart x-ray beam position monitor system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.

    1996-01-01

    In third-generation synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the sensitivity and reliability requirements for the x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are much higher than for earlier systems. Noise and contamination signals caused by radiation emitted from the bending magnet become a major problem. The regular XBPM calibration process can only provide signal correction for one set of conditions for the insertion devices (ID). During normal operation, parameters affecting the ID-emitted beam, such as the gap of the ID magnets and the beam current, are the variables. A new smart x-ray beam position monitor system (SBPM) has been conceived and designed for the APS. It has a built in self-learning structure with EEPROM memory that is large enough to open-quote open-quote remember close-quote close-quote a complete set of calibration data covering all the possible operating conditions. During the self-learning mode, the monitor system initializes a series of automatic scan motions with information for different ID setups and records them into the database array. During normal operation, the SBPM corrects the normalized output according to the ID setup information and the calibration database. So that, with this novel system, the SBPM is always calibrating itself with the changing ID set up conditions. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. A radio monitoring survey of ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körding, E.; Colbert, E.; Falcke, H.

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of a radio monitoring campaign to search for radio emission from nearby ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). These sources are bright off-nuclear X-ray point sources with luminosities exceeding LX > 1039 erg s-1. A well-defined sample of the 9 nearest ULXs has been monitored eight times over 5 months with the Very Large Array in A and B configuration. Our limiting sensitivity is ≈0.15 mJy (4σ) for radio flares and ≈60 μJy for continuous emission. In M 82 two ULXs seem to have coincident compact radio sources, which are probably supernova remnants. No continuous or flaring radio emission has been detected from any other ULX. Thus, ULXs do not generally emit steady-state radio emission above radio powers of 1.5 × 1017 W/Hz. The non-detections of the continuous emission are consistent with beamed or unbeamed radio emission from accreting black holes of ≤ 103 M⊙ based on the radio/X-ray correlation. Other published radio detections (M 82, NGC 5408) are also discussed in this context. Both detections are significantly above our detection limit. If ULXs have flaring radio emission above 4 × 1017 W/Hz we can give an upper limit on the duty cycle of the flares of 6%. This upper limit is in agreement with the observed number of flares in Galactic radio transients. Additionally we present a yet unreported radio double structure in the nearby low-luminosity AGN NGC 4736.

  12. X-ray beam-position feedback system with easy-to-use beam-position monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Yeon; Kim, Yesul; Lee, Sangsul; Lim, Jun

    2018-05-01

    X-ray beam-position stability is indispensable in cutting-edge experiments using synchrotron radiation. Here, for the first time, a beam-position feedback system is presented that utilizes an easy-to-use X-ray beam-position monitor incorporating a diamond-fluorescence screen. The acceptable range of the monitor is above 500 µm and the feedback system maintains the beam position within 3 µm. In addition to being inexpensive, the system has two key advantages: it works without a scale factor for position calibration, and it has no dependence on X-ray energy, X-ray intensity, beam size or beam shape.

  13. In vivo monitoring of toxic metals: assessment of neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    To date, cadmium, lead, aluminum, and mercury have been measured in vivo in humans. The possibilities of monitoring other toxic metals have also been demonstrated, but no human studies have been performed. Neutron activation analysis appears to be most suitable for Cd and Al measurements, while x-ray fluorescence is ideally suited for measurement of lead in superficial bone. Filtered neutron beams and polarized x-ray sources are being developed which will improve in vivo detection limits. Even so, several of the current facilities are already suitable for use in epidemiological studies of selected populations with suspected long-term low-level ''environmental'' exposures. Evaluation and diagnosis of patients presenting with general clinical symptoms attributable to possible toxic metal exposure may be assisted by in vivo examination. Continued in vivo monitoring of industrial workers, especially follow-up measurements, will provide the first direct assessment of changes in body burden and a direct measure of the biological life-times of these metals in humans. 50 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  15. Grating monochromator for soft X-ray self-seeding the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth of XFELs to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. The implementation of this method in the soft X-ray wavelength range necessarily involves gratings as dispersive elements. We study a very compact self-seeding scheme with a grating monochromator originally designed at SLAC, which can be straightforwardly installed in the SASE3 type undulator beamline at the European XFEL. The monochromator design is based on a toroidal VLS grating working at a fixed incidence angle mounting without entrance slit. It covers the spectral range from 300 eV to 1000 eV. The optical system was studied using wave optics method (in comparison with ray tracing) to evaluate the performance of the self-seeding scheme. Our wave optics analysis takes into account the actual beam wavefront of the radiation from the coherent FEL source, third order aberrations, and errors from each optical element. Wave optics is the only method available, in combination with FEL simulations, for the design of a self-seeding monochromator without exit slit. We show that, without exit slit, the self-seeding scheme is distinguished by the much needed experimental simplicity, and can practically give the same resolving power (about 7000) as with an exit slit. Wave optics is also naturally applicable to calculations of the self-seeding scheme efficiency, which include the monochromator transmittance and the effect of the mismatching between seed beam and electron beam. Simulations show that the FEL power reaches 1 TW and that the spectral density for a TW pulse is about two orders of magnitude higher than that for the SASE pulse at saturation.

  16. Grating monochromator for soft X-ray self-seeding the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Geloni, Gianluca

    2013-02-01

    Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth of XFELs to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. The implementation of this method in the soft X-ray wavelength range necessarily involves gratings as dispersive elements. We study a very compact self-seeding scheme with a grating monochromator originally designed at SLAC, which can be straightforwardly installed in the SASE3 type undulator beamline at the European XFEL. The monochromator design is based on a toroidal VLS grating working at a fixed incidence angle mounting without entrance slit. It covers the spectral range from 300 eV to 1000 eV. The optical system was studied using wave optics method (in comparison with ray tracing) to evaluate the performance of the self-seeding scheme. Our wave optics analysis takes into account the actual beam wavefront of the radiation from the coherent FEL source, third order aberrations, and errors from each optical element. Wave optics is the only method available, in combination with FEL simulations, for the design of a self-seeding monochromator without exit slit. We show that, without exit slit, the self-seeding scheme is distinguished by the much needed experimental simplicity, and can practically give the same resolving power (about 7000) as with an exit slit. Wave optics is also naturally applicable to calculations of the self-seeding scheme efficiency, which include the monochromator transmittance and the effect of the mismatching between seed beam and electron beam. Simulations show that the FEL power reaches 1 TW and that the spectral density for a TW pulse is about two orders of magnitude higher than that for the SASE pulse at saturation.

  17. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  18. Application of X-ray emission techniques for monitoring environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, G.; Danesi, P.R.; Dargie, M.; Haselberger, N.; Markowicz, A.; Tajani, A.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray emission techniques are versatile and powerful methods used for multielement non-destructive analysis. They include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray spectrometry and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Since many years the IAEA has utilised and promoted these techniques for the analysis of environmental, biological and geological samples. In this paper recent progress at our laboratory in selected aspects related to the application of X-ray emission techniques is briefly overviewed. (authors)

  19. Monitor of ash content of coal with X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzonek, L.

    1983-01-01

    The coal ash monitor is used on-line to measure the ash content of raw, washed and blended coals. The instrument consists of a presentation unit and electronic unit. In the presentation unit a compact layer of coal is formed and there is also a radiation measuring system. A plutonium 238 source is used and the backscattered X-rays are detected by a proportional counter. The count rate is processed in the electronic unit and displayed as the ash percentage in the coal. A wide range of Polish coals was analysed. The monitor was tested in a power plant over the period of one year. The ash content in the coal analysed was in the range 5 to 50%. The gauge readings were compared with the pyrolysis results. An accuracy of 3.2% (95% confidence limit) was reached. These results were not corrected for the free moisture content which varied in the range 5 to 15 %. (author)

  20. Thermometric- and Acoustic-Based Beam Power Monitor for Ultra-Bright X-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A design for an average beam power monitor for ultra-bright X-ray sources is proposed that makes simultaneous use of calorimetry and radiation acoustics. Radiation incident on a solid target will induce heating and ultrasonic vibrations, both of which may be measured to give a fairly precise value of the beam power. The monitor is intended for measuring ultra-bright Free-Electron Laser (FEL) X-ray beams, for which traditional monitoring technologies such as photo-diodes or scintillators are unsuitable. The monitor consists of a Boron Carbide (B 4 C) target designed to absorb most of the incident beam's energy. Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and piezoelectric actuators are mounted on the outward faces of the target to measure the temperature changes and ultrasonic vibrations induced by the incident beam. The design was tested using an optical pulsed beam (780 nm, 120 and 360 Hz) from a Ti:sapphire oscillator at several energies between 0.8 and 2.6 mJ. The RTDs measured an increase in temperature of about 10 K over a period of several minutes. The piezoelectric sensors recorded ringing acoustic oscillations at 580 ± 40 kHz. Most importantly, the amplitude of the acoustic signals was observed to scale linearly with beam power up to 2 mJ of pulse energy. Above this pulse energy, the vibrational signals became nonlinear. Several causes for this nonlinearity are discussed, including amplifier saturation and piezoelectric saturation. Despite this nonlinearity, these measurements demonstrate the feasibility of such a beam power measurement device. The advantage of two distinct measurements (acoustic and thermometric) provides a useful method of calibration that is unavailable to current LCLS diagnostics tools.

  1. Synchronization and sequencing of data acquisition and control electronics at the European X-ray free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessler, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The 3.5 km long European X-Ray Free Electron Laser, currently under construction in northern Germany, will deliver bursts of up to 2700 short X-ray pulses every 100 ms, providing wavelengths between 0.05 and 6 nm, and a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz to several experiment stations. It allows in-depth research in various scientific fields. In order to set-up the beam, position samples and capture the measured variables, information from the accelerator, diagnostic devices and detectors have to be digitized, converted, processed, transferred, concentrated, distributed, reorganized, controlled and saved. All these steps have to be accurately synchronized and sequenced relative to the actual electron bunch or photon pulse in order to guarantee correct data acquisition timings and unique identification of each bunch passing the beamlines. This document provides a complete description of the planning, design, realization and evaluation of the European XFEL Timing System, which implements the synchronization and sequencing of the data acquisition and control electronics for the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility.

  2. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C.

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of ∼ 1 kg). Data analysis showed widely differing radiographic techniques. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques poorly suited for paediatric radiology. Significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. This study emphasises the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology. (author)

  3. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C.; Stein, E.; Kohn, M.; Kellner, M.; Schweighofer, K.; Cartagena, G.; Panzer, W.; Scheurer, C.; Wall, B.

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of ∼ 1 kg). Data analysis shows that radiographic techniques differed widely. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques which are poorly suited for paediatric radiology. A significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. The results of this study emphasize the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology

  4. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor Localization of SGR 1627-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Bradt, Hale V.; Levine, Alan M.

    1999-07-01

    The fourth unambiguously identified soft gamma repeater (SGR), SGR 1627-41, was discovered with the BATSE instrument on 1998 June 15. Interplanetary Network (IPN) measurements and BATSE data constrained the location of this new SGR to a 6° segment of a narrow (19") annulus. We present two bursts from this source observed by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. We use the ASM data to further constrain the source location to a 5' long segment of the BATSE/IPN error box. The ASM/IPN error box lies within 0.3 arcmin of the supernova remnant G337.0-0.1. The probability that a supernova remnant would fall so close to the error box purely by chance is ~5%.

  5. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMOTHERAPY EFFICIENCY MONITORING IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS BY X-RAY EXAMINATION AND DIGITAL TOMOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nikitin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study: to investigate the capabilities of digital tomosynthesis for monitoring of tuberculous changes in the lungs against the background of chemotherapy.Materials and methods. Results of chemotherapy efficiency monitored by X-ray in 55 respiratory tuberculosis patients were analyzed. Before treatment and in 2 months after chemotherapy start all patients had X-ray and DT with consequent analysis of the obtained data.Results. When monitoring the efficiency of drug therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis by DT some additional diagnostic data were obtained in 36,4% of cases compared to X-ray. The article describes specific features of tuberculous changes visualization of the chest with the follow-up of changes by DT; opportunities for X-ray monitoring efficiency enhancement in these patients are presented.Conclusions. DT provides more accurate evaluation of tuberculous changes in the lungs compared to X-ray, which greatly enhances understanding of the course of the disease and registration of the pulmonary disease cure. 

  6. Beam monitor system for an x-ray free electron laser and compact laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Otake

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A beam-monitor system for XFEL/SPring 8, “SACLA,” has been constructed. In order to maintain a stable self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE interaction, the straightness and overlap of the axes to within 3  μm between the electron beams and the radiated x rays for an undulator section of about 100 m length is necessary. This straightness means relative alignment to an experimental target sample. Furthermore, a temporal stability of 30 fs in order to maintain a constant peak beam current is also necessary to conduct stable SASE lasing. The monitor system was developed to satisfy these spatial and temporal stability and resolution criteria. The system comprises spatial monitors, such as cavity-type beam-position monitors and screen monitors, as well as temporal measurement instruments, such as current monitors, waveguide spectrometers, coherent synchrotron-radiation detectors, a streak camera, and an rf deflector. Commissioning of SACLA started from March 2011, and the monitors performed sufficient roles to tune the beams for lasing. The achieved overall performances of the system, including data acquisition, are: the beam position monitor has a spatial resolution of 600 nm in rms; the bunch-length monitors show ability to observe bunch lengths from 1 ns in an injector with velocity bunching to less than 30 fs after three-stage bunch compressors. The less than 3  μm spatial resolution of the screen monitor was also confirmed during practical beam operation. Owing to these fulfilled performances, such as the high spatial and temporal resolutions, stable lasing of SACLA has been achieved.

  7. Blade-type X-ray beam position monitors for SPring-8 undulator beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyagi, H; Kitamura, H

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray beam position monitors had been designed and installed for SPring-8 insertion device beamlines. These monitors are being utilized for photon beam diagnostics. The beam from the standard undulator in SPring-8 has the total power of 11 kW and the power density of 470 kW/mrad sup 2 , typically. Each monitor has four CVD diamond blades coated with metal for detector heads. We have already introduced three styles of monitors to match various insertion devices in SPring-8. A standard style, or a fixed-blade style, is used mainly for a standard in-vacuum undulator beamlines. A horizontal-blade-drive style and a four-blade-drive style are used for beamlines of a wiggler and a twin helical undulator that have wide power distributions, and for figure-8 undulators that have asymmetric power distributions, respectively. This report describes the design and the structure of these monitors and the beam-tests for the photon beam diagnostics in detail.

  8. X-ray CT monitoring of iceball growth and thermal distribution during cryosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandison, G.A.; Loye, M.P.; Rewcastle, J.C.; Hahn, L.J.; Saliken, J.C.; McKinnon, J.G.; Donnelly, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray CT is able to image the internal architecture of frozen tissue. Phantoms of distilled water, a saline-gelatin mixture, lard and a calf liver-gelatin suspension cooled by a plastic tube acting as a long liquid nitrogen cryoprobe were used to study the relationship between Hounsfield unit (HU) values and temperature. There is a signature change in HU value from unfrozen to completely frozen tissue. No discernible relation exists between temperature in a completely frozen tissue and its HU value for the temperature range achieved with commercial cryoprobes. However, such a relation does exist in the typically narrow region of phase change and it is this change in HU value that is the parameter of concern for quantitative monitoring of the freezing process. Calibration of temperature against change in HU value allows a limited set of isotherms to be generated in the phase change region for direct monitoring of iceball growth. The phase change temperature range, mid-phase change temperature and the absolute value of HU change from completely frozen to unfrozen tissue are shown to be sensitive to the medium. Modelling of the temperature distribution within the region of completely frozen phantom using the infinite cylinder solution to the Fourier heat equation allows the temperature history of the phantom to be predicted. A set of isotherms, generated using a combination of thermal modelling and calibrated HU values demonstrates the feasibility of routine x-ray CT assisted cryotherapy. Isotherm overlay will be a major aid to the cryosurgeon who adopts a fixed target temperature as the temperature below which there is a certainty of ablation of the diseased tissue. (author)

  9. X-ray CT monitoring of iceball growth and thermal distribution during cryosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandison, G.A.; Loye, M.P.; Rewcastle, J.C. [Departments of Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Canada T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada T2N 2N4 (Canada); Hahn, L.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada T2N 2N4 (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Foothills Hospital, Calgary, Canada T2N 2T7 (Canada); Saliken, J.C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Foothills Hospital, Calgary, Canada T2N 2T7 (Canada); Department of Surgery, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Canada T2N 4N2 (Canada); McKinnon, J.G. [Department of Surgery, Foothills Hospital, Calgary, Canada T2N 2T7 (Canada); Donnelly, B.J. [Department of Surgery, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Canada T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    X-ray CT is able to image the internal architecture of frozen tissue. Phantoms of distilled water, a saline-gelatin mixture, lard and a calf liver-gelatin suspension cooled by a plastic tube acting as a long liquid nitrogen cryoprobe were used to study the relationship between Hounsfield unit (HU) values and temperature. There is a signature change in HU value from unfrozen to completely frozen tissue. No discernible relation exists between temperature in a completely frozen tissue and its HU value for the temperature range achieved with commercial cryoprobes. However, such a relation does exist in the typically narrow region of phase change and it is this change in HU value that is the parameter of concern for quantitative monitoring of the freezing process. Calibration of temperature against change in HU value allows a limited set of isotherms to be generated in the phase change region for direct monitoring of iceball growth. The phase change temperature range, mid-phase change temperature and the absolute value of HU change from completely frozen to unfrozen tissue are shown to be sensitive to the medium. Modelling of the temperature distribution within the region of completely frozen phantom using the infinite cylinder solution to the Fourier heat equation allows the temperature history of the phantom to be predicted. A set of isotherms, generated using a combination of thermal modelling and calibrated HU values demonstrates the feasibility of routine x-ray CT assisted cryotherapy. Isotherm overlay will be a major aid to the cryosurgeon who adopts a fixed target temperature as the temperature below which there is a certainty of ablation of the diseased tissue. (author)

  10. Commercial CMOS image sensors as X-ray imagers and particle beam monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Maffessanti, S.; Montemurro, G.V.; Carraresi, L.

    2015-01-01

    CMOS image sensors are widely used in several applications such as mobile handsets webcams and digital cameras among others. Furthermore they are available across a wide range of resolutions with excellent spectral and chromatic responses. In order to fulfill the need of cheap systems as beam monitors and high resolution image sensors for scientific applications we exploited the possibility of using commercial CMOS image sensors as X-rays and proton detectors. Two different sensors have been mounted and tested. An Aptina MT9v034, featuring 752 × 480 pixels, 6μm × 6μm pixel size has been mounted and successfully tested as bi-dimensional beam profile monitor, able to take pictures of the incoming proton bunches at the DeFEL beamline (1–6 MeV pulsed proton beam) of the LaBeC of INFN in Florence. The naked sensor is able to successfully detect the interactions of the single protons. The sensor point-spread-function (PSF) has been qualified with 1MeV protons and is equal to one pixel (6 mm) r.m.s. in both directions. A second sensor MT9M032, featuring 1472 × 1096 pixels, 2.2 × 2.2 μm pixel size has been mounted on a dedicated board as high-resolution imager to be used in X-ray imaging experiments with table-top generators. In order to ease and simplify the data transfer and the image acquisition the system is controlled by a dedicated micro-processor board (DM3730 1GHz SoC ARM Cortex-A8) on which a modified LINUX kernel has been implemented. The paper presents the architecture of the sensor systems and the results of the experimental measurements

  11. Establishment of X-ray Measurement System for On-line Monitoring of Water Content in Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J. S. [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B. J. [Idealsystem Co., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    On-line process monitoring is of critical importance in many industries, and therefore a variety of the state-of-the-art physical and chemical measurement techniques have been proposed. But, these techniques have their own pros and cons under the field process environments. Because the field process environments are very different from the well-organized chemical laboratories, many factors should be considered in order to optimize the process monitoring system. However, there have been few studies on the on-line measurement of water content in powder materials. For that reason, the X-ray measurement system based on the X-ray scattering technique, which was first proposed in 2011 as a new method for the determination of water content in powder, has been improved. in the present study, our original X-ray measurement system has been modified for more rapid, simple, and adequate for maximizing the field applicability of the on-line monitoring system

  12. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  13. Fully automatic X-ray testing in monitoring manufacture - theoretical background and practical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roye, W.; Kosanetzky, J.

    1992-01-01

    The trend to ever-increasing automation has not passed by industrial X-ray test technique. As in other fields, there is a development away from manual testing via automated island solutions to including the X-ray test in comprehensive CIM concepts. Wholly new requirements are made of industrial X-ray technique here. High certainty of testing with exact determination of faults and measurements, high test speed by quick handling of the test samples, statistical evaluation with the possibility of process control and sufficient flexibility of the test system are just some of the characteristics of future X-ray test systems. (orig.) [de

  14. Development of a portable monitor for detecting gamma radiation and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, Paulo J. da; Lira, Carlos A.B. de O.; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    There are several ways to prevent individuals from receiving excessive or unnecessary doses of radiation, and area monitoring contributes to the radiation protection in the assessment whether these means are really efficient. The area monitoring is used to give an indication of radiation levels in certain locations. Using this method, one can estimate the dose received by staff occupying a particular area for a certain period of time. Hence, the purpose of this work was the construction of a portable monitor, consisting of an ionization chamber, with a volume of approximately 517 cc and built from tissue-equivalent material, and of its associated electronics. Radiation measurements of gamma and X-rays beams were then possible. The results showed a linear response of the monitor for different dose rates. The stability test of the response also showed a good reproducibility within ± 1%. A low energy dependence for energies between 16 - 200keV was observed, and complied well with the IEC 60846 standard. However, for the energy range 200 - 1250keV, the discrepancies to the IEC standard are considerable, so that the interposition of filters is necessary and may improve the energy response curve to within acceptable limits. (author)

  15. JEM-X observations of the Be/X-ray binary EXO 2030+375

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, S.M.; Reig, P.; Blay, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have used data from the Joint European Monitor (JEM-X) to perform an X-ray spectral and timing analysis of the 42-s transient pulsar EXO 2030+375 during an X-ray outburst. X-ray pulsations are clearly detected with an average pulse period of 41.66+/-0.05 s and an average pulse fraction of 60...

  16. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment

  17. Optimization of the x-ray monitoring angle for creating a correlation model between internal and external respiratory signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Mami; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Yamada, Masahiro; Ueki, Nami; Matsuo, Yukinori; Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Kokubo, Masaki; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan and Department of Radiological Technology, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyoto College of Medical Science, Nantan, Kyoto 622-0041 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan and Division of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To perform dynamic tumor tracking irradiation with the Vero4DRT (MHI-TM2000), a correlation model [four dimensional (4D) model] between the displacement of infrared markers on the abdominal wall and the three-dimensional position of a tumor indicated by a minimum of three implanted gold markers is required. However, the gold markers cannot be detected successfully on fluoroscopic images under the following situations: (1) overlapping of the gold markers; and (2) a low intensity ratio of the gold marker to its surroundings. In the present study, the authors proposed a method to readily determine the optimal x-ray monitoring angle for creating a 4D model utilizing computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The Vero4DRT mounting two orthogonal kV x-ray imaging subsystems can separately rotate the gantry along an O-shaped guide-lane and the O-ring along its vertical axis. The optimal x-ray monitoring angle was determined on CT images by minimizing the root-sum-square of water equivalent path lengths (WEPLs) on the orthogonal lines passing all of the gold markers while rotating the O-ring and the gantry. The x-ray monitoring angles at which the distances between the gold markers were within 5 mm at the isocenter level were excluded to prevent false detection of the gold markers in consideration of respiratory motions. First, the relationship between the WEPLs (unit: mm) and the intensity ratios of the gold markers was examined to assess the validity of our proposed method. Second, our proposed method was applied to the 4D-CT images at the end-expiration phase for 11 lung cancer patients who had four to five gold markers. To prove the necessity of the x-ray monitoring angle optimization, the intensity ratios of the least visible markers (minimum intensity ratios) that were estimated from the WEPLs were compared under the following conditions: the optimal x-ray monitoring angle and the angles used for setup verification. Additionally, the intra- and

  18. Monitoring reinforcement corrosion and corrosion-induced cracking using non-destructive x-ray attenuation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Pease, Bradley Justin; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2011-01-01

    To test the applicability of the x-ray attenuation method to monitor the movement of corrosion products as well as the formation and propagation of cracks in cementitious materials reinforced mortar samples were prepared and tested under accelerated corrosion conditions. It is evident from the ex...... of the corrosion products averaged through the specimen thickness. The total mass loss of steel, obtained by the x-ray attenuation method, was found to be in very good agreement with the mass loss obtained by gravimetric method as well as Faraday's law....

  19. Dosimetry and monitoring of X-rays narrow beams produced by linear particle accelerator, for using in radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.C.F.; Vizeu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The main characteristics of X-rays narrow beams dosimetry and monitoring are examined, aiming the introduction of this system in brain radiosurgery. The non-protocolize detectors are used, once that the detectors used in therapy by megavoltage were projected for dosimetry with an irradiation field above 40 mm diameter. (C.G.C.) [pt

  20. New light for science: European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobierajski, R.; Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.

    2006-01-01

    The execution of the X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) project begins January 2007. The unique combination of the radiation wavelength, pulse duration and peak brightness provided by XFEL will enable to study processes which occur in both atomic scales - time and space. It will create new scientific opportunities in physics, chemistry, biology and material sciences. In the paper the principles of the XFEL radiation generation, technical design and main radiation parameters are described. They are followed by short description of the project organization. (author) [pl

  1. Monitoring moisture movements in building materials using x-ray attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin; Scheffler, Gregor A.; Janssen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    analysis with a composite model consisting of a dry porous material and a thickness of water equivalent to the moisture content of the material. The current formulation of this composite model relies on certain assumptions, including a monochromatic x-ray photon beam source (i.e., x-ray photons of a single....... Implications of this inconsistency are introduced and discussed. This paper presents both an overview of fundamental descriptions of the x-ray attenuation measurement technique and results from a parametric experimental study of various porous construction materials, including calcium silicate board, aerated...

  2. Comparative survey of site and personnel monitoring characteristics for operation of various types of diagnostic-X ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyarskij, P.P.; Zol'nikova, N.I.

    1977-01-01

    Diagnostic X-ray machines in present use at medical facilities differ in design and operating parameters, this diversity producing, in turn, a variety of local radiological situations and levels of personnel exposure. Based on radiological safety characterization of working conditions, the authors present a breakdown of contemporary diagnostic X-ray equipment types, based on detailed examination of each group in terms of their associated site monitoring and dosimetry patterns. The paper reports data on personnel exposure levels not only as a function of equipment design and operating characteristics but also according to types of occupational activities for particular medical personnel groups (radiologists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, etc.). Included are health physics data for domestic and foreign X-ray equipment, levels of local and absorbed doses for radiologists, cardiovascular surgeons, neurosurgeons, urologists, traumatologists, anesthesiologists, etc. Measures are recommended for optimizing their activities from the standpoint of radiation safety. (author)

  3. Monitoring the recrystallisation of amorphous xylitol using Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Emmi; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Ehlers, Henrik; Svedström, Kirsi; Huotari, Simo; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2016-07-11

    In this paper we present a fast model system for monitoring the recrystallization of quench-cooled amorphous xylitol using Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The use of these two methods enables comparison between surface and bulk crystallization. Non-ordered mesoporous silica micro-particles were added to the system in order to alter the rate of crystallization of the amorphous xylitol. Raman measurements showed that adding silica to the system increased the rate of surface crystallization, while X-ray measurements showed that the rate of bulk crystallization decreased. Using this model system it is possible to measure fast changes, which occur in minutes or within a few hours. Raman-spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering were found to be complementary techniques when assessing surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous xylitol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  5. European Guidelines for AP/PA chest X-rays: routinely satisfiable in a paediatric radiology division?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschauner, Sebastian; Marterer, Robert; Gübitz, Michael; Kalmar, Peter I; Talakic, Emina; Weissensteiner, Sabine; Sorantin, Erich

    2016-02-01

    Accurate collimation helps to reduce unnecessary irradiation and improves radiographic image quality, which is especially important in the radiosensitive paediatric population. For AP/PA chest radiographs in children, a minimal field size (MinFS) from "just above the lung apices" to "T12/L1" with age-dependent tolerance is suggested by the 1996 European Commission (EC) guidelines, which were examined qualitatively and quantitatively at a paediatric radiology division. Five hundred ninety-eight unprocessed chest X-rays (45% boys, 55% girls; mean age 3.9 years, range 0-18 years) were analysed with a self-developed tool. Qualitative standards were assessed based on the EC guidelines, as well as the overexposed field size and needlessly irradiated tissue compared to the MinFS. While qualitative guideline recommendations were satisfied, mean overexposure of +45.1 ± 18.9% (range +10.2% to +107.9%) and tissue overexposure of +33.3 ± 13.3% were found. Only 4% (26/598) of the examined X-rays completely fulfilled the EC guidelines. This study presents a new chest radiography quality control tool which allows assessment of field sizes, distances, overexposures and quality parameters based on the EC guidelines. Utilising this tool, we detected inadequate field sizes, inspiration depths, and patient positioning. Furthermore, some debatable EC guideline aspects were revealed. • European Guidelines on X-ray quality recommend exposed field sizes for common examinations. • The major failing in paediatric radiographic imaging techniques is inappropriate field size. • Optimal handling of radiographic units can reduce radiation exposure to paediatric patients. • Constant quality control helps ensure optimal chest radiographic image acquisition in children.

  6. Sweeping total reflection X-ray fluorescence optimisation to monitor the metallic contamination into IC manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Yannick; Danel, Adrien; Roche, Agnes; Veillerot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Among the methods available on the market today to control as metallic contamination in integrated circuit manufacturing, Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence mode appears a very good method, providing fast and entire wafer mapping. With the goal of a pertinent use of Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence in advanced Integrated Circuit manufacturing this work discusses how acceptable levels of contamination specified by the production (low levels to be detected) can be taken into account. The relation between measurement results (surface coverage, throughput, low limit of detection, limit of quantification, quantification of localized contamination) and Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence parameters (number of measurement points and integration time per point) is presented in details. In particular, a model is proposed to explain the mismatch between actual surface contamination in a localized spot on wafer and Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence reading. Both calibration and geometric issues have been taken into account

  7. Terahertz pulsed imaging for the monitoring of dental caries: a comparison with x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Kamburoglu, Kıvanc; Altan, Hakan

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries in sliced samples are investigated using terahertz pulsed imaging. Frequency domain terahertz response of these structures consistent with X-ray imaging results show the potential of this technique in the detection of early caries.

  8. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation by stepped vitrification and monitored by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Ariadna; Clavero, Macarena; Gallardo, Miguel; Balcerzyk, Marcin; Amorim, Christiani A; Parrado-Gallego, Ángel; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Paulini, Fernanda; Morris, John; Risco, Ramón

    2018-04-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is, in most cases, the only fertility preservation option available for female patients soon to undergo gonadotoxic treatment. To date, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been carried out by both traditional slow freezing method and vitrification, but even with the best techniques, there is still a considerable loss of follicle viability. In this report, we investigated a stepped cryopreservation procedure which combines features of slow cooling and vitrification (hereafter called stepped vitrification). Bovine ovarian tissue was used as a tissue model. Stepwise increments of the Me 2 SO concentration coupled with stepwise drops-in temperature in a device specifically designed for this purpose and X-ray computed tomography were combined to investigate loading times at each step, by monitoring the attenuation of the radiation proportional to Me 2 SO permeation. Viability analysis was performed in warmed tissues by immunohistochemistry. Although further viability tests should be conducted after transplantation, preliminary results are very promising. Four protocols were explored. Two of them showed a poor permeation of the vitrification solution (P1 and P2). The other two (P3 and P4), with higher permeation, were studied in deeper detail. Out of these two protocols, P4, with a longer permeation time at -40 °C, showed the same histological integrity after warming as fresh controls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ion chamber area monitor for low level scattered x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.; Robinet, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    An economical, high confidence instrument was developed for laboratories using low energy x-rays. The instrument detects increases in background caused by scattered radiation. Exposure rates close to the open part of the x-ray tubes are of the order of 10 3 to 10 6 R/min. A few meters away the background is a few tenths of a mR/hr

  10. LONG-TERM X-RAY MONITORING OF THE YOUNG PULSAR PSR B1509–58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, Margaret A.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been thought that the pulsed X-ray properties of rotation-powered pulsars are stable on long timescales. However, long-term, systematic studies of individual sources have been lacking. Furthermore, dramatic X-ray variability has now been observed from two pulsars having inferred sub-critical dipole magnetic fields. Here we present an analysis of the long-term pulsed X-ray properties of the young, energetic pulsar PSR B1509–58 using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We measured the 2-50 keV pulsed flux for 14.7 yr of X-ray observations and found that it is consistent with being constant on all relevant timescales, and place a 3σ upper limit on day-to-week variability of <28%. In addition, we searched for magnetar-like X-ray bursts in all observations and found none, which we use to constrain the measurable burst rate to less than one per 750 ks of observations. We also searched for variability in the pulse profile and found that it is consistent with being stable on timescales of days to decades. This supports the hypothesis that X-ray properties of rotation-powered X-ray pulsars can be stable on decade-long timescales. In addition, we extend the existing timing solution by 7.1 yr to a total of 28.4 yr and report updated values of the braking index, n = 2.832 ± 0.003, and the second braking index, m = 17.6 ± 1.9.

  11. Investigation of a free electron laser oscillator in the X-ray wavelength regime for the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemella, Johann Christian Uwe

    2013-09-01

    In this thesis an X-ray free electron laser oscillator for the European XFEL is described. Such an oscillator consists of at least two Bragg deflecting crystals, in this content two or four Diamond crystals, focussing mirrors and an undulator. The advantage of Diamond is caused by the high reflectivity and the high thermal conductivity, which is necessary for dissipate the absorbed energy out of the center of the crystal. In context of this thesis the principle layout of an XFELO for the European XFEL and the FEL process is presented. Effects on the FEL process due to the disturbances of the electron beam or the XFELO cavity are discussed. As second aspect the thermal evolution in the crystal under absorbed XFELO-pulses is investigated. An experiment for the investigation of the thermal evolution of crystals under simulated XFELO conditions is presented.

  12. 16 yr of RXTE monitoring of five anomalous X-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M., E-mail: rim@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: vkaspi@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2014-03-20

    We present a summary of the long-term evolution of various properties of the five non-transient anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) 1E 1841–045, RXS J170849.0–400910, 1E 2259+586, 4U 0142+61, and 1E 1048.1–5937, regularly monitored with RXTE from 1996 to 2012. We focus on three properties of these sources: the evolution of the timing, pulsed flux, and pulse profile. We report several new timing anomalies and radiative events, including a putative anti-glitch seen in 1E 2259+586 in 2009, and a second epoch of very large spin-down rate fluctuations in 1E 1048.1–5937 following a large flux outburst. We compile the properties of the 11 glitches and 4 glitch candidates observed from these 5 AXPs between 1996 and 2012. Overall, these monitoring observations reveal several apparent patterns in the behavior of this sample of AXPs: large radiative changes in AXPs (including long-lived flux enhancements, short bursts, and pulse profile changes) are rare, occurring typically only every few years per source; large radiative changes are almost always accompanied by some form of timing anomaly, usually a spin-up glitch; only 20%-30% of timing anomalies are accompanied by any form of radiative change. We find that AXP radiative behavior at the times of radiatively loud glitches is sufficiently similar to suggest common physical origins. The similarity in glitch properties when comparing radiatively loud and radiatively silent glitches in AXPs suggests a common physical origin in the stellar interior. Finally, the overall similarity of AXP and radio pulsar glitches suggests a common physical origin for both phenomena.

  13. Monitoring alloy formation during mechanical alloying process by x-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Masrom; Noraizam Md Diah; Mazli Mustapha

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring alloying (MA) is a novel processing technique that use high energy impact ball mill to produce alloys with enhanced properties and microscopically homogeneous materials starting from various powder mixtures. Mechanical alloying process was originally developed to produce oxide dispersion strengthened nickel superalloys. In principal, in high-energy ball milling process, alloy is formed by the result of repeated welding, fracturing and rewelding of powder particles in a high energy ball mill. In this process a powder mixture in a ball mill is subjected to high-energy collisions among balls. MA has been shown to be capable of synthesizing a variety of materials. It is known to be capable to prepare equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases starting from blended elemental or prealloyed powders. The process ability to produce highly metastable materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructured materials has made this process attractive and it has been considered as a promising material processing technique that could be used to produce many advanced materials at low cost. The present study explores the conditions under which aluminum alloys formation occurs by ball milling of blended aluminum and its alloying elements powders. In this work, attempt was made in producing aluminum 2024 alloys by milling of blended elemental aluminum powder of 2024 composition in a stainless steel container under argon atmosphere for up to 210 minutes. X-ray diffraction together with thermal analysis techniques has been used to monitor phase changes in the milled powder. Results indicate that, using our predetermined milling parameters, alloys were formed after 120 minutes milling. The thermal analysis data was also presented in this report. (Author)

  14. Design and performance of coded aperture optical elements for the CESR-TA x-ray beam size monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.P.; Chatterjee, A.; Conolly, C.; Edwards, E.; Ehrlichman, M.P. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Flanagan, J.W. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Department of Accelerator Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Tsukuba (Japan); Fontes, E. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Heltsley, B.K., E-mail: bkh2@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Lyndaker, A.; Peterson, D.P.; Rider, N.T.; Rubin, D.L.; Seeley, R.; Shanks, J. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-12-11

    We describe the design and performance of optical elements for an x-ray beam size monitor (xBSM), a device measuring e{sup +} and e{sup −} beam sizes in the CESR-TA storage ring. The device can measure vertical beam sizes of 10–100μm on a turn-by-turn, bunch-by-bunch basis at e{sup ±} beam energies of ∼2–5GeV. x-rays produced by a hard-bend magnet pass through a single- or multiple-slit (coded aperture) optical element onto a detector. The coded aperture slit pattern and thickness of masking material forming that pattern can both be tuned for optimal resolving power. We describe several such optical elements and show how well predictions of simple models track measured performances. - Highlights: • We characterize optical element performance of an e{sup ±} x-ray beam size monitor. • We standardize beam size resolving power measurements to reference conditions. • Standardized resolving power measurements compare favorably to model predictions. • Key model features include simulation of photon-counting statistics and image fitting. • Results validate a coded aperture design optimized for the x-ray spectrum encountered.

  15. European Guidelines for AP/PA chest X-rays: routinely satisfiable in a paediatric radiology division?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschauner, Sebastian; Marterer, Robert; Guebitz, Michael; Weissensteiner, Sabine; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Kalmar, Peter I. [Medical University of Graz, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Talakic, Emina [Medical University of Graz, Division of General Radiological Diagnostics, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    Accurate collimation helps to reduce unnecessary irradiation and improves radiographic image quality, which is especially important in the radiosensitive paediatric population. For AP/PA chest radiographs in children, a minimal field size (MinFS) from ''just above the lung apices'' to ''T12/L1'' with age-dependent tolerance is suggested by the 1996 European Commission (EC) guidelines, which were examined qualitatively and quantitatively at a paediatric radiology division. Five hundred ninety-eight unprocessed chest X-rays (45 % boys, 55 % girls; mean age 3.9 years, range 0-18 years) were analysed with a self-developed tool. Qualitative standards were assessed based on the EC guidelines, as well as the overexposed field size and needlessly irradiated tissue compared to the MinFS. While qualitative guideline recommendations were satisfied, mean overexposure of +45.1 ± 18.9 % (range +10.2 % to +107.9 %) and tissue overexposure of +33.3 ± 13.3 % were found. Only 4 % (26/598) of the examined X-rays completely fulfilled the EC guidelines. This study presents a new chest radiography quality control tool which allows assessment of field sizes, distances, overexposures and quality parameters based on the EC guidelines. Utilising this tool, we detected inadequate field sizes, inspiration depths, and patient positioning. Furthermore, some debatable EC guideline aspects were revealed. (orig.)

  16. Towards Gotthard-II: development of a silicon microstrip detector for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Andrä, M.; Barten, R.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Redford, S.; Ruat, M.; Ruder, C.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Turcato, M.; Vetter, S.

    2018-01-01

    Gotthard-II is a 1-D microstrip detector specifically developed for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser. It will not only be used in energy dispersive experiments but also as a beam diagnostic tool with additional logic to generate veto signals for the other 2-D detectors. Gotthard-II makes use of a silicon microstrip sensor with a pitch of either 50 μm or 25 μm and with 1280 or 2560 channels wire-bonded to adaptive gain switching readout chips. Built-in analog-to-digital converters and digital memories will be implemented in the readout chip for a continuous conversion and storage of frames for all bunches in the bunch train. The performance of analogue front-end prototypes of Gotthard has been investigated in this work. The results in terms of noise, conversion gain, dynamic range, obtained by means of infrared laser and X-rays, will be shown. In particular, the effects of the strip-to-strip coupling are studied in detail and it is found that the reduction of the coupling effects is one of the key factors for the development of the analogue front-end of Gotthard-II.

  17. Maskless X-Ray Writing of Electrical Devices on a Superconducting Oxide with Nanometer Resolution and Online Process Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Lorenzo; Bonino, Valentina; Agostino, Angelo; Prestipino, Carmelo; Borfecchia, Elisa; Lamberti, Carlo; Operti, Lorenza; Fretto, Matteo; De Leo, Natascia; Truccato, Marco

    2017-08-22

    X-ray nanofabrication has so far been usually limited to mask methods involving photoresist impression and subsequent etching. Herein we show that an innovative maskless X-ray nanopatterning approach allows writing electrical devices with nanometer feature size. In particular we fabricated a Josephson device on a Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi-2212) superconducting oxide micro-crystal by drawing two single lines of only 50 nm in width using a 17.4 keV synchrotron nano-beam. A precise control of the fabrication process was achieved by monitoring in situ the variations of the device electrical resistance during X-ray irradiation, thus finely tuning the irradiation time to drive the material into a non-superconducting state only in the irradiated regions, without significantly perturbing the crystal structure. Time-dependent finite element model simulations show that a possible microscopic origin of this effect can be related to the instantaneous temperature increase induced by the intense synchrotron picosecond X-ray pulses. These results prove that a conceptually new patterning method for oxide electrical devices, based on the local change of electrical properties, is actually possible with potential advantages in terms of heat dissipation, chemical contamination, miniaturization and high aspect ratio of the devices.

  18. Monitoring the mass of UF6 gas and uranium deposits in aluminium pipes using X-ray fluorescence and X-ray transmission gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, T.W.; Smith, S.M.

    1984-12-01

    In order to determine the enrichment of UF 6 gas in centrifuge plant pipework it is necessary to measure the mass of the gas (pressure) and the mass per unit area of any uranium deposited on the pipe. This paper shows that it is possible to determine the pressure of the UF 6 gas in pipes 120 mm in diameter using an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results are also given of transmission measurements made using a low power X-ray generator operated at two different applied voltages. A method of using the two measurements to determine the mass per unit area of deposited uranium is described. (author)

  19. Moisture movement in cement-based repair systems monitored by X-ray absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties in the repair material and interface are greatly influenced by the initial moisture content of the concrete (or mortar) substrate. In order to quantify moisture profiles inside the repair system, X-ray absorption was used. Preliminary studies are

  20. Outbursts of binary X-ray sources suitable for monitoring of their

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    -, č. 125 (2010), s. 21-23 ISSN 1801-5964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : satellites * high energy sources * X-ray transients Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Optically detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements as a means of monitoring corrosion layers on copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Mark G; Adriaens, Annemie; Jones, Gareth K C; Poolton, Nigel; Fiddy, Steven; Nikitenko, Sergé

    2008-11-15

    XANES and EXAFS information is conventionally measured in transmission through the energy-dependent absorption of X-rays or by observing X-ray fluorescence, but secondary fluorescence processes, such as the emission of electrons and optical photons (e.g., 200-1000 nm), can also be used as a carrier of the XAS signatures, providing complementary information such as improved surface specificity. Where the near-visible photons have a shorter range in a material, the data will be more surface specific. Moreover, optical radiation may escape more readily than X-rays through liquid in an environmental cell. Here, we describe a first test of optically detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (ODXAS) for monitoring electrochemical treatments on copper-based alloys, for example, heritage metals. Artificially made corrosion products deposited on a copper substrate were analyzed in air and in a 1% (w/v) sodium sesquicarbonate solution to simulate typical conservation methods for copper-based objects recovered from marine environments. The measurements were made on stations 7.1 and 9.2 MF (SRS Daresbury, UK) using the mobile luminescence end station (MoLES), supplemented by XAS measurements taken on DUBBLE (BM26 A) at the ESRF. The ODXAS spectra usually contain fine structure similar to that of XAS spectra measured in X-ray fluorescence. Importantly, for the compounds examined, the ODXAS is significantly more surface specific, and >98% characteristic of thin surface layers of 0.5-1.5-microm thickness in cases where X-ray measurements are dominated by the substrate. However, EXAFS and XANES from broadband optical measurements are superimposed on a high background due to other optical emission modes. This produces statistical fluctuations up to double what would be expected from normal counting statistics because the data retain the absolute statistical fluctuation in the original raw count, while losing up to 70% of their magnitude when background is removed. The problem may be

  2. Performance Test of the Next Generation X-Ray Beam Position Monitor System for The APS Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Lee, S.; Westferro, F.; Jaski, Y.; Lenkszus, F.; Sereno, N.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-03-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is developing its next major upgrade (APS-U) based on the multi-bend achromat lattice. Improved beam stability is critical for the upgrade and will require keeping short-time beam angle change below 0.25 µrad and long-term angle drift below 0.6 µrad. A reliable white x-ray beam diagnostic system in the front end will be a key part of the planned beam stabilization system. This system includes an x-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) based on x-ray fluorescence (XRF) from two specially designed GlidCop A-15 absorbers, a second XBPM using XRF photons from the Exit Mask, and two white beam intensity monitors using XRF from the photon shutter and Compton-scattered photons from the front end beryllium window or a retractable diamond film in windowless front ends. We present orbit stability data for the first XBPM used in the feedback control during user operations, as well as test data from the second XBPM and the intensity monitors. They demonstrate that the XBPM system meets APS-U beam stability requirements.

  3. Device for monitoring X-ray radiation and method of using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Each of a plurality of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) is secured to one of a plurality of slides, which are removably mounted in a like plurality of pockets formed in a generally wallet-sized carrier to open on one edge thereof. One additional TLD is secured in a recess in one corner of the carrier to be exposed to all X-ray radiation which falls upon the carrier. Each slide is releasably secured in its associated pocket by means which prevents accidental removal of the side from the pocket. Whenever the owner of the carrier is subjected to an X-ray examination, he or she removes from the carrier one of the slides having thereon an unused TLD, and by a means of adhesive on the back of the slide adheres the associated TLD directly in the path of the X-ray radiation to which the patient is subjected during the examination. After the examination the slide is returned to its pocket in the carrier. Periodically the used TLD elements, as well as the non-removable TLD element, can be processed in a conventional manner to determine the total amount of radiation recorded by the respective elements. In one embodiment the removable slides are housed in lead-lined pockets and beneath a lead-lined, hinged cover member

  4. Development of a Hard X-ray Beam Position Monitor for Insertion Device Beams at the APS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Glenn; Rosenbaum, Gerd; Singh, Om

    2006-11-01

    Long-term pointing stability requirements at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are very stringent, at the level of 500 nanoradians peak-to-peak or better over a one-week time frame. Conventional rf beam position monitors (BPMs) close to the insertion device source points are incapable of assuring this level of stability, owing to mechanical, thermal, and electronic stability limitations. Insertion device gap-dependent systematic errors associated with the present ultraviolet photon beam position monitors similarly limit their ability to control long-term pointing stability. We report on the development of a new BPM design sensitive only to hard x-rays. Early experimental results will be presented.

  5. Eigenmode compendium of the third harmonic module of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisgen, Thomas; Heller, Johann; Galek, Tomasz; Shi, Liangliang; Joshi, Nirav; Baboi, Nicoleta; Jones, Roger M.; van Rienen, Ursula

    2017-04-01

    Chains of superconducting radio-frequency resonators are key components of modern particle accelerators such as the European XFEL, which is currently under construction in the north of Germany. In addition to the accelerating mode of the resonators, their beam excited higher order modes are of special interest, because they can harm the beam quality. In contrast to the accelerating mode, these modes are in general not confined within single resonators of the cavity string. For instance, eigenmodes can be localized between adjacent cavities or can be distributed along the entire chain of cavities. Therefore, the full chain has to be considered for a reasonable investigation of its resonant spectra. Accounting for such complex structures is computationally challenging and is therefore often avoided. In this article, the challenge is faced by using the so-called state-space concatenation approach, which is a combination of domain decomposition and model-order reduction. The technique allows for a reduction of the number of degrees of freedom by a factor of ≈ 1.471 ×10-4 . The method is employed to generate a compendium of eigenmodes in the chain of third harmonic cavities for the European XFEL. The results are discussed in detail and are compared with experimental measurements. The compendium serves as a reference for experiments (inter alia for diagnostics based on higher order modes) at the third harmonic cavity string of the European XFEL, it allows for qualitative understanding of resonant effects appearing in chains of cavities, and it is meant to be a proof of principle of the state-space concatenation approach to handle very long and complex radio-frequency structures. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that a modal compendium of a structure with the given complexity is generated. The article presents geometrical details of the chain, defines quantities relevant to superconducting radio-frequency cavities, and describes the employed

  6. Eigenmode compendium of the third harmonic module of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Flisgen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chains of superconducting radio-frequency resonators are key components of modern particle accelerators such as the European XFEL, which is currently under construction in the north of Germany. In addition to the accelerating mode of the resonators, their beam excited higher order modes are of special interest, because they can harm the beam quality. In contrast to the accelerating mode, these modes are in general not confined within single resonators of the cavity string. For instance, eigenmodes can be localized between adjacent cavities or can be distributed along the entire chain of cavities. Therefore, the full chain has to be considered for a reasonable investigation of its resonant spectra. Accounting for such complex structures is computationally challenging and is therefore often avoided. In this article, the challenge is faced by using the so-called state-space concatenation approach, which is a combination of domain decomposition and model-order reduction. The technique allows for a reduction of the number of degrees of freedom by a factor of ≈ 1.471×10^{-4}. The method is employed to generate a compendium of eigenmodes in the chain of third harmonic cavities for the European XFEL. The results are discussed in detail and are compared with experimental measurements. The compendium serves as a reference for experiments (inter alia for diagnostics based on higher order modes at the third harmonic cavity string of the European XFEL, it allows for qualitative understanding of resonant effects appearing in chains of cavities, and it is meant to be a proof of principle of the state-space concatenation approach to handle very long and complex radio-frequency structures. To the authors’ knowledge, it is the first time that a modal compendium of a structure with the given complexity is generated. The article presents geometrical details of the chain, defines quantities relevant to superconducting radio-frequency cavities, and describes

  7. Kinetics of the main phase transition of hydrated lecithin monitored by real-time x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for observing and recording in real-time x-ray diffraction from an unoriented hydrated membrane lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), through its thermotropic gel/liquid crystal phase transition. Synchrotron radiation from the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (Ithaca, New York) was used as an x-ray source of extremely high brilliance and the dynamic display of the diffraction image was effected using a three-stage image intensifier tube coupled to an external fluorescent screen. The image on the output phosphor was sufficiently intense to be recorded cinematographically and to be displayed on a television monitor using a vidicon camera at 30 frames x s -1 . These measurements set an upper limit of 2 s on the DPPC gel → liquid crystal phase transition and indicate that the transition is a two-state process. The real-time method couples the power of x-ray diffraction as a structural probe with the ability to follow kinetics of structural changes. The method does not require an exogenous probe, is relatively nonperturbing, and can be used with membranes in a variety of physical states and with unstable samples. The method has the additional advantage over its static measurement counterpart in that it is more likely to detect transiently stable intermediates if present

  8. THE FERMI-GBM X-RAY BURST MONITOR: THERMONUCLEAR BURSTS FROM 4U 0614+09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, M.; Chakrabarty, D.; Connaughton, V.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Preece, R.; Jenke, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Beklen, E.; Von Kienlin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear bursts from slowly accreting neutron stars (NSs) have proven difficult to detect, yet they are potential probes of the thermal properties of the NS interior. During the first year of a systematic all-sky search for X-ray bursts using the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope we have detected 15 thermonuclear bursts from the NS low-mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+09 when it was accreting at nearly 1% of the Eddington limit. We measured an average burst recurrence time of 12 ± 3 days (68% confidence interval) between 2010 March and 2011 March, classified all bursts as normal duration bursts and placed a lower limit on the recurrence time of long/intermediate bursts of 62 days (95% confidence level). We discuss how observations of thermonuclear bursts in the hard X-ray band compare to pointed soft X-ray observations and quantify such bandpass effects on measurements of burst radiated energy and duration. We put our results for 4U 0614+09 in the context of other bursters and briefly discuss the constraints on ignition models. Interestingly, we find that the burst energies in 4U 0614+09 are on average between those of normal duration bursts and those measured in long/intermediate bursts. Such a continuous distribution in burst energy provides a new observational link between normal and long/intermediate bursts. We suggest that the apparent bimodal distribution that defined normal and long/intermediate duration bursts during the last decade could be due to an observational bias toward detecting only the longest and most energetic bursts from slowly accreting NSs.

  9. Eigenmode compendium of the third harmonic module of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Flisgen, Thomas; Galek, Tomasz, Rostock Universitaet; Shi, Liangliang; Joshi, Nirav; Baboi, Nicoletta; Jones, Roger M; van Rienen, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Chains of superconducting radio-frequency resonators are key components of modern particle accelerators such as the European XFEL, which is currently under construction in the north of Germany. In addition to the accelerating mode of the resonators, their beam excited higher order modes are of special interest, because they can harm the beam quality. In contrast to the accelerating mode, these modes are in general not confined within single resonators of the cavity string. For instance, eigenmodes can be localized between adjacent cavities or can be distributed along the entire chain of cavities. Therefore, the full chain has to be considered for a reasonable investigation of its resonant spectra. Accounting for such complex structures is computationally challenging and is therefore often avoided. In this article, the challenge is faced by using the so-called state-space concatenation approach, which is a combination of domain decomposition and model-order reduction. The technique allows for a reduction of th...

  10. Use of a solar panel as a directionally sensitive large-area radiation monitor for direct and scattered x-rays and gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Majid, S

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of a 25.4 X 91 cm solar cell panel used as an x-ray and gamma-ray radiation monitor are presented. Applications for monitoring the primary x-ray beam are described at different values of operating currents and voltages as well as for directional dependence of scattered radiation. Other applications in gamma-ray radiography are also given. The detector showed linear response to both x-ray and gamma-ray exposures. The equipment is rigid, easy to use, relatively inexpensive and requires no power supply or any complex electronic equipment.

  11. Imaging design of the wide field x-ray monitor onboard the HETE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zand, J.J.M. In'T; Fenimore, E.E.; Kawai, N.; Yoshida, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamauchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), to be launched in 1995, will study Gamma-Ray Bursts in an unprecendented wide wavelength range from Gamma- and X-ray to UV wavelengths. The X-ray range (2 to 25 keV) will be covered by 2 perpendicularly oriented 1-dimensional coded aperture cameras. These instruments cover a wide field of view of 2 sr and thus have a relatively large potential to locate GRBs to a fraction of a degree, which is an order of magnitude better than BATSE. The imaging design of these coded aperture cameras relates to the design of the coded apertures and the decoding algorithm. The aperture pattern is to a large extent determined by the high background in this wide field application and the low number of pattern elements (∼100) in each direction. The result is a random pattern with an open fraction of 33%. The onboard decoding algorithm is dedicated to the localization of a single point source

  12. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  13. Dosimetry and monitoring of thin X-ray beam produced by linear particle accelerator, for application in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.C.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    The dosimetry and monitoring characteristics of thin X-ray beams, and the application of 4MeV linear particle accelerator to radiosurgery are studied. An addition collimation system, consisted of 3 lead collimators, which allows to obtain thin beams of 6,10 and 15 mm of diameter, was fabricated. The stereo taxic system, together with modifications in dispositives, provide the accuracy required in volum-targed location. The dosimetric informations were determined with silicon detector inserted into water simulator. The isodose curves for each beam, and total isodoses simulating the treatment were established using radiographic emulsions in conditions which reproduce real circunstances of pacient irradiation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Extension of self-seeding to hard X-rays >10 keV as a way to increase user access at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-11-01

    We propose to use the self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator at the European X-ray FEL to produce monochromatic, high-power radiation at 16 keV. Based on start to end simulations we show that the FEL power of the transform-limited pulses can reach about 100 GW by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulator. The combination of high photon energy, high peak power, and very narrow bandwidth opens a vast new range of applications, and includes the possibility to considerably increase the user capacity and fully exploit the high repetition rate of the European XFEL. In fact, dealing with monochromatic hard X-ray radiation one may use crystals as deflectors with minimum beam loss. To this end, a photon beam distribution system based on the use of crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry is proposed for future study and possible extension of the baseline facility. They can be repeated a number of times to forman almost complete (one meter scale) ring with an angle of 20 degrees between two neighboring lines. The reflectivity of crystal deflectors can be switched fast enough by flipping the crystals with piezo-electric devices similar to those for X-ray phase retarders at synchrotron radiation facilities. It is then possible to distribute monochromatic hard X-rays among 10 independent instruments, thereby enabling 10 users to work in parallel. The unmatched repetition rate of the European XFEL would be therefore fully exploited. (orig.)

  15. Extension of self-seeding to hard X-rays >10 keV as a way to increase user access at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    We propose to use the self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator at the European X-ray FEL to produce monochromatic, high-power radiation at 16 keV. Based on start to end simulations we show that the FEL power of the transform-limited pulses can reach about 100 GW by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulator. The combination of high photon energy, high peak power, and very narrow bandwidth opens a vast new range of applications, and includes the possibility to considerably increase the user capacity and fully exploit the high repetition rate of the European XFEL. In fact, dealing with monochromatic hard X-ray radiation one may use crystals as deflectors with minimum beam loss. To this end, a photon beam distribution system based on the use of crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry is proposed for future study and possible extension of the baseline facility. They can be repeated a number of times to forman almost complete (one meter scale) ring with an angle of 20 degrees between two neighboring lines. The reflectivity of crystal deflectors can be switched fast enough by flipping the crystals with piezo-electric devices similar to those for X-ray phase retarders at synchrotron radiation facilities. It is then possible to distribute monochromatic hard X-rays among 10 independent instruments, thereby enabling 10 users to work in parallel. The unmatched repetition rate of the European XFEL would be therefore fully exploited. (orig.)

  16. Wake monochromator in asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue geometry for self-seeding the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Tolkiehn, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the use of self-seeding schemes with wake monochromators to produce TW power, fully coherent pulses for applications at the dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL, a concept for an upgrade of the facility beyond the baseline previously proposed by the authors. We exploit the asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue reflections (sigma polarization) in diamond crystal. Optimization of the bio-imaging beamline is performed with extensive start-to-end simulations, which also take into account effects such as the spatio-temporal coupling caused by the wake monochromator. The spatial shift is maximal in the range for small Bragg angles. A geometry with Bragg angles close to π/2 would be a more advantageous option from this viewpoint, albeit with decrease of the spectral tunability. We show that it will be possible to cover the photon energy range from 3 keV to 13 keV by using four different planes of the same crystal with one rotational degree of freedom.

  17. Purified SASE undulator configuration to enhance the performance of the soft x-ray beamline at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor; Geloni, Gianluca

    2013-08-01

    The purified SASE (pSASE) undulator configuration recently proposed at SLAC promises an increase in the output spectral density of XFELs. In this article we study a straightforward implementation of this configuration for the soft x-ray beamline at the European XFEL. A few undulator cells, resonant at a subharmonic of the FEL radiation, are used in the middle of the exponential regime to amplify the radiation, while simultaneously reducing the FEL bandwidth. Based on start-to-end simulations, we show that with the proposed configuration the spectral density in the photon energy range between 1.3 keV and 3 keV can be enhanced of an order of magnitude compared to the baseline mode of operation. This option can be implemented into the tunable-gap SASE3 baseline undulator without additional hardware, and it is complementary to the self-seeding option with grating monochromator proposed for the same undulator line, which can cover the photon energy range between about 0.26 keV and 1 keV.

  18. Wake monochromator in asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue geometry for self-seeding the European X-ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Tolkiehn, Martin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    We discuss the use of self-seeding schemes with wake monochromators to produce TW power, fully coherent pulses for applications at the dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL, a concept for an upgrade of the facility beyond the baseline previously proposed by the authors. We exploit the asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue reflections (sigma polarization) in diamond crystal. Optimization of the bio-imaging beamline is performed with extensive start-to-end simulations, which also take into account effects such as the spatio-temporal coupling caused by the wake monochromator. The spatial shift is maximal in the range for small Bragg angles. A geometry with Bragg angles close to {pi}/2 would be a more advantageous option from this viewpoint, albeit with decrease of the spectral tunability. We show that it will be possible to cover the photon energy range from 3 keV to 13 keV by using four different planes of the same crystal with one rotational degree of freedom.

  19. Microbunch preserving bending system for a helical radiator at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available At the European X-ray Free Electron Laser there is a planar undulator system under construction called SASE3, which produces intense linearly polarized light in the wavelength range from 0.4–1.6 nm. Nevertheless there is a strong demand for circularly polarized radiation in this wavelength range. An important part of a potential solution is described in this paper. After the planar undulator the electron beam, which is completely bunched, is sent through a suitable radiator. This can be an economically and technically convenient method to generate radiation with polarization properties, which are determined only by the radiator. If in addition a bend is used to separate the light created by the linear SASE3 from that of the radiator, two beam lines may be served, one with planar and one with circular radiation. In this case the light of the helical radiator is not contaminated by the light generated by the planar system. In order to obtain coherent radiation in the radiator, the microbunching of the planar undulator must be preserved throughout the bend. This is the basic problem. In this paper a fundamental, basic study is made. Several solutions for bending systems are presented, whose complexities, wavelength ranges, and debunching effects are different. The expected circular polarization and radiation power by such a bend are simulated for a model radiator.

  20. Combined use of videoendoscopy and X-ray imaging for improved monitoring of stenting application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysewska-Sobusiak, A. R.; Sowier, A.; Skrzywanek, P.

    2005-09-01

    The subject of this paper concerns advanced techniques of procedures and imaging used in minimally invasive surgery and in non-operable cases of the alimentary tract tumor therapy. Examples of videoendoscopy and X-ray imaging used for the application of stents (prostheses) and catheters allowing for the performance of diagnostic and endo-therapeutic procedures are described. The possibility was indicated to elaborate a new method of proceeding in tumor therapy in the patients for whom the methods used so far were ineffective. In the paper examples of combined imaging the application of metallic stents and plastic catheters allowing for the performance of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are presented. The cases shown refer to tumor located in the esophagus and in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

  1. Detailed characterization of electron sources yielding first demonstration of European X-ray Free-Electron Laser beam quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stephan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The photoinjector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ, was built to develop and optimize photoelectron sources for superconducting linacs for high-brilliance, short-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL applications like the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH and the European x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL. In this paper, the detailed characterization of two laser-driven rf guns with different operating conditions is described. One experimental optimization of the beam parameters was performed at an accelerating gradient of about 43  MV/m at the photocathode and the other at about 60  MV/m. In both cases, electron beams with very high phase-space density have been demonstrated at a bunch charge of 1 nC and are compared with corresponding simulations. The rf gun optimized for the lower gradient has surpassed all the FLASH requirements on beam quality and rf parameters (gradient, rf pulse length, repetition rate and serves as a spare gun for this facility. The rf gun studied with increased accelerating gradient at the cathode produced beams with even higher brightness, yielding the first demonstration of the beam quality required for driving the European XFEL: The geometric mean of the normalized projected rms emittance in the two transverse directions was measured to be 1.26±0.13  mm mrad for a 1-nC electron bunch. When a 10% charge cut is applied excluding electrons from those phase-space regions where the measured phase-space density is below a certain level and which are not expected to contribute to the lasing process, the normalized projected rms emittance is about 0.9 mm mrad.

  2. First X-ray Statistical Tests for Clumpy Torii Models: Constraints from RXTE monitoring of Seyfert AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, A.

    2015-09-01

    We summarize two papers providing the first X-ray-derived statistical constraints for both clumpy-torus model parameters and cloud ensemble properties. In Markowitz, Krumpe, & Nikutta (2014), we explored multi-timescale variability in line-of-sight X-ray absorbing gas as a function of optical classification. We examined 55 Seyferts monitored with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and found in 8 objects a total of 12 eclipses, with durations between hours and years. Most clouds are commensurate with the outer portions of the BLR, or the inner regions of infrared-emitting dusty tori. The detection of eclipses in type Is disfavors sharp-edged tori. We provide probabilities to observe a source undergoing an absorption event for both type Is and IIs, yielding constraints in [N_0, sigma, i] parameter space. In Nikutta et al., in prep., we infer that the small cloud angular sizes, as seen from the SMBH, imply the presence of >10^7 clouds in BLR+torus to explain observed covering factors. Cloud size is roughly proportional to distance from the SMBH, hinting at the formation processes (e.g. disk fragmentation). All observed clouds are sub-critical with respect to tidal disruption; self-gravity alone cannot contain them. External forces (e.g. magnetic fields, ambient pressure) are needed to contain them, or otherwise the clouds must be short-lived. Finally, we infer that the radial cloud density distribution behaves as 1/r^{0.7}, compatible with VLTI observations. Our results span both dusty and non-dusty clumpy media, and probe model parameter space complementary to that for short-term eclipses observed with XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Chandra.

  3. Monitoring of stainless-steel slag carbonation using X-ray computed microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Marijn A; Nielsen, Peter; De Kock, Tim; Boone, Matthieu N; Quaghebeur, Mieke; Cnudde, Veerle

    2014-01-01

    Steel production is one of the largest contributors to industrial CO2 emissions. This industry also generates large amounts of solid byproducts, such as slag and sludge. In this study, fine grained stainless-steel slag (SSS) is valorized to produce compacts with high compressive strength without the use of a hydraulic binder. This carbonation process is investigated on a pore-scale level to identify how the mineral phases in the SSS react with CO2, where carbonates are formed, and what the impact of these changes is on the pore network of the carbonated SSS compact. In addition to conventional research techniques, high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT) is applied to visualize and quantify the changes in situ during the carbonation process. The results show that carbonates mainly precipitate at grain contacts and in capillary pores and this precipitation has little effect on the connectivity of the pore space. This paper also demonstrates the use of a custom-designed polymer reaction cell that allows in situ HRXCT analysis of the carbonation process. This shows the distribution and influence of water and CO2 in the pore network on the carbonate precipitation and, thus, the influence on the compressive strength development of the waste material.

  4. Uranium oxidation kinetics monitored by in-situ X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalkind, S., E-mail: shimonzl@nrcn.org.il; Rafailov, G.; Halevy, I.; Livneh, T.; Rubin, A.; Maimon, H.; Schweke, D.

    2017-03-15

    The oxidation kinetics of U-0.1 wt%Cr at oxygen pressures of 150 Torr and the temperature range of 90–150 °C was studied by means of in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). A “breakaway” in the oxidation kinetics is found at ∼0.25 μm, turning from a parabolic to a linear rate law. At the initial stage of oxidation the growth plane of UO{sub 2}(111) is the prominent one. As the oxide thickens, the growth rate of UO{sub 2}(220) plane increases and both planes grow concurrently. The activation energies obtained for the oxide growth are Q{sub parabolic} = 17.5 kcal/mol and Q{sub linear} = 19 kcal/mol. Enhanced oxidation around uranium carbide (UC) inclusions is clearly observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Reading a radiologist's mind: monitoring rising and falling interest levels while scanning chest x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidi, Mohammad; Patel, Ameet; Panchanathan, Sethuraman; Black, John A., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Radiological images constitute a special class of images that are captured (or computed) specifically for the purpose of diagnosing patients. However, because these are not "natural" images, radiologists must be trained to interpret them through a process called "perceptual learning". However, because perceptual learning is implicit, experienced radiologists may sometimes find it difficult to explicitly (i.e. verbally) train less experienced colleagues. As a result, current methods of training can take years before a new radiologist is fully competent to independently interpret medical images. We hypothesize that eye tracking technology (coupled with multimedia technology) can be used to accelerate the process of perceptual training, through a Hebbian learning process. This would be accomplished by providing a radiologist-in-training with real-time feedback as he/she is fixating on important regions of an image. Of course this requires that the training system have information about what regions of an image are important - information that could presumably be solicited from experienced radiologists. However, our previous work has suggested that experienced radiologists are not always aware of those regions of an image that attract their attention, but are not clinically significant - information that is very important to a radiologist in training. This paper discusses a study in which local entropy computations were done on scan path data, and were found to provide a quantitative measure of the moment-by-moment interest level of radiologists as they scanned chest x-rays. The results also showed a striking contrast between the moment-by-moment deployment of attention between experienced radiologists and radiologists in training.

  6. Eleven years of monitoring the Seyfert 1 Mrk 335 with Swift: Characterizing the X-ray and UV/optical variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, L. C.; Blue, D. M.; Grupe, D.; Komossa, S.; Wilkins, D. R.

    2018-05-01

    The narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) Mrk 335 has been continuously monitored with Swift since May 2007 when it fell into a long-lasting, X-ray low-flux interval. Results from the nearly 11 years of monitoring are presented here. Structure functions are used to measure the UV-optical and X-ray power spectra. The X-ray structure function measured between 10 - 100 days is consistent with the flat, low-frequency part of the power spectrum measured previously in Mrk 335. The UV-optical structure functions of Mrk 335 are comparable with those of other Seyfert 1 galaxies and of Mrk 335 itself when it was in a normal bright state. There is no indication that the current X-ray low-flux state is attributed to changes in the accretion disc structure of Mrk 335. The characteristic timescales measured in the structure functions can be attributed to thermal (for the UV) and dynamic (for the optical) timescales in a standard accretion disc. The high-quality UVW2 (˜1800 Å in the source frame) structure function appears to have two breaks and two different slopes between 10 - 160 days. Correlations between the X-ray and other bands are not highly significant when considering the entire 11-year light curves, but more significant behaviour is present when considering segments of the light curves. A correlation between the X-ray and UVW2 in 2014 (Year-8) may be predominately caused by an giant X-ray flare that was interpreted as jet-like emission. In 2008 (Year-2), possible lags between the UVW2 emission and other UV-optical waveband may be consistent with reprocessing of X-ray or UV emission in the accretion disc.

  7. A high-precision X-ray tomograph for quality control of the ATLAS Muon Monitored Drift Tube Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Schuh, S; Banhidi, Z; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Lampl, W; Marchesotti, M; Rangod, Stephane; Sbrissa, E; Smirnov, Y; Voss, Rüdiger; Woudstra, M; Zhuravlov, V

    2004-01-01

    A dedicated X-ray tomograph has been developed at CERN to control the required wire placement accuracy of better than 20mum of the 1200 Monitored Drift Tube Chambers which make up most of the precision chamber part of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. The tomograph allows the chamber wire positions to be measured with a 2mum statistical and 2mum systematic uncertainty over the full chamber cross-section of 2.2 multiplied by 0.6m**2. Consistent chamber production quality over the 4-year construction phase is ensured with a similar to 15% sampling rate. Measurements of about 70 of the 650 MDT chambers so far produced have been essential in assessing the validity and consistency of the various construction procedures.

  8. All-sky x-ray ampersand gamma-ray monitor (AXGAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuemer, T.O.; O'Neill, T.J.; Hurley, K.

    1996-01-01

    A wide field-of-view, arcsecond imaging, high energy resolution x-ray and low energy gamma ray detector is proposed for a future space mission. It is specifically designed to detect and find counterparts at other wavelengths for Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Detection of GRBs require wide field-of-view (π to 2 π field-of-view) and high sensitivity. This will be achieved by using high quantum efficiency CdZnTe pixel detectors, low energy threshold (few keV) to observe larger flux levels that may be possible at lower energies and large effective area (625 to 1,000 cd) per coded aperture imaging module. Counterpart searches can only be done with ultra high angular resolution (10 to 30 arcsecond FWHM) which gives 1 to 5 arcsecond position determination especially for strong GRBs. A few arcsecond resolution error box is expected to contain only one counterpart observed at another wavelength. This will be achieved by using ultra high spatial resolution pixel detectors (50 x 50 to 100 X 100 micron) and a similar resolution coded aperture to achieve the required angular resolution. AXGAM also has two other important advantages over similar detectors: (1) excellent low energy response (> 1 keV) and (2) high energy resolution (<6% at sign 5.9 keV, <3% at sign 14 keV, <4% at sign 122 keV). The low energy range may provide important new information on their cause and the high energy resolution is expected to help in the observation and identification of emission and absorption lines in the GRB spectrum. The effective energy range is planned to be 2 to 200 keV which is exceptionally wide for such a detector. AXGAM will be built in the form of a open-quotes Bucky Ballclose quotes using a coded aperture mask in a semi geodesic dome arrangement placed over a two-dimensional, high resolution CdZnTe pixel detector array using newly developed p-i-n detector technology. The p-i-n structure decreases the electron and hole trapping effect and increases energy resolution significantly

  9. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  14. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Diel, Roland; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Adam, Gerhard; Schön, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. • Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among refugees in 2015 was low (0.103%). • The number needed to screen to detect one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. • Tuberculosis X-ray screening resulted in a low sensitivity and high specificity. • Tuberculosis X-ray screening during the European refugee crisis is of low yield. • Improved screening algorithms are needed due to the overwhelming the number of refugees.

  15. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  16. Electron beam halo monitor for a compact x-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Aoyagi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An electron beam halo monitor using diamond-based detectors, which are operated in the ionization mode, has been developed for the SPring-8 Angstrom compact free-electron laser (SACLA to protect its undulator magnets from radiation damage. Diamond-based detectors are inserted in a beam duct to measure the intensity of the beam halo directly. To suppress the degradation of the electron beam due to the installation of the beam halo monitor, rf fingers with aluminum windows are newly employed. We evaluated the effect of radiation from the Al windows on the output signal both experimentally and by simulation. The operational results of the beam halo monitor employed in SACLA are presented.

  17. 2 years of integral monitoring of GRS 1915+105. II. X-ray spectro-temporal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, J.; Shaw, S.E.; Hannikainen, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    -ray emission. In the steady state observation, the X-ray spectrum is indicative of the hard-intermediate state, with the presence of a relatively strong emission at 15 GHz. The X-ray spectrum is the sum of a Comptonized component and an extra power law extending to energies > 200 keV without any evidence...

  18. Integral window/photon beam position monitor and beam flux detectors for x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    1995-01-01

    A monitor/detector assembly in a synchrotron for either monitoring the position of a photon beam or detecting beam flux may additionally function as a vacuum barrier between the front end and downstream segment of the beamline in the synchrotron. A base flange of the monitor/detector assembly is formed of oxygen free copper with a central opening covered by a window foil that is fused thereon. The window foil is made of man-made materials, such as chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and in certain configurations includes a central opening through which the beams are transmitted. Sensors of low atomic number materials, such as aluminum or beryllium, are laid on the window foil. The configuration of the sensors on the window foil may be varied depending on the function to be performed. A contact plate of insulating material, such as aluminum oxide, is secured to the base flange and is thereby clamped against the sensor on the window foil. The sensor is coupled to external electronic signal processing devices via a gold or silver lead printed onto the contact plate and a copper post screw or alternatively via a copper screw and a copper spring that can be inserted through the contact plate and coupled to the sensors. In an alternate embodiment of the monitor/detector assembly, the sensors are sandwiched between the window foil of chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and a front foil made of similar material.

  19. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  1. Small-angle X-ray scattering at high brilliance european synchrotrons for biotechnology and nano-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svergun, D.; Malfois, M.; Svergun, D.; Douka, M.; Riekel, Ch.; Perez, J.; Roessle, M.; Amenitsch, H.; Gunter Grossman, J.; Vestergaard, B.; Receveur-Brechot, V.; Roth, St.V.; Ferrari, E.

    2007-01-01

    Different issues such as micro-fluidic devices for SAXS (small-angle X-ray diffraction), the use of electro-spray and ion trapping for SAXS in the gas phase, the study of flexible and disordered proteins through SAXS, the time-resolved SAXS studies in solution, or the study of nano-structured soft materials, were addressed in this workshop. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations

  2. Small-angle X-ray scattering at high brilliance european synchrotrons for biotechnology and nano-technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svergun, D.; Malfois, M. [EMBL c/o DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Svergun, D. [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Douka, M. [Commission Europeenne, DG III, Bruxelles (Belgium); Riekel, Ch. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France); Perez, J. [Soleil, 91 - Saclay (France); Roessle, M. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Amenitsch, H. [IBN/Elettra (Germany); Gunter Grossman, J. [Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) (United Kingdom); Vestergaard, B. [University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark); Receveur-Brechot, V. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/AFMB), 13 - Marseille (France); Roth, St.V. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (HASYLAB), Hamburg (Germany); Ferrari, E. [National Institute for the Physics of Matter (CNR-INFM), Trieste (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Different issues such as micro-fluidic devices for SAXS (small-angle X-ray diffraction), the use of electro-spray and ion trapping for SAXS in the gas phase, the study of flexible and disordered proteins through SAXS, the time-resolved SAXS studies in solution, or the study of nano-structured soft materials, were addressed in this workshop. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations.

  3. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  4. An Application of X-ray Fluorescence as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) to Monitor Particle Coating Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoshio; Katakuse, Yoshimitsu; Azechi, Yasutaka

    2018-03-30

    An attempt to apply X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis to evaluate small particle coating process as a Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) was made. The XRF analysis was used to monitor coating level in small particle coating process with at-line manner. The small particle coating process usually consists of multiple coating processes. This study was conducted by a simple coating particles prepared by first coating of a model compound (DL-methionine) and second coating by talc on spherical microcrystalline cellulose cores. The particles with two layered coating are enough to demonstrate the small particle coating process. From the result by the small particle coating process, it was found that the XRF signal played different roles, resulting that XRF signals by first coating (layering) and second coating (mask coating) could demonstrate the extent with different mechanisms for the coating process. Furthermore, the particle coating of the different particle size has also been investigated to evaluate size effect of these coating processes. From these results, it was concluded that the XRF could be used as a PAT in monitoring particle coating processes and become powerful tool in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

  5. Gas bubble network formation in irradiated beryllium pebbles monitored by X-Ray micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolier, E; Ferrero, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Zimer 203, Gebaeude 451, Abteilung HVT-TL (Germany); Moslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pieritz, R.A. [CNRS, Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The efficient and safe operation of helium cooled ceramic breeder blankets requires among others an efficient tritium release during operation at blanket relevant temperatures. In the past out-of-pile thermal desorption studies on low temperature neutron irradiated beryllium have shown that tritium and helium release peaks occur together. This phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of growth and coalescence of helium bubbles and tritium that either is trapped inside the helium bubbles in form of T{sub 2} molecules or in their strain field. With increasing temperature the bubble density and size at grain interfaces increase together with the probability of interconnected porosities and channel formation to the outer surface, leading to simultaneous helium and tritium release peaks in TDS. For a reliable prediction of gas release up to end-of-life conditions at blanket relevant temperatures, knowledge of the dynamics of bubble growth and coalescence as well as the 3D distribution of bubble network formation is indispensable. Such data could also be used to experimentally validate any future model predictions of tritium and helium release rates. A high resolution computer aided micro-tomography (CMT) setup has been developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility which allowed reconstructing 3-D images of beryllium pebbles without damaging them. By postprocessing the data a 3D rendering of inner surfaces and of interconnected channel networks can be obtained, thus allowing the identification of open porosities in neutron irradiated and tempered beryllium pebbles. In our case Beryllium pebbles of 2 mm diameter had been neutron irradiated in the 'Beryllium' experiment at 770 K with 1.24 x 10{sup 25} nxm{sup -2} resulting in 480 appm He and 12 appm Tritium. After annealing at 1500 K CMT was performed on the pebbles with 4.9 and 1.4 {mu}m voxel resolution, respectively, followed by morphological and topological post

  6. Photoemission-monitored x-ray standing wave studies of molecular adsorbate surface structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, John Jethro

    2002-01-01

    The influence of non-dipole photoemission terms on the accuracy of photoemission-monitored NIXSW structure determinations has been studied. An experimental survey has been made of values of the incoherent dipole-quadrupole parameter as a function of energy and atomic number for the Is states of elements between carbon and chlorine inclusive. These values are compared with recent theoretical calculations. The contribution of the coherent dipole-quadrupole interference terms, whose form has been theoretically derived recently, has been experimentally measured for Is photoemission from clean Al(111). The coherent dipole-quadrupole effect is found to be small and easily corrected for, while the previously-known incoherent effect is shown to result in tolerable errors in most cases. Adsorption of methyl thiol (CH 3 SH) on Pt(111), followed by annealing to ∼ 220 K is believed to result in the formation of methyl thiolate (-SCH 3 ). Two structural models are consistent with NIXSW data presented here: co-occupation of fcc and hcp sites, and a tilted atop-bonded geometry. On annealing to ∼500 K, complete dissociation occurs, and the remaining S atoms are found to lie in fcc sites, with evidence of partial occupation of a more complex phase. The adsorption of CO, NO and O on Ni(111), and the O+CO and O+NO coadsorbate systems have been investigated with NIXSW. The sites found for O, CO and NO are consistent with previous quantitative structure determinations. In the presence of a precoverage of oxygen, the conclusion of a recent photoelectron diffraction study that the preferred CO site is atop a substrate Ni atom is confirmed. In contrast, NO adsorption onto a (2 x 2)-O precovered surface is found to result in the restructuring of the oxygen layer, with NO adsorbing in the hollow sites, as in the pure-NO layer. Discrepancies in bond lengths between these NIXSW results and previous quantitative determinations are discussed. (author)

  7. Proton irradiation experiment for x-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky x-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 2. Degradation of dark current and identification of electron trap level

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kamiyama, D

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be used for the Japanese X-ray mission, the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI), onboard the international space station (ISS). A temperature dependence of the dark current as a function of incremental dose is studied. We found that the protons having energy of >292 keV seriously increased the dark current of the devices. In order to improve the radiation tolerance of the devices, we have developed various device architectures to minimize the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, nitride oxide enables us to reduce the dark current significantly and therefore we adopted nitride oxide for the flight devices. We also compared the dark current of a device in operation and that out of operation during the proton irradiation. The dark current of the device in operation became twofold that out of operation, and we thus determined that devices would be turned off during the passage of the radiation belt. The temperature dependenc...

  8. Experimental Test of Data Analysis Methods from Staggered Pair X-ray Beam Position Monitors at Bending Magnet Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buth, G.; Huttel, E.; Mangold, S.; Steininger, R.; Batchelor, D.; Doyle, S.; Simon, R.

    2013-03-01

    Different methods have been proposed to calculate the vertical position of the photon beam centroid from the four blade currents of staggered pair X-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) at bending magnet beamlines since they emerged about 15 years ago. The original difference-over-sum method introduced by Peatman and Holldack is still widely used, even though it has been proven to be rather inaccurate at large beam displacements. By systematically generating bumps in the electron orbit of the ANKA storage ring and comparing synchronized data from electron BPMs and XBPM blade currents, we have been able to show that the log-ratio method by S. F. Lin, B.G. Sun et al. is superior (meaning the characteristic being closer to linear) to the ratio method, which in turn is superior to the difference over sum method. These findings are supported by simulations of the XBPM response to changes of the beam centroid. The heuristic basis for each of the methods is investigated. The implications on using XBPM readings for orbit correction are discussed

  9. Exploring the X-Ray Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Frederick D.; Charles, Philip A.

    1995-11-01

    Exploring the X-Ray Universe describes the view of the stars and galaxies that is obtained through X-ray telescopes. X-rays, which are invisible to human sight, are created in the cores of active galaxies, in cataclysmic stellar explosions, and in streams of gas expelled by the Sun and stars. The window on the heavens used by the X-ray astronomers shows the great drama of cosmic violence on the grandest scale. This account of X-ray astronomy incorporates the latest findings from several observatories operating in space. These include the Einstein Observatory operated by NASA, and the EXOSAT satellite of the European Space Agency. The book covers the entire field, with chapters on stars, supernova remnants, normal and active galaxies, clusters of galaxies, the diffuse X-ray background, and much more. The authors review basic principles, include the necessary historical background, and explain exactly what we know from X-ray observations of the Universe.

  10. Applicability of X-ray fluorescence analysis for heavy metal monitoring in sediments and suspended matter of surface bodies of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallenberg, U.

    1993-01-01

    Among the modern physical-chemical methods of analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis is one of the most important owing to its wide spectrum of applications, especially as a precise and reliable method for monitoring heavy metals in air, water, and soil. The authors investigated whether it is also suitable for routine monitoring of heavy metals in sediments and suspended matter in accordance with the specifications of the Sewage Sludge Ordinance. (orig.) [de

  11. MONITORING OF INDIVIDUAL DOSES FOR MEDICAL WORKERS OF DENTAL POLYCLINIC’S X-RAY ROOMS IN DUSHANBE, THE REPUBLIC OF TADJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Hakimova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data and analyses of personnel’s average annual external exposure doses monitoring via the thermoluminescent dosimetry method used for X-ray radiological personnel in dental polyclinics of Dushanbe, Tadjikistan Republic over a 5-year period ( 2010–2014 . Out of 42 registered medical institutions dental polyclinics amounted up to only just 14%. For this work thermoluminescent dosimeters were used ( with LiF: Mg, Ti with the thermoluminescent dosimetric installation “ Harshaw – 4500” as the reader device. Monitoring results comparison of individual dose equivalent Hp ( 10 values was conducted for two groups of medical workers: medical doctors and X-ray lab technicians. It is demonstrated that radiological technicians’ professional exposure doses are on the average by 23% higher than those for medical doctors.The average individual exposure doses over the above indicated period amount to 0,93 mSv and 1,3 mSv for doctors and X-ray lab technicians, respectively, and are in the range from 0,45 mSv to 2,39 mSv. The doses include contribution from the natural background. The values of doses recorded for the personnel in dental polyclinic correspond to those recorded for the workers in the routine X-ray rooms.

  12. Compliance and quality control monitoring of diagnostic X-ray facilities in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkuba, Leonid L.; Nyanda, Pendo B., E-mail: leonid.nkuba@taec.or.tz [Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Control Directorate, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    The compliance evaluation and quality control measurements on 60 diagnostic X-ray units were performed. The results on legal compliance show that 25 % of X-ray facilities operated without or with an expired license. The rest of the centers were new and had already applied for license and others had valid licenses. For basic requirements compliance, 47 % of X-ray facilities did not have the changing cubicles, 37 % of X-ray facilities did not post radiation warning sign and symbols also 46 % of units were found either without protective gear or operated by unqualified personnel. The QC test results showed that 93 % had X-ray tube voltage within the tolerance limit of 10 % and HVL ≥ 2.3 mmAl, at 80 kV was observed in 98.2 % of the units, whereas 98 % of exposure had acceptable kV reproducibility within the tolerance limit of 5 %. Of the X-ray generators assessed, 93 % had tolerable mAs linearity. 93 % and 97 % had acceptable beam alignment and light beam diaphragm. Of the assessed units, 13 (93 %) had tube leakage < 1000 μGy/hr at 1m. For shielding tests, 47 % of units had radiation levels above 0.5 μSv/hr at the main door leading to the X-ray rooms and the registration area. The dose rates > 10 μSv/hr were recorded at viewing windows, walls and doors of control cubicles and behind the doors of changing cubicles. These dose rates indicating higher health risk to workers and member of public. (author)

  13. Proposal to generate 10 TW level femtosecond X-ray pulses from a baseline undulator in conventional SASE regime at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor; Geloni, Gianluca

    2013-08-01

    Output characteristics of the European XFEL have been previously studied assuming an operation point at 5 kA peak current. In this paper we explore the possibility to go well beyond such nominal peak current level. In order to illustrate the potential of the European XFEL accelerator complex we consider a bunch with 0.25 nC charge, compressed up to a peak current of 45 kA. An advantage of operating at such high peak current is the increase of the X-ray output peak power without any modification to the baseline design. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that such high peak current, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve up to a 100-fold increase in a peak power in the conventional SASE regime, compared to the nominal mode of operation. In particular, we find that 10 TW-power level, femtosecond x-ray pulses can be generated in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 5 keV, which is optimal for single biomolecule imaging. Our simulations are based on the exploitation of all the 21 cells foreseen for the SASE3 undulator beamline, and indicate that one can achieve diffraction to the desired resolution with 15 mJ (corresponding to about 3.10 13 photons) in pulses of about 3 fs, in the case of a 100 nm focus at the photon energy of 3.5 keV.

  14. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Diel, Roland [University Medical Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), Institute for Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Meywald-Walter, Karen [Public Health Department Hamburg Central, Hamburg (Germany); Schoen, Gerhard [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  15. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter; Diel, Roland; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Schoen, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  16. Proposal to generate 10 TW level femtosecond X-ray pulses from a baseline undulator in conventional SASE regime at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Output characteristics of the European XFEL have been previously studied assuming an operation point at 5 kA peak current. In this paper we explore the possibility to go well beyond such nominal peak current level. In order to illustrate the potential of the European XFEL accelerator complex we consider a bunch with 0.25 nC charge, compressed up to a peak current of 45 kA. An advantage of operating at such high peak current is the increase of the X-ray output peak power without any modification to the baseline design. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that such high peak current, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve up to a 100-fold increase in a peak power in the conventional SASE regime, compared to the nominal mode of operation. In particular, we find that 10 TW-power level, femtosecond x-ray pulses can be generated in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 5 keV, which is optimal for single biomolecule imaging. Our simulations are based on the exploitation of all the 21 cells foreseen for the SASE3 undulator beamline, and indicate that one can achieve diffraction to the desired resolution with 15 mJ (corresponding to about 3.10{sup 13} photons) in pulses of about 3 fs, in the case of a 100 nm focus at the photon energy of 3.5 keV.

  17. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  19. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  20. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  1. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  4. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  5. Direct monitoring of calcium-triggered phase transitions in cubosomes using small-angle X-ray scattering combined with microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazal, Aghiad; Gontsarik, Mark; Kutter, Jörg P.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a simple microfluidic device that can be combined with synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for monitoring dynamic structural transitions. The microfluidic device is a thiol-ene-based system equipped with 125 µm-thick polystyrene windows, which are suitable for ....... The combination of microfluidics with X-ray techniques can be used for investigating protein unfolding, for monitoring the formation of nanoparticles in real time, and for other biomedical and pharmaceutical investigations.......-ray experiments. The device was prepared by soft lithography using elastomeric molds followed by a simple UV-initiated curing step to polymerize the chip material and simultaneously seal the device with the polystyrene windows. The microfluidic device was successfully used to explore the dynamics...

  6. Conservation and restoration of natural building stones monitored through non-destructive X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P. Js; Cnudde, V.

    2003-04-01

    X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT) is a promising non-destructive imaging technique to study building materials. μCT analysis provides information on the internal structure and petrophysical properties of small samples (size up to 2 cm diameter and 6 cm height), with to date a maximum resolution of 10 μm for commercial systems (Skyscan 1072). μCT allows visualising and measuring complete three-dimensional object structures without sample preparation. Possible applications of the μCT-technique for the monitoring of natural building stones are multiple: (i) to determine non-destructively porosity based on 3D images, (ii) to visualise weathering phenomena at the μ-scale, (iii) to understand the rationale of weathering processes, (iv) to visualise the presence of waterrepellents and consolidation products, (v) to monitor the protective effects of these products during weathering in order to understand the underlying weathering mechanisms and (vi) to provide advise on the suitability of products for the treatment of a particular rock-type. μCT-technique in combination with micro-Raman spectroscopy could prove to be a powerful tool for the future, as the combination of 3D visualisation and 2D chemical determination of inorganic as well as organic components could provide new insights to optimise conservation and restoration techniques of building materials. Determining the penetration depth of restoration products, used to consolidate or to protect natural building stones from weathering, is crucial if the application of conservation products is planned. Every type of natural building stone has its own petrophysical characteristics and each rock type reacts differently on the various restoration products available on the market. To assess the penetration depth and the effectiveness of a certain restoration product, μCT technology in combination with micro-Raman spectroscopy could be applied. Due to its non-destructive character and its resolution down to

  7. Extensive Broadband X-Ray Monitoring During the Formation of a Giant Radio Jet Base in Cyg X-3 with AstroSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J. S.; Verdhan Chauhan, Jai; Rawat, Divya; Misra, Ranjeev; Agrawal, P. C.; Chandra, Sunil; Bagri, Kalyani; Jain, Pankaj; Manchanda, R. K.; Chitnis, Varsha; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2018-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral and timing behavior of Cyg X-3 as observed by AstroSat during the onset of a giant radio flare on 2017 April 1–2. Within a timescale of a few hours, the source shows a transition from the hypersoft state (HPS) to a more luminous state (we termed as the very high state), which coincides with the time of the steep rise in radio flux density by an order of magnitude. Modeling the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) and Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) spectra jointly in 0.5–70.0 keV, we found that the first few hours of the observation is dominated by the HPS with no significant counts above 17 keV. Later, an additional flat power-law component suddenly appeared in the spectra that extends to very high energies with the power-law photon index of {1.49}-0.03+0.04. Such a flat power-law component has never been reported from Cyg X-3. Interestingly the fitted power-law model in 25–70 keV, when extrapolated to the radio frequency, predicts the radio flux density to be consistent with the trend measured from the RATAN-600 telescope at 11.2 GHz. This provides direct evidence of the synchrotron origin of flat X-ray power-law component and the most extensive monitoring of the broadband X-ray behavior at the moment of decoupling the giant radio jet base from the compact object in Cyg X-3. Using SXT and LAXPC observations, we determine the giant flare ejection time as MJD 57845.34 ± 0.08 when 11.2 GHz radio flux density increases from ∼100 to ∼478 mJy.

  8. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  9. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  10. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  11. X-ray monitoring of the radio and γ-ray loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS2004–447

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreikenbohm A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of the X-ray analysis of XMM-Newton and Swift observations as part of a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign in 2012 of the radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 2004–447. The source was recently detected in γ-rays by Fermi/LAT among only four other galaxies of that type. The 0:5 – 10 keV X-ray spectrum is well-described by a simple absorbed powerlaw (Γ ∼ 1.6. The source brightness exhibits variability on timescales of months to years with indications for spectral variability, which follows a “bluer-when-brighter” behaviour, similar to blazars.

  12. Einstein Observatory SSS and MPC observations of the complex X-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies. [Solid State Spectrometer and Monitor Proportional Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T. J.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Holt, S. S.; Madejski, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of 25 Seyfert galaxies measured with the Solid State Spectrometer on the Einstein Observatory have been investigated. This new investigation utilizes simultaneous data from the Monitor Proportional Counter, and automatic correction for systematic effects in the Solid State Spectrometer which were previously handled subjectively. It is found that the best-fit single-power-law indices generally agree with those previously reported, but that soft excesses of some form are inferred for about 48 percent of the sources. One possible explanation of the soft excess emission is a blend of soft X-ray lines, centered around 0.8 keV. The implications of these results for accretion disk models are discussed.

  13. Monitoring conical intersections in the ring opening of furan by attosecond stimulated X-ray Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Hua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attosecond X-ray pulses are short enough to capture snapshots of molecules undergoing nonadiabatic electron and nuclear dynamics at conical intersections (CoIns. We show that a stimulated Raman probe induced by a combination of an attosecond and a femtosecond pulse has a unique temporal and spectral resolution for probing the nonadiabatic dynamics and detecting the ultrafast (∼4.5 fs passage through a CoIn. This is demonstrated by a multiconfigurational self-consistent-field study of the dynamics and spectroscopy of the furan ring-opening reaction. Trajectories generated by surface hopping simulations were used to predict Attosecond Stimulated X-ray Raman Spectroscopy signals at reactant and product structures as well as representative snapshots along the conical intersection seam. The signals are highly sensitive to the changes in nonadiabatically coupled electronic structure and geometry.

  14. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  15. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  16. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  17. Wearable device for monitoring momentary presence of intense x-ray and/or ultra-violet radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, W.

    1981-01-01

    A credit-card-size clear-plastic-encased device can be worn or carried by a person to warn him of the momentary presence of dangerous intensities of ultra-violet and/or x-ray radiations. A base lamina (e.g. of cardboard) is coated with a material (e.g. zinc-cadmium sulfide or lead-barium sulfate) which fluoresces under such radiations. Numerals, letters, words or symbols are printed over the fluorescent coat with a material inhibitory to said radiations so that a warning message in dark print will appear on a light background when dangerous intensities of said radiations are present. An x-ray-warning area is covered with an ultra-violet absorbing screen so that said area will glow only under x-rays (Which rays will also activate the remaining ultra-violet-responsive area). The colors of the laminas and the coats are so selected that the messages are not visible when dangerous radiations are not present. If desired, only the message can be printed with fluorescent material so as to glow on a darker background. Optionally, step-layer attenuation devices can be added to indicate degrees of radiation; and reflecting surfaces can underlie the fluorescent coat to increase efficiency and/or sensitively

  18. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  19. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Monitoring of the Black Hole X-Ray Binary, V404 Cygni during Its 2015 June Outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Poonam; Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007 (India)

    2017-09-10

    We report results from a Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) monitoring campaign of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cygni during its 2015 June outburst. The GMRT observations were carried out at observing frequencies of 1280, 610, 325, and 235 MHz, and extended from June 26.89 UT (a day after the strongest radio/X-ray outburst) to July 12.93 UT. We find the low-frequency radio emission of V404 Cygni to be extremely bright and fast-decaying in the outburst phase, with an inverted spectrum below 1.5 GHz and an intermediate X-ray state. The radio emission settles to a weak, quiescent state ≈11 days after the outburst, with a flat radio spectrum and a soft X-ray state. Combining the GMRT measurements with flux density estimates from the literature, we identify a spectral turnover in the radio spectrum at ≈1.5 GHz on ≈ June 26.9 UT, indicating the presence of a synchrotron self-absorbed emitting region. We use the measured flux density at the turnover frequency with the assumption of equipartition of energy between the particles and the magnetic field to infer the jet radius (≈4.0 × 10{sup 13} cm), magnetic field (≈0.5 G), minimum total energy (≈7 × 10{sup 39} erg), and transient jet power (≈8 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup −1}). The relatively low value of the jet power, despite V404 Cygni’s high black hole spin parameter, suggests that the radio jet power does not correlate with the spin parameter.

  20. SWIFT-BAT HARD X-RAY SKY MONITORING UNVEILS THE ORBITAL PERIOD OF THE HMXB IGR J18219–1347

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; D'Aì, A.; Masetti, N.; D'Elia, V.

    2013-01-01

    IGR J18219–1347 is a hard X-ray source discovered by INTEGRAL in 2010. We have analyzed the X-ray emission of this source exploiting the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey data up to 2012 March and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) data that include also an observing campaign performed in early 2012. The source is detected at a significance level of ∼13 standard deviations in the 88 month BAT survey data, and shows a strong variability along the survey monitoring, going from high intensity to quiescent states. A timing analysis on the BAT data revealed an intensity modulation with a period of P 0 = 72.44 ± 0.3 days. The significance of this modulation is about seven standard deviations in Gaussian statistics. We interpret it as the orbital period of the binary system. The light curve folded at P 0 shows a sharp peak covering ∼30% of the period, superimposed to a flat level roughly consistent with zero. In the soft X-rays the source is detected only in 5 out of 12 XRT observations, with the highest recorded count rate corresponding to a phase close to the BAT folded light-curve peak. The long orbital period and the evidence that the source emits only during a small fraction of the orbit suggests that the IGR J18219–1347 binary system hosts a Be star. The broadband XRT+BAT spectrum is well modeled with a flat absorbed power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff at ∼11 keV

  1. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  2. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  4. Optical Photometry and X-Ray Monitoring of the ``Cool Algol'' BD +05°706: Determination of the Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Guillermo; Mader, Jeff A.; Marschall, Laurence A.; Neuhäuser, Ralph; Duffy, Alaine S.

    2003-06-01

    We present new photometric observations in the BVRI bands of the double-lined eclipsing binary BD +05°706 conducted over three observing seasons, as well as new X-ray observations obtained with ROSAT covering a full orbital cycle (P=18.9 days). A detailed light-curve analysis of the optical data shows the system to be semidetached, confirming indications from an earlier analysis by Torres et al. (published in 1998), with the less massive and cooler star filling its Roche lobe. The system is a member of the rare class of cool Algol systems, which are different from the ``classical'' Algol systems in that the mass-gaining component is also a late-type star rather than a B- or A-type star. By combining the new photometry with a reanalysis of the spectroscopic observations reported by Torres et al., we derive accurate absolute masses for the components of M1=2.633+/-0.028 Msolar and M2=0.5412+/-0.0093 Msolar, radii of R1=7.55+/-0.20 Rsolar and R2=11.02+/-0.21 Rsolar, as well as effective temperatures of 5000+/-100 and 4640+/-150 K, for the primary and secondary, respectively. There are obvious signs of activity (spottedness) in the optical light curve of the binary. Our X-ray light curve clearly shows the primary eclipse but not the secondary eclipse, suggesting that the primary star is the dominant source of the activity in the system. The depth and duration of the eclipse allow us to infer some of the properties of the X-ray-emitting region around that star.

  5. Fabrication and vertical test experience of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser 3.9 GHz superconducting cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, P.; Bertucci, M.; Bosotti, A.; Chen, J. F.; Maiano, C. G.; Michelato, P.; Monaco, L.; Moretti, M.; Pagani, C.; Paparella, R.; Sertore, D.; Vogel, E.

    2017-04-01

    We report the experience of the production, processing and qualification testing of the superconducting radio frequency cavities at 3.9 GHz for the third harmonic system at the European XFEL (EXFEL) injector. The rf structure concept, originally developed for the FLASH FEL facility, was adapted to the new interfaces provided by the EXFEL design and the cavities were procured from a qualified vendor, delivered ready for the testing at the INFN infrastructure. A total of 23 cavities, three prototypes and two batches of 10, have been realized and tested up to specifications.

  6. Extension of SASE bandwidth up to 2% as a way to increase the efficiency of protein structure determination by X-ray nanocrystallography at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gelonib, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Yefanov, Oleksandr [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Femtosecond x-ray nanocrystallography exploiting XFEL radiation is an emerging method for protein structure determination using crystals with sizes ranging from a few tens to a few hundreds nanometers. Crystals are randomly hit by XFEL pulses, producing diffraction patterns at unknown orientations. One can determine these orientations by studying the diffraction patterns themselves, i.e. by indexing the Bragg peaks. The number of indexed individual images and the SASE bandwidth are inherently linked, because increasing the number of Bragg peaks per individual image requires increasing the bandwidth of the spectrum. This calls for a few percent SASE bandwidth, resulting in an increase in the number of indexed images at the same number of hits. Based on start-to-end simulations for the baseline of the European XFEL, we demonstrate here that it is possible to achieve up to a tenfold increase in SASE bandwidth, compared with the nominal mode of operation. This provides a route for further increasing the efficiency of protein structure determination at the European XFEL.We illustrate this concept with simulations of lysozyme nanocrystals.

  7. X-ray bursts observed with JEM-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Chenevez, Jérôme; Lund, Niels

    2006-01-01

    We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found.......We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found....

  8. Validation of the superconducting 3.9 GHz cavity package for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiano, C. G.; Branlard, J.; Hüning, M.; Jensch, K.; Kostin, D.; Matheisen, A.; Möller, W.-D.; Sulimov, A.; Vogel, E.; Bosotti, A.; Chen, J. F.; Moretti, M.; Paparella, R.; Pierini, P.; Sertore, D.

    2017-04-01

    A full test of the cavity package concept under realistic operating condition was a necessary step before the assembly of the European XFEL (EXFEL) 3.9 GHz superconducting system and its installation in the accelerator. One cavity, equipped with magnetic shielding, power coupler and frequency tuner has been tested in a specially designed single cavity cryostat in one of the test benches of the DESY Accelerator Module Test Facility (AMTF). The cavity was operated at high pulsed power up to an accelerating field of 24 MV /m , above the quench accelerating field of 21 MV /m achieved during the continuous wave (CW) vertical qualification test and with a large margin with respect to the EXFEL maximum operating specification of 15 MV /m for the 3.9 GHz system. All subsystems under test—coupler, tuner, waveguide tuners, low level radio-frequency (LLRF) system—were qualified to their design performances.

  9. Conceptual design of an undulator system for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    We describe a future possible upgrade of the European XFEL consisting in the construction of an undulator beamline dedicated to life science experiments. The availability of free undulator tunnels at the European XFEL facility offers a unique opportunity to build a beamline optimized for coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules, like proteins and other biologically interesting structures. Crucial parameters for such bio-imaging beamline are photon energy range, peak power, and pulse duration. Key component of the setup is the undulator source. The peak power is maximized in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 13 keV by the use of a very efficient combination of self-seeding, fresh bunch and tapered undulator techniques. The unique combination of ultra-high peak power of 1 TW in the entire energy range, and ultrashort pulse duration tunable from 2 fs to 10 fs, would allow for single shot coherent imaging of protein molecules with size larger than 10 nm. Also, the new beamline would enable imaging of large biological structures in the water window, between 0.3 keV and 0.4 keV. In order to make use of standardized components, at present we favor the use of SASE3-type undulator segments. The number segments, 40, is determined by the tapered length for the design output power of 1 TW. The present plan assumes the use of a nominal electron bunch with charge of 0.1 nC. Experiments will be performed without interference with the other three undulator beamlines. Therefore, the total amount of scheduled beam time per year is expected to be up to 4000 hours.

  10. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Simon, V.; Sveda, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  11. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  12. First data from X-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.

    1984-01-01

    EXOSAT, the European Space Agency's first x-ray astronomy satellite which was launched last year, has sent back information on x-ray sources. The article briefly discusses the observations made by the satellite concerning Cygnus x-1 and the galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. EXOSAT is the first x-ray astronomy satellite to be operated in a deep space orbit

  13. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  14. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  15. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  16. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  17. Neutron and high-contrast X-ray micro-radiography as complementary tools for monitoring organosilicon consolidants in natural building stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavíková, Monika, E-mail: Monika.Slavikova@vscht.cz [Department of Chemical Technology of Monuments Conservation, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague 6 CZ-16628 (Czech Republic); Krejčí, František [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague 2 CZ-12800 (Czech Republic); Kotlík, Petr [Department of Chemical Technology of Monuments Conservation, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague 6 CZ-16628 (Czech Republic); Jakůbek, Jan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague 2 CZ-12800 (Czech Republic); Tomandl, Ivo; Vacík, Jiří [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-25800, Rez Near Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of consolidants and other treatment product in stones is currently of great importance in various restoration studies. We use neutron and high-contrast X-ray micro-radiography as complementary non-destructive techniques for monitoring of organosilicon consolidants in the Opuka stone. Thanks to different sensitivities of both techniques in relation to the elemental composition, the effect of addition of the contrast agent (3-iodopropyl)trimethoxysilane commonly used in stone consolidation monitoring with X-ray radiography is evaluated. As the addition of the contrast agent to the original consolidation product alters important parameters such as the penetration depth, the understanding of the behaviour of the modified consolidation mixture is essential for verification of the reliability of the method. By comparing results from both methods, the respective radiographs show consistency in terms of homogeneity and penetration depth for all investigated concentrations of the used contrast agent. The presented results further demonstrate that the application of the contrast agent apparently changes the penetration depth, but these changes are, especially for very low concentrations (up to 1%) for most of the studies needed, negligible.

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  20. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  4. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  5. The evaluation of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for process monitoring of slag from the plasma hearth process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, K.P.; Smith, M.A.; Crane, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Slag material produced by the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) varies in chemical composition due to the heterogeneous nature of the input sample feed. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a spectroscopic technique which has been evaluated to perform elemental analyses on surrogate slag material for process control. The intensity of Si, Al and Fe in the slag samples was utilized to determine the appropriate matrix standard set for the determination of Ce. The precision of the XRF technique was better than 5% RSD. The limit of detection for Ce varied with sample matrix and was typically below 0.01 % by weight. The linear dynamic range for the technique was evaluated over 2 orders of magnitude. The Ce determinations performed directly on slag material by the XRF technique were similar to ICP-AES analyses. No addition waste streams were created from the analyses by the XRF technique

  6. Measurement and monitoring of entrance exposure dose rate in X-ray image intensifier television with dose rate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J [Bezirkskrankenhaus Brandenburg (German Democratic Republic)

    1981-03-01

    For X-ray image intensifier television operation very low entrance dose rates (about 5.2 nA/kg) are stated and demanded, respectively. These required values are often manifold exceeded in practice so that a check seems to be necessary. It is shown and proved how these measurements can be performed with simple, generally available means of measurement in the radiological practice. For ZnCdS-image intensifiers should be considered that about 13 nA/kg for the large entrance size are not to be exceeded; for the CsI type lower values (factor 1.5) are practicable because of the twofold quantum absorption efficiency. Furthermore, some tests for a semiquantitative function check of the automatic dose rate control are proposed.

  7. Kissing G domains of MnmE monitored by X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Meyer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available MnmE, which is involved in the modification of the wobble position of certain tRNAs, belongs to the expanding class of G proteins activated by nucleotide-dependent dimerization (GADs. Previous models suggested the protein to be a multidomain protein whose G domains contact each other in a nucleotide dependent manner. Here we employ a combined approach of X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy to show that large domain movements are coupled to the G protein cycle of MnmE. The X-ray structures show MnmE to be a constitutive homodimer where the highly mobile G domains face each other in various orientations but are not in close contact as suggested by the GDP-AlF(x structure of the isolated domains. Distance measurements by pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER spectroscopy show that the G domains adopt an open conformation in the nucleotide free/GDP-bound and an open/closed two-state equilibrium in the GTP-bound state, with maximal distance variations of 18 A. With GDP and AlF(x, which mimic the transition state of the phosphoryl transfer reaction, only the closed conformation is observed. Dimerization of the active sites with GDP-AlF(x requires the presence of specific monovalent cations, thus reflecting the requirements for the GTPase reaction of MnmE. Our results directly demonstrate the nature of the conformational changes MnmE was previously suggested to undergo during its GTPase cycle. They show the nucleotide-dependent dynamic movements of the G domains around two swivel positions relative to the rest of the protein, and they are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanistic principles of this GAD.

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  9. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  10. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  17. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masswig, I.

    1986-01-01

    The tkb market survey comparatively evaluates the X-ray sources and replacement tubes for stationary equipment currently available on the German market. It lists the equipment parameters of 235 commercially available X-ray sources and their replacement tubes and gives the criteria for purchase decisions. The survey has been completed with December 1985, and offers good information concerning medical and technical aspects as well as those of safety and maintenance. (orig.) [de

  18. Diffracted X-ray tracking: new system for single molecular detection with X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Y C; Adachi, S; Suzuki, Y; Yagi, N

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new X-ray methodology for direct observations of the behaviors of single molecular units in real time and real space. This new system, which we call Diffracted X-ray Tracking (DXT), monitors the Brownian motions of a single molecular unit by observations of X-ray diffracted spots from a nanocrystal, tightly bound to the individual single molecular unit in bio-systems. DXT does not determine any translational movements, but only orientational movements.

  19. Diffracted X-ray tracking: new system for single molecular detection with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.C.; Okumura, Y.; Adachi, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Yagi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new X-ray methodology for direct observations of the behaviors of single molecular units in real time and real space. This new system, which we call Diffracted X-ray Tracking (DXT), monitors the Brownian motions of a single molecular unit by observations of X-ray diffracted spots from a nanocrystal, tightly bound to the individual single molecular unit in bio-systems. DXT does not determine any translational movements, but only orientational movements

  20. The potential for extending the spectral range accessible to the european X-ray free electron laser in the direction of longer wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

    2004-01-01

    The baseline specifications of European XFEL give a range of wavelengths between 0.1 nm and 2 nm. This wavelength range at fixed electron beam energy 17.5 GeV can be covered by operating the SASE FEL with three undulators which have different period and tunable gap. A study of the potential for the extending the spectral range accessible to the XFEL in the direction of longer wavelengths is presented. The extension of the wavelength range to 6 nm would be cover the water window in the VUV region, opening the facility to a new class of experiments. There are at least two possible sources of VUV radiation associated with the X-ray FEL; the "low (2.5 GeV) energy electron beam dedicated" and the " 17.5 GeV spent beam parasitic" (or "after-burner") source modes. The second alternative, "after-burner undulator" is the one we regard as most favorable. It is possible to place an undulator as long as 80 meters after 2 nm undulator. Ultimately, VUV undulator would be able to deliver output power approaching 100 GW. A b...

  1. Performance in the vertical test of the 832 nine-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, D.; Gubarev, V.; Schaffran, J.; Steder, L.; Walker, N.; Wenskat, M.; Monaco, L.

    2017-04-01

    The successful production and associated vertical testing of over 800 superconducting 1.3 GHz accelerating cavities for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) represents the culmination of over 20 years of superconducting radio-frequency R&D. The cavity production took place at two industrial vendors under the shared responsibility of INFN Milano-LASA and DESY. Average vertical testing rates at DESY exceeded 10 cavities per week, peaking at up to 15 cavities per week. The cavities sent for cryomodule assembly at Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA) Saclay achieved an average maximum gradient of approximately 33 MV /m , reducing to ˜30 MV /m when the operational specifications on quality factor (Q) and field emission were included (the so-called usable gradient). Only 16% of the cavities required an additional surface retreatment to recover their low performance (usable gradient less than 20 MV /m ). These cavities were predominantly limited by excessive field emission for which a simple high pressure water rinse (HPR) was sufficient. Approximately 16% of the cavities also received an additional HPR, e.g. due to vacuum problems before or during the tests or other reasons, but these were not directly related to gradient performance. The in-depth statistical analyses presented in this report have revealed several features of the series produced cavities.

  2. Performance in the vertical test of the 832 nine-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reschke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful production and associated vertical testing of over 800 superconducting 1.3 GHz accelerating cavities for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL represents the culmination of over 20 years of superconducting radio-frequency R&D. The cavity production took place at two industrial vendors under the shared responsibility of INFN Milano–LASA and DESY. Average vertical testing rates at DESY exceeded 10 cavities per week, peaking at up to 15 cavities per week. The cavities sent for cryomodule assembly at Commissariat à l’énergie atomique (CEA Saclay achieved an average maximum gradient of approximately 33  MV/m, reducing to ∼30  MV/m when the operational specifications on quality factor (Q and field emission were included (the so-called usable gradient. Only 16% of the cavities required an additional surface retreatment to recover their low performance (usable gradient less than 20  MV/m. These cavities were predominantly limited by excessive field emission for which a simple high pressure water rinse (HPR was sufficient. Approximately 16% of the cavities also received an additional HPR, e.g. due to vacuum problems before or during the tests or other reasons, but these were not directly related to gradient performance. The in-depth statistical analyses presented in this report have revealed several features of the series produced cavities.

  3. Methods for calibrating the gain and offset of the DSSC detector for the European XFEL using X-ray line sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, S.; Weidenspointner, G.; Moch, D.; Kuster, M.; Porro, M.

    2016-01-01

    The DSSC (DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression) will be a silicon based, 2d 1 Mpx imaging detector for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser Facility (XFEL.EU) in Hamburg, Germany. The DSSC is foreseen for soft X-radiation from 0.5 keV up to 6 keV . Driven by its scientific requirements, the design goals of the detector system are single photon detection, high dynamic range and a high frame rate of up to 4.5 MHz. Signal compression and amplification will be performed in the silicon sensor pixels yielding a low signal noise. Utilizing an in-pixel active filtering stage and an 8/9-bit ADC, the detector will provide parallel read-out of all pixels. In order to calibrate offset and gain, the procedure currently under investigation relies on determining peak positions in measurements with calibration line sources such as 55Fe. Here the status of studies of the stability and performance of a parameterized fit function designed for this task will be presented.

  4. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  11. Smart x-ray beam position monitor system using artificial intelligence methods for the advanced photon source insertion-device beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Ding, H.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Haeffner, D.; Ramanathan, M.

    1997-09-01

    At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), each insertion device (ID) beamline front-end has two XBPMs to monitor the X-ray beam position for both that vertical and horizontal directions. Performance challenges for a conventional photoemission type X-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) during operations are contamination of the signal from the neighboring bending magnet sources and the sensitivity of the XBPM to the insertion device (ID) gap variations. Problems are exacerbated because users change the ID gap during their operations, and hence the percentage level of the contamination in the front end XBPM signals varies. A smart XBPM system with a high speed digital signal processor has been built at the Advanced Photon Source for the ID beamline front ends. The new version of the software, which uses an artificial intelligence method, provides a self learning and self-calibration capability to the smart XBPM system. The structure of and recent test results with the system are presented in this paper

  12. Requirements for industrial x-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This safety code is concerned with the protection of all individuals who may be exposed to radiation emitted by X-ray equipment operating at energies up to 1 MeV as used in industrial radiography. This code presents basic radiation safety information for the protection of personnel operating and servicing X-ray equipment and other workers and the general public in the vicinity of areas where X-ray equipment is in operation. It specifies general safety features of design, construction and functioning of X-ray equipment and facilities; describes the responsibilities of the user, operator and maintenance personnel; contains recommendations to ensure that the X-ray equipment is used and maintained in accordance with the ALARA principle; and describes a program of personnel monitoring and radiation safety surveys. ( 6 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.)

  13. X-ray metrology for ULSI structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D. K.; Matney, K. M.; Wormington, M.

    1998-01-01

    Non-destructive X-ray metrological methods are discussed for application to both process development and process control of ULSI structures. X-ray methods can (a) detect the unacceptable levels of internal defects generated by RTA processes in large wafers, (b) accurately measure the thickness and roughness of layers between 1 and 1000 nm thick and (c) can monitor parameters such as crystallographic texture and the roughness of buried interfaces. In this paper we review transmission X-ray topography, thin film texture measurement, grazing-incidence X-ray reflectivity and high-resolution X-ray diffraction. We discuss in particular their suitability as on-line sensors for process control

  14. Perspectives of imaging of single protein molecules with the present design of the European XFEL. Pt. 1. X-ray source, beamline optics and instrument simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor; Geloni, Gianluca; Yefanov, Oleksandr

    2014-08-01

    The Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules (SPB) instrument at the European XFEL is located behind the SASE1 undulator, and aims to support imaging and structure determination of biological specimen between about 0.1 μm and 1 μm size. The instrument is designed to work at photon energies from 3 keV up to 16 keV. This wide operation range is a cause for challenges to the focusing optics. In particular, a long propagation distance of about 900 m between X-ray source and sample leads to a large lateral photon beam size at the optics. The beam divergence is the most important parameter for the optical system, and is largest for the lowest photon energies and for the shortest pulse duration (corresponding to the lowest charge). Due to the large divergence of nominal X-ray pulses with duration shorter than 10 fs, one suffers diffraction from mirror aperture, leading to a 100-fold decrease in fluence at photon energies around 4 keV, which are ideal for imaging of single biomolecules. The nominal SASE1 output power is about 50 GW. This is very far from the level required for single biomolecule imaging, even assuming perfect beamline and focusing efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the parameters of the accelerator complex and of the SASE1 undulator offer an opportunity to optimize the SPB beamline for single biomolecule imaging with minimal additional costs and time. Start to end simulations from the electron injector at the beginning of the accelerator complex up to the generation of diffraction data indicate that one can achieve diffraction without diffraction with about 0.5 photons per Shannon pixel at near-atomic resolution with 10 13 photons in a 4 fs pulse at 4 keV photon energy and in a 100 nm focus, corresponding to a fluence of 10 23 ph/cm 2 . This result is exemplified using the RNA Pol II molecule as a case study.

  15. Perspectives of imaging of single protein molecules with the present design of the European XFEL. Pt. 1. X-ray source, beamline optics and instrument simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Yefanov, Oleksandr [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules (SPB) instrument at the European XFEL is located behind the SASE1 undulator, and aims to support imaging and structure determination of biological specimen between about 0.1 μm and 1 μm size. The instrument is designed to work at photon energies from 3 keV up to 16 keV. This wide operation range is a cause for challenges to the focusing optics. In particular, a long propagation distance of about 900 m between X-ray source and sample leads to a large lateral photon beam size at the optics. The beam divergence is the most important parameter for the optical system, and is largest for the lowest photon energies and for the shortest pulse duration (corresponding to the lowest charge). Due to the large divergence of nominal X-ray pulses with duration shorter than 10 fs, one suffers diffraction from mirror aperture, leading to a 100-fold decrease in fluence at photon energies around 4 keV, which are ideal for imaging of single biomolecules. The nominal SASE1 output power is about 50 GW. This is very far from the level required for single biomolecule imaging, even assuming perfect beamline and focusing efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the parameters of the accelerator complex and of the SASE1 undulator offer an opportunity to optimize the SPB beamline for single biomolecule imaging with minimal additional costs and time. Start to end simulations from the electron injector at the beginning of the accelerator complex up to the generation of diffraction data indicate that one can achieve diffraction without diffraction with about 0.5 photons per Shannon pixel at near-atomic resolution with 10{sup 13} photons in a 4 fs pulse at 4 keV photon energy and in a 100 nm focus, corresponding to a fluence of 10{sup 23}ph/cm{sup 2}. This result is exemplified using the RNA Pol II molecule as a case study.

  16. Observing Solvation Dynamics with Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer; Gawelda, Wojciech; Abela, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    and structural changes, and local solvent structural changes are desired. We have studied the intra- and intermolecular dynamics of a model chromophore, aqueous [Fe(bpy)3]2+, with complementary X-ray tools in a single experiment exploiting intense XFEL radiation as a probe. We monitored the ultrafast structural...... rearrangement of the solute with X-ray emission spectroscopy, thus establishing time zero for the ensuing X-ray diffuse scattering analysis. The simultaneously recorded X-ray diffuse scattering atterns reveal slower subpicosecond dynamics triggered by the intramolecular structural dynamics of the photoexcited...

  17. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  18. In Situ Solid-State Reactions Monitored by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Temperature-Induced Proton Transfer Leads to Chemical Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joanna S; Walczak, Monika; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A

    2016-10-24

    The dramatic colour and phase alteration with the solid-state, temperature-dependent reaction between squaric acid and 4,4'-bipyridine has been probed in situ with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The electronic and chemical sensitivity to the local atomic environment through chemical shifts in the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) revealed proton transfer from the acid to the bipyridine base through the change in nitrogen protonation state in the high-temperature form. Direct detection of proton transfer coupled with structural analysis elucidates the nature of the solid-state process, with intermolecular proton transfer occurring along an acid-base chain followed by a domino effect to the subsequent acid-base chains, leading to the rapid migration along the length of the crystal. NEXAFS thereby conveys the ability to monitor the nature of solid-state chemical reactions in situ, without the need for a priori information or long-range order. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fluorescence-type Monochromatic X-ray Beam-position Monitor with High-spatial Resolution for the NSLS-II Beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Phil S.; Siddons, D. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We developed a fluorescence-type monochromatic X-ray beam-position monitor (X-BPM) with high-spatial resolution for end-station experiments at the initial project beamlines of the NSLS-II. We designed a ring array of multi-segmented Si PIN-junction photodiodes to use as a position sensor. Further, we integrated a low-noise charge-preamplification HERMES4 ASIC chip into an electronic readout system for photon-counting application. A series of precision measurements to characterize electronically the Si-photodiode sensor and the ASIC chip demonstrated that the inherent noise from the detector system is sufficiently low to meet our stringent requirements. Using a Gaussian beam, we parametrically modeled the optimum working distance to ensure the detector's best performance. Based upon the results from the parametric modeling, prototypes of the next versions of the X-BPM are being developed. In this paper, we describe the methodology for developing the new compact monochromatic X-ray BPM, including its instrumentation, detector modeling, and future plan.

  20. Analysis of a Novel Diffractive Scanning-Wire Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for Discriminative Profiling of Electron Vs. X Ray Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent numerical studies of Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime indicate a large sensitivity of the gain to the degree of transverse overlap (and associated phase coherence) between the electron and photon beams traveling down the insertion device. Simulations of actual systems imply that accurate detection and correction for this relative loss of overlap, rather than correction for the absolute departure of the electron beam from a fixed axis, is the preferred function of an FEL amplifier's Beam Position Monitor (BPM) and corrector systems. In this note we propose a novel diffractive BPM with the capability of simultaneously detecting and resolving the absolute (and relative) transverse positions and profiles of electron and x-ray beams co-propagating through an undulator. We derive the equations governing the performance of the BPM and examine its predicted performance for the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), viz., for profiling multi-GeV electron bunches co-propagating with one-to-several-hundred keV x-ray beams. Selected research and development (r and d) tasks for fabricating and testing the proposed BPM are discussed.

  1. Investigation of a free electron laser oscillator in the X-ray wavelength regime for the European XFEL; Untersuchungen zu einem Freie-Elektronen-Laser-Oszillator im Roentgen-Wellenlaengenbereich fuer den European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemella, Johann Christian Uwe

    2013-09-15

    In this thesis an X-ray free electron laser oscillator for the European XFEL is described. Such an oscillator consists of at least two Bragg deflecting crystals, in this content two or four Diamond crystals, focussing mirrors and an undulator. The advantage of Diamond is caused by the high reflectivity and the high thermal conductivity, which is necessary for dissipate the absorbed energy out of the center of the crystal. In context of this thesis the principle layout of an XFELO for the European XFEL and the FEL process is presented. Effects on the FEL process due to the disturbances of the electron beam or the XFELO cavity are discussed. As second aspect the thermal evolution in the crystal under absorbed XFELO-pulses is investigated. An experiment for the investigation of the thermal evolution of crystals under simulated XFELO conditions is presented.

  2. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  3. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  4. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  5. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  6. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  7. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  8. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  9. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  10. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  15. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  16. Variable X-ray sky with Lobster Eye Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Sveda, L.

    2004-01-01

    The variable X-ray sky requires wide-field monitoring with high sensitivity. We refer on novel X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The results are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, GRBs, X-ray flashes, galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc

  17. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  19. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, U.

    1979-11-01

    The author describes several possibilities for the production of X-radiation. Especially he discusses the use of bremsstrahlung at electron impact on solid targets and the synchrotron radiation. He presents some equations for the calculation of X-ray intensities. Especially the X-radiation from the DORIS storage ring is discussed. (HSI)

  20. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Gui Ah Auu; Husaini Salleh; Idris Besar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Shaharuddin Mohd; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader; Mahalatchimi Dave; Mohd Fazly Abdul Rahim; Ng Chee Moon; Ram Piari; Teoh Hoon Heng; Lee Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to ... You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  2. Broad-band monitoring tracing the evolution of the jet and disc in the black hole candidate X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, A.J.; Curran, P.A.; Miller-Jonis, J.C.A.; Linford, J.D.; Gorosabel, J.; Russell, D.M.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Lundgren, A.A.; Taylor, G.B.; Maitra, D.; Guziy, S.; Belloni, T.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Jonker, P.G.; Kamble, A.; Paragi, Z.; Homan, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Granot, J.; Altamirano, D.; Buxton, M.M.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Fender, R.P.; Garret, M.A.; Gehrels, N.; Hartmann, D.H.; Kennea, J.A.; Krimm, H.A.; Mangano, V.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Romano, P.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wijnands, R.; Yang, Y.J.

    2013-01-01

    MAXI J1659−152 was discovered on 2010 September 25 as a new X-ray transient, initially identified as a gamma-ray burst, but was later shown to be a new X-ray binary with a black hole as the most likely compact object. Dips in the X-ray light curves have revealed that MAXI J1659−152 is the shortest

  3. RXTE Monitoring of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1048.1-5937: Long-Term Variability and the 2007 March Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.

    2009-01-01

    After three years of no unusual activity, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1048.1-5937 reactivated in 2007 March. We report on the detection of a large glitch (deltav/v = 1.63(2) x 10(exp -5)) on 2007 March 26 (MJD 54185.9), contemporaneous with the onset of a pulsed-flux flare, the third flare observed from this source in 10 years of monitoring with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Additionally, we report on a detailed study of the evolution of the timing properties, the pulsed flux, and the pulse profile of this source as measured by RXTE from 1996 July to 2008 January. In our timing study, we attempted phase coherent timing of all available observations. We show that in 2001, a timing anomaly of uncertain nature occurred near the rise of the first pulsed flux flare; we show that a likely glitch (deltav/v = 2.91(9) x 10(exp -6)) occurred in 2002, near the rise of the second flare, and we present a detailed description of the variations in the spin-down. In our pulsed flux study, we compare the decays of the three flares and discuss changes in the hardness ratio. In our pulse profile study, we show that the profile exhibited large variations near the peak of the first two flares, and several small short-term profile variations during the most recent flare. Finally, we report on the discovery of a small burst 27 days after the peak of the last flare, the fourth burst discovered from this source. We discuss the relationships between the observed properties in the framework of the magnetar model.

  4. Dentistry 4. X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    DIN pocketbook 267/4 gives an overview of the normative requirements of the new X-Ray and Radiation Protection Ordinance, which has been in effect since 1 November 2011. This DIN pocketbook is intended for anyone charged with professional responsibility for the use of ionizing radiation in dentistry, operators and users of x-ray devices, radiation protection officers, accredited experts, manufacturers as well as for anyone with an interest in radiation protection or optimal radiological diagnostics. It contains standards relating to the following areas: acceptance and constancy testing; devices for evaluating findings (monitors, film viewing devices), films, printers; archiving, designating, labelling. Adherence to the standards makes it possible to avoid distractive artefacts in x-ray images and optimise the quality of x-ray diagnostics in dentistry.

  5. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  6. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: X-ray/UV Swift monitoring of NGC 4151 (Edelson+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R.; Gelbord, J.; Cackett, E.; Connolly, S.; Done, C.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gardner, E.; Gehrels, N.; Goad, M.; Horne, K.; McHardy, I.; Peterson, B. M.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Breeveld, A.; Barth, A. J.; Bentz, M.; Bottorff, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Crawford, S. M.; Bonta, E. D.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Evans, P.; Jaimes, R. F.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ferland, G.; Grupe, D.; Joner, M.; Kennea, J.; Korista, K. T.; Krimm, H. A.; Kriss, G.; Leonard, D. C.; Mathur, S.; Netzer, H.; Nousek, J.; Page, K.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D. A.; Treu, T.; Vogler, H. A.; Winkler, H.; Zheng, W.

    2017-11-01

    During 2016 February 20 through April 29, Swift executed an intensive monitoring campaign on NGC 4151, consisting of 319 separate visits of at least 120s, an average of nearly five visits per day. These Swift observations were coordinated with intensive monitoring with numerous ground-based telescopes including the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network and the Liverpool Telescope at La Palma. Those data will be presented in subsequent papers (K. Horne et al. 2017, in preparation; M. Goad et al. 2017, in preparation). (3 data files).

  8. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  9. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  10. X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucarias, A; Shepherd, J W

    1982-09-08

    An X-ray tube has a tubular envelope with a cathode for directing an electron beam onto a focal spot area of a spaced anode target to generate X-rays. The target is mounted for axial rotation on one end of a rotor disposed in an end portion of the envelope and encircled by a stator of an alternating current induction motor. An annular shield of high permeability magnetic material extends transversely between the electron beam and the stator of the induction motor for shunting stray or fringe electromagnetic fields established by the stator away from the electron beam to avoid consequent lateral deflections of the electron and corresponding lateral movements of the focal spot area.

  11. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  12. European Symposium on X-Ray Topography and High Resolution Diffraction (2nd) Held in Berlin, Germany on 5-7 September 1994. Programme and Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-07

    com- ponents of roughness at the interface or the different spatial wave- lengths sensible with the two X-ray techniques. We thank T. Abe for the sample...P.M.. Ciudad Uni versitaria sn, Madrid 28040, Spain In buffer layer technology, in addition to measurement of layer composition and relaxation, it

  13. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  14. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  15. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  16. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  1. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Hip What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  14. Effective energies and exposure determinations of two different energy X-ray beams incident on a personnel monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, E.; Cruz, M.T. da

    1984-01-01

    The effective energy of one X or gamma ray beam can be determined by means of two thermoluminescent (TL) dosemeters mounted between suitable filters. However, it has been observed that personnel monitors exposed to two different energy ionizing radiations provide different effective energies depeding on the type of TL phosphor used. This fact could be a powerful tool for identifying exposures to radiation with quite different effective energies which are very common in practice. Two types of TL dosemeters were used : pellets of cold pressed natural fluoride and NaCl developed in our own laboratory, and LiF, TLD-100 from Harshaw Chemical Co.. Experimental results obtained with these combined dosemeters after irradiation with different sets of exposures and energy values of ionizing radiations are also presented. (Author) [pt

  15. Application of a portable equipment EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) in the monitoring of the restoration work of murals paints in the Church of Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio; Rizzo, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) of the Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina in the analysis in situ of pigments in wall paintings, as well as in monitoring restoration processes

  16. Monitoring Chandra Observations of the Quasi-persistent Neutron Star X-Ray Transient MXB 1659-29 in Quiescence: The Cooling Curve of the Heated Neutron Star Crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.A.D.; Homan, J.; Miller, J.M.; Lewin, W.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    We have observed the quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary MXB 1659-29 in quiescence on three occasions with Chandra. The purpose of our observations was to monitor the quiescent behavior of the source after its last prolonged (~2.5 yr) outburst that ended in 2001

  17. Effects of X-Ray Dose On Rhizosphere Studies Using X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, Susan; Helliwell, Jonathan R.; Tracy, Saoirse R.; Mairhofer, Stefan; Sturrock, Craig J.; Pridmore, Tony; Bennett, Malcolm; Mooney, Sacha J.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a non-destructive imaging technique originally designed for diagnostic medicine, which was adopted for rhizosphere and soil science applications in the early 1980s. X-ray CT enables researchers to simultaneously visualise and quantify the heterogeneous soil matrix of mineral grains, organic matter, air-filled pores and water-filled pores. Additionally, X-ray CT allows visualisation of plant roots in situ without the need for traditional invasive methods such as root washing. However, one routinely unreported aspect of X-ray CT is the potential effect of X-ray dose on the soil-borne microorganisms and plants in rhizosphere investigations. Here we aimed to i) highlight the need for more consistent reporting of X-ray CT parameters for dose to sample, ii) to provide an overview of previously reported impacts of X-rays on soil microorganisms and plant roots and iii) present new data investigating the response of plant roots and microbial communities to X-ray exposure. Fewer than 5% of the 126 publications included in the literature review contained sufficient information to calculate dose and only 2.4% of the publications explicitly state an estimate of dose received by each sample. We conducted a study involving rice roots growing in soil, observing no significant difference between the numbers of root tips, root volume and total root length in scanned versus unscanned samples. In parallel, a soil microbe experiment scanning samples over a total of 24 weeks observed no significant difference between the scanned and unscanned microbial biomass values. We conclude from the literature review and our own experiments that X-ray CT does not impact plant growth or soil microbial populations when employing a low level of dose (<30 Gy). However, the call for higher throughput X-ray CT means that doses that biological samples receive are likely to increase and thus should be closely monitored. PMID:23840640

  18. A new implementation of digital X-ray radiogrammetry and reference curves of four indices of cortical bone for healthy European adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Böttcher, Joachim; Lomholt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Digital X-ray radiogrammetry performs measurements on a hand radiograph in digital form. We present an improved implementation of the method and provide reference curves for four indices for the amount of bone. We collected 1662 hand radiographs of healthy subjects of age 9-100 years....... PURPOSE: The digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) method has been shown to be efficient for diagnosis of osteoporosis and for assessment of progression of rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this work is to present a new DXR implementation and reference curves of four indices of cortical bone and to compare...... their relative SDs in healthy subjects at fixed age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1662 hand radiographs of healthy subjects of age 9-100 years were collected in Jena in 2001-2005. We also used a longitudinal study of 116 Danish children born in 1952 with on average 11 images taken over the age...

  19. X-ray binaries, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag-Hensberge, G.C.M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Optical observations of X-ray binaries and their interpretation are described. A number of early-type stars which are identified as companions of X-ray sources are photometrically and spectroscopically observed. The spectra were obtained with the coude spectrograph attached to the 1.5 m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Registrations of the spectra were made with the Faul-Coradi microphotometer of the Observatory at Utrecht. To study radial velocity variations, the positions of the spectral lines were measured with the Grant comparator of the University of Groningen

  20. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  1. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  2. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  3. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  4. X-ray optics developments at ESA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.; Wallace, K.

    2013-01-01

    Future high energy astrophysics missions will require high performance novel X-ray optics to explore the Universe beyond the limits of the currently operating Chandra and Newton observatories. Innovative optics technologies are therefore being developed and matured by the European Space Agency (ESA......) in collaboration with research institutions and industry, enabling leading-edge future science missions. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) [1 to 21] and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) [22 to 29] are lightweight high performance X-ray optics technologies being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class...... reflective coatings [30 to 35]. In addition, the progress with the X-ray test facilities and associated beam-lines is discussed [36]. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  5. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... and characterized with respect to their shape. Their optical performances were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Two 1D-focusing Si-CRLs suitable as condensers in hard-XRM were developed utilizing the aforementioned two different strategies. The first Si-condenser showed focusing of a 56...... of space for sample surroundings and ensure low-divergent and wide x-ray beams with narrow waists. Both results are substantial improvements to what was available at the start of this thesis work. The challenge of making x-ray objectives in silicon by interdigitation of lenslets alternately focusing...

  6. X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references

  7. Band bending at the heterointerface of GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires monitored by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbabaee, B.; Bussone, G.; Knutsson, J. V.; Geijselaers, I.; Pryor, C. E.; Rieger, T.; Demarina, N.; Grützmacher, D.; Lepsa, M. I.; Timm, R.; Pietsch, U.

    2016-10-01

    Unique electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructured nanowires make them useful for future nano-electronic devices. Here, we present a study of the band bending effect at the heterointerface of GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires by means of synchrotron based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Different Ga, In, and As core-levels of the nanowire constituents have been monitored prior to and after cleaning from native oxides. The cleaning process mainly affected the As-oxides and was accompanied by an energy shift of the core-level spectra towards lower binding energy, suggesting that the As-oxides turn the nanowire surfaces to n-type. After cleaning, both As and Ga core-levels revealed an energy shift of about -0.3 eV for core/shell compared to core reference nanowires. With respect to depth dependence and in agreement with calculated strain distribution and electron quantum confinement, the observed energy shift is interpreted by band bending of core-levels at the heterointerface between the GaAs nanowire core and the InAs shell.

  8. CellDyM: A room temperature operating cryogenic cell for the dynamic monitoring of snow metamorphism by time-lapse X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonne, N.; Flin, F.; Lesaffre, B.; Dufour, A.; Roulle, J.; Puglièse, P.; Philip, A.; Lahoucine, F.; Geindreau, C.; Panel, J.-M.; Roscoat, S. Rolland; Charrier, P.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the time evolution of snow microstructure in 3-D is crucial for a better understanding of snow metamorphism. We, therefore, designed a cryogenic cell that precisely controls the experimental conditions of a sample while it is scanned by X-ray tomography. Based on a thermoelectrical regulation and a vacuum insulation, the cell operates at room temperature. It is, thus, adaptable to diverse scanners, offering advantages in terms of imaging techniques, resolution, and speed. Three-dimensional time-lapse series were obtained under equitemperature and temperature gradient conditions at a 7.8 μm precision. The typical features of each metamorphism and the anisotropic faceting behavior between the basal and prismatic planes, known to occur close to -2°C, were observed in less than 30 h. These results are consistent with the temperature fields expected from heat conduction simulations through the cell. They confirm the cell's accuracy and the interest of relatively short periods to study snow metamorphism.

  9. SU-E-I-10: Automatic Monitoring of Accumulated Dose Indices From DICOM RDSR to Improve Radiation Safety in X-Ray Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, A; Bujila, R; Nowik, P; Karambatsakidou, A [Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential benefits of automatic monitoring of accumulated patient and staff dose indicators, i.e., CAK and KAP, from DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports (RDSR) in x-ray angiography (XA). Methods: Recently RDSR has enabled the convenient aggregation of dose indices and technique parameters for XA procedures. The information contained in RDSR objects for three XA systems, dedicated to different types of clinical procedures, has been collected and aggregated in a database for over one year using a system developed with open-source software at the Karolinska University Hospital. Patient weight was complemented to the RDSR data via an interface with the Hospital Information System (HIS). Results: The linearly approximated trend in KAP over a time period of a year for cerebrovascular, pelvic/peripheral vascular, and cardiovascular procedures showed a decrease of 12%, 20%, and 14%, respectively. The decrease was mainly due to hardware/software upgrades and new low-dose imaging protocols, and partially due to ongoing systematic radiation safety education of the clinical staff. The CAK was in excess of 3 Gy for 15 procedures, and exceeded 5 Gy for 3 procedures. The dose indices have also shown a significant dependence on patient weight for cardiovascular and pelvic/peripheral vascular procedures; a 10 kg shift in mean patient weight can result in a dose index increase of 25%. Conclusion: Automatic monitoring of accumulated dose indices can be utilized to notify the clinical staff and medical physicists when the dose index has exceeded a predetermined action level. This allows for convenient and systematic follow-up of patients in risk of developing deterministic skin injuries. Furthermore, trend analyses of dose indices over time is a valuable resource for the identification of potential positive or negative effects (dose increase/decrease) from changes in hardware, software, and clinical work habits.

  10. SU-E-I-10: Automatic Monitoring of Accumulated Dose Indices From DICOM RDSR to Improve Radiation Safety in X-Ray Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, A; Bujila, R; Nowik, P; Karambatsakidou, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential benefits of automatic monitoring of accumulated patient and staff dose indicators, i.e., CAK and KAP, from DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports (RDSR) in x-ray angiography (XA). Methods: Recently RDSR has enabled the convenient aggregation of dose indices and technique parameters for XA procedures. The information contained in RDSR objects for three XA systems, dedicated to different types of clinical procedures, has been collected and aggregated in a database for over one year using a system developed with open-source software at the Karolinska University Hospital. Patient weight was complemented to the RDSR data via an interface with the Hospital Information System (HIS). Results: The linearly approximated trend in KAP over a time period of a year for cerebrovascular, pelvic/peripheral vascular, and cardiovascular procedures showed a decrease of 12%, 20%, and 14%, respectively. The decrease was mainly due to hardware/software upgrades and new low-dose imaging protocols, and partially due to ongoing systematic radiation safety education of the clinical staff. The CAK was in excess of 3 Gy for 15 procedures, and exceeded 5 Gy for 3 procedures. The dose indices have also shown a significant dependence on patient weight for cardiovascular and pelvic/peripheral vascular procedures; a 10 kg shift in mean patient weight can result in a dose index increase of 25%. Conclusion: Automatic monitoring of accumulated dose indices can be utilized to notify the clinical staff and medical physicists when the dose index has exceeded a predetermined action level. This allows for convenient and systematic follow-up of patients in risk of developing deterministic skin injuries. Furthermore, trend analyses of dose indices over time is a valuable resource for the identification of potential positive or negative effects (dose increase/decrease) from changes in hardware, software, and clinical work habits

  11. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  12. X-ray tomographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray tomographic system consists of a radiation source such as gamma or x radiation which produces a fan-shaped beam. The fan is wide enough to encompass the patient circle. The system further includes means for rotating the radiation source about the patient for less than a full rotation, and detectors for detecting the radiation at positions that surround the patient by 180 0 plus the angle of the fan beam plus the angle between adjacent fan detectors. Attenuation data from the detectors is sorted into detector fans of attenuation data, then processed. The convolved data is back-projected into an image memory and displayed on a video monitor

  13. X-Ray Radiographic Observation of Directional Solidification Under Microgravity: XRMON-GF Experiments on MASER12 Sounding Rocket Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, G.; NguyenThi, H.; Bogno, A.; Billia, B.; Houltz, Y.; Loth, K.; Voss, D.; Verga, A.; dePascale, F.; Mathiesen, R. H.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) - Microgravity Application Promotion (MAP) programme entitled XRMON (In situ X-Ray MONitoring of advanced metallurgical processes under microgravity and terrestrial conditions) aims to develop and perform in situ X-ray radiography observations of metallurgical processes in microgravity and terrestrial environments. The use of X-ray imaging methods makes it possible to study alloy solidification processes with spatio-temporal resolutions at the scales of relevance for microstructure formation. XRMON has been selected for MASER 12 sounding rocket experiment, scheduled in autumn 2011. Although the microgravity duration is typically six minutes, this short time is sufficient to investigate a solidification experiment with X-ray radiography. This communication will report on the preliminary results obtained with the experimental set-up developed by SSC (Swedish Space Corporation). Presented results dealing with directional solidification of Al-Cu confirm the great interest of performing in situ characterization to analyse dynamical phenomena during solidification processes.

  14. LOBSTER: new space x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Sveda, L.; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The LOBSTER telescopes are based on the optical arrangement of the lobster eye. The main difference from classical X-ray space telescopes in wide use is the very large field of view while the use of optics results in higher efficiency if compared with detectors without optics. Recent innovative technologies have enabled to design, to develop and to test first prototypes. They will provide deep sensitive survey of the sky in X-rays for the first time which is essential for both long-term monitoring of celestial high-energy sources as well as in understanding transient phenomena. The technology is now ready for applications in space.

  15. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  16. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  17. X-ray irradiation of yeast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Alessandra; Batani, Dimitri; Previdi, Fabio; Conti, Aldo; Pisani, Francesca; Botto, Cesare; Bortolotto, Fulvia; Torsiello, Flavia; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Allott, Ric M.; Lisi, Nicola; Milani, Marziale; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Koenig, Michel

    1997-10-01

    Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast cells were irradiated using the soft X-ray laser-plasma source at Rutherford Laboratory. The aim was to produce a selective damage of enzyme metabolic activity at the wall and membrane level (responsible for fermentation) without interfering with respiration (taking place in mitochondria) and with nuclear and DNA activity. The source was calibrated by PIN diodes and X-ray spectrometers. Teflon stripes were chosen as targets for the UV laser, emitting X-rays at about 0.9 keV, characterized by a very large decay exponent in biological matter. X-ray doses to the different cell compartments were calculated following a Lambert-Bouguet-Beer law. After irradiation, the selective damage to metabolic activity at the membrane level was measured by monitoring CO2 production with pressure silicon detectors. Preliminary results gave evidence of pressure reduction for irradiated samples and non-linear response to doses. Also metabolic oscillations were evidenced in cell suspensions and it was shown that X-ray irradiation changed the oscillation frequency.

  18. X-ray image subtracting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesbey, W.H.; Keyes, G.S.; Georges, J.-P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An X-ray image subtracting system for making low contrast structures in the images more conspicuous is described. An X-ray source projects successive high and low energy X-ray beam pulses through a body and the resultant X-ray images are converted to optical images. Two image pick-up devices such as TV cameras that have synchronously operated shutters receive the alternate images and convert them to corresponding analog video signals. In some embodiments, the analog signals are converted to a matrix of digital pixel signals that are variously processed and subtracted and converted to signals for driving a TV monitor display and analog storage devices. In other embodiments the signals are processed and subtracted in analog form for display. The high and low energy pulses can follow each other immediately so good registration between subtracted images is obtainable even though the anatomy is in motion. The energy levels of the X-ray pulses are chosen to maximize the difference in attenuation between the anatomical structure which is to be subtracted out and that which remains. (author)

  19. Modern X-ray spectroscopy 3. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi

    2008-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) provides three dimensional atomic images around specified elements. The XFH uses atoms as a wave source or monitor of interference field within a crystal sample, and therefore it can record both intensity and phase of scattered X-rays. Its current performance makes it possible to apply to ultra thin film, impurity and quasicrystal. In this article, I show the theory including solutions for twin image problem, advanced measuring system, data processing for reconstruction of the atomic images and for obtaining accurate atomic positions, applications using resonant X-ray scattering and X-ray excited optical luminescence, and an example of XFH result on the local structure around copper in silicon steal. (author)

  20. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  2. X-ray filtration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an X-ray shielding support device. In spite of considerable development in X-ray taking techniques, a need still exists for effective shielding, inter alia, to compensate for variations in the thickness, density and the absorption properties of the object being studied. By appropriate shielding, the X-ray image produced is of sufficient detail, contrast and intensity over its entire area to constitute a useful diagnostic aid. It is also desirable to subject the patient to the smallest possible X-ray dosage. 4 figs

  3. Voltage-Controlled Topotactic Phase Transition in Thin-Film SrCoOx Monitored by In Situ X-ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiyang; Yildiz, Bilge

    2016-02-10

    Topotactic phase transition of functional oxides induced by changes in oxygen nonstoichiometry can largely alter multiple physical and chemical properties, including electrical conductivity, magnetic state, oxygen diffusivity, and electrocatalytic reactivity. For tuning these properties reversibly, feasible means to control oxygen nonstoichiometry-dependent phase transitions in functional oxides are needed. This paper describes the use of electrochemical potential to induce phase transition in strontium cobaltites, SrCoOx (SCO) between the brownmillerite (BM) phase, SrCoO₂.₅, and the perovskite (P) phase, SrCoO₃₋δ. To monitor the structural evolution of SCO, in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed on an electrochemical cell having (001) oriented thin-film SrCoOx as the working electrode on a single crystal (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte in air. In order to change the effective pO₂ in SCO and trigger the phase transition from BM to P, external electrical biases of up to 200 mV were applied across the SCO film. The phase transition from BM to P phase could be triggered at a bias as low as 30 mV, corresponding to an effective pO₂ of 1 atm at 500 °C. The phase transition was fully reversible and the epitaxial film quality was maintained after reversible phase transitions. These results demonstrate the use of electrical bias to obtain fast and easily accessible switching between different phases as well as distinct physical and chemical properties of functional oxides as exemplified here for SCO.

  4. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  6. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  9. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for ... organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  15. Radio/X-ray monitoring of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 382. High-energy view with XMM-Newtonand NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini, F.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Grandi, P.; Torresi, E.; Ballantyne, D. R.; De Marco, B.; De Rosa, A.; Giroletti, M.; Malzac, J.; Marinucci, A.; Middei, R.; Ponti, G.; Tortosa, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present the analysis of five joint XMM-Newton/NuSTARobservations, 20 ks each and separated by 12 days, of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 382. The data were obtained as part of a campaign performed in September-October 2016 simultaneously with VLBA. The radio data and their relation with the X-ray ones will be discussed in a following paper. The source exhibits a moderate flux variability in the UV/X-ray bands, and a limited spectral variability especially in the soft X-ray band. In agreement with past observations, we find the presence of a warm absorber, an iron Kα line with no associated Compton reflection hump, and a variable soft excess well described by a thermal Comptonization component. The data are consistent with a "two-corona" scenario, in which the UV emission and soft excess are produced by a warm (kT ≃ 0.6 keV), optically thick (τ ≃ 20) corona consistent with being a slab fully covering a nearly passive accretion disc, while the hard X-ray emission is due to a hot corona intercepting roughly 10% of the soft emission. These results are remarkably similar to those generally found in radio-quiet Seyferts, thus suggesting a common accretion mechanism.

  16. Neutron and high-contrast X-ray micro-radiography as complementary tools for monitoring organosilicon consolidants in natural building stones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavíková, M.; Krejčí, F.; Kotlík, P.; Jakůbek, J.; Tomandl, Ivo; Vacík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 338, NOV (2014), s. 42-47 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010237; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : stone consolidation * neutron radiography * X-ray radiography * Organosilicon consolidants Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  17. Solvation dynamics monitored by combined X-ray spectroscopies and scattering: photoinduced spin transition in aqueous [Fe(bpy)3]2+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressler, C.; Gawelda, W.; Galler, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the photoinduced low spin (LS) to high spin (HS) conversion of aqueous Fe(bpy)3 with pulse-limited time resolution. In a combined setup permitting simultaneous X-ray diffuse scattering (XDS) and spectroscopic measurements at a MHz repetition rate we have unraveled the interplay be...

  18. Harmonic lasing in X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2012-05-15

    Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed) might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned X-ray FEL facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of X-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust than usually thought, and can be widely used in the existing or planned X-ray FEL facilities. In particular, LCLS after a minor modification can lase to saturation at the 3rd harmonic up to the photon energy of 25-30 keV providing multi-gigawatt power level and narrow bandwidth. As for the European XFEL, harmonic lasing would allow to extend operating range (ultimately up to 100 keV), to reduce FEL bandwidth and to increase brilliance, to enable two-color operation for pump-probe experiments, and to provide more flexible operation at different electron energies. Similar improvements can be realized in other X-ray FEL facilities with gap-tunable undulators like FLASH II, SACLA, LCLS II, etc. Harmonic lasing can be an attractive option for compact X-ray FELs (driven by electron beams with a relatively low energy), allowing the use of the standard undulator technology instead of small-gap in-vacuum devices. Finally, in this paper we discover that in a part of the

  19. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  20. Development of a hard x-ray wavefront sensor for the EuXFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cojocaru, Ruxandra; Martin, Thierry

    2017-05-01

    We present developments on a hard X-ray wavefront sensing instrument for characterizing and monitoring the beam of the European X-ray Free Electron Lasers (EuXFEL). The pulsed nature of the intense X-ray beam delivered by this new class of facility gives rise to strong challenges for the optics and their diagnostic. In the frame of the EUCALL project Work Package 7, we are developing a sensor able to observe the beam in the X-ray energy range [8-40] keV without altering it. The sensor is based on the speckle tracking principle and employs two semi-transparent optics optimized such that their X-ray absorption is reduced. Furthermore, this instrument requires a scattering object with small random features placed in the beam and two cameras to record images of the beam at two different propagation distances. The analysis of the speckle pattern and its distortion from one image to the other allows absolute or differential wavefront recovery from pulse to pulse. Herein, we introduce the stakes and challenges of wavefront sensing at an XFEL source and explain the strategies adopted to fulfil the high requirements set by such a source.

  1. Low Mass X-ray Binary 4U1705-44 Exiting an Extended High X-ray State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Rebecca; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U1705-44, which exhibited high amplitude long-term X-ray variability on the order of hundreds of days during the 16-year continuous monitoring by the RXTE ASM (1995-2012), entered an anomalously long high state in July 2012 as observed by MAXI (2009-present).

  2. X-ray filter for chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of an X-ray filter comprised of a sheet of radiation absorbing material with an opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. The upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter. This filter will permit an acceptable density level of x-ray exposure for the lungs while allowing a higher level of x-ray exposure for the mediastinum areas of the body. (author)

  3. X-ray filter for chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Filter for use in medical x-ray apparatus to permit higher intensity x-ray exposure in the heart and mediastinum area while maintaining a normal level of x-ray exposure in other areas of the body, particlarly in the lung area. The filter comprises a sheet of radiation absorbing material having an opening therein, said opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. Accordingly, the upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter

  4. Commercial Applications of X Ray Spectrometric Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, D.

    2013-01-01

    diffraction (XRD) constitute about one third of the worldwide market for atomic spectroscopy or about $630 million. In the next few years this market is expected to expand at a rate from 4.7% to 5.5% per year. This growth is generated by improving economic conditions, especially in Asia and also due to increased investments for instrumentation for environmental monitoring and testing worldwide, in industrialized nations as well as in developing countries. Also other X-ray related techniques, requiring more sophisticated instrumentation, are finding routine applications. In particular the ion beam analysis (IBA) methods such as proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are of importance in air pollution studies. The increasing number of synchrotron facilities enables for a routine use of X ray microbeam techniques in environmental studies, material research, structural research, and many other fields. (author)

  5. Commercial Applications of X Ray Spectrometric Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegrzynek, D., E-mail: D.Wedgrznek@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, The IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    diffraction (XRD) constitute about one third of the worldwide market for atomic spectroscopy or about $630 million. In the next few years this market is expected to expand at a rate from 4.7% to 5.5% per year. This growth is generated by improving economic conditions, especially in Asia and also due to increased investments for instrumentation for environmental monitoring and testing worldwide, in industrialized nations as well as in developing countries. Also other X-ray related techniques, requiring more sophisticated instrumentation, are finding routine applications. In particular the ion beam analysis (IBA) methods such as proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are of importance in air pollution studies. The increasing number of synchrotron facilities enables for a routine use of X ray microbeam techniques in environmental studies, material research, structural research, and many other fields. (author)

  6. X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, R.; Pietsch, W.; Biermann, P.L.; Kronberg, P.P.; Schmutzler, T.

    1989-01-01

    Long X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy M82 with the European X-ray satellite EXOSAT are reported. The observations with the low-energy imaging instrument confirm that there is extended X-ray emission from above and below the disk, with an overall extent perpendicular to the disk of almost 6 arcmin corresponding to 6 kpc. One of the best defined X-ray spectra yet of a starburst galaxy is presented. The medium energy instrument measurements can be fitted with a power-law spectrum, consistent with inverse Compton emission, or with thermal emission from optically thin hot gas of a temperature of 9 + 9 or -4 keV. Using, in addition, the earlier Einstein HRI and MPC observations, the possible origin of the X-ray emission is discussed. 31 references

  7. INTEGRAL finds renewed X-ray activity of the Neutron star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, Celia; Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, Erik

    2015-01-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (ATel #438) on UT 13 September 2015 18:50-22:32 reveal renewed X-ray activity from the low-mass X-ray binary transient and Type I X-ray burster SAX J1750.8-2900 (IAU Circ. #6597). The last outburst from this source was reported in 2011 (ATels #3170,...

  8. Proposal for a scheme to generate 10 TW-Level femtosecond X-ray pulses for imaging single protein molecules at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Yefanov, Oleksander [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Single biomolecular imaging using XFEL radiation is an emerging method for protein structure determination using the ''diffraction before destruction'' method at near atomic resolution. Crucial parameters for such bio-imaging experiments are photon energy range, peak power, pulse duration, and transverse coherence. The largest diffraction signals are achieved at the longest wavelength that supports a given resolution, which should be better than 0.3 nm. We propose a configuration which combines self-seeding and undulator tapering techniques with the emittance-spoiler method in order to increase the XFEL output peak power and to shorten the pulse duration up to a level sufficient for performing bio-imaging of single protein molecules at the optimal photon energy range, i.e. around 4 keV. Experiments at the LCLS confirmed the feasibility of these three new techniques. Based on start-to-end simulations we demonstrate that self-seeding, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve up to a 100-fold increase in peak-power. A slotted foil in the last bunch compressor is added for X-ray pulse duration control. Simulations indicate that one can achieve diffraction to the desired resolution with 50 mJ (corresponding to 10{sup 14} photons) per 10 fs pulse at 3.5 keV photon energy in a 100 nm focus. This result is exemplified using the photosystem I membrane protein as a case study.

  9. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  10. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  11. Women and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkley, P A; Stewart, J H

    1976-01-01

    When a woman comes to an X-Ray Department it is usually necessary to know the present stage of her menstrual cycle. X-Rays may have an adverse effect on the embryo, especially in early pregnancy. However, exposure to X-Rays at any stage may be associated with a slightly increased incidence of malignant disease in childhood. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends that in women of child-bearing age (in some cases as young as 11 years), non-urgent diagnostic radiography be confined to the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle: that is, 14 days following the first day of the last menstrual period.

  12. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Brienza, Sandra Maria B.; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  13. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  14. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray may ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  18. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  1. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  3. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a patient. View ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  4. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  5. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  6. X-ray luminescent glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray luminescent glasses comprising a divalent cation such as an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cations such as pb, cd, or zn, and certain rare earth metaphosphates are suitable as vitreous, x-ray phosphors or x-ray luminescent glass fibers in an x-ray intensifying screen. The glasses have the composition n(Mo X p2o5)((1-y)tb2o3 X yce2o3 X 3p2o5) wherein N is greater than zero but less than or equal to 16, M is an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cation such as pb, cd, or zn, and Y is greater than or equal to zero but less than one

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  8. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  9. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  17. Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Paul G [Computer-Aided Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Isaacs, Eric D [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction uses the structural specificity of x-ray diffraction to probe complex magnetic structures at the length scales relevant to physical phenomena including domain dynamics and phase transitions. Conventional magnetic crystallography techniques such as neutron or x-ray diffraction lack this spatial resolution. The combination of both reciprocal space and real space resolution with a rich magnetic cross section allows new microscopy techniques to be developed and applied to magnetism at the scale of single domains. Potential applications include a wide range of magnetic problems in nanomagnetism, the interaction of strain, polarization and magnetization in complex oxides and spatially resolved studies of magnetic phase transitions. We present the physical basis for x-ray microdiffraction and magnetic scattering processes, review microdiffraction domain imaging techniques in antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials and discuss potential directions for studies. (topical review)

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and chest wall and may be used to help evaluate shortness of breath, persistent cough, fever, chest ... or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of ...

  19. X-ray shout echoing through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    observatories around the world were pointing their instruments at this mysterious source in the sky, named GRB 031203, in the attempt to decipher its nature. Also ESA's X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, joined the hunt and observed the source in detail, using its on-board European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC). The fading X-ray emission from GRB 031203 - called the `afterglow' - is clearly seen in XMM-Newton's images. But much more stunning are the two rings, centred on the afterglow, which appear to expand thousand times faster than the speed of light. Dr. Simon Vaughan, of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, leads an international team of scientists studying GRB 031203. He explains that these rings are what astronomers call an `echo'. They form when the X-rays from the distant gamma-ray burst shine on a layer of dust in our own Galaxy. "The dust scatters some of the X-rays, causing XMM-Newton to observe these rings, much in the same way as fog scatters the light from a car's headlights," said Vaughan. Although the afterglow is the brightest feature seen in XMM-Newton's images, the expanding echo is much more spectacular. "It is like a shout in a cathedral," Vaughan said. "The shout of the gamma-ray burst is louder, but the Galactic reverberation, seen as the rings, is much more beautiful." The rings seem to expand because the X-rays scattered by dust farther from the direction of GRB 031203 take longer to reach us than those hitting the dust closer to the line of sight. However, nothing can move faster than light. "This is precisely what we expect because of the finite speed of light," said Vaughan. "The rate of expansion that we see is just a visual effect." He and his colleagues explain that we see two rings because there are two thin sheets of dust between the source of the gamma-ray burst and Earth, one closer to us creating the wider ring and one further away where the smaller ring is formed. Since they know precisely at what speed the X-ray light travels in space

  20. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  1. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  2. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  3. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  4. X-ray data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most c...

  5. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.; Miller, R.C.; Nakamura, Nori; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Nishio, Shoji.

    1987-05-01

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60 Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60 Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  6. X-ray emission from Centaurus A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, J.

    1984-01-01

    The X-ray strength of Cen A (NGC 5128) was monitored for 10 years by Vela 5B, beginning in 1979. The 1973 to 1975 period of exceptional activity and strength was especially well covered, and was characterized by numerous rapid changes in intensity, in agreement with other data, indicating that the nucleus of Cen A is small but massive. 16 references, 3 figures

  7. GOES-12 Solar X-ray Imager Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOES Solar X-ray Imager is integrated into the GOES-12 satellite, whose primary mission is to provide Earth-weather monitoring. The SXI is operated by NOAA's...

  8. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  9. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) set-up with a low power X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sheenu; Deep, Kanan; Jain, Lalita; Ansari, M.A.; Mittal, Vijay Kumar; Mittal, Raj

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence set-up with a 100 W X-ray tube comprises a computer controlled system developed for remote operation and monitoring of tube and an adjustable stable 3D arrangement to procure variable excitation energies with low scattered background. The system was tested at different filament currents/anode voltages. The MDL of the set-up at 0.05-1.00 mA/4-12 kV is found ∼(1-100) ppm for K and L excitations and ∼(200-700) ppm for M excitations of elements and improves with filament current and anode voltage. Moreover, L measurements for Sm and Eu at five K X-ray energies of elements(Z=29-40) and analytical determination in some synthetic samples were undertaken.

  10. The color of X-rays Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, Enrico Junior

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray fluorescence. The charge transport properties of the sensor are characterized using a high energy beam of charged particles at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Monochromatic X-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are used to determined the energy response function. These data are used to implement a physics-based CT projection operator that accounts for the transmission of the source spectrum through the sample and detector effects. Based on this projection operator, an iterative spectral CT reconstruction algorithm is developed by extending an Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method. Subsequently, a maximum likelihood based algo...

  11. Radio Pulse Search and X-Ray Monitoring of SAX J1808.4−3658: What Causes Its Orbital Evolution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patruno, Alessandro; King, Andrew R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Neils Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA, Leiden (Netherlands); Jaodand, Amruta; Hessels, Jason W. T. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7900 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Kuiper, Lucien [SRON-National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bult, Peter; Wijnands, Rudy; Van der Klis, Michiel [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Knigge, Christian [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4−3658 shows a peculiar orbital evolution that proceeds at a very fast pace. It is important to identify the underlying mechanism responsible for this behavior because it can help to understand how this system evolves and which physical processes (such as mass loss or spin–orbit coupling) are occurring in the binary. It has also been suggested that, when in quiescence, SAX J1808.4−3658 turns on as a radio pulsar, a circumstance that might provide a link between accreting millisecond pulsars and black-widow (BW) radio pulsars. In this work, we report the results of a deep radio pulsation search at 2 GHz using the Green Bank Telescope in 2014 August and an X-ray study of the 2015 outburst with Chandra , Swift XRT, and INTEGRAL . In quiescence, we detect no radio pulsations and place the strongest limit to date on the pulsed radio flux density of any accreting millisecond pulsar. We also find that the orbit of SAX J1808.4−3658 continues evolving at a fast pace. We compare the orbital evolution of SAX J1808.4−3658 to that of several other accreting and nonaccreting binaries, including BWs, redbacks, cataclysmic variables, black holes, and neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss two possible scenarios: either the neutron star has a large moment of inertia and is ablating the donor, generating mass loss with an efficiency of 40%, or the donor star has a strong magnetic field of at least 1 kG and is undergoing quasi-cyclic variations due to spin–orbit coupling.

  12. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [State University of Campinas - UNICAMP/FEC (Brazil); Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil); Silva Medeiros, Jean Gabriel [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Tomazello Filho, Mario Tomazello [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza [University of Sao Paulo - USP/FCFRP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [University of Sao Paulo - USP/CENA (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark.

  13. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa; Moreira, Silvana; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo; Silva Medeiros, Jean Gabriel; Tomazello Filho, Mario Tomazello; Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark

  14. Analysis of trace in Rhododendron ferrigineum leaves for monitoring of urban atmospheric pollution by x-ray fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation Excitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Jefferson F.; Simabuco, Silvana M.; Jesus, E.F.O. de

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work was perform the biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution in Campinas City (SP), applying the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation Excitation technique. For this were performed the elemental analysis of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb in Rhododendron ferrigineum leaves, employed here as bioindicator from environmental pollution in order to evaluate the effects of spatial and climatic contribution on the elemental concentration on the vegetable. Urban and rural sites were sampling in different seasons. The collected leaves were divided in two parts, one of them was washed by detergent and deionized water, in order to quantify the losses due the washing, and the second one was not washed, following the both parts of material were dried in stove, crushed and so the samples were submitted to an nitric-perchloric digestion. The samples were preconcentrated with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), and the suspension was separated by filtration in cellulose membrane, then the samples were analyzed with X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation excitations. The results obtained shown that the vehicle flow can be associated to the distribution of the elements in the Rhododendrom ferrigineum leaves therefore the climatic contribution was not conclusive. (author)

  15. Transmission X-ray mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lairson, B.M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission X-ray mirrors have been made from 400 A to 10 000 A thick soap films and have been shown to have novel properties. Using grazing angles of incidence, low energy X-rays were reflected from the front surface while more energetic X-rays were transmitted through the mirror largely unattenuated. A wide bandpass monochromator was made from a silicon carbide mirror followed by a soap film transmission mirror and operated in the white beam at the cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Bandpasses of ΔE/E=12% to 18% were achieved at 13 keV with peak efficiencies estimated to be between 55% and 75%, respectively. Several wide angle scattering photographs of stretched polyethylene and a phospholipid were obtained in 10 s using an 18% bandpass. (orig.)

  16. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  17. Exponential x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazou, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    In emission computed tomography one wants to determine the location and intensity of radiation emitted by sources in the presence of an attenuating medium. If the attenuation is known everywhere and equals a constant α in a convex neighborhood of the support of f, then the problem reduces to that of inverting the exponential x-ray transform P/sub α/. The exponential x-ray transform P/sub μ/ with the attenuation μ variable, is of interest mathematically. For the exponential x-ray transform in two dimensions, it is shown that for a large class of approximate δ functions E, convolution kernels K exist for use in the convolution backprojection algorithm. For the case where the attenuation is constant, exact formulas are derived for calculating the convolution kernels from radial point spread functions. From these an exact inversion formula for the constantly attenuated transform is obtained

  18. X-ray of osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Osteoporosis, osteomalcia, fibro-osteoclasia and osteosclerosis are essential reactions to pathologicometabolic processes of the bone. The X-ray film shows precisely which changes have taken place in the bone structure, thus supplying the means for an analysis based on anatomic pathology. These phenomena are discussed in detail, special attention being paid to structural modifications. Attention is also focused on the problems connected with X-ray technology. The value of direct and indirect magnification of the skeleton of the hand for the identification and classification of esteopathies is explained. Phenomena observed in X-ray films, such as enosteal erosion, intracortical longitudinal stripes or tunnelisation, as well as subperiostal absorption, can be of pathognomonic importance for certain osteopathies. (orig.) [de

  19. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  20. Solar X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnov, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the popular form the consideration is given to the modern state tasks and results of X-ray spectrometry of solar bursts. The operation of X-ray spectroheliograph is described. Results of spectral and polarization measurings of X-ray radiation of one powerful solar burst are presented. The conclusion has been drawn that in the process of burst development three characteristic stages may be distingwished: 1) the initial phase; just in this period processes which lead to observed consequences-electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation are born; 2) the impulse phase, or the phase of maximum, is characterised by sharp increase of radiation flux. During this phase the main energy content emanates and some volumes of plasma warm up to high temperatures; 3) the phase of burst damping, during which plasma cools and reverts to the initial condition

  1. Gated x-ray detector for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, John A.; Aragonez, Robert; Archuleta, Tom; Barnes, Cris; Casper, Larry; Fatherley, Valerie; Heinrichs, Todd; King, Robert; Landers, Doug; Lopez, Frank; Sanchez, Phillip; Sandoval, George; Schrank, Lou; Walsh, Peter; Bell, Perry; Brown, Matt; Costa, Robert; Holder, Joe; Montelongo, Sam; Pederson, Neal

    2006-01-01

    Two new gated x-ray imaging cameras have recently been designed, constructed, and delivered to the National Ignition Facility in Livermore, CA. These gated x-Ray detectors are each designed to fit within an aluminum airbox with a large capacity cooling plane and are fitted with an array of environmental housekeeping sensors. These instruments are significantly different from earlier generations of gated x-ray images due, in part, to an innovative impedance matching scheme, advanced phosphor screens, pulsed phosphor circuits, precision assembly fixturing, unique system monitoring, and complete remote computer control. Preliminary characterization has shown repeatable uniformity between imaging strips, improved spatial resolution, and no detectable impedance reflections

  2. Control console for the X-ray room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia H, J.M.; Aguilar B, M.A.; Torres B, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    It is presented the design and construction of Control console for the X-ray room of Metrology Center for ionizing radiations at National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). This system controls the positioning of 6 different filters for an X-ray beam. Also it controls a shutter which blockades the beam during periods established by user, these periods can be fixed from hours until tenth of second. The shutter opening periods, as well as the X-ray beam filter are establish and monitoring from a Personal computer outside of room. (Author)

  3. RI-60TK X-ray television introscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, A.V.; Shablov, S.V.; Morgunov, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray television introscope is briefly described. It is applied for remote viewing of welded joints and steel articles with up to 45 mm wall thickness, steel casting, articles of titanium and aluminium alloys. X-radiation penetrating the constrolled material is amplified by X-ray image converter and is passed to television camera tube. X-ray image is observed on the screen of picture monitor. Camera attachment is provided for document recording. The introscope possesses higher sensitivity and operates with lower dose rate of radiation as compared to earlier produced devices

  4. Overutilization of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article on the overutilization of x-rays the author defines the term overutilization as excessive irradiation per unit of diagnostic information, therapeutic impact, or health outcome. Three main factors are described which lead to overutilization of x-rays: excessive radiation per film; excessive films per examination; and excessive examinations per patient. Topics discussed which influence the excessive examinations per patient are: the physician's lack of knowledge; undue dependence; lack of screening by radiologists; the physician's need for action and certainty; patient demand; reimbursement policies; institutional requirements; preventive medicine; defensive medicine; and the practice of radiology by nonradiologists

  5. Multichannel X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabakhpashev, A

    1980-10-01

    A typical design is discussed of multiwire proportional counters and their characteristic feature is explained, ie., the possibility of showing one or two coordinates of the X-ray quantum absorption site. The advantages of such instruments are listed, such as increased sensitivity of determination, the possibility of recording radiations of a different intensity, the possibility of on-line data processing and of the digital display of results. The fields of application include X-ray structural analysis in solid state physics, crystallography, molecular biology, astronomy, materials testing, and medicine.

  6. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  7. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  8. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  9. X-ray data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harold R

    2017-10-31

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  11. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  14. X-rays Provide a New Way to Investigate Exploding Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The European Space Agency's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton has revealed a new class of exploding stars - where the X-ray emission 'lives fast and dies young'. The identification of this particular class of explosion gives astronomers a valuable new constraint to help them understand stellar explosions. Exploding stars called novae remain a puzzle to astronomers. "Modelling these outbursts is very difficult," says Wolfgang Pietsch, Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik. Now, ESA's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra have provided valuable information about when individual novae emit X-rays. Between July 2004 and February 2005, the X-ray observatories watched the heart of the nearby Andromeda Galaxy, known to astronomers as M31. During that time, Pietsch and his colleagues monitored novae, looking for the X-rays. X-ray Image of Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Chandra X-ray Image of Andromeda Galaxy (M31) They detected that eleven out of the 34 novae that had exploded in the galaxy during the previous year were shining X-rays into space. "X-rays are an important window onto novae. They show the atmosphere of the white dwarf," says Pietsch. White dwarfs are hot stellar corpses left behind after the rest of the star has been ejected into space. A typical white dwarf contains about the mass of the Sun, in a spherical volume little bigger than the Earth. It has a strong pull of gravity and, if it is in orbit around a normal star, can rip gas from it. This material builds up on the surface of the white dwarf until it reaches sufficient density to nuclear detonate. The resultant explosion creates a nova. However, these particular events are not strong enough to destroy the underlying white dwarf. The X-ray emission becomes visible some time after the detonation, when the matter ejected by the nova thins out enough to allow astronomers to peer down to the nuclear burning white dwarf atmosphere beneath. At the end of the process, the X-ray emission stops when the fuel is

  15. Optimized fabrication protocols of microfluidic devices for X-ray analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Catalano, Rossella

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidics combined with X-ray scattering techniques allows probing conformational changes or assembly processes of biological materials. Our aim was to develop a highly X-ray transparent microfluidic cell for detecting small variations of X-ray scattering involved in such processes. We describe the fabrication of a polyimide microfluidic device based on a simple, reliable and inexpensive lamination process. The implemented microstructured features result in windows with optimized X-ray transmission. The microfluidic device was characterized by X-ray microbeam scattering at the ID13 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solvent exchange in a metal–organic framework single crystal monitored by dynamic in situ X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Jordan M.; Walton, Ian M.; Bateman, Gage; Benson, Cassidy A.; Mitchell, Travis; Sylvester, Eric; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Benedict, Jason B. (UC); (Buffalo)

    2017-07-25

    Understanding the processes by which porous solid-state materials adsorb and release guest molecules would represent a significant step towards developing rational design principles for functional porous materials. To elucidate the process of liquid exchange in these materials, dynamicin situX-ray diffraction techniques have been developed which utilize liquid-phase chemical stimuli. Using these time-resolved diffraction techniques, the ethanol solvation process in a flexible metal–organic framework [Co(AIP)(bpy)0.5(H2O)]·2H2O was examined. The measurements provide important insight into the nature of the chemical transformation in this system including the presence of a previously unreported neat ethanol solvate structure.

  17. A new beamstop for microfocus X-ray capillary beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englich, Ulrich, E-mail: ue22@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Macromolecular Diffraction at CHESS (MacCHESS), Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, 200L Wilson Laboratory, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Revesz, Peter [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Miller, William [Cornell University, Macromolecular Diffraction at CHESS (MacCHESS), Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, 200L Wilson Laboratory, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In order to accurately measure the photon flux and to assist in aligning the beam, we have designed a modified beamstop device based on a photo diode integrated with the beamstop. The beamstop contains a small CdWO{sub 4} crystal that completely stops the X-rays and at the same time produces photoluminescence proportional to the X-ray flux. The light is then guided to a photosensitive diode using a flexible light pipe to monitor the flux. With this device we achieve the goal of stopping the primary X-ray beam and simultaneously monitoring the X-ray intensity, thus eliminating the need for integrating ion-chambers into the capillary or collimator mount.

  18. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  19. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  20. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  2. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TM 8772 5 Literature reports on BiI3/nylon composites used X-ray sources with a Mo target (Reference 18) or magnesium target (Reference 19). However...1981. Pp. D-155 to D-160. 22. G. Pretzsch, B. Dorschel, and T. Schonmuth. IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. EI -21, No.3, June 1986

  3. X-ray system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray system tester for measuring anode voltage, cathode voltage, anode current, filament current and line voltage in an X-ray system has a selector which couples one of these analog signals or one of a plurality of processing control signals entered by an operator from a control panel to a digitizing section selectively in accordance with control signals provided to the selector by a computing section. The digitizing section converts the selected signal into a train of pulses having a frequency proportional to the value of the selected signal. These pulses are counted, the counts being used by the computing section to determine the value of the selected signal. This computed value is stored in a computing memory section of the computing section. The computing section is adapted to store a plurality of the sets of signals produced during a corresponding sequence of operational intervals of the X-ray system and determines a measure of the deviation of any selected one of the stored electrical signals over the sequence of operating intervals. Each signal produced during the sequential operational intervals can be recalled to aid analysis of the operation of the X-ray system. (author)

  4. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  5. X-ray simulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, L.D.; Tollefsrud, P.B.; Woodall, H.W.; McDaniel, D.H.; Allred, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Design modifications are discussed for an electron beam accelerator used as a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The primary goal of the program, to obtain a reliable 5 cal/gm exposure capability, can be accomplished with beam compression by an external magnetic guide field. Initial operating characteristics and performance improvements are presented

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  7. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle, instrument and procedure of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described. It is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the trace analysis of elements from sodium to uranium in powder, liquid or metal samples. (M.G.B.)

  8. X-rays from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  9. Chandra's X-ray Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-07-23

    Jul 23, 1999 ... CXO is 13.8 metres long and its solar arrays have a wingspan of. 19.5 metres as shown in ... the Universe (for example, coronae of stars, matter ejected from .... The telescope system and the scientific instruments were put through ..... solve the puzzle about the origin of cosmic X-ray background- one of the ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  11. Stellar X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.I.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO

    1988-01-01

    I Review some of the salient accomplishments of X-rap studies of compact objects. Progress in this field has closely followed the improvement of observational methods, particularly in angular resolution and duration of exposure. Luminous compact X-ray sources are accreting neutron stars or black holes. Accreting neutron stars may have characteristic temporal signatures, but the only way to establish that an X-ray source is a black hole is to measure its mass. A rough phenomenological theory is succesful, but the transport of angular momentum in accretion flows is not onderstood. A number of interesting complications have been observed, including precessing accretion discs, X-ray bursts, and the acceleration of jets in SS433. Many puzzles remain unsolved, including the excitation of disc precession, the nature of the enigmatic A- and gamma-ray source Cyg X-3, the mechanism by which slowly spinning accreting neutron stars lose angular momentum, and the superabundance of X-ray sources in globular clusters. 41 refs.; 5 figs

  12. X-rays and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. (report on progress)

  13. X-ray examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Griswa, P.J.; Halter, P. Jr.; Kidd, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray cardiovascular examination and which can also be used for general purpose examination is described. An advantage of the system is that there is no mechanical connection between the image intensifier and source to interfere with the medical examiner or emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  14. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure ... diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part ...

  17. Proton exciting X ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1986-04-01

    The analyzing capability of proton exciting X ray analysis for different elements in organisms was discussed, and dealing with examples of trace element analysis in the human body and animal organisms, such as blood serum, urine, and hair. The sensitivity, accuracy, and capability of multielement analysis were discussed. Its strong points for the trace element analysis in biomedicine were explained

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ...

  20. X-ray absorption holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Lausi, A.; Bussetto, E.; Kub, Jiří; Savoia, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 18 (2002), s. 185503-1 - 185503-3 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray holography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002