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Sample records for european water framework

  1. The water framework directive: A new directive for a changing social, political and economic European Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kaika, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the intricate process of developing the European Union's Water Framework Directive. It sees the Directive as a response to recent economic, political and social changes related to water management, including the shift from government to governance, the liberalization of water markets and the emergence of a new set of institutions, actors, etc. and their respective relations (i.e. social capital). The article focuses on the key points of disagreement between the Council o...

  2. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  3. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of Europeanfreshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has facedsome challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the Europeanmonitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science andsuggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensiveprioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters.The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integratedstrategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approachesto advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic “chemical status”assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historicalburdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessmentof contamination. Solution-oriented m

  4. Decision-making in the European water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the decision-making process in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The WFD is an important piece of legislation, which will decide the quality of the EU aquatic environment for the foreseeable future. The main environmental goal of the Directive is good ecological status...... draws attention to a potential development path, which the DCA process could take, based on an important guidance document on economics in the WFD (WATECO) and the AquaMoney project, a large neoclassical project established to produce guidelines for member states as to how to conduct DCA, essentially...... based on economic valuation methodologies, specifically contingent valuation and benefit transfer. The paper is critical of this potential approach based on a theoretical discussion, which concludes that deliberative approaches to decision-making appear to be more appropriate as they better fit...

  5. Stakeholders Participation In The European Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ast, J. A.; Boot, S. P.

    In the new framework directive, public information and consultation are main ele- ments in the procedure towards River Basin Management Plans. In general decision making in integrated water management should not be limited to the application of models and desk study. All important decisions need interaction with societal actors. These stakeholders have visions, ideas, patterns of behaviour and solutions for per- ceived problems. For example, farmer organisations, environmental groups and house- owners associations all have different ideas about measures that change the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of a river basin. Well- organised interaction has two main advantages: 1. The quality of the decision will be higher because specific knowledge of involved people and their different views are being taken into consider- ation. 2. The interaction enables exchange of information which can lead to a better understanding of the ins and outs of the specific situation and in this way contribute to public support. There are different ways for operationalisation of public informa- tion and consultation, like interactive workshops, internet assessment and interview rounds with key players. In this paper some of the different methods of interaction with stakeholders are elaborated. The aim is to improve the quality of integrated water management in river basins.

  6. Integrating the implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive and Floods Directive in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, J R; Blacklocke, S; Bruen, M; Almeida, G; Keating, D

    2011-01-01

    Water Framework Directive (WFD) statutory authorities and stakeholders in Ireland are now challenged with the issue of how the proposed programmes of measures in the newly required River Basin Management Plans - designed to protect and restore good ecology by reverting as closely as possible back to natural conditions - are to be implemented in a way that concurrently complies with other existing and emerging intersecting European Union legislation, such as the Floods Directive (FD). The WFD is driven largely by ecological considerations, whereas the FD and other legislation are more geared towards protecting physical property and mitigating public safety risks. Thus many of the same waterbodies, especially heavily modified waterbodies, arguably have somewhat competing policy objectives put upon them. This paper explores the means by which Ireland might best achieve the highest degrees of cost effectiveness, economic efficiency and institutional durability in pursuing the common and overarching objective of the WFD and FD - to ensure Irish waterways are put to their highest valued uses.

  7. The European Water Framework Directive: How Ecological Assumptions Frame Technical and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Steyaert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Water Framework Directive (WFD is built upon significant cognitive developments in the field of ecological science but also encourages active involvement of all interested parties in its implementation. The coexistence in the same policy text of both substantive and procedural approaches to policy development stimulated this research as did our concerns about the implications of substantive ecological visions within the WFD policy for promoting, or not, social learning processes through participatory designs. We have used a qualitative analysis of the WFD text which shows the ecological dimension of the WFD dedicates its quasi-exclusive attention to a particular current of thought in ecosystems science focusing on ecosystems status and stability and considering human activities as disturbance factors. This particular worldview is juxtaposed within the WFD with a more utilitarian one that gives rise to many policy exemptions without changing the general underlying ecological model. We discuss these policy statements in the light of the tension between substantive and procedural policy developments. We argue that the dominant substantive approach of the WFD, comprising particular ecological assumptions built upon "compositionalism," seems to be contradictory with its espoused intention of involving the public. We discuss that current of thought in regard to more functionalist thinking and adaptive management, which offers greater opportunities for social learning, i.e., place a set of interdependent stakeholders in an intersubjective position in which they operate a "social construction" of water problems through the co-production of knowledge.

  8. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I; Hernández, Félix J; Hewitt, L Mark; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; van de Meent, Dik; van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Vethaak, A Dick; Vermeirssen, Etienne; von der Ohe, Peter C; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-15

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic "chemical status" assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The European Water Framework Directive: Challenges For A New Type of Social and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl-Wostl, C.

    Water resources managment is facing increasing uncertainties in all areas. Socio- economic boundary conditions change quickly and require more flexible management strategies. Climate change, for example results in an increase in uncertainties, in par- ticular extreme events. Given the fact that current management practices deal with extreme events by designing the technical systems to manage the most extreme of all cases (e.g. higher dams for the protection against extreme floods, larger water reser- voirs for droughts and to meet daily peak demand) a serious problem is posed for long-term planning and risk management. Engineering planning has perceived the hu- man dimension as exogenous boundary conditions. Legislation focused largely on the environmental and technological dimensions that set limits and prescribe new tech- nologies without taking the importance of institutional change into account. However, technology is only the "hardware" and it is becoming increasingly obvious that the "software", the social dimension, has to become part of planning and management processes. Hence, the inclusion of the human dimension into integrated models and processes will be valuable in supporting the introduction of new elements into plan- ning processes in water resources management. With the European Water Framework Directive environmental policy enters a new era. The traditional approach to solving isolated environmental problems with technological fixes and end-of-pipe solutions has started to shift towards a more thoughtful attitude which involves the development of integrated approaches to problem solving. The WFD introduces the river basin as the management unit, thus following the experience of some European countries (e.g. France) and the example of the management of some international rivers (e.g. the Rhine). Overall the WFD represents a general shift towards a polycentric understand- ing of policy making that requires the involvement of stakeholders as active

  10. Governance Strengths and Weaknesses to implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in European Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Koss, Rebecca; Piotr, Margonski

    2014-01-01

    The ambitious Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has been the focus of much marine research across Europe in the pursuit of achieving Good Environmental Status in the four European Union marine regions; Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North-east Atlantic. This research...

  11. The determination of ecological quality in shallow lakes - a tested system (EcoFrame) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moss, B.; Stephen, D.; Alvarez, C.; Becares, E.; Bunt, van de W.; Collings, S.E.; Donk, van E.; Eyto, de E.; Feldmann, T.; Fernandez-Alaez, C.; Fernandez-Alaez, M.; Franken, R.J.M.; Carcia-Criado, F.; Gross, E.M.; Gyllstrom, M.; Hansson, L.; Irvine, K.; Jarvalt, A.; Jenssen, J.P.; Jeppesen, E.; Kairesalo, T.; Kornijow, R.; Krause, T.; Kunnap, H.; Laas, A.; Lill, E.; Lorens, B.; Luup, H.; Miracle, M.; Noges, P.; Noges, T.; Nykannen, M.; Ott, I.; Peczula, W.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Phillips, G.; Romo, S.; Russell, V.; Salujoe, J.; Scheffer, M.; Siewertsen, K.; Smal, H.; Tesch, C.; Timm, H.; Tuvikene, L.; Tonno, I.; Virro, T.; Vicente, E.; Wilson, D.

    2003-01-01

    1. The European Water Framework Directive requires the determination of ecological status in European fresh and saline waters. This is to be through the establishment of a typology of surface water bodies, the determination of reference (high status) conditions in each element (ecotype) of the

  12. An expanded conceptual framework for solution-focused management of chemical pollution in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, John; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Rahmberg, Magnus; Posthuma, Leo; Altenburger, Rolf; Brack, Werner; Bunke, Dirk; Engelen, Guy; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Gils, Jos; Herráez, David López; Rydberg, Tomas; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; van Wezel, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual framework for solutions-focused management of chemical contaminants built on novel and systematic approaches for identifying, quantifying and reducing risks of these substances. The conceptual framework was developed in interaction with stakeholders representing relevant authorities and organisations responsible for managing environmental quality of water bodies. Stakeholder needs were compiled via a survey and dialogue. The content of the conceptual framework was thereafter developed with inputs from relevant scientific disciplines. The conceptual framework consists of four access points: Chemicals, Environment, Abatement and Society, representing different aspects and approaches to engaging in the issue of chemical contamination of surface waters. It widens the scope for assessment and management of chemicals in comparison to a traditional (mostly) perchemical risk assessment approaches by including abatement- and societal approaches as optional solutions. The solution-focused approach implies an identification of abatement- and policy options upfront in the risk assessment process. The conceptual framework was designed for use in current and future chemical pollution assessments for the aquatic environment, including the specific challenges encountered in prioritising individual chemicals and mixtures, and is applicable for the development of approaches for safe chemical management in a broader sense. The four access points of the conceptual framework are interlinked by four key topics representing the main scientific challenges that need to be addressed, i.e.: identifying and prioritising hazardous chemicals at different scales; selecting relevant and efficient abatement options; providing regulatory support for chemicals management; predicting and prioritising future chemical risks. The conceptual framework aligns current challenges in the safe production and use of chemicals. The current state of knowledge and implementation

  13. Exploring the utility of Posidonia oceanica chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of water quality within the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Alessandro; Alcoverro, Teresa; Mascaró, Oriol; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The European Water Framework Directive commits partner countries to evolve uniform protocols for monitoring the environmental condition of natural water bodies, crucially integrating biological and ecological criteria from the associated ecosystems. This has encouraged considerable research on the development of bioindicator-based systems of water quality monitoring. A critical step towards this end is providing evidence that the proposed bioindicator system adequately reflects the human pressures to which a specific water body is submitted. Here we investigate the utility of pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry, a fast, non-destructive and increasingly popular bioindicator-based method, in assessing water quality based on the widespread Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, an important constituent of submersed benthic vegetation. Specifically, we evaluated the ability of PAM to discriminate between sites along a pre-established gradient of anthropogenic pressures and the consistency and reliability of PAM parameters across spatial scales. Our results show that the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), representing the structural photosynthetic efficiency of the plant, responds significantly to the degree of site-level anthropogenic pressure. However, Fv/Fm values in our study increased with increasing pressure, in striking contrast with other studies that report declines in Fv/Fm values with increasing stress. A potential explanation for this discrepancy is that our study sites were influenced by multiple diffuse stressors (characteristic of most coastal waters) that could potentially interact with each other to influence Fv/Fm values in often unpredictable ways. The photosynthetic variables calculated from rapid light curves (ETR(max), maximum electron transport rate; α, initial slope of the curve; I (k), saturating irradiance), which represent an instant picture of the photosynthetic activity of the plant, were unable to clearly discriminate between sites

  14. The evolution of the Environmental Quality concept: from the US EPA Red Book to the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vighi, Marco; Finizio, Antonio; Villa, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Water Quality Criteria were firstly defined in the 1970s by the EPA in the USA and the EIFAC in Europe, recognizing the need for protecting water quality in order to allow the use of water resources by man. In the 1990s, the European Commission emphasized the importance of safeguarding structure and function of biologic communities. These approaches were chemically-based. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) substantially changes the concept of Water Quality, by assuming that a water body needs to be protected as an environmental good and not as a resource to be exploited. In this frame, the biological-ecological quality assumes a prevailing role. The Water Quality concept introduced by the WFD is a challenge for environmental sciences. Reference conditions should be defined for different typologies of water bodies and for different European ecoregions. Suitable indicators should be developed in order to quantify ecological status and to define what a 'good' ecological status is. Procedures should be developed for correlating the deviation from a good ecological to the effects of multiple stressors on function and structure of the ecosystem. The protection of biodiversity becomes a key objective. In this frame, the traditional procedures for ecotoxicological risk assessment, mainly based on laboratory testing, should be overcome by more site-specific approaches, taking into account the characteristics and the homeostatic capabilities of natural communities. In the paper an overview of the present knowledge and of the new trends in ecotoxicology to get these objectives will be given. A procedure is suggested based on the concept of Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD). The need for more site-specific and ecologically-oriented approaches in ecotoxicology is strongly recommended. The development of new tools for implementing the concept of 'Stress Ecology' has been recently proposed by van Straalen (2003). In the same time, more 'cological realism' is needed

  15. Application of the European water framework directive in a Western Mediterranean basin (Málaga, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, F.; Sánchez, D.; Vadillo, I.; Andreo, B.; Martínez, C.; Fernández, L.

    2008-04-01

    The water framework directive (WFD) is applied within the Guadalhorce river basin, a Western Mediterranean basin in the Málaga province (South Spain). Criteria defining different surface and groundwater bodies are described. The basic hydrographic network is constituted of low-mountain and low-altitude Mediterranean mineralized rivers. Heavily modified surface water bodies correspond (1) to areas where dams regulate the main watercourses, (2) to areas downstream of reservoirs, where river flow is reduced, and (3) to the coastal sector of the river where artificial channelling has caused morphological variations. Groundwater bodies are related to carbonate and porous aquifers and, locally, to aquifers influenced by dissolution of evaporites. The main impacts to water bodies are irrigated lands and livestock farming. There are also point sources of pollution, such as wastewater, landfills, golf courses, industrial zones, quarries and petrol stations. In addition, groundwater is frequently pumped for human supply and irrigation. Qualitative status of groundwater bodies was done by chemical analysis of samples from a monitoring network and the quantitative status by examining variations in piezometric levels. Both revealed the existence of water bodies at risk of not meeting the environmental objectives of the WFD. The main indicators of pollution are nitrates related to agricultural activities, and total organic carbon (TOC), PO{4/3-} and NH{4/+} in relation to wastewater.

  16. A Model-Based Prioritisation Exercise for the European Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Whitehouse

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A model-based prioritisation exercise has been carried out for the Water Framework Directive (WFD implementation. The approach considers two aspects: the hazard of a certain chemical and its exposure levels, and focuses on aquatic ecosystems, but also takes into account hazards due to secondary poisoning, bioaccumulation through the food chain and potential human health effects. A list provided by EU Member States, Stakeholders and Non-Governmental Organizations comprising 2,034 substances was evaluated according to hazard and exposure criteria. Then 78 substances classified as “of high concern” where analysed and ranked in terms of risk ratio (Predicted Environmental Concentration/Predicted No-Effect Concentration. This exercise has been complemented by a monitoring-based prioritization exercise using data provided by Member States. The proposed approach constitutes the first step in setting the basis for an open modular screening tool that could be used for the next prioritization exercises foreseen by the WFD.

  17. An expanded conceptual framework for solution-focused management of chemical pollution in European waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munthe, John; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Rahmberg, Magnus; Posthuma, Leo; Altenburger, Rolf; Brack, Werner; Bunke, Dirk; Engelen, Guy; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Gils, Jos; Herráez, David López; Rydberg, Tomas; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; van Wezel, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper describes a conceptual framework for solutions-focused management of chemical contaminants built on novel and systematic approaches for identifying, quantifying and reducing risks of these substances. Methods: The conceptual framework was developed in interaction with

  18. Fucus spiralis as monitoring tool of metal contamination in the northwest coast of Portugal under the European Water Framework Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro A; Cassiano, Júlia; Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    Metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in coastal seawaters and soft tissues of macroalga Fucus spiralis from the northwest coast of Portugal were determined to assess spatial variations of metal bioavailabilities and bioaccumulation factors to compare different ecological quality classifications. Both coastal seawaters and soft tissues of F. spiralis showed significant spatial variations in their metal concentrations along the coast. The macroalgae F. spiralis accumulated more efficiently Cd, Mn and Zn and showed low bioaccumulation factors to Cr, Cu and Fe. Regarding the metal guidelines of the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority, the entire northwest (NW) coast of Portugal in April 2013 should be classified as 'class I--unpolluted' for all metals, except in Ave for Cu ('class II--moderately polluted') and Cavado for Cd and Cu ('class II-moderately polluted'), revealing the low metal bioavailabilities of these seawaters. As there were always significant positive correlations between all metals in seawaters and F. spiralis, this macroalga species was considered a suitable monitoring tool of metal contamination in the NW coast of Portugal and a useful aquatic organism to be included in the European Environmental Specimen Banks in order to establish a real-time environmental monitoring network under the European Water Framework Directives.

  19. The European Water Framework Directive beyond 2010: let actions speak louder than words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brils, Jos; Quevauviller, Philippe; Slob, Adriaan; Blind, Michiel; Davy, Thierry; Carere, Mario; Amorsi, Natacha; Brack, Werner; Borchers, Ulrich; Thompson, Clive; Villessot, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    The first generation of WFD River Basin Management Plans is now available. This is a formidable achievement and a great step towards addressing Europe's deteriorated river systems. However, plans are only words: only the actual implementation of the selected measures will result in achievement of good ecological and chemical status. The WFD Lille 2010 Conference pointed out that a lot of new, but so far unused scientific knowledge is available to improve the effectiveness of selected measures or to inspire the introduction of complementary measures. Furthermore, the complexity in terms of the functioning of the water system, its interaction with the socio-economic system and the uncertain consequences of climate change, urges a 'learning-by-doing' approach. This approach should be applied in well-designed, -coordinated and -monitored learning catchments.

  20. Sustainable River Basin Management under the European Water Framework Directive: an Effective Protection of Drinking-Water Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Wuijts, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands drinking water is produced both from surface water and groundwater. Due to the shortage of space, resources are often found in combination with other activities, such as those pertaining to industry or agriculture, in the same neighbourhood. These combinations impose strong

  1. Parameters optimization using experimental design for headspace solid phase micro-extraction analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in waters under the European water framework directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, F; Malleret, L; Sergent, M; Doumenq, P

    2015-08-07

    The water framework directives (WFD 2000/60/EC and 2013/39/EU) force European countries to monitor the quality of their aquatic environment. Among the priority hazardous substances targeted by the WFD, short chain chlorinated paraffins C10-C13 (SCCPs), still represent an analytical challenge, because few laboratories are nowadays able to analyze them. Moreover, an annual average quality standards as low as 0.4μgL(-1) was set for SCCPs in surface water. Therefore, to test for compliance, the implementation of sensitive and reliable analysis method of SCCPs in water are required. The aim of this work was to address this issue by evaluating automated solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined on line with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS). Fiber polymer, extraction mode, ionic strength, extraction temperature and time were the most significant thermodynamic and kinetic parameters studied. To determine the suitable factors working ranges, the study of the extraction conditions was first carried out by using a classical one factor-at-a-time approach. Then a mixed level factorial 3×2(3) design was performed, in order to give rise to the most influent parameters and to estimate potential interactions effects between them. The most influent factors, i.e. extraction temperature and duration, were optimized by using a second experimental design, in order to maximize the chromatographic response. At the close of the study, a method involving headspace SPME (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/ECNI-MS is proposed. The optimum extraction conditions were sample temperature 90°C, extraction time 80min, with the PDMS 100μm fiber and desorption at 250°C during 2min. Linear response from 0.2ngmL(-1) to 10ngmL(-1) with r(2)=0.99 and limits of detection and quantification, respectively of 4pgmL(-1) and 120pgmL(-1) in MilliQ water, were achieved. The method proved to be applicable in different types of waters and show key advantages, such

  2. Assessing the ecological status in the context of the European Water Framework Directive: where do we go now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyjol, Yorick; Argillier, Christine; Bonne, Wendy; Borja, Angel; Buijse, Anthonie D; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Daufresne, Martin; Kernan, Martin; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Poikane, Sandra; Prat, Narcís; Solheim, Anne-Lyche; Stroffek, Stéphane; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Villeneuve, Bertrand; van de Bund, Wouter

    2014-11-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is now well established as the key management imperative in river basins across Europe. However, there remain significant concerns with the way WFD is implemented and there is now a need for water managers and scientists to communicate better in order to find solutions to these concerns. To address this, a Science-Policy Interface (SPI) activity was launched in 2010 led by Directorate-General for Research and Innovation and Onema (the French national agency for water and aquatic ecosystems), which provided an interactive forum to connect scientists and WFD end-users. One major aim of the SPI activity was to establish a list of the most crucial research and development needs for enhancing WFD implementation. This paper synthesises the recommendations from this event highlighting 10 priority issues relating to ecological status. For lakes, temporary streams and transitional and coastal waters, WFD implementation still suffers from a lack of WFD-compliant bioassessment methods. For rivers, special attention is required to assess the ecological impacts of hydromorphological alterations on biological communities, notably those affecting river continuity and riparian covering. Spatial extrapolation tools are needed in order to evaluate ecological status for water bodies for which no data are available. The need for more functional bioassessment tools as complements to usual WFD-compliant tools, and to connect clearly good ecological state, biodiversity and ecosystem services when implementing WFD were also identified as crucial issues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Visions for a Pan-European digital data infrastructure for groundwater quantity and quality data relevant for implementation of the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsby, Klaus; Broers, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    The EU Water Framework and Groundwater Directives stipulate that EU member states (MS) should ensure good groundwater chemical and quantitative by 2015. For the assessment of good chemical status the MS have to establish Natural Background Levels (NBLs) and Threshold Values (TVs) for groundwater bodies at risk and compare current concentration levels to these. In addition the MS shall ensure trend reversals in cases where contaminants or water levels show critical increasing or decreasing trends. The EU MS have to demonstrate that the quantitative and chemical status of its groundwater bodies does not put drinking water, ecosystems or other legitimate uses at risk. Easy on-line access to relevant visualizations of groundwater quality and quantity data of e.g. nitrate, chloride, arsenic and water tables in Europe's major aquifer types compiled from national databases would be of great importance for managers, authorities and scientists conducting risk and status assessments. The Water Resources Expert Group of the EuroGeoSurveys propose to develop Pan-European interactive on-line digital maps and visualizations of concentrations levels and trends, as well as calculated natural background levels and threshold values for the most important aquifer types of Europe mainly derived based on principles established in the former EU project "BRIDGE" - Background cRiteria for the IDentification of Groundwater Thresholds. Further, we propose to develop Pan-European digital and dynamic maps and cross sections in close collaboration with ecologists, which delineate dependent or associated terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems across Europe where groundwater quantity and quality plays a significant role in sustaining good ecological status of the ecosystem, and where the water resources and ecosystems are most vulnerable to climate change. Finally, integrated water resources management requires integrated consideration of both deep and shallow groundwater and surface water issues

  4. Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namour, Philippe; Lepot, Mathieu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses from a critical perspective the development of new sensors for the measurement of priority pollutants targeted in the E.U. Water Framework Directive. Significant advances are reported in the paper and their advantages and limitations are also discussed. Future perspectives in this area are also pointed out in the conclusions. This review covers publications appeared since December 2006 (the publication date of the Swift report). Among priority substances, sensors for monitoring the four WFD metals represent 81% of published papers. None of analyzed publications present a micro-sensor totally validated in laboratory, ready for tests under real conditions in the field. The researches are mainly focused on the sensing part of the micro-sensors. Nevertheless, the main factor limiting micro-sensor applications in the environment is the ruggedness of the receptor towards environmental conditions. This point constitutes the first technological obstacle to be overcome for any long-term field tests. PMID:22163635

  5. New priority substances of the European Water Framework Directive: biocides, pesticides and brominated flame retardants in the aquatic environment of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Bossi, Rossana; Bester, Kai; Bollmann, Ulla E; Boutrup, Susanne

    2014-02-01

    The biocides cybutryn (Irgarol) and terbutryn, the herbicides aclonifen and bifenox, the insecticides cypermethrin and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide and the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are new priority substances of the Water Framework Directive of the European Union. In order to gain knowledge about their presence in the aquatic environment in an off-season situation with regard to pesticide and biocide applications, these substances were analysed in freshwater, seawater and fish samples from Denmark. Aclonifen, bifenox, cypermethrin and heptachlor were below the limits of detection (LODs) in all samples. However, the LODs for cypermethrin and heptachlor exceeded the annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQSs). Cybutryn, terbutryn, heptachlor epoxide and HBCD were detected in the majority of samples, with detection frequencies of 100% for heptachlor epoxide and HBCD in water and 90% in fish. No concentration was above maximum allowable concentration (MAC)-EQS values, but AA-EQS values were exceeded for all four compounds by several samples, including 100% of the water samples with regard to heptachlor epoxide. Methodological issues remain for cypermethrin, and to a certain extent for heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide, for which water LODs were above AA-EQSs although a water volume of 12L was combined with very sensitive high resolution mass spectrometry. © 2013.

  6. Palaeolimnological assessment of the reference conditions and ecological status of lakes in Estonia - implications for the European Union Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinsalu, Atko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD requires an assessment of reference conditions for lakes, i.e. the conditions expected with only minimal human impact on water bodies. Limnological monitoring records seldom go back more than a few decades and so rarely document the onset of human impact on lakes. Methods of palaeolimnological approaches especially fitted for the purposes of the WFD are described and two case studies, on lakes Rõuge Tõugjärv and Pappjärv, are presented. The palaeolimnological study of Rõuge Tõugjärv demonstrated that a commonly held belief that man-made eutrophication of Estonian lakes is a relatively modern matter of concern and is related to post-industrial population growth and intensification of agriculture is a misconception. The lakes, particularly those in rich soil areas, have been mediated by human impact over millennial time-scales. In many European countries it has been agreed that AD 1850 approximately represents the reference conditions for lakes. Our observations in Rõuge Tõugjärv showed that during that period anthropogenic disturbance on the lake was the greatest. Lake Pappjärv is an example of recent human influence on the aquatic ecosystem that has undergone severe degradation due to infiltration into the ground of a variety of substances from the local bitumen plant, mineral fertilizer storage tanks, and road service sand and salt mixing-grounds that have been accumulating in the lake since the 1950s.

  7. The future of small hydropower within the European union. An environmental policy study based on the European Water framework directive and the renewable energy directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabbruwee, Kees

    2006-01-01

    Small hydropower facilities according to European Union (EU) standards have an installed capacity of less than 10 MW. The Renewable Energy Directive has set targets for installed capacity and electricity produced by small hydropower facilities to be reach

  8. Disentangling Puzzles of Spatial Scales and Participation in Environmental Governance—The Case of Governance Re-scaling Through the European Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newig, Jens; Schulz, Daniel; Jager, Nicolas W.

    2016-12-01

    This article attempts to shed new light on prevailing puzzles of spatial scales in multi-level, participatory governance as regards the democratic legitimacy and environmental effectiveness of governance systems. We focus on the governance re-scaling by the European Water Framework Directive, which introduced new governance scales (mandated river basin management) and demands consultation of citizens and encourages `active involvement' of stakeholders. This allows to examine whether and how re-scaling through deliberate governance interventions impacts on democratic legitimacy and effective environmental policy delivery. To guide the enquiry, this article organizes existing—partly contradictory—claims on the relation of scale, democratic legitimacy, and environmental effectiveness into three clusters of mechanisms, integrating insights from multi-level governance, social-ecological systems, and public participation. We empirically examine Water Framework Directive implementation in a comparative case study of multi-level systems in the light of the suggested mechanisms. We compare two planning areas in Germany: North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Findings suggest that the Water Framework Directive did have some impact on institutionalizing hydrological scales and participation. Local participation appears generally both more effective and legitimate than on higher levels, pointing to the need for yet more tailored multi-level governance approaches, depending on whether environmental knowledge or advocacy is sought. We find mixed results regarding the potential of participation to bridge spatial `misfits' between ecological and administrative scales of governance, depending on the historical institutionalization of governance on ecological scales. Polycentricity, finally, appeared somewhat favorable in effectiveness terms with some distinct differences regarding polycentricity in planning vs. polycentricity in implementation.

  9. THE EUROPEAN LOCATION FRAMEWORK – FROM NATIONAL TO EUROPEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Pauknerova, E.; P. Sidlichovsky; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, toge...

  10. The European Framework Programme under way

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The new European Framework Programme - FP7 - has recently started and will offer various possibilities for CERN to participate in EU co-funded projects for research and technological development. In December 2006, the Council of the European Union (EU) formally adopted the 7th European Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities (FP7). FP7 started on 1st January 2007 and will cover the period 2007 to 2013. With a total budget of 50.5 billion euros, FP7 is the largest Framework Programme in the history of the EU. FP7 consists of four major sub-programmes, referred to as 'Specific Programmes'. 'Cooperation' is focused on collaborative research and is divided into 10 research themes. 'Ideas' is a new EU programme for funding frontier research in all fields of science. 'Capacities' aims at strengthening the research capacities in Europe. Finally, 'People' succeeds the previous Marie Curie Programmes and targets the development of Europe's human potential. On 22 Decem...

  11. The European Framework Programme under way

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The new European Framework Programme - FP7 - has recently started and will offer various possibilities for CERN to participate in EU co-funded projects for research and technological development. In December 2006, the Council of the European Union (EU) formally adopted the 7th European Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities (FP7). FP7 started on 1 January 2007 and will cover the period 2007 to 2013. With a total budget of 50.5 B-Euros, FP7 is the largest Framework Programme in the history of the EU. FP7 consists of four major sub-programmes, referred to as 'Specific Programmes'. 'Cooperation' is focused on collaborative research and is divided into 10 research themes. 'Ideas' is a new EU programme for funding of frontier research in all fields of science. 'Capacities' aims at strengthening the research capacities in Europe. Finally, 'People' succeeds the previous Marie Curie Programmes and targets the development of Europe's human potential. On 22 December...

  12. The European Qualification Framework: Skills, Competences or Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaut, Philippe; Winch, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The European Qualification Framework (EQF) is intended to transform European national qualification frameworks (NQFs) by moulding them into a learning outcomes framework. Currently adopted as an enabling law by the European Union, the EQF has now operated for several years. In order to secure widespread adoption, however, it will be necessary for…

  13. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  14. Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring water quality parameters for Mediterranean Lakes of European Union water framework directive (WFD) and as a system of surveillance of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms (SCyanoHABs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Antonio Domínguez; Alonso, Covadonga Alonso; García, Ana Alonso

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing has been used from the 1980s to study inland water quality. However, it was not until the beginning of the twenty-first century that CHRIS (an experimental multi-angle sensor with good spectral and spatial resolutions) and MERIS (with good temporal and spectral resolutions) started to acquire imagery with very good resolutions, which allowed to develop a reliable imagery acquisition system so as to consider remote sensing as an inland water management tool. This paper presents the methodology developed, from the field data acquisition with which to build a freshwater spectral library and the study of different atmospheric correction systems for CHRIS mode 2 and MERIS images, to the development of algorithms to determine chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations and bloom sites. All these algorithms allow determining water eutrophic and ecological states, apart from generating surveillance maps of toxic cyanobacteria with the main objective of Assessment of the Water Quality as it was used for Monitoring Ecological Water Quality in smallest Mediterranean Reservoirs integrated in the Intercalibration Exercise of European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). We keep on using it to monitor the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) in Spain inland water.

  15. The European seismological waveform framework EIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Luca; Koymans, Mathijs; Quinteros, Javier; Heinloo, Andres; Euchner, Fabian; Strollo, Angelo; Sleeman, Reinoud; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin; Pinar, Ali; Evangelidis, Christos

    2017-04-01

    The ORFEUS1 European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA2) federates (currently) 11 major European seismological data centres into a common organisational and operational framework which offers: (a) transparent and uniform access tools, advanced services and products for seismological waveform data; (b) a platform for establishing common policies for the curation of seismological waveform data and the description of waveform data by standardised quality metrics; (c) proper attribution and citation (e.g. data ownership). After its establishment in 2013, EIDA has been collecting and distributing seamlessly large amounts of seismological data and products to the research community and beyond. A major task of EIDA is the on-going improvement of the services, tools and products portfolio in order to meet the increasingly demanding users' requirements. At present EIDA is entering a new operational phase and will become the reference infrastructure for seismological waveform data in the pan-European infrastructure for solid-Earth science: EPOS (European Plate Observing System)3. The EIDA Next Generation developments, initiated within the H2020 project EPOS-IP, will provide a new infrastructure that will support the seismological and multidisciplinary EPOS community facilitating interoperability in a broader context. EIDA NG comprises a number of new services and products e.g.: Routing Service, Authentication Service, WFCatalog, Mediator, Station Book and more in the near future. In this contribution we present the current status of the EIDA NG developments and provide an overview of the usage of the new services and their impact on the user community. 1 www.orfeus-eu.org/ 2 www.orfeus-eu.org/eida/eida.html 3 www.epos-ip.org

  16. Towards a European Qualifications Framework: Some Cautionary Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a critical analysis of the European Commissions and the member states attempts to introduce a European Qualifications Framework and national frameworks respectively. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a review of policies and substantive desk research in countries that have applied a…

  17. Orchestration of TEL proposal for the European Framework Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Joy, Aislinn

    2012-01-01

    Kalz, M., & Joy, A. (2012, 27 January). Orchestration of TEL proposals for the European Framework Program. Presentation given during Research Away Days of the University College Cork, Rosscarberry, Ireland: UCC.

  18. European Legislative and Regulatory Framework on Power-to-Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreeft, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This report under the scope of the STORE&GO Horizon 2020 project aims to provide an assessment of the European legislative and regulatory framework applicable to Power-to-Gas. Power-to-Gas relates to many dimensions of European energy and environmental law. In the first place, the cross-sectoral

  19. A Historical Institutionalist Framework for European Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2016-01-01

    Sorensen invokes historical institutionalism as a theoretical framework. This paper does so revisiting the making of the European SpatialDevelopment Perspective of 1990s vintage and the subsequent Territorial Agenda of the European Union. The context is EU Cohesion policy. Firstthe paper presents

  20. Radiation research within the framework programmes of the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaoglou, A.; Kelly, G.N.; Desmet, G.; Menzel, H.G.; Schibilla, H.; Olast, M.; Gasperini, F.; Chadwick, K.H.; Sinnave, J. [European Commission Directorate General science, Brussels (Belgium). Research and Development, Radiation Protection Research Action

    1997-09-01

    The background to the radiation protection research and training programme of the European Commission is described in the presentation. The objectives and achievements of the third framework programme are summarised together with a description of how the achievements led to the establishment of the priorities for the fourth framework programme. Indications on the preliminary prospects for the fifth framework programme, 1998-2002 are also given. (6 refs.).

  1. European regulatory framework for person carrier robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Roig, A.

    The aim of this paper is to establish the grounds for a future regulatory framework for Person Carrier Robots, which includes legal and ethical aspects. Current industrial standards focus on physical human–robot interaction, i.e. on the prevention of harm. Current robot technology nonetheless

  2. Characterizing the European Union's Strategic Culture : An Analytical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biava, Alessia; Drent, Margriet; Herd, Graeme P.

    2011-01-01

    This article does not question whether the EU has a strategic culture, but rather asks how one can investigate its nature. It creates and utilizes an analytical framework to demonstrate that the European Union's strategic culture is based on an extended concept of security and on a comprehensive,

  3. Impacts of global change on water-related sectors and society in a trans-boundary central European river basin - Part 1: project framework and impacts on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Gömann, H.; Conradt, T.; Kaltofen, M.; Kreins, P.; Wechsung, F.

    2007-06-01

    Central Europe, the focus region of this study, is a region in transition, climatically from maritime to continental and politically from formerly more planning-oriented to more market-oriented management regimes, and in terms of climate change from regions of increasing precipitation in the west and north of Europe to regions of decreasing precipitation in central and southern Europe. The Elbe basin, a trans-boundary catchment flowing from the Czech Republic through Germany into the North Sea, was selected to investigate the possible impacts of global change on crop yields and water resources in this region. For technical reasons, the paper has been split into two parts, the first showing the overall model concept, the model set-up for the agricultural sector, and first results linking eco-hydrological and agro-economic tools for the German part of the basin. The second part describes the model set-up for simulating water supply and demand linking eco-hydrological and water management tools for the entire basin including the Czech part.

  4. European attitudes to water pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    2016-01-01

    as is affordability concern, which may be explained by expectations of inequity measures to come in place in parallel with increasing water prices. Overall these results support the hypothesis that lack of information and affordability concern could lead to resistance towards efficient water pricing among the general......Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence......, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions...

  5. Call for a dedicated European legal framework for bacteriophage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, Gilbert; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Jennes, Serge; De Vos, Daniel; Casteels, Minne; Huys, Isabelle

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistances and the drying up of the antibiotic pipeline have spurred a search for alternative or complementary antibacterial therapies. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that have been used for almost a century to combat bacterial infections, particularly in Poland and the former Soviet Union. The antibiotic crisis has triggered a renewed clinical and agricultural interest in bacteriophages. This, combined with new scientific insights, has pushed bacteriophages to the forefront of the search for new approaches to fighting bacterial infections. But before bacteriophage therapy can be introduced into clinical practice in the European Union, several challenges must be overcome. One of these is the conceptualization and classification of bacteriophage therapy itself and the extent to which it constitutes a human medicinal product regulated under the European Human Code for Medicines (Directive 2001/83/EC). Can therapeutic products containing natural bacteriophages be categorized under the current European regulatory framework, or should this framework be adapted? Various actors in the field have discussed the need for an adapted (or entirely new) regulatory framework for the reintroduction of bacteriophage therapy in Europe. This led to the identification of several characteristics specific to natural bacteriophages that should be taken into consideration by regulators when evaluating bacteriophage therapy. One important consideration is whether bacteriophage therapy development occurs on an industrial scale or a hospital-based, patient-specific scale. More suitable regulatory standards may create opportunities to improve insights into this promising therapeutic approach. In light of this, we argue for the creation of a new, dedicated European regulatory framework for bacteriophage therapy.

  6. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  7. Biobanking within the European regulatory framework: opportunities and obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Mats G

    2011-06-01

    A common feature of the European ethical and legal regulatory framework is that biobank-based research has a significant potential of providing new benefits to European citizens in terms of new medical treatment, and this research is therefore something that should be promoted. At the same time the legislatures are concerned, and rightly so, about the integrity of patients and healthy volunteers who provide samples and data. There is now ample evidence of how biobank-based research has provided great opportunities for new care. At the same time there are a growing number of reports about rash judgments about integrity by ethical review boards and data inspection authorities that are not in the best interest of patients. It is here argued that legislatures, ethical review boards, and data inspection authorities need to adopt a wider view of integrity and take into consideration the patients' interest in a sound scientific basis for medical diagnosis and treatment.

  8. The water framework directive. On the way to good waters; Die Wasserrahmenrichtlinie. Auf dem Weg zu guten Gewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Sandra; Voelker, Jeanette [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of the water framework directive of the European Union is a good quality of for all European waters. The brochure under consideration informs on targets and contents of the water framework directive and its meaning in water-economical practice. The contribution summarizes the facts and results of management planning in Germany and describes the most important planning steps and their statements. The implementation of a totally integrated management of river basins for the protection of our waters is described. The brochure obtains a country wide overview of the current condition of waters.

  9. Carbon dioxide in European coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, A.V.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Gazeau, F.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    We compiled from literature annually integrated air–water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) computed from field measurements, in 20 coastal European environments that were gathered into 3 main ecosystems: inner estuaries, upwelling continental shelves and non-upwelling continental shelves. The

  10. Urban water sustainability: framework and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas such as megacities (those with populations greater than 10 million are hotspots of global water use and thus face intense water management challenges. Urban areas are influenced by local interactions between human and natural systems and interact with distant systems through flows of water, food, energy, people, information, and capital. However, analyses of water sustainability and the management of water flows in urban areas are often fragmented. There is a strong need to apply integrated frameworks to systematically analyze urban water dynamics and factors that influence these dynamics. We apply the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances to analyze urban water issues, using Beijing as a demonstration megacity. Beijing exemplifies the global water sustainability challenge for urban settings. Like many other cities, Beijing has experienced drastic reductions in quantity and quality of both surface water and groundwater over the past several decades; it relies on the import of real and virtual water from sending systems to meet its demand for clean water, and releases polluted water to other systems (spillover systems. The integrative framework we present demonstrates the importance of considering socioeconomic and environmental interactions across telecoupled human and natural systems, which include not only Beijing (the water-receiving system but also water-sending systems and spillover systems. This framework helps integrate important components of local and distant human-nature interactions and incorporates a wide range of local couplings and telecouplings that affect water dynamics, which in turn generate significant socioeconomic and environmental consequences, including feedback effects. The application of the framework to Beijing reveals many research gaps and management needs. We also provide a foundation to apply the telecoupling framework to better understand and manage water

  11. European Water Footprint Scenarios for 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ertug Ercin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops water footprint scenarios for Europe for 2050, at the country level, based on projections regarding population and economic growth, production and trade patterns, consumption patterns (diets and bioenergy use and technological development. The objective is to estimate possible future changes in the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF of production and consumption, to analyze the main drivers of projected changes and to assess Europe’s future dependence on water resources elsewhere in the world. We develop four scenarios, considering globalization versus regional self-sufficiency, and development driven by economic objectives versus development driven by social and environmental objectives. The study shows that the most critical driver of change affecting Europe’s future WF is the consumption pattern. The WFs of both production and consumption in Western Europe increase under scenarios with high meat consumption and decrease with low-meat scenarios. Besides, additional water demands from increasing biofuel needs will put further pressure on European water resources. The European countries with a large ratio of external to total WF of consumption in 2000 decrease their dependencies on foreign water resources in 2050.

  12. An Approach for harmonizing European Water Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Stasch, Christoph; Masó, Joan; Jirka, Simon; Domingo, Xavier; Guitart, Francesc; Turner, Thomas; Hinderk Jürrens, Eike

    2017-04-01

    A number of European funded research projects is developing novel solutions for water monitoring, modeling and management. To generate innovations in the water sector, third parties from industry and the public sector need to take up the solutions and bring them into the market. A variety of portals exists to support this move into the market. Examples on the European level are the EIP Water Online Marketplace(1), the WaterInnEU Marketplace(2), the WISE RTD Water knowledge portal(3), the WIDEST- ICT for Water Observatory(4) or the SWITCH-ON Virtual Product Market and Virtual Water-Science Laboratory(5). Further innovation portals and initiatives exist on the national or regional level, for example, the Denmark knows water platform6 or the Dutch water alliance(7). However, the different portals often cover the same projects, the same products and the same services. Since they are technically separated and have their own data models and databases, people need to duplicate information and maintain it at several endpoints. This requires additional efforts and hinders the interoperable exchange between these portals and tools using the underlying data. In this work, we provide an overview on the existing portals and present an approach for harmonizing and integrating common information that is provided across different portals. The approach aims to integrate the common in formation in a common database utilizing existing vocabularies, where possible. An Application Programming Interface allows access the information in a machine-readable way and utilizing the information in other applications beyond description and discovery purposes. (1) http://www.eip-water.eu/my-market-place (2) https://marketplace.waterinneu.org (3) http://www.wise-rtd.info/ (4) http://iwo.widest.eu (5) http://www.switch-on-vwsl.eu/ (6) http://www.rethinkwater.dk/ (7) http://wateralliance.nl/

  13. Developing a water market readiness assessment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Loch, Adam; Crase, Lin; Young, Mike; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2017-09-01

    Water markets are increasingly proposed as a demand-management strategy to deal with water scarcity. Water trading arrangements, on their own, are not about setting bio-physical limits to water-use. Nevertheless, water trading that mitigates scarcity constraints can assist regulators of water resources to keep water-use within limits at the lowest possible cost, and may reduce the cost of restoring water system health. While theoretically attractive, many practitioners have, at best, only a limited understanding of the practical usefulness of markets and how they might be most appropriately deployed. Using lessons learned from jurisdictions around the world where water markets have been implemented, this study attempts to fill the existing water market development gap and provide an initial framework (the water market readiness assessment (WMRA)) to describe the policy and administrative conditions/reforms necessary to enable governments/jurisdictions to develop water trading arrangements that are efficient, equitable and within sustainable limits. Our proposed framework consists of three key steps: 1) an assessment of hydrological and institutional needs; 2) a market evaluation, including assessment of development and implementation issues; and 3) the monitoring, continuous/review and assessment of future needs; with a variety of questions needing assessment at each stage. We apply the framework to three examples: regions in Australia, the United States and Spain. These applications indicate that WMRA can provide key information for water planners to consider on the usefulness of water trading processes to better manage water scarcity; but further practical applications and tests of the framework are required to fully evaluate its effectiveness.

  14. European perspective and legal framework of death penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Hnidka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The purpose of this research is to find out what is European union doing for the abolition of the death Method: We used analytical and descriptive method and collected data mainly from EU´s online official sources on legal framework of the death penalty and organized them in chronological order as they entered in to legislation in the following chapters. Results: Based on the theoretical explanation of the issue of the death penalty and with outlining of basic international and European treaties on the death penalty, we concluded that the EU in the issue of the death penalty creates its own contracts and demarches and through their action plans and public statements is trying to regulate and gradualy eliminate the death penalty from legislation of individual states. Society: In the 21st century the death penalty is quite often used but also abused and it is important as far as it is possible to enlighten the public with this issue Limitations / further research: It is close to impossible to gather direct sources especialy from the states where this issue is of highest importance and the resources they are providing are distorted

  15. A changing framework for urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Janet G; Waite, T David; Luthy, Richard G; Drewes, Jörg E; Sedlak, David L

    2013-10-01

    Urban water infrastructure and the institutions responsible for its management have gradually evolved over the past two centuries. Today, they are under increasing stress as water scarcity and a growing recognition of the importance of factors other than the cost of service provision are forcing a reexamination of long-held ideas. Research and development that supports new technological approaches and more effective management strategies are needed to ensure that the emerging framework for urban water systems will meet future societal needs.

  16. Public participation under the EU water framework directive - processes and possible outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which went into effect in 2000, places public participation (PP) at the center stage of water management as part of its integrated approach to water management. It calls for PP in order to ensure protection and a sustainable use of the European river basins

  17. Use of models to support the monitoring requirements in the water framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Højberg, A.L.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Geer, F. van; Jørgensen, L.F.; Zsuffa, I.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) poses many new challenges to European water managers. Monitoring programmes play a key role to assess the status and identify possible trends in the environmental conditions of river basins; to gain new knowledge on water processes and to

  18. The" Common European Framework of Reference for Languages," the European Language Portfolio, and Language Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the relevance of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP) to language learning in higher education, especially as regards the definition of aims and learning outcomes and the promotion of students' capacity to manage their own learning. After…

  19. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João G.; Andersen, Jesper H.; Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Camp, Jordi; Cardoso da Silva, Margarida; Garcés, Esther; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Humborg, Christoph; Ignatiades, Lydia; Lancelot, Christiane; Menesguen, Alain; Tett, Paul; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Claussen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into

  20. Aligning ESP Courses with the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Androulla; Constantinou, Elis Kakoulli; Neophytou, Maro; Nicolaou, Anna; Papadima Sophocleous, Salomi; Yerou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article explains how the "Common European Framework of References for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001, "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) has been applied in language courses at the Language Centre (LC) of the Cyprus…

  1. European Healthy Cities evaluation: conceptual framework and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Dyakova, Mariana; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the methodology, programme logic and conceptual framework that drove the evaluation of the Fifth Phase of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network. Towards the end of the phase, 99 cities were designated progressively through the life of the phase (2009-14). The paper establishes the values, systems and aspirations that these cities sign up for, as foundations for the selection of methodology. We assert that a realist synthesis methodology, driven by a wide range of qualitative and quantitative methods, is the most appropriate perspective to address the wide geopolitical, demographic, population and health diversities of these cities. The paper outlines the rationale for a structured multiple case study approach, the deployment of a comprehensive questionnaire, data mining through existing databases including Eurostat and analysis of management information generation tools used throughout the period. Response rates were considered extremely high for this type of research. Non-response analyses are described, which show that data are representative for cities across the spectrum of diversity. This paper provides a foundation for further analysis on specific areas of interest presented in this supplement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upston-Hooper, K. [c/o Greenstream Network Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Perrells, A. [VATT, Helsinki (Finland); Anttonen, K. [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Helsinki (Finland); Mehling, M. [University of Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The Project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  3. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeaettae, K.; Anttonen, K. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)). Email: kalle.maatta@joensuu.fi; Upston-Hooper, K. (GreenStream Networks, Helsinki (Finland)); Mehling, M. (Univ. of Greifswald (Germany)); Perrels, A. (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT, Helsinki (Finland)), email: adriaan.perrels@vatt.fi

    2009-07-01

    The project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  4. A New Wave of European Climate and Energy Policy: Towards a 2030 Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Gina

    2013-06-11

    Against a complex, challenging, and often contradictory background, the EU is currently trying to decide what kind of climate and energy regime it wants and needs in the post-2020 period. Should it replicate the formula of the 2008 Climate and Energy Package to 2030 and beyond? Or are there other pathways that may prove more effective or politically palatable? The European Commission has recently published a consultation paper on a 2030 climate and energy framework and enormous efforts are being expended in Brussels and across the Member States as stakeholders work to shape to terms of the debate. This policy brief attempts to provide an understanding of the current debates and to illuminate the key challenges in designing a new wave of European climate policy. It first sets out the current EU energy and climate framework and discusses progress made to date, before going on to outline a range of key challenges in the design of a 2030 framework. This is the fourth in a series of Environment Nexus policy briefs by experts in the field of climate, energy, agriculture and water.

  5. Marine monitoring : Its shortcomings and mismatch with the EU water framework directive's objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, V.N.; Elliott, M; Brauer, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is to achieve good ecological status across European surface waters by 2015 and as such, it offers the opportunity and thus the challenge to improve the protection of our coastal systems. It is the main example for Europe's increasing desire to

  6. The economic value of water use: implications for implementing the Water Framework Directive in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dominic; Dann, Sabrina

    2008-05-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) enshrines several economic principles in pursuit of 'good ecological status' for Europe's waters and rationalising water use in society. The implicit principle of maximising the social value from use of a scarce resource is reminiscent of the debate about treating water as an economic good, which has competing uses in society. This paper locates the debate about the economic value of water in the requirements of WFD. Specifically, we consider the implications of national reporting requirements for the economic characterisation report that stress the identification of relative value derived from use. As part of the Scottish contribution to the UK reporting exercise, we use a range of secondary data sources to derive economic values for water on a sector basis. We suggest whether the implications of different water values can be followed through in the WFD.

  7. Water resources management and European integration of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Dragoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to the main elements important for understanding the obligations arising from the process of accession of the Republic of Serbia (RS to the European Union (EU as related to water resources management. The general framework is determined by the importance of water resources for contemporary international relations as well as the rules governing the process of harmonizing the national legislation with the EU legislation. This paper provides an overview of the most important regulations of the RS and the EU in the field of water resources management, including its status in international treaties. Drawing upon the rules governing the harmonization process, the paper provides indicators of the achieved level of compliance of national legislation with key EU regulations in the field of water resources management. The provided analysis is based on the premise that the process of joining the EU is the main factor that determines the current position and policy of RS in the field of water resources management. In that context, management of water resources falls into the group of EU regulations which are, within the framework of Chapter 27, most difficult to transpose and apply in the internal legal system. Although the process of harmonizing the national legislation with the EU legislation has been underway as regards a vast number of regulations, the process of reaching full compliance is likely to take a couple of years. Concurrently, it has been estimated that the full implementation of legislation harmonized with the EU legislation will take at least two decades, primarily due to the substantial financial resources to be invested in the development of water infrastructure. In terms of participation in the activities undertaken within the framework of international agreements in the field of water resources management and the state's membership in relevant international treaties, it is noted that in the last decade the RS has

  8. A Dynamic Framework for Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Veena; Konar, Megan; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2017-04-01

    Water security is a multi-faceted problem, going beyond mere balancing of supply and demand. Conventional attempts to quantify water security starting rely on static indices at a particular place and point in time. While these are simple and scalable, they lack predictive or explanatory power. 1) Most static indices focus on specific spatial scales and largely ignore cross-scale feedbacks between human and water systems. 2) They fail to account for the increasing spatial specialization in the modern world - some regions are cities others are agricultural breadbaskets; so water security means different things in different places. Human adaptation to environmental change necessitates a dynamic view of water security. We present a framework that defines water security as an emergent outcome of a coupled socio-hydrologic system. Over the medium term (5-25 years), water security models might hold governance, culture and infrastructure constant, but allow humans to respond to changes and thus predict how water security would evolve. But over very long time-frames (25-100 years), a society's values, norms and beliefs themselves may themselves evolve; these in turn may prompt changes in policy, governance and infrastructure. Predictions of water security in the long term involve accounting for such regime shifts in the cultural and political context of a watershed by allowing the governing equations of the models to change.

  9. Framework for Shared Drinking Water Risk Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Binning, David [AEM Corp., Herndon, VA (United States); Meszaros, Jenny [AEM Corp., Herndon, VA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Central to protecting our nation's critical infrastructure is the development of methodologies for prioritizing action and supporting resource allocation decisions associated with risk-reduction initiatives. Toward this need a web-based risk assessment framework that promotes the anonymous sharing of results among water utilities is demonstrated. Anonymous sharing of results offers a number of potential advantages such as assistance in recognizing and correcting bias, identification of 'unknown, unknowns', self-assessment and benchmarking for the local utility, treatment of shared assets and/or threats across multiple utilities, and prioritization of actions beyond the scale of a single utility. The constructed framework was demonstrated for three water utilities. Demonstration results were then compared to risk assessment results developed using a different risk assessment application by a different set of analysts.

  10. The status of water reuse in European textile sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajnhandl, Simona; Valh, Julija Volmajer

    2014-08-01

    The textile finishing industry is known as a very fragmented and heterogeneous industrial sector dominated mainly by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). As with many other industrial sectors in Europe, it is obliged to act more sustainably in regard to increasingly limited natural resources such as water. This paper presents in-depth survey of wastewater reuse programmes over the last ten years covering the European textile finishing industry. Different wastewater treatment solutions developed are presented and discussed. Special attention is given to the project AquaFit4Use (7th Framework Programme), where almost five years of project work has resulted in valuable know-how practices in water reuse for the most water consuming sectors in Europe i.e. paper, food, chemical and textile. Only the latter is discussed in this paper. The main negative impacts by the textile finishing sector on the environment are still related to intensive water consumption and wastewater discharge, characterised by greater amounts of organic chemicals and colouring agents, low biodegradability, and high salinity. End of pipe treatment of such complex effluents in order to produce reusable water is not feasible. Therefore, separation of waste effluents regarding their pollution level and their separate treatment was the basic approach used in the project. As a result waste effluents with a big reuse potential could be effectively treated by combination of conventional treatment technologies. Proposed water treatment scenarios enable more than 40% reduction in fresh water consumption. Since different guidelines of minimum water quality to be safely reuse in textile processes exist at this stage this issue is discussed as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Source Classification Framework for an optimized European wide Emission Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    of the PS environmental emission. The SCF also provides a well structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further European wide implementation, the SCF has the potential or an optimized ECS in order to obtain good chemical status of European water...

  12. Learning to learn in the European Reference Framework for lifelong learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirrie, Anne; Thoutenhoofd, Ernst D.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the construction of learning to learn that is implicit in the document Key Competences for Lifelong LearningEuropean Reference Framework and related education policy from the European Commission. The authors argue that the hallmark of learning to learn is the development of a

  13. Vocational Education and Training in Europe: An Alternative to the European Qualifications Framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of European Industrial Training, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the development of a European architecture of vocational education and promote an alternative proposal. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is the result of discussions of researchers in the Institut Technik und Bildung on a European Qualification Framework. Findings: The paper provides an…

  14. The European Framework of Languages: A Piloting Sample of Cross-Curricular Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, Paloma Ubeda; Riejos, Ana Maria Roldan

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of the history of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEF) and European Language Portfolio (ELP) and explains their aims and functions. It then provides a summary of the ELP use in Europe and in Spain by showing a pilot study of its implementation carried out at the Schools of Civil Engineering and…

  15. Language Educational Policy and Language Learning Quality Management: The "Common European Framework of Reference"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfanger, Olaf; Tschirner, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    The major goal of the Council of Europe to promote and facilitate communication and interaction among Europeans of different mother tongues has led to the development of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment" (CEFR). Among other things, the CEFR is intended to help language…

  16. The European smoking prevention framework approach (ESFA): short-term effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, H. de; Mudde, A.; Kremers, S.; Wetzels, J.; Uiters, E.; Ariza, C.; Duarte Vitoria, P.; Fielder, A.; Holm, K.; Janssen, L.H.M.; Lehtuvuori, R.; Candel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) resulted in a smoking prevention project for six European countries. It included activities on four levels: adolescents, schools, parents and out-of-school activities. Common goals and objectives were developed, but countries were also able

  17. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the supranational standard, i.e. the European Community Standard. Three classification schemes for water quality are proposed for surface water quality assessment. Water quality determinants of the new index are cadmium, cyanide, mercury, ...

  18. European Qualifications Framework: Weighing Some Pros and Cons out of a French Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouder, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to question the appropriateness of a proposal for a new European Qualifications Framework. The framework has three perspectives: historical; analytical; and national. Design/methodology/approach: The approaches are diverse since the first insists on the institutional and decision-making processes at European…

  19. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  20. The European legal framework regarding e-commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, M.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The year 2000 is a memorable year in the history of e-commerce. This is the year of the so-called 'dot.com shake-out'. The year 2000 is also the year the European Union issued its e-commerce directive. The directive means to regulate but also facilitate e-commerce in the internal market, by laying

  1. Integrating advance research directives into the European Legal Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andorno, R. (Roberto); Gennet, E. (Eloïse); K.R. Jongsma (Karin); Elger, B. (Bernice)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe possibility of using advance directives to prospectively consent to research participation in the event of dementia remains largely unexplored in Europe. Moreover, the legal status of advance directives for research is unclear in the European regulations governing biomedical

  2. Standardization of Ukrainian touristic services within framework of European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Milinchuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The harmonization of national standards in tourism to international requirements is a prerequisite to perform in accordance with the signed Ukraine and the European Union Association Agreement. The current situation of the national standardization in tourism and directions of its development in the context of European integration are formed in the article. The content and objectives of standardization in the field of tourism are determined. The legislation of the national tourism standardization is reviewed: there are 11 standards in the field of tourism, including 6 interstate standards (GOST which adapted as national. The current system of standards has a numerous outdated requirements, Ukrainian enterprises doesn’t use international standards on the organization of trips of adventure tourism, safety management, customer service on cruise ships and ferries, requirements for tourist services etc. In order to satisfy the requirements of quality of tourism services to the European level is recommended to adapt existing ISO standards to the national tourism legislation and to approve them in 2017.

  3. Competences as the Core Element of the European Qualifications Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlinger, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The development and implementation of the EQF, as a meta-framework for the promotion of transparency, quality assurance, mobility and mutual recognition of qualifications, has given rise to some difficulties. These are due partly to different definitions of competences, skills and knowledge. Taking the German-speaking countries as an example, the…

  4. A drinking water quality framework for South Africa | Hodgson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recognition of the importance of safe drinking water to public health, DWAF initiated a project to draft a Drinking Water Quality Framework for South Africa to enable effective management of drinking water quality and the protection of public health. The Framework is based on a preventative risk management approach, ...

  5. Raising Competitiveness for Tourist Destinations through Information Technologies within the Newest Tourism Action Framework Proposed by the European Commission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray F Iunius; Laura Cismaru; Diana Foris

    2015-01-01

    ... the newest Tourism Action Framework: Stimulate long-term competitiveness in the European tourism sector, promote the development of sustainable and high-quality tourism, and consolidate the image and promotion of European tourist destinations...

  6. PERCEPTION AND AWARENESS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FOOD SAFETY FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Boselli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted on a Turkish Educated Group (TG, European Educated Group (EG and a Turkish Public Group (TPG, to reveal possible differences in the perception and awareness of the EU Food Safety policy. The majority was aware which authority is responsible for food safety at national level but did not clearly understand how to make food complains (mostly made to food companies instead of public institutions. The manufacturer name and price were important for the Turks, the food label for EG. “Food safety” was associated to “quality control” and “healthy life” by the TG and EG groups; however, the TPG understood it as “healthy life” and “food terror”.Individuals with higher education showed a high interest in the food package. Halal certification was highly appreciated by TG and TPG.

  7. Legal Frameworks for Emissions Trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl Upston-Hooper, K. [Greenstream Network, Helsinki (Finland); Anttonen, K. [VATT, Helsinki (Finland); Mehling, M. [University of Griefswald (Germany)

    2006-12-19

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. (orig.)

  8. The European Union and the Search for an International Data Protection Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuner, Christopher Barth

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has supported the growing calls for the creation of an international legal framework to safeguard data protection rights. At the same time, it has worked to spread its data protection law to other regions, and recent judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union...... (CJEU) have reaffirmed the autonomous nature of EU law and the primacy of EU fundamental rights law. The tension between initiatives to create a global data protection framework and the assertion of EU data protection law raises questions about how the EU can best promote data protection on a global...

  9. A European Competence Framework for Industrial Pharmacy Practice in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The PHAR-IN (“Competences for industrial pharmacy practice in biotechnology” looked at whether there is a difference in how industrial employees and academics rank competences for practice in the biotechnological industry. A small expert panel consisting of the authors of this paper produced a biotechnology competence framework by drawing up an initial list of competences then ranking them in importance using a three-stage Delphi process. The framework was next evaluated and validated by a large expert panel of academics (n = 37 and industrial employees (n = 154. Results show that priorities for industrial employees and academics were similar. The competences for biotechnology practice that received the highest scores were mainly in: “Research and Development”, ‘“Upstream” and “Downstream” Processing’, “Product development and formulation”, “Aseptic processing”, “Analytical methodology”, “Product stability”, and “Regulation”. The main area of disagreement was in the category “Ethics and drug safety” where academics ranked competences higher than did industrial employees.

  10. Developing a national framework for safe drinking water--case study from Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-03-01

    Safe drinking water is one of the fundaments of society and experience has shown that a holistic national framework is needed for its effective provision. A national framework should include legal requirements on water protection, surveillance on drinking water quality and performance of the water supply system, and systematic preventive management. Iceland has implemented these requirements into legislation. This case study analyzes the success and challenges encountered in implementing the legislation and provide recommendations on the main shortcomings identified through the Icelandic experience. The results of the analysis show that the national framework for safe drinking water is mostly in place in Iceland. The shortcomings include the need for both improved guidance and control by the central government; and for improved surveillance of the water supply system and implementation of the water safety plan by the Local Competent Authorities. Communication to the public and between stakeholders is also insufficient. There is also a deficiency in the national framework regarding small water supply systems that needs to be addressed. Other elements are largely in place or on track. Most of the lessons learned are transferable to other European countries where the legal system around water safety is built on a common foundation from EU directives. The lessons can also provide valuable insights into how to develop a national framework elsewhere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatially distributed modelling of pesticide leaching at European scale with the PyCatch modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; van der Perk, Marcel; Karssenberg, Derek; Häring, Tim; Jene, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    The modelling of pesticide transport through the soil and estimating its leaching to groundwater is essential for an appropriate environmental risk assessment. Pesticide leaching models commonly used in regulatory processes often lack the capability of providing a comprehensive spatial view, as they are implemented as non-spatial point models or only use a few combinations of representative soils to simulate specific plots. Furthermore, their handling of spatial input and output data and interaction with available Geographical Information Systems tools is limited. Therefore, executing several scenarios simulating and assessing the potential leaching on national or continental scale at high resolution is rather inefficient and prohibits the straightforward identification of areas prone to leaching. We present a new pesticide leaching model component of the PyCatch framework developed in PCRaster Python, an environmental modelling framework tailored to the development of spatio-temporal models (http://www.pcraster.eu). To ensure a feasible computational runtime of large scale models, we implemented an elementary field capacity approach to model soil water. Currently implemented processes are evapotranspiration, advection, dispersion, sorption, degradation and metabolite transformation. Not yet implemented relevant additional processes such as surface runoff, snowmelt, erosion or other lateral flows can be integrated with components already implemented in PyCatch. A preliminary version of the model executes a 20-year simulation of soil water processes for Germany (20 soil layers, 1 km2 spatial resolution, and daily timestep) within half a day using a single CPU. A comparison of the soil moisture and outflow obtained from the PCRaster implementation and PELMO, a commonly used pesticide leaching model, resulted in an R2 of 0.98 for the FOCUS Hamburg scenario. We will further discuss the validation of the pesticide transport processes and show case studies applied to

  12. European scale climate information services for water use sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Donnelly, Chantal; Strömbäck, Lena; Capell, René; Ludwig, Fulco

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-European water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and

  13. A comparison of the legal frameworks supporting water management in Europe and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Griffiths, I M

    2010-01-01

    This paper has compared the legal frameworks supporting water management in Europe and China, with special focus on integrated river basin management (IRBM) to identify synergies and opportunities in policymaking and implementation. The research shows that China has committed to the efficient management of water resources through various policy tools during the current period. This commitment, however, has often been interrupted and distorted by politics, resulting in the neglect of socioeconomic and environmental priorities. The European legal framework supporting water management underwent a complex and lengthy development, but with the adoption of the Water Framework Directive provides a policy model on which to develop an integrated and sustainable approach to river basin management, elements of which may help to meet the demands of the emerging 21st century Chinese society on these critical natural resources.

  14. Legislative lobbying in context : towards a conceptual framework of interest group lobbying in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluver, Heike; Braun, C.; Beyers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We outline a conceptual framework that identifies and characterizes the contextual nature of interest group politics in the European Union (EU) to better understand variation in interest group mobilization, lobbying strategies and interest group influence. We focus on two sets of contextual factors

  15. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: A challenge for applied linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR, Council of Europe, 2001) currently functions as an instrument for educational policy and practice. The view of language proficiency on which it is based and the six proficiency levels it defines lack empirical support from language-use

  16. Developing a Competency-Based Pan-European Accreditation Framework for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Van der Zanden, Gerard; Schipperen, Marielle; Contu, Paolo; Gallardo, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Garcia de Sola, Silvia; Sotgiu, Alessandra; Zaagsma, Miriam; Barry, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The CompHP Pan-European Accreditation Framework for Health Promotion was developed as part of the CompHP Project that aimed to develop competency-based standards and an accreditation system for health promotion practice, education, and training in Europe. Method: A phased, multiple-method approach was employed to facilitate consensus…

  17. Qualifications Frameworks: The Avenue towards the Convergence of European Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karseth, Berit; Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses one of the most important aspects of the journey towards the vision of a European Higher Education Area, namely the development of a "new architecture" in which compatible qualifications frameworks are one of the main building blocks. The overall question addressed concerns how and whether signatory countries of the…

  18. The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) in Canada: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Stephanie; Brogden, Lace Marie; Faez, Farahnaz; Péguret, Muriel; Piccardo, Enrica; Rehner, Katherine; Taylor, Shelley K.; Wernicke, Meike

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a research agenda for future inquiry into the use of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) in the plurilingual Canadian context. Drawing on data collected from a research forum hosted by the Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers in 2014, as well as a detailed analysis of Canadian empirical studies and…

  19. Empirical Learner Language and the Levels of the "Common European Framework of Reference"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The "Common European Framework of Reference" (CEFR) is the most widespread reference tool for linking language tests, curricula, and national educational standards to levels of foreign language proficiency in Europe. In spite of this, little is known about how the CEFR levels (A1-C2) relate to empirical learner language(s). This article…

  20. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): Effects after 24 and 30 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Dijk, Froukje; Wetzels, Joyce; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Ariza, Carles; Vitoria, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtovuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2006-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, 12.4% of the T1…

  1. An organisational innovation perspective on change in water and wastewater systems – the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of how the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is stimulating change in water and wastewater management. The paper aims to provide an organisational innovation contribution towards understanding the processes by which policy and legislation stimulate change in

  2. Urban water sustainability: framework and application

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Yang; David W Hyndman; Winkler, Julie A.; Andrés Viña; Jillian M. Deines; Frank Lupi; Lifeng Luo; Yunkai Li; Bruno Basso; Chunmiao Zheng; Dongchun Ma; Shuxin Li; Xiao Liu; Hua Zheng; Guoliang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas such as megacities (those with populations greater than 10 million) are hotspots of global water use and thus face intense water management challenges. Urban areas are influenced by local interactions between human and natural systems and interact with distant systems through flows of water, food, energy, people, information, and capital. However, analyses of water sustainability and the management of water flows in urban areas are often fragmented. There is a strong need to apply...

  3. Applying Telecoupling Framework for Urban Water Sustainability Research and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Hyndman, D. W.; Winkler, J. A.; Viña, A.; Deines, J.; Lupi, F.; Luo, L.; Li, Y.; Basso, B.; Zheng, C.; Ma, D.; Li, S.; Liu, X.; Zheng, H.; Cao, G.; Meng, Q.; Ouyang, Z.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas, especially megacities (those with populations greater than 10 million), are hotspots of global water use and thus face intense water management challenges. Urban areas are influenced by local interactions between human and natural systems and also interact with distant systems through flows of water, food, energy, people, information, and capital. However, analyses of water sustainability and the management of water flows in urban areas are often fragmented. There is a strong need for applying integrated frameworks to systematically analyze urban water dynamics and factors influencing these dynamics. Here, we apply the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) to analyze urban water issues, using Beijing as a demonstration city. Beijing exemplifies the global water sustainability challenge for urban settings. Like many other cities, Beijing has experienced drastic reductions in quantity and quality of both surface water and groundwater over the past several decades; it relies on the import of real and virtual water from sending systems to meet its demand for clean water, and releases polluted water to other systems (spillover systems). The integrated framework presented here demonstrates the importance of considering socioeconomic and environmental interactions across telecoupled human and natural systems, which include not only Beijing (the water receiving system), but also water sending systems and spillover systems. This framework helps integrate important components of local and distant human-nature interactions and incorporates a wide range of local couplings and telecouplings that affect water dynamics, which in turn generate significant socioeconomic and environmental consequences including feedback effects. The application of the framework to Beijing reveals many research gaps and management needs. This study also provides a foundation to apply the telecoupling framework to better understand and

  4. Reconciling agriculture and stream restoration in Europe: A review relating to the EU Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flavio, Hugo; Ferreira, P.; Formigo, N.

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture is widespread across the EU and has caused considerable impacts on freshwater ecosystems. To revert the degradation caused to streams and rivers, research and restoration efforts have been developed to recover ecosystem functions and services, with the European Water Framework Directive...... (WFD) playing a significant role in strengthening the progress. Analysing recent peer-reviewed European literature (2009–2016), this review explores 1) the conflicts and difficulties faced when restoring agriculturally impacted streams, 2) the aspects relevant to effectively reconcile agricultural land......-reviewed literature. The first WFD cycle ended in 2015 without reaching the goal of good ecological status in many European water-bodies. Addressing limitations reported in recent papers, including difficulties in stakeholder integration and importance of small headwater streams, is crucial. Analysing recent...

  5. Franco-German nuclear cooperation: from the `common product` to the first European pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignon, D. [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Paris-la-Defense (France)

    1999-01-01

    It has now been 10 years since Framatome and Siemens decided to collaborate on the design and sales of an advanced nuclear power plant (NPP) model based on pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology. Originally called the `common product`, this model was renamed the European pressurized water reactor when Electricite de France (EDF) and the German electric utilities joined this cooperative development effort in 1992. Since the beginning, this cooperation has been formalized in the framework of an agreement that led to the founding of a joint and equally owned subsidiary, Nucler Power International (NPI), which is reponsible for leading the development of the new model and later handling its export sales.

  6. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  7. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-01-01

    the LIFE+ programme of the European Commission. The potential of HBM in supporting and evaluating policy making (including e.g. REACH) and in awareness raising on environmental health, should significantly advance the process towards a fully operational, continuous, sustainable and scientifically based EU...... HBM programme. From a number of stakeholder activities during the past 10 years and the national engagement, a framework for sustainable HBM structure in Europe is recommended involving national institutions within environment, health and food as well as European institutions such as ECHA, EEA...

  8. Gender Discrimination and Institutional Frameworks: Evidence from Four European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews important aspects of gender labour market inequalities in four European Union countries. It shows that individual countries differ in many aspects of gender discrimination. It seems that contributing factors to these differences are the national social and economic structures, the level of economic development, the legislative framework and the effectiveness of anti-discriminatory policies. It also shows that there are notable improvements in many gender gap indicators during the recent years and, at least part of the improvement should be attributed to the European commission’s legislative and policy initiatives.

  9. Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

  10. Environmental Quality Standards in the EC-Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirka, Gerhard H.; Burrows, Richard; Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The "combined approach" in the new EC-Water Framework Directive(WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface water. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental...... waters, respectively. Furthermore, water authorities will have to make increased use of predictive modeling techniques for the implementation of the "combined appraoch"....

  11. The "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages," the European Language Portfolio, and Language Teaching/Learning at University: An Argument and Some Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David

    2016-01-01

    I begin this article by briefly explaining why I think CercleS should encourage university language centres to align their courses and assessment with the proficiency levels of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR) and why they should use a version of the European Language Portfolio (ELP) to support the…

  12. Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

    2013-11-01

    Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Clinical research with children: the European legal framework and its implementation in French and Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, Annagrazia

    2008-07-01

    According to the International Convention of the Rights of the Child, an improvement of the protection of the rights of children in Europe should be accomplished by inserting the principle of best interests and evolving capacities in the legal framework related to paediatric clinical research. In this article, an overview is given of the European legal framework governing clinical research on minors in a comparative approach. The lack of coordination between different International and European ethical/ legal statements and its impact on national legislations is evaluated by analyzing provisions that have been foreseen in Italy and in France as a result of the ratification/implementation process. A presentation of the perspectives of paediatric research in Europe is provided.

  14. Ethical and legal framework and regulation for off-label use: European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Christian; Duttge, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    For more than 20 years the off-label use of drugs has been an essential part of the ethical and legal considerations regarding the international regulation of drug licensing. Despite a number of regulatory initiatives in the European Union, there seems to remain a largely unsatisfactory situation following a number of critical descriptions and statements from actors in the field. The present article gives an overview of the ethical and legal framework and developments in European countries and identifies existing problems and possible pathways for solutions in this important regulatory area. In addition to the presentation of the ethical and legal foundations, some attention is given to criticisms from medical practitioners to the current handling of off-label drug use. The review also focuses on the situation confronted by patients and physicians when off-label prescriptions are necessary. Through legal descriptions from a number of countries, possible solutions for future discussion of European health care policy are selected and explained.

  15. INSPIRE Harmonisation of existing Energy Performance Certificate datasets: European Union Location Framework Energy Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    MARTIRANO GIACOMO; Pignatelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The European Union is giving more and more emphasis to its energy policies, whose strategy and actions are included in the Energy Union Package and the 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy. Buildings in which people live and work are responsible for an important portion of the energy consumption in Europe (approximately 40% of the primary energy consumption) and there are several policies and initiatives that are aiming at improving their energy performance. In particular, the Energy Perf...

  16. Embryonic stem cell research and therapy: the need for a common European legal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M

    2002-11-01

    The possibility of obtaining stem cells from human embryos has given rise to an intensive legal and ethical debate. In this paper, attention is paid to the normative disparity and ambiguity in Europe. An argument for the need for a minimum legal harmonization is made; and a prudent and flexible way to reach this successfully is suggested. Establishing a common legal framework seems to be the only way to guarantee true competitiveness for the European scientific community.

  17. A Pioneer Study on Online Learning Environments Following the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Sabater, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a pioneer study on how technology is used to complement face-to face teaching in universities following the directives of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL). The paper examines the students¿ and teachers¿ perception of the effectiveness of autonomous language practice. Findings reveal that while teachers value the incorporation of autonomous learning in traditional university classrooms, students don¿t seem to agree unanimously on ...

  18. On the use of mixture toxicity assessment in REACH and the water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, T.S.; Cedergreen, Nina

    2009-01-01

      This review seeks to connect the scientific theory of mixture toxicity to its implementation within different regulatory frameworks. The aim is to demonstrate how mixture toxicity assessment can be more thoroughly integrated into the European chemical regulations, REACH and the Water Framework...... Directive (WFD), using the experiences gained through other regulatory frameworks. The paper consists of 1) an examination of the scientific underpinnings of the common mixture toxicity assessment methods; 2) a discussion of how these methods have been used in regulatory frameworks; and 3) a discussion...... of how the methods could be applied within REACH and WFD. It is concluded that oncentration addition should be applied as a default model for mixture toxicity assessment. Furthermore, it is concluded that REACH and WFD only include mixture toxicity assessments in specific situations. However, it is shown...

  19. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1 Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2 Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3 Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids.

  20. The role of the grammar teaching: from communicative approaches to the common European framework of reference for languages THE ROLE OF THE GRAMAMAR TEACHING: FROM COMMUNCATIVE APPROACHES TO THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José López Rama; Gloria Luque Agulló

    2012-01-01

    In the history of language teaching, the role of grammar has been addressed by a number of linguistic theories, pedagogies and, currently, within the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEF...

  1. An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1 Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2 Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.

  2. Optimising The Available Scarce Water Resources At European Scale In A Modelling Environment: Results And Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roo, Ad; Burek, Peter; Gentile, Alessandro; Udias, Angel; Bouraoui, Faycal

    2013-04-01

    As a next step to European drought monitoring and forecasting, which is covered in the European Drought Observatory (EDO) activity of JRC, a modeling environment has been developed to assess optimum measures to match water availability and water demand, while keeping ecological, water quality and flood risk aspects also into account. A multi-modelling environment has been developed to assess combinations of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures for continental Europe. These simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of those measures on several hydro-chemical indicators, such as the Water Exploitation Index, Environmental Flow indicators, low-flow frequency, N and P concentrations in rivers, the 50-year return period river discharge as an indicator for flooding, and economic losses due to water scarcity for the agricultural sector, the industrial sector, and the public sector. Also, potential flood damage of a 100-year return period flood has been used as an indicator. This modeling environment consists of linking the agricultural CAPRI model, the land use LUMP model, the water quantity LISFLOOD model, the water quality EPIC model, the combined water quantity/quality and hydro-economic LISQUAL model and a multi-criteria optimization routine. A python interface platform (IMO) has been built to link the different models. The work was carried out in the framework of a new European Commission policy document "Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources", COM(2012)673), launched in November 2012. Simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures on several hydro-chemical indicators, such as the Water Exploitation Index, Environmental Flow indicators, N and P concentrations in rivers, the 50-year return period river discharge as an indicator for flooding, and economic losses due to water scarcity for the agricultural

  3. Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Sands, Ronald; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2010-11-30

    We developed a modeling capability to understand how water is allocated within a river basin and examined present and future water allocations among agriculture, energy production, other human requirements, and ecological needs. Water is an essential natural resource needed for food and fiber production, household and industrial uses, energy production, transportation, tourism and recreation, and the functioning of natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic climate change and population growth are anticipated to impose unprecedented pressure on water resources during this century. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers have pioneered the development of integrated assessment (IA) models for the analysis of energy and economic systems under conditions of climate change. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort led to the development of a modeling capability to evaluate current and future water allocations between human requirements and ecosystem services. The Water Prototype Model (WPM) was built in STELLA®, a computer modeling package with a powerful interface that enables users to construct dynamic models to simulate and integrate many processes (biological, hydrological, economics, sociological). A 150,404-km2 basin in the United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest region served as the platform for the development of the WPM. About 60% of the study basin is in the state of Washington with the rest in Oregon. The Columbia River runs through the basin for 874 km, starting at the international border with Canada and ending (for the purpose of the simulation) at The Dalles dam. Water enters the basin through precipitation and from streamflows originating from the Columbia River at the international border with Canada, the Spokane River, and the Snake River. Water leaves the basin through evapotranspiration, consumptive uses (irrigation, livestock, domestic, commercial, mining, industrial, and off-stream power generation), and streamflow

  4. THE ROLE OF THE GRAMAMAR TEACHING: FROM COMMUNCATIVE APPROACHES TO THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    López Rama, José; Luque Agulló, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    In the history of language teaching, the role of grammar has been addressed by a number of linguistic theories, pedagogies and, currently, within the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEF...

  5. Challenges of the introduction of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages at foreign-language universities in Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Viet anh

    2014-01-01

    In today’s globalized world, it seems necessary, or even indispensable for the teaching/learning of foreign languages to be based on international standards proposed by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL...

  6. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-02

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply

  7. Raising Competitiveness for Tourist Destinations through Information Technologies within the Newest Tourism Action Framework Proposed by the European Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray F. Iunius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several challenges regarding the European tourism industry were recently identified at EU level which the experts of the European Commission tried to meet, thus formulating several priorities within the newest Tourism Action Framework: Stimulate long-term competitiveness in the European tourism sector, promote the development of sustainable and high-quality tourism, and consolidate the image and promotion of European tourist destinations. Due to the new generational context, information and communications technology ICT and innovation became keywords within the most recent European Tourism Policy. Considering the symbiotic relationship that exists at the European tourism level between sustainable development, innovative ICT solutions, and long-term competitiveness, the decision-makers in European destinations should focus on identifying innovative ways to implement the new Tourism Action Framework adopted by the European Commission, through ICT applications, in order to support long-term competitiveness achievement. Two such authentic proposals are formulated within the present discussion paper: the creation of a decision support system for the management of sustainable European destinations and the development of a trip-planner for quality-sensitive tourists based on an umbrella European certification/labeling system for tourism quality. There is still a fertile field in these areas and, therefore, more innovative ICT tools to support the long-term competitiveness of European tourist destinations can be developed.

  8. Exploring the development of a cultural care framework for European caring science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Albarran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of a cultural care framework that seeks to inform and embrace the philosophical ideals of caring science. Following a review of the literature that identified a lack of evidence of an explicit relationship between caring science and cultural care, a number of well-established transcultural care frameworks were reviewed. Our purpose was to select one that would resonate with underpinning philosophical values of caring science and that drew on criteria generated by the European Academy of Caring Science members. A modified framework based on the work of Giger and Davidhizar was developed as it embraced many of the values such as humanism that are core to caring science practice. The proposed caring science framework integrates determinants of cultural lifeworld-led care and seeks to provide clear directions for humanizing the care of individuals. The framework is offered to open up debate and act as a platform for further academic enquiry.

  9. Exploring the development of a cultural care framework for European caring science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Elizabeth; Bach, Shirley; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Lundberg, Pranee; Law, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of a cultural care framework that seeks to inform and embrace the philosophical ideals of caring science. Following a review of the literature that identified a lack of evidence of an explicit relationship between caring science and cultural care, a number of well-established transcultural care frameworks were reviewed. Our purpose was to select one that would resonate with underpinning philosophical values of caring science and that drew on criteria generated by the European Academy of Caring Science members. A modified framework based on the work of Giger and Davidhizar was developed as it embraced many of the values such as humanism that are core to caring science practice. The proposed caring science framework integrates determinants of cultural lifeworld-led care and seeks to provide clear directions for humanizing the care of individuals. The framework is offered to open up debate and act as a platform for further academic enquiry. PMID:22171224

  10. European Reference networks for rare diseases: what is the conceptual framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héon-Klin, Véronique

    2017-08-07

    With the Cross-Border Healthcare Directive (2011/24/EU) a mandatory framework was established to foster cooperation on a voluntary basis, within European Reference Networks (ERNs). These networks are composed of centres and healthcare providers. The exchange of knowledge is a central issue in this context. A detailed literature survey was carried out to determine the most important factors affecting information and knowledge exchange, as well as learning, in networks and how this can be supported. New communication technologies are identified as key tools for the European Reference Networks (ERN). This study recommends the elaboration of a systematic knowledge use and knowledge generation plan. The data of this study suggests that the future ERNs will mediate the adoption of the digitised and networked information society in medical practice.

  11. Frameworks for Assessing Human Influence on Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Mehran, A.; Mazdiyasni, O.; Ashraf, B.

    2016-12-01

    The water cycle is tightly coupled with water management and human water use behavior. Human activities and water use behavior can intensify the effects of a meteorological drought (a notion referred to as Anthropogenic Drought). In this presentation, we provide a general definition of anthropogenic drought. We then briefly review two different methods for assessing human influence on water availability: (1) a data-driven multivariate approach that links the information on inflow and surface reservoir storage to water demand; (2) A model-based framework that brings a top-down and bottom-up approach to provide localized water assessment based on local available infrastructure and projected water demands. Finally, we will show how the proposed methods can be used for water management scenario analysis (e.g., local water availability based on different human water demands scenarios). This presentation is primarily based on Mehran et al (Mehran A., Mazdiyasni O., AghaKouchak A., 2015, A Hybrid Framework for Assessing Socioeconomic Drought: Linking Climate Variability, Local Resilience, and Demand, Journal of Geophysical Research, 120 (15), 7520-7533, doi: 10.1002/2015JD023147.) and AghaKouchak et al (AghaKouchak A., Feldman D., Hoerling M., Huxman T., Lund J., 2015, Recognize Anthropogenic Drought, Nature, 524 (7566), 409-4011, doi:10.1038/524409a).

  12. Managing the Marine Environment, Conceptual Models and Assessment Considerations for the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual models summarize, visualize and explain actual or predicted situations and how they might be tackled. In recent years, Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R frameworks have been central to conceptualizing marine ecosystem issues and then translating those to stakeholders, environmental managers and researchers. Society is concerned about the risks to the natural and human system posed by those Pressures (thus needing risk assessment and then needs to act to minimize or compensate those risks (as risk management. This research relates this to the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressure-State(change-Impact-Response hierarchical framework using standardized terminology/definitions and lists of impacting Activities and Pressures affecting ecosystem components, incorporating the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD legal decision components. This uses the example of fishing activity and the pressure of trawling from abrasion on the seabed and its effects on particular components. The mechanisms of Pressure acting on State changes are highlighted here as an additional refinement to DPSIR. The approach moves from conceptual models to actual assessments including: assessment methodologies (interactive matrices, ecosystem modeling, Bayesian Belief Networks, Bow-tie approach, some assessment tools data availability, confidence, scaling, cumulative effects and multiple simultaneous Pressures, which more often occur in multi-use and multi-user areas. In defining and describing the DPSIR Conceptual Framework we consider its use in re-world ecosystems affected by multiple pressures or multiple mechanisms of single pressures, and show how it facilitates management and assessment issues with particular relevance to the MSFD.

  13. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  14. The development of the European framework for psychosocial risk management: PRIMA-EF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Cox, Tom; Kortum, Evelyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development process of the European framework for psychosocial risk management (PRIMA-EF). It also summarises and discusses key findings of research conducted through this policy-orientated research programme. This paper presents an overview of the development process of PRIMA-EF. The background, methods and outcomes are described and discussed. The paper summarises the key findings of PRIMA-EF and concludes by a discussion of the merit of PRIMA-EF in the area of psychosocial risk management and its intended use. PRIMA-EF has been built on a review, critical assessment, reconciliation and harmonisation of existing European approaches for the management of psychosocial risks and the promotion of mental health at the workplace. The framework has been built from a theoretical analysis of the risk management process, identifying its key elements in logic and philosophy, strategy and procedures, areas and types of measurement, and from a subsequent analysis of European risk management approaches. It is meant to accommodate all existing psychosocial risk management approaches across Europe. It also provides a model and key indicators that relate to the psychosocial risk management process both at the enterprise and macro levels. Experts, researchers, social partners, key European and international organisations and networks were involved throughout the development of PRIMA-EF. A number of methods were applied including literature, case study and policy reviews, interviews, surveys, focus groups and workshops. The scientific findings have been used to develop user-friendly tools for use at the enterprise and policy levels such as guidelines, indicators, guidance sheets, inventories and web-based tools. PRIMA-EF is intended as a framework for harmonizing practice and current methods in the area of psychosocial risk management. It can also be used as a guidance tool for the development of further methods both in Europe and internationally as it can

  15. European research activities within the project: High Performance Light Water Reactor phase 2 (HPLWR phase 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starflinger, J.; Schulenberg, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe (Germany); Marsault, P. [CEA Cadarache (DER/SESI), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs; Bittermann, D. [AREVA NP, NEPR-G, Erlangen (Germany); Maraczy, C. [AEKI-KFKI, Budapest (Hungary); Laurien, E. [Stuttgart Univ. IKE (Germany); Lycklama, J.A. [NRG Petten, NL (Netherlands); Anglart, H. [KTH Energy Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Aksan, N. [Paul Scherrer Institut CH, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ruzickova, M. [UJV Rez plc, Husinec-Rez c.p. (Czech Republic); Heikinheimo, L. [VTT, FIN (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is a Light Water Reactor (LWR) operating at supercritical pressure (25 MPa). It belongs to the six reactors currently being investigated under the framework of the Generation IV International Forum. The most visible advantage of the HPLWR shall be the low construction costs in the order of 1000 Euro/kWe, because of size reduction of components and buildings compared to current Light Water Reactors, and the low electricity production costs which are targeted at 3-4 cents/kWh. In Europe, investigations on the HPLWR have been integrated into a joint research project, called High Performance Light Water Reactor Phase 2 (HPLWR Phase 2), which is co-funded by the European Commission. Within 42 months, ten partners from eight European countries working on critical scientific issues shall show the feasibility of the HPLWR concept. This paper reports on 5 points relevant for HPLWR: 1) design and integration, 2) core design, 3) safety, 4) materials, and 5) heat transfer. The final goal is to assess the future potential of this reactor in the electricity market.

  16. Alcohol and water adsorption in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol) and water vapor adsorption in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-8, ZIF-71 and ZIF-90) with similar crystal sizes was systematically studied. The feasibility of applying these ZIF materials to the recovery of bio-alcohols is evaluated by estimating the vapor-phase alcohol-water sorption selectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Convergence of Croatian Financial and Budget Regulations to the Framework and Practices of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana MALETIĆ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As of 2004 intensive preparatory activities for the accession of the Republic of Croatia into the European Union have started. Significant changes have been taking place in legislation, institutional and administrative respect. The so called “silent reform“ is changing the appearance and the way of work of state administration. Institutions acquire the rules and way of work of the European Union through the usage of pre-accession programmes. General opinion moves in the direction of successfulness, competitiveness, attainment of results and added values. Financial regulations regarding stipulation of budget processes have been changing through the introduction of the following elements: strategic planning, multi-annual budget framework, fiscal discipline, internal audit as well as financial management and control system based on clearly set work processes and procedures. This document provides the description of the most significant changes regarding financial management and budget regulations in the Republic of Croatia which have taken place in the course of adapting (developing the system to the European practices and rules.

  18. THE MORPHOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE CHINESE AND THE EUROPEAN DISTRICTS IN SURABAYA, 1787-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoticin Kwanda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the phenomena of economic boom during the 1990s have led to the physical restructuring within the old centre of Surabaya. The changes is inevitable, thus the real issue is how to find the elements of persistent, constraining development to some degree that could be applied to influence future development. The objective of the research is to understand the impact of intervention, and to find the typo-morphological framework in the European and the Chinese quarters, from 1787 to 2005 for future development. A synchronic and a diachronic method is applied to understand the old town centre historical development, and the relationship between building type and urban fabric. The result shows three different degrees of persistent. The town plan of the Chinese and the European districts show a notable persistence. However the land utilization is less persistent especially in the European district such as the first and the second city wall were replaced by roads, and the first and the second fort were replaced by open space and residential uses. Finally, the buildings fabric shows a drastic change such as most of the nineteenth century Indische buildings have been replaced by the 1920s modern buildings.

  19. LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK OF BROADCASTING IN ROMANIA AND IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Prihoanca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s adherence to the European Union implied the previous and entire acceptance of the Community acquis in force on 31st of December 1999. Our country didn’t request any period of transition or of derogation in this meaning, being among the first states from East Europe that regulated the audio-visual department, after the occidental model. In order to harmonize the Romanian legislation with the European standards, The National Council of the Audio-Visual Department adopted and transposed a whole range of acts and decisions that we will try to synthesize in our paper. In the adoption of the acquis, the NAC has to watch whether the adopted decisions are conform to the progress at European level. It is necessary to continue strengthening the administrative capacities of NAC to ensure a transparent and predictable implementation of the regulatory framework in the field of audiovisual policy. In Romania, the normative acts that regulate aspects concerning general advertising and promotional communication through television are: Advertising Act and the Broadcasting Act.

  20. Ethical and legal framework and regulation for off-label use: European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenk C

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Christian Lenk,1 Gunnar Duttge2 1Institute for History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany; 2Center for Medical Law, Göttingen University, Göttingen, Germany Abstract: For more than 20 years the off-label use of drugs has been an essential part of the ethical and legal considerations regarding the international regulation of drug licensing. Despite a number of regulatory initiatives in the European Union, there seems to remain a largely unsatisfactory situation following a number of critical descriptions and statements from actors in the field. The present article gives an overview of the ethical and legal framework and developments in European countries and identifies existing problems and possible pathways for solutions in this important regulatory area. In addition to the presentation of the ethical and legal foundations, some attention is given to criticisms from medical practitioners to the current handling of off-label drug use. The review also focuses on the situation confronted by patients and physicians when off-label prescriptions are necessary. Through legal descriptions from a number of countries, possible solutions for future discussion of European health care policy are selected and explained. Keywords: ethics, law, Europe, health care policy 

  1. The Production of a Framework of Competences for Pharmacy Practice in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the PHAR-QA (quality assurance in European pharmacy education and training project is the production of a European framework for a quality assurance system based on competences for pharmacy practice. The PHAR-QA framework will be European, consultative and will encompass the various aspects of pharmacy practice. In this review, we describe the methodology to be used in the project and the first stage in the development of this framework. Using the proposals for competences produced by our previous PHARMINE (Pharmacy education in Europe project, together with those of other sources, three university professors of pharmacy (Authors 2 through 4 produced a list of three major competency domains that reflect the activities of practitioners: Patient Care Competences, Personal Competences and Management and Organizational Structure Competences. Each domain was subdivided into nine, nine and eight competencies, respectively, for a total of 27 major competencies that were further subdivided into an average of five supporting competences per major competence, giving a total of 140 proposals for competences for pharmacy practice. The 27 and 140 proposals were ranked by an expert panel of seven university professors of pharmacy (Authors 5 through 11. The panel also commented on the proposed competences. On the basis of the ranks and comments, a list of 68 proposals for competences was produced. This list was then examined by the expert panel and a new version based on their comments produced. The latter process was repeated twice based on Delphi methodology. This review presents this process and the 68 proposals. We invite the pharmacy community to participate in the second stage of the elaboration of the PHAR-QA competence framework for pharmacy practice by ranking the proposals and adding comments. It is anticipated that this survey will stimulate a productive discussion on pharmacy education and practice by the various stakeholders

  2. A framework to analyse water politics and governance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... ideology, values, interests and culture in politics. ... The framework has five components: description of the geographic area or issue; the actors involved in water politics and governance; the (hydropolitical) history of the issue; the actors' power to enable change; and the type of interaction between.

  3. A Modeling Framework for Improved Agricultural Water Supply Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, G. H.; David, O.; Garen, D. C.; Lea, J.; Marron, J. K.; Pagano, T. C.; Perkins, T. R.; Strobel, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    The National Water and Climate Center (NWCC) of the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service is moving to augment seasonal, regression-equation based water supply forecasts with distributed-parameter, physical process models enabling daily, weekly, and seasonal forecasting using an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) methodology. This effort involves the development and implementation of a modeling framework, and associated models and tools, to provide timely forecasts for use by the agricultural community in the western United States where snowmelt is a major source of water supply. The framework selected to support this integration is the USDA Object Modeling System (OMS). OMS is a Java-based modular modeling framework for model development, testing, and deployment. It consists of a library of stand-alone science, control, and database components (modules), and a means to assemble selected components into a modeling package that is customized to the problem, data constraints, and scale of application. The framework is supported by utility modules that provide a variety of data management, land unit delineation and parameterization, sensitivity analysis, calibration, statistical analysis, and visualization capabilities. OMS uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to collaboratively work on addressing the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. A long-term goal in the development of these water-supply forecasting capabilities is the implementation of an ensemble modeling approach. This would provide forecasts using the results of multiple hydrologic models run on each basin.

  4. Attitudes of Irish and European dentists to water quality of dental unit water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F M; O'Mullane, D; O'Sullivan, M

    2005-01-01

    Dental unit water systems (DUWS) are used in dental practices to provide water to irrigate the oral cavity. Dental surgeries across the European Union (EU) use DUWS that may be prone to microbial contamination. To determine Irish dental practitioners' attitudes to perceived risk from working with DUWS and their protocols for the management of biofilm in their DUWS and compare these with other European dentists. A questionnaire was used to determine DUWS types in use, practitioners' attitudes to risks associated with using DUWS and their DUWS management protocols. There were six different types of DUWS, 40 per cent of which were > 5 years old, 42 per cent of DUWS were fed by purified or distilled water. Only four per cent of practitioners carried out microbiological analysis on their water, but 38 per cent indicated that they cleaned or disinfected their DUWS. One-hundred per cent of practitioners were not aware of national/international guidelines for microbial contamination of DUWS but 77 per cent were concerned about DUWS water quality. The majority of practitioners were working with equipment that is dental unit water quality and would welcome regular microbiological water tests and clear advice on cleaning/disinfection of the water supply in their dental units. Practitioner attitudes and behaviours were broadly similar in the other European countries studied.

  5. Classification of Forest Management Approaches: A New Conceptual Framework and Its Applicability to European Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp S. Duncker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice between different forest management practices is a crucial step in short, medium, and long-term decision making in forestry and when setting up measures to support a regional or national forest policy. Some conditions such as biogeographically determined site factors, exposure to major disturbances, and societal demands are predetermined, whereas operational processes such as species selection, site preparation, planting, tending, or thinning can be altered by management. In principle, the concept of a forest management approach provides a framework for decision making, including a range of silvicultural operations that influence the development of a stand or group of trees over time. These operations vary among silvicultural systems and can be formulated as a set of basic principles. Consequently, forest management approaches are essentially defined by coherent sets of forest operation processes at a stand level. Five ideal forest management approaches (FMAs representing a gradient of management intensity are described using specific sets of basic principles that enable comparison across European forests. Each approach is illustrated by a regional European case study. The observed regional variations resulting from changing species composition, stand density, age structure, stand edges, and site conditions can be interpreted using the FMA framework. Despite being arranged along an intensity gradient, the forest management approaches are not considered to be mutually exclusive, as the range of options allows for greater freedom in selecting potential silvicultural operations. As derived goods and services are clearly affected, the five forest management approaches have implications for sustainability. Thus, management objectives can influence the balance between the economic, ecological, and social dimensions of sustainability. The utility of this framework is further demonstrated through the different contributions to this special

  6. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  7. Improved prediction of vegetation composition in NW European softwater lakes by combining location, water and sediment chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido Pérez, Cristina; Jensen, Kaj Sand; Lucassen, Esther C.H.E.T.

    2012-01-01

    with environmental variables for surface water, porewater and sediment significantly improved prediction of vegetation composition. Specifically, the combination of latitude, surface water alkalinity, porewater phosphate and redox potential offered the highest correlation (BIO ENV correlation 0.66) to vegetation......Isoetids, as indicators of near-pristine softwater lakes, have a high priority in national and international (European Water Directive Framework) assessments of ecological lake quality. Our main goal was to identify the most important environmental factors that influence the composition of plant...... communities and specifically determine the presence and abundance of the isoetid Lobelia dortmanna in NW European softwater lakes. Geographical position and composition of surface water, porewater, sediment and plant communities were examined in 39 lakes in four regions (The Netherlands, Denmark, West Norway...

  8. The human rights framework, the school and healthier eating among young people: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Engesveen, Kaia; Afflerbach, Thorsten; Barnekow, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    To give an account of provisions in the framework of international human rights and intergovernmental policy agreements in relation to eating at school and discuss how these provisions could be invoked to ensure healthy eating at school. A review of provisions in the international and European human rights frameworks and policy documents was performed in order to identify evidence and examples of provisions implying responsibilities of the school as a public service provider to ensure healthy eating. The review of the human rights and policy texts showed that there are a large number of provisions that can be invoked in support of measures at school which can contribute to ensuring healthier eating as well as better education supporting such measures. The international frameworks of human rights and intergovernmental policy agreements should be invoked and translated into concrete strategies, policies, regulations and accountability mechanisms at national, regional, local and school levels. Ensuring healthy eating should be a top priority among all stakeholders in and around the school environment since it is a good investment in children's short- and long-term health and educational achievements.

  9. A framework for considering externalities in urban water asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, David; Pearson, Leonie; Macdonald, Darla Hatton; Whitten, Stuart; Burn, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Urban communities rely on a complex network of infrastructure assets to connect them to water resources. There is considerable capital investment required to maintain, upgrade and extend this infrastructure. As the remit of a water utility is broader than just financial considerations, infrastructure investment decisions must be made in light of environmental and societal issues. One way of facilitating this is to integrate consideration of externalities into decision making processes. This paper considers the concept of externalities from an asset management perspective. A case study is provided to show the practical implications to a water utility and asset managers. A framework for the inclusion of externalities in asset management decision making is also presented. The potential for application of the framework is highlighted through a brief consideration of its key elements.

  10. Cancer registration, public health and the reform of the European data protection framework: Abandoning or improving European public health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mette Rye; Storm, Hans H

    2015-06-01

    The importance of cancer- and other disease registries for planning, management and evaluation of healthcare systems has been shown repeatedly during the last 50 years. Complete and unbiased population-level analyses on routinely collected, individual data concerning health and personal characteristics can address significant concerns about risk factors for cancer and provide sound evidence about public health and the effectiveness of healthcare systems. The existence of quality controlled and comprehensive data in registries, allowed to be used for quality control, research and public health purposes are taken as granted by most health professionals and researchers. However, the current revision of the European Union (EU) data protection framework suggests a harmonisation of requirements for confidentiality and individual consent to data processing, likely at the expense of proper use of registry data in the health sector. Consequences of excessive confidentiality rules that may lead to missed data linkages have been simulated. The simulations provide one possible explanation for observed heterogeneity among some cancer incidence data. Further, public health, quality control and epidemiological research on large populations can no longer provide evidence for health interventions, if requirements for consent renders research impossible or where attempts to obtain consent from each data subject generates biased results. Health professionals should engage in the on-going debate on the Commission's proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation. The nature and use of registry data in public health research must be explained and known to policy-makers and the public. Use of cancer registry data and other epidemiological activity will terminate abruptly if an unnecessarily strict EU data protection regulation is adopted. Research based interventions, as well as the international recognised standing of cancer registries and register-based research institutions in

  11. A Stochastic Water Balance Framework for Lowland Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally; MacVean, Lissa; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2017-11-01

    The water balance dynamics in lowland watersheds are influenced not only by local hydroclimatic controls on energy and water availability, but also by imports of water from the upstream watershed. These imports result in a stochastic extent of inundation in lowland watersheds that is determined by the local flood regime, watershed topography, and the rate of loss processes such as drainage and evaporation. Thus, lowland watershed water balances depend on two stochastic processes—rainfall and local inundation dynamics. Lowlands are high productivity environments that are disproportionately associated with urbanization, high productivity agriculture, biodiversity, and flood risk. Consequently, they are being rapidly altered by human development—generally with clear economic and social motivation—but also with significant trade-offs in ecosystem services provision, directly related to changes in the components and variability of the lowland water balance. We present a stochastic framework to assess the lowland water balance and its sensitivity to two common human interventions—replacement of native vegetation with alternative land uses, and construction of local flood protection levees. By providing analytical solutions for the mean and PDF of the water balance components, the proposed framework provides a mechanism to connect human interventions to hydrologic outcomes, and, in conjunction with ecosystem service production estimates, to evaluate trade-offs associated with lowland watershed development.

  12. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  13. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackerbauer, Johann [Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Poschingerstrasse 5, 81679 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: wackerbauer@ifo.de

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term 'privatisation' relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term 'liberalisation' implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term 'liberalisation' in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to

  14. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

    2006-04-03

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  15. Possible Directions for Redefining the Institutional Framework of the Planning Policy Formulation in Serbia in Accordance with European Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Maksić, Milica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, in the theoretical framework of neoinstitutional theory, the process of spatial policy formulation in Serbia is discussed and compared with the experience of developed European countries. For the analysis of European experience, three countries with different national administrative tradition are selected: the United Kingdom (market-oriented culture), the Netherlands (the culture of consensus) and Germany (the culture of hierarchy). Various institutional arrangements made in...

  16. Environmental risk assessment for the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine: Case study using the European risk assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Ken D; Coors, Anja; Escher, Beate I; Fenner, Kathrin; Garric, Jeanne; Gust, Marion; Knacker, Thomas; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Metcalfe, Chris D; Monteiro, Sara; Moon, Thomas W; Mennigen, Jan A; Parrott, Joanne; Péry, Alexandre R R; Ramil, Maria; Roennefahrt, Ines; Tarazona, José V; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Ternes, Thomas A; Trudeau, Vance L; Boucard, Tatiana; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Servos, Mark R

    2010-07-01

    The serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine was selected for an environmental risk assessment, using the most recent European guideline (EMEA 2006) within the European Union (EU)-funded Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals (ERAPharm) project due to its environmental persistence, acute toxicity to nontarget organisms, and unique pharmacokinetics associated with a readily ionizable compound. As a widely prescribed psychotropic drug, fluoxetine is frequently detected in surface waters adjacent to urban areas because municipal wastewater effluents are the primary route of entry to aquatic environments. In Phase I of the assessment, the initial predicted environmental concentration of fluoxetine in surface water (initial PEC(SW)) reached or exceeded the action limit of 10 ng/L, when using both a default market penetration factor and prescription data for Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Consequently, a Phase II risk assessment was conducted in which green algae were identified as the most sensitive species with a NOEC of terrestrial compartment due to a lack of data on effects of fluoxetine on soil organisms. The need for a separate risk assessment for the main metabolite of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, was not conducted because of a lack of fate and effect studies. Based on published data, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine appeared to have a low to moderate bioaccumulation potential, which should be confirmed in formal studies according to OECD guidelines. Exposure assessments for fluoxetine according to the current framework rely heavily on K(OC) and K(OW) values. This approach is problematic, because fluoxetine is predominantly a cationic substance at environmental pH values. Consequently, the fate of fluoxetine (and other ionic substances) cannot be predicted using partition coefficients established for nonionic compounds. Further, published estimates for partition coefficients of fluoxetine vary, resulting in considerable uncertainties in both the

  17. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): short-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Wetzels, Joyce; Uiters, Ellen; Ariza, Carles; Vitória, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtuvuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2003-12-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) resulted in a smoking prevention project for six European countries. It included activities on four levels: adolescents, schools, parents and out-of-school activities. Common goals and objectives were developed, but countries were also able to include additional objectives. National diversities required country-specific methods. The most important common element was a school-based programme consisting of at least five lessons paying attention to social influence processes and training in refusal skills. During the first year, significantly more smoking prevention activities were realized in experimental schools compared with control schools. Not all countries had the same number of lessons on resisting peer pressures. Significant cognitive changes were observed in Spain, resulting in more negative attitudes, increased self-efficacy levels and a more negative intention towards smoking in the experimental group. Counter-productive cognitive effects were observed in the UK. Significantly less onset of weekly smoking in experimental groups was found in Finland (4.7%) and Spain (3.1%). Counter-productive effects were observed in Denmark and the UK. In conclusion, while having common objectives, the ESFA approach allowed for a great deal of diversity. Fundamental research using dismantling designs is needed to be able to detect the most effective elements of smoking prevention programmes for different age groups. Attention to parenting styles and practices is also needed.

  18. Drug delivery research in the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frima, Heico J; Gabellieri, Cristina; Nilsson, Maj-Inger

    2012-07-20

    This paper presents an overview of drug delivery research activities funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7). It gives a brief introduction of the main policies, structure and budget of FP7 with the four Specific Programmes 'Cooperation', 'People', 'Ideas' and 'Capacities' including the ten priority themes of the Specific Programme Cooperation. The priority themes HEALTH, 'Information and Communication Technologies' (ICT) and 'Nanosciences and nanotechnologies, multifunctional Materials and Production technologies' (NMP) and the 'Innovative Medicines Initiative' (IMI) are discussed since they are the main sources of funding for medical and pharmaceutical research. Further details are provided on drug delivery research, notably the funding for development of drug delivery technologies by the NMP priority theme in the context of its funding of nanomedicine research projects. The link is made to the rapidly developing field of biomaterials research for implants and regenerative medicine. The paper highlights the strategic importance of the Key Emerging Technologies (KETs) including nanotechnology for the competitiveness of the medical and pharmaceutical sectors. Finally, there is an outlook to the future Framework Programme for Research 'Horizon 2020'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions

  20. Are Lead Exposures a Risk in European Fresh Waters? A Regulatory Assessment Accounting for Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Wilson, Iain; Merrington, Graham; Chowdhury, M Jasim

    2018-01-01

    An indicative compliance assessment of the Europe-wide bioavailable lead Environmental Quality Standard of 1.2 µg L-1 (EQS) was undertaken against regulatory freshwater monitoring data from six European member states and FOREGS database. Bio-met, a user-friendly tool based upon Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs) was used to account for bioavailability, along with the current European Water Framework Directive lead dissolved organic carbon correction approach. The outputs from both approaches were compared to the BLM. Of the 9054 freshwater samples assessed only 0.6% exceeded the EQS of 1.2 µg L-1 after accounting for bioavailability. The data showed that ambient background concentrations of lead across Europe are unlikely to influence general compliance with the EQS, although there may be isolated local issues. The waters showing the greatest sensitivity to potential lead exposures are characterized by relatively low DOC (< 0.5 mg L-1), regardless of the pH and calcium concentrations.

  1. Small drinking water systems under spatiotemporal water quality variability: a risk-based performance benchmarking framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Haider, Husnain; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-23

    Traditional approaches for benchmarking drinking water systems are binary, based solely on the compliance and/or non-compliance of one or more water quality performance indicators against defined regulatory guidelines/standards. The consequence of water quality failure is dependent on location within a water supply system as well as time of the year (i.e., season) with varying levels of water consumption. Conventional approaches used for water quality comparison purposes fail to incorporate spatiotemporal variability and degrees of compliance and/or non-compliance. This can lead to misleading or inaccurate performance assessment data used in the performance benchmarking process. In this research, a hierarchical risk-based water quality performance benchmarking framework is proposed to evaluate small drinking water systems (SDWSs) through cross-comparison amongst similar systems. The proposed framework (R WQI framework) is designed to quantify consequence associated with seasonal and location-specific water quality issues in a given drinking water supply system to facilitate more efficient decision-making for SDWSs striving for continuous performance improvement. Fuzzy rule-based modelling is used to address imprecision associated with measuring performance based on singular water quality guidelines/standards and the uncertainties present in SDWS operations and monitoring. This proposed R WQI framework has been demonstrated using data collected from 16 SDWSs in Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec, Canada, and compared to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment WQI, a traditional, guidelines/standard-based approach. The study found that the R WQI framework provides an in-depth state of water quality and benchmarks SDWSs more rationally based on the frequency of occurrence and consequence of failure events.

  2. Systems Reliability Framework for Surface Water Sustainability and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. R.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2016-12-01

    With microbial contamination posing a serious threat to the availability of clean water across the world, it is necessary to develop a framework that evaluates the safety and sustainability of water systems in respect to non-point source fecal microbial contamination. The concept of water safety is closely related to the concept of failure in reliability theory. In water quality problems, the event of failure can be defined as the concentration of microbial contamination exceeding a certain standard for usability of water. It is pertinent in watershed management to know the likelihood of such an event of failure occurring at a particular point in space and time. Microbial fate and transport are driven by environmental processes taking place in complex, multi-component, interdependent environmental systems that are dynamic and spatially heterogeneous, which means these processes and therefore their influences upon microbial transport must be considered stochastic and variable through space and time. A physics-based stochastic model of microbial dynamics is presented that propagates uncertainty using a unique sampling method based on artificial neural networks to produce a correlation between watershed characteristics and spatial-temporal probabilistic patterns of microbial contamination. These results are used to address the question of water safety through several sustainability metrics: reliability, vulnerability, resilience and a composite sustainability index. System reliability is described uniquely though the temporal evolution of risk along watershed points or pathways. Probabilistic resilience describes how long the system is above a certain probability of failure, and the vulnerability metric describes how the temporal evolution of risk changes throughout a hierarchy of failure levels. Additionally our approach allows for the identification of contributions in microbial contamination and uncertainty from specific pathways and sources. We expect that this

  3. The role of hydrological and water quality models in the application of the ecosystem services framework for the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallouin, Thibault; Bruen, Michael; Feeley, Hugh B.; Christie, Michael; Bullock, Craig; Kelly, Fiona; Kelly-Quinn, Mary

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological cycle is intimately linked with environmental processes that are essential for human welfare in many regards including, among others, the provision of safe water from surface and subsurface waterbodies, rain-fed agricultural production, or the provision of aquatic-sourced food. As well as being a receiver of these natural benefits, the human population is also a manager of the water and other natural resources and, as such, can affect their future sustainable provision. With global population growth and climate change, both the dependence of the human population on water resources and the threat they pose to these resources are likely to intensify so that the sustainability of the coupled natural and human system is threatened. In the European Union, the Water Framework Directive is driving policy and encouraging member states to manage their water resources wisely in order to maintain or restore ecological quality. To this end, the ecosystem services framework can be a useful tool to link the requirements in terms of ecological status into more tangible descriptors, that is the ecosystem services. In the ESManage Project, existing environmental system models such as hydrological models and water quality models are used as the basis to quantify the provision of many hydrological and aquatic ecosystem services by constructing indicators for the ecosystem services from the modelled environmental variables. By allowing different management options and policies to be compared, these models can be a valuable source of information for policy makers when they are used for climate and land use scenario analyses. Not all hydrological models developed for flood forecasting are suitable for this application and inappropriate models can lead to questionable conclusions. This paper demonstrates the readily available capabilities of a specially developed catchment hydrological model coupled with a water quality model to quantify a wide range of biophysically

  4. The strategic research agenda on EMC in the next (7th) European research framework program 2007-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2006-01-01

    The European Commission has published the research policy and the proposal for the next (7th) Framework Programme [1]. It is stated that, to be a genuinely competitive, knowledge-based economy, Europe must become better at producing knowledge through research, at diffusing it through education and

  5. Historical Development of NATO Stanag 6001 Language Standards and Common European Framework (CEF) and the Comparison of Their Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to shed light on the historical development of language studies in military and social context and to compare the current status of NATO Stanag (Standard Agreement) 6001 language scale with Common European Framework (CEF). Language studies in military context date back to World War II and the emergence of Army Specialized…

  6. What is the place of diaphasical, diatopical and diastratical variation in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Perko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a critical analysis of the treatment of the diaphasical, diatopical and diastratical variation in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages as well as in some instruments and manuals based on this reference document, namely in reference descriptions for French and in handbooks intended for foreigners preparing for the DELF/DALF examinations.

  7. The "Common European Framework of Reference" Down Under: A Survey of Its Use and Non-Use in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand-Marconnet, Nadine; Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Today, the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001) is widely recognised as emblematic of globalization in education, both in the realms of policy and in educational practice (Byram et al. 2012a). In Europe the CEFR is regularly cited as a reference point for curriculum planning, and is often…

  8. The Council of Europe's "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR): Approach, Status, Function and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    The Council of Europe's "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" is rapidly becoming a powerful instrument for shaping language education policies in Europe and beyond. The task of relating language policies, language curricula, teacher education and training, textbook and course design and content, examinations and…

  9. The Post-9/11 European Union Counterterrorism Response: Legal-Institutional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Madrid bombings , London bombings , effectiveness, legality, measures, Europol, Eurojust. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 189 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...European Arrest Warrant EBDS European Bomb Data System ECHR European Court on Human Rights xiv ECJ European Court of Justice ECRIS...groups included: the Club of Berne established in 1971 by national security services of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Switzerland, Great Britain

  10. European Expert Consensus Paper on the implementation of Article 14 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Luke

    2016-11-01

    On 24 November 2015, under the auspices of the European Policy Roundtable on Smoking Cessation, 15 experts on tobacco control and dependence from across the European Union, chaired by Professor Luke Clancy, met in Oslo, Norway, to discuss the implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, namely Article 14. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper reports the consensus reached by all Roundtable participants on the need to further advance the availability and access to services to support cessation of tobacco use. The implementation of services to support cessation of tobacco use in line with Article 14 can and should be significantly improved to protect the health of European citizens. The meeting was initiated and funded by Pfizer.

  11. Impact of Sustainable Environmental Expenditures Policy on Air Pollution Reduction, During European Integration Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the growth of society, against the boosting of scientific and technological progress, also arises the negative effect of pollution acceleration. In this context, we relate to risks that imply the growth of pollution, especially against nuisance air pollution increase (CO, SO2, NO etc. with major implications on the growth of greenhouse effect, the melting of the ice fields, respectively the pollution of the soil with nitrates from fertilizers intensively used in agriculture. Our study is up-to-date, as pursuant to the ONU Conference from Paris (France 2015, Conference on Climate Changes, they reached an agreement and the adopted text admits the menace of climate modifications is far more important than previously acknowledged and engages the participants to reduce their pollutant emissions. The researchers’ current concerns focus on studying the effects of the redistribution of financial resources obtained by practising the ‘green’ fiscal policy on dependent variables. Observing them, we integrate the respective variables into complex models analysed by multiple regression (both standard and robust and the fixed effects panel on 20 European countries which also reflect the different effects on the environmental policy and the expenses it incurred. The main purpose of the analysis we aim to accomplish is the impact of the policy for environment expenditure tenable within the European framework on against nuisance air pollution attenuation. The statistical analysis aims at identifying these effects by means of regression equations (OLS, robust regression (M method, fixed and random effects, using panel data from 18 EU countries, as well as Switzerland and Turkey due to their position in relation to the community block; we will analyse the period between 1995-2013. Further to the application of multiple regression statistical methods (OLS and robust M, our results show that teimiqgdp expenses played a major role in the reduction

  12. From medical tradition to traditional medicine: A Tibetan formula in the European framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Herbert; Vennos, Cécile

    2015-06-05

    The increasing prevalence of complex multi-factorial chronic diseases and multimorbidity reveals the need for an enlargement of the therapeutic options. Potent multicompound herbal formulations from traditional medicine systems such as Tibetan Medicine might meet the requirements. With its practice over the centuries Tibetan Medicine is one of the important medical heritages of the world. In the 20th century Tibetan formulas came to Switzerland, where the formula Gabur-25 was then registered as medicine in 1977 (Padma 28, Swissmedic No 35872). The new European directive 2004/24/EC opened the avenue for traditional herbal medicinal products and registrations followed in Austria (HERB-00037) and the UK (39568/0001). The aim of this review was to analyse not only the critical points and hazards but also chances that occur in the endeavour of bringing a ethnopharmacological based preparation to the market within a modern Western medical and regulatory framework and to discuss the necessary transformation steps from a traditional herbal formula towards a modern pharmaceutical product with the example of the Tibetan formula Gabur-25. The historic transformation process from the 19th to the 21st century is analysed, using the registration documents and other material from the library of Padma AG, Hinwil, Switzerland. The transformation of a traditional formula into a modern traditional herbal medicinal product according to the present EU regulations is a multi faceted process. The modern indication represents only a small part of the possible traditional indications. Quality and product labelling has to be adopted to modern standards. The formula, once registered, is a fixed combination of herbal and mineral ingredients. Contrary to this the concept of Asian medical tradition allows a certain flexibility in the composition of an herbal formula. The ingredients are constantly adapted to local conditions, availability of raw material and therapeutic situation. The example

  13. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  14. Is Europe Open to a Student-Oriented Framework for Literature? A Comparative Analysis of the Formal Literature Curriculum in Six European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Theo; Sâmihaian, Florentina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of literary curricula in six European countries and is part of the project LiFT-2, funded by Comenius' Life Long Learning Programme of the European Commission. The result of this project, that involved almost 4,500 teachers, is a European literary framework for secondary education which can be described as a…

  15. Economics of Irrigation Water Mixing Within a Farm Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinerman, E.; Yaron, D.

    1983-04-01

    Linear programing models, deterministic in the short run and stochastic (random rainfall) in the long run, aimed at guiding annual decision making with regard to crop mix and saline irrigation water mixing from various sources within a farm framework, are presented. The short-run model incorporates the physical, biological, and economic relationships involved in one endogenous system and enables an in depth analysis of them but is limited to a single year. The long-run model considers the effects of the short-run decisions on the future but several relationships are incorporated exogenously. The short run model's results are utilized for the determination of some of these predetermined relationships. The models are applied to a potential farm situation in southern Israel. The results provide priorities in the allocation of water and soil plots of varying salinity levels and empirical estimates of the shadow prices and the rates of substitution between the limited resources.

  16. A framework for planning sustainable seawater desalination water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Maedeh P; McHugh, Adam; Anda, Martin; Ho, Goen

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative framework for sustainable desalination planning in metropolitan areas, which integrates the tools of mixed integer linear programming and life cycle assessment, is presented. The life cycle optimisation framework allows for optimal desalination planning by considering choices over intake type, staging and location of the infrastructure under different land-use, environmental and economic policies. Optimality is defined by the decision maker's selected objective function, being either an environmental impact or a levelised cost indicator. The framework was tested for future desalination planning scenarios in the northern metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. Results indicate that multi-staged construction and decentralised planning solutions may produce lower life cycle environmental impacts (58%) and at a lower levelised cost (24%) than a centralised desalination solution currently being considered by Western Australian water planners. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the better environmental and economic performance of decentralised planning over centralised planning is highly sensitive to the proportion of land that can be made available for the siting of decentralised plants near the demand zone. Insight into land use policies is a critical factor to the initiation and success of decentralised solution in developed metropolitan areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. WAVE-E: The WAter Vapour European-Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-LLuva, David; Deiml, Michael; Pavesi, Sara

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in the Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) have been increasingly recognized to severely impact surface climate and high-impact weather phenomena. Weakened stratospheric circumpolar jets have been linked to worldwide extreme temperature and high-precipitation events, while anomalously strong stratospheric jets can lead to an increase in surface winds and tropical cyclone intensity. Moreover, stratospheric water vapor has been identified as an important forcing for global decadal surface climate change. In the past years, operational weather forecast and climate models have adapted a high vertical resolution in the UTLS region in order to capture the dynamical processes occurring in this highly stratified region. However, there is an evident lack of available measurements in the UTLS region to consistently support these models and further improve process understanding. Consequently, both the IPCC fifth assessment report and the ESA-GEWEX report 'Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science Priorities' have identified an urgent need for long-term observations and improved process understanding in the UTLS region. To close this gap, the authors propose the 'WAter Vapour European - Explorer' (WAVE-E) space mission, whose primary goal is to monitor water vapor in the UTLS at 1 km vertical, 25 km horizontal and sub-daily temporal resolution. WAVE-E consists of three quasi-identical small ( 500 kg) satellites (WAVE-E 1-3) in a constellation of Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbits, each carrying a limb sounding and cross-track scanning mid-infrared passive spectrometer (824 cm-1 to 829 cm-1). The core of the instruments builds a monolithic, field-widened type of Michelson interferometer without any moving parts, rendering it rigid and fault tolerant. Synergistic use of WAVE-E and MetOp-NG operational satellites is identified, such that a data fusion algorithm could provide water vapour profiles from the

  18. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  19. Smorgasbord or symphony? Assessing public health nutrition policies across 30 European countries using a novel framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Orton, Lois; Hawkes, Corinna; Taylor-Robinson, David; O'Flaherty, Martin; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Hyseni, Lirije; Moonan, May; Rayner, Mike; Capewell, Simon

    2014-11-21

    policies in Europe appear diverse, dynamic, complex and bewildering. The "4 Ps" framework potentially offers a structured and comprehensive categorisation. Encouragingly, the majority of European countries are engaged in activities intended to increase consumption of healthy food and decrease the intake of "junk" food and sugary drinks. Leading countries include Finland, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Hungary, Portugal and perhaps the UK. However, all countries fall short of optimal activities. More needs to be done across Europe to implement the most potentially powerful fiscal and regulatory nutrition policies.

  20. European identity: A lot of water will pass...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuvaković Uroš V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic problem that the process of Euro integrations faces today is the absence of the European identity. There are ideas how it could be built, on what it should be based, but the basic problem is the EU has give up in a great extent from the real European values - the ideals like freedom, equality, solidarity, social justice, etc. Human rights are the European achievement, but a distinctive, therefore identity difference between the European and the Anglo-American interpretation is that the European variant guaranteed social-economic rights, which was actually a concretization of the great ideal of solidarity. Today, with prevailing ideology of globalism, just this element of human rights has been brutally waded, a part of the European identity with it. A similar situation is with what the Europeans consider the greatest achievement of the EU - free movement of people, goods and capital. Free movement of people is questioned by building barbed wires and creation of a new ante murale christianitatis, even in Islamic states, far away from the Schengen Area that is proclaimed untouchable. Moreover, all those people swarming to the Europe actually have close connections with it - they originate from former European colonies, brutally exploited by their metropolises for decades and centuries. Not only that, but recently their new 'Europeanization' has been attempted through the initialization of the 'Arab Spring' , which resulted with increase of the Islamic fundamentalism, disintegration of certain Arab states and tribal war in them, increase of terrorism and, of course, migrants from those areas. Although it would be justified to try to return the evil gotten to them at least partly, by refusing to accept the miserable the Europe gives the mortal strike to some of the main values that are considered its identity characteristics - free movement of people and solidarity. All this, actually, indicates on the absence of the European identity

  1. Validation of non-formal and informal learning from a European perspective – linking validation arrangements with national qualifications frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Mikulec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses European policy on the validation of non-formal and informal learning, which is presented as a “salvation narrative” that can improve the functioning of the labour market, provide a way out from unemployment and strengthen the competitiveness of the economy. Taking as our starting point recent findings in adult education theory on the validation of non-formal and informal learning, we aim to prove the thesis that what European validation policy promotes is above all economic purpose and that it establishes a “Credential/Credit-exchange” model of validation of non-formal and informal learning. We proceed to ecxamine the effect of European VNIL policy in selected European countries where validation arrangements are linked to the qualifications framework. We find that the “Credential/ Credit-exchange” validation model was first established in a few individual European countries and then transferred, as a “successful” model, to the level of common European VNIL policy.

  2. Improving the Indico Framework at the European Organization for Nuclear Research - Internship Report - LEIC 2006/2007 (FEUP)

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Jose Pedro

    2007-01-01

    This document describes the work developed by José Pedro Macedo Alves Ferreira, Informatics Engineering and Computing (LEIC) undergraduate student at the Engineering Faculty of the University of Porto (FEUP), in the context of the project "Improving the Indico Framework". The project took place at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), in the framework of both the Technical Student Program of this organization, and the curricular internship of the aforementioned degree. The contents of this report refer to the internship period, the first half of the one-year Technical Student program. The project aimed to introduce usability improvements into an already existing web application, the Indico platform, a integrated system for event scheduling and management, which was initially developed as a European project and continued by CERN, being currently used by several institutions worldwide. Indico presented some usability issues that for long had been noticed by the users and required correction, m...

  3. Developing Speaking Materials Based on the Common European Framework of Reference (Cefr) for Increasing the Students' Speaking Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniarti, Yuniarti

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to describe the steps of developing speaking materials based on the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) for increasing the students' speaking skill of the A2 students of IDeA Indonesia, Metro, Lampung. This research included in research and development (R&D). The mixed-method was used in this research. The combinations of qualitative and quantitative techniques were used for analysing the data. The qualitative data were collected by conducting interviews, fi...

  4. European integration in education of the EQF and National Qualifications Frameworks : challenges and achievements by Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt,Suzanne; Cippitani, Roberto;

    2012-01-01

    Europe, through the European Commission and the EU Member States have long recognised education as the key to strengthening the European economy and for promoting social cohesion in society (Green et al, 2003). It was with the Maastricht Treaty, back in the beginning of the 90s that the EU expanded its remit beyond being only an economic agreement. It is for this reason that the White Paper on Growth, Competitiveness and employment (European Commission, 1993) recognised education and training...

  5. Operationalising active involvement in the EU water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis; Fritsch, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    of involvement. The article discusses the appropriateness of actively involving the public during the two aforementioned decision-making stages and suggests concrete ways in which active involvement may be operationalised. We conclude that member states should not implement a minimum form of participation......We identify two key stages in the river basin planning process under the Water Framework Directive: the selection of instruments for a programme of measures to achieve the environmental targets, and disproportionate cost analysis to determine whether selected measures involve high costs. Some EU...... of actively involving non-state actors, which can be summarised as increasing the effectiveness of policy and improving its implementation. Criticising the emerging economic decision-making approach, we argue that economic analyses could result in a missed opportunity to capitalise on the potential benefits...

  6. Modeling the stream water nitrate dynamics in a 60,000-km2 European catchment, the Garonne, southwest France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisseuil, Clément; Wade, Andrew J; Tudesque, Loïc; Lek, Sovan

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics in the stream water NO(3)-N concentrations in a major European river-system, the Garonne (62,700 km(2)), are described and related to variations in climate, land management, and effluent point-sources using multivariate statistics. Building on this, the Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) rainfall-runoff model and the Integrated Catchment Model of Nitrogen (INCA-N) are applied to simulate the observed flow and N dynamics. This is done to help us to understand which factors and processes control the flow and N dynamics in different climate zones and to assess the relative inputs from diffuse and point sources across the catchment. This is the first application of the linked HBV and INCA-N models to a major European river system commensurate with the largest basins to be managed under the Water Framework Directive. The simulations suggest that in the lowlands, seasonal patterns in the stream water NO(3)-N concentrations emerge and are dominated by diffuse agricultural inputs, with an estimated 75% of the river load in the lowlands derived from arable farming. The results confirm earlier European catchment studies. Namely, current semi-distributed catchment-scale dynamic models, which integrate variations in land cover, climate, and a simple representation of the terrestrial and in-stream N cycle, are able to simulate seasonal NO(3)-N patterns at large spatial (>300 km(2)) and temporal (> or = monthly) scales using available national datasets.

  7. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  8. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  9. GIFMod: A Flexible Modeling Framework For Hydraulic and Water Quality Performance Assessment of Stormwater Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A flexible framework has been created for modeling multi-dimensional hydrological and water quality processes within stormwater green infrastructures (GIs). The framework models a GI system using a set of blocks (spatial features) and connectors (interfaces) representing differen...

  10. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  11. Geohazard monitoring and modelling using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry in the framework of the European project Terrafirma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksley, Geraint; Arnaud, Alain; Banwell, Marie-Josée

    2013-04-01

    Increasingly, geohazard risk managers are looking to satellite observations as a promising option for supporting their risk management and mitigation strategies. The Terrafirma project, aimed at supporting civil protection agencies, local authorities in charge of risk assessment and mitigation is a pan-European ground motion information service funded by the European Space Agency's Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative. Over 100 services were delivered to organizations over the last ten years. Terrafirma promotes the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) within three thematic areas for terrain motion analysis: Tectonics, Flooding and Hydrogeology (ground water, landslides and inactive mines), as well as the innovative Wide Area mapping service, aimed at measuring land deformation over very large areas. Terrafirma's thematic services are based on advanced satellite interferometry products; however they exploit additional data sources, including non-EO, coupled with expert interpretation specific to each thematic line. Based on the combination of satellite-derived ground-motion information products with expert motion interpretation, a portfolio of services addressing geo-hazard land motion issues was made available to users. Although not a thematic in itself, the Wide Area mapping product constitutes the fourth quarter of the Terrafirma activities. The wide area processing chain is nearly fully automatic and requires only a little operator interaction. The service offers an operational PSI processing for wide-area mapping with mm accuracy of ground-deformation measurement at a scale of 1:250,000 (i.e. one cm in the map corresponds to 2.5 Km on the ground) on a country or continent level. The WAP was demonstrated using stripmap ERS data however it is foreseen to be a standard for the upcoming Sentinel-1 mission that will be operated in Terrain Observation by Progressive Scan (TOPS) mode. Within

  12. Discarded fish in European waters: general patterns and contrasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlmann, Sebastian S.; Helmond, Aloysius T. M. van; Stefansdottir, Elisabet Kemp

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the practice of discarding commercially fished organisms, several measures such as a discard ban and extra allowances on top of landings quotas (“catch quota”) have been proposed by the European Commission. However, for their development and successful implementation, an understanding...... of discard patterns on a European scale is needed. In this study, we present an inter-national synthesis of discard data collected on board commercial, towed-gear equipped vessels operating under six different national flags spanning from the Baltic to the Mediterranean Seas mainly between 2003 and 2008. We...

  13. Discarded fish in European waters: general patterns and contrasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlmann, S.S.; Helmond, van A.T.M.; Stefánsdóttir, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the practice of discarding commercially fished organisms, several measures such as a discard ban and extra allowances on top of landings quotas (“catch quota”) have been proposed by the European Commission. However, for their development and successful implementation, an understanding of

  14. The "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" and the European Language Portfolio: Some History, a View of Language Learner Autonomy, and Some Implications for Language Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a plenary talk given at the CercleS seminar hosted by the University of Groningen in November 2011 to mark the tenth anniversary of the publication of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" and the launch of the European Language Portfolio. The first part of the article summarizes the history…

  15. Assessment of the environmental status in Hellenic coastal waters (Eastern Mediterranean: from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A  methodology is presented to assess the environmental status sensu the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive (MSFD based on data obtained from the monitoring of water quality in the Hellenic coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive (WFD.   An adapted decision tree used for integrating the results of the WFD in the Basque country was applied. Modifications lie to the evaluation of the physicochemical status based on a eutrophication index developed for Eastern Mediterranean waters. Results on hydromorphological, physicochemical and biological elements are presented. The chemical status was evaluated based on measurements of heavy metals in water. The evaluation of the biological quality was based on the use of metrics developed for phytoplankton biomass, benthic macroinvertebrates and macroalgae updated to accommodate MSFD needs. Results on the integrative status of the water bodies were validated by correlating classification results with a pressure index and environmental indicators in water column and sediment. Following this decision tree the majority of stations expected to be at risk of achieving the good status were found in moderate status. Benthos was found to be the element with the closest agreement with the integrated final status having an increased weighting in the decision tree. The quality of benthos and in some  limited cases  the eutrophication index determined largely the final status. The highest disagreement with the integrative classification was produced by macroalgae. All indicators used correlated with water and sediment parameters but benthos correlated better with sediment factors while phytoplankton and eutrophication index with water column parameters.

  16. Urban water transactions: the search of a comprehensive framework for interactions between water and urban systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Hector; Domínguez, Efraín

    2013-04-01

    United Nations global demographic prospects show that from 1950 to 2050, the number of people living in cities will increase from 0.7 to 6.3 billion, which represents a 9 times fold in 100 years. In contrast, human population as a whole doesn't show the same trends of the urban subset. For instance, rural population is in some regions almost stalled or reducing at small rates, with an average growth rate 50% less than the urban population. This progressive change in global population structure, with more people living mostly in urban areas, already places urban settlements as the main node driving the interaction of human population and other earth systems, at local, regional and global scales. This population dynamics is a major source of concern, mainly because the need to comprehensively understand the two apparent contradictory faces of the urbanization phenomena: Despite cities tend to perform more efficiently in terms of mass and energy requirements as function of population size, the agglomeration process in cities typically implies an increase of overall throughput of mass and energy over time. Thus, a central question is to understand how the apparent per capita energy and material flows minimization occurring in cities can propagate its effects towards other geosystems in future population scenarios. The magnitude of scaled (temporal and spatial) effects is crucial to determine if limits of supporting systems capacity is or will be exceeded for a system of cities, or if otherwise is within steady limits. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework aims for the study of the above question from the perspective of water. Typically between 50 and 70% of mass throughput in urban areas is water, however, that figure doesn't account for other teleconnected flows, such as energy production (hydropower facilities) and food production (virtual water), etc. Therefore, a comprehensive view of actual dependence of urban areas and water faces - in the view of the

  17. Energy efficiency in the European water industry. A compendium of best practices and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, J. [Watercycle Research Institute KWR, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Uijterlinde, C. [Foundation for Applied Water Research STOWA, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    This European report on best practices of energy efficiency in the water industry showcases 23 energy efficiency initiatives which were collected as case studies from European water utilities. The 25 case studies presented in this report will be submitted to UKWIR and Black and Veatch, for potential inclusion in the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) global compendium of best practice case studies. The aim of the GWRC-compendium is to identify the promising developments and future opportunities to help deliver incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimisation of existing assets and operations. But also more substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies. The European report describes case studies from: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. Black and Veatch has gathered furthermore information on 47 cases from the UK. These are reported separately and are not included in this European overview.

  18. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study comprised the development of a new index called the 'universal water quality index (UWQI)'. This index has advantages over pre-existing indices by reflecting the appropriateness of water for specific use, e.g. drinking water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the ...

  19. Framework for assessing the viability of implementing dual water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dual water reticulation system comprises separate pipes that supply different water qualities to the end consumer. A set of pipes supply potable water while another set of pipes supply non-potable water. The non-potable water is targeted at meeting water requirements traditionally met using potable water (e.g. toilet and ...

  20. Introduction: achieving sustainable and adaptive fresh water management : Selective studies of international, European, Dutch and Chinese water law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, Marleen; Wouters, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    China and Europe face serious water challenges. Europe has developed a comprehensive and adaptive legal framework for addressing water-related management issues. China continues to go forward with its water management schemes. While China and Europe may seem unlikely comparative settings, this

  1. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehling, Johanna; Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J S; Brand, Tim D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of

  2. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fehling

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA, of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community, and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone. Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi

  3. European demonstration program on the effect-based and chemical identification and monitoring of organic pollutants in European surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousova, Zuzana; Oswald, Peter; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Blaha, Ludek; Muz, Melis; Hu, Meng; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin; Di Paolo, Carolina; Tarcai, Zsolt; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Hollert, Henner; Koprivica, Sanja; Ahel, Marijan; Schollée, Jennifer E; Hollender, Juliane; Suter, Marc J-F; Hidasi, Anita O; Schirmer, Kristin; Sonavane, Manoj; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Creusot, Nicolas; Brion, Francois; Froment, Jean; Almeida, Ana Catarina; Thomas, Kevin; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Tufi, Sara; Ouyang, Xiyu; Leonards, Pim; Lamoree, Marja; Torrens, Victoria Osorio; Kolkman, Annemieke; Schriks, Merijn; Spirhanzlova, Petra; Tindall, Andrew; Schulze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Growing concern about the adverse environmental and human health effects of a wide range of micropollutants requires the development of novel tools and approaches to enable holistic monitoring of their occurrence, fate and effects in the aquatic environment. A European-wide demonstration program (EDP) for effect-based monitoring of micropollutants in surface waters was carried out within the Marie Curie Initial Training Network EDA-EMERGE. The main objectives of the EDP were to apply a simplified protocol for effect-directed analysis, to link biological effects to target compounds and to estimate their risk to aquatic biota. Onsite large volume solid phase extraction of 50 L of surface water was performed at 18 sampling sites in four European river basins. Extracts were subjected to effect-based analysis (toxicity to algae, fish embryo toxicity, neurotoxicity, (anti-)estrogenicity, (anti-)androgenicity, glucocorticoid activity and thyroid activity), to target analysis (151 organic micropollutants) and to nontarget screening. The most pronounced effects were estrogenicity, toxicity to algae and fish embryo toxicity. In most bioassays, major portions of the observed effects could not be explained by target compounds, especially in case of androgenicity, glucocorticoid activity and fish embryo toxicity. Estrone and nonylphenoxyacetic acid were identified as the strongest contributors to estrogenicity, while herbicides, with a minor contribution from other micropollutants, were linked to the observed toxicity to algae. Fipronil and nonylphenol were partially responsible for the fish embryo toxicity. Within the EDP, 21 target compounds were prioritized on the basis of their frequency and extent of exceedance of predicted no effect concentrations. The EDP priority list included 6 compounds, which are already addressed by European legislation, and 15 micropollutants that may be important for future monitoring of surface waters. The study presents a novel simplified

  4. Analytical Overview of the European and Russian Qualifications Frameworks with a Focus on Doctoral Degree Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigisheva, Oksana; Bondarenko, Anna; Soltovets, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides analytical insights into highly acute issues concerning preparation and adoption of Qualifications Frameworks being an adequate response to the growing interactions at the global labor market and flourishing of knowledge economy. Special attention is paid to the analyses of transnational Meta Qualifications Frameworks (A…

  5. Institutional Framework for Analyzing Sustainability in European Agriculture and Rural Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Polman, N.B.P.; Slangen, L.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to develop an institutional framework for analyzing and improving sustainability. More specifically we discuss (i) developing a framework that consists of different institutional levels and a set of indicators for measuring the relevant features of each institutional

  6. EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, Robert [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi, 21020 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: robert.loos@jrc.it; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Locoro, Giovanni; Rimaviciute, Erika; Contini, Serafino; Bidoglio, Giovanni [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi, 21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This study provides the first EU-wide reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters. More than 100 individual water samples from over 100 European rivers from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PFOS, PFOA, benzotriazoles, hormones, and endocrine disrupters. Around 40 laboratories participated in this sampling exercise. The most frequently and at the highest concentration levels detected compounds were benzotriazole, caffeine, carbamazepine, tolyltriazole, and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE{sub 1}C). Only about 10% of the river water samples analysed could be classified as 'very clean' in terms of chemical pollution. The rivers responsible for the major aqueous emissions of PFOS and PFOA from the European Continent could be identified. For the target compounds chosen, we are proposing 'indicative warning levels' in surface waters, which are (for most compounds) close to the 90th percentile of all water samples analysed. - More than 100 river water samples from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected polar organic contaminants.

  7. Pan-European household and industrial water demand: regional relevant estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; de Roo, Ad

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable water management is of high importance to provide adequate quality and quantity of water to European households, industries and agriculture. Especially since demographic, economic and climate changes are expected to increase competition for water between these sectors in the future. A shortage of water implies a reduction in welfare of households or damage to economic sectors. This socio-economic component should be incorporated into the decision-making process when developing water allocation schemes, requiring detailed water use information and cost/benefit functions. We now present the results of our study which is focused at providing regionally relevant pan-European water demand and cost-benefit estimations for the household and industry sector. We gathered consistent data on water consumption, water prices and other relevant variables at the highest spatial detail available from national statistical offices and other organizational bodies. This database provides the most detailed up to date picture of present water use and water prices across Europe. The use of homogeneous data allowed us to compare regions and analyze spatial patterns. We applied econometric methods to determine the main determinants of water demand and make a monetary valuation of water for both the domestic and industry sector. This monetary valuation is important to allow water allocation based on economic damage estimates. We also attempted to estimate how population growth, as well as socio-economic and climatic changes impact future water demand up to 2050 using a homogeneous method for all countries. European projections for the identified major drivers of water demand were used to simulate future conditions. Subsequently, water demand functions were applied to estimate future water use and potential economic damage caused by water shortages. We present our results while also providing some estimation of the uncertainty of our predictions.

  8. Amsterdam as a Sustainable European Metropolis : Integration of Water, Energy and Material Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Hoek, J.P.; Struker, A.; Danschutter, J.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Amsterdam has the ambition to develop as a competitive and sustainable European metropolis. The flows of energy, water and resources within the urban environment have a large potential to contribute to this ambition. The overall mass balances of phosphate, food, water, energy and material imports in

  9. Toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in European waters – recent progress achieved through the CYANOCOST Action and challenges for further research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Meriluoto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to summarise the outcomes of some recent European research concerning toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, with an emphasis on developments within the framework of the CYANOCOST Action (COST Action ES1105, Cyanobacterial Blooms and Toxins in Water Resources: Occurrence, Impacts and Management. State of the art research and management capabilities in Europe on cyanobacteria have benefitted from input from the pure and applied life sciences, the human and animal health sectors, water engineers, economists and planners. Many of these professional groups have been brought together and they interacted favourably within the framework of CYANOCOST. Highlights of the Action include phycological and ecological studies, development of advanced techniques for cyanotoxin analysis, elucidation of cyanotoxin modes of action, management techniques to reduce cyanobacterial mass development, and research on methods and practices for cyanotoxin removal during drinking water treatment. The CYANOCOST Action has had an active outreach policy throughout its lifetime, resulting in e.g. three handbooks, two special issues in scientific journals and activities in the social media. The many contact channels to end-users, including environmental and drinking water supply authorities, health professionals and the general public are described in this review. Furthermore, the authors have identified a number of gaps in knowledge. Proposed  directions for  future research in the field of toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are also discussed.

  10. European attitudes to water pricing: Internalizing environmental and resource costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejser, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions. Within an extensive spatial dataset constructed for the purpose, we estimate the effect of individual information levels and affordability concerns on the attitude towards environmental water pricing. Information about water problems is found to have a significant and positive effect on attitudes as is affordability concern, which may be explained by expectations of inequity measures to come in place in parallel with increasing water prices. Overall these results support the hypothesis that lack of information and affordability concern could lead to resistance towards efficient water pricing among the general public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p hydration level. PMID:27058557

  12. Overview of the principal european and french regulations on air, water and solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarises French and European regulation on discharges into the environment (excluding radio-active emissions), whether solid, liquid or gaseous, that is to say, covering solid wastes, aqueous effluents and atmospheric emissions. The report includes commentaries allowing a better understanding of the legislation. Three fields are examined: the air, solid wastes and water. For each sector, we have listed the European directives and their application in French law. The chronological order facilitates consultation. (author).

  13. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flows and water temperatures under future climate (2031-2060) in power production models, we show declines in both thermoelectric and hydropower generating potential for most parts of Europe, except for the most northern countries. Based on changes in power production potentials, we assess the cost-optimal use of power plants for each European country by taking electricity import and export constraints into account. Higher wholesale prices are projected on a mean annual basis for most European countries (except for Sweden and Norway), with strongest increases for Slovenia (12-15%), Bulgaria (21-23%) and Romania (31-32% for 2031-2060), where limitations in water availability mainly affect power plants with low production costs. Considering the long design life of power plant infrastructures, short-term adaptation strategies are highly recommended to prevent undesired distributional and allocative effects.

  14. European perspectives on regional estimates of standing water bodies and the relevance of man-made ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasmaa, Jaanus; Bartout, Pascal; Marzecova, Agata; Touchart, Laurent; Koff, Tiiu; Choffel, Quentin; Kapanen, Galina; Maleval, Véronique; Millot, Camille; Qsair, Zoubida; Vandel, Egert

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, the small water bodies have been disregarded in the environmental management and protection policies. For example, the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC proposes the threshold surface area of water bodies for typology and reporting as 50 ha. The inventories on state level or scientific studies took into account smaller water bodies (e.g. inventories of lakes and water bodies. Although with differences in the total counts and in the statistical estimates of abundance-size relationship, these recent global estimates reveal the quantitative importance of the terrestrial standing water bodies in the global hydrology (Downing et al., 2006; Verpoorter et al., 2014). Yet, our analysis of the abundance and distribution EU water bodies suggest that these global counts underrepresents the hydrologically complex terrain of the European territory. One of the main limits is the high cutoff limit that excludes small water bodies below ~0.2 ha. For example, in France, Bartout and Touchart (2013) report that including water bodies below 0.01 ha in the estimates resulted in 16 times higher number of water bodies with the surface area one-third higher than officially registered inventories. Also, in Estonia, the water bodies with a surface area below 1 ha are almost 50 times more abundant than those above 1 ha and 92% of all standing water bodies are smaller than 0.2 ha. Using the OpenStreetMap database we will discuss the differences between global inventories and EU-level analysis. We will show the alternative regional estimates of water bodies with the surface size threshold limit 0.01 ha which will illustrate the quantitative importance of very small often man-made ponds, which are however, abundant cultural heritage in many parts of Europe. Secondly, by comparing detailed national inventories compiled for France and Estonia, we will introduce usefulness of the the 'local to global' approach in which the local databases may significantly strengthen

  15. Societal Drivers of European Water Governance: A Comparison of Urban River Restoration Practices in France and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Zingraff-Hamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The European water governance took a decisive turn with the formulation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, which demands the restoration of all water bodies that did not achieve sufficient ecological status. Urban rivers are particularly impaired by human activities and their restorations are motivated by multiple ecological and societal drivers, such as requirements of laws and legislation, and citizen needs for a better quality of life. In this study we investigated the relative influence of socio-political and socio-cultural drivers on urban river restorations by comparing projects of different policy contexts and cultural norms to cross-fertilize knowledge. A database of 75 projects in French and German major cities was compiled to apply (a a comparative statistical analysis of main project features, i.e., motivation, goals, measures, morphological status, and project date; and (b a qualitative textual analysis on project descriptions and titles. The results showed that despite a powerful European directive, urban river restoration projects still keep national specificities. The WFD drives with more intensity German, rather than French, urban river restoration. This study showed the limits of macro-level governance and the influence of microlevel governance driven by societal aspects such as nature perception and relationships between humans and rivers.

  16. The successful transposition of European provisions by member states : application to the Framework Equality Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, Asya; Torenvlied, Rene

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to explain variation between member states in compliance with provisions of a European Union (EU) law. Predictions are derived about the effects of technical fit, discretion, Commission warnings, and conflict in the Council on the probability of member-state transposition of

  17. Framework for local government to implement integrated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... frameworks (financial, planning and implementation) that need to be set or be in place to achieve these goals. This Strategic. Framework encompasses a number of tiered planning strate- gies that are inter-linked so as to inform one another; and incorporates a national implementation strategy which covers.

  18. A blue/green water-based accounting framework for assessment of water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulce B. B.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Mendiondo, Eduardo M.

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) types defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provision probability and use of BW and GW can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 km2) within the Cantareira Water Supply System in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision making, we analyze the BW and GW-Footprint components against probabilistic levels (50th and 30th percentile) of freshwater availability for human activities, during a 23 year period. Several contrasting situations of BW provision are distinguished, using different hydrological-based methodologies for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs), and the risk of natural EFR violation is evaluated by use of a freshwater provision index. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin. Taking into account conservation targets for the basin, it appears that the more restrictive EFR methods are more appropriate than the method currently employed at the study basin. The blue/green water-based accounting framework developed here provides a useful integration of hydrologic, ecosystem and human needs information on a monthly basis, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise.

  19. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Malisova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males, 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L (p = 0.019. Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01. Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40% deviated from a normal hydration level.

  20. Rethinking Sustainability, Scaling Up, and Enabling Environment: A Framework for Their Implementation in Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urooj Q. Amjad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment are inconsistently used in implementing water supply projects. To clarify these terms we develop a framework based on Normalization Process Theory, and apply the framework to a hypothetical water supply project in schools. The resulting framework provides guidance on how these terms could be implemented and analyzed in water supply projects. We conclude that effective use of the terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment would focus on purpose, process, and perspective. This is the first known attempt to analyze the implementation of the three terms together in the context of water supply services.

  1. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2016-08-01

    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New tsunami damage functions developed in the framework of SCHEMA project: application to European-Mediterranean coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Valencia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European SCenarios for tsunami Hazard-induced Emergencies MAnagement (SCHEMA project (www.schemaproject.org, we empirically developed new tsunami damage functions to be used for quantifying the potential tsunami damage to buildings along European-Mediterranean coasts.

    Since no sufficient post-tsunami observations exist in the Mediterranean areas, we based our work on data collected by several authors in Banda Aceh (Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Obviously, special attention has been paid in focusing on Indonesian buildings which present similarities (in structure, construction material, number of storeys with the building typologies typical of the European-Mediterranean areas.

    An important part of the work consisted in analyzing, merging, and interpolating the post-disaster observations published by three independent teams in order to obtain the spatial distribution of flow depths necessary to link the flow-depth hazard parameter to the damage level observed on buildings. Then we developed fragility curves (showing the cumulative probability to have, for each flow depth, a damage level equal-to or greater-than a given threshold and damage curves (giving the expected damage level for different classes of buildings. It appears that damage curves based on the weighted mean damage level and the maximum flow depth are the most appropriate for producing, under GIS, expected damage maps for different tsunami scenarios.

  3. Smorgasbord or symphony? Assessing public health nutrition policies across 30 European countries using a novel framework

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H.; Orton, L; Hawkes, C.; Taylor-Robinson, D; O'Flaherty, M.; McGill, R; Anwar, E; Hyseni, L; Moonan, M.; Rayner, M.; Capewell, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Countries across Europe have introduced a wide variety of policies to improve nutrition. However, the sheer diversity of interventions represents a potentially bewildering smorgasbord. We aimed to map existing public health nutrition policies, and examine their perceived effectiveness, in order to inform future evidence-based diet strategies. Methods We created a public health nutrition policy database for 30 European countries . National nutrition policies were classified and assi...

  4. Framework for local government to implement integrated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Water Services Act (No. 8 of 1997) of South Africa states that water service delivery is the responsibility of local government as Water Services Authorities. The principal legal responsibility is to complete a Water Services Development Plan (WSDP) every 5 years with annual review. The WSDP encapsulates all the ...

  5. European consumer exposure to cosmetic products, a framework for conducting population exposure assessments Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B; Steiling, W; Safford, B; Coroama, M; Tozer, S; Firmani, C; McNamara, C; Gibney, M

    2011-02-01

    Access to reliable exposure data is essential for the evaluation of the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study complements the data set obtained previously (Part 1) and published in 2007 by the European cosmetic industry acting within COLIPA. It provides, in distribution form, exposure data on daily quantities of five cosmetic product types: hair styling, hand cream, liquid foundation, mouthwash and shower gel. In total 80,000 households and 14,413 individual consumers in five European countries provided information using their own products. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between the frequency of product use and the quantity used per application recorded for mouthwash and shower gel. The combined results of Part 1 (7 product types) and Part 2 (5 products) reported here, bring up to date and largely confirm the current exposure parameters concerning some 95% of the estimated daily exposure to cosmetics use in the EU. The design of this study, with its relation to demographic and individual diversity, could serve as a model for studies of populations' exposure to other consumer products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Large-scale Water-related Innovative Renewable Energy Projects and the Water Framework Directive : Legal Issues and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, S.R.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018433

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses two legal issues that relate to the conflict between the interest of protecting water quality under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), versus the interest of promoting the use of innovative water-related renewable energy, with regard to the quota in the Renewable Energy

  7. Potential water saving through changes in European diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Bidoglio, G.

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) regarding agricultural products for three diets – the current diet (REF), a healthy diet (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian diet (VEG) – for the four EU zones WEST, NORTH, SOUTH and EAST. The WFcons related to the consumption of agricultural

  8. Assessing water scarcity in agricultural production system based on the generalized water resources and water footprint framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinchun, Cao; Mengyang, Wu; Xiangping, Guo; Yalian, Zheng; Yan, Gong; Nan, Wu; Weiguang, Wang

    2017-12-31

    An indicator, agricultural water stress index (AWSI), was established based blue-green water resources and water footprint framework for regional water scarcity in agricultural production industry evaluation. AWSI is defined as the ratio of the total agricultural water footprint (AWF) to water resources availability (AWR) in a single year. Then, the temporal and spatial patterns of AWSI in China during 1999-2014 were analyzed based on the provincial AWR and AWF quantification. The results show that the annual AWR in China has been maintained at approximately 2540Gm3, of which blue water accounted for >70%. The national annual AWF was approximately 1040Gm3 during the study period and comprised 65.6% green, 12.7% blue and 21.7% grey WFs The space difference in both the AWF for per unit arable land (AWFI) and its composition was significant. National AWSI was calculated as 0.413 and showed an increasing trend in the observed period. This index increased from 0.320 (mid-water stress level) in 2000 to 0.490 (high water stress level) in the present due to the expansion of the agricultural production scale. The Northern provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (PAMs) have been facing high water stress, particularly the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, which was at a very high water stress level (AWSI>0.800). Humid South China faces increasingly severe water scarcity, and most of the PAMs in the region have converted from low water stress level (AWSI=0.100-0.200) to mid water stress level (AWSI=0.200-0.400). The AWSI is more appropriate for reflecting the regional water scarcity than the existing water stress index (WSI) or the blue water scarcity (BWS) indicator, particularly for the arid agricultural production regions due to the revealed environmental impacts of agricultural production. China should guarantee the sustainable use of agricultural water resources by reducing its crop water footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fecundity of migrating European eel (Anguilla anguilla from Polish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dębowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated that individual fecundity of 34 migrating European female eels Anguilla anguilla increases linearly with body weight (BW and total length (TL. The total individual fecundity of fish from 560 to 1960 g BW was between 981 x 103 and 6320 x 103 eggs, respectively. The mean relative individual fecundity equalled 2415 x 103 (± 524 x 103 per kg BW. The values of this parameter ranged from 1753 x 103 to 3224.5 x 103 kg–1. Based on the results, it might be suggested that A. anguilla has lower total individual fecundity than New Zealand longfin eel (Anguilla dieffenbachii, American eel (Anguilla rostrata and Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica although it has one of the highest fecundity values per kg BW. Total fecundity was strongly depended from fat level in muscle (R2 = 0.9523 and ovary (R2 = 0.9531 as well as level of DHA content in ovary (R2 = 0.8967 and muscle (R2 = 0.6274 (N=10. There were no important relationship between total fecundity and protein level as well as in muscle and ovary

  10. European industrial water use: a new dataset with high spatial and sectorial detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; de Roo, Ad; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-04-01

    One of the most important components of the water balance in terms of water scarcity modelling is an accurate quantification of water abstractions by water using sectors. Data availability for this topic is sadly strikingly limited, most notably for the industry sector. Due to the lack of data, many global and continental scale modelling studies rely on relatively outdated water use datasets with course resolution which generally treat the industry sector as a single unit. The lack of spatial and sectorial detail hurts the local relevance and applicability of these large-scale models to the point that results might be meaningless for regional policy support, especially because economic assessments of potential water allocation policies require the separation of economic activities with different water use behavior and water productivity (industrial production per unit of water). With this work, we aim to solve this knowledge gap for Europe by providing a pan-European dataset with regional relevance of water use and water productivity values at the highest sectorial and spatial detail possible. We gathered industrial water use data from national statistical offices and other organizational bodies, separating ten different industry subsections of the NACE classification (Nomenclature of Economic Activities). Where data was not adequately available from national databases, we used complementary figures from EUROSTAT (official database of the European Commission). Then we used national GVA (Gross Value Added) to calculate water productivity values per country for all industrial subsections. As a final step, we used a database with locations and production records of nearly 20,000 individual industrial activities to proportionally distribute the national water use values for each industry section to roughly 1200 regions in Europe. This resulted in a pan-European dataset of water use at regional level and water productivity at the national level for ten industry sections

  11. Sustainability assessment of regional water resources under the DPSIR framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Huanjie; Wu, Pute; Geng, Qingling; Xu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a scarce and critical resource in both natural and socioeconomic systems. Increasing populations combined with an increasing demand for water resources have led to water shortages worldwide. Current water management strategies may not be sustainable, and comprehensive action should be taken to minimize the water budget deficit. Sustainable water resources management is essential because it ensures the integration of social, economic, and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. This paper establishes the indicators to evaluate the sustainability of water utilization based on the Drive-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a comprehensive assessment of changes to the sustainability of the water resource system in the city of Bayannur was conducted using these indicators. The results indicate that there is an increase in the driving force of local water consumption due to changes in society, economic development, and the consumption structure of residents. The pressure on the water system increased, whereas the status of the water resources continued to decrease over the study period due to the increasing drive indicators. The local government adopted a series of response measures to relieve the decreasing water resources and alleviate the negative effects of the increasing driver in demand. The response measures improved the efficiency of water usage to a large extent, but the large-scale expansion in demands brought a rebounding effect, known as ;Jevons paradox; At the same time, the increasing emissions of industrial and agriculture pollutants brought huge pressures to the regional water resources environment, which caused a decrease in the sustainability of regional water resources. Changing medium and short-term factors, such as regional economic pattern, technological levels, and water utilization practices, can contribute to the sustainable utilization of

  12. Biota monitoring and the Water Framework Directive-can normalization overcome shortcomings in sampling strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, Annette; Rüdel, Heinz; Teubner, Diana; Buchmeier, Georgia; Lowis, Jaqueline; Heiss, Christiane; Wellmitz, Jörg; Koschorreck, Jan

    2016-11-01

    We compare the results of different monitoring programs regarding spatial and temporal trends of priority hazardous substances of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Fish monitoring data for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mercury (Hg), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) sampled in German freshwaters between the mid-1990s and 2014 were evaluated according to the recommendations of the 2014 adopted WFD guidance document on biota monitoring, i.e., normalization to 5 % lipid content (HCB) or 26 % dry mass (Hg, PFOS) and adjustment to trophic level (TL) 4. Data of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) (annual pooled samples of bream) were compared to monitoring data of the German federal states (FS), which refer to individual fish of different species. Significant decreasing trends (p < 0.01) were detected for Hg in bream (Abramis brama) sampled by both, the ESB and the FS between 1993 and 2013 but not for FS samples comprising different fish species. Data for HCB and PFOS were more heterogeneous due to a smaller database and gave no consistent results. Obviously, normalization could not compensate differences in sampling strategies. The results suggest that the data treatment procedure proposed in the guidance document has shortcomings and emphasize the importance of highly standardized sampling programs in trend monitoring or whenever results between sites have to be compared.

  13. Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Reichstein, M.; Breda, N.

    2007-01-01

    stand to estimate the water balance terms: trees and understorey transpiration, rainfall interception, throughfall, drainage in the different soil layers and soil water content. This model calculated the onset date, duration and intensity of the soil water shortage (called water stress) using measured......The drought of 2003 was exceptionally severe in many regions of Europe, both in duration and in intensity. In some areas, especially in Germany and France, it was the strongest drought for the last 50 years, lasting for more than 6 months. We used continuous carbon and water flux measurements at 12...... European monitoring sites covering various forest ecosystem types and a large climatic range in order to characterise the consequences of this drought on ecosystems functioning. As soil water content in the root zone was only monitored in a few sites, a daily water balance model was implemented at each...

  14. Organic food quality: a framework for concept, definition and evaluation from the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Baars, Ton; Bügel, Susanne; Busscher, Nicolaas; Huber, Machteld; Kusche, Daniel; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schmid, Otto; Seidel, Kathrin; Taupier-Letage, Bruno; Velimirov, Alberta; Załecka, Aneta

    2012-11-01

    Consumers buy organic food because they believe in the high quality of the product. Furthermore, the EU legal regulatory framework for organic food and farming defines high quality of the products as an important goal of production. A major challenge is the need to define food quality concepts and methods for determination. A background is described which allows embedding of the quality definitions as well as evaluation methods into a conceptual framework connected to the vision and mission of organic agriculture and food production. Organic food quality is defined through specific aspects and criteria. For evaluation each criterion has to be described by indicators. The determination of indicators should be through parameters, where parameters are described by methods. Conversely, the conceptual framework is described according to underlying principles and starting definitions are given, but further work has do be done on the detailed scientific description of the indicators. Furthermore, parameters have to be defined for the evaluation of suitability of these indicators for organic food production. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Incidence of multiple sclerosis among European Economic Area populations, 1985-2009: the framework for monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; García-Merino, Antonio; de Sá, Joao; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2013-06-12

    A debate surrounding multiple sclerosis epidemiology has centred on time-related incidence increases and the need of monitoring. The purpose of this study is to reassess multiple sclerosis incidence in the European Economic Area. We conducted a systematic review of literature from 1965 onwards and integrated elements of original research, including requested or completed data by surveys authors and specific analyses. The review of 5323 documents yielded ten studies for age- and sex-specific analyses, and 21 studies for time-trend analysis of single data sets. After 1985, the incidence of multiple sclerosis ranged from 1.12 to 6.96 per 100,000 population, was higher in females, tripled with latitude, and doubled with study midpoint year. The north registered increasing trends from the 1960s and 1970s, with a historic drop in the Faroe Islands, and fairly stable data in the period 1980-2000; incidence rose in Italian and French populations in the period 1970-2000, in Evros (Greece) in the 1980s, and in the French West Indies in around 2000. We conclude that the increase in multiple sclerosis incidence is only apparent, and that it is not specific to women. Monitoring of multiple sclerosis incidence might be appropriate for the European Economic Area.

  16. Ecological classification of European transitional waters in the North-East Atlantic eco-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Cristina; Juanes, José Antonio; Puente, Araceli

    2010-04-01

    A new methodology to classify European North-East Atlantic transitional waters into ecological types has been developed based on the most important hydrological and morphological features that are likely to determine the ecology of aquatic systems in transitional waters. Hydrological indicators help identifying if a transitional water area is dominated by fresh or sea water and/or by intertidal or subtidal areas, while morphological indicators allow an estimation of the complexity of the transitional water and the diversity of the habitats involved. Twelve transitional waters of the southern Bay of Biscay were classified using this methodology and the five hydro-morphological types obtained were validated with benthic macro-invertebrate data. Transitional waters with a complex morphology showed the highest values of species diversity, while those with a smaller tidal influence showed lower species diversity. The ' Scrobicularia' and ' Abra' assemblages, previously identified in the study area, were found to be related to different types of transitional waters. The ' Abra' assemblage only appeared in estuaries with a complex morphology and dominated by tidal influences, while the ' Scrobicularia' assemblage was detected in all the transitional waters except for a single coastal lagoon. This classification of transitional waters may therefore be useful to establish the biological reference conditions needed for European Directives.

  17. Potential water saving through changes in European diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Hoekstra, A Y; Bidoglio, G

    2013-11-01

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) regarding agricultural products for three diets - the current diet (REF), a healthy diet (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian diet (VEG) - for the four EU zones WEST, NORTH, SOUTH and EAST. The WFcons related to the consumption of agricultural products (4265l per capita per day or lcd) accounts for 89% of the EU's total WFcons (4815lcd). The effect of diet has therefore an essential impact on the total WFcons. The current zonal WFcons regarding agricultural products is: 5875lcd (SOUTH), 4053lcd (EAST), 3761lcd (WEST) and 3197lcd (NORTH). These differences are the result of different consumption behaviours as well as different agricultural production methods and conditions. From the perspective of a healthy diet based on regional dietary guidelines, the intake of several product groups (sugar, crop oils, animal fats and meat) should be decreased and increased for others (vegetables, fruit). The WFcons regarding agricultural products for the alternative diets are the following: HEALTHY 4110lcd (-30%) and VEG 3476lcd (-41%) for SOUTH; HEALTHY 3606lcd (-11%) and VEG 2956lcd (-27%) for EAST; HEALTHY 2766lcd (-26%) and VEG 2208lcd (-41%) for WEST; HEALTHY 3091lcd (-3%) and VEG 2166lcd (-32%) for NORTH. Both the healthy and vegetarian diets thus result - consistent for all zones - in substantial WFcons reductions. The largest reduction takes place for the vegetarian diet. Indeed, a lot of water can be saved by EU citizens by a change in their diet. © 2013.

  18. Options in European legislation to reduce water pollution in the Netherlands: cadmium as case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos JH; Poorter LRM de; SEC

    2007-01-01

    The RIVM has performed a study on European legislation useful for reducing cadmium pollution in Dutch surface waters. The Integrated Pollution Prevention Control Directive (IPPC) is an instrument that can impose restraints on one of the main sources of pollution, the industrial sector. However, for

  19. Impact of food and water-borne diseases on European population health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassini, A.; Colzani, E.; Kramarz, P.; Kretzschmar, M. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075187981; Takkinen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Composite health measures are increasingly applied in studies aiming at describing the burden of diseases, and food and water-borne diseases (FWDs) are no exception. The Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) is a project led and funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and

  20. Impact of European union micro-projects Programme in water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many studies in Nigeria have revealed that the Niger Delta Region is the least served in terms of basic infrastructure such as electricity, roads, water and sanitation. This study examined the impact of the European Union Micro-Projects Program in the rural areas of Imo State, in the heart of the Niger Delta Region.

  1. Statistical Framework for Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Administrators of recreational waters face the basic tasks of surveillance of water quality and decisions on beach closure in case of unacceptable quality. Monitoring and subsequent decisions are based on sampled water probes and fundamental questions are which type of data to extract from...... recreational governmental authorities controlling water quality. The book opens with a historical account of water quality criteria in the USA between 1922 and 2003. Five chapters are related to sampling strategies and decision rules. Chapter 2 discusses the dependence of decision-making rules on short...... as classical random sampling or compound sampling. Chapter 7 discusses the use of regression methods in an empirical study to identify important determinants of water quality variation. Even though improved molecular techniques narrow the time delay between data collection and analysis results, predictive...

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK REGARDING COMPETITION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORARU Simion

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Competition, in general, is a rivalry (driven by economic means of the economic freedom between competitors to seize markets for the sale of goods, services, and purchases of factors of production (by removing the rivals. The competitors’ rivalry is caused by the fact that they all want the same result and the market resources at each period are limited. Competition is one of the objective conditions necessary to ensure an adequate development of technical and economic progress, of the prosperity of the population. The market and stigma competition with destructive force for some competitors ultimately ensures a general balance by creating a system of interdependence of the economic sectors so that any activity in a certain sector is correlated with activities in the other sectors. Disparities, with some state interventions, ensure a proportional distribution of resources, motivate producers to invest in performing technologies, in human capital, which through creativity ensures a high productivity, efficiency and excellent product quality. Businesses that have achieved such results provide a long-lasting high revenue. Competitiveness is the ability of a manufacturer to successfully pass the competitive test on the domestic as well as the external market, ensuring a superior revenue from production factors’ capitalization. The significance of this market economy is binomial: competition and competitiveness are growing in the context of deepening the processes of globalization of the world economy at the current stage. The purpose of this article is to study and generalize the European legal basis and competition policy. The European experience of over 60 years in this field, and especially, the economic results are of particular interest to the transition economy of the Republic of Moldova.

  3. Assessing Forest Classification in a Landscape-Level Framework: An Example from Central European Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Kusbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional land classifications developed on the basis of what was once prevailing expert knowledge have since largely become obsolete. We assessed expert knowledge based landscape-level units delineated in central European temperate forests: Natural Forest Areas (NFA and Forest Vegetation Zones (FVZ. Our focus was determining to what degree these units reflect vegetation-environmental relationships. After considering as many as 49,000 plots with vegetation and 25,000 plots with environmental data within a territory of the Czech Republic, we analyzed 11,885 plots. We used multivariate statistics to discriminate between the landscape-level units. While NFAs performed extremely well, FVZ results were less successful. Classification of the environment provided better results than classification of vegetation for both the Hercynicum and Carpaticum phytogeographic part of the Czech Republic. Taking into account significance of the environment in our analysis, a delimitation of FVZs and similar vegetation-driven structures worldwide via explicit a priori stratification by tree species without consideration of environmental limits would not be supported by our analysis. We suggest not relying only on vegetation in classification analyses, but also including the significant environmental factors for direct classification of FVZ and units in particular in altered vegetation composition setting such as the central European forests. We propose a novel interpretation of FVZ via appropriate vegetation stratification throughout the environment used in conjunction with the zonal concept. Understanding of coarse-scaled vegetation-environmental relationships is not only fundamental in forest ecology and forest management, but is also essential for improving lower classification levels. Valuable expert knowledge should be combined with formal quantification, which is consistent with recent calls for advanced multidisciplinary ecological classifications in Europe

  4. Who wants to be an agent? A framework to analyse water politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a framework to analyse water politics and governance. The framework has been constructed from a social constructivist perspective. This theory places attention on the role of normative aspects like ideology, values, interests and culture in politics. This means that a theory of ...

  5. A drinking water quality framework for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being the lead 'early warning' authority and execution agents for medical intervention under emergency .... emergency response model comprising three alert levels to respond to acute drinking water quality failures: • Alert Level I: Routine problems including minor disrup- tions to the water system and single sample ...

  6. Summary of the water resource governance research framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resource Gove rnance Need for Equity Poverty Eradication Water Resource Constraints Drivers Required Research Programmes Desired Research Outcome Dialogue Structure s Management Paradigm s HIV/AIDS & Sustainable Livelihood s Communicatio... Desired Research Outcome Dialogue Structure s Management Paradigm s HIV/AIDS & Sustainable Livelihood s Communicatio n Monitoring & Evaluatio n Performance Measures Guidance on Governance for responsible Water Resource Management...

  7. Plant life form based habitat monitoring in a European landscape framework for early warning of changes in land cover and biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Olsen, Martin; Bloch-Petersen, Margit

    During the last 25 years different programs for detailed landscape surveys based on stratified area covering sampling in landscape grids of ¼ to 4 km2 have been carried out in a number of European countries with slightly different methodologies and perspectives, developing towards permanent...... within the NOVANA program is planned for the future. During the last many years these different national landscape surveys have cooperated to develop a European platform for consistent landscape related habitat recording and monitoring. This has been realized through the EU BioHab concerted action...... in the preparation of a common European Field Monitoring Handbook as a user-friendly tool in support of implementing the Habitat Directive, including NATURA 2000, and linking scientific and policy-oriented European projects. The overall European monitoring role of the BioHab framework is to establish a landscape...

  8. Water-saving interventions assessment framework: an application for the Urmia Lake Restoration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Oel, Pieter; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2017-04-01

    Increasing water demand often results in unsustainable water use leaving insufficient amounts of water for sustaining natural environments. Therefore, to save natural resources water-saving interventions have been introduced to the environmental policy agenda in many (semi)-arid regions. Many policies, however, have failed reaching their objectives to increase water availability for the environment. This calls for a comprehensive tool to assess water-saving policies. Therefore, this study introduces a constructive framework to assess the policies by estimating five components: 1) Total water demand under socio-economic scenarios, 2) Water supply under climate change scenarios, 3) Water withdrawal for different sectors, 4) Water depletion and 5) Environmental flow. The framework, was applied to assess Urmia Lake Restoration Program (ULRP), which aims to restore the drying Urmia Lake in north-western Iran by increasing the lake inflow by 3.1×106m3yr-1. Results suggest that although the ULRP helps to increase inflow by up to 57% it is unlikely to fully reach its target. The analysis shows that there are three main reasons for the potential poor performance. The first reason is decreasing return flows due to increasing irrigation efficiency. This means that the expected increase in lake inflow volume is smaller than the volume saved by increasing irrigation efficiency. The second reason is increased depletion which is due to neglecting the fact that agricultural water demand is currently higher than available water for agriculture. As a result, increasing water use efficiency may result in increased water depletion. The third reason is ignoring the potential impact of climate change, which might decrease future water availability by 3% to 15%. Our analysis suggests that to reach the intervention target, measures need to focus on reducing Water demand and Water depletion rather than on reducing Water withdrawals. The assessment framework can be used to comprehensively

  9. Lexical and semantic aspects in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and the teaching of Italian business correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Lenassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the guidelines of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL. It presents the results of a study aimed to determine to what extent they are taken into account in seven textbooks used for teaching business Italian. Given the importance of vocabulary in this type of language teaching, the article focuses on certain lexical and semantic aspects of business correspondence such as wordformation, synonymy, antonymy, collocations, part-whole relations, translation equivalence, and register differences. The analyses show that the authors of the materials covered these aspects well (albeit in different ways and to different extents in individual textbooks despite the fact that in most cases the textbooks were written before the CEFRL was published or was known. In addition, two categories not present in the Framework but characteristic of business language were also recognized as important by the authors of the textbooks and presented in the task sections. These are some frequently used abbreviations and definitions (or their approximations considering the communicative language competence acquired that learners can use to fill lexical gaps.

  10. Combustion plants and the Water Framework Directive. Methodology for consequence assessment; Vaermeanlaeggningar och Vattendirektivet. Metodik foer konsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossander, Annelie; Andersson, Jonas; Axby, Fredrik; Schultz, Emma; Persson, Maarten; Svaerd, Sara [Carl Bro AB, Kristianstad (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The project can be regarded as a natural continuation to the Vaermeforsk project M4-324 by Axby and Hansson: 'Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants - New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges'. The six different combustion plants studied in this project have been chosen mainly on the basis of their varying size, fuel, cleaning equipment and recipient. The significance of water as a finite resource in the global ecosystems has been more pronounced recently. In the light of the growing stresses on the water resources the European Parliament accepted the Water Framework Directive in year 2000. The main purpose with the directive is to achieve and preserve a 'good water status', among other things through a long term protection of available water resources. Enclosure X of the Framework Directive contains a list of chemical substances where 33 'prioritized substances' and 'prioritized, dangerous substances' are specified. The objective of the list is to reduce the discharges of prioritized substances, and to fully eliminate the prioritized, dangerous substances both from industry and other contexts. Twelve of the substances mentioned on the prioritized list can or could be found in the water coming out from combustion plants. A predominant part of these substances are to be totally phased out in the foreseeable future according to the Water Directive. This can result in restrictions in the permissions to let out water from combustion plants to the surroundings. The substances concerned are the heavy metals lead, cadmium, mercury and nickel, both as pure substances and included in compounds, as well as a number of different polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The intent of the project has been to use an accepted computational model to create an analytic method (an ecotoxicological risk assessment), with the aim to meet the new requirements

  11. A European Framework for the Long Term Preservation of EO Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Mirko; Beruti, Vincenzo; Forcada, Eugenia M.

    2010-12-01

    Digital preservation is difficult. The technical difficulties are the cause of much research. Other types of difficulty are those to do with organisational commitment, funding and context. With the increasing interest on global change monitoring, also the use and exploitation of long time series of Earth Observation (EO) data has been increasing systematically, calling for a need to preserve the EO data without time constrains. On the other hand:  Data archiving and preservation strategies are still mostly limited to the satellite lifetime and few years after.  The data volumes are increasing dramatically.  Archiving and data access technology are evolving rapidly.  EO data archiving strategies, if existing at all, are different for each EO mission, each operator or agency. In the meantime the issue grows more urgent since more and more EO missions' data can be called 'historic' and more and more operators are faced with the decision of whether and how to preserve their data. This paper describes the European Space Agency's (ESA) plans for long term commitment to preserving EO data concerning Europe. We believe this shows that ESA provides a pathfinder example of the way in which all these difficulties can be tackled.

  12. Longitudinal effects of the European smoking prevention framework approach (ESFA) project in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carles; Nebot, Manel; Tomás, Zoa; Giménez, Emmanuel; Valmayor, Sara; Tarilonte, Visitación; De Vries, Hein

    2008-10-01

    To describe the effects of a Spanish smoking prevention programme in the context of an European project on regular smoking, in a sample of Barcelona adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was conducted. An experimental group (EG) (1080 pupils) was exposed to programme and compared with a control group (CG) (872 students). The intervention included a school-based programme (16 sessions in 3 years), reinforcement of a smoke-free school policy, smoking cessation for teachers, brochures for parents and other community-based activities involving youth clubs and tobacco sales. At 12 months, 4.5% of boys and 5.6% of girls were new smokers in the EG versus 6.7% and 11.7% in the CG (P < 0.001). At 36 months, 18.6% of boys and 31.2% of girls in the EG were regular smokers versus 21.6% of boys and 38.3% of girls in the CG (P < 0.001). The main factors associated with progression to regular smoking at 36 months were to be girl, to attend to a public school and to belong to the CG. These results endorse the effectiveness of multi-modal smoking prevention programmes, which include strategies with adults who influence adolescents.

  13. A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Lutz, James

    2011-12-02

    Reducing the water use of plumbing products—toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads —has been a popular conservation measure. Improved technologies have created opportunities for additional conservation in this area. However, plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum. This paper reviews the literature related to plumbing products to determine a systems framework for evaluating future conservation measures using these products. The main framework comprises the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing/sewer infrastructure. This framework for analysis provides a starting point for professionals considering future water conservation measures to evaluate the need for additional research, collaboration with other standards or codes committees, and attachment of additional metrics to water use efficiency (such as performance).

  14. Study of Water Pollution Early Warning Framework Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengfang, H.; Xiao, X.; Dingtao, S.; Bo, C.; Xiongfei, W.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  15. STUDY OF WATER POLLUTION EARLY WARNING FRAMEWORK BASED ON INTERNET OF THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chengfang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  16. A Framework for Analysis of Energy-Water Interdependency Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jeffers; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kristyn Scott

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to improve the holistic value of energy development strategies by integrating management criteria for water availability, water quality, and ecosystem health into the energy system planning process. The Snake River Basin (SRB) in southern Idaho is used as a case study to show options for improving full economic utilization of aquatic resources given multiple scenarios such as changing climate, additional regulations, and increasing population. Through the incorporation of multiple management criteria, potential crosscutting solutions to energy and water issues in the SRB can be developed. The final result of this work will be a multi-criteria decision support tool - usable by policy makers and researchers alike - that will give insight into the behavior of the management criteria over time and will allow the user to experiment with a range of potential solutions. Because several basins in the arid west are dealing with similar water, energy, and ecosystem issues, the tool and conclusions will be transferrable to a wide range of locations and applications. This is a very large project to be completed in phases. This paper deals with interactions between the hydrologic system and water use at a basin level. Future work will include the interdependency between energy use and water use in these systems.

  17. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  18. Using a centralised database system and server in the European Union Framework Programme 7 project SEPServer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynderickx, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the SEPServer project (EU FP7 project 262773) is to produce a new tool, which greatly facilitates the investigation of solar energetic particles (SEPs) and their origin: a server providing SEP data, related electromagnetic (EM) observations and analysis methods, a comprehensive catalogue of the observed SEP events, and educational/outreach material on solar eruptions. The project is coordinated by the University of Helsinki. The project will combine data and knowledge from 11 European partners and several collaborating parties from Europe and US. The datasets provided by the consortium partners are collected in a MySQL database (using the ESA Open Data Interface under licence) on a server operated by DH Consultancy, which also hosts a web interface providing browsing, plotting and post-processing and analysis tools developed by the consortium, as well as a Solar Energetic Particle event catalogue. At this stage of the project, a prototype server has been established, which is presently undergoing testing by users inside the consortium. Using a centralized database has numerous advantages, including: homogeneous storage of the data, which eliminates the need for dataset specific file access routines once the data are ingested in the database; a homogeneous set of metadata describing the datasets on both a global and detailed level, allowing for automated access to and presentation of the various data products; standardised access to the data in different programming environments (e.g. php, IDL); elimination of the need to download data for individual data requests. SEPServer will, thus, add value to several space missions and Earth-based observations by facilitating the coordinated exploitation of and open access to SEP data and related EM observations, and promoting correct use of these data for the entire space research community. This will lead to new knowledge on the production and transport of SEPs during solar eruptions and facilitate the

  19. A comparison of the degree of implementation of marine biodiversity indicators by European countries in relation to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Herman; Frost, Matt; Juanes, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries...

  20. Teaching Writing within the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR): A Supplement Asynchronous Blended Learning Approach in an EFL Undergraduate Course in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaarawy, Hanaa Youssef; Lotfy, Nohayer Esmat

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and following a blended learning approach (a supplement model), this article reports on a quasi-experiment where writing was taught evenly with other language skills in everyday language contexts and where asynchronous online activities were required from students to extend learning beyond…

  1. A method to assess road safety of planned infrastructure : case study of Maastricht in the framework of the European research project DUMAS, Workpackage 9.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This case study of Maastricht was part of Workpackage 9 ‘Town studies’ of the research project Developing Urban Management And Safety (DUMAS), commissioned by the European Commission. One of the main objectives of DUMAS was to develop an assessment framework to encourage the use of objective

  2. Standard Setting in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…

  3. The Common European Framework, Task-Based Learning, and Colombia: Crossroads for an Intercultural Collision or a Path under Construction for Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Héctor Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a critical response to the implementation of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, and Assessment (CEFR, Council of Europe, 2001) in Colombia by exposing a threefold approach discussing the following areas: Intercultural communication, Task-Based Learning, and some pertinent SLA research.…

  4. A framework for unravelling the complexities of unsustainable water resource use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Brian; Bierkens, Marc; Wassen, Martin; Dekker, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The majority of unsustainable water resource use is associated with food production, with the agricultural sector accounting for up to 70% of total freshwater use by humans. Water resource use in food production emerges as a result of dynamic interactions between humans and their environment in importing and exporting regions as well as the physical and socioeconomic trade infrastructure linking the two. Thus in order to understand unsustainable water resource use, it is essential to understand the complex socioecological food production and trade system. We present a modelling framework of the food production and trade system that facilitates an understanding of complex socioenvironmental processes that lead to unsustainable water resource use. Our framework is based on a coupling of the global hydrological model PC Raster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) with a multi-agent socioeconomic food production and trade network. In our framework, agents perceive environmental conditions. They make food supply decisions based upon those perceptions and the heterogeneous socioeconomic conditions in which they exist. Agent decisions modify land and water resources. Those environmental changes feedback to influence decision making further. The framework presented has the potential to go beyond a diagnosis of the causes of unsustainable water resource and provide pathways towards a sustainable food system in terms of water resources.

  5. Modelling the economic consequences of the EU Water Framework Directive for Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Reinhard, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires member states to take measures to ensure that bodies of water will be in good chemical and ecological condition by 2015. Important measures to achieve this goal include reducing emissions of nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P2O5) from manure and mineral

  6. Income, Economic Structure and Trade: Impacts on Recent Water Use Trends in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-1990s to the recent international economic crisis, the European Union (EU27 experienced a significant economic growth and a flat population increase. During these years, the water resources directly used by the EU countries displayed a growing but smooth trend. However, European activities intensively demanded water resources throughout the whole global supply chain. The growth rate of embodied water use was three times higher than the growth in water directly used by these economies. This was mainly due to the large upsurge of virtual water imports in the EU (e.g., about 25% of the change in water imports in the world was directly linked to the increasing imports in the EU27 countries. In this context, we analyze water use changes in the EU27 from 1995 to 2009, combining the production and consumption perspectives. To that aim, we use the environmentally extended input-output approach to obtain the volume of water embodied in domestic production and in trade flows at the sector and country levels. In the empirical analysis, we utilize multi-regional input-output data from the World Input Output Database. In addition, by means of a structural decomposition analysis we identify and quantify the factors explaining changes in these trends. We focus both on the role of domestic production and trade and estimate the associated intensity, technology and scale effects. This analysis is done for different clusters, identifying singular patterns depending on income criteria. Our results confirm the boost of demand growth in that period, the positive but negligible effect of structural change, and the decline in water intensity which, however, was not enough to compensate the effects on water associated to the economic expansion in the period. These findings also point at a gradual substitution of domestic water use for virtual water imports. More concretely, in most countries the food industry tended to reduce its backward linkages with the

  7. Industrial process water treatment and reuse: A framework for synthesis and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Pennati, Alessandra; Bogataj, Milos

    2014-01-01

    and solution of the design problems with fair complexity representative of industrial applications. The framework is demonstrated through the solution of a case study dealing with the treatment and reuse of water effluent produced by an oil refinery. The problem is solved, and a win−win solution is identified......Mathematical optimization has shown the potential to contribute to industrial water management, through the development of the solution methods needed for optimization-based design of wastewater treatment and reuse networks (also called water networks). Nevertheless, the application...... algorithms. To this end, we propose a computer-aided framework for the design of water treatment and reuse networks. In the framework, optimization methods, problem analysis tools and wastewater engineering knowledge are integrated in a computer-aided environment, in order to facilitate the formulation...

  8. Carbon cycling of European croplands: A framework for the assimilation of optical and microwave Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Andrew; Sus, Oliver; Williams, Mathew

    2013-04-01

    Croplands are traditionally managed to maximise the production of food, feed, fibre and bioenergy. Advancements in agricultural technologies, together with land-use change, have approximately doubled World grain harvests over the past 50 years. Cropland ecosystems also play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle and, through changes to C storage in response to management activities, they can provide opportunities for climate change mitigation. However, quantifying and understanding the cropland C cycle is complex, due to variable environmental drivers, varied management practices and often highly heterogeneous landscapes. Efforts to upscale processes using simulation models must resolve these challenges. Here we show how data assimilation (DA) approaches can link C cycle modelling to Earth observation (EO) and reduce uncertainty in upscaling. We evaluate a framework for the assimilation of leaf area index (LAI) time series, empirically derived from EO optical and radar sensors, for state-updating a model of crop development and C fluxes. Sensors are selected with fine spatial resolutions (20-50 m) to resolve variability across field sizes typically used in European agriculture. Sequential DA is used to improve the canopy development simulation, which is validated by comparing time-series LAI and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) predictions to independent ground measurements and eddy covariance observations at multiple European cereal crop sites. Significant empirical relationships were established between the LAI ground measurements and the optical reflectance and radar backscatter, which allowed for single LAI calibrations being valid for all the cropland sites for each sensor. The DA of all EO LAI estimates results indicated clear adjustments in LAI and an enhanced representation of daily CO2 exchanges, particularly around the time of peak C uptake. Compared to the simulation without DA, the assimilation of all EO LAI estimates improved the predicted at

  9. The Drinking Water Disparities Framework: On the Origins and Persistence of Inequities in Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Carolina L.; Ray, Isha

    2014-01-01

    With this article, we develop the Drinking Water Disparities Framework to explain environmental injustice in the context of drinking water in the United States. The framework builds on the social epidemiology and environmental justice literatures, and is populated with 5 years of field data (2005–2010) from California’s San Joaquin Valley. We trace the mechanisms through which natural, built, and sociopolitical factors work through state, county, community, and household actors to constrain access to safe water and to financial resources for communities. These constraints and regulatory failures produce social disparities in exposure to drinking water contaminants. Water system and household coping capacities lead, at best, to partial protection against exposure. This composite burden explains the origins and persistence of social disparities in exposure to drinking water contaminants. PMID:24524500

  10. A multiobjective optimization framework for multicontaminant industrial water network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, Marianne; Montastruc, Ludovic; Pibouleau, Luc; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Domenech, Serge

    2011-07-01

    The optimal design of multicontaminant industrial water networks according to several objectives is carried out in this paper. The general formulation of the water allocation problem (WAP) is given as a set of nonlinear equations with binary variables representing the presence of interconnections in the network. For optimization purposes, three antagonist objectives are considered: F(1), the freshwater flow-rate at the network entrance, F(2), the water flow-rate at inlet of regeneration units, and F(3), the number of interconnections in the network. The multiobjective problem is solved via a lexicographic strategy, where a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) procedure is used at each step. The approach is illustrated by a numerical example taken from the literature involving five processes, one regeneration unit and three contaminants. The set of potential network solutions is provided in the form of a Pareto front. Finally, the strategy for choosing the best network solution among those given by Pareto fronts is presented. This Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem is tackled by means of two approaches: a classical TOPSIS analysis is first implemented and then an innovative strategy based on the global equivalent cost (GEC) in freshwater that turns out to be more efficient for choosing a good network according to a practical point of view. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards Cyber Physical Era: Soft Computing framework based Multi-Sensor Array for Water Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj Jyotirmoy, Karunesh Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Water quality can be easily monitored in treatment plants and pumping stations. However, very difficult to monitor in distribution system in real time. Introduction of multiple sensors in water distribution system generate huge number of data matrices, which sometimes highly complex, difficult to understand and convoluted for effective decision making. The proposed system framework simplify the complexity of obtained sensor data matrices and support decision making for water engineers. Th...

  12. Analysis of the effect of water activity on ice formation using a new thermodynamic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, D.

    2014-07-01

    In this work a new thermodynamic framework is developed and used to investigate the effect of water activity on the formation of ice within supercooled droplets. The new framework is based on a novel concept where the interface is assumed to be made of liquid molecules "trapped" by the solid matrix. It also accounts for the change in the composition of the liquid phase upon nucleation. Using this framework, new expressions are developed for the critical ice germ size and the nucleation work with explicit dependencies on temperature and water activity. However unlike previous approaches, the new model does not depend on the interfacial tension between liquid and ice. The thermodynamic framework is introduced within classical nucleation theory to study the effect of water activity on the ice nucleation rate. Comparison against experimental results shows that the new approach is able to reproduce the observed effect of water activity on the nucleation rate and the freezing temperature. It allows for the first time a phenomenological derivation of the constant shift in water activity between melting and nucleation. The new framework offers a consistent thermodynamic view of ice nucleation, simple enough to be applied in atmospheric models of cloud formation.

  13. Transboundary river basin management in Europe
    Legal instruments to comply with European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Keessen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although modern European water policy follows a river basin approach where Member States have to cooperate in order to achieve a ‘good status’ of their water bodies, the obligations arising from the European water directives are to be achieved by each Member State individually. This situation creates problems when water pollution and water quantity problems cross borders. It is still unclear whether Member States can be held responsible for not achieving objectives due to causes (partly originating abroad. This article describes some of the legal instruments that water authorities have at their disposal to comply with the European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods and thus shape transboundary river management. The article describes instruments to create, implement and enforce transboundary cooperation, and addresses the possibility of transboundary compensation if cooperation fails. Here, the focus is on a civil lawsuit before a domestic court.

  14. A holistic framework for design of cost-effective minimum water utilization network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Alwi, S R; Manan, Z A; Samingin, M H; Misran, N

    2008-07-01

    Water pinch analysis (WPA) is a well-established tool for the design of a maximum water recovery (MWR) network. MWR, which is primarily concerned with water recovery and regeneration, only partly addresses water minimization problem. Strictly speaking, WPA can only lead to maximum water recovery targets as opposed to the minimum water targets as widely claimed by researchers over the years. The minimum water targets can be achieved when all water minimization options including elimination, reduction, reuse/recycling, outsourcing and regeneration have been holistically applied. Even though WPA has been well established for synthesis of MWR network, research towards holistic water minimization has lagged behind. This paper describes a new holistic framework for designing a cost-effective minimum water network (CEMWN) for industry and urban systems. The framework consists of five key steps, i.e. (1) Specify the limiting water data, (2) Determine MWR targets, (3) Screen process changes using water management hierarchy (WMH), (4) Apply Systematic Hierarchical Approach for Resilient Process Screening (SHARPS) strategy, and (5) Design water network. Three key contributions have emerged from this work. First is a hierarchical approach for systematic screening of process changes guided by the WMH. Second is a set of four new heuristics for implementing process changes that considers the interactions among process changes options as well as among equipment and the implications of applying each process change on utility targets. Third is the SHARPS cost-screening technique to customize process changes and ultimately generate a minimum water utilization network that is cost-effective and affordable. The CEMWN holistic framework has been successfully implemented on semiconductor and mosque case studies and yielded results within the designer payback period criterion.

  15. Challenges of the introduction of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages at foreign-language universities in Vietnam

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    Viet anh Nguyen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, it seems necessary, or even indispensable for the teaching/learning of foreign languages to be based on international standards proposed by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL. The present article deals with issues of integration of the CEFRL in the Vietnamese context by analyzing the results of a study of training programs at six universities specializing in foreign languages, which are based in three regions of the country (Northern, Central and Southern Vietnam. Despite some positive changes and the dynamism characteristic of the approach, a mechanical and rigid introduction of CEFRL in foreign-language universities in Vietnam has actually caused several problems. These include (1 the inconsistency between the levels established by the CEFRL and the organization of teaching/learning; (2 the risk of teaching/learning becoming too “utilitarian” and too function-oriented and (3 excessive attention given to the evaluation and assessment of linguistic knowledge and of performance level  rather than on the ability to use various resources as well as to long-term process of competence development. The study results show some possible ways for the development of a referential frame for learning/teaching French in Vietnam.

  16. The outlook for Southern Africa in light of the new framework of trade relations with the European Union

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    Eduardo Bidaurrazaga Aurre

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of so-called globalization, we find ourselves in a process of liberalization of the goods and services market resulting from various regional integration projects as well as the process of multilateral liberalization managed within the GATT-WTO framework.This process has coincided with the recent expiration of the accords regulating, among other things, the trade relations of the African, Caribbean, Pacific countries with the European Union as part of the latter’s cooperation for development policy established in line with the Lomé Accords. The countries of Southern Africa have experienced this process of revitalization in a particularly intense manner since the end of the apartheid era and the South Africa’s subsequent repositioning in the regional and international context. South Africa’s participation in a number of the regional groups that coexist on the subcontinent (principally, the SACU and the SADC, its signing of the free trade treaty with the EU, and the recent Cotonou Agreement on the basis of respect for the GATT-WTO rules mean reconfigure not just the trade relations of the region’s economiesamong themselves but also those with the former colonial powers and raise a series of unknowns for their future as they move down the road toward development.

  17. Evolving African attitudes to European education: Resistance, pervert effects of the single system paradox, and the ubuntu framework for renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assié-Lumumba, N'Dri Thérèse

    2016-02-01

    This paper is a reflection that critically examines the dynamics of education and the struggle by African people for freedom, control of the mind, self-definition and the right to determine their own destiny from the start of colonial rule to the present. The primary methodological approach is historical structuralism, which stipulates that social reality and facts are determined and created by social agents within structural and historical contingencies. It addresses some of the most powerful challenges and contradictions that explain the ineffectiveness of numerous post-independence reforms, and presents the arguments for relevance and use of African languages, for instance, that have been made since the 1960s. The first section of the paper deals with the colonial imperatives for setting new education systems in the colonised societies of Africa and the initial attitudes of the Africans towards colonial education. The second section critically examines the evolving meanings of Western education in Europeanising African societies, the articulation of their rationale and the mechanism for resistance. It analyses the turning point when Africans began to embrace European education and demand it in the colonial and post-independence era. The third section addresses the roots of the inadequacies of received post-colonial education and the imperative of deconstruction and re-appropriation of African education using an ubuntu framework for an African renewal.

  18. Beverage Consumption Habits among the European Population: Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Galan, Pilar; Turrini, Aida; Arnault, Nathalie; Mistura, Lorenza; Ortiz-Andrellucchi, Adriana; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; D’Addezio, Laura; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fluid and water intake have received limited attention in epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to compare the average daily consumption of foods and beverages in adults of selective samples of the European Union (EU) population in order to understand the contribution of these to the total water intake (TWI), evaluate if the EU adult population consumes adequate amounts of total water (TW) according to the current guidelines, and to illustrate the real water intake in Europe. Methods: Three national European dietary surveys have been selected: Spain used the Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance Study (ANIBES) population database, Italy analyzed data from the Italian National Food Consumption Survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06), and French data came from the NutriNet-Santé database. Mean daily consumption was used to compare between individuals. TWI was compared with European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference values for adult men and women. Results: On average, in Spain, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 22.9) for men and 1.6 L (SE 19.4) for women; Italy recorded 1.7 L (SE 16.9) for men and 1.7 L (SE 14.1) for women; and France recorded 2.3 L (SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. With the exception of women in France, neither men nor women consumed sufficient amounts of water according to EFSA reference values. Conclusions: This study highlights the need to formulate appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase TWI in the EU population. The future of beverage intake assessment requires the use of new instruments, techniques, and the application of the new available technologies. PMID:28406441

  19. Beverage Consumption Habits among the European Population: Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Galan, Pilar; Turrini, Aida; Arnault, Nathalie; Mistura, Lorenza; Ortiz-Andrellucchi, Adriana; Edelenyi, Fabien Szabo de; D'Addezio, Laura; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2017-04-13

    Fluid and water intake have received limited attention in epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to compare the average daily consumption of foods and beverages in adults of selective samples of the European Union (EU) population in order to understand the contribution of these to the total water intake (TWI), evaluate if the EU adult population consumes adequate amounts of total water (TW) according to the current guidelines, and to illustrate the real water intake in Europe. Three national European dietary surveys have been selected: Spain used the Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance Study (ANIBES) population database, Italy analyzed data from the Italian National Food Consumption Survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06), and French data came from the NutriNet-Santé database. Mean daily consumption was used to compare between individuals. TWI was compared with European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference values for adult men and women. On average, in Spain, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 22.9) for men and 1.6 L (SE 19.4) for women; Italy recorded 1.7 L (SE 16.9) for men and 1.7 L (SE 14.1) for women; and France recorded 2.3 L (SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. With the exception of women in France, neither men nor women consumed sufficient amounts of water according to EFSA reference values. This study highlights the need to formulate appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase TWI in the EU population. The future of beverage intake assessment requires the use of new instruments, techniques, and the application of the new available technologies.

  20. framework for modelling the complexities of food and water security under globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Dermody

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new framework for modelling the complexities of food and water security under globalisation. The framework sets out a method to capture regional and sectoral interdependencies and cross-scale feedbacks within the global food system that contribute to emergent water use patterns. The framework integrates aspects of existing models and approaches in the fields of hydrology and integrated assessment modelling. The core of the framework is a multi-agent network of city agents connected by infrastructural trade networks. Agents receive socio-economic and environmental constraint information from integrated assessment models and hydrological models respectively and simulate complex, socio-environmental dynamics that operate within those constraints. The emergent changes in food and water resources are aggregated and fed back to the original models with minimal modification of the structure of those models. It is our conviction that the framework presented can form the basis for a new wave of decision tools that capture complex socio-environmental change within our globalised world. In doing so they will contribute to illuminating pathways towards a sustainable future for humans, ecosystems and the water they share.

  1. A conceptual framework for effectively anticipating water-quality changes resulting from changes in agricultural activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Paul D.; Wolock, David M.; Coupe, Richard H.; Roth, Jason L.

    2018-01-10

    Agricultural activities can affect water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems; many water-quality issues originate with the movement of water, agricultural chemicals, and eroded soil from agricultural areas to streams and groundwater. Most agricultural activities are designed to sustain or increase crop production, while some are designed to protect soil and water resources. Numerous soil- and water-protection practices are designed to reduce the volume and velocity of runoff and increase infiltration. This report presents a conceptual framework that combines generalized concepts on the movement of water, the environmental behavior of chemicals and eroded soil, and the designed functions of various agricultural activities, as they relate to hydrology, to create attainable expectations for the protection of—with the goal of improving—water quality through changes in an agricultural activity.The framework presented uses two types of decision trees to guide decision making toward attainable expectations regarding the effectiveness of changing agricultural activities to protect and improve water quality in streams. One decision tree organizes decision making by considering the hydrologic setting and chemical behaviors, largely at the field scale. This decision tree can help determine which agricultural activities could effectively protect and improve water quality in a stream from the movement of chemicals, or sediment, from a field. The second decision tree is a chemical fate accounting tree. This decision tree helps set attainable expectations for the permanent removal of sediment, elements, and organic chemicals—such as herbicides and insecticides—through trapping or conservation tillage practices. Collectively, this conceptual framework consolidates diverse hydrologic settings, chemicals, and agricultural activities into a single, broad context that can be used to set attainable expectations for agricultural activities. This framework also enables

  2. Water Property Models as Sovereignty Prerogatives: European Legal Perspectives in Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Casalini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water resources in European legal systems have always been vested in sovereign power, regardless of their legal nature as goods vested in State property or as res communes omnium not subject to ownership. The common legal foundation of sovereign power over water resources departed once civil law jurisdictions leveled the demesne on ownership model, by introducing public ownership in the French codification of 1804, while common law jurisdiction developed a broader legal concept of property that includes even the rights to use res communes. The models led respectively to the establishment of administrative systems of water rights and markets of water rights. According to the first, public authorities’ power to manage and preserve water resources is grounded in a derogatory regime, whereby water rights, grounded on licenses or concessions, are neither transferable nor tradeable. On the contrary, environmental and social concerns in water market schemes must be enforced by means of regulation, thus limiting private property rights on water, in compliance with the constitutional and common law constraints set out to protect the minimum content of property as a fundamental human right.

  3. Ethical principles and legal requirements for pediatric research in the EU: an analysis of the European normative and legal framework surrounding pediatric clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Wim; Dierickx, Kris; Nys, Herman

    2009-10-01

    The involvement of minors in clinical research is inevitable to catch up with the lack of drugs labeled for pediatric use. To encourage the responsible conduct of pediatric clinical trials in the EU, an extensive legal framework has been developed over the past decade in which the practical, ethical, legal, social, and commercial issues in pediatric research are addressed. In this article, the European legal framework surrounding pediatric clinical trials is analyzed from the perspective of the major ethical concerns in pediatric research. The four principles of biomedical ethics will be used as a conceptual framework (1) to map the ethical issues addressed in the European legal framework, (2) to study how these issues are commonly handled in competent adults, (3) to detect workability problems of these paradigmatic approaches in the specific setting of pediatric research, and (4) to illustrate the strong urge to differentiate, specify, or adjust these paradigmatic approaches to guarantee their successful operation in pediatric research. In addition, a concise comparative analysis of the European regulation will be made. To conclude our analysis, we integrate our findings in the existing ethical discussions on issues specific to pediatric clinical research.

  4. The Regulation Framework for the Banking Sector: The EMU, European Banks and Rating Agencies before and during the Recent Financial and Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Thalassinos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A regulation framework for the banking sector should be characterised by transparency,responsibility and performance in several important areas. These areas are the global and Europeanframework for corporate financial reporting (CFR, risk management (RM, stockholder value creation(SVC, corporate governance (CG, corporate social responsibility (CSR and sustainable development (SD.The regulation framework for the banking sector must also consider the fiscal and monetary environment inwhich a banking institution operates. The global rating system and the rating agencies will also have animportant impact on any regulation framework for the banking sector. These two factors play a key role whena financial, credit or debt crisis occurs. In this article, a holistic regulation framework for the banking sector ispresented. The article is based on European banks that are part of the European Monetary Union (EMU.Initially, it focuses on the timelines and review the integration of the European Monetary Union, relevantlegislation and information on member countries’ banking sectors. This information creates the frameworkfor the proposed model. The article considers all of the above factors in creating a holistic regulationframework for the banking sector to present in the context of the recent financial, credit and debt crises thathave taken place in the EMU.

  5. The role of the grammar teaching: from communicative approaches to the common European framework of reference for languages THE ROLE OF THE GRAMAMAR TEACHING: FROM COMMUNCATIVE APPROACHES TO THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José López Rama

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the history of language teaching, the role of grammar has been addressed by a number of linguistic theories, pedagogies and, currently, within the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEF. The way grammar is considered has a decisive influence on pedagogical practices, learning processes and many other areas involved in language teaching. This paper constitutes a revision of how grammar has evolved in the last fifty years paying special attention to its evolving role in both communicative (CLT and post-communicative approaches and in the CEF.From this revision, some controversial issues concerning the pedagogic value of teaching grammar will arise as well, such as whether grammar is worth teaching in the classroom or not and how it should be taught.Even though there exists a parallel linguistic framework between CLT and the CEF, some issues still need revision concerning the notion of grammatical competence and its role for language teaching.Históricamente, el papel de la gramática en la enseñanza de lenguas se ha justificado y cuestionado tanto por teorías lingüísticas como, actualmente, dentro del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia. La forma de contemplar la gramática influye de modo fundamental en la metodología docente, en la elaboración de manuales de texto y en los procesos de aprendizaje, entre otros. Este artículo revisa el papel de la gramática en los últimos cincuenta años prestando especial atención al método comunicativo, los post-comunicativos y dentro del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia. En respuesta, se revisa la posible controversia sobre la propia definición de gramática y su valor en enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras.

  6. Dealing with change and uncertainty within the regulatory frameworks for flood defense infrastructure in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Goytia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas existing literature on the interactions among law, adaptive governance, and resilience in the water sector often focuses on quality or supply issues, this paper addresses adaptation in national water laws in relation to increasing flood risks. In particular, this paper analyzes the extent to which legal rules governing flood defense infrastructure in a selection of European countries (England, France, Sweden, and The Netherlands allow for response and adaptation to change and uncertainty. Although there is evidence that the legal rules on the development of new infrastructure require that changing conditions be considered, the adaptation of existing infrastructure is a more complicated matter. Liability rules fail to adequately address damages resulting from causes external to the action or inaction of owners and managers, in particular extreme events. A trend toward clearer, and in some cases, increased public powers to ensure the safety of flood defense infrastructure is observed. The paper concludes that legal rules should ensure not only that decisions to build flood defenses are based on holistic and future-oriented assessments, but also that this is reflected in the implementation and operation of these structures.

  7. Vulnerability assessment of water resources - Translating a theoretical concept to an operational framework using systems thinking approach in a changing climate: Case study in Ogallala Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, Aavudai; Kannan, Narayanan

    2018-02-01

    Water is an essential natural resource. Among many stressors, altered climate is exerting pressure on water resource systems, increasing its demand and creating a need for vulnerability assessments. The overall objective of this study was to develop a novel tool that can translate a theoretical concept (vulnerability of water resources (VWR)) to an operational framework mainly under altered temperature and precipitation, as well as for population change (smaller extent). The developed tool had three stages and utilized a novel systems thinking approach. Stage-1: Translating theoretical concept to characteristics identified from studies; Stage-2: Operationalizing characteristics to methodology in VWR; Stage-3: Utilizing the methodology for development of a conceptual modeling tool for VWR: WR-VISTA (Water Resource Vulnerability assessment conceptual model using Indicators selected by System's Thinking Approach). The specific novelties were: 1) The important characteristics in VWR were identified in Stage-1 (target system, system components, scale, level of detail, data source, frameworks, and indicator); 2) WR-VISTA combined two vulnerability assessments frameworks: the European's Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response framework (DPSIR) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's framework (IPCC's); and 3) used systems thinking approaches in VWR for indicator selection. The developed application was demonstrated in Kansas (overlying the High Plains region/Ogallala Aquifer, considered the "breadbasket of the world"), using 26 indicators with intermediate level of detail. Our results indicate that the western part of the state is vulnerable from agricultural water use and the eastern part from urban water use. The developed tool can be easily replicated to other regions within and outside the US.

  8. Diagnosing water security in the rural North with an environmental security framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Henry J F; Loring, Philip A; Schnabel, William E

    2017-09-01

    This study explores the nature of water security challenges in rural Alaska, using a framework for environmental security that entails four interrelated concepts: availability, access, utility, and stability of water resources. Many researchers and professionals agree that water insecurity is a problem in rural Alaska, although the scale and nature of the problem is contested. Some academics have argued that the problem is systemic, and rooted in an approach to water security by the state that prioritizes economic concerns over public health concerns. Health practitioners and state agencies, on the other hand, contend that much progress has been made, and that nearly all rural households have access to safe drinking water, though many are still lacking 'modern' in-home water service. Here, we draw on a synthesis of ethnographic research alongside data from state agencies to show that the persistent water insecurity problems in rural Alaska are not a problem of access to or availability of clean water, or a lack of 'modern' infrastructure, but instead are rooted in complex human dimensions of water resources management, including the political legacies of state and federal community development schemes that did not fully account for local needs and challenges. The diagnostic approach we implement here helps to identify solutions to these challenges, which accordingly focus on place-based needs and empowering local actors. The framework likewise proves to be broadly applicable to exploring water security concerns elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards a comprehensive assessment and framework for low and high flow water risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motschmann, Alina; Huggel, Christian; Drenkhan, Fabian; León, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Driven by international organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the past years have seen a move from a vulnerability concept of climate change impacts towards a risk framework. Risk is now conceived at the intersection of climate-driven hazard and socioeconomic-driven vulnerability and exposure. The concept of risk so far has been mainly adopted for sudden-onset events. However, for slow-onset and cumulative climate change impacts such as changing water resources there is missing clarity and experience how to apply a risk framework. Research has hardly dealt with the challenge of how to integrate both low and high flow risks in a common framework. Comprehensive analyses of risks related to water resources considering climate change within multi-dimensional drivers across different scales are complex and often missing in climate-sensitive mountain regions where data scarcity and inconsistencies represent important limitations. Here we review existing vulnerability and risk assessments of low and high flow water conditions and identify critical conceptual and practical gaps. Based on this, we develop an integrated framework for low and high flow water risks which is applicable to both past and future conditions. The framework explicitly considers a water balance model simulating both water supply and demand on a daily basis. We test and apply this new framework in the highly glacierized Santa River catchment (SRC, Cordillera Blanca, Peru), representative for many developing mountain regions with both low and high flow water risks and poor data availability. In fact, in the SRC, both low and high flow hazards, such as droughts and floods, play a central role especially for agricultural, hydropower, domestic and mining use. During the dry season (austral winter) people are increasingly affected by water scarcity due to shrinking glaciers supplying melt water. On the other hand during the wet season (austral summer) high flow water

  10. Water Hyacinth in China: A Sustainability Science-Based Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Jianguo; Fu, Zhihui; Zhu, Lei

    2007-12-01

    The invasion of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) has resulted in enormous ecological and economic consequences worldwide. Although the spread of this weed in Africa, Australia, and North America has been well documented, its invasion in China is yet to be fully documented. Here we report that since its introduction about seven decades ago, water hyacinth has infested many water bodies across almost half of China’s territory, causing a decline of native biodiversity, alteration of ecosystem services, deterioration of aquatic environments, and spread of diseases affecting human health. Water hyacinth infestations have also led to enormous economic losses in China by impeding water flows, paralyzing navigation, and damaging irrigation and hydroelectricity facilities. To effectively control the rampage of water hyacinth in China, we propose a sustainability science-based management framework that explicitly incorporates principles from landscape ecology and Integrated Pest Management. This framework emphasizes multiple-scale long-term monitoring and research, integration among different control techniques, combination of control with utilization, and landscape-level adaptive management. Sustainability science represents a new, transdisciplinary paradigm that integrates scientific research, technological innovation, and socioeconomic development of particular regions. Our proposed management framework is aimed to broaden the currently dominant biological control-centered view in China and to illustrate how sustainability science can be used to guide the research and management of water hyacinth.

  11. Water hyacinth in China: a sustainability science-based management framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Jianguo; Fu, Zhihui; Zhu, Lei

    2007-12-01

    The invasion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has resulted in enormous ecological and economic consequences worldwide. Although the spread of this weed in Africa, Australia, and North America has been well documented, its invasion in China is yet to be fully documented. Here we report that since its introduction about seven decades ago, water hyacinth has infested many water bodies across almost half of China's territory, causing a decline of native biodiversity, alteration of ecosystem services, deterioration of aquatic environments, and spread of diseases affecting human health. Water hyacinth infestations have also led to enormous economic losses in China by impeding water flows, paralyzing navigation, and damaging irrigation and hydroelectricity facilities. To effectively control the rampage of water hyacinth in China, we propose a sustainability science-based management framework that explicitly incorporates principles from landscape ecology and Integrated Pest Management. This framework emphasizes multiple-scale long-term monitoring and research, integration among different control techniques, combination of control with utilization, and landscape-level adaptive management. Sustainability science represents a new, transdisciplinary paradigm that integrates scientific research, technological innovation, and socioeconomic development of particular regions. Our proposed management framework is aimed to broaden the currently dominant biological control-centered view in China and to illustrate how sustainability science can be used to guide the research and management of water hyacinth.

  12. Water footprint of European cars: potential impacts of water consumption along automobile life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Markus; Warsen, Jens; Krinke, Stephan; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2012-04-03

    Due to global increase of freshwater scarcity, knowledge about water consumption in product life cycles is important. This study analyzes water consumption and the resulting impacts of Volkswagen's car models Polo, Golf, and Passat and represents the first application of impact-oriented water footprint methods on complex industrial products. Freshwater consumption throughout the cars' life cycles is allocated to material groups and assigned to countries according to import mix shares or location of production sites. Based on these regionalized water inventories, consequences for human health, ecosystems, and resources are determined by using recently developed impact assessment methods. Water consumption along the life cycles of the three cars ranges from 52 to 83 m(3)/car, of which more than 95% is consumed in the production phase, mainly resulting from producing iron, steel, precious metals, and polymers. Results show that water consumption takes place in 43 countries worldwide and that only 10% is consumed directly at Volkswagen's production sites. Although impacts on health tend to be dominated by water consumption in South Africa and Mozambique, resulting from the production of precious metals and aluminum, consequences for ecosystems and resources are mainly caused by water consumption of material production in Europe.

  13. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Casey M; Lund, Jay R; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M; Zagona, Edith A; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science...

  14. Water Isotope framework for lake water balance monitoring and modelling in the Nam Co Basin, Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Kang

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: A water isotope framework for the Nam Co basin, including the Local Meteoric Water Line, limiting isotopic composition of evaporation and two hypothetical evaporation trajectories, is established. We further applied the isotope mass balance model to estimate the overall isotopic composition of input water to the Nam Co, the evaporation over inputs ratios (E/I for three consecutive years, and the water yields (Wy, depth equivalent runoff at a basin scale. Our results clearly suggest a positive water budget (i.e., E/I < 1, providing another line of evidence that the subsurface leakage from Nam Co is likely. The discrepancy between isotope-based water yields estimations and field-based runoff observations suggest that, compared to the well-studied Nyainqentanglha Mountains and southwestern mountains, the ridge-and-valley landscape in the western highlands and northwestern hogbacks are possibly low yields area, which should draw more research attentions in future hydrological investigations.

  15. Using probabilistic methods in water scarcity assessments: A first step towards a water scarcity risk assessment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Globally, water scarcity and its societal consequences is recognized as one of the most important global risks for the present and the near future, both in terms of likelihood and impact. Governments and institutions managing water resources have to adapt constantly to regional water scarcity conditions, which are driven by climate change, climate variability, and changing socioeconomic conditions. Whilst a wide range of studies have assessed the role of long term climate change and socioeconomic trends on global water scarcity, the impact of inter-annual climate variability is less well understood. Moreover, the interactions between different forcing mechanisms, and their combined impact on changes in water scarcity conditions, are often neglected. To address this issue, we provide a first step towards a framework for global water scarcity risk assessments, applying probabilistic methods to estimate water scarcity conditions for different return periods under current and future conditions while using multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios. Using probabilistic methods not only enables us to integrate and evaluate the interactions between the different driving forces of water scarcity, and their influence on current and future water scarcity conditions. It also provides insights in the severity, distribution and impacts (population/GDP exposed) of low probability water scarcity events, events that are not easily studied in the conventional time-series analysis. Within this contribution we present the first insights of our study and discuss the opportunities and added value of a water scarcity risk assessment framework for water managers when evaluating adaptation strategies coping with water resources scarcity. We carried out this assessment through the following steps: (1) Calculated yearly water availability (0.5° x 0.5°) over the period 1971-2099 using daily discharge and run-off fields from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, forced with different

  16. European large-scale farmland investments and the land-water-energy-food nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Giuseppina; Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    The escalating human demand for food, water, energy, fibres and minerals have resulted in increasing commercial pressures on land and water resources, which are partly reflected by the recent increase in transnational land investments. Studies have shown that many of the land-water issues associated with land acquisitions are directly related to the areas of energy and food production. This paper explores the land-water-energy-food nexus in relation to large-scale farmland investments pursued by investors from European countries. The analysis is based on a "resource assessment approach" which evaluates the linkages between land acquisitions for agricultural (including both energy and food production) and forestry purposes, and the availability of land and water in the target countries. To that end, the water appropriated by agricultural and forestry productions is quantitatively assessed and its impact on water resource availability is analysed. The analysis is meant to provide useful information to investors from EU countries and policy makers on aspects of resource acquisition, scarcity, and access to promote responsible land investments in the target countries.

  17. The Scaling of Water Governance Tasks: A Comparative Federal Analysis of the European Union and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David; Jordan, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Conflicts over how to “scale” policy-making tasks have characterized environmental governance since time immemorial. They are particularly evident in the area of water policy and raise important questions over the democratic legitimacy, economic efficiency and effectiveness of allocating (or “scaling”) tasks to some administrative levels as opposed to others. This article adopts a comparative federalism perspective to assess the “optimality” of scaling—either upward or downward—in one issue area, namely coastal recreational water quality. It does so by comparing the scaling of recreational water quality tasks in the European Union (EU) and Australia. It reveals that the two systems have adopted rather different approaches to scaling and that this difference can partly be accounted for in federal theoretical terms. However, a much greater awareness of the inescapably political nature of scaling processes is nonetheless required. Finally, some words of caution are offered with regard to transferring policy lessons between these two jurisdictions.

  18. THE ROLE OF THE GRAMAMAR TEACHING: FROM COMMUNCATIVE APPROACHES TO THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Luque Agulló

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In the history of language teaching, the role of grammar has been addressed by a number of linguistic theories, pedagogies and, currently, within the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEF. The way grammar is considered has a decisive influence on pedagogical practices, learning processes and many other areas involved in language teaching. This paper constitutes a revision of how grammar has evolved in the last fifty years paying special attention to its evolving role in both communicative (CLT and post-communicative approaches and in the CEF.From this revision, some controversial issues concerning the pedagogic value of teaching grammar will arise as well, such as whether grammar is worth teaching in the classroom or not and how it should be taught.Even though there exists a parallel linguistic framework between CLT and the CEF, some issues still need revision concerning the notion of grammatical competence and its role for language teaching.

    Históricamente, el papel de la gramática en la enseñanza de lenguas se ha justificado y cuestionado tanto por teorías lingüísticas como, actualmente, dentro del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia. La forma de contemplar la gramática influye de modo fundamental en la metodología docente, en la elaboración de manuales de texto y en los procesos de aprendizaje, entre otros. Este artículo revisa el papel de la gramática en los últimos cincuenta años prestando especial atención al método comunicativo, los post-comunicativos y dentro del Marco Com

  19. Abuse of Older Men in Seven European Countries: A Multilevel Approach in the Framework of an Ecological Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Melchiorre

    Full Text Available Several studies on elder abuse indicate that a large number of victims are women, but others report that men in later life are also significantly abused, especially when they show symptoms of disability and poor health, and require help for their daily activities as a result. This study focused on the prevalence of different types of abuse experienced by men and on a comparison of male victims and non-victims concerning demographic/socio-economic characteristics, lifestyle/health variables, social support and quality of life. Additionally, the study identified factors associated with different types of abuse experienced by men and characteristics associated with the victims.The cross-sectional data concerning abuse in the past 12 months were collected by means of interviews and self-response during January-July 2009, from a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged between 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. We used a multilevel approach, within the framework of an Ecological Model, to explore the phenomenon of abuse against males as the complex result of factors from multiple levels: individual, relational, community and societal.Multivariate analyses showed that older men educated to higher levels, blue-collar workers and men living in a rented accommodation were more often victims than those educated to lower levels, low-rank white-collar workers and home owners, respectively. In addition, high scores for factors such as somatic and anxiety symptoms seemed linked with an increased probability of being abused. Conversely, factors such as increased age, worries about daily expenses (financial strain and greater social support seemed linked with a decreased probability of being abused.Male elder abuse is under-recognized, under-detected and under-reported, mainly due to the vulnerability of older men and to social/cultural norms supporting traditional male

  20. Metal-Organic Framework-Stabilized CO2/Water Interfacial Route for Photocatalytic CO2Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Zhang, Jianling; Li, Wei; He, Zhenhong; Sun, Xiaofu; Shi, Jinbiao; Shao, Dan; Zhang, Bingxing; Tan, Xiuniang; Han, Buxing

    2017-11-29

    Here, we propose a CO 2 /water interfacial route for photocatalytic CO 2 conversion by utilizing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as both an emulsifier and a catalyst. The CO 2 reduction occurring at the CO 2 /water interface produces formate with remarkably enhanced efficiency as compared with that in conventional solvent. The route is efficient, facile, adjustable, and environmentally benign, which is applicable for the CO 2 transformation photocatalyzed by different kinds of MOFs.

  1. Who wants to be an agent? A framework to analyse water politics and governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available - ally penetrate civil society and to implement logistically politi- cal decisions throughout the realm’ (Mann, 1988 p. 5; Mann, 1993a: 55 cited in Hobson, 2000). Infrastructural power can alternatively also be defined as power through or with, rather... of such actors in water politics and governance. The framework has five components: description of the geographic area or issue; the actors involved in water politics and governance; the (hydropolitical) history of the issue; the actors’ power to enable change...

  2. Water adsorption and proton conduction in metal-organic frameworks: Insights from molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesani, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of porous materials that hold great potential for a wide range of applications in chemistry, materials science, and nanoengineering. Compared to other porous materials such as zeolites, MOF properties are highly tunable. In particular, it has been shown that both size and shape of the MOF pores can be rationally designed for specific applications. For example, the ability to modify the framework properties with respect to hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and acidity/basicity can enable the direct control of proton conduction through carrier molecules adsorbed inside the pores. Here, I report on our current efforts aimed at providing a molecular-level characterization of water-mediated proton conduction through the MOF pores. Particular emphasis will be put on correlation between proton conduction and both structural and chemical properties of the frameworks as well as on the dynamical behavior of water confined in the MOF pores. NSF award number: DMR-130510

  3. Toward a social capital based framework for understanding the water-health nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel water quality data analysis framework based on time-series data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weihui; Wang, Guoyin

    2017-07-01

    The rapid development of time-series data mining provides an emerging method for water resource management research. In this paper, based on the time-series data mining methodology, we propose a novel and general analysis framework for water quality time-series data. It consists of two parts: implementation components and common tasks of time-series data mining in water quality data. In the first part, we propose to granulate the time series into several two-dimensional normal clouds and calculate the similarities in the granulated level. On the basis of the similarity matrix, the similarity search, anomaly detection, and pattern discovery tasks in the water quality time-series instance dataset can be easily implemented in the second part. We present a case study of this analysis framework on weekly Dissolve Oxygen time-series data collected from five monitoring stations on the upper reaches of Yangtze River, China. It discovered the relationship of water quality in the mainstream and tributary as well as the main changing patterns of DO. The experimental results show that the proposed analysis framework is a feasible and efficient method to mine the hidden and valuable knowledge from water quality historical time-series data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biogeography of wood-boring crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae established in European coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa M S Borges

    Full Text Available Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal, limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe.

  6. Preliminary assessment of the eutrophication status of selected areas in the Polish sector of the Baltic Sea according to the EU Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Łysiak-Pastuszak

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directiverequired a number of tasks to be fulfilled: classifying the variouswater bodies into different types, defining reference conditionsfor each of the types and assessing their ecological qualitystatus - this last is based on biological, hydromorphologicaland physicochemical quality elements of the ecosystem.The paper presents an attempt to estimate reference values inselected areas of Polish coastal and transitional watersas well as in an open sea area following WFD principles.The preliminary eutrophication assessment showed all the assessedareas to be eutrophication problem areas.

  7. A framework for determining unsaturated zone water quality time lags at catchment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vero, Sara E.; Healy, Mark G.; Henry, Tiernan; Creamer, Rachel E.; Ibrahim, Tristan G.; Richards, Karl G.; Mellander, Per Erik; McDonald, Noeleen T.; Fenton, Owen

    2017-01-01

    The responses of waterbodies to agricultural programmes of measures are frequently delayed by hydrological time lags through the unsaturated zone and groundwater. Time lag may therefore, impede the achievement of remediation deadlines such as those described in the EU Water Framework Directive

  8. Hydropower and Water Framework Directive. Appendix 1; Wasserkraftnutzung und Wasserrahmenrichtlinien. Anhang 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration is the first appendix to the environmental research plan of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) on ''Hydropower and Water Framework Directive''. This appendix contains a description of the locations in the tributaries of the German river Weser.

  9. The Development of Innovative Capacity of the Scientific Organization of Ukraine as a Result of Participation in the Project of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitin, Yu.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consider the successful experience of the V.M. Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials of NAS of Ukraine in the project «Start» (contract number 295003 within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union, which had a positive impact on the increasing the research innovation potential and implementation of the Institute’s innovations to the economy of Ukraine and Europe.

  10. Discovering Resilient Pathways for South African Water Management: Two Frameworks for a Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Bohensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Factors that constitute resilience can themselves change over time in social-ecological systems. This poses a major challenge for understanding resilience and suggests greater investigation is needed of how social-ecological systems evolve through time and how to manage along more resilient pathways given continuous change. Resilient pathways account for the changing context of social-ecological systems, such as changing management discourses and their societal inclusiveness, changing system boundaries and external connections, and lingering consequences of past management actions. In this paper I use two well-known conceptual frameworks to explore change in social-ecological systems and associated resilience in the case of water management in South Africa, which is undergoing a major transformation: (1 the conceptual framework of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA and (2 the adaptive cycle described by Holling and others. Both frameworks, with minor adaptations, illustrate the system's shift from a centralized command-and-control style bureaucracy to a decentralized system guided by new legislation and a vision to balance efficiency, equity, and sustainability. During the former era, water managers attempted to maintain system stability and productivity through institutional and technical means that favored certain sectors of society, but resilience of the water management system declined as a result of increasingly unpopular policies and loss of ecosystem services. In using both frameworks, it becomes clear that the water management system contains two distinct social subsystems, representing South Africa's previously advantaged and disadvantaged populations, and that these do not progress through the phases of the MA framework and adaptive cycle uniformly. This implies particular challenges for achieving the water management vision: (1 the potential for management discourses to be manipulated by powerful groups, (2 equity issues that

  11. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey M.; Lund, Jay R.; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M.; Zagona, Edith A.; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W.; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science. Current systems analysis practice is widespread and addresses the most challenging water issues of our times, including water scarcity and drought, climate change, providing water for food and energy production, decision making amid competing objectives, and bringing economic incentives to bear on water use. The emergence of public recognition and concern for the state of water resources provides an opportune moment for the field to reorient to meet the complex, interdependent, interdisciplinary, and global nature of today's water challenges. At present, water resources systems analysis is limited by low scientific and academic visibility relative to its influence in practice and bridled by localized findings that are difficult to generalize. The evident success of water resource systems analysis in practice (which is set out in this paper) needs in future to be strengthened by substantiating the field as the science of water resources that seeks to predict the water resources variables and outcomes that are important to governments, industries, and the public the world over. Doing so promotes the scientific credibility of the field, provides understanding of the state of water resources and furnishes the basis for predicting the impacts of our water choices.

  12. A framework for using connectivity to measure and model water and sediment fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keessta, Saskia; Saco, Patricia; Nunes, Joao; Parsons, Tony; Poeppl, Ronny; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Jordán, Antonio; Masselink, Rens; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    sediment connectivity varies between phases; in (semi-)arid regions these boundaries can be far apart in time due to extreme events. External disturbances (eg. climate change, changed land management) can change these boundaries. It is therefore important to consider the system state as a whole, including its boundaries and internal dynamics, when designing and implementing comprehensive monitoring and modelling approaches. Keywords: Connectivity, catchment systems, measuring and modelling approaches, co-evolution, management, boundary conditions, fire effects. Acknowledgements This research received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n_ 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Baartman, J.E.M., Masselink, R.H., Keesstra, S.D., Temme, A.J.A.M., 2013. Linking landscape morphological complexity and sediment connectivity. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38: 1457-1471. Cerdà A, Brazier R, Nearing M, de Vente J. 2013. Scales and erosion. CATENA 102: 1-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2011.09.006 López-Vicente, M., E. Nadal-Romero, and E. L. H. Cammeraat. 2016. Hydrological Connectivity does Change Over 70 Years of Abandonment and Afforestation in the Spanish Pyrenees. Land Degradation and Development. doi:10.1002/ldr.2531. López-Vicente, M., L. Quijano, L. Palazón, L. Gaspar, and A. Navas. 2015. Assessment of Soil Redistribution at Catchment Scale by Coupling a Soil Erosion Model and a Sediment Connectivity Index (Central Spanish Pre-Pyrenees). Cuadernos De Investigacion Geografica 41 (1): 127-147. doi:10.18172/cig.2649. Marchamalo, M., J. M. Hooke, and P. J. Sandercock. 2016. Flow and Sediment Connectivity in Semi-Arid Landscapes in SE Spain: Patterns and Controls. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1032-1044. doi:10.1002/ldr.2352. Masselink RJH, Heckmann T, Temme AJAM, Anders NS, Gooren HPA, Keesstra SD. 2016a. A network theory

  13. Water shortage affects the water and nitrogen balance in Central European beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, A; Keitel, C; Nahm, M; Rennenberg, H

    2004-05-01

    Whilst forest policy promotes cultivation and regeneration of beech dominated forest ecosystems, beech itself is a highly drought sensitive tree species likely to suffer from the climatic conditions prognosticated for the current century. Taking advantage of model ecosystems with cool-moist and warm-dry local climate, the latter assumed to be representative for future climatic conditions, the effects of climate and silvicultural treatment (different thinning regimes) on water status, nitrogen balance and growth parameters of adult beech trees and beech regeneration in the understorey were assessed. In addition, validation experiments with beech seedlings were carried out under controlled conditions, mainly in order to assess the effect of drought on the competitive abilities of beech. As measures of water availability xylem flow, shoot water potential, stomatal conductance as well as delta (13)C and delta (18)O in different tissues (leaves, phloem, wood) were analysed. For the assessment of nitrogen balance we determined the uptake of inorganic nitrogen by the roots as well as total N content and soluble N compounds in different tissues of adult and young trees. Retrospective and current analysis of delta (13)C, growth and meteorological parameters revealed that beech growing under warm-dry climatic conditions were impaired in growth and water balance during periods with low rain-fall. Thinning affected water, N balance and growth mostly of young beech, but in a different way under different local climatic conditions. Under cool, moist conditions, representative for the current climatic and edaphic conditions in beech forests of Central Europe, thinning improves nutrient and water status consistent to published literature and long-term experience of forest practitioners. However, beech regeneration was impaired as a result of thinning at higher temperatures and under reduced water availability, as expected in future climate.

  14. EUROPEAN POLICY CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR - WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA BRASOVEANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European Union environmental policy, as was established in the EC Treaty aims at ensuring environmental sustainability activities through its inclusion in EU sectoral policies, by developing measures to prevent by following the basic principles of sustainable development and by taking joint responsibilities. Environmental legislation is one of those tools that combine management of natural resources with the prevention and control of the pollution. These laws attempt to prevent, or at least limit the effects of environmental degradation caused by the phenomenon of pollution. Environmental legislation should primarily be flexible in the sense to allow the fulfillment of current and the future goals in order to stimulate sustainable development concept and to base on general criteria for the purposes of allowing the extension to complex environmental problems. The environmental legislation is due to focus on integrating the source - effect policy, that is to focus on regulations for issuing permits for pollution, but also the responsibility of companies and citizens.Despite the significant improvements that have occurred especially in reducing air and water pollution, European legislation should be developed further. It is true that there are still many points that require completion and perfection, but the path followed is the best. In the European Union the process of implementation and adoption of new regulations on environmental protection (regulations, directives, decisions,recommendations to combat the causes of degradation of environmental quality and life quality time with them continues.

  15. Using Probabilistic Methods in Water Scarcity Assessments: A First Step Towards a Water Scarcity Risk Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity -driven by climate change, climate variability, and socioeconomic developments- is recognized as one of the most important global risks, both in terms of likelihood and impact. Whilst a wide range of studies have assessed the role of long term climate change and socioeconomic trends on global water scarcity, the impact of variability is less well understood. Moreover, the interactions between different forcing mechanisms, and their combined effect on changes in water scarcity conditions, are often neglected. Therefore, we provide a first step towards a framework for global water scarcity risk assessments, applying probabilistic methods to estimate water scarcity risks for different return periods under current and future conditions while using multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios.

  16. Risk management frameworks: supporting the next generation of Murray-Darling Basin water sharing plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Podger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water jurisdictions in Australia are required to prepare and implement water resource plans. In developing these plans the common goal is realising the best possible use of the water resources – maximising outcomes while minimising negative impacts. This requires managing the risks associated with assessing and balancing cultural, industrial, agricultural, social and environmental demands for water within a competitive and resource-limited environment. Recognising this, conformance to international risk management principles (ISO 31000:2009 have been embedded within the Murray-Darling Basin Plan. Yet, to date, there has been little strategic investment by water jurisdictions in bridging the gap between principle and practice. The ISO 31000 principles and the risk management framework that embodies them align well with an adaptive management paradigm within which to conduct water resource planning. They also provide an integrative framework for the development of workflows that link risk analysis with risk evaluation and mitigation (adaptation scenarios, providing a transparent, repeatable and robust platform. This study, through a demonstration use case and a series of workflows, demonstrates to policy makers how these principles can be used to support the development of the next generation of water sharing plans in 2019. The workflows consider the uncertainty associated with climate and flow inputs, and model parameters on irrigation and hydropower production, meeting environmental flow objectives and recreational use of the water resource. The results provide insights to the risks associated with meeting a range of different objectives.

  17. Risk management frameworks: supporting the next generation of Murray-Darling Basin water sharing plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podger, G. M.; Cuddy, S. M.; Peeters, L.; Smith, T.; Bark, R. H.; Black, D. C.; Wallbrink, P.

    2014-09-01

    Water jurisdictions in Australia are required to prepare and implement water resource plans. In developing these plans the common goal is realising the best possible use of the water resources - maximising outcomes while minimising negative impacts. This requires managing the risks associated with assessing and balancing cultural, industrial, agricultural, social and environmental demands for water within a competitive and resource-limited environment. Recognising this, conformance to international risk management principles (ISO 31000:2009) have been embedded within the Murray-Darling Basin Plan. Yet, to date, there has been little strategic investment by water jurisdictions in bridging the gap between principle and practice. The ISO 31000 principles and the risk management framework that embodies them align well with an adaptive management paradigm within which to conduct water resource planning. They also provide an integrative framework for the development of workflows that link risk analysis with risk evaluation and mitigation (adaptation) scenarios, providing a transparent, repeatable and robust platform. This study, through a demonstration use case and a series of workflows, demonstrates to policy makers how these principles can be used to support the development of the next generation of water sharing plans in 2019. The workflows consider the uncertainty associated with climate and flow inputs, and model parameters on irrigation and hydropower production, meeting environmental flow objectives and recreational use of the water resource. The results provide insights to the risks associated with meeting a range of different objectives.

  18. Developing a Framework of Innovative Trials to Support Water Companies Strategic Response to WFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Jodie; Cherry, Katherine; Revens, Neasa; O'Hanlon, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Slug control in high risk fields and catchments can have serious implications for water companies, threatening compliance with drinking water standards and challenging the Water Framework Directive's requirement that additional water treatment is avoided. Severn Trent Water has established a framework of innovative trails at a range of scales and locations to help shape the company's strategic, sustainable response to elevated metaldehyde concentrations at drinking water abstractions. Currently four contrasting trials are underway, two at the catchment scale, one at the field scale and one at the 'operational site' scale at locations across the English Midlands. This presentation provides an overview of the different approaches, their effectiveness to date and lessons learnt to aid strategy development. The first trial entitled Farmer's as Producers of Clean Water adopts a 'results orientated' approach, rewarding farmers for improvements in water quality at the catchment scale and allowing farmers to decide how best to manage the issue on their land with no prescribed measures. It acknowledges that co-ordinated action is needed across the catchment to see improvements in water quality, and that by incentivising outcomes rather than actions, land owners and farmers may take greater ownership of water quality issues. The second project explores the potential for a 'zero metaldehyde' catchment with all farmers throughout the catchment being financial supported to use a water friendly alternative to metaldehyde. This project is being compared to more voluntary approaches adopted elsewhere. The third project is a field scale trial to test the efficacy of alternative products to metaldehyde and different pellet formulations. Field drains are being sampled following heavy rain and crop damaged assessed to review the benefits to water quality and crops. The final project considers what Severn Trent Water can do from an operational perspective, investigating the size and

  19. Sustainable Water Systems for the City of Tomorrow—A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin (Cissy Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban water systems are an example of complex, dynamic human–environment coupled systems which exhibit emergent behaviors that transcend individual scientific disciplines. While previous siloed approaches to water services (i.e., water resources, drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater have led to great improvements in public health protection, sustainable solutions for a growing global population facing increased resource constraints demand a paradigm shift based on holistic management to maximize the use and recovery of water, energy, nutrients, and materials. The objective of this review paper is to highlight the issues in traditional water systems including water demand and use, centralized configuration, sewer collection systems, characteristics of mixed wastewater, and to explore alternative solutions such as decentralized water systems, fit for purpose and water reuse, natural/green infrastructure, vacuum sewer collection systems, and nutrient/energy recovery. This review also emphasizes a system thinking approach for evaluating alternatives that should include sustainability indicators and metrics such as emergy to assess global system efficiency. An example paradigm shift design for urban water system is presented, not as the recommended solution for all environments, but to emphasize the framework of system-level analysis and the need to visualize water services as an organic whole. When water systems are designed to maximize the resources and optimum efficiency, they are more prevailing and sustainable than siloed management because a system is more than the sum of its parts.

  20. Hot water epilepsy: a video case of European boy with positive family history and subsequent non-reflex epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Aglaia; Savini, Miriam Nella; La Briola, Francesca; Chiesa, Valentina; Zambrelli, Elena; Peron, Angela; Canevini, Maria Paola

    2014-03-01

    A 9-year-old Caucasian boy affected by hot water epilepsy, with positive family history, experienced complex partial seizures during contact with hot water. A video-EEG recording was taken while hot water was poured onto his chest. Hot water epilepsy is rarely described in European countries, where bathing epilepsy in younger children is more common and often confused with this type of epilepsy.

  1. A resilience framework for chronic exposures: water quality and ecosystem services in coastal social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    We outline a tailored resilience framework that applies ecosystem service concepts to coastal social-ecological systems (SES) affected by water quality degradation. Unlike acute coastal disturbances such as hurricanes or oil spills, water quality issues, particularly those relate...

  2. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.

    2009-12-01

    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  3. Application of a QMRA Framework to Inform Selection of Drinking Water Interventions in the Developing Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, S R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a modified quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) framework that could be applied as a decision support tool to choose between alternative drinking water interventions in the developing context. The impact of different household water treatment (HWT) interventions on the overall incidence of diarrheal disease and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was estimated, without relying on source water pathogen concentration as the starting point for the analysis. A framework was developed and a software tool constructed and then implemented for an illustrative case study for Nepal based on published scientific data. Coagulation combined with free chlorine disinfection provided the greatest estimated health gains in the short term; however, when long-term compliance was incorporated into the calculations, the preferred intervention was porous ceramic filtration. The model demonstrates how the QMRA framework can be used to integrate evidence from different studies to inform management decisions, and in particular to prioritize the next best intervention with respect to estimated reduction in diarrheal incidence. This study only considered HWT interventions; it is recognized that a systematic consideration of sanitation, recreation, and drinking water pathways is important for effective management of waterborne transmission of pathogens, and the approach could be expanded to consider the broader water-related context. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. An appraisal of policies and institutional frameworks impacting on smallholder agricultural water management in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagumbo, I.; Rurinda, J.

    Policies and institutional frameworks associated with and / or impacting on agricultural water management (AWM) in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe were analyzed through literature reviews, feedback from stakeholder workshops, key informant interviews and evaluation of policy impacts on implemented case study projects/programmes. The study showed that Zimbabwe has gone a long way towards developing a water management policy addressing both equity and access, through the Water and ZINWA of 1998. However, lack of incentives for improving efficient management and utilization of water resources once water has reached the farm gate was apparent, apart from punitive economic instruments levied on usage of increased volumes of water. For example, the new water reforms of 1998 penalized water savers through loss of any unused water in their permits to other users. In addition, the ability of smallholder farmers to access water for irrigation or other purposes was influenced by macro and micro-economic policies such as Economic Structural and Adjustment Programme (ESAP), Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation (ZIMPREST), prevailing monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the Land and Agrarian Reform policies. For instance, the implementation of ESAP from 1991 to 95 resulted in a decline in government support to management of communal irrigation schemes, and as a result only gravity-fed schemes survived. Also AWM projects/programmes that were in progress were prematurely terminated. While considerable emphasis was placed on rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure since the fast track land reform in 1998, the policies remained rather silent on strategies for water management in rainfed systems. The piecemeal nature and fragmentation of policies and institutional frameworks scattered across government ministries and sectors were complex and created difficulties for smallholder farmers to access water resources. Poor policy implementation

  5. Simulated oxygen isotopes in cave drip water and speleothem calcite in European caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting stable oxygen isotope (δ18O records from stalagmites is still one of the complex tasks in speleothem research. Here, we present a novel model-based approach, where we force a model describing the processes and modifications of δ18O from rain water to speleothem calcite (Oxygen isotope Drip water and Stalagmite Model – ODSM with the results of a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model enhanced by explicit isotope diagnostics (ECHAM5-wiso. The approach is neither climate nor cave-specific and allows an integrated assessment of the influence of different varying climate variables, e.g. temperature and precipitation amount, on the isotopic composition of drip water and speleothem calcite.

    First, we apply and evaluate this new approach under present-day climate conditions using observational data from seven caves from different geographical regions in Europe. Each of these caves provides measured δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite to which we compare our simulated isotope values. For six of the seven caves modeled δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite are in good agreement with observed values. The mismatch of the remaining caves might be caused by the complexity of the cave system, beyond the parameterizations included in our cave model.

    We then examine the response of the cave system to mid-Holocene (6000 yr before present, 6 ka climate conditions by forcing the ODSM with ECHAM5-wiso results from 6 ka simulations. For a set of twelve European caves, we compare the modeled mid-Holocene-to-modern difference in speleothem calcite δ18O to available measurements. We show that the general European changes are simulated well. However, local discrepancies are found, and might be explained either by a too low model resolution, complex local soil-atmosphere interactions affecting evapotranspiration or by cave specific factors

  6. Integrative taxonomy supports the presence of two species of Kyphosus (Perciformes: Kyphosidae in Atlantic European waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bañón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic identification of one Kyphosus sectatrix and two Kyphosus vaigiensis specimens caught in the European Atlantic waters of Galicia, northwestern Spain, was carried out by means of integrative taxonomy, combining the examination of morphological characters and DNA barcodes. Taxonomical assignation based on morphological characters of these specimens was tested by comparing their COI sequences with available data of Kyphosus deposited in public repositories. The resulting neighbour-joining tree defined four clades corresponding to Barcode Index Number (BIN and indicated that some nucleotide sequences from Kyphosus, previously deposited, probably originate from misidentified specimens, as would be expected from cryptic and sympatric species. The specimens of Kyphosus vaigiensis represent a new record for the waters of Galicia and the northernmost record in the eastern Atlantic. This kind of herbivorous tropical fishes could play an important role in the tropho-dynamic context of this temperate coastal ecosystem.

  7. Variability in the Water Footprint of Arable Crop Production across European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gobin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth and yield are affected by water use during the season: the green water footprint (WF accounts for rain water, the blue WF for irrigation and the grey WF for diluting agri-chemicals. We calibrated crop yield for FAO’s water balance model “Aquacrop” at field level. We collected weather, soil and crop inputs for 45 locations for the period 1992–2012. Calibrated model runs were conducted for wheat, barley, grain maize, oilseed rape, potato and sugar beet. The WF of cereals could be up to 20 times larger than the WF of tuber and root crops; the largest share was attributed to the green WF. The green and blue WF compared favourably with global benchmark values (R2 = 0.64–0.80; d = 0.91–0.95. The variability in the WF of arable crops across different regions in Europe is mainly due to variability in crop yield ( c v ¯ = 45% and to a lesser extent to variability in crop water use ( c v ¯ = 21%. The WF variability between countries ( c v ¯ = 14% is lower than the variability between seasons ( c v ¯ = 22% and between crops ( c v ¯ = 46%. Though modelled yields increased up to 50% under sprinkler irrigation, the water footprint still increased between 1% and 25%. Confronted with drainage and runoff, the grey WF tended to overestimate the contribution of nitrogen to the surface and groundwater. The results showed that the water footprint provides a measurable indicator that may support European water governance.

  8. Water security for productive economies: Applying an assessment framework in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmatov, Bunyod; Lautze, Jonathan; Manthrithilake, Herath; Makin, Ian

    2017-08-01

    Achieving water security has emerged as a major objective in Africa, yet an analytical or diagnostic framework for assessing water security in African countries is not known to exist. This paper applies one key dimension of the 2016 Asian Development Bank's (ADB) Asian Water Development Outlook (AWDO) to assess levels of water security for productive economies in countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Economic aspects of water security cover four areas: economic activities in the broad sense, agriculture, electricity, and industry. Water security in each area is measured through application of a set of indicators; results of indicator application are then aggregated to determine economic water security at a country-level. Results show that economic water security in SADC is greatest in the Seychelles and South Africa, and lowest in Madagascar and Malawi. Opportunities for strengthening economic water security in the majority of SADC countries exist through improving agricultural water productivity, strengthening resilience, and expanding sustainable electricity generation. More profoundly, this paper suggests that there is clear potential and utility in applying approaches used elsewhere to assess economic water security in southern Africa.

  9. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya C/ J G Salgado s/n, Campus Nord, Modul B-4, E-08034, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: redondo@fa.upc.es

    2009-01-15

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km{sup 2}, follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  10. Which lessons can we learn from the European Union legal framework of medicines for the regulation of direct-to-consumer genetic tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hellemondt, Rachèl; Hendriks, Aart; Breuning, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    The legal framework of the European Union (EU) for regulating access to and supply of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests is very liberal compared to the legal and regulatory framework for (internet) medicines. Nevertheless, both health related products can cause equally serious damage to the well being of individuals. In this contribution we examine whether the legal framework of the EU for the safety and responsible use of (internet) medicines could be an example for regulating access to and supply of DTC genetic tests. The EU laws governing medicines can, notwithstanding their shortcomings, serve as an example for (central) authorising the marketing of DTC genetic tests on the internal market in accordance with strict criteria regarding predictive value and clinical usefulness. Furthermore, a legal framework controlling DTC genetic tests also should introduce system supervision as well as quality criteria with respect to the information to be provided to consumers in order to enhance health protection. However, DTC genetic tests purchased through online ordering are difficult to supervise by any agency. Adequately protecting individuals against questionable testing kits calls for international vigilance and comprehensive measures by the international community. For Europe, it is important to rank the regulation of DTC genetic tests on the European regulatory agenda.

  11. Composition, labelling, and safety of food supplements based on bee products in the legislative framework of the European Union - Croatian experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Mario; Pollak, Lea

    2015-12-01

    The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family.

  12. Public Values and Stakeholder Involvement - A new framework for Performance Assessment? The European Project RISCOM-II. Work Package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Chataignier, Stephane [Electricite de France (France); Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [BMD Research (Sweden)] [and others

    2002-11-01

    RISCOM-II is a project within the fifth framework programme of the European Commission. It is based on a widely recognised need for more transparent decision processes in nuclear waste management. The objective of the RISCOM-II project is to share the knowledge of the context of radioactive waste management in various European countries and to see to what extent it is possible to apply more widely the RISCOM Model in order to improve the acceptability of radioactive waste management. Thus, the project aims to promote the development of processes involving transparency, as well as means involving greater participation of the public. Key topics studied in the RISCOM-II Project are issues in risk assessment to better understand how factual elements relate to value-laden issues and how stakeholder concerns can be addressed, as well as organizational issues affecting transparency in Europe. A range of public participation processes are analysed, some will be selected for testing and hearings are evaluated with respect to transparency. There are five participating countries: Sweden, the United Kingdom, Finland, the Czech Republic, and France, which are represented by various organizations: safety or radiation protection authorities, operators involved in nuclear wastes and the production of nuclear power, research institutes or organizations, and consultants. Work Package No 1(WP-1), Public values and performance assessment, emphasises the importance of value-laden issues involved in nuclear waste management. The expert dominance in the field has so far tended to avoid values or deal with them in seemingly factual frameworks. The objectives of (WP-1) are thus: 1. to identify value-laden issues raised by performance assessment, trying to understand how factual and technical elements relate to value-laden issues 2. to find value judgements of stakeholders, and explore if and how they could be addressed in performance assessment 3. to initiate open debate about risk and

  13. A Coupled Groundwater-Surface Water Modeling Framework for Simulating Transition Zone Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugunthan, Pradeep; Russell, Kevin T; Gong, Binglei; Riley, Michael J; Chin, Arthur; McDonald, Blair G; Eastcott, Linda J

    2017-05-01

    There is an identified need for fully representing groundwater-surface water transition zone (i.e., the sediment zone that connects groundwater and surface water) processes in modeling fate and transport of contaminants to assist with management of contaminated sediments. Most existing groundwater and surface water fate and transport models are not dynamically linked and do not consider transition zone processes such as bioturbation and deposition and erosion of sediments. An interface module is developed herein to holistically simulate the fate and transport by coupling two commonly used models, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and SEAWAT, to simulate surface water and groundwater hydrodynamics, while providing an enhanced representation of the processes in the transition zone. Transition zone and surface water contaminant processes were represented through an enhanced version of the EFDC model, AQFATE. AQFATE also includes SEDZLJ, a state-of-the-science surface water sediment transport model. The modeling framework was tested on a published test problem and applied to evaluate field-scale two- and three-dimensional contaminant transport. The model accurately simulated concentrations of salinity from a published test case. For the field-scale applications, the model showed excellent mass balance closure for the transition zone and provided accurate simulations of all transition zone processes represented in the modeling framework. The model predictions for the two-dimensional field case were consistent with site-specific observations of contaminant migration. This modeling framework represents advancement in the simulation of transition zone processes and can help inform risk assessment at sites where contaminant sources from upland areas have the potential to impact sediments and surface water. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  14. The potential of using the Ecosystem Approach in the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulou, M; Coughlin, D; Forrow, D; Kirk, S; Logan, P; Voulvoulis, N

    2014-02-01

    The Ecosystem Approach provides a framework for looking at whole ecosystems in decision making to ensure that society can maintain a healthy and resilient natural environment now and for future generations. Although not explicitly mentioned in the Water Framework Directive, the Ecosystem Approach appears to be a promising concept to help its implementation, on the basis that there is a connection between the aims and objectives of the Directive (including good ecological status) and the provision of ecosystem services. In this paper, methodological linkages between the Ecosystem Approach and the Water Framework Directive have been reviewed and a framework is proposed that links its implementation to the Ecosystem Approach taking into consideration all ecosystem services and water management objectives. Individual River Basin Management Plan objectives are qualitatively assessed as to how strong their link is with individual ecosystem services. The benefits of using this approach to provide a preliminary assessment of how it could support future implementation of the Directive have been identified and discussed. Findings also demonstrate its potential to encourage more systematic and systemic thinking as it can provide a consistent framework for identifying shared aims and evaluating alternative water management scenarios and options in decision making. Allowing for a broad consideration of the benefits, costs and tradeoffs that occur in each case, this approach can further improve the economic case for certain measures, and can also help restore the shift in focus from strict legislative compliance towards a more holistic implementation that can deliver the wider aims and intentions of the Directive. © 2013.

  15. A framework for analysing water quality observations to detect change in the context of natural variability and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C.; Freer, J.; Johnes, P.; Collins, A.

    2012-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a main driver for enhancing water management policies and increasing infrastructure investment to improve all water bodies to good ecological status. This requires scientists, managers and regulators to develop an effective evidence base for understanding which strategies maximise the cost-benefit associated with water quality improvements. Such evidence is underpinned by national monitoring and predictions of change are often quantified through the application of computer models. This paper is associated with understanding how observations of water quality within river systems at different temporal resolutions and types of monitoring strategies enable us to understand and detect changes over and above the natural variability. Therefore we explore the inter- and intra-annual variabilities of water quality data in the form of concentrations and loads to benchmark the expected variability and uncertainty under different sampling regimes. Recent research has investigated the effects of sampling designs on commonly used metrics for assessing nutrient fluxes, such as the estimation of annual pollutant loads in catchments. However, there have been significantly fewer studies which have considered the effect of sampling frequencies on the detection of inter- and intra-annual variability in water quality time-series and which include the uncertainty estimates in such data. This is important as it determines both the resolution of sampling which is needed for effective monitoring schemes and also the length of dataset which is necessary to characterise baseline and post-remediation behaviours adequately. Without this, we do not have an effective evidence base that enables us to quantify changes in pollutants when improving water quality management plans and associated infrastructure investment. The study uses a Monte-Carlo based approach to generate deviate sample sets of varying time resolutions from measured continuous time

  16. Application of a risk management framework to a drinking water supply augmented by stormwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzalm, J L; Page, D W; Dillon, P J

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Lake is an important water resource for the city of Mount Gambier and the surrounding region, primarily as the drinking water supply source, but also as a tourist attraction. Mount Gambier's stormwater is discharged directly via drainage wells into the unconfined, karstic Gambier Limestone aquifer, which in turn provides the majority of recharge to Blue Lake. Discharge of urban runoff to the aquifer commenced in the 1800s as a means of stormwater management, but is now recognised as contributing to the drinking water supply in Blue Lake. Recently, guidelines for managing the risks associated with water recycling and augmenting drinking water supplies have been developed. This paper examines the organic chemical hazards associated with a stormwater to potable recycling scheme as an example of the current risk management framework.

  17. Constructing a strategic, national resource: European policies and the up-scaling of water services in the Algarve, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European "pleasure periphery" over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian's entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented "hydraulic paradigm" in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion.

  18. Constructing a Strategic, National Resource: European Policies and the Up-Scaling of Water Services in the Algarve, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European “pleasure periphery” over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian’s entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented “hydraulic paradigm” in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion.

  19. The European Water Framework Directive beyond 2010: Let actions speak louder than words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brils, J.; Quevauviller, P.; Slob, A.; Blind, M.; Davy, T.; Carere, M.; Amorsi, N.; Brack, W.; Borchers, U.; Thompson, C.; Villessot, D.

    2010-01-01

    The first generation of WFD River Basin Management Plans is now available. This is a formidable achievement and a great step towards addressing Europe's deteriorated river systems. However, plans are only words: only the actual implementation of the selected measures will result in achievement of

  20. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Brown

    Full Text Available Abstract The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community’s coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders’ official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights.

  1. Risk-based framework for optimizing residual chlorine in large water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Muhammad Nadeem; Farahat, Ashraf; Haider, Husnain; Al-Zahrani, Muhammad A; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-07-01

    Managing residual chlorine in large water distribution systems (WDS) to minimize human health risk is a daunting task. In this research, a novel risk-based framework is developed and implemented in a distribution network spanning over 64 km2 for supplying water to the city of Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia) through 473-km-long water mains. The framework integrates the planning of linear assets (i.e., pipes) and placement of booster stations to optimize residual chlorine in the WDS. Failure mode and effect analysis are integrated with the fuzzy set theory to perform risk analysis. A vulnerability regarding the probability of failure of pipes is estimated from historical records of water main breaks. The consequence regarding residual chlorine availability has been associated with the exposed population depending on the land use characteristics (i.e., defined through zoning). EPANET simulations have been conducted to predict residual chlorine at each node of the network. A water quality index is used to assess the effectiveness of chlorine practice. Scenario analysis is also performed to evaluate the impact of changing locations and number of booster stations, and rehabilitation and/or replacement of vulnerable water mains. The results revealed that the proposed methodology could facilitate the utility managers to optimize residual chlorine effectively in large WDS.

  2. Water safety plans as a tool for drinking water regulatory frameworks in Arctic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kaycie; Stoddart, Amina K; Gagnon, Graham A

    2017-07-14

    Arctic communities often face drinking water supply challenges that are unique to their location. Consequently, conventional drinking water regulatory strategies often do not meet the needs of these communities. A literature review of Arctic jurisdictions was conducted to evaluate the current water management approaches and how these techniques could be applied to the territory of Nunavut in Canada. The countries included are all members of the Arctic Council and other Canadian jurisdictions considered important to the understanding of water management for Northern Canadian communities. The communities in Nunavut face many challenges in delivering safe water to customers due to remoteness, small community size and therefore staffing constraints, lack of guidelines and monitoring procedures specific to Nunavut, and water treatment and distribution systems that are vastly different than those used in southern communities. Water safety plans were explored as an alternative to water quality regulations as recent case studies have demonstrated the utility of this risk management tool, especially in the context of small communities. Iceland and Alberta both currently have regulated water safety plans (WSPs) and were examined to understand shortcomings and benefits if WSPs were to be applied as a possible strategy in Nunavut. Finally, this study discusses specific considerations that are necessary should a WSP approach be applied in Nunavut.

  3. The contribution of european projects in the cross-border management of drinking water: between hydrodynamics and vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Chiara; Cucchi, Franco; Turpaud, Philippe; Ravbar, Nataša; Petrič, Metka; Urbanc, Janko; Zini, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The Classical Karst Region represents an evolved binary karst hydrostructure located across NE Italy and SW Slovenia. Its deeply karstified limestones and dolomitic limestones swallow rainfall in a network of caves and fractures through the epikarst and vadose zones. In the phreatic zone, horizontal or sub-horizontal conduits quickly convey water to the springs. The aquifer is also recharged by the input of three rivers. Along its SE edge in Slovenia, the Reka River sinks entirely into the Škocjan caves. Along its NW edge, the Isonzo/Soča and Vipacco/Vipava rivers recharge the aquifer in a more diffuse manner as the input is supplied by porous aquifers alimented by riverbed leakages. The hydrostructure is drained by numerous springs situated NW of the plateau along its SE facing edge, between Monfalcone and Duino. The common average discharge of the Timavo spring is about 35.5 m3/s. The Reka-Timavo aquifer has attracted the attention of researchers for the last 200 years due to the increasing need for good quality drinking water. Water withdrawn in this area is guaranteed drinking water for the inhabitants of the Classical Karst. This water is supplied by AcegasApsAmga and Kra\\vski Vodovod delivering to more than 250.000 inhabitants. Since World War II, the Classical Karst Region has been politically divided. Consequently this area has been studied and managed separately for almost 70 years. Only recently has a collaboration between researchers of both countries begun. Within this framework is the 3-year Hydrokarst Project funded by the European Union which focussed on the joint protection and management of the cross border aquifer through the analysis of groundwater dynamics. The structuring and implementation of a shared geodatabase has allowed for the hydrochemical, hydrogeological and hydrodynamic characterisation of the aquifer. A second step consisted of the elaboration of a joint hydrogeological map. Thirdly, vulnerability mapping has allowed for the

  4. Alberta's evolving water use regulatory framework for energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, J.; Sultan, R. [Waterline Resources Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, water is a critical component of production; in Alberta, 75% of oil production is water-assisted. The use of water in Alberta is regulated by two organisms, Alberta Environment (AENV) and the Energy Resources and Conservation Board (ERCB), with the goal of sustainable management of water resources. AENV regulates the use of non-saline water by the industry and the ERCB regulates access to saline water for energy projects. Non-saline water is defined as having a concentration of less than 4,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids and saline water as having a concentration above 4,000mg/L. The regulatory framework is in constant evolution and the aim of this paper is to provide detail and clarity on the current and future situations. This paper highlights current and emerging regulations on water use in Alberta so that industrial operators can better understand what is and will be asked of them.

  5. A comprehensive framework for the assessment of new end uses in recycled water schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Lim, Richard; Wang, Xiaochang C; O'Halloran, Kelly; Listowski, Andrzej; Corby, Nigel; Miechel, Clayton

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study. © 2013.

  6. A Scenario-Based Framework for Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Theodor J.; Scott, Leanne

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of a general group decision-making or negotiation support procedure for water resources planning at a strategic level (such as regional development planning), based on principles of multicriteria decision analysis. A number of difficulties have been encountered in applying many of the standard multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) tools and techniques directly in this context. The paper introduces a broader framework in which these difficulties may be overcome, so that MCDM tools can be used effectively for evaluating strategic planning options. This framework is based on direct evaluation of sequences of "policy scenarios," which are neither a full set of possible planning "alternatives," nor fully specified down to the finest level of detail. The overall procedure and some experiences in applying it within the context of regional water resource planning in South Africa are discussed.

  7. Dynamically adaptive Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shallow water flows with the Peano framework

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2015-09-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. We present a dynamically adaptive Lattice Boltzmann (LB) implementation for solving the shallow water equations (SWEs). Our implementation extends an existing LB component of the Peano framework. We revise the modular design with respect to the incorporation of new simulation aspects and LB models. The basic SWE-LB implementation is validated in different breaking dam scenarios. We further provide a numerical study on stability of the MRT collision operator used in our simulations.

  8. Using concept mapping in the development of the EU-PAD framework (EUropean-Physical Activity Determinants across the life course): a DEDIPAC-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Ling, Fiona Chun Man; Bianco, Antonino; Chastin, Sebastien; Cardon, Greet; Ciarapica, Donatella; Conte, Daniele; Cortis, Cristina; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Gjaka, Masar; Hansen, Sylvia; Holdsworth, Michelle; Iacoviello, Licia; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Leone, Liliana; Manoni, Livia; Menescardi, Cristina; Migliaccio, Silvia; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Perchoux, Camille; Pesce, Caterina; Pierik, Frank; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Puggina, Anna; Sannella, Alessandra; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Schulz, Holger; Simon, Chantal; Steinbrecher, Astrid; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura

    2016-11-09

    A large proportion of European children, adults and older adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity (PA). Understanding individual and contextual factors associated with PA behaviours is essential for the identification and implementation of effective preventative environments, policies, and programmes that can promote an active lifestyle across life course and can potentially improve health. The current paper intends to provide 1) a multi-disciplinary, Pan-European and life course view of key determinants of PA behaviours and 2) a proposal of how these factors may cluster. After gathering a list of 183 potential PA behaviours-associated factors and a consensus meeting to unify/consolidate terminology, a concept mapping software was used to collate European experts' views of 106 identified factors for youth (concept mapping resulted in six distinct clusters, broadly merged in two themes: 1) the 'Person', which included clusters 'Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing' and 'Family and Social Economic Status' (42 % of all factors) and 2) the 'Society', which included the remaining four clusters 'Policy and Provision', 'Cultural Context and Media', 'Social Support and Modelling', and 'Supportive Environment' (58 % of all factors). Overall, 25 factors were rated as the most impactful on PA behaviours across the life course and being the most modifiable. They were mostly situated in the 'Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing' cluster. Furthermore, 16 of them were rated as top priority for research. The current framework provides a preliminary overview of factors which may account for PA behaviour across the life course and are most relevant to the European community. These insights could potentially be a foundation for future Pan-European research on how these factors might interact with each other, and assist policy makers to identify appropriate interventions to maximize PA behaviours and thus the health of European citizens.

  9. Hydropower and Water Framework Directive. Appendix 2 to 4; Wasserkraftnutzung und Wasserrahmenrichtlinien. Anhang 2 bis 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration contains the appendices 2 to 4 to the environmental research plan of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) on ''Hydropower and Water Framework Directive''. Appendix 2 reports on the fundamentals for the design of fish bypass facilities, fish protection and fish migration facilities, minimum outflow in discharge lines, water ecologic evaluation, determination of less generation of hydroelectric power plants. Appendix 3 contains illustrations. Appendix 4 presents an extract from the final report.

  10. An integrated social and ecological modeling framework - impacts of agricultural conservation practices on water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Daloğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a modeling framework that synthesizes social, economic, and ecological aspects of landscape change to evaluate how different agricultural policy and land tenure scenarios and land management preferences affect landscape pattern and downstream water quality. We linked a stylized agent-based model (ABM of farmers' conservation practice adoption decisions with a water quality model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, to simulate the water quality effects of changing land tenure dynamics and different policies for crop revenue insurance in lieu of commodity payments over 41 years (1970-2010 for a predominantly agricultural watershed of Lake Erie. Results show that non-operator owner involvement in land management decisions yields the highest reduction in sediment and nutrient loads, and crop revenue insurance leads to more homogeneous farmer decisions and a slight increase in sediment and nutrient loads unless cross compliance with expanded conservation requirements is implemented.

  11. A framework for joint management of regional water-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira

    operation policies that adapted to changing inflow conditions. The effects of spatial aggregation on the analysis of water-power systems were evaluated by comparing results from an aggregated and a partially disaggregated model. The aggregated model, where all reservoirs were represented as a single...... equivalent energy reservoir, provided valuable insights into the management of water and power systems, but only at the Peninsula scale. The disaggregated model revealed that optimal allocations were achieved by managing water resources differently in each river basin according to local inflow, storage...... capacity, hydropower productivity, and irrigation demand and productivity. This highlights the importance of considering spatial differences in this type of analysis. The method was successfully used to assess linkages between the water and the power systems of the Iberian Peninsula. The framework...

  12. Adsorption of organic arsenic acids from water over functionalized metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Mithun; Song, Ji Yoon; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2017-08-05

    Organic arsenic acids (OAAs) are regarded as water pollutants because of their toxicity and considerable solubility in water. Adsorption of OAAs such as phenylarsonic acid (PAA) and p-arsanilic acid (ASA) from water was investigated over functionalized (with OH groups) metal-organic framework (MOF, MIL-101), as well as over pristine MIL-101 and commercial activated carbon. The highly porous MIL-101 bearing three hydroxyl groups (MIL-101(OH)3) exhibited remarkable PAA and ASA adsorption capacities. Based on the effects of pH on PAA and ASA adsorption, hydrogen bonding was suggested as a plausible mechanism of OAA adsorption. Importantly, OAAs and MIL-101(OH)3 can be viewed as hydrogen-bond acceptors and donors, respectively. Moreover, MIL-101(OH)3 could be regenerated by acidic ethanol treatment, being a promising adsorbent for the removal of PAA and ASA from water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement and Sustainability of the Qualifications Frameworks in the European Higher Education Area through an Employment Survey on Access to the Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia Serrano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear need to measure the correct implementation of the European Framework through the employability of the alumni. The evaluation of the deployment of the Qualifications Frameworks in the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA/QF should shed significant light on the action that must be taken by legislators and higher education managers to foster employability and guarantee the sustainability of the EHEA. We propose a methodology based on a Survey on Access to the Labour Market (SALM to assess the correlation between the education provided to the students and the practical utility of the knowledge acquired in the workplace. A questionnaire has been produced to measure the competencies and descriptors that had been theoretically defined within the QF-EHEA. Fifteen questions were disguised so that the six QF-EHEA descriptors were quantified through the difference between education and utility. The quantification methodology for the framework has been tested successfully on the former students of a higher education center in Spain. In this center, the alumni perceived that the utility of their acquired competencies and their employability level was greater than their education content, while both levels were reasonably high. The results hold for both Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees.

  14. The effect of water storage change in ET estimation in humid catchments based on water balance models and Budyko framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Sun, Fubao; Liu, Changming; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    An accurate estimation of ET in humid catchments is essential in water-energy budget research and water resource management etc, while it remains a huge challenge and there is no well accepted explanation for the difficulty of annual ET estimation in humid catchments so far. Here we presents the ET estimation in 102 humid catchments over China based on the Budyko framework and two hydrological models: abcd model and Xin'anjiang mdoel, in comparison with ET calculated from the water balance equation (ETwb) on the ground that the ΔS is approximately zero at multiannual and annual time scale. We provides a possible explanation for this poorly annual ET estimation in humid catchments as well. The results show that at multi-annual timescale, the Budyko framework works fine in ET estimation in humid catchments, while at annual time scale, neither the Budyko framework nor the hydrological models can estimate ET well. The major cause for this poorly estimated annual ET in humid catchments is the neglecting of the ΔS in ETwb since it enlarge the variability of real actual evapotranspiration. Much improvement has been made when compared estimated ET + ΔS with those ETwb, and the bigger the catchment area is, the better this improvement is. It provides a reasonable explanation for the poorly estimated annual ET in humid catchments and reveals the important role of the ΔS in ET estimation and validation. We highlight that the annual ΔS shouldn't be taken as zero in water balance equation in humid catchments.

  15. An integrated modeling framework to anticipate water scarcity and inform integrative water system response in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vache, K. B.; Bolte, J.; Haggerty, R.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new modeling strategy that has been developed to evaluate potential effects on water resource availability of the combination of changing demographics and climate change in large and complex earth systems. The framework makes use of a spatially and temporally variable GIS system, along with an actor-based decision-making algorithm, to produce a series of scenario-based trajectories of change. A plug-in modeling architecture is used to provide a variety of evaluative models access to the changing landscape data, resulting in a series of feedback loops which can be used to modify actor decision-making in a dynamic fashion. We present a case study from the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, and include plug-in models accounting for snowpack development, rainfall-runoff relationships, groundwater, surface water storage and dam management, as well as both agriculture and urban water demand.

  16. Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

    2014-05-01

    Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test

  17. Comparison of Water Flows in Four European Lagoon Catchments under a Set of Future Climate Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Hesse

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is supposed to remarkably affect the water resources of coastal lagoons as they are highly vulnerable to changes occurring at their catchment and/or ocean or sea boundaries. Probable impacts of projected climate changes on catchment hydrology and freshwater input were assessed using the eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal, Mar Menor (Spain, Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia under a set of 15 climate scenarios covering the time period until the year 2100. Climate change signals for all regions show continuously increasing trends in temperature, but various trends in precipitation. Precipitation is projected to decrease in two catchments on the Iberian Peninsula and increase in the Baltic region catchment, and does not show a clear trend in the catchment located near the Black Sea. The average projected changes in freshwater inputs reflect these changes in climate conditions, but often show variability between the scenarios, in future periods, and within the catchments. According to the individual degrees of water management influences in the four drainage basins, the climate sensitivity of river inflows is differently pronounced in each.

  18. Recent Progress in Metal‐Organic Frameworks for Applications in Electrocatalytic and Photocatalytic Water Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The development of clean and renewable energy materials as alternatives to fossil fuels is foreseen as a potential solution to the crucial problems of environmental pollution and energy shortages. Hydrogen is an ideal energy material for the future, and water splitting using solar/electrical energy is one way to generate hydrogen. Metal‐organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous materials with unique properties that have received rapidly growing attention in recent years for applications in water splitting due to their remarkable design flexibility, ultra‐large surface‐to‐volume ratios and tunable pore channels. This review focuses on recent progress in the application of MOFs in electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen generation, including both oxygen and hydrogen evolution. It starts with the fundamentals of electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting and the related factors to determine the catalytic activity. The recent progress in the exploitation of MOFs for water splitting is then summarized, and strategies for designing MOF‐based catalysts for electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting are presented. Finally, major challenges in the field of water splitting are highlighted, and some perspectives of MOF‐based catalysts for water splitting are proposed. PMID:28435777

  19. Recent Progress in Metal-Organic Frameworks for Applications in Electrocatalytic and Photocatalytic Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2017-04-01

    The development of clean and renewable energy materials as alternatives to fossil fuels is foreseen as a potential solution to the crucial problems of environmental pollution and energy shortages. Hydrogen is an ideal energy material for the future, and water splitting using solar/electrical energy is one way to generate hydrogen. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous materials with unique properties that have received rapidly growing attention in recent years for applications in water splitting due to their remarkable design flexibility, ultra-large surface-to-volume ratios and tunable pore channels. This review focuses on recent progress in the application of MOFs in electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen generation, including both oxygen and hydrogen evolution. It starts with the fundamentals of electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting and the related factors to determine the catalytic activity. The recent progress in the exploitation of MOFs for water splitting is then summarized, and strategies for designing MOF-based catalysts for electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting are presented. Finally, major challenges in the field of water splitting are highlighted, and some perspectives of MOF-based catalysts for water splitting are proposed.

  20. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in northern European waters and its potential impact on fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia

    The recent invasion by Mnemiopsis in northern European waters has lead to concerns for fishery interests especially in the central Baltic Sea, where it overlaps with commercially important cod recruits on their spawning grounds. We present laboratory feeding rate experiments along with video...... selected against cod eggs. Application of our clearance rates to in situ abundances confirmed that Mnemiopsis has a negligible direct predation impact on cod offspring. Further, due to drastically reduced reproduction rates at low salinities, occurrence of Mnemiopsis in the central Baltic appears...... to be dependent on advection, and is unlikely to reach large population sizes. Hence, Mnemiopsis constitutes neither a direct nor a potential indirect threat to the cod population in the central Baltic. However, its large reproduction potential in high saline areas with 11,500 eggs ind-1 d-1 and observed high...

  1. Do the American Society of Clinical Oncology Value Framework and the European Society of Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale Measure the Same Construct of Clinical Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sierra; McDonald, Erica J; Cheung, Matthew C; Arciero, Vanessa S; Qureshi, Mahin; Jiang, Di; Ezeife, Doreen; Sabharwal, Mona; Chambers, Alexandra; Han, Dolly; Leighl, Natasha; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2017-08-20

    Purpose Whether the ASCO Value Framework and the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (MCBS) measure similar constructs of clinical benefit is unclear. It is also unclear how they relate to quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and funding recommendations in the United Kingdom and Canada. Methods Randomized clinical trials of oncology drug approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, and Health Canada between 2006 and August 2015 were identified and scored using the ASCO version 1 (v1) framework, ASCO version 2 (v2) framework, and ESMO-MCBS by at least two independent reviewers. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to assess construct (between frameworks) and criterion validity (against QALYs from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE] and the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review [pCODR]). Associations between scores and NICE/pCODR recommendations were examined. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Results From 109 included randomized clinical trials, 108 ASCOv1, 111 ASCOv2, and 83 ESMO scores were determined. Correlation coefficients for ASCOv1 versus ESMO, ASCOv2 versus ESMO, and ASCOv1 versus ASCOv2 were 0.36 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.54), 0.17 (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.37), and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.63), respectively. Compared with NICE QALYs, correlation coefficients were 0.45 (ASCOv1), 0.53 (ASCOv2), and 0.46 (ESMO); with pCODR QALYs, coefficients were 0.19 (ASCOv1), 0.20 (ASCOv2), and 0.36 (ESMO). None of the frameworks were significantly associated with NICE/pCODR recommendations. Inter-rater reliability was good for all frameworks. Conclusion The weak-to-moderate correlations of the ASCO frameworks with the ESMO-MCBS, as well as their correlations with QALYs and with NICE/pCODR funding recommendations, suggest different constructs of clinical benefit measured. Construct convergent validity with the ESMO-MCBS did not

  2. Benthic habitat mapping on the Basque continental shelf (SE Bay of Biscay) and its application to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galparsoro, Ibon; Rodríguez, José Germán; Menchaca, Iratxe; Quincoces, Iñaki; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Borja, Ángel

    2015-06-01

    Benthic habitats on the Basque continental shelf were mapped based on multibeam echosounder surveys, grab sampling, video surveys and oceanographic monitoring. A total area of 2302 km2 was classified according to the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) hierarchical classification. Almost 50% of the area corresponded to rock and other hard substrata and the other 50% corresponded to soft bottoms. The biotic composition of several areas was significantly different from the EUNIS habitat classes described previously; therefore, we propose a total of 13 new classes. The habitat mapping has contributed to improving the knowledge and application of several criteria and indicators used to assess environmental status in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive in relation to the biological diversity descriptors, such as non-indigenous species and seafloor integrity. It is also useful for other descriptors and for developing the sampling design.

  3. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of water diversion and climate change on the Rur and Meuse in low-flow situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyka, Christiane; Jacobs, Cor; Breuer, Roman; Elbers, Jan; Nacken, Heribert; Sewilam, Hani; Timmerman, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is one of the problems in water management that hinders European rivers in reaching a good ecological status as defined in the European Water Framework Directive. Water scarcity often coincides with high water temperature and low water quality. High water temperatures decrease the

  5. Narrowing the range of water availability projections in China using the Budyko framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Joe; Lambert, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing demand for reliable 21st-century projections of water availability at the regional scale. Used alone, global climate models (GCMs) are unsuitable for generating such projections at catchment scales in the presence of simulated aridity biases. This is because the Budyko framework dictates that the partitioning of precipitation into runoff and evapotranspiration scales as a non-linear function of aridity. Therefore, GCMs are typically used in tandem with global hydrological models (GHMs), but this process is computationally expensive. Here, considering a Chinese case study, we utilise the Budyko framework to make use of plentiful GCM output, without the need for GHMs. We first apply the framework to 20th-century observations to show that the significant declines in Yellow river discharge between 1951 and 2000 cannot be accounted for by modelled climate change alone, with human activities playing a larger but poorly quantified role. We further show that the Budyko framework can be used to narrow the range of water availability projections in the Yangtze and Yellow river catchments by 33% an 72%, respectively, in the 21st-century RCP8.5 business-as-usual emission scenario. In the Yellow catchment the best-guess end-of-21st-century change in runoff decreases from an increase of 0.09 mm/d in raw multi-model mean output to an increase of 0.04 mm/d in Budyko corrected multi-model mean output. While this is a valuable finding, we stress that these changes could be dwarfed by changes due to human activity in the 21st century, unless strict water management policies are implemented.

  6. Estimating Riverine Water and Constiuent Fluxes in a Data Assimilation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, B. M.; Saile, P.

    2012-12-01

    River systems are the primary means of transporting waters over the landscape from headwaters to basin mouth while carrying various constituents. Rivers give home to diverse aquatic habitats, while serving humans water needs. River discharge is the most accurately measured component of the hydrological cycle, when it is carried out on the ground using traditional in-situ measurements. While in-situ river monitoring is cost competitive to remote sensing alternatives, comprehensive water flux assessments need to combine in-situ and remote sensing observations with hydrological modeling. The capabilities of in-situ vs. remote sensing sensors are largely complementary that data assimilation frameworks built on top of hydrological models can utilize. The Global Terrestrial Networks for Hydrology (GTN-H) effort of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) was designed to implement such data assimilation on top of the data assets from its partner institutions. GTN-H seeks to hold a comprehensive repository of a wide range of hydrological information ranging from climate data (including various reanalysis and precipitation data products) that are available for near realtime hydrological simulations, in-situ discharge records collected by the Global Runoff Data Centre, Koblenz, Germany, complemented by key water quality variables from UNEP's Global Environmental Monitoring - Water (GEMS/Water) programme. The modeling platform serving GTN-H is currently built on the Framework for Aquatic Modeling of the Earth System (FrAMES) developed by the CUNY Environmental CrossRoads Initiative with contributions from the University of New Hampshire and Colorado University. FrAMES offers high degree of flexibility in configuring large scale hydrological simulations coupled with the capability of tracking dissolved and suspended constituents. This presentation will show the key components of the GTN-H data archive and the application of FrAMES to produce value added hydrological

  7. Ecological Decision Scaling: A Framework For Incorporating Ecological Principles in Water Management Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, T.; Poff, L.; Spence, C. M.; Matthews, J.; Brown, C. M.; Palmer, M.; Hondula, K. L.; Baeza Castro, C.

    2014-12-01

    Large water infrastructure projects have fueled the economies of developed countries and led to the widespread degradation of freshwater ecosystems. Proposed dams promise to similarly transform the economies and environment of developing countries. Yet with rapidly changing climate, traditional water infrastructure design carries with it an increased risk of failure if climate conditions shift beyond design parameters. Environmental concerns have long been at the periphery of water management decision-making. However, the destabilizing effect of climate change on traditional engineering practices, coupled with increased societal interest in sustainable water management, now present an opportunity to better integrate ecological principles in water infrastructure planning and design. Here we operationalize sustainable water management by incorporating ecological performance metrics with traditional engineering performance criteria in a decision-analysis framework. We adapt the decision-scaling risk assessment approach to evaluate ecological consequences of water management decisions and quantify tradeoffs and synergies among economic and environmental objectives. We apply the framework to the Iowa River system, where recent changes in flood intensity have prompted managers to consider alternative flood control strategies, including new infrastructure and reservoir operation rules. The system was modeled to quantify flood damages (to Iowa City and agricultural lands) and the ecological benefits of river floodplain inundation under alternative management and climate scenarios. We found that raising levees substantially reduced economic damages under wetter and more variable climate futures, but provided limited ecological benefits relative to the status quo. In contrast, changes in reservoir operations did not reduce the risk of catastrophic flood damage, but provided significant ecological benefits associated with increased floodplain inundation. The management option

  8. Framework for a ground-water quality monitoring and assessment program for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Burow, Karen; Jurgens, Bryant C.; John, Tyler

    2003-01-01

    developed a framework for a comprehensive ground-water-quality monitoring and assessment program for California. The proposed framework relies extensively on previous work conducted by the USGS through its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. In particular, the NAWQA program defines three types of ground-water assessment: (1) status, the assessment of the current quality of the ground-water resource; (2) trends, the detection of changes in water quality, and (3) understanding, assessing the human and natural factors that affect ground-water quality. A Statewide, comprehensive ground-water quality-monitoring and assessment program is most efficiently accomplished by applying uniform and consistent study-design and data-collection protocols to the entire State. At the same time, a comprehensive program should be relevant at a variety of scales, and therefore needs to retain flexibility to address regional and local issues. Consequently, many of the program components include a predominant element that will be consistently applied in all basins, and a secondary element that may be applied in specific basins where local conditions warrant attention.

  9. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Bartram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled.

  10. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Georgia L.; Moriarty, Patrick; Fonseca, Catarina; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled. PMID:24157507

  11. Pilot study testing a European human biomonitoring framework for biomarkers of chemical exposure in children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a number of environmental chemicals in UK mothers and children has been assessed as part of the European biomonitoring pilot study, Demonstration of a Study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). For the European-funded project, 17 countries...... tested the biomonitoring guidelines and protocols developed by COPHES. The results from the pilot study in the UK are presented; 21 school children aged 6-11 years old and their mothers provided hair samples to measure mercury and urine samples, to measure cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate...... on environment, health and lifestyle. Mercury in hair was higher in children who reported frequent consumption of fish (geometric mean 0.35 μg/g) compared to those that ate fish less frequently (0.13 μg/g, p = 0.002). Cadmium accumulates with age as demonstrated by higher levels of urinary cadmium in the mothers...

  12. A New Framework for Assessing the Sustainability Reporting Disclosure of Water Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cantele

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability reporting is becoming more and more widespread among companies aiming at disclosing their contribution to sustainable development and gaining legitimacy from stakeholders. This is more significant for firms operating in a public services’ context and mainly when supplying a fundamental public resource, like water utilities. While the literature on sustainability reporting in the water sector is scant, there is an increasing need to study the usefulness and quality of its sustainability disclosures to adequately inform the stakeholders about the activities of water utilities to protect this fundamental resource and general sustainable development. This article presents a novel assessment framework based on a scoring technique and an empirical analysis on the sustainability reports of Italian water utilities carried out through it. The results highlight a low level of disclosure on the sustainability indicators suggested by the main sustainability reporting guidelines (Global Reporting Initiative, (GRI, and Sustainability Accounting Standard Board, (SASB; most companies tend to disclose only qualitative information and fail to inform about some material aspects of water management, such as water recycled, network resilience, water sources, and effluent quality. These findings indicate that sustainability reporting is mainly considered as a communication tool, rather than a performance measurement and an accountability tool, but also suggest the need for a new and international industry-specific sustainability reporting standard.

  13. The PHAR-QA Project: Competency Framework for Pharmacy Practice—First Steps, the Results of the European Network Delphi Round 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available PHAR-QA, funded by the European Commission, is producing a framework of competences for pharmacy practice. The framework is in line with the EU directive on sectoral professions and takes into account the diversity of the pharmacy profession and the on-going changes in healthcare systems (with an increasingly important role for pharmacists, and in the pharmaceutical industry. PHAR-QA is asking academia, students and practicing pharmacists to rank competences required for practice. The results show that competences in the areas of “drug interactions”, “need for drug treatment” and “provision of information and service” were ranked highest whereas those in the areas of “ability to design and conduct research” and “development and production of medicines” were ranked lower. For the latter two categories, industrial pharmacists ranked them higher than did the other five groups.

  14. EU Water Framework Directive and Stockholm Convention: can we reach the targets for priority substances and persistent organic pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerhacker, Maria

    2009-08-01

    Water is a renewable resource and acceptable quality is important for human health, ecological and economic reasons, but human activity can cause great damage to the natural aquatic environment. Managing the water cycle in a sustainable way is the key to protect natural resources and human health. On a global level, the microbiological contamination of water sources is a major problem in connection with poverty and the United Nations Millennium Development Declaration is an important initiative to handle this problem. In terms of environmental health, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) circulate globally; as they travel long distances, they are found in remote areas far from their original source of application and can cause damage wherever they move to. On a global scale, United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) issued the Stockholm Convention to reduce POPs; in the European Union (EU), one intention of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is to reach the good chemical status of waters; beside these regulations, there are other directives in support of these goals. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether the Stockholm Convention and the WFD allows meeting the targets of protection of human and environmental health, which are established in the different directives and how could we approach the targets. The aims and scopes of different directives are compiled and compared with the actual quality of water, different approaches of standard settings are compared and potential treatment options are discussed. Under the Stockholm Convention on POPs, which came into force in May 2004, governments are required to develop a National Implementation Plan (NIP) setting out how they will address their obligations under the convention and how they will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment by the use of best available techniques (BAT) and application of best environmental practices (BEP). On a European level, the WFD has been in

  15. Water masses as a unifying framework for understanding the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Iudicone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific motivation for this study is to understand the processes in the ocean interior controlling carbon transfer across 30° S. To address this, we have developed a unified framework for understanding the interplay between physical drivers such as buoyancy fluxes and ocean mixing, and carbon-specific processes such as biology, gas exchange and carbon mixing. Given the importance of density in determining the ocean interior structure and circulation, the framework is one that is organized by density and water masses, and it makes combined use of Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics. This is achieved through application to a global ice-ocean circulation model and an ocean biogeochemistry model, with both components being part of the widely-used IPSL coupled ocean/atmosphere/carbon cycle model.

    Our main new result is the dominance of the overturning circulation (identified by water masses in setting the vertical distribution of carbon transport from the Southern Ocean towards the global ocean. A net contrast emerges between the role of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW, associated with large northward transport and ingassing, and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW, associated with a much smaller export and outgassing. The differences in their export rate reflects differences in their water mass formation processes. For SAMW, two-thirds of the surface waters are provided as a result of the densification of thermocline water (TW, and upon densification this water carries with it a substantial diapycnal flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC. For AAIW, principal formatin processes include buoyancy forcing and mixing, with these serving to lighten CDW. An additional important formation pathway of AAIW is through the effect of interior processing (mixing, including cabelling that serve to densify SAMW.

    A quantitative evaluation of the contribution of mixing, biology and gas exchange to the DIC evolution per water mass reveals that

  16. a Generic Framework for Water and Forest Management in Catchments Restoration in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegui Aguirre, J. A.; Amezaga, J. M.; Robredo Sanchez, J. C.; Lopez Leiva, C.

    2007-05-01

    The document presents a generic framework for the analysis and development of a programme for catchment management and restoration that takes into account both the protection from the impact of extreme events and the sustainable use of land and water resources. The framework was originally developed for the restoration of mountain catchments in Europe between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century and still provides the intellectual basis for the integrated assessment of hydraulic and land use factors in these countries. It is based on a thorough analysis of the behavior of a catchment in normal and extreme conditions. Recently, the authors have tested this generic framework in a number of catchments in Latin America, which present very different physical and socio-economic conditions. Fieldwork in Costa Rica, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina with particular catchments covering a whole range of climatological, geo-morphological and land used settings has provided new insights on the applicability of this generic framework. The paper discusses the role of vegetation, and in particular of forests, in catchment management taking a long-term view of cost and benefits under normal and extreme conditions. It also provides conclusions for the development of land use policies to optimize the practical use of vegetation of management purposes.

  17. An Analytical Framework for Flood Water Conservation Considering Forecast Uncertainty and Acceptable Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W.; Zhang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir water levels are usually not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season, which neglects the meteorological and real-time forecast information and leads to the great waste of water resources. With the development of weather forecasting, hydrologic modeling, and hydro-climatic teleconnection, the streamflow forecast precision have improved a lot, which provides the technical support for the flood water utilization. This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir based on uncertain forecast information by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the tradeoff between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress.

  18. Cooperation on Water management issues, Argentina : Project in the framework of Bilateral Cooperation between Argentina and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Querner, E.P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of Bilateral Cooperation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries of the Netherlands, a project will be carried out to find solutions for the water management problems in Argentina. The Pampas suffers from too much water and agriculture is hampered; the Province of Mendoza has a semi-arid climate and has too little water.

  19. Characterization of Adsorption Enthalpy of Novel Water-Stable Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunho; Cho, H. Jeremy; Narayanan, Shankar; Yang, Sungwoo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Schiffres, Scott; Li, Xiansen; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Jiang, Juncong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Water adsorption is becoming increasingly important for many applications including thermal energy storage, desalination, and water harvesting. To develop such applications, it is essential to understand both adsorbent-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and also the energy required for adsorption/desorption processes of porous material-adsorbate systems, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this study, we present a technique to characterize the enthalpy of adsorption/desorption of zeolites and MOF-801 with water as an adsorbate by conducting desorption experiments with conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). With this method, the enthalpies of adsorption of previously uncharacterized adsorbents were estimated as a function of both uptake and temperature. Our characterizations indicate that the adsorption enthalpies of type I zeolites can increase to greater than twice the latent heat whereas adsorption enthalpies of MOF-801 are nearly constant for a wide range of vapor uptakes.

  20. The Compliance of the Integrated Reports Issued by European Financial Companies with the International Integrated Reporting Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ioana Sofian; Mădălina Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the integrated reports issued by companies from the financial sector in Europe are following the guidance of the International Integrated Reporting Framework (IIRF...

  1. An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Oliver Straub

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An environmental risk assessment (ERA for the aquatic compartment in Europe from human use was developed for the old antibiotic Trimethoprim (TMP, comparing exposure and effects. The exposure assessment is based on European risk assessment default values on one hand and is refined with documented human use figures in Western Europe from IMS Health and measured removal in wastewater treatment on the other. The resulting predicted environmental concentrations (PECs are compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs from Europe, based on a large dataset incorporating more than 1800 single MECs. On the effects side, available chronic ecotoxicity data from the literature were complemented by additional, new chronic results for fish and other organisms. Based on these data, chronic-based deterministic predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs were derived as well as two different probabilistic PNEC ranges. The ERA compares surface water PECs and MECs with aquatic PNECs for TMP. Based on all the risk characterization ratios (PEC÷PNEC as well as MEC÷PNEC and risk graphs, there is no significant risk to surface waters.

  2. Determining the impacts of trawling on benthic function in European waters : a biological traits approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolam, Stefan; Kenny, Andrew; Garcia, Clement

    One of the most widespread yet manageable pressures we impose on the seabed is disturbance of the substrate by towed demersal fishing gear (bottom trawling and dredging). Over the past forty to fifty years, many studies have been conducted specifically aiming to understand the impacts of such fis......One of the most widespread yet manageable pressures we impose on the seabed is disturbance of the substrate by towed demersal fishing gear (bottom trawling and dredging). Over the past forty to fifty years, many studies have been conducted specifically aiming to understand the impacts...... the functional impacts of this activity (as opposed to impacts on the structure of benthic assemblages) has only recently been attempted. Advances in the application of biological traits analysis (BTA) wherein the assemblages are described in terms of their life history, behavioural and morphological...... on benthic ecosystem functioning over much larger spatial scales than previously undertaken. Biological traits information from 887 stations across European waters (Norwegian, UK, Belgian, Dutch, Danish waters, the Mediterranean and Black Sea) were analysed to: i) quantify the relationships between infaunal...

  3. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research.

  4. Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment - European Legal Framework on Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pront-van Bommel, S.; Bregman, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the stimuli provided by European law for promoting integrated planning of distributed renewable energy installations on the one hand and its limitations thereof on the other hand, also with regard to the role of local governments.

  5. A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Wickman, Tonie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Implementation of current European environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive requires access to comprehensive, well-structured pollutant source and release inventories. The aim of this work was to develop a Source Classification Framework (SCF) ideally suited...

  6. Effects of organic management on water-extractable organic matter and C mineralization in European arable soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinari, S.; Liburdi, K.; Fliessbach, A.; Kalbitz, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) content and its properties can be used to distinguish conventionally (CONV) from organically (ORG) managed arable soils as responsible for C mineralization. We sampled soils at three different European sites located

  7. A methodological framework to determine optimum durations for the construction of soil water characteristic curves using centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vero, Sara E.; Healy, Mark G.; Henry, Tiernan; Creamer, Rachel E.; Ibrahim, Tristan G.; Forrestal, Patrick J.; Richards, Karl G.; Fenton, Owen

    2016-01-01

    During laboratory assessment of the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC), determining equilibrium at various pressures is challenging. This study establishes a methodological framework to identify appropriate experimental duration at each pressure step for the construction of SWCCs via

  8. A Framework for Developing Indicators Linking Socio-Economic and Ecological Impacts of Water Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, L.; Game, E.; Calvache, A.; Moreno, P.; Morales, A.; Rivera, B.; Rodriguez, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Growing interest in the equity and sustainability of water funds and other investment in watershed services programs has spurred interest in evaluation of program impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being. Yet, programs often lack a systematic framework to select indicators that are both important to stakeholders and relevant to hypothesized program impact. To fill this gap, we developed a participatory indicator selection methodology and piloted it in Fondo Agua por La Vida y la Sostenibilidad in the East Cauca Valley Colombia. We started by linking program activities to anticipated ecological and socio-economic impacts through stakeholder developed results chains. Using results chains as the framework, we constructed fuzzy cognitive models to explore the relative impact of program activities on social and ecological attributes. To prioritize indicators to monitor, we combined our fuzzy modelling results with an assessment of the perceived importance of different attributes for stakeholders in the water fund. We used the selected indicators to design a monitoring program that will allow the water fund to track and communicate its impact over the long-term.

  9. A new classification scheme of European cold-water coral habitats: Implications for ecosystem-based management of the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. S.; Guillaumont, B.; Tempera, F.; Vertino, A.; Beuck, L.; Ólafsdóttir, S. H.; Smith, C. J.; Fosså, J. H.; van den Beld, I. M. J.; Savini, A.; Rengstorf, A.; Bayle, C.; Bourillet, J.-F.; Arnaud-Haond, S.; Grehan, A.

    2017-11-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) can form complex structures which provide refuge, nursery grounds and physical support for a diversity of other living organisms. However, irrespectively from such ecological significance, CWCs are still vulnerable to human pressures such as fishing, pollution, ocean acidification and global warming Providing coherent and representative conservation of vulnerable marine ecosystems including CWCs is one of the aims of the Marine Protected Areas networks being implemented across European seas and oceans under the EC Habitats Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the OSPAR Convention. In order to adequately represent ecosystem diversity, these initiatives require a standardised habitat classification that organises the variety of biological assemblages and provides consistent and functional criteria to map them across European Seas. One such classification system, EUNIS, enables a broad level classification of the deep sea based on abiotic and geomorphological features. More detailed lower biotope-related levels are currently under-developed, particularly with regards to deep-water habitats (>200 m depth). This paper proposes a hierarchical CWC biotope classification scheme that could be incorporated by existing classification schemes such as EUNIS. The scheme was developed within the EU FP7 project CoralFISH to capture the variability of CWC habitats identified using a wealth of seafloor imagery datasets from across the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. Depending on the resolution of the imagery being interpreted, this hierarchical scheme allows data to be recorded from broad CWC biotope categories down to detailed taxonomy-based levels, thereby providing a flexible yet valuable information level for management. The CWC biotope classification scheme identifies 81 biotopes and highlights the limitations of the classification framework and guidance provided by EUNIS, the EC Habitats Directive, OSPAR and FAO; which largely

  10. The EU Nitrates Directive: a European approach to combat water pollution from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteny, G J

    2001-12-12

    From 1991 onward, the European Union (EU) member states have had to comply with the Nitrates Directive. The aim of this directive is to sustainably protect ground and surface waters from pollution with nitrogen (nitrate) originating from agriculture. Agriculture is, on an EU level, the largest single source of nitrate (runoff, leaching) pollution, although households and industries also contribute to some extent. An important element in the directive is the reporting every 4 years on the monitoring of ground- and surface-water quality. Furthermore, all 15 member states are compelled to designate so-called Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs). These are regions where the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater amount to 50 mg/l or more. In addition to Codes of Good Agricultural Practice, valid on a countrywide basis and often consisting of voluntary-based measures, specific Action Programmes with mandatory measures have to be developed for the NVZs. The first reporting period ended in 1995. This paper describes the progress in member states" compliance with the Nitrates Directive during the second period (1996-1999), with a focus on the agricultural practices and action programmes. An evaluation of the member states' reports shows that good progress is being made on the farmers" awareness of the need to comply with EU regulations on the protection of the aquatic environment. Action programmes are valuable tools to enforce measures that lead to a reduction of the water pollution by agricultural activities. Regional projects show that significant improvements can be achieved (e.g., reduced fertiliser inputs) while maintaining crop yields and thus maintaining the economic potential of agriculture.

  11. The EU Nitrates Directive: A European Approach to Combat Water Pollution from Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Monteny

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1991 onward, the European Union (EU member states have had to comply with the Nitrates Directive. The aim of this directive is to sustainably protect ground and surface waters from pollution with nitrogen (nitrate originating from agriculture. Agriculture is, on an EU level, the largest single source of nitrate (runoff, leaching pollution, although households and industries also contribute to some extent. An important element in the directive is the reporting every 4 years on the monitoring of ground- and surface-water quality. Furthermore, all 15 member states are compelled to designate so-called Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs. These are regions where the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater amount to 50 mg/l or more. In addition to Codes of Good Agricultural Practice, valid on a countrywide basis and often consisting of voluntary-based measures, specific Action Programmes with mandatory measures have to be developed for the NVZs. The first reporting period ended in 1995. This paper describes the progress in member states’ compliance with the Nitrates Directive during the second period (1996–1999, with a focus on the agricultural practices and action pro- grammes. An evaluation of the member states’ reports shows that good progress is being made on the farmers’ awareness of the need to comply with EU regulations on the protection of the aquatic environment. Action programmes are valuable tools to enforce measures that lead to a reduction of the water pollution by agricultural activities. Regional projects show that significant improvements can be achieved (e.g., reduced fertiliser inputs while maintaining crop yields and thus maintaining the economic potential of agriculture.

  12. Two Water Stable Copper Metal-Organic Frameworks with Performance in the Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiuping

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel water stable metal-organic frameworks, [Cu(L·(4,4′-bipy·(ClO4]n (1, [Cu(L·(phen·(ClO4·(H2O]2 (2, have been constructed by HL=[5-Mercapto-1-methyl] tetrazole acetic acid and Cu (II salt in the presence of assistant N-containing ligands. MOF 1 and MOF 2 with open CuII sites, resulting the framework 1 and 2 show electrocatalytic activity for water oxidation in alkaline solution. The electrochemical properties of complex for oxygen evolution reaction (OER were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV and the Tafel slopes. Complex 1 has a higher LSV activity with a lower over potential of 1.54 V and a much higher increase in current density. Meanwhile, the Tafel slope of complex 1 (122.0 mV dec-1 is much lower than complex 2 (243.5 mV dec-1. This phenomenon makes complex 1 a promising porous material for electrocatalytic activity.

  13. A Statistical Framework for Automatic Leakage Detection in Smart Water and Gas Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fagiani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, due to the technological improvement of advanced metering infrastructures, water and natural gas grids can be regarded as smart-grids, similarly to power ones. However, considering the number of studies related to the application of computational intelligence to distribution grids, the gap between power grids and water/gas grids is notably wide. For this purpose, in this paper, a framework for leakage identification is presented. The framework is composed of three sections aimed at the extraction and the selection of features and at the detection of leakages. A variation of the Sequential Feature Selection (SFS algorithm is used to select the best performing features within a set, including, also, innovative temporal ones. The leakage identification is based on novelty detection and exploits the characterization of a normality model. Three statistical approaches, The Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM, Hidden Markov Model (HMM and One-Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM, are adopted, under a comparative perspective. Both residential and office building environments are investigated by means of two datasets. One is the Almanac of Minutely Power dataset (AMPds, and it provides water and gas data consumption at 1, 10 and 30 min of time resolution; the other is the Department of International Development (DFID dataset, and it provides water and gas data consumption at 30 min of time resolution. The achieved performance, computed by means of the Area Under the Curve (AUC, reaches 90 % in the office building case study, thus confirming the suitability of the proposed approach for applications in smart water and gas grids.

  14. Towards the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Mediterranean transitional waters: the use of macroinvertebrates as biological quality elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cabana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade the Water Framework Directive (WFD has driven scientific community endeavours towards the development of assessment tools to determine the Ecological Quality Status (EQS for all surface waters, including transitional waters (TWs. Macroinvertebrates being used as Biological Quality Elements encouraged the development of distinct multimetric and multivariate indices, initially based on taxonomic approaches. Those indices were mostly developed for the marine environment and applied extensively on TWs. The main discrepancies in the ecological quality status assessment arise on TWs, partially due to the difficulty in discriminating the effects of natural stress from anthropogenic impact. As a response, indices following functional approaches are being developed and applied in assessing the EQS in these environments. Next, the validation and intercalibration of the metrics as well as the settlement of reference conditions are additional sources of variability inherent to any assessment. This paper aims at briefly presenting the different steps needed for the implementation of WFD on Mediterranean TWs. It highlights existing difficulties and possible research lines to be explored in order to reduce sources of variability and better assess the status of such water bodies.

  15. Application of principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses in the classification of Serbian bottled waters and a comparison with waters from some European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvejanov Jelena Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contents of major ions in bottled waters were analyzed by principal component (PCA and hierarchical cluster (HCA analysis in order to investigate if these techniques could provide the information necessary for classifications of the water brands marketed in Serbia. Data on the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 - and total dissolved solids (TDS of 33 bottled waters was used as the input data set. The waters were separated into three main clusters according to their levels of TDS, Na+ and HCO3 -; sub-clustering revealed a group of soft waters with the lowest total hardness. Based on the determined chemical parameters, the Serbian waters were further compared with available literature data on bottled waters from some other European countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report applying chemometric classification of bottled waters from different European countries, thereby representing a unique attempt in contrast to previous studies reporting the results primarily on a country-to-country scale. The diverse character of Serbian bottled waters was demonstrated as well as the usefulness of PCA and HCA in the fast classification of the water brands based on their main chemical parameters. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172050

  16. Considerations on the Improvement of the Legal Framework Necessary for Preventing and Combating Violence against Women in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache Bocanială

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women is a common phenomenon in all social layers and in all society, regardless of their stage of development, political stability, culture or religion, with particularly negative consequences. Combating violence against women requires, besides the sanctioning, repressive measures against perpetrators, and also a series of preventive protection measures and services for victims. Reforming the criminal law of Romania, but also a number of regulations adopted by international organizations, especially the European ones, be it European Union or the Council of Europe, attest encouraging legal developments in this area. The conclusions drawn in this paper from the daily practice of judicial bodies, as well as specialized studies highlight the need for improvement and adaptation of specific legislation in order to prevent and combat crime and violence targeting women, highlighting a few directions in this regard.

  17. Early contamination of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) by PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Margarida; Martinho, Filipe; Vernisseau, Anaïs; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; van der Veer, Henk W; Cabral, Henrique N; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel A

    2014-08-15

    Contamination levels and profiles of 7 polychlorinated-p-dioxins, 10 polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were investigated in juvenile European flounder (Platichthys flesus) captured in different nursery areas in the northeastern Atlantic coast across its geographical distribution range. The toxic equivalent concentrations (WHO-TEQfish) were also determined in order to evaluate which P. flesus population was more exposed to dioxin-like toxicity. Juveniles caught in the Sørfjord (Norway) showed the lowest WHO-TEQfish concentration (0.052 pg WHO-TEQfish g(-1)wet weight) whereas the highest value was observed in fish from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands; 0.291 pg WHO-TEQfish g(-1)ww), mainly due to the greater contribution of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, the most toxic congener. Nonetheless, when comparing the results with existent tissue residue-based toxicity benchmarks, no adverse effects resulting from PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs are expected to occur in flounder from the studied systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogeologic framework and sampling design for an assessment of agricultural pesticides in ground water in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Bickford, Tammy M.

    1999-01-01

    State agencies responsible for regulating pesticides are required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop state management plans for specific pesticides. A key part of these management plans includes assessing the potential for contamination of ground water by pesticides throughout the state. As an example of how a statewide assessment could be implemented, a plan is presented for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to illustrate how a hydrogeologic framework can be used as a basis for sampling areas within a state with the highest likelihood of having elevated pesticide concentrations in ground water. The framework was created by subdividing the state into 20 areas on the basis of physiography and aquifer type. Each of these 20 hydrogeologic settings is relatively homogeneous with respect to aquifer susceptibility and pesticide use—factors that would be likely to affect pesticide concentrations in ground water. Existing data on atrazine occurrence in ground water was analyzed to determine (1) which areas of the state already have sufficient samples collected to make statistical comparisons among hydrogeologic settings, and (2) the effect of factors such as land use and aquifer characteristics on pesticide occurrence. The theoretical vulnerability and the results of the data analysis were used to rank each of the 20 hydrogeologic settings on the basis of vulnerability of ground water to contamination by pesticides. Example sampling plans are presented for nine of the hydrogeologic settings that lack sufficient data to assess vulnerability to contamination. Of the highest priority areas of the state, two out of four have been adequately sampled, one of the three areas of moderate to high priority has been adequately sampled, four of the nine areas of moderate to low priority have been adequately sampled, and none of the three low priority areas have been sampled.Sampling to date has shown that, even in the most vulnerable hydrogeologic settings

  19. Development of a Framework for a Lean based Water and Energy Efficiency Assessment Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Davies

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry of South Africa is the sector consuming the largest portion of the total energy consumption and second largest portion of total water consumption per annum nationally. With a significant increase in electrical energy cost in recent years, together with the reserve energy margin dropping below the minimum level required for sustainable operation of energy utilities, energy efficiency improvement is becoming imperative for organisational success as well as national economical sustainability. This paper explores selected Lean manufacturing principles and its positive effect on energy and water efficiency. Although the implementation of Lean manufacturing techniques naturally leads to the improvement of energy and water intensity, the author believes that there is even greater potential in the development of a Lean based tool which will specifically focus on the improvement of energy and water efficiency. For this purpose the value stream mapping tool was chosen as the foundation. This paper continues to explain the process undergone to develop standardised energy and water specific waste categories to be used in conjunction with the traditional Lean wastes. The study concludes by detailing the development of the tool, together with its framework for implementation and a brief discussion on the forecasting model incorporated.

  20. Electrochemical Water Oxidation by a Catalyst-Modified Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shaoyang; Pineda-Galvan, Yuliana; Maza, William A.; Epley, Charity C.; Zhu, Jie; Kessinger, Matthew C.; Pushkar, Yulia; Morris, Amanda J. (VP); (Purdue)

    2016-12-15

    Water oxidation, a key component in artificial photosynthesis, requires high overpotentials and exhibits slow reaction kinetics that necessitates the use of stable and efficient heterogeneous water-oxidation catalysts (WOCs). Here, we report the synthesis of UiO-67 metal–organic framework (MOF) thin films doped with [Ru(tpy)(dcbpy)OH2]2+ (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, dcbpy=5,5'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine) on conducting surfaces and their propensity for electrochemical water oxidation. The electrocatalyst oxidized water with a turnover frequency (TOF) of (0.2±0.1) s-1 at 1.71 V versus the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) in buffered solution (pH~7) and exhibited structural and electrochemical stability. The electroactive sites were distributed throughout the MOF thin film on the basis of scan-ratedependent voltammetry studies. This work demonstrates a promising way to immobilize large concentrations of electroactive WOCs into a highly robust MOF scaffold and paves the way for future photoelectrochemical water-splitting systems.

  1. Overview of the National Energy-Water System (NEWS) Assessment Framework Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Rosenzweig, B.; Corsi, F.; Piasecki, M.; Celicourt, P.; Fekete, B. M.; Macknick, J.; Melillo, J. M.; Newmark, R. L.; Tidwell, V. C.; Suh, S.; Prousevitch, A.

    2015-12-01

    In practical terms, strategic planning for the nation's economic, social and environmental future increasingly centers on issues relating to fresh water. U.S. energy security is highly dependent on electricity generated by the nation's fleet of thermoelectric power stations, which today contribute 90% to total electricity production. This presentation summarizes the overall structure and recent progress on a study devoted to climate adaptation and the reliability of power sector infrastructure and operations, when viewed through the lens of strategic water issues. The focus is on electric power infrastructure, i.e., the types, spatial distributions and levels of investment in technologies that deliver or could deliver electricity to the U.S. economy. The work is guided by a central hypothesis, that today's portfolio of electric power sector infrastructure is unsustainable in the context of satisfying its water needs under anticipated climate change and rising electricity demands. Insofar as water-mediated feedbacks reverberate throughout the national economy, we include macro-economic perspectives as well. The work is organized around the technical development of the NEWS framework which is then used to evaluate, in the context of anticipated climate, economic change and regulatory context: the performance of the nation's electricity sector, the feasibility of alternative pathways to improve climate adaptation, and impacts of energy technology. Scenarios are co-designed with a stakeholder community, and investment tradeoffs are considered with respect to the productivity of the economy, water availability and aquatic ecosystem condition.

  2. Law, Water and Sustainable Development: Framework of Nigerian Law - Country Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ajai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The central issues of economic development and environmental protection in the current social, political and economic environment relate to water – an overlooked or less glamorous natural resource. For example, topical and sometimes controversial issues such as crude oil and minerals extraction, pollution control, biodiversity protection, energy and power, resource control, revenue allocation and political participation, etc., relate directly or indirectly to water resources management. This paper seeks to identify and present in a schematic and conceptual manner and to highlight the usefulness of folklore for sustainable development and evaluate the usefulness of recruiting traditional institutions into the institutional framework for modern sustainable water resources management in Nigeria It also discusses the emergent law on water resources as well as the issues concerning the domestic and international riparian law, in particular the River Niger and Lake Chad basins and explores how folklore, comparative law and international law may be adopted and adapted to aid the development and application of water law, and by direct implication sustainable development in Nigeria.

  3. Marine ornamental species from European waters: a valuable overlooked resource or a future threat for the conservation of marine ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available P align=justify>The worldwide growth of the marine aquarium market has contributed to the degradation of coral reef ecosystems. Enforcing the legislation on importing ornamental species has led some European traders to concentrate on local species. Portugal is used as a case study of marine ornamental fish and invertebrate collection in European waters. One hundred and seventy two species occurring in Portuguese waters (mainland, the Azores and Madeira archipelagos were considered as potential targets for the marine aquarium industry, some of which are already traded on a regular basis (e.g. Clibanarius erythropus, Lysmata seticaudata, Cerithium vulgatum, Hinia reticulata and Ophioderma longicauda. To ensure appropriate management and conservation of these resources, the following options have been evaluated: banning the harvest and trade of all marine ornamental species from European waters; creating sanctuaries and “no take zones”; issuing collection permits; creating certified wholesalers; implementing the use of suitable gear and collecting methods; setting minimum and maximum size limits; establishing species-based quotas; protecting rare, or “key stone” species and organisms with poor survivability in captivity; establishing closed seasons; culturing ornamental organisms; and creating an “eco-fee” to support research and management. Establishing this sustainable alternative fishery may help minimise the economical and social impacts caused by the crash of important food fisheries in Portugal and other European and West African countries.

  4. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  5. Efficient Adsorptive Removal of Toxic Amaranth Dye from Water using a Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lin, Kun-Yi; Wu, Chang-Husan

    2017-06-09

    Adsorbents reported to remove a toxic acidic azo dye, Amaranth (AMR) are very limited, and their typical adsorption capacities are quite low. Recently, a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) has been proposed as a novel adsorbent as ZIF-67 possesses high surface area, superior chemical stability in water and positive charges, making it a promising adsorbent for AMR. Nevertheless, no studies have been conducted to investigate the adsorption of AMR to ZIF-67. Herein, ZIF-67 is employed for the first time to remove AMR from water via adsorption. Adsorption behaviors are investigated via determining the adsorption kinetics and isotherm. ZIF-67 also exhibits a significant higher maximum adsorption capacity (qmax = 121 mg g-1 at 30 °C) than most of the reported adsorbents. ZIF-67 can be also regenerated by washing it with NaCl solutions and the regeneration efficiency remains effective over multiple cycles, demonstrating that ZIF-67 is a promising adsorbent for AMR.

  6. Ultrafast water sensing and thermal imaging by a metal-organic framework with switchable luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Ye, Jia-Wen; Wang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Mei; Yin, Shao-Yun; Wei, Zhang-Wen; Zhang, Lu-Yin; Wu, Kai; Fan, Ya-Nan; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2017-06-01

    A convenient, fast and selective water analysis method is highly desirable in industrial and detection processes. Here a robust microporous Zn-MOF (metal-organic framework, Zn(hpi2cf)(DMF)(H2O)) is assembled from a dual-emissive H2hpi2cf (5-(2-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)isophthalic acid) ligand that exhibits characteristic excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). This Zn-MOF contains amphipathic micropores (sensing material, showing a fast (on the order of seconds) and highly selective response to water on a molecular level. Furthermore, paper or in situ grown ZnO-based sensing films have been fabricated and applied in humidity sensing (RHorganic solvents, thermal imaging and as a thermometer.

  7. Improving Water-Treatment Performance of Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework Membranes by Postsynthetic Defect Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuerui; Zhai, Linzhi; Wang, Yuxiang; Li, Ruitong; Gu, Xuehong; Yuan, Yi Di; Qian, Yuhong; Hu, Zhigang; Zhao, Dan

    2017-11-01

    Microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as building materials for molecular sieving membranes offer unique opportunities to tuning the pore size and chemical property. The recently reported polycrystalline Zr-MOF membranes have greatly expanded their applications from gas separation to water treatment. However, Zr-MOFs are notoriously known for their intrinsic defects caused by ligand/cluster missing, which may greatly affect the molecular sieving property of Zr-MOF membranes. Herein, we present the mitigation of ligand-missing defects in polycrystalline UiO-66(Zr)-(OH)2 membranes by postsynthetic defect healing (PSDH), which can help in increasing the membranes' Na(+) rejection rate by 74.9%. Intriguingly, the membranes also exhibit excellent hydrothermal stability in aqueous solutions (>600 h). Our study proves the feasibility of PSDH in improving the performance of polycrystalline Zr-MOF membranes for water-treatment applications.

  8. Bioinspired Cobalt-Citrate Metal-Organic Framework as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Huang, Lan; Liu, Xiaomin; Ai, Lunhong

    2017-03-01

    Efficient and cost-effective oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts are closely associated with many important energy conversion technologies. Herein, we first report an oxygen-evolving cobalt-citrate metal-organic framework (MOF, UTSA-16) for highly efficient electrocatalytic water oxidation. Benefiting from synergistic cooperation of intrinsic open porous structure, in situ formed high valent cobalt species, and existing Co4O4 cubane, the UTSA-16 exhibits excellent activity toward OER catalysis in alkaline medium. The UTSA-16 needs only 408 mV to offer a current density of 10 mA cm-2 for OER catalysis, which is superior to that of most MOF-based electrocatalysts and the standard Co3O4 counterpart. The present finding provides a better understanding of electroactive MOFs for water oxidation.

  9. Ultrathin metal-organic framework array for efficient electrocatalytic water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingjing; Chen, Sheng; Zhao, Chuan

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks represent a family of materials with attractive chemical and structural properties, which are usually prepared in the form of bulk powders. Here we show a generic approach to fabricate ultrathin nanosheet array of metal-organic frameworks on different substrates through a dissolution-crystallization mechanism. These materials exhibit intriguing properties for electrocatalysis including highly exposed active molecular metal sites owning to ultra-small thickness of nanosheets, improved electrical conductivity and a combination of hierarchical porosity. We fabricate a nickel-iron-based metal-organic framework array, which demonstrates superior electrocatalytic performance towards oxygen evolution reaction with a small overpotential of 240 mV at 10 mA cm-2, and robust operation for 20,000 s with no detectable activity decay. Remarkably, the turnover frequency of the electrode is 3.8 s-1 at an overpotential of 400 mV. We further demonstrate the promise of these electrodes for other important catalytic reactions including hydrogen evolution reaction and overall water splitting.

  10. The Recovery Framework in the BRRD and its Effectiveness, NORDIC & EUROPEAN COMPANY LAW Working Paper Series No. 15‐04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Chenchen

    2015-01-01

    The EU has made great endeavors in establishing a bank resolution procedure after the global financial crisis (GFC). In April 2014 the directive on establishing a framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms (referred to as The Bank Recovery and Resolution...

  11. Using concept mapping in the development of the EU-PAD framework (EUropean-Physical Activity Determinants across the life course: a DEDIPAC-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Condello

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of European children, adults and older adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity (PA. Understanding individual and contextual factors associated with PA behaviours is essential for the identification and implementation of effective preventative environments, policies, and programmes that can promote an active lifestyle across life course and can potentially improve health. The current paper intends to provide 1 a multi-disciplinary, Pan-European and life course view of key determinants of PA behaviours and 2 a proposal of how these factors may cluster. Methods After gathering a list of 183 potential PA behaviours-associated factors and a consensus meeting to unify/consolidate terminology, a concept mapping software was used to collate European experts’ views of 106 identified factors for youth (<19 years, adults (19–64 years, and older adults (≥65 years. The analysis evaluated common trends in the clustering of factors and the ratings of the distinct factors’ expected modifiability and population-level impact on PA behaviours across the life course. Priority for research was also assessed for each cluster. Results The concept mapping resulted in six distinct clusters, broadly merged in two themes: 1 the ‘Person’, which included clusters ‘Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing’ and ‘Family and Social Economic Status’ (42 % of all factors and 2 the ‘Society’, which included the remaining four clusters ‘Policy and Provision’, ‘Cultural Context and Media’, ‘Social Support and Modelling’, and ‘Supportive Environment’ (58 % of all factors. Overall, 25 factors were rated as the most impactful on PA behaviours across the life course and being the most modifiable. They were mostly situated in the ‘Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing’ cluster. Furthermore, 16 of them were rated as top priority for research. Conclusions The current framework provides a

  12. Risks posed by climate change to the delivery of Water Framework Directive objectives in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, R L; Orr, H G; Hedger, M; Forrow, D; Blackmore, M

    2006-12-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is novel because it integrates water quality, water resources, physical habitat and, to some extent, flooding for all surface and groundwaters and takes forward river basin management. However, the WFD does not explicitly mention risks posed by climate change to the achievement of its environmental objectives. This is despite the fact that the time scale for the implementation process and achieving particular objectives extends into the 2020s, when climate models project changes in average temperature and precipitation. This paper begins by reviewing the latest UK climate change scenarios and the wider policy and science context of the WFD. We then examine the potential risks of climate change to key phases of the River Basin Management Process that underpin the WFD (such as characterisation of river basins and their water bodies, risk assessments to identify pressures and impacts, programmes of measures (POMs) options appraisal, monitoring and modelling, policy and management activities). Despite these risks the WFD could link new policy and participative mechanisms (being established for the River Basin Management Plans) to the emerging framework of national and regional climate change adaptation policy. The risks are identified with a view to informing policy opportunities, objective setting, adaptation strategies and the research agenda. Key knowledge gaps have already been identified during the implementation of the WFD, such as the links between hydromorphology and ecosystem status, but the overarching importance of linking climate change to these considerations needs to be highlighted. The next generation of (probabilistic) climate change scenarios will present new opportunities and challenges for risk analysis and policy-making.

  13. Data Management System for the National Energy-Water System (NEWS) Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, F.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.; Piasecki, M.; Celicourt, P.; Miara, A.; Fekete, B. M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Macknick, J.; Cohen, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at providing a comprehensive assessment of the water-energy nexus, the National Energy-Water System (NEWS) project requires the integration of data to support a modeling framework that links climate, hydrological, power production, transmission, and economical models. Large amounts of Georeferenced data has to be streamed to the components of the inter-disciplinary model to explore future challenges and tradeoffs in the US power production, based on climate scenarios, power plant locations and technologies, available water resources, ecosystem sustainability, and economic demand. We used open source and in-house build software components to build a system that addresses two major data challenges: On-the-fly re-projection, re-gridding, interpolation, extrapolation, nodata patching, merging, temporal and spatial aggregation, of static and time series datasets in virtually any file formats and file structures, and any geographic extent for the models I/O, directly at run time; Comprehensive data management based on metadata cataloguing and discovery in repositories utilizing the MAGIC Table (Manipulation and Geographic Inquiry Control database). This innovative concept allows models to access data on-the-fly by data ID, irrespective of file path, file structure, file format and regardless its GIS specifications. In addition, a web-based information and computational system is being developed to control the I/O of spatially distributed Earth system, climate, and hydrological, power grid, and economical data flow within the NEWS framework. The system allows scenario building, data exploration, visualization, querying, and manipulation any loaded gridded, point, and vector polygon dataset. The system has demonstrated its potential for applications in other fields of Earth science modeling, education, and outreach. Over time, this implementation of the system will provide near real-time assessment of various current and future scenarios of the water-energy nexus.

  14. Towards a cyber-physical era: soft computing framework based multi-sensor array for water quality monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bhardwaj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameter measurement systems. This paper introduces a cyber-physical system (CPS approach for water quality assessment in a distribution network. Cyber-physical systems with embedded sensors, processors and actuators can be designed to sense and interact with the water environment. The proposed CPS is comprised of sensing framework integrated with five different water quality parameter sensor nodes and soft computing framework for computational modelling. Soft computing framework utilizes the applications of Python for user interface and fuzzy sciences for decision making. Introduction of multiple sensors in a water distribution network generates a huge number of data matrices, which are sometimes highly complex, difficult to understand and convoluted for effective decision making. Therefore, the proposed system framework also intends to simplify the complexity of obtained sensor data matrices and to support decision making for water engineers through a soft computing framework. The target of this proposed research is to provide a simple and efficient method to identify and detect presence of contamination in a water distribution network using applications of CPS.

  15. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  16. Cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) from the Eastern Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridogenesis (hemiclonal inheritance) is a kind of clonal reproduction in which hybrids between parental species are reproduced by crossing with one of the parental species. European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) represent an appropriate model for studying interspecies hybridization, processes of hemiclonal inheritance and polyploidization. P. esculentus complex consists of two parental species, P. ridibundus (the lake frog) and P. lessonae (the pool frog), and their hybridogenetic hybrid – P. esculentus (the edible frog). Parental and hybrid frogs can reproduce syntopically and form hemiclonal population systems. For studying mechanisms underlying the maintenance of water frog population systems it is required to characterize the karyotypes transmitted in gametes of parental and different hybrid animals of both sexes. Results In order to obtain an instrument for characterization of oocyte karyotypes in hybrid female frogs, we constructed cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes from oocytes of both parental species originating in Eastern Ukraine. We further identified certain molecular components of chromosomal marker structures and mapped coilin-rich spheres and granules, chromosome associated nucleoli and special loops accumulating splicing factors. We recorded the dissimilarities between P. ridibundus and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosomes in the length of orthologous chromosomes, number and location of marker structures and interstitial (TTAGGG)n-repeat sites as well as activity of nucleolus organizer. Satellite repeat RrS1 was mapped in centromere regions of lampbrush chromosomes of the both species. Additionally, we discovered transcripts of RrS1 repeat in oocytes of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae. Moreover, G-rich transcripts of telomere repeat were revealed in association with terminal regions of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosomes. Conclusions The constructed cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of P

  17. An integrative water balance model framework for a changing glaciated catchment in the Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkhan, Fabian; Huggel, Christian; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Seidel, Jochen; Muñoz Asmat, Randy

    2017-04-01

    In the Santa River catchment [SRC] (Cordillera Blanca, Andes of Peru), human livelihoods strongly depend on year-round streamflow from glaciers and reservoirs, particularly in the dry season and in adjacent arid lowlands. Perennial glacial streamflow represents a buffer to water shortages, annual discharge variability and river contamination levels. However, climate change impacts, consecutive glacier shrinkage as well as new irrigated agriculture and hydropower schemes, population growth and thus water allocation might increase water scarcity in several areas of the SRC. This situation exerts further pressure and conflict potential over water resources and stresses the need to analyze both water supply and demand trends in a multidisciplinary and interlinked manner. In this context, an integrative glacio-hydrological framework was developed based on the Glacier and Snow Melt (GSM) and SOil CONTribution (SOCONT) models using the semi-distributed free software RS MINERVE. This water balance model incorporates hydroclimatic, socioeconomic and hydraulic objects and data at daily scale (with several gaps) for the last 50 years (1965-2015). A particular challenge in this context represents the poor data availability both in quantity and quality. Therefore, the hydroclimatic dataset to be used had to be carefully selected and data gaps were filled applying a statistical copula-based approach. The socioeconomic dataset of water demand was elaborated using several assumptions based on further census information and experiences from other projects in the region. Reservoirs and hydropower models were linked with additional hydraulic data. In order to increase model performance within a complex topography of the 11660 km2 SRC, the area was divided into 22 glaciated (GSM) and 42 non-glaciated (SOCONT) subcatchment models. Additionally, 382 elevation bands at 300 m interval were created and grouped into 22 different calibration zones for the whole SRC. The model was calibrated

  18. Zirconium-Based Metal–Organic Framework for Removal of Perrhenate from Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Xu, Wenqian; Nie, Zimin; Johnson, Lewis E. V.; Coghlan, Campbell; Sushko, Maria L.; Kim, Dongsang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Doonan, Christian J.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-09-06

    Efficient removal of pertechnetate (TcO4 -) anions from liquid waste or melter off-gas solution for alternative treatment is one of the promising options to manage 99Tc in legacy nuclear waste. Safe immobilization of 99Tc is of major importance due to its long half-life (t1/2= 2.13 × 105 yrs) and environmental mobility. Different types of inorganic and solid state ion-exchange materials such as layered double hydroxides have been shown to absorb TcO4 - anions from water. However, both high capacity and selectivity have yet to be achieved in a single material. Herein, we show that a protonated version of an ultra-stable zirconium based metalorganic framework can adsorb perrhenate (ReO4 -) anions, a non-radioactive surrogate for TcO4 -, from water even in the presence of other common anions. Synchrotron based powder X-ray diffraction and molecular simulations were used to identify the position of the adsorbed ReO4 - (surrogate for TcO4 -) molecule within the framework.

  19. Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Framework for Removal of Perrhenate from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Xu, Wenqian; Nie, Zimin; Johnson, Lewis E V; Coghlan, Campbell; Sushko, Maria L; Kim, Dongsang; Schweiger, Michael J; Kruger, Albert A; Doonan, Christian J; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2016-09-06

    The efficient removal of pertechnetate (TcO4(-)) anions from liquid waste or melter off-gas solution for an alternative treatment is one of the promising options to manage (99)Tc in legacy nuclear waste. Safe immobilization of (99)Tc is of major importance because of its long half-life (t1/2 = 2.13 × 10(5) yrs) and environmental mobility. Different types of inorganic and solid-state ion-exchange materials have been shown to absorb TcO4(-) anions from water. However, both high capacity and selectivity have yet to be achieved in a single material. Herein, we show that a protonated version of an ultrastable zirconium-based metal-organic framework can adsorb perrhenate (ReO4(-)) anions, a nonradioactive surrogate for TcO4(-), from water even in the presence of other common anions. Synchrotron-based powder X-ray diffraction and molecular simulations were used to identify the position of the adsorbed ReO4(-) (surrogate for TcO4(-)) molecule within the framework.

  20. Zirconium-Based Metal–Organic Framework for Removal of Perrhenate from Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Xu, Wenqian; Nie, Zimin; Johnson, Lewis E. V.; Coghlan, Campbell; Sushko, Maria L.; Kim, Dongsang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Doonan, Christian J.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-09-06

    Efficient removal of pertechnetate (TcO4-) anions from liquid waste or melter off-gas solution for alternative treatment is one of the promising options to manage 99Tc in legacy nuclear waste. Safe immobilization of 99Tc is of major importance due to its long half-life (t1/2= 2.13 × 105 yrs) and environmental mobility. Different types of inorganic and solid state ion-exchange materials such as layered double hydroxides have been shown to absorb TcO4- anions from water. However, both high capacity and selectivity have yet to be achieved in a single material. Herein, we show that a protonated version of an ultra-stable zirconium based metal-organic framework can adsorb perrhenate (ReO4-) anions, a non-radioactive sur-rogate for TcO4-, from water even in the presence of other common anions. Synchrotron based powder X-ray diffraction and molecular simulations were used to identify the position of the adsorbed ReO4- (surrogate for TcO4-) molecule within the framework.

  1. Estimating water consumption of potential natural vegetation on global dry lands: building an LCA framework for green water flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Montserrat; Pfister, Stephan; Roux, Philippe; Antón, Assumpció

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a framework for assessing direct soil-water consumption, also termed green water in the literature, in life cycle assessment (LCA). This was an issue that LCA had not tackled before. The approach, which is applied during the life cycle inventory phase (LCI), consists of quantifying the net change in the evapo(transpi)ration of the production system compared to the natural reference situation. Potential natural vegetation (PNV) is used as the natural reference situation. In order to apply the method, we estimated PNV evapotranspiration adapted to local biogeographic conditions, on global dry lands, where soil-water consumption impacts can be critical. Values are reported at different spatial aggregation levels: 10-arcmin global grid, ecoregions (501 units), biomes (14 units), countries (124 units), continents, and a global average, to facilitate the assessment for different spatial information detail levels available in the LCI. The method is intended to be used in rain-fed agriculture and rainwater harvesting contexts, which includes direct soil moisture uptake by plants and rainwater harvested and then reused in production systems. The paper provides the necessary LCI method and data for further development of impact assessment models and characterization factors to evaluate the environmental effects of the net change in evapo(transpi)ration.

  2. Probabilistic Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Objectives of River Basin Management Reveals a Potential Flaw in the Goal Setting of the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerppe, Turo; Taskinen, Antti; Kotamäki, Niina; Malve, Olli; Kettunen, Juhani

    2017-04-01

    The biological status of European lakes has not improved as expected despite up-to-date legislation and ecological standards. As a result, the realism of objectives and the attainment of related ecological standards are under doubt. This paper gets to the bottom of a river basin management plan of a eutrophic lake in Finland and presents the ecological and economic impacts of environmental and societal drivers and planned management measures. For these purposes, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation of a diffuse nutrient load, lake water quality and cost-benefit models. Simulations were integrated into a Bayesian influence diagram that revealed the basic uncertainties. It turned out that the attainment of good ecological status as qualified in the Water Framework Directive of the European Union is unlikely within given socio-economic constraints. Therefore, management objectives and ecological and economic standards need to be reassessed and reset to provide a realistic goal setting for management. More effort should be put into the evaluation of the total monetary benefits and on the monitoring of lake phosphorus balances to reduce the uncertainties, and the resulting margin of safety and costs and risks of planned management measures.

  3. Probabilistic Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Objectives of River Basin Management Reveals a Potential Flaw in the Goal Setting of the EU Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerppe, Turo; Taskinen, Antti; Kotamäki, Niina; Malve, Olli; Kettunen, Juhani

    2017-04-01

    The biological status of European lakes has not improved as expected despite up-to-date legislation and ecological standards. As a result, the realism of objectives and the attainment of related ecological standards are under doubt. This paper gets to the bottom of a river basin management plan of a eutrophic lake in Finland and presents the ecological and economic impacts of environmental and societal drivers and planned management measures. For these purposes, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation of a diffuse nutrient load, lake water quality and cost-benefit models. Simulations were integrated into a Bayesian influence diagram that revealed the basic uncertainties. It turned out that the attainment of good ecological status as qualified in the Water Framework Directive of the European Union is unlikely within given socio-economic constraints. Therefore, management objectives and ecological and economic standards need to be reassessed and reset to provide a realistic goal setting for management. More effort should be put into the evaluation of the total monetary benefits and on the monitoring of lake phosphorus balances to reduce the uncertainties, and the resulting margin of safety and costs and risks of planned management measures.

  4. Improved water allocation utilizing probabilistic climate forecasts: Short-term water contracts in a risk management framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, A.; Lall, Upmanu; Souza Filho, Francisco Assis; Sharma, Ashish

    2009-11-01

    Probabilistic, seasonal to interannual streamflow forecasts are becoming increasingly available as the ability to model climate teleconnections is improving. However, water managers and practitioners have been slow to adopt such products, citing concerns with forecast skill. Essentially, a management risk is perceived in "gambling" with operations using a probabilistic forecast, while a system failure upon following existing operating policies is "protected" by the official rules or guidebook. In the presence of a prescribed system of prior allocation of releases under different storage or water availability conditions, the manager has little incentive to change. Innovation in allocation and operation is hence key to improved risk management using such forecasts. A participatory water allocation process that can effectively use probabilistic forecasts as part of an adaptive management strategy is introduced here. Users can express their demand for water through statements that cover the quantity needed at a particular reliability, the temporal distribution of the "allocation," the associated willingness to pay, and compensation in the event of contract nonperformance. The water manager then assesses feasible allocations using the probabilistic forecast that try to meet these criteria across all users. An iterative process between users and water manager could be used to formalize a set of short-term contracts that represent the resulting prioritized water allocation strategy over the operating period for which the forecast was issued. These contracts can be used to allocate water each year/season beyond long-term contracts that may have precedence. Thus, integrated supply and demand management can be achieved. In this paper, a single period multiuser optimization model that can support such an allocation process is presented. The application of this conceptual model is explored using data for the Jaguaribe Metropolitan Hydro System in Ceara, Brazil. The performance

  5. Dealing with change and uncertainty within the regulatory frameworks for flood defense infrastructure in selected European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goytia, Susana; van Doorn - Hoekveld, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344848752; Pettersson, Maria; Schellenberger, Thomas; Priest, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Whereas existing literature on the interactions among law, adaptive governance, and resilience in the water sector often focuses on quality or supply issues, this paper addresses adaptation in national water laws in relation to increasing flood risks. In particular, this paper analyzes the extent to

  6. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Heller, Léo

    2017-07-01

    The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights. Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el

  7. Continued challenges in the policy and legal framework for collaborative water planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Poh-Ling; Bowmer, K. H.; Baldwin, C.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryWe consider the implementation of Australian water reform over the last two decades and into the future. Reform was to provide security for consumptive users and adequate rights for the environment. Overallocation, a key threat to both these aims, continues to challenge planners particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin and cannot be addressed without community support. We draw from four major studies to provide insights on how implementation needs to be underpinned by theory. From the perspective of institutional design for collaborative and sustainable water planning, seven major improvements are required: (1) Provision of detailed policy guidelines to support general legal requirements, particularly practical advice for interpreting and applying the precautionary principle. (2) Tools to identify and engage unorganised or neglected community sectors, for example Indigenous peoples and youth. (3) Procedural fairness and transparent decision making, to build confidence in reform; use of independent experts and visual tools to improve the quality of discussion and increase the acceptability of trade-offs. (4) Clearer documentation and language in planning, as more litigation is likely. (5) In accord with international literature, the development of comprehensive policy and legislative framework allowing a systems approach to consensus building, especially when the science is contested. (6) Information on exactly how much water is required and where, by capturing societal choices on environmental assets. (7) Planning for sustainable contraction where cutbacks to water use is required, as an additional strategy to the current emphasis on buying water or building infrastructure. In summary we advocate collaborative water planning processes to engender community confidence in planning.

  8. Cooperation on Water management issues, Argentina : Project in the framework of Bilateral Cooperation between Argentina and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of Bilateral Cooperation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries of the Netherlands, a project will be carried out to find solutions for the water management problems in Argentina. The Pampas suffers from too much water and agriculture is hampered; the

  9. Drinking Water Management and Governance in Canada: An Innovative Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Framework for a Safe Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J.; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.

  10. Drinking Water Management and Governance in Canada: An Innovative Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Framework for a Safe Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.

  11. The strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020: Which place for archaeological heritage in the lifelong learning context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Rodríguez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Strategy objective of turning Europe into a world-leading knowledge-based society, has left the way to the Europe 2020 strategyobjectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020 establishes that educational and training systems should provide the means for all citizens to realise their potentials, as well as to acquire and develop skills and competencies needed for their employability and foster further learning, active citizenship and inter-cultural dialogue; from a lifelong learning perspective, covering all levels and contexts (including non-formal and informal learning. The aim of this paper is to present the strategic objectives of EU education and training policies and discuss, accordingly, a place for archaeological heritage in school, higher and adult education.

  12. Strategic and legal framework in forestry and related sectors: Climate change mitigation in European Union and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The important role of forests in mitigating and adapting to climate changes is recognized and widely accepted. Therefore, it becomes a subject of universal interest and support. However, in the national strategies relating to climate change, the importance of the forestry sector in mitigating these changes is quite often not discussed in detail. In addition, the problem of climate change is not fully represented and included in national forestry policies. The aim of this research was to determine the compliance and differences of strategic and legislative frameworks in forestry and related sectors, relating to climate change mitigation in the EU and Serbia. At the EU level, there are two strategies and a policy framework, and in Serbia, eight sectoral strategies, referring and discussing the climate change mitigation through forestry. At the same time, these issues are highlighted as the primary objective, only in the Climate and Energy Package of the EU and the Forestry Development Strategy in Serbia. In terms of legislative framework in Serbia, two laws have climate change mitigation through forestry as the primary objective, while for the analyzed relevant EU legislation, this is a secondary objective. In Serbia, only the Forest law has a direct impact on climate change mitigation through forestry, while at EU level, there is no regulation, directive or communication, with the same direct influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studies of climate changes and their impact on the environment-monitoring impacts, adaptation and mitigation, podprojekat, 43007/16-III: Socio-economic development, mitigation and adaptation to climate change

  13. A FRAMEWORK FOR THE TREATMENT OF FINANCIAL CONTAGION EFFECTS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ACTUAL EUROPEAN TURBULENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoianu Mircea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is still a debate regarding a possible restoring of the confidence in European financial markets because there are still underlying problems from the super-sized finance that actually worsened. Anti crisis strategy efficiency and future costs of real reform make analysts more prudent in forecasts. In addition, a possible reduction risk appetite and the loss of confidence will fuel a negative perspective regarding the recovery of emerging economies, extreme fragile to regional or global contagion effects. In modern financial crises, the events spiral out of control, panic and contagion come very fast. Greek debt crisis is the most serious extreme financial event in the Eurozone, with severe contagion features. An analysis of Eurocontagion effects in the context of Greece crisis by using a dynamic version of the Hawkes jump-diffusion model is suggested.

  14. Why European Entrepreneurs in the Water and Waste Management Sector Are Willing to Go beyond Environmental Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Rabadán

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in the water sector in Europe is a major concern, and compliance with the current legislation alone does not seem to be enough to face major challenges like climate change or population growth and concentration. The greatest potential for improvement appears when companies decide to take a step forward and go beyond environmental legislation. This study focuses on the environmental responsibility (ER of European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the water and waste management sector and analyzes the drivers that lead these firms to the adoption of more sustainable practices. Our results show that up to 40% of European SMEs within this industry display environmental responsibility. Market pull has a low incidence in encouraging ER, while values and the strategic decisions of entrepreneurs seem decisive. Policy makers should prioritize subsidies over fiscal incentives because they show greater potential to promote the adoption of environmental responsibility among these firms.

  15. Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Tobacco Convention and the European Ombudsman's inquiry into tobacco lobbying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambros Papadias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ombudsman investigates complaints about maladministration in the EU institutions, agencies and bodies. A complaint was brought by an NGO which claimed the Commission was not meeting its obligations under the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Ombudsman agreed, finding that the Commission's approach to publicising meetings with tobacco lobbyists was, with the exception of DG Health, inadequate, unreliable and unsatisfactory. The Ombudsman was also concerned to find that certain meetings with lawyers representing the tobacco industry were not considered as meetings for the purpose of lobbying.

  16. Balancing security and liberty within the European human rights framework. A critical reading of the Court’s case law in the light of surveillance and criminal law enforcement strategies after 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J.A. de Hert

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature concerning human rights protection by the European Court on Human Rights after 9/11 is very often coloured by optimism. Some authors hold that judicial control by the European Court on national anti-terrorism measures is very strict, especially compared to U.S. judicial review. Others suggest the existence of a strict privacy test developed by the European Court as a bulwark again anti-terrorism measures that give too much discretion to law enforcement authorities. In this paper we discuss the ‘classical’ European framework with regard to ‘hard’ anti-terrorism measures and the privacy framework that is relevant for new, ‘softer’ anti-terrorism measures. it is argued that this optimistic reading of the European human rights framework in the area of security especially with regard to the latter is flawed and based on a misunderstanding of the case law of the European Court. This analysis leaves little room for optimism about judicial review of the legislator in Europe and urges for an attitude of self-restraint.

  17. Electricity and energy policy: French specificities and stakes in the European framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The present day context of liberalization of European power markets and increase of energy prices raises the question of the competitiveness of the French economy: what type of supply and what technological trend would allow to relax this constrain? It is therefore the overall main trends of the French energy policy that should be reexamined in the broader framework of Europe. This is the aim of this document. It presents, first, the present day organization of the French power market and the recent changes that have followed its opening to competition. Then, it describes the evolutions since the first petroleum shock and the share given to electricity in the French energy mix, the technological choices that have led to the present day domination of nuclear energy in the power generation means. Finally, this policy and its perspectives is compared to the main European trends in the domain of energy security, environment protection and market liberalization. It appears, in particular, that the choices made by France in the domain of electricity (demand mastery efforts, large share given to electricity, preponderance of nuclear power, development of renewable energy sources, in particular hydroelectric power) have limited its energy bill and enhanced its energy independence. Also, all energy sources considered, they have led to a low level of CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to other developed countries. (J.S.)

  18. EFFICIENCY OF PUBLIC SPENDING FOR EDUCATION WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK "EDUCATION AND TRAINING 2020"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela, POPA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Education is universally recognized as one of the foundations of human development and one of the most powerful tools that a society has for poverty reduction, sustainable development in the long term. The world we live in today can be defined as a global arena, a planet increasingly crowded, faced with a real problem - population growth and thus increasing the number of young people, which means educational systems and to able to support them and to answer their needs. Educational policies should reflect the responsibility of building a world based on a more on mutual support. Marginalization, exclusion, ignorance of the rules of democracy and lack of education are factors that may cause the gap between a minority of people are able to find a path to success and a majority that feels manipulated events. Providing everyone access to knowledge, education has the task of helping people understand the world and to understand others. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy makes in education provides a new strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training, created from his predecessor's work program "Education and Training 2010", "Education and Training 2020". This paper aims to highlight the strategic objectives for the Member States, the implementation of these, and a number of statistics on the efficiency of public spending on education in the European Union.

  19. Agro-Ecological Analysis for the EU Water Framework Directive: An Applied Case Study for the River Contract of the Seveso Basin (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchi, Stefano; La Rosa, Daniele; Pileri, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The innovative approach to the protection and management of water resources at the basin scale introduced by the European Union water framework directive (WFD) requires new scientific tools. WFD implementation also requires the participation of many stakeholders (administrators, farmers and citizens) with the aim of improving the quality of river waters and basin ecosystems through cooperative planning. This approach encompasses different issues, such as agro-ecology, land use planning and water management. This paper presents the results of a methodology suggested for implementing the WFD in the case of the Seveso river contract in Italy, one of the recent WFD applications. The Seveso basin in the Lombardy region has been one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Italy over the last 50 years. First, land use changes in the last 50 years are assessed with the use of historical aerial photos. Then, elements of an ecological network along the river corridor are outlined, and different scenarios for enhancing existing ecological connections are assessed using indicators from graph theory. These scenarios were discussed in technical workshops with involved stakeholders of the river contract. The results show a damaged rural landscape, where urbanization processes have decimated the system of linear green features (hedges/rows). Progressive reconnections of some of the identified network nodes may significantly increase the connectivity and circuitry of the study area.

  20. A Multiscale Simulation Framework to Investigate Hydrobiogeochemical Processes in the Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, T. D.; Yang, X.; Song, X.; Chen, X.; Hammond, G. E.; Song, H. S.; Hou, Z.; Murray, C. J.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Tartakovsky, G.; Yang, X.; Zachara, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The PNNL Subsurface Scientific Focus Area (SFA) project is developing a predictive understanding of the groundwater-surface water interaction zone (termed the subsurface interaction zone, SIZ), which plays an important role in natural ecosystems as it regulates the mixing of nutrients that controls biogeochemical transformations. A key element of this research is to build a multiscale simulation framework that facilitates the integration of new mechanistic understanding from fine-scale controlled laboratory studies with diverse field-scale observations and models. The framework includes multiscale facies analysis, hybrid multiscale simulation and multilevel uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis. Multiscale facies analysis has defined two types of geological facies: 1) subsurface facies in the aquifer adjacent to the Columbia River; and 2) riverine faciesin the riverbed alluvial sediment. These definitions and associated mapping processes provide a hierarchical structure for parameterization of hydrobiogeochemical (HBGC) processes at multiple scales. A hybrid multiscale simulation approch is used to couple high-fidelity simulations of reactive transport processes in riverine facies with coarsely-resolved simulations of the larger subsurface domain. Simulations at both scales use the same numerical code but with different grid resolutions, heterogeneity models and biogeochemical reaction networks. The hybrid multiscale simulation is able to quantify the potential impacts of biogeochemical hotspots in the alluvial layer on system behavior on a larger scale while maintaining a feasible level of computing cost. A re-scaled Multi-Level Monte Carlo (MLMC) method for UQ combines coarse-resolution simulations with a limited number of fine simulations. The new MLMC method has been applied to the field-scale domain and proved to be more accurate and efficient than existing MC methods. Our multiscale simulation framework provides an integrated model-data platform to

  1. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M.; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A.; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Porto, Antonio Lo; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J.; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60 % by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  2. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Lo Porto, Antonio; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60% by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  3. Shallow water tides over the European continental shelf : what improvments can we expect from satellite altimetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, T.; Le Provost, C.; Lyard, F.

    2003-04-01

    Ocean tides have been intensively studied at the global scale during the last decade. Their knowledge has been greatly improved thanks to satellite altimetry and assimilation of these data in new hydrodynamic models. Over the continental shelves and coastal areas, however, larger uncertainties remains in the description of the tides. The accuracy of the main constituents (M2, S2, N2, ...) is still limited to a ten of cm, by contrast to the cm level reached for the deep ocean. For the non linear constituents, only a few studies have addressed the question: how spatial altimetry data can be used to improve our knowledge over the major shallow water areas of the world ocean? Our aim is here to investigate these questions by focusing on the European shelf. We have now more than ten years of Topex/Poseidon data, followed by JASON1, and ERS+ENVISAT altimetric mission. From these data sets, we have performed along track and cross over analyses to investigate the accuracy of the tidal constituents, especially non linear constituents. It has been demonstrated, among other things, how this accuracy can be improved by using more elaborated "inverse barometer" correction based on a hydrodynamic model simulating the response of the sea level to high frequency atmospheric forcing. Over the shallow water areas, the horizontal scales of the non linear tidal components are greatly reduced, as the square root of the depth in relation with their propagation speed, and proportionally to their time period for the higher constituents (M4, MS4, ...). The spatial resolution of the altimetric mission is then a limiting factor for precise description of these constituents. Hence the interest of assimilating these data in a hydrodynamic model. Following the approach developed by our group for the global ocean (the "FES" Finite Element ocean tide Solutions series, that have been produced over the recent years), such assimilation exercises have been performed and qualified. The portability of

  4. A framework for modeling connections between hydraulics, water surface roughness, and surface reflectance in open channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl J.; Mobley, Curtis D.; Overstreet, Brandon T.

    2017-09-01

    This paper introduces a framework for examining connections between the flow field, the texture of the air-water interface, and the reflectance of the water surface and thus evaluating the potential to infer hydraulic information from remotely sensed observations of surface reflectance. We used a spatial correlation model describing water surface topography to illustrate the application of our framework. Nondimensional relations between model parameters and flow intensity were established based on a prior flume study. Expressing the model in the spatial frequency domain allowed us to use an efficient Fourier transform-based algorithm for simulating water surfaces. Realizations for both flume and field settings had water surface slope distributions positively correlated with velocity and water surface roughness. However, most surface facets were gently sloped and thus unlikely to yield strong specular reflections; the model exaggerated the extent of water surface features, leading to underestimation of facet slopes. A ray tracing algorithm indicated that reflectance was greatest when solar and view zenith angles were equal and the sensor scanned toward the Sun to capture specular reflections of the solar beam. Reflected energy was concentrated in a small portion of the sky, but rougher water surfaces reflected rays into a broader range of directions. Our framework facilitates flight planning to avoid surface-reflected radiance while mapping other river attributes, or to maximize this component to exploit relationships between hydraulics and surface reflectance. This initial analysis also highlighted the need for improved models of water surface topography in natural rivers.

  5. A framework for modeling connections between hydraulics, water surface roughness, and surface reflectance in open channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl; Mobley, Curtis D.; Overstreet, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for examining connections between the flow field, the texture of the air-water interface, and the reflectance of the water surface and thus evaluating the potential to infer hydraulic information from remotely sensed observations of surface reflectance. We used a spatial correlation model describing water surface topography to illustrate the application of our framework. Nondimensional relations between model parameters and flow intensity were established based on a prior flume study. Expressing the model in the spatial frequency domain allowed us to use an efficient Fourier transform-based algorithm for simulating water surfaces. Realizations for both flume and field settings had water surface slope distributions positively correlated with velocity and water surface roughness. However, most surface facets were gently sloped and thus unlikely to yield strong specular reflections; the model exaggerated the extent of water surface features, leading to underestimation of facet slopes. A ray tracing algorithm indicated that reflectance was greatest when solar and view zenith angles were equal and the sensor scanned toward the Sun to capture specular reflections of the solar beam. Reflected energy was concentrated in a small portion of the sky, but rougher water surfaces reflected rays into a broader range of directions. Our framework facilitates flight planning to avoid surface-reflected radiance while mapping other river attributes, or to maximize this component to exploit relationships between hydraulics and surface reflectance. This initial analysis also highlighted the need for improved models of water surface topography in natural rivers.

  6. Potentials of mathematical modeling and use of GIS in catchment management and the benefits for the Water Framework Directive fulfilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, T.; Krasa, J.

    2009-04-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) brings relatively strict demands concerning surface waters protection, soil protection and watershed management. Water quality and soil conservation are among the priorities of European environmental policy. The aims and corresponding limits are clearly and strictly formulated but the ways how to fulfill the task remain unspecified. Moreover the side effects and synergic effects are not considered. Therefore there is no recommended methodology for implementing the protection measures. At the Faculty of Civil Engineering (Czech Technical University in Prague) we deal with development and use of various methods routinely applicable in catchment management and engineering praxis. Mainly we focus on soil conservation, sediment transport assessment, retention capacity of landscape evaluation and flood prevention. Our contribution will present overview of applicable approaches and methods useful for the WFD implementation and for Watershed management strategy defining. Very important part of the problem is use of high precision data sources available for environmental modeling. Data in similar formats and precision (considering soil properties, land use and land cover, precipitation, etc.) exist throughout Europe, but the data availability for research is very limited. In spite of the INSPIRE Directive the European coordination here is low. Typical example can be found in Map of soil loss and sediment transport within Czech Republic. Methodically simple approach (using USLE - Wischmeier et al., 1978) was applied to whole Czech territory in coordination with GIS already in 2001 (Dostal et al.,2001). The map was consistently updated and in 2007 the LPIS database allowed us to estimate soil erosion rates in scale of individual parcels (Dostal et al., 2007). Each agricultural field block was assessed in 25m resolution raster (484 835 individual parcels, 35 301 km2). The data were then used for preparing Watershed management strategy

  7. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, Mark A.; de Vries, Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution of livestock is expressed as shares of the emitted compounds and land used, as compared to the whole agricultural sector. The results show that the livestock sector contributes significantly to agricultural environmental impacts. This contribution is 78% for terrestrial biodiversity loss, 80% for soil acidification and air pollution (ammonia and nitrogen oxides emissions), 81% for global warming, and 73% for water pollution (both N and P). The agriculture sector itself is one of the major contributors to these environmental impacts, ranging between 12% for global warming and 59% for N water quality impact. Significant progress in mitigating these environmental impacts in Europe will only be possible through a combination of technological measures reducing livestock emissions, improved food choices and reduced food waste of European citizens.

  8. A Simple Approach to Enhance the Water Stability of a Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yung-Han; Kuo, Yu-Ching; Lirio, Stephen; Wang, Kun-Yun; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2017-01-01

    A facile method to improve the feasibility of water-unstable metal-organic frameworks in an aqueous environment has been developed that involves imbedding in a polymer monolith. The effect of compartment type during polymerization plays a significant role in maintaining the crystalline structure and thermal stability of the MOFs, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The MOF-polymer composite prepared in a narrow compartment (column, ID 0.8 mm) has better thermal and chemical stability than that prepared in a broad compartment (vial, ID 7 mm). The developed MOF-polymer composite was applied as an adsorbent in solid-phase microextraction of nine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and could be used for extraction more than 30 times, demonstrating that the proposed approach has potential for industrial applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Antifungal activity of water-stable copper-containing metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouson, Supaporn; Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Phattharasupakun, Nutthaphon; Siwayaprahm, Patcharaporn; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2017-10-01

    Although metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or porous coordination polymers have been widely studied, their antimicrobial activities have not yet been fully investigated. In this work, antifungal activity of copper-based benzene-tricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC MOF), which is water stable and industrially interesting, is investigated against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu-BTC MOF can effectively inhibit the growth rate of C. albicans and remarkably inhibit the spore growth of A. niger, A. oryzae and F. oxysporum. This finding shows the potential of using Cu-BTC MOF as a strong biocidal material against representative yeasts and moulds that are commonly found in the food and agricultural industries.

  10. Adsorptive removal of naproxen and clofibric acid from water using metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zubair; Jeon, Jaewoo; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2012-03-30

    Adsorptive removal of naproxen and clofibric acid, two typical PPCPs (pharmaceuticals and personal care products), has been studied using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for the first time. The removal efficiency decreases in the order of MIL-101>MIL-100-Fe>activated carbon both in adsorption rate and adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetics and capacity of PPCPs generally depend on the average pore size and surface area (or pore volume), respectively, of the adsorbents. The adsorption mechanism may be explained with a simple electrostatic interaction between PPCPs and the adsorbent. Finally, it can be suggested that MOFs having high porosity and large pore size can be potential adsorbents to remove harmful PPCPs in contaminated water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Highly sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid with a water-dispersible terbium-metal organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Neha; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev; Mehta, Jyotsana; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2016-12-15

    The sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA) is strongly associated with the sensing of bacterial organisms in food and many types of environmental samples. To date, the demand for a sensitive detection method for bacterial toxicity has increased remarkably. Herein, we investigated the DPA detection potential of a water-dispersible terbium-metal organic framework (Tb-MOF) based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism. The Tb-MOF showed a highly sensitive ability to detect DPA at a limit of detection of 0.04nM (linear range of detection: 1nM to 5µM) and also offered enhanced selectivity from other commonly associated organic molecules. The present study provides a basis for the application of Tb-MOF for direct, convenient, highly sensitive, and specific detection of DPA in the actual samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Draft layout, containment and performance of the safety system of the European Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starflinger, J.; Schlagenhaufer, M.; Kohly, C.; Schulenberg, T. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech., Karlsruhe (Germany); Rothschmitt, S.; Bittermann, D. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In Europe, the research on Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors is integrated in a project called 'High Performance Light Water Reactor Phase 2' (HPLWR Phase 2), co-funded by the European Commission. Ten partners and three active supporters are working on critical scientific issues to determine the potential of this reactor concept in the electricity market. Close to the end of the project the technical results are translated into a draft layout of the HPLWR. The containment and safety system are being explained. Exemplarily, a depressurization event shows the capabilities of the safety system to sufficiently cool the reactor by means of a low pressure coolant injection system. (author)

  13. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-03-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation.

  14. Projects and potentialities for Scientific and Technological Cooperation between Mexico and Thailand under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7: 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haberleithner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union and Mexico have been cooperating in the field of R&D since the partnership treaty between the Eu and Mexico took effect in 2000. With the Lisbon Strategy put into operation that same year, Europe acknowledged the central role which will be played by knowledge in the economy and society of the future. Accordingly, innovation was emphasized in order to advance mutual efforts to establish innovative research and development projects with Third Countries such as Mexico and Thailand through diverse multilateral framework programs such as the Seventh Framework Program (Fp7. A brief evaluation of the existing projects in Fp7 reveal disposition for intraregional cooperation in spite of the disparities regarding the quantity and extension of projects. Moreover, studied participants share a similar lack of know-how for coordinating projects which is at times crucial for benefiting completely from the program. Potential exists for establishing the necessary links and coordinating points amongst Mexico and Thailand under the given cooperation regional and bilateral mechanisms and the extensive research areas that the program covers. It is these specific potentialities enabled by the Fp7 in both regions that intend to be further researched for their development into multiple and successful projects.

  15. The Common European Framework, Task-Based Learning, and Colombia: Crossroads for an Intercultural Collision or a Path under Construction for Improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alejandro Galvis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical response to the implementation of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, and Assessment (CEFR, Council of Europe, 2001 in Colombia by exposing a threefold approach discussing the following areas: Intercultural communication, Task-Based Learning, and some pertinent SLA research. Bearing this in mind, the author provides important cultural differences, and how these differences may affect what is proposed methodologically in the CEF from the standpoint of communication styles and local cultural modes of behavior. Likewise, the author provides reasons that the approach proposed in the CEFR may put at stake important modes of language instruction and the use of computer technology, among other items. Voices from pre-service teachers in regard to the implementation of the CEFR and its principles in the context of a public school would also be included. Finally, the author encourages further academic discussion on the issue in question in order to invite the academic community to contribute to the construction of a locally-made framework bearing in mind the immediate needs and cultural characteristics of the local context.

  16. A framework for a european network for a systematic environmental impact assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graef, Frieder; Römbke, Jörg; Binimelis, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the impacts of growing genetically modified (GM) crops remains a major political and scientific challenge in Europe. Concerns have been raised by the evidence of adverse and unexpected environmental effects and differing opinions on the outcomes of environmental risk assessments...... (ERA). The current regulatory system is hampered by insufficiently developed methods for GM crop safety testing and introduction studies. Improvement to the regulatory system needs to address the lack of well designed GM crop monitoring frameworks, professional and financial conflicts of interest...... Network for systematic GMO impact assessment (ENSyGMO) with the aim directly to enhance ERA and post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of GM crops, to harmonize and ultimately secure the long-term socio-political impact of the ERA process and the PMEM in the EU. These goals would be achieved...

  17. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  18. The technology of the comunication and the information before the disabylities from the framework of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles PASCUAL SEVILLANO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Every time it is more frecuent the documents reading where is investigated on the large potentials and perspectives than the can offer the technologies of the information and the communication to the persons with some type of disabiliteis, and this, it should be fundamentally to two consideratins. For a part, we find ourselves before an eminent evolution of the welfare of our society, welfare and economic, both problems that are reflected in the preoccupatin and interest because all the persons may have a place in the lifre and on the other hand we find ourselves whit the unstoppable machine of the evolution of the science and the technology, evolution, that, probably it will be consequence of large economic and mercantilist interest but that little by little they have let their fingerprint in persons that are interested by the welfare in all. At this time, it can result us useful, to all those which we move ourselves in the field of the teaching and concretely in the pledge by the introduction of the tecnologies in the education, to know the perspectives of future toward the persons with disabilities, in function of the accesibility regulations the platforms of the technology, especially the data proccesing. Because of this, the premeditation of the following article is to accomplish a in-depth tour on the projects that they are being developing at European level and which is being the performance of Spain in that situation concerning the technology to the service of the persons with disabilities.

  19. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of changes in water salinity upon exercise and cardiac performance in the European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatelier, A.; McKenzie, David; Claireaux, G.

    2005-01-01

    The European seabass is an active euryhaline teleost that migrates and forages in waters of widely differing salinities. Oxygen uptake (M-O2) was measured in seabass (average mass and forklength 510 g and 34 cm, respectively) during exercise at incremental swimming speeds in a tunnel respirometer...... in seawater (SW) at a salinity of 30 parts per thousand and temperature of 14 degrees C, and their maximal sustainable (critical) swimming speed (U-crit) determined. Cardiac output (Q) was measured via an ultrasound flow probe on their ventral aorta. The fish were then exposed to acute reductions in water...... performance. This was linked to an exceptional capacity to maintain plasma osmolality and tissue water content unchanged following all salinity challenges. This extraordinary adaptation would allow the seabass to maintain skeletal and cardiac muscle function while migrating through waters of widely differing...

  1. Hydrogeologic framework refinement, ground-water flow and storage, water-chemistry analyses, and water-budget components of the Yuma area, southwestern Arizona and southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Land, Michael; Faunt, Claudia C.; Leake, S.A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Fleming, John B.; Pool, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water and surface-water system in the Yuma area in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California is managed intensely to meet water-delivery requirements of customers in the United States, to manage high ground-water levels in the valleys, and to maintain treaty-mandated water-quality and quantity requirements of Mexico. The following components in this report, which were identified to be useful in the development of a ground-water management model, are: (1) refinement of the hydrogeologic framework; (2) updated water-level maps, general ground-water flow patterns, and an estimate of the amount of ground water stored in the mound under Yuma Mesa; (3) review and documentation of the ground-water budget calculated by the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior (Reclamation); and (4) water-chemistry characterization to identify the spatial distribution of water quality, information on sources and ages of ground water, and information about the productive-interval depths of the aquifer. A refined three-dimensional digital hydrogeologic framework model includes the following hydrogeologic units from bottom to top: (1) the effective hydrologic basement of the basin aquifer, which includes the Pliocene Bouse Formation, Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and pre-Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic rocks; (2) undifferentiated lower units to represent the Pliocene transition zone and wedge zone; (3) coarse-gravel unit; (4) lower, middle, and upper basin fill to represent the upper, fine-grained zone between the top of the coarse-gravel unit and the land surface; and (5) clay A and clay B. Data for the refined model includes digital elevation models, borehole lithology data, geophysical data, and structural data to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units. The top surface of the coarse-gravel unit, defined by using borehole and geophysical data, varies similarly to terraces resulting from the down cutting of the Colorado River. Clay A

  2. Environmental quality of Italian marine water by means of marine strategy framework directive (MSFD descriptor 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Maggi

    Full Text Available ISPRA, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Environment, carried out the initial assessment of environmental quality status of the 3 Italian subregions (Mediterranean Sea Region on Descriptor 9. The approach adopted to define the GES started to verify that contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption did not exceed levels established by Community legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates. As the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires to use health tools to assess the environment, Italy decided to adopt a statistical range of acceptance of thresholds identified by national (D.Lgs. 152/2006 concerning water quality required for mussel farms and international legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates, which allowed to use the health results and to employ them for the assessment of environmental quality. Italy proposed that Good Environmental Status (GES is achieved when concentrations are lower than statistical range of acceptance, estimated on samples of fish and fishery products coming from only national waters. GIS-based approach a to perform different integration levels for station, cell's grid and years, was used; the elaborations allowed to judge the environmental quality good.

  3. Water-Based Assembly of Polymer-Metal Organic Framework (MOF) Functional Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Souvik [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 77843-3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Schaef, Herbert T. [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; McGrail, Benard Peter [Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 77843-3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Texas A& M University, 3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA

    2016-12-27

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained tremendous attention for their porosity, size selectivity, and structural diversity. There is a need for MOF-based coatings, particularly in applications such as separations, electronics and energy; yet forming thin, functional, conformal coatings is prohibitive because MOFs exist as a powder. Layer-by- layer assembly, a versatile thin film coating approach, offers a unique solution to this problem, but this approach requires MOFs that are water-dispersible and bear a surface charge. Here, we address these issues by examining water-based dispersions of MIL-101(Cr) that facilitate the formation of robust polymer-MOF hybrid coatings. Specifically, the substrate to be coated is alternately exposed to an aqueous solution of poly(styrene sulfonate) and dispersion MIL-101(Cr), yielding linear film growth and coatings with a MOF content as high as 77 wt%.This approach is surface-agnostic, in which the coating is successfully applied to silicon, glass, flexible plastic, and even cotton fabric, conformally coating individual fibers. In contrast, prior attempts at forming MOF-coatings were severely limited to a handful of surfaces, required harsh chemical treatment, and were not conformal. The approach presented here unambiguously confirms that MOFs can be conformally coated onto complex and unusual surfaces, opening the door for a wide variety of applications.

  4. The Compliance of the Integrated Reports Issued by European Financial Companies with the International Integrated Reporting Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sofian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated reporting (IR is an emerging practice increasingly capturing the attention of companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the integrated reports issued by companies from the financial sector in Europe are following the guidance of the International Integrated Reporting Framework (IIRF. To achieve this objective, we analyzed the way in which the integrated reports of eight companies are following the guidance provided by the IIRF. As a result, we noticed that the annual report of Generali scored the highest compliance level with the guidance of the IIRF, but each one of the companies stood out with respect to at least one of the guiding principles or fundamental concepts mentioned in the IIRF. Although the companies included in the sample are in different stages of IR adoption, our results contribute to understanding the practice of IR. The conclusions support the use of a tool to measure the compliance of an integrated report to the existing requirements in the context of an industry linked to many other domains.

  5. Environmental Levels and Trends of 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride and chloroform in water, sediment and biota for the European and Arctic regions: literature study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Leslie, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Data on concentrations of chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane and vinyl chloride in European and Arctic waters, sediments and biota were collected from scientific literature and monitoring programmes for the period 1980–2005 and are presented in this report.

  6. LCA of greywater management within a water circular economy restorative thinking framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Sara; Laso, Jara; Margallo, María; Aldaco, Rubén; Rivero, Maria J; Irabien, Ángel; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2018-04-15

    Greywater reuse is an attractive option for the sustainable management of water under water scarcity circumstances, within a water circular economy restorative thinking framework. Its successful deployment relies on the availability of low cost and environmentally friendly technologies. The life cycle assessment (LCA) approach provides the appropriate methodological tool for the evaluation of alternative treatments based on environmental decision criteria and, therefore, it is highly useful during the process conceptual design. This methodology should be employed in the early design phase to select those technologies with lower environmental impact. This work reports the comparative LCA of three scenarios for greywater reuse: photocatalysis, photovoltaic solar-driven photocatalysis and membrane biological reactor, in order to help the selection of the most environmentally friendly technology. The study has been focused on the removal of the surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, which is used in the formulation of detergents and personal care products and, thus, widely present in greywater. LCA was applied using the Environmental Sustainability Assessment methodology to obtain two main environmental indicators in order to simplify the decision making process: natural resources and environmental burdens. Energy consumption is the main contributor to both indicators owing to the high energy consumption of the light source for the photocatalytic greywater treatment. In order to reduce its environmental burdens, the most desirable scenario would be the use of solar light for the photocatalytic transformation. However, while the technological challenge of direct use of solar light is approached, the environmental suitability of the photovoltaic solar energy driven photocatalysis technology to greywater reuse has been demonstrated, as it involves the smallest environmental impact among the three studied alternatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Introducing a Regulatory Policy Framework of Bait Fishing in European Coastal Lagoons: The Case of Ria de Aveiro in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Xenarios

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The harvesting of bait through digging in coastal mudflats is practiced for recreational and commercial purposes in European coastal systems including the Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon on the northwest Atlantic coast of Portugal. The scale of harvesting in the Ria de Aveiro has recently increased due to the current economic climate in Portugal, with targeting of the polychaete, Diopatra neapolitana species or “casulo” as it is widely known in the Aveiro region. The national authorities have attempted to control casulo digging by issuing a regulation (Ordinance in 2014 on the maximum daily catch limit to be caught by each individual. The daily catch limit is intended to represent the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY for casulo beyond which overfishing will occur. The monitoring of the regulatory measures is expected to be conducted through on-site inspections in the digging areas. However, weak law enforcement was noticed, while there is also controversy over the daily catch limit (quota stipulated by the Ordinance. To this end, the current study attempted to assess digging activities through remote monitoring and random inspections for a better policy enforcement of the national regulation. In addition, different harvesting scenarios were employed through a simplified bioeconomic model to attribute the current and future harvesting trends of bait digging in Aveiro coastal lagoon. The study findings indicate that remote monitoring coupled with some onsite interviews could be a more effective approach for the implementation of the current bait digging policy. Further, the results point to a distinctive discrepancy between the daily catch amount (MSY introduced by the national legislation and the study findings which should be further scrutinized. The diggers seem to have reached the sustainable harvest identified by the present research. The current economic hardship in Portugal and the low profitability in similar employment sectors will

  8. Linguistic Competences of Learners of Dutch as a Second Language at the B1 and B2 Levels of Speaking Proficiency of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Schoonen, Rob; de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral Production scale of the Common European Framework of…

  9. Linking English-Language Test Scores onto the Common European Framework of Reference: An Application of Standard-Setting Methodology. TOEFL iBT Research Report TOEFL iBt-06. ETS RR-08-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a 6-level scale. In this study, English-language experts from across Europe linked CEFR levels to scores on three tests: the TOEFL® iBT test, the TOEIC® assessment, and the TOEIC "Bridge"™ test.…

  10. Applying the Writing Scales of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" to the New HSK Test of Proficiency in Chinese: Realities, Problems and Some Suggestions for Chinese Language Teachers and Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya Ping; Broeder, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article explores levels of proficiency in Chinese with reference to the new HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi) Chinese Proficiency Test and the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR). Special attention is given to learning and teaching the writing of Chinese characters and the use of Pinyin, a phonetic Romanization…

  11. Multi-agent modelling framework for water, energy and other resource networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, S.; Selby, P. D.; Meier, P.; Harou, J. J.; Yoon, J.; Lachaut, T.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Avisse, N.; Mohamed, K.; Tomlinson, J.; Khadem, M.; Tilmant, A.; Gorelick, S.

    2015-12-01

    Bespoke modelling tools are often needed when planning future engineered interventions in the context of various climate, socio-economic and geopolitical futures. Such tools can help improve system operating policies or assess infrastructure upgrades and their risks. A frequently used approach is to simulate and/or optimise the impact of interventions in engineered systems. Modelling complex infrastructure systems can involve incorporating multiple aspects into a single model, for example physical, economic and political. This presents the challenge of combining research from diverse areas into a single system effectively. We present the Pynsim 'Python Network Simulator' framework, a library for building simulation models capable of representing, the physical, institutional and economic aspects of an engineered resources system. Pynsim is an open source, object oriented code aiming to promote integration of different modelling processes through a single code library. We present two case studies that demonstrate important features of Pynsim's design. The first is a large interdisciplinary project of a national water system in the Middle East with modellers from fields including water resources, economics, hydrology and geography each considering different facets of a multi agent system. It includes: modelling water supply and demand for households and farms; a water tanker market with transfer of water between farms and households, and policy decisions made by government institutions at district, national and international level. This study demonstrates that a well-structured library of code can provide a hub for development and act as a catalyst for integrating models. The second focuses on optimising the location of new run-of-river hydropower plants. Using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, this study analyses different network configurations to identify the optimal placement of new power plants within a river network. This demonstrates that Pynsim can be

  12. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Abou-Rahma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66% out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water.

  13. The Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus in southern European coastal waters: Distribution, impact and prospective invasion management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Chainho, Paula; Cilenti, Lucrezia; Falco, Silvia; Kapiris, Kostas; Katselis, George; Ribeiro, Filipe

    2017-06-15

    The native distribution of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in the western Atlantic extends from Nova Scotia to Argentina. Introduced to Europe at the beginning of the 20th century, it is currently recorded almost ubiquitously in the Mediterranean and in the Black Sea. An overview of the occurrence, abundance, and ecological impact of the species in southern European waters is provided; additionally, we present a pragmatic assessment of its management scenarios, explicitly considering the dual nature of C. sapidus as both an invasive species and a fishery resource. We emphasise that the ongoing expansion of C. sapidus in the region may represent a stimulating challenge for the identification and implementation of future strategies in the management of invasive crustaceans. The impact of the invader could be converted into an enhancement of the services delivered by southern European coastal ecosystems, while mitigation costs could be transformed into profits for local populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Rahma, Yasmin; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Kamal Ahmed, Amira

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66%) out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water. PMID:26925257

  15. Comparison of GC-NCI MS, GC-ICP-MS, and GC-EI MS-MS for the determination of PBDEs in water samples according to the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gago, Adriana; Pröfrock, Daniel; Prange, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) includes some polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the list of priority substances that must be measured in surface waters at very low concentrations. The typical approaches applied to the determination of PBDEs in environmental samples might not meet the demanding requirements of the WFD. In this work, the instrumental capabilities of the mass-spectrometry (MS) techniques most frequently used in the determination of PBDEs, namely gas chromatography-negative-chemical-ionisation MS (GC-NCI MS) and GC-electrospray-ionisation tandem MS (EI MS-MS), are evaluated in comparison with highly sensitive GC-inductively-coupled-plasma MS (ICP-MS) for the reliable determination of PBDEs according to the WFD. Three analytical methods based on the liquid-liquid extraction of water samples and measurement of the extracts by GC-NCI MS, GC-EI MS-MS, or GC-ICP-MS are described. The priority PBDEs were quantified in different types of water sample by means of isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using (81)Br-labelled or (13)C-labelled PBDEs spikes, depending on the selected ionisation source. The three proposed methods met the requirements of the European legislation in terms of LOQs and expanded uncertainties. The determination method using (81)Br-labelled PBDEs and GC-ICP-MS had the highest sensitivity and the lowest instrumental limits of detection and expanded uncertainties.

  16. A methodological framework to support the initiation, design and institutionalization of participatory modeling processes in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbe, Johannes; Pahl-Wostl, Claudia; Adamowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Multiple barriers constrain the widespread application of participatory methods in water management, including the more technical focus of most water agencies, additional cost and time requirements for stakeholder involvement, as well as institutional structures that impede collaborative management. This paper presents a stepwise methodological framework that addresses the challenges of context-sensitive initiation, design and institutionalization of participatory modeling processes. The methodological framework consists of five successive stages: (1) problem framing and stakeholder analysis, (2) process design, (3) individual modeling, (4) group model building, and (5) institutionalized participatory modeling. The Management and Transition Framework is used for problem diagnosis (Stage One), context-sensitive process design (Stage Two) and analysis of requirements for the institutionalization of participatory water management (Stage Five). Conceptual modeling is used to initiate participatory modeling processes (Stage Three) and ensure a high compatibility with quantitative modeling approaches (Stage Four). This paper describes the proposed participatory model building (PMB) framework and provides a case study of its application in Québec, Canada. The results of the Québec study demonstrate the applicability of the PMB framework for initiating and designing participatory model building processes and analyzing barriers towards institutionalization.

  17. Delivery and fate of fluvial water and sediment to the sea: a marine geologist's view of European rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Milliman

    2001-12-01

    resulted in increased shoreline erosion. Decreased nutrient fluxes almost certainly will affect water quality in European coastal waters, and decreased silicate delivery by some dammed rivers may result in proliferation of new (and perhaps harmful estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Everything points to further changes as European rivers and their drainage basins continue to change in the coming years.

  18. Variability in the water footprint of arable crop production across European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobin, Anne; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Eitzinger, Josef; Trnka, Miroslav; Hlavinka, Petr; Takáč, Jozef; Kroes, Joop; Ventrella, Domenico; Marta, Dalla Anna; Deelstra, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Crop growth and yield are affected by water use during the season: the green water footprint (WF) accounts for rain water, the blue WF for irrigation and the grey WF for diluting agri-chemicals. We calibrated crop yield for FAO's water balance model "Aquacrop" at field level. We collected

  19. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-05-31

    Background : High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives : To study the associations: (1) of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2) The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design : Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities ( n = 1187) were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child's water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results : The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child's water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake). There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions : Low consumption of soft drinks-and not of fruit juices-was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  20. Final report on CCQM-K70: Determination of Hg in natural water at a concentration level required by the European environmental quality standard (EQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Detlef; Rienitz, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    This comparison 'Hg in natural water' was a follow-up to the pilot studies CCQM-P100.1 and CCQM-P100.2. The aim of this comparison was to demonstrate the capability of national metrology institutes to measure the Hg mass concentration in a natural water sample at the very low concentration level of γ(Hg) ≈ 70 ng/L as required by the EQS. In this way it served to help implement the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). This comparison was an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM and was piloted by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) with the help of the co-organizers Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM, Berlin, Germany), Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE, Paris, France), and the Joint Research Centre-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium). The following laboratories participated in this key comparison (in alphabetical order): BAM (Germany) EC-JRC-IRMM (European Union) KRISS (Republic of Korea) LGC (United Kingdom) LNE (France) NIST (United States of America) NMIA (Australia) NRC (Canada) PTB (Germany) SP (Sweden) The majority of participants applied isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using sector field or quadrupole inductively coupled plasma MS (ICP-MS) in combination with cold vapour (CV) generation as the analytical technique. NRC reported a combined result of ID-CV-ICP-MS and CV atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). SP applied a standard addition method on a sector field ICP-MS, while BAM made use of an external 5-point calibration on a CV atomic fluorescence spectrometer (AFS). The key comparison reference value (KCRV) was agreed upon during the IAWG meeting in April 2010 at BIPM as the sum of the added Hg content calculated from the gravimetric sample preparation and the Hg matrix content of the water used for sample preparation (determined and validated on two independent pathways). Accordingly the degrees

  1. A probabilistic framework for assessing vulnerability to climate variability and change: The case of the US water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a probabilistic framework for vulnerability analysis and use it to quantify current and future vulnerability of the US water supply system. We also determine the contributions of hydro-climatic and socio-economic drivers to the changes in projected vulnerability. For all scenarios and global climatemodels examined, the US Southwest including California and...

  2. Pathways and impacts of nitrogen in water bodies: establishing a framework for integrated assessment modelling of management benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob

    the study demonstrates how state-of-the-art environmental modelling can be linked with valuation to provide an adequate cross-media assessment framework relevant to integrated water quality management. The results must be regarded as illustrative and more research is required in several areas to consolidate...

  3. A 3D porous lanthanide-fumarate framework with water hexamer occupied cavities, exhibiting a reversible dehydration and rehydration procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2006-02-14

    [Sm2(fumarate)3(H2O)4] x 3 H2O, a new porous pillared layer framework with 0D cavities for the accommodation of chair-like hexameric water clusters, possesses three kinds of fumarate ligand with their two COO ends adopting different coordination modes and shows reversible de- and re-hydration behavior.

  4. The cost of hybrid waste water systems : A systematic framework for specifying minimum cost-connection rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-01-01

    To determine the optimal connection rate (CR) for regional waste water treatment is a challenge that has recently gained the attention of academia and professional circles throughout the world. We contribute to this debate by proposing a framework for a total cost assessment of sanitation

  5. Unified approach for the optimization of energy and water in multipurpose batch plants using a flexible scheduling framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekola, O

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available & Engineering Chemistry Research Vol. 52(25)/ pp 8488-8506 Unified Approach for the Optimization of Energy and Water in Multipurpose Batch Plants Using a Flexible Scheduling Framework Omobolanle Adekola,† Jane D. Stamp,† Thokozani Majozi,*,†,‡ Anurag...

  6. Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

  7. Developing Local Curriculum Framework on Water Resource and Disaster Course for Enhancing Students' Learning Achievements in the Basic Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunrasaksakun, Chunwadee; Sanrattana, Unchalee; Tungkasamit, Angkana; Srisawat, Niwat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to administer and prepare teachers for management to their students' learning achievements within the curriculum framework of water resource and disaster management. This course was compared to manage learning into different school sizes with the sample size in the lower secondary education schools with two groups of 28…

  8. The footprint of bottom trawling in European waters: distribution, intensity, and seabed integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Bastardie, Francois; Hinzen, N.T.

    2017-01-01

    Mapping trawling pressure on the benthic habitats is needed as background to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. The extent and intensity of bottom trawling on the European continental shelf (0-1000 m) was analysed from logbook statistics and vessel monitoring system data for 2...

  9. Assessment of the water balance of European forests: a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.