WorldWideScience

Sample records for european waste-to-energy facilities

  1. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria's waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria's waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap -1 . In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap -1  a -1 for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita.

  2. Integrated assessment of a new Waste-to-Energy facility in Central Greece in the context of regional perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkoulidis, G.; Papageorgiou, A.; Karagiannidis, A.; Kalogirou, S.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study is the integrated assessment of a proposed Waste-to-Energy facility that could contribute in the Municipal Solid Waste Management system of the Region of Central Greece. In the context of this paper alternative transfer schemes for supplying the candidate facility were assessed considering local conditions and economical criteria. A mixed-integer linear programming model was applied for the determination of optimum locations of Transfer Stations for an efficient supplying chain between the waste producers and the Waste-to-Energy facility. Moreover different Regional Waste Management Scenarios were assessed against multiple criteria, via the Multi Criteria Decision Making method ELECTRE III. The chosen criteria were total cost, Biodegradable Municipal Waste diversion from landfill, energy recovery and Greenhouse Gas emissions and the analysis demonstrated that a Waste Management Scenario based on a Waste-to-Energy plant with an adjacent landfill for disposal of the residues would be the best performing option for the Region, depending however on the priorities of the decision makers. In addition the study demonstrated that efficient planning is necessary and the case of three sanitary landfills operating in parallel with the WtE plant in the study area should be avoided. Moreover alternative cases of energy recovery of the candidate Waste-to-Energy facility were evaluated against the requirements of the new European Commission Directive on waste in order for the facility to be recognized as recovery operation. The latter issue is of high significance and the decision makers in European Union countries should take it into account from now on, in order to plan and implement facilities that recover energy efficiently. Finally a sensitivity check was performed in order to evaluate the effects of increased recycling rate, on the calorific value of treated Municipal Solid Waste and the gate fee of the candidate plant and found that increased

  3. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzb?ck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternati...

  4. Air pollution control systems and technologies for waste-to-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getz, N.P.; Amos, C.K. Jr.; Siebert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    One of the primary topics of concern to those planning, developing, and operating waste-to-energy (W-T-E) [also known as municipal waste combustors (MWCs)] facilities is air emissions. This paper presents a description of the state-of-the-art air pollution control (APC) systems and technology for particulate, heavy metals, organics, and acid gases control for W-T-E facilities. Items covered include regulations, guidelines, and control techniques as applied in the W-T-E industry. Available APC technologies are viewed in detail on the basis of their potential removal efficiencies, design considerations, operations, and maintenance costs

  5. Engineering/design of a co-generation waste-to-energy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, K.S.; Virgilio, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Five hundred fifteen thousand tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is being generated every day in America. At present 68% of this trash is dumped into landfill operations. As the amount of garbage is increasing daily, the amount of land reserved for landfills is diminishing rapidly. With the sentiment of the public that you produce it, you keep it, the import-export of waste between the counties and states for the landfills, no longer appears to be feasible, especially when combined with expensive disposal costs. One method of reducing the quantity of waste sent to landfills is through the use of waste-to-energy facilities - the technology of resource recovery - the technology of today INCINERATION. All cogeneration projects are not alike. This paper examines several aspects of the electrical system of a particular municipal solid waste-to-energy project at Charleston, S.C. which includes plant auxiliary loads as well as a utility interconnection through a step-up transformer

  6. Retrofit of waste-to-energy facilities equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Volume I: Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigo, H.G. [Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc., Berea, OH (US); Chandler, A.J. [A.J. Chandler & Associates, Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    To help lower the cost of compliance for waste-to-energy facilities, a retrofit technology using water spray temperature reduction combined with dry acid gas control reagent and powdered activated carbon [PAC] injection was tested in November, 1995 as part of an American Society of Mechanical Engineers' [ASME] Center for Research and Technology Development [CRTD] effort supported in part by the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory [NREL] and directed by the ASME Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Waste. 2,000 mg/dsm{sup 3} @ 7% O{sub 2} (150 lb/hr) of trona (a natural sodium sesquicarbonate ore) injected through a rapid dispersion lance successfully controlled more than 50 percent of the acid gases. This should let facilities under 250 TPD meet the small plant guidelines for acid gas control. Various levels of PAC were injected along with the trona. 300 mg/dsm{sup 3} 7% O{sub 2} of PAC provides a comfortable margin between the emissions limitations achieved and both large and small plant regulatory guidelines for tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans [PCDD/F] and mercury when the ESP is operated below 350 F. Bi-fluid nozzles were used to spray finely atomized water between the economizer outlet and ESP inlet to maintain temperatures in the desired 300-350 F range. Particulate and metals emissions limitations were met by this 400 ft{sup 2}/1,000 acft{sup 2} specific collector area [SCA], 3-field ESP. Both the water sprays and PAC improved ESP performance. The demonstration was successful. With dry PAC, acid gas reagent injection, and temperature reduction, MWC emissions guidelines for facilities smaller than 250 TPD can be reliably met. Everything except the large facilities SO{sub 2} and HCl guideline emissions limitations was achieved. Better acid gas control should be achievable with more reagent addition if the ESP is efficient enough to avoid violating particulate limits.

  7. A practical method to calculate the R1 index of waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Federico

    2018-03-01

    According to Directive 98/2008/EC, the operation carried out by an incinerator of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is classified either as energy recovery (R1) or as disposal (D10) depending on the result achieved by the application of the R1 formula. In 2011 the DG Environment of the European Commission (EC) issued some non-binding guidelines on the interpretation of such a formula that clarified many aspects related to its application. A point not fully clarified by the EC guidelines is the determination of the energy contained in the treated waste (E W ). For this term of the formula, reference is made to the indirect method for the calculation of boiler thermal efficiency, as defined by the norm EN 12952-15. However, the application of such a norm to an entire year of operation of a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) boiler is not immediate. Therefore, a practical method for the calculation of the E W term has been developed in the framework of a collaboration between the MatER Study Centre and the Lombardy Region (Italy). The method is based on: (i) the identification of the most reliable data available from the Distributed Control System (DCS) of the plant; (ii) the definition of a control volume around the boiler(s) also based on the availability of data; (iii) the closure of the mass balance for such a control volume; (iv) the energy balance of the same control volume that gives, thus, the E W term of the R1 formula. The method has been applied in 2015-2016 to nine plants, generating a number of interesting data reported and discussed in this work, such as R1 index values, Lower Heating Values (LHV) of the treated wastes, main sources of energy losses in WtE boilers, etc. For one case study, discussed in detail in this work, the law of propagation of uncertainties has been applied according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, leading to the assessment of the accuracy of the method, which resulted in ±2.4% with a confidence level of circa 95%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Comparison of potential greenhouse gas emissions from disposal of MSW in sanitary landfills vs. waste-to-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates the US currently generates about 160 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) per year, and this figure will exceed 200 million tons annually by the year 2000. About 80 percent of the MSW will be disposed of in landfills and waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities, both of which generate greenhouse gases, namely methane and carbon dioxide. This paper provides an introductory level analysis of the potential long term greenhouse gas emissions from these two MSW disposal alternatives. Carbon dioxide credits are derived for fossil fuel offset by WTE and methane emissions are converted to equivalent CO 2 emissions in order to derive a single emission figure for comparison of the greenhouse contribution of the two disposal strategies. A secondary analysis is presented to compare the net equivalent CO 2 emissions from WTE facilities to those from landfills with methane gas recovery, combustion and energy generation. The conclusion is, that for a given amount of MSW, landfilling contributes to the greenhouse effect about 10 times more than a modern Waste-To-Energy facility. Even with 50% of all landfill methane emissions recovered and converted to electricity, the contribution to the greenhouse effect by the landfill alternative is about 6 times greater than the waste-to-energy alternative

  9. Retrofit of waste-to-energy facilities equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Volume III: Test protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigo, H.G. [Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc., Berea, OH (US); Chandler, A.J. [A.J. Chandler & Associates, Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers' [ASME] Center for Research and Technology Development [CRTD] has been awarded a subcontract by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory [NREL] to demonstrate the technical performance and viability of flue gas temperature control in combination with dry acid gas reagent and activated carbon injection at an existing electrostatic precipitator [ESP] equipped municipal waste combustor [MWC]. The objective of this proof-of-concept demonstration test is to economically and reliably meet 40 CFR 60 Subpart Cb Emissions Guidelines for MWC's at existing ESP equipped facilities. The effort is being directed by a Subcommittee of tile ASME Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Wastes [RCIMW] chaired by Dave Hoecke. Mr. Greg Barthold of ASME/CRTD is the Project Manager. ASME/CRTD contracted with Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc. in cooperation with A.J. Chandler & Associates, Ltd. to be the Principal Investigator for the project and manage the day-t o-day aspects of the program, conduct the testing reduce and interpret the data and prepare the report. Testing will be conducted at the 2 by 210 TPD, ESP equipped MWC at the Davis County Resource Recovery Facility in Layton, Utah. The test plan calls for duplicate metals (Cd, Pb and Hg), dioxin and acid gas runs.

  10. An assessment of the potential contribution from waste-to-energy facilities to electricity demand in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, Omar K.M.; Cekirge, Huseyin M.; Raza, Syed A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This research evaluates the potential contribution of WTE to Saudi power demand. • Two scenarios were developed: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling to year 2032. • Mass Burn will generate 2073 Megawatts (MW) about 1.73% of 2032 peak power demand. • Mass Burn with recycling will generate 166 MW about 0.14% of 2032 peak power demand. - Abstract: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest crude oil producer in the world and possesses the largest oil reserves. The crude oil revenue has resulted in a massive socio-economic development over the last four decades. This situation has resulted in rapid growth of the country’s electricity demand and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. The KSA is proposing an impressive plan towards renewable energy utilization that includes waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. This research assesses the potential contribution of WTE facilities to total Saudi peak power demand up to the year 2032 based on two scenarios: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling for the entire country and for six major cities in the KSA. The analysis shows a potential to produce about 2073 Megawatts (MW) based on a Mass Burn scenario and about 166 MW based on Mass Burn with recycling scenario. These values amount to about 1.73% and 0.14% of the projected 2032 peak electricity demand of 120 Gigawatt. The forecasted results of each city from the two scenarios can be used to design future WTE facilities in the main cities of Saudi Arabia. Further investigations are recommended to evaluate the two scenarios based on financial, social, technical, and environmental criteria

  11. Waste to energy

    CERN Document Server

    Syngellakis, S

    2014-01-01

    Waste to Energy deals with the very topical subject of converting the calorific content of waste material into useful forms of energy. Topics included cover: Biochemical Processes; Conversions by Thermochemical Processes; Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling; Combustion; Pyrolysis; Gasification; Biofuels; Management and Policies.

  12. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  13. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  14. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    , waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have......In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met...

  15. Waste to energy the carbon perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Waste to energy plants are key treatment facilities for municipal solid waste in Europe. The technology provides efficient volume reduction, mass reduction and hygienisation of the waste. However, the technology is highly disputed in some countries. It is crucial to understand the role of waste...

  16. From Solid Waste to Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, F. E.; And Others

    A project designed to convert solid waste to energy is explained in this paper. In April, 1972, an investor-owned utility began to burn municipal solid waste as fuel for the direct production of electric power. This unique venture was a cooperative effort between the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and the Union Electric Company, with financial…

  17. Financing waste to energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, A.

    1991-01-01

    Waste-to-energy projects are going ahead in the U.K., they are being project financed and they will make a valuable contribution to environmentally acceptable waste disposal and clean energy within the U.K. Starting from the premise that project sponsors must compete for funds therefore behoves the project sponsor to adapt his proposal to the needs of the investor rather than the other way around. Some of the major potential suppliers of funds are briefly surveyed. It is concluded that waste-to-energy projects do not fit easily into the business plans of venture capital companies, pension funds and banks. Projects must be reworked so that a more favourable opportunity can be offered to potential funders. Ways of achieving this through improved economics and reductions in risk and uncertainty are examined. (author)

  18. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  19. A step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy and minimization of gate fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, Efstathios; Psomopoulos, Constantinos; Kokkotis, Panagiotis; Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Themelis, Nikolaos

    2017-06-23

    This study attempts the development of an algorithm in order to present a step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy, also considering the basic obstacle which is in many cases, the gate fee. Various parameters identified and evaluated in order to formulate the proposed decision making method in the form of an algorithm. The principle simulation input is the amount of municipal solid wastes (MSW) available for incineration and along with its net calorific value are the most important factors for the feasibility of the plant. Moreover, the research is focused both on the parameters that could increase the energy production and those that affect the R1 energy efficiency factor. Estimation of the final gate fee is achieved through the economic analysis of the entire project by investigating both expenses and revenues which are expected according to the selected site and outputs of the facility. In this point, a number of commonly revenue methods were included in the algorithm. The developed algorithm has been validated using three case studies in Greece-Athens, Thessaloniki, and Central Greece, where the cities of Larisa and Volos have been selected for the application of the proposed decision making tool. These case studies were selected based on a previous publication made by two of the authors, in which these areas where examined. Results reveal that the development of a «solid» methodological approach in selecting the site and the size of waste-to-energy (WtE) facility can be feasible. However, the maximization of the energy efficiency factor R1 requires high utilization factors while the minimization of the final gate fee requires high R1 and high metals recovery from the bottom ash as well as economic exploitation of recovered raw materials if any.

  20. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.; Watson, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  1. Potential future waste-to-energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thorin, Eva; Guziana, Bozena; Song, Han; Jääskeläinen, Ari; Szpadt, Ryszard; Vasilic, Dejan; Ahrens, Thorsten; Anne, Olga; Lõõnik, Jaan

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses potential future systems for waste-to-energy production in the Baltic Sea Region, and especially for the project REMOWE partner regions, the County of Västmanland in Sweden, Northern Savo in Finland, Lower Silesia in Poland, western part of Lithuania and Estonia. The waste-to-energy systems planned for in the partner regions are combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and solid recovered fuels from household and industry as well as anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge ...

  2. Waste-to-energy permitting sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, D.; Wegrecki, A.; Williams, D.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental issues, regulatory processes and approvals important in obtaining a permit to construct and/or operate a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility are identified and discussed. Environmental issues include: (1) air emission levels, their control and potential impacts, (2) ash leachability, treatment, and disposal, (3) potential health risks from emissions, and (4) other issues such as need/benefit and public perception of WTE. Laws, regulations and approvals that can affect project development are identified and listed, and potential regulatory trends are discussed. A general permit acquisition plan is also presented. An analysis of environmental and regulatory data obtained from the literature, regulatory agencies, and specific projects is presented. California and Massachusetts, both with regulations generally more stringent than federal regulations and considered environmentally conservative, were selected for detailed state regulatory review. Two project case histories (Commerce Refuse-to-Energy (RTE) Project in California and SEMASS WTE Project in Massachusetts) were selected to illustrate: (1) how regulations are actually applied to a project, (2) project-specific permit and operating conditions, and (3) project-specific environmental issues. Modern WTE plots employ state-of-the-art air emission control technologies and strategies to reduce air emission is to levels below regulatory requirements and to reduce estimated health risks to within EPA's acceptable risk range. WTE ash leachate can exhibit hazardous waste characteristics, primarily lead and cadmium. However, modern landfills utilize liners and leachate collection systems to prevent infiltration of leachate into the groundwater supply. Modern WTE plants employ dry systems and have zero process wastewater discharge

  3. UK market for waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper four key questions relating to the UK market for waste-to-energy have been addressed. (1) What has happened in the market place over the last 20 years? (2) What are the driving forces behind the recent upsurge of interest? (3) What are the problems currently facing us? (4) What is the outlook likely to be for the future? (author)

  4. Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy NREL's waste-to-energy research and development required for upgrading biogas to fuels and high-value co-products. Featured (2014) Biogas Potential in the United States, NREL Fact Sheet (2013) View all NREL biogas upgrading and

  5. Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.; Hasse, S.; Warren, A.

    2011-08-01

    This NREL technical report evaluates the environmental impact and fundamental economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) technology based on available data from commercially operating WTE facilities in the United States. In particular, it considers life-cycle impacts of WTE as compared to landfill disposal and various forms of electrical generation, as well as WTE impacts on source reduction or recycling programs. In addition, it evaluates the economics and potential environmental impact of WTE in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) based on existing USVI waste stream characterization data, recycling challenges unique to the USVI, and the results of cost and environmental modeling of four municipal solid waste (MSW) management options, including landfill, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) production, recycling, and gassification plus RDF.

  6. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Circular economy and waste to energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, E. C.; Ragazzi, M.; Torretta, V.; Castagna, G.; Adami, L.; Cioca, L. I.

    2018-05-01

    Waste management in European Union has long being regulated by the 4Rs principle, i.e. reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery, with landfill disposal as the last option. This vision recently led the European Union (especially since 2015) to the introduction of virtuous goals based on the rejection of linear economy in favour of circular economy strongly founded on materials recovery. In this scenario, landfill disposal option will disappear, while energy recovery may appear controversial when not applied to biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The present work aims to analyse the effects that circular economy principles introduced in the European Union context will have on the thermochemical waste treatment plants design. Results demonstrate that indirect combustion (gasification + combustion) along with integrated vitrification of the non-combustible fraction of treated waste will have a more relevant role in the field of waste treatment than in the past, thanks to the compliance of this option with the principles of circular economy.

  8. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Paul H.; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas

  9. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas.

  10. Military Wastes-to-Energy Applications,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    6 Residual) and Used Oil ( Automotive Crankcase Drainings) .......... ........................ 109 60 Properties of Coal: Bituminous, Subbituminous...facilities Physical/Chemical e Biomass removal from forest land may upset the Environment natural balance of terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric...ripout wastes (asbestos), sand- blasting wasts (organotin), and welding wastes (acetylene sludge); * Miscellaneous aircraft repair wastes -- brake

  11. WTE (Waste-to-Energy) air quality and ash regulation: What's ahead in 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, A.E.

    1989-02-01

    New regulations affecting waste-to-energy plants are in the works. Actions by Congress, the EPA, and possibly the courts will introduce changes with industry-wide consequences. Planners of waste-to-energy plants need to pay special attention to the potential ramifications. The paper reviews potential changes in pollution regulations. It is recommended that anyone involved in the planning or operation of a resource recovery facility needs to keep informed.

  12. South Florida embraces waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that some regions have prepared for these days of disposal shortage with comprehensive waste plans that include a strong WTE presence. Witness Broward County, Florida's program, 12 years in planning by public and private entities, Broward is the second most populated county in the state, with 1.3 million residents and a heavy tourist population, which, together, produce 1.6 million tons of waste annually. The disposal program includes Waste Management, Inc.'s expansion of a 400-acre Central Disposal Sanitary Landfill, the county's new 588-acre landfill, composting, and curbside pickup for recyclables. And, this south Florida plan would not be complete without the two brand new combustion plants. Clean Air and Water Acts notwithstanding, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation can induce standards stricter than the federal government's due to the sensitive South Florida ecology. Wheelabrator was prepared for all eventualities with its design which uses state-of-the-art scrubbers, bag houses, and monitoring to track and capture the trace amounts of lead, cadmium, and mercury, which end up in the ash. In fact, tests at other Wheelabrator facilities using similar technology showed that heavy metals in leachate from the residue showed up in concentrations as much as 200 times lower than the EPA criteria for toxicity

  13. Combining plasma gasification and solid oxide cell technologies in advanced power plants for waste to energy and electric energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Lubrano Lavadera, Antonio; Jannelli, Elio

    2018-03-01

    The waste to energy (WtE) facilities and the renewable energy storage systems have a strategic role in the promotion of the "eco-innovation", an emerging priority in the European Union. This paper aims to propose advanced plant configurations in which waste to energy plants and electric energy storage systems from intermittent renewable sources are combined for obtaining more efficient and clean energy solutions in accordance with the "eco-innovation" approach. The advanced plant configurations consist of an electric energy storage (EES) section based on a solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC), a waste gasification section based on the plasma technology and a power generation section based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The plant configurations differ for the utilization of electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen in the plasma gasification section and in the power generation section. In the first plant configuration IAPGFC (Integrated Air Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell), the renewable oxygen enriches the air stream, that is used as plasma gas in the gasification section, and the renewable hydrogen is used to enrich the anodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. In the second plant configuration IHPGFC (Integrated Hydrogen Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell) the renewable hydrogen is used as plasma gas in the plasma gasification section, and the renewable oxygen is used to enrich the cathodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. The analysis has been carried out by using numerical models for predicting and comparing the systems performances in terms of electric efficiency and capability in realizing the waste to energy and the electric energy storage of renewable sources. Results have highlighted that the electric efficiency is very high for all configurations (35-45%) and, thanks to the combination with the waste to energy technology, the storage efficiencies are very attractive (in the range 72-92%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

    2014-08-01

    This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

  15. Waste-to-energy technologies and project implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Rogoff, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    This book covers in detail programs and technologies for converting traditionally landfilled solid wastes into energy through waste-to-energy projects. Modern Waste-to-Energy plants are being built around the world to reduce the levels of solid waste going into landfill sites and contribute to renewable energy and carbon reduction targets. The latest technologies have also reduced the pollution levels seen from early waste incineration plants by over 99 per cent. With case studies from around the world, Rogoff and Screve provide an insight into the different approaches taken to the planning and implementation of WTE. The second edition includes coverage of the latest technologies and practical engineering challenges as well as an exploration of the economic and regulatory context for the development of WTE.

  16. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST.

  17. Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project, Centennial Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Clay; Mandon, Jim; DeGiulio, Thomas; Baker, Ryan

    2014-04-29

    The Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park has allowed methane from the closed Centennial landfill to export excess power into the the local utility’s electric grid for resale. This project is part of a greater brownfield reclamation project to the benefit of the residents of Munster and the general public. Installation of a gas-to-electric generator and waste-heat conversion unit take methane byproduct and convert it into electricity at the rate of about 103,500 Mwh/year for resale to the local utility. The sale of the electricity will be used to reduce operating budgets by covering the expenses for streetlights and utility bills. The benefits of such a project are not simply financial. Munster’s Waste-to Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park will reduce the community’s carbon footprint in an amount equivalent to removing 1,100 cars from our roads, conserving enough electricity to power 720 homes, planting 1,200 acres of trees, or recycling 2,000 tons of waste instead of sending it to a landfill.

  18. A waste to energy plant for an industrial districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreani, M.; Meneghetti, A.; Nardin, G.; Rocco, A.

    2001-01-01

    Industrial districts show characteristics that can be exploited by developing plant solutions studied for their special configuration and not simply extended from single unit models. In the paper a waste-to-energy plant for the chair industrial district in Friuli Venezia Giulia (North Eastern Italy) is described. It has been designed directly involving the University of Udine and can be considered an example of how technology innovation can be promoted by universities, especially in the case of small firms which have limited R and D resources. It is shown how industrial refuse becomes a chance of competitive advantage for the whole district due to its energy recovery in a plant unique for the type of waste processed. Input, combustion, energy recovery and cleaning sections are described in details, underlining innovative approaches and solutions [it

  19. Market forces in municipal and industrial waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makansi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The market for municipal and industrial waste-to-energy can be characterized simply as currently soft with continued excellent long-term prospects. But as in all markets large and small, niche opportunities exist now which can be profitable with proper definition and strategy. Economics of several projects have proven marginal, cost overruns are common, and revenue projections are sometimes overstates. Also contributing to poorer economics of late are lower prices for the electric power produced from these plants. New environmental restrictions are adding 10-15% to the capital costs of a given project. On the industrial front, the strength of waste-fuel firing continues to be evident for independent power production. Important fuel-niche markets have sprung up over the last decade including petroleum coke, coal-mining wastes, hospital or redbag wastes, biomass, used tires, and so on. Another fuel niche is hazardous waste incineration. In the municipal arena, realism has not yet hit the recycling and source reduction enthusiasts. Only 25-35% recycling is considered practical by experts. There are also limits to how often material can be recycled. Finally, in spite of the best efforts of the population to control the amount of refuse generated and to recycle that which is, population and economic growth may overtake any new sense of environmental responsibility. And, yes, the additional refuse still has to go somewhere exclamation point The best somewhere option continues to be a waste-to-energy plant. Current market opportunities and two other market forces (international activities and the role of US utilities) are discussed

  20. Exergo-Ecological Assessment of Waste to Energy Plants Supported by Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mendecka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization of Waste to Energy (WtE plants with solar facilities can take competing energy technologies and make them complementary. However, realizing the benefits of the solar integration requires careful consideration of its efficiency. To analyse such systems from the point of view of resource efficiency, the pure energy analysis is not sufficient since the quality of particular energy carriers is not evaluated. This work applies the exergo-ecological analysis using the concepts of thermoecological cost (TEC and exergy cost for the performance evaluation of an integrated Solar-Waste to Energy plant scheme, where solar energy is used for steam superheating. Different plant layouts, considering several design steam parameters as well as different solar system configurations, in terms of area of heliostats and size of the thermal storage tank, were studied. The results for the solar integrated plant scheme were compared with the scenarios where superheating is performed fully by a non-renewable energy source. The presented results of exergy cost analysis indicate that the most favorable system is the one supported by non-renewable energy. Such an analysis does not consider the advantage of the use of renewable energy sources. By extending the system boundary to the level of natural resource and applying the thermoecological cost analysis, an opposite result was obtained.

  1. European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeulemeester, Y.

    2005-01-01

    SCK-CEN co-ordinates a project called European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II (EUNDETRAF II) in the Sixth Framework Programme on Community activities in the field of research, technological development and demonstration for the period 2002 to 2006. This was a continuation of the FP5 project EUNDETRAF. EUNDETRAF II is a consortium of main European decommissioners, such as SCK-CEN, EWN (Energie Werke Nord, Greifswald Germany), Belgatom (Belgium), SOGIN Societa Gestione Impiantio Nucleari, Italy), Universitaet Hannover (Germany), RWE NUKEM (United Kingdom), DECOM Slovakia Slovakia), CEA Centre d'Energie Atomique, France), UKAEA (United Kingdom's Atomic Energy Agency, United Kingdom) and NRG (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Netherlands). The primary objective of this project is to bring together this vast skill base and experience; to consolidate it for easy assimilation and to transfer to future generations by organising a comprehensive training programme.Each training course has a one-week theoretical and a one-week practical component. The theoretical part is for a broader audience and consists of lectures covering all the main aspects of a decommissioning. The practical part of the course includes site visits and desk top solutions of anticipated decommissioning problems. Due to operational constraints and safety considerations, the number of participants to this part of the course is strictly limited. The partners intend to organise altogether two two-week EUNDETRAF II training courses over a period of three years. Another goal is to disseminate the existing theory as well as the practical know-how to personnel of the third countries. Finally it is important to bring together the principal decommissioning organisations undertaking various decommissioning activities. The project creates a forum for regular contacts to exchange information and experiences for mutual benefit of these organisations as well as to enhance skill base in Europe to

  2. Commissioning for the European XFEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölle, D.

    2017-06-01

    The European XFEL is a 4th generation light source based on the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FreeElectron-Laser concept. It is currently being commissioned in North- Germany. The core installation is a 17.5 GeV superconducting accelerator driving 3 SASE lines with photon energies from 1 to beyond 20 keV range with a maximum of 27.000 pulses per second. The international facility is organized as a limited liability company with shareholders from the contributing countries. DESY has taken over the leadership of the accelerator construction consortium, and will be in charge of the operation of the accelerator complex. The facility was set up with contributions from the 11 shareholder countries, either being hardware systems and/or staff or cash contributions. The construction is almost complete, and the commissioning phase has started by the end of 2015. This contribution will report the status of the accelerator complex with emphasis on the commissioning of the accelerator and an outlook to the commissioning of the SASE 1 FEL line.

  3. European synchrotron radiation facility at Risoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The results of the feasibility study on a potential European Synchrotron Radiation Facility site at Risoe, Denmark, can be summarized as follows: The site is located in a geologically stable area. The ground is fairly flat, free from vibrations and earth movements, and the foundation properties are considered generally good. The study is based upon the machine concept and main geometry as presented in the ESF feasibility study of May 1979. However, the proposed site could accomodate a larger machine (e.g. 900 m of circumference) or a multi-facility centre. The site is located in the vicinity of Risoe National Laboratory, a R and D establishment with 850 employees and a well-developed technical and scientific infrastructure, which can provide support to the ESRF during the plant construction and operation. In particular the possible combination of synchrotron radiation with the existing neutron scattering facilities in DR 3 is emphasized. The site is located 35 km west of Copenhagen with easy access to the scientific, technological and industrial organizations in the metropolitan area. The regional infrastructure ensures easy and fast communication between the ESRF and locations in the host country as well as abroad. The site is located 35 minutes drive from Copenhagen International Airport and on a main communication route out of Copenhagen. The estimated time duration for the design, construction and commissioning of ESRF phase 1 - taking into account national regulatory procedures - is consistent with that of the ESF feasibility study, i.e. approx. 6 years. The estimated captal costs associated with site-specific structures are consistent with those of the ESF feasibility study, taking into account price increase between 1979 and 1981. It should be emphasized that the study is based upon technical and scientific assessments only, and does not reflect any official position or approval from appropriate authorities. (author)

  4. Waste to energy plant-air pollution monitoring and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullowney, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    We can't eat it. We can't wear it. We are running out of places to bury it. We can't export it. We can't stop making it. Garbage seems to be, by volume at least, our biggest national product. These facts are driving more and more industries and municipalities to construct waste to energy plants. Following the adage that when you get lemons, make lemonade, municipalities have been burning their garbage to produce steam and electricity. Communities, fearful that what they have produced may be toxic to them when burned, have enacted stringent air pollution control and monitoring regulations. The federal government has enacted regulations under the Clean Air Act 43 CFR Part 60 which regulate the emission limits monitoring and reporting requirements of waste energy plants. The most important of these regulations was enacted on December 16, 1987 and June 26, 1987, regulating particulate, SO 2 and NO x emissions. This paper reports that these regulations also tie in to various other EPA regulations and requirements. The most important of these to air pollution monitoring is Appendix F, Quality Assurance. However, these regulations are only minimum requirements -- individual states further strengthen their bite by requiring lower emissions limits and the monitoring of additional parameters such as H 2 S, HCl, NH 2 , CO, CO 2 and moisture. These monitoring limits and reporting requirements are currently being negotiated on a case by case basis in most instances

  5. Sample Transport for a European Sample Curation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, L.; Vrublevskis, J. B.; Bennett, A.; Pottage, T.; Bridges, J. C.; Holt, J. M. C.; Dirri, F.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Russell, S.; Smith, C.

    2018-04-01

    This work has looked at the recovery of Mars Sample Return capsule once it arrives on Earth. It covers possible landing sites, planetary protection requirements, and transportation from the landing site to a European Sample Curation Facility.

  6. Facility Service Market an European Overview based on EU Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Redlein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro-economic impact of facility management and facility services in special was not scientifically analysed by now. Some studies analysed single countries but were mainly lacking solid data. Especially a Pan European comparison is lacking. This paper presents the results of an in depth analysis of the Eurostat figures. It compares the facility service industry with other industries in particular the construction industry. It also compares the largest European economies (Germany, France and Italy. The study concentrates on the outsourced services only, as these are listed in the European Statistics. The results show big differences between the European countries. It also highlights that the facility service industry is the third largest regarding number of employees and the fourth largest regarding value added.

  7. Solid waste management in Greece and potential for waste-to-energy; Die Abfallwirtschaft und das Waste-to-Energy Potenzial in Griechenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogirou, Efstratios [WTERT Greece - SYNERGIA, A.I.T., Attica (Greece); Manolis, Klados [INTRAKAT, Attica (Greece); Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Themelis, Nickolas J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Earth Engineering Center; Karagiannidis, Avraam [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Germany). Lab. of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering

    2011-05-15

    In Greece the daily production of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is estimated to be 15,000 tones, which means roughly 5.4 million tons per year, from which 77 % is deposited in Landfills, while 23 % is recycled and composted. The European Union Legislation for Sanitary Landfills (1999/31/EC), imposes the decrease of biodegradable waste that are deposit to sanitary landfills; thus WTE methods of MSW is one of the best, in terms of affordability in a competitive world and environmental friendly, proposed solutions. Waste-to-Energy methods produce steam and/or electricity. Also, the weight of MSW is reduced up to 70-80 % and the volume up to 90 %, and finally the land area requirements are very small. Our proposal for the WTE technology implementation in Greece is the construction of MSW WTE plants in all major cities operating with an annual capacity of 200.000-400.000 tones. The required land area will be only 4-7 hectares. The basic income of such plants is the gate fee, varying from 50 to 80 Euro/ton. The second income comes from selling of the produced electricity to the Public Power Corporation for 87.85 Euro/MWh (referring to the biodegradable fraction of MSW), according to the new Greek law for renewable energy sources (L. 3851/2010). Additional income comes from the recovered metals of the bottom ash. Furthermore, there is a considerable prospect for state subsidy of the whole investment, according to the Greek Development Law. (orig.)

  8. Impact of community engagement on public acceptance towards waste-to-energy incineration projects: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Sun, Chenjunyan; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Coffey, Vaughan

    2018-02-20

    As one of the most popular methods for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration offers effective solutions to deal with the MSW surge and globe energy issues. Nevertheless, the construction of WTE facilities faces considerable and strong opposition from local communities due to the perceived potential risks. The present study aims to understand whether, and how, community engagement improves local residents' public acceptance towards waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration facilities using a questionnaire survey conducted with nearby residents of two selected WTE incineration plants located in Zhejiang province, China. The results of data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveal that firstly, a lower level of public acceptance exists among local residents of over the age of 35, of lower education levels, living within 3 km from the WTE Plant and from WTE incineration Plants which are under construction. Secondly, the public trust of local government and other authorities was positively associated with the public acceptance of the WTE incineration project, both directly and indirectly based on perceived risk. Thirdly, community engagement can effectively enhance public trust in local government and other authorities related to the WTE incineration project. The findings contribute to the literature on MSW treatment policy-making and potentially hazardous facility siting, by exploring the determinants of public acceptance towards WTE incineration projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CAPE-OPEN simulation of waste-to-energy technologies for urban cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadou, Christina; Martinopoulos, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Uncontrolled waste disposal and unsustainable waste management not only damage the environment, but also affect human health. In most urban areas, municipal solid waste production is constantly increasing following the everlasting increase in energy consumption. Technologies aim to exploit wastes in order to recover energy, decrease the depletion rate of fossil fuels, and reduce waste disposal. In this paper, the annual amount of municipal solid waste disposed in the greater metropolitan area of Thessaloniki is taken into consideration, in order to size and model a combined heat and power facility for energy recovery. From the various waste-to-energy technologies available, a fluidised bed combustion boiler combined heat and power plant was selected and modelled through the use of COCO, a CAPE-OPEN simulation software, to estimate the amount of electrical and thermal energy that could be generated for different boiler pressures. Although average efficiency was similar in all cases, providing almost 15% of Thessaloniki's energy needs, a great variation in the electricity to thermal energy ratio was observed.

  10. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Louisiana State University waste-to-energy incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This proposed action is for cost-shared construction of an incinerator/steam-generation facility at Louisiana State University under the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). The SECP, created by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, calls upon DOE to encourage energy conservation, renewable energy, and energy efficiency by providing Federal technical and financial assistance in developing and implementing comprehensive state energy conservation plans and projects. Currently, LSU runs a campus-wide recycling program in order to reduce the quantity of solid waste requiring disposal. This program has removed recyclable paper from the waste stream; however, a considerable quantity of other non-recyclable combustible wastes are produced on campus. Until recently, these wastes were disposed of in the Devil's Swamp landfill (also known as the East Baton Rouge Parish landfill). When this facility reached its capacity, a new landfill was opened a short distance away, and this new site is now used for disposal of the University's non-recyclable wastes. While this new landfill has enough capacity to last for at least 20 years (from 1994), the University has identified the need for a more efficient and effective manner of waste disposal than landfilling. The University also has non-renderable biological and potentially infectious waste materials from the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Student Health Center, primarily the former, whose wastes include animal carcasses and bedding materials. Renderable animal wastes from the School of Veterinary Medicine are sent to a rendering plant. Non-renderable, non-infectious animal wastes currently are disposed of in an existing on-campus incinerator near the School of Veterinary Medicine building

  13. The Louisiana State University waste-to-energy incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-26

    This proposed action is for cost-shared construction of an incinerator/steam-generation facility at Louisiana State University under the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). The SECP, created by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, calls upon DOE to encourage energy conservation, renewable energy, and energy efficiency by providing Federal technical and financial assistance in developing and implementing comprehensive state energy conservation plans and projects. Currently, LSU runs a campus-wide recycling program in order to reduce the quantity of solid waste requiring disposal. This program has removed recyclable paper from the waste stream; however, a considerable quantity of other non-recyclable combustible wastes are produced on campus. Until recently, these wastes were disposed of in the Devil`s Swamp landfill (also known as the East Baton Rouge Parish landfill). When this facility reached its capacity, a new landfill was opened a short distance away, and this new site is now used for disposal of the University`s non-recyclable wastes. While this new landfill has enough capacity to last for at least 20 years (from 1994), the University has identified the need for a more efficient and effective manner of waste disposal than landfilling. The University also has non-renderable biological and potentially infectious waste materials from the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Student Health Center, primarily the former, whose wastes include animal carcasses and bedding materials. Renderable animal wastes from the School of Veterinary Medicine are sent to a rendering plant. Non-renderable, non-infectious animal wastes currently are disposed of in an existing on-campus incinerator near the School of Veterinary Medicine building.

  14. Waste-to-energy: A review of life cycle assessment and its extension methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaozhi; Tang, Yuanjun; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Buekens, Alfons

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes a comprehensive review of evaluation tools based on life cycle thinking, as applied to waste-to-energy. Habitually, life cycle assessment is adopted to assess environmental burdens associated with waste-to-energy initiatives. Based on this framework, several extension methods have been developed to focus on specific aspects: Exergetic life cycle assessment for reducing resource depletion, life cycle costing for evaluating its economic burden, and social life cycle assessment for recording its social impacts. Additionally, the environment-energy-economy model integrates both life cycle assessment and life cycle costing methods and judges simultaneously these three features for sustainable waste-to-energy conversion. Life cycle assessment is sufficiently developed on waste-to-energy with concrete data inventory and sensitivity analysis, although the data and model uncertainty are unavoidable. Compared with life cycle assessment, only a few evaluations are conducted to waste-to-energy techniques by using extension methods and its methodology and application need to be further developed. Finally, this article succinctly summarises some recommendations for further research.

  15. Waste-to-energy potential in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar K.M. Ouda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WTE is a viable option for municipal solid waste (MSW management and a renewable energy source. MSW is a chronic problem in Saudi Arabia and more specifically in Saudi Urban areas. The MSW practices in KSA are simply done by collecting the waste and dumping it in open landfill sites. KSA is considering WTE as a potential renewable energy source that can contribute to electricity demand in the Kingdom. This research aims to assess potential contribution of WTE facility to meet electricity demand in the three main cities in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia and to provide an alternative solution to landfills. Three scenarios for WTE utilization were developed: Mass Burn, Mass Burn with recycling, and refused derived fuel (RDF with biomethanation. The Mass Burn scenario implies full waste stream incineration; the Mass Burn with recycling scenario considers segregation of reusable materials and the waste leftover for incineration; while RDF with biomethanation considers segregation of general waste stream into inorganic and organic waste and utilizes organic waste for biomethanation and inorganic for RDF. The analyses were completed for Jeddah, Makkah, and Madina cities; with current total population of about 6.3 million. The results show that Jeddah has the potential to produce about 180 MW of electricity based on incineration scenario; about 11.25 MW based on incineration with recycling scenario; and about 87.3 MW based RDF with biomethanation scenario by the year 2032. These values and other two cities values are based on theoretical ideals and they help in identifying the optimal WTE techniques for each city.

  16. Waste-to-energy advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanc

  17. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  18. Evaluation of Waste-to-Energy Potential of Domestic Solid Wastes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    waste in the metropolis ends up on illegal waste dumpsites. The aim of this paper was to investigate the waste-to-energy potentials of domestic solid wastes in Benin metropolis, Nigeria using a three-phase study plan - study of current waste management activities, characterization of domestic solid waste and determination ...

  19. Report of the DOD-DOE Workshop on Converting Waste to Energy Using Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cell research, development, and demonstration. Along with the general program overview, Dr. Satyapal highlighted the vast amount of biogas resources...Page ii DOD-DOE Workshop Summary on Converting Waste to Energy Using Fuel Cells List of Tables Table 1. Comparison by Generator Type: Based on 40...Table 2. Typical Composition of Biogas from Various Waste Streams ....................................................... 8 Table D-1

  20. Waste-to-energy: Technical, economic and ecological point of views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassitto, L.

    1997-01-01

    Overwhelming waste-recycling should be considered more as a psychological than as a technological method to deal with wastes. The best waste disposal systems should actually grant mass or energy recovery from technical, economic and ecological point-of-views. Highest results seem to be granted by waste-to-energy technologies since energy content is the best preserved property after using materials

  1. Technology and place: A geography of waste-to-energy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jordan Patterson

    The adoption of technologies differs across space, for reasons attributed to economics, politics, and culture, but also due to limitations imposed by both the physical environment and the technology itself. This dissertation considers the case of waste-to-energy (WTE) incinerators in the United States, and asks why this technology is used in some places but rejected in others. The answer to this simple question is remarkably complex, as understandings and arguments about technology and the environment are mobilized differently by various actors to champion, oppose, or in some cases remain ambivalent about the installation and operation of WTE facilities. In this dissertation I explore the geography of WTE incineration in the United States since the 19th century. Informed by the insights of actor-network theory and the social construction of technology school, I employ the tools of discourse analysis to examine published and unpublished statements, papers, project studies, policy briefs, and archival materials generated alongside the development of WTE facilities in the United States, considering the specific case studies discussed below but also WTE technology in general. I look at federal, state, and local environmental agency documents as well as the papers of consulting firms, environmental and industry advocacy groups, and private companies. I also devote significant attention to the analysis of news media outlets in communities where WTE facilities are located or have been considered. In addition to these literal texts, I examine non-written and visual materials associated with WTE facilities, including films, websites, signage and logos, advertising campaigns, facility architecture, and artwork, as well as more abstract `texts' such as industry conferences, trade-show handouts, promotional materials, and academic and industry research programs. I build on this textual analysis with observations of WTE facilities in action. After an introductory chapter, I

  2. Handbook on interdisciplinary use of European nuclear physics facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This handbook is intended to collect together, in an accessible way, the most pertinent information which might be needed by anyone contemplating the use of nuclear physics accelerators for research in other disciplines, or for industrial, biomedical, solid-state or other applications. Information for the publication was supplied by each laboratory represented here, and this was edited and supplemented where it was thought necessary, by additional material, often derived from the facilities' web-sites. The reader will find for each facility a technical description concerning the accelerator itself and its experimental equipment, followed by a 'what can be made there' section. 'at a glance' page contains a summary of contact names and addresses, transport, access and accommodation offered that will be of a great use for prospective user. 26 facilities in 12 European countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands) are presented.

  3. European accelerator facilities for single event effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L; Nickson, R; Harboe-Sorensen, R [ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hajdas, W; Berger, G

    1997-03-01

    Single event effects are an important hazard to spacecraft and payloads. The advances in component technology, with shrinking dimensions and increasing complexity will give even more importance to single event effects in the future. The ground test facilities are complex and expensive and the complexities of installing a facility are compounded by the requirement that maximum control is to be exercised by users largely unfamiliar with accelerator technology. The PIF and the HIF are the result of experience gained in the field of single event effects testing and represent a unique collaboration between space technology and accelerator experts. Both facilities form an essential part of the European infrastructure supporting space projects. (J.P.N.)

  4. Handbook on interdisciplinary use of European nuclear physics facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This handbook is intended to collect together, in an accessible way, the most pertinent information which might be needed by anyone contemplating the use of nuclear physics accelerators for research in other disciplines, or for industrial, biomedical, solid-state or other applications. Information for the publication was supplied by each laboratory represented here, and this was edited and supplemented where it was thought necessary, by additional material, often derived from the facilities' web-sites. The reader will find for each facility a technical description concerning the accelerator itself and its experimental equipment, followed by a 'what can be made there' section. 'at a glance' page contains a summary of contact names and addresses, transport, access and accommodation offered that will be of a great use for prospective user. 26 facilities in 12 European countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands) are presented

  5. Handbook on interdisciplinary use of European nuclear physics facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This handbook is intended to collect together, in an accessible way, the most pertinent information which might be needed by anyone contemplating the use of nuclear physics accelerators for research in other disciplines, or for industrial, biomedical, solid-state or other applications. Information for the publication was supplied by each laboratory represented here, and this was edited and supplemented where it was thought necessary, by additional material, often derived from the facilities' web-sites. The reader will find for each facility a technical description concerning the accelerator itself and its experimental equipment, followed by a 'what can be made there' section. 'at a glance' page contains a summary of contact names and addresses, transport, access and accommodation offered that will be of a great use for prospective user. 26 facilities in 12 European countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands) are presented.

  6. Sustainable waste management: Waste to energy plant as an alternative to landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WTE plant is a reasonable and sustainable alternative technology to landfill. • A 150 kt plant in the only electrical configuration for Abruzzo region. • The percentage of energy recovery ranges from 21% to 25% in examined scenarios. • Financial Net Present Value is equal to 25.4 € per kiloton of treated waste. • The annual reduction of emissions is equal to 370 kgCO_2eq per ton of treated waste. - Abstract: The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been identified as one of the global challenges that must be carefully faced in order to achieve sustainability goals. European Union (EU) has defined as Waste to Energy (WTE) technology is able to create synergies with EU energy and climate policy, without compromising the achievement of higher reuse and recycling rates. The methodology used in this paper is based on two levels. A strategy analysis defines the amount of waste to incinerate with energy recovery considering different approaches based on unsorted waste, landfilled waste and separated collection rate, respectively. Consequently, it is evaluated the sustainability of a WTE plant as an alternative to landfill for a specific area. Two indicators are used: the Reduction of the Emissions of equivalent Carbon Dioxide (ER_C_O_2_e_q) and Financial Net Present Value (FNPV). Furthermore, a social analysis is conducted through interviews to identify the most critical elements determining the aversion toward the WTE realization. The obtained results show the opportunity to realize a 150 kt plant in the only electrical configuration. In fact, the cogenerative configuration reaches better environmental performances, but it is not profitable for this size. Profits are equal to 25.4 € per kiloton of treated waste and 370 kgCO_2eq per ton of treated waste are avoided using a WTE plant as an alternative to landfill. In this way, the percentage of energy recovery ranges from 21% to 25% in examined scenarios and disposal waste is minimised

  7. Developing a Decision Support Tool for Waste to Energy Calculations Using Energy Return on Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    began with. There are multiple methods to accomplish this process, from the standard V- models to complex waterfall methods, but ultimately each...required data and data sources. The team conducted stakeholder analysis and functional decomposition of the requisite model before constructing its...decomposition of the requisite model before constructing its additional module to the tool. This study shows the viability of waste-to-energy technologies to

  8. Federal role in resource recovery will focus on waste-to-energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Virtually all of the federal programs created in recent years to sponsor resource recovery R and D have been slated for budget cuts or termination by the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The only programs that will survive revised fiscal budgets will be waste-to-energy R and D studies sponsored by DOE and EPA. Differing reactions to such cuts are apparent: the affected agencies are protesting, while private industry welcomes this hands-off policy.

  9. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ► A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ► Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ► Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ► Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal

  10. Modeling barriers of solid waste to energy practices: An Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bag, S.; Mondal, N.; Dubey, R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years managing solid wastes has been one of the burning problems in front of state and local municipal authorities. This is mainly due to scarcity of lands for landfill sites. In this context experts suggest that conversion of solid waste to energy and useful component is the best approach to reduce space and public health related problems. The entire process has to be managed by technologies that prevent pollution and protect the environment and at the same time minimize the cost through recovery of energy. Energy recovery in the form of electricity, heat and fuel from the waste using different technologies is possible through a variety of processes, including incineration, gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion. These processes are often grouped under “Waste to Energy technologies”. The objective of the study is twofold. First authors assessed the current status of solid waste management practices in India. Secondly the leading barriers are identified and Interpretive structural modeling technique and MICMAC analysis is performed to identify the contextual interrelationships between leading barriers influencing the solid waste to energy programs in the country. Finally the conclusions are drawn which will assist policy makers in designing sustainable waste management programs.

  11. Waste-to-energy plants - a solution for a cleaner future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Waste-to-energy plants reduce the municipal solid waste volume by about 80% and convert it into residue. The residue quality naturally depends on the burned waste quality and also on the combustion parameters. Hence, tighter control of the plant can improve the residue quality. The generated combustion energy is regarded as renewable energy and is typically used to feed a turbine to generate electricity. Waste-to-energy furnaces react slowly on changing waste charge, so they are not used for peak load generation. The generated electrical power is a plant by product and is sold as base load generation. Usually the waste is burned on a grate which limits the plant size to about 160,000 tons of waste per year or 20 tons of waste per hour or about 28 MW. More recent technology utilizes fluidized bed combustion, which allows larger plant sizes up to 50 MW. Due to the unknown waste composition and stringent environmental standards involved, waste-to-energy plants employ sophisticated flue gas cleaning devices for emission control. ABB's Performance Monitoring continuously compares actual plant and equipment performance to expected performance. This includes the on-line calculation of the waste calorific heat allowing operator decision support and automated control system responses. Dedicated reports offer detailed data on operations, maintenance and emissions to plant management staff. ABB combustion optimization solutions use model based predictive control techniques to reliably find the most suitable set-points for improving the heat rate and reducing emissions like NO x . (author)

  12. Non-European facilities for elementary particle physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    The facilities we now employ in high energy physics cover a broad spectrum of particle energies and intensities and provide therefore a multiplicity of probes with which to study the behavior of elementary particles. In general, the goal has been to achieve ever higher particle energies and intensities, with emphasis on energy, and to develop more versatile and more sensitive detectors with which to study the resultant particle-particle interactions. Most energy regimes that have been explored have yielded new, fundamental information which often becomes clearer and more easily developed when particle energies are further increased. In this talk I shall try to delineate the nature of those facilities in Canada, Japan and the U.S.A. It is useful, I believe, to begin with a brief discussion of the funding and management of facilities in those countries and a short summary of recent history. The main body of the talk concentrates on the present, planned and contemplated facilities of the major non-European accelerator laboratories, and address briefly the status of accelerator development. The concluding section will summarize the salient features of the discussion. (author)

  13. Technical investigation in solid waste to energy facilities and selection of suitable incineration technology for Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokarizdeh, V.; Lari, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    Incineration is another way for producing electrical energy. There are various methods for incineration as Stoker Fired, Suspension Fired, Rotary Kiln, Cyclone and Fluidized Bed; that each one has it's own advantages and disadvantages. Selecting suitable one for establishment in Tehran depends on many parameters like technical, economical and environmental factors. Comparing the various technologies due to the mentioned parameters by Multi Criteria Decision Making method shows that stoker-fired incinerator is the best one for the Capital City

  14. Survey of European LWR fuel irradiation test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardt, P von der [Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, Petten Establishment, Petten (Netherlands)

    1983-06-01

    The first European commercial nuclear power plants (1956) featured gas-cooled thermal reactors. Although there is now a general orientation towards light water cooled plants (with a slight preference for the PWR) a large fraction of the 1982 nuclear generating capacity is still invested in gas-cooled reactors. R and D also continues for the HTGR with its long-term development potential. This paper, however, is limited to a general survey of experimental programmes and facilities for light water reactor fuel testing in Western Europe, particularly inside the European Communities. As it turns out, over a dozen major installations are available, all connected to research reactors in government-funded R and D centres. Their equipment is briefly reviewed. Some 50% of the experimental programmes are carried out in large international collaboration, involving up to 20 organizations per project. Techniques and results are rapidly communicated through frequent meetings and conferences. It is anticipated that a part of the present research reactor-based work will gradually shift to power reactor pool side inspection facilities. (author)

  15. Survey of European LWR fuel irradiation test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der

    1983-01-01

    The first European commercial nuclear power plants (1956) featured gas-cooled thermal reactors. Although there is now a general orientation towards light water cooled plants (with a slight preference for the PWR) a large fraction of the 1982 nuclear generating capacity is still invested in gas-cooled reactors. R and D also continues for the HTGR with its long-term development potential. This paper, however, is limited to a general survey of experimental programmes and facilities for light water reactor fuel testing in Western Europe, particularly inside the European Communities. As it turns out, over a dozen major installations are available, all connected to research reactors in government-funded R and D centres. Their equipment is briefly reviewed. Some 50% of the experimental programmes are carried out in large international collaboration, involving up to 20 organizations per project. Techniques and results are rapidly communicated through frequent meetings and conferences. It is anticipated that a part of the present research reactor-based work will gradually shift to power reactor pool side inspection facilities. (author)

  16. Guideline on action plans and strategies to mobilize waste-to-energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loonik, J.; Saarepera, R.; Kaeger, M. [and others

    2012-12-15

    This report presents some results of the REMOWE project and sets guidelines for regional policy makers, SME's and the general public as well for more deep realization of waste-to-energy policy principles in action. The overall objective of the project is, on regional levels, to contribute to a decreased negative effect on the environment by reduction of carbon dioxide emission by creating a balance between energy consumption and sustainable use of renewable energy sources (waste-to-energy cycle). Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and use of renewable energy sources are broad areas and this project will focus on energy resources from waste and actions to facilitate implementation of energy efficient technology in the Baltic Sea region within the waste-to-energy area. The focus is to utilise waste from cities, farming and industry for energy purposes in an efficient way. The project seeks to facilitate the implementation of sustainable systems for waste-to-energy in the Baltic Sea region and specifically, in a first step, in the project partner regions. The project's duration is 12/2009-12/2012. This report is structured into 8 chapters, which are further divided into subchapters if needed. Relevant data about current situation about waste generation and management in partner regions of REMOWE project are described in Chapter 1. There are guidelines on action plan and strategies for regional policy makers, SME's and the general public to mobilize waste to energy production in Chapter 2. Beside guidelines, this report contains references to basic political acts of waste and energy management of EU and best practices of implementation them in regional level (Chapter 3). The focus of Chapters 4 and 5 is on energetic potential of waste and technologies for utilisation of waste for energy purposes. During the project period in each of partner region innovation processes were realised and innovation ides evaluated, basic results are collected into

  17. Biomass waste-to-energy valorisation technologies: a review case for banana processing in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumisiriza, Robert; Hawumba, Joseph Funa; Okure, Mackay; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Uganda's banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2-3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to access modern solar energy technologies that can generate sufficient energy for industrial processing. Besides energy scarcity and unreliability, banana production, marketing and industrial processing generate large quantities of organic wastes that are disposed of majorly by unregulated dumping in places such as swamps, thereby forming huge putrefying biomass that emit green house gases (methane and carbon dioxide). On the other hand, the energy content of banana waste, if harnessed through appropriate waste-to-energy technologies, would not only solve the energy requirement for processing of banana pulp, but would also offer an additional benefit of avoiding fossil fuels through the use of renewable energy. The potential waste-to-energy technologies that can be used in valorisation of banana waste can be grouped into three: Thermal (Direct combustion and Incineration), Thermo-chemical (Torrefaction, Plasma treatment, Gasification and Pyrolysis) and Biochemical (Composting, Ethanol fermentation and Anaerobic Digestion). However, due to high moisture content of banana waste, direct application of either thermal or thermo-chemical waste-to-energy technologies is challenging. Although, supercritical water gasification does not require drying of feedstock beforehand and can be a promising thermo-chemical technology for gasification of wet biomass such as banana waste, it is an expensive technology that may not be adopted by banana farmers in Uganda. Biochemical conversion technologies are

  18. Inventory of activation analysis facilities available in the European Community to Industrial users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J.

    1975-01-01

    This inventory includes lists of activation equipment produced in the European Community, facilities available for industrial users and activation laboratories existing in the European companies. The aim of this inventory is to provide all information that may be useful, to companies interested in activation analysis, as well as to give an idea on existing routine applications and on the European market in facilities

  19. EURO-CARES as Roadmap for a European Sample Curation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, J. R.; Russell, S.; Smith, C.; Hutzler, A.; Meneghin, A.; Aléon, J.; Bennett, A.; Berthoud, L.; Bridges, J.; Debaille, V.; Ferrière, L.; Folco, L.; Foucher, F.; Franchi, I.; Gounelle, M.; Grady, M.; Leuko, S.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Pottage, T.; Rettberg, P.; Vrublevskis, J.; Westall, F.; Zipfel, J.; Euro-Cares Team

    2018-04-01

    EURO-CARES is a three-year multinational project funded under the European Commission Horizon2020 research program to develop a roadmap for a European Extraterrestrial Sample Curation Facility for samples returned from solar system missions.

  20. External costs of atmospheric lead emissions from a waste-to-energy plant: a follow-up assessment of indirect neurotoxic impacts via topsoil ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Møller, Flemming; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The link between anthropogenic emissions and the monetary value of their impacts, so-called external cost, can be determined via the impact pathway approach. This method is used in the present study to calculate the indirect costs, via topsoil ingestion, of lead emitted into atmosphere from a waste......-to-energy facility in Denmark. The Operational Meteorological air-quality model, the Simplified Fate and Speciation Model, and the Age Dependent Biokinetic Model are used to determine the metals’ atmospheric transport, its deposition and accumulation in topsoil, and its bio-accumulation in the human body...

  1. Waste to Energy in Urban Infrastructure. Experiences from Indo-Swedish collaboration 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-15

    This report provides an illustration of the progress that has been made in Indo-Swedish biogas collaboration since the delegation Biogas for Urban Infrastructure initiated action in 2009. A number of Swedish government organisations and private sector organisations have worked together with Indian counterparts to develop the Indo-Swedish Waste-to-Energy cooperation. A mere two years later, we can now state that this has been a very fruitful venture. The Swedish-Indian cooperation that was formed in conjunction with the biogas delegation has already resulted in new knowledge, new methods, opportunities for new strategies and new business models.

  2. Waste-to-energy, municipal solid waste treatment, and best available technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenfeng; Ren, Jingzheng; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an urgently important task of many countries. This objective of this study is to present a novel group multi-attribute decision analysis method for prioritizing the MSW treatment alternatives based on the interval-valued fuzzy set theory...... (DEMATEL) method was developed to determine the weights of the evaluation criteria by considering the independent relationships among these criteria. The multi-actor interval-valued fuzzy grey relational analysis was developed to rank the waste-to-energy scenarios. Four alternative processes for MSW...

  3. CFD modeling and experience of waste-to-energy plant burning waste wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajh, B.; Yin, Chungen; Samec, N.

    2013-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being increasingly used in industry for in-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion processes and for design and optimization of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. In this paper, CFD modeling...... the conversion of the waste wood in the fuel bed on the grate, which provides the appropriate inlet boundary condition for the freeboard 3D CFD simulation. The CFD analysis reveals the detailed mixing and combustion characteristics in the waste wood-fired furnace, pinpointing how to improve the design...

  4. A life cycle assessment of environmental performances of two combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Umberto; Ardolino, Filomena; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    An attributional life cycle analysis (LCA) was developed to compare the environmental performances of two waste-to-energy (WtE) units, which utilize the predominant technologies among those available for combustion and gasification processes: a moving grate combustor and a vertical shaft gasifier coupled with direct melting. The two units were assumed to be fed with the same unsorted residual municipal waste, having a composition estimated as a European average. Data from several plants in operation were processed by means of mass and energy balances, and on the basis of the flows and stocks of materials and elements inside and throughout the two units, as provided by a specific substance flow analysis. The potential life cycle environmental impacts related to the operations of the two WtE units were estimated by means of the Impact 2002+ methodology. They indicate that both the technologies have sustainable environmental performances, but those of the moving grate combustion unit are better for most of the selected impact categories. The analysis of the contributions from all the stages of each specific technology suggests where improvements in technological solutions and management criteria should be focused to obtain further and remarkable environmental improvements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Waste to energy opportunities and challenges for developing and transition economies

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste management is currently a major issue worldwide with numerous areas reaching critical levels. Many developing countries and countries in transition still miss basic waste management  infrastructure and awareness. It is here that many of the solid waste management problems and challenges are currently being faced. As such, waste-to-energy (WTE) consists of a proven and continuously developing spectrum and range of technologies in a number of (mostly) developed countries. However, it’s integration in developing countries and systems in transition is often faced with scepticism and a complex set of barriers which are quite unique and differ greatly from those where WTE has been validated and applied over the years. Waste-to-Energy: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing and Transition Economies will address this issue both theoretically and using concrete examples, including: ·         contributions from numerous scholars and practitioners in the field, ·         useful less...

  6. Waste-to-Energy: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gelman, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomberlin, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Navy have worked together to demonstrate new or leading-edge commercial energy technologies whose deployment will support the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in meeting its energy efficiency and renewable energy goals while enhancing installation energy security. This is consistent with the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review report1 that encourages the use of 'military installations as a test bed to demonstrate and create a market for innovative energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies coming out of the private sector and DOD and Department of Energy laboratories,' as well as the July 2010 memorandum of understanding between DOD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that documents the intent to 'maximize DOD access to DOE technical expertise and assistance through cooperation in the deployment and pilot testing of emerging energy technologies.' As part of this joint initiative, a promising waste-to-energy (WTE) technology was selected for demonstration at the Hickam Commissary aboard the Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii. The WTE technology chosen is called high-energy densification waste-to-energy conversion (HEDWEC). HEDWEC technology is the result of significant U.S. Army investment in the development of WTE technology for forward operating bases.

  7. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A preliminary study of waste to energy potential of municipal solid waste in Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanes, Junior Lorenzo; Kalogirou, Efstratios

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges that must be face by a growing society is its waste management. This is crucial in the particular case of developing countries like Cuba. Waste to energy is a well-established technology for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment. The aim of this work was to estimate the energetic potential of MSW in the city of Havana. An average low heating value (LHV) of 7.35 MJ/kg was estimated by applying different models. From the mass and energy balances, the emissions and the energy recovered for electricity generation were determined. Two steam turbine configurations (back – pressure and condensing) were designed by a rigorous method and later simulated in Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that for a feeding rate of 49.5 tonh-1 of MSW it was possible to generate 257 GWh per year with an overall plant efficiency of 25.4% in a four-stage turbine. (author)

  9. Exergy losses of resource recovery from a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Laner, D.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Metal resources recovered from waste incineration bottom ash (BA) are of lower quality as compared to primary resources, but to date no framework for expressing the quality losses exists. Exergy is a concept that may have the potential to evaluate the resource quality in waste management....... In this study, focusing on recovery from waste-to-energy plants with basic and advanced BA treatment, the goal is to give an indication about quality of selected recovered resources (Fe, Al, and Cu) by means of exergy analysis. Metal flows are modeled through both incineration scenarios, and then chemical....... The results indicate that exergy losses due to mixing are insignificant as compared to chemical exergies of metals in all flows. Total exergy losses for Fe, Al, and Cu recovery in the two WtE systems range from 38% to 90%....

  10. Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows...... the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also...

  11. Comparing Waste-to-Energy technologies by applying energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Lund, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This article asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is carried out by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power as well as wind power. The study shows...... potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are hence interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research...

  12. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Application of high temperature phase change materials for improved efficiency in waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Fabio; Xu, Haoxin; Nardin, Gioacchino; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    This study reports the thermal analysis of a novel thermal energy storage based on high temperature phase change material (PCM) used to improve efficiency in waste-to-energy plants. Current waste-to-energy plants efficiency is limited by the steam generation cycle which is carried out with boilers composed by water-walls (i.e. radiant evaporators), evaporators, economizers and superheaters. Although being well established, this technology is subjected to limitations related with high temperature corrosion and fluctuation in steam production due to the non-homogenous composition of solid waste; this leads to increased maintenance costs and limited plants availability and electrical efficiency. The proposed solution in this paper consists of replacing the typical refractory brick installed in the combustion chamber with a PCM-based refractory brick capable of storing a variable heat flux and to release it on demand as a steady heat flux. By means of this technology it is possible to mitigate steam production fluctuation, to increase temperature of superheated steam over current corrosion limits (450°C) without using coated superheaters and to increase the electrical efficiency beyond 34%. In the current paper a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis has been carried out in order to compare the performance of the PCM-based refractory brick against the traditional alumina refractory bricks. The PCM considered in this paper is aluminium (and its alloys) whereas its container consists of high density ceramics (such as Al 2 O 3 , AlN and Si 3 N 4 ); the different coefficient of linear thermal expansion for the different materials requires a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis to be carried out to ascertain the feasibility of the proposed technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of hybrid waste-to-energy for medium-sized cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, Juan Galvarino Cerda; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, José Antonio Perrella

    2013-01-01

    Urban centers have a huge demand for electricity and the growing problem of the solid waste management generated by their population, a relevant social and administrative problem. The correct disposal of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in cities is one of the most complex engineering problems that involves logistics, safety, environmental and energetic aspects for its adequate management. Due to a national policy of solid wastes recently promulgated, Brazilian cities are evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of incinerating the non-recyclable waste. São José dos Campos, a São Paulo State industrialized city, is considering the composting of organic waste for biogas production and mass incineration of non-recyclable waste. This paper presents a waste-to-energy system based on the integration of gas turbines to a MSW incinerator for producing thermal and electric energy as an alternative solution for the solid waste disposal in São José dos Campos, SP. A technical and economic feasibility study for the hybrid combined cycle plant is presented and revealed to be attractive when carbon credit and waste tax are included in the project income. - Highlights: ► We model a hybrid waste-to-energy cogeneration system for the disposal of MSW. ► Reference model for MSW treatment consists of biogas burning and composting. ► Hybrid cogeneration solution is superior to the biogas burning reference model. ► Carbon credit and waste tax increase the attractiveness of the proposed solution

  15. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimpan, Ciprian, E-mail: cic@kbm.sdu.dk; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste.} • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste}, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat

  16. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ primary /100 MJ input waste. • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ primary /100 MJ input waste , in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS

  17. A review on technological options of waste to energy for effective management of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Samadder, S R

    2017-11-01

    Approximately one-fourth population across the world rely on traditional fuels (kerosene, natural gas, biomass residue, firewood, coal, animal dung, etc.) for domestic use despite significant socioeconomic and technological development. Fossil fuel reserves are being exploited at a very fast rate to meet the increasing energy demands, so there is a need to find alternative sources of energy before all the fossil fuel reserves are depleted. Waste to energy (WTE) can be considered as a potential alternative source of energy, which is economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The present study reviewed the current global scenario of WTE technological options (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and landfilling with gas recovery) for effective energy recovery and the challenges faced by developed and developing countries. This review will provide a framework for evaluating WTE technological options based on case studies of developed and developing countries. Unsanitary landfilling is the most commonly practiced waste disposal option in the developing countries. However, developed countries have realised the potential of WTE technologies for effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM). This review will help the policy makers and the implementing authorities involved in MSWM to understand the current status, challenges and barriers for effective management of municipal solid waste. This review concluded WTE as a potential renewable source of energy, which will partly meet the energy demand and ensure effective MSWM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimal waste-to-energy strategy assisted by GIS For sustainable solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S T; Hashim, H; Lee, C T; Lim, J S; Kanniah, K D

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management has become more complex and costly with the rapid socio-economic development and increased volume of waste. Planning a sustainable regional waste management strategy is a critical step for the decision maker. There is a great potential for MSW to be used for the generation of renewable energy through waste incineration or landfilling with gas capture system. However, due to high processing cost and cost of resource transportation and distribution throughout the waste collection station and power plant, MSW is mostly disposed in the landfill. This paper presents an optimization model incorporated with GIS data inputs for MSW management. The model can design the multi-period waste-to-energy (WTE) strategy to illustrate the economic potential and tradeoffs for MSW management under different scenarios. The model is capable of predicting the optimal generation, capacity, type of WTE conversion technology and location for the operation and construction of new WTE power plants to satisfy the increased energy demand by 2025 in the most profitable way. Iskandar Malaysia region was chosen as the model city for this study

  19. Optimal waste-to-energy strategy assisted by GIS For sustainable solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S. T.; Hashim, H.

    2014-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management has become more complex and costly with the rapid socio-economic development and increased volume of waste. Planning a sustainable regional waste management strategy is a critical step for the decision maker. There is a great potential for MSW to be used for the generation of renewable energy through waste incineration or landfilling with gas capture system. However, due to high processing cost and cost of resource transportation and distribution throughout the waste collection station and power plant, MSW is mostly disposed in the landfill. This paper presents an optimization model incorporated with GIS data inputs for MSW management. The model can design the multi-period waste-to-energy (WTE) strategy to illustrate the economic potential and tradeoffs for MSW management under different scenarios. The model is capable of predicting the optimal generation, capacity, type of WTE conversion technology and location for the operation and construction of new WTE power plants to satisfy the increased energy demand by 2025 in the most profitable way. Iskandar Malaysia region was chosen as the model city for this study.

  20. Risk identification for PPP waste-to-energy incineration projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jinbo; Song, Danrong; Zhang, Xueqing; Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is regarded as a renewable energy source. In China, the sharp increase of MSW has precipitated the rapid growth of waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration plants. Private capital has been getting into the WTE incineration industry through the public–private partnership (PPP) arrangement. Due to the large construction cost and the long concession period commonly associated with this arrangement, a number of failures have emerged in PPP WTE incineration projects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the key risks of PPP WTE incineration projects in China and study the strategies for managing these risks by drawing experience and learning lessons from these projects. First, we analyzed the MSW management practices, relevant legislations and policies, and the development of PPP WTE incineration projects in China. Second, we identified ten key risks through interviews, surveys and visits to some selected projects, and provided detailed analysis of these risks. Lastly, we developed response strategies for these risks from the perspectives of both public and private sectors. - Highlights: • We analyze MSW management practices, relevant legislations and policies in China. • Through case study on PPP WTE incineration projects, ten key risks are identified. • Response strategies for key risks are developed

  1. Energy systems analysis of waste to energy technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.

    2009-04-15

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO{sub 2} reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together, the two solutions may contribute to an alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority given to combined heat and power plants with high electrical efficiencies. (author)

  2. Development of a Novel Food Waste Collection Kiosk and Waste-to-Energy Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Franchetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. generates more than 37 million metric tons of food waste each year, and over 95% of it is disposed of at U.S. landfills. This paper describes the development of a novel food waste collection kiosk and business model called “Greenbox” that will collect and store food waste from households and restaurants with incentives for user participation to spur food waste-to-energy production in a local community. Greenbox offers a low-cost collection point to divert food waste from landfills, reduce greenhouse gases from decomposition, and aid in generating cleaner energy. A functional prototype was successfully developed by a team of engineering students and a business model was created as part of a senior design capstone course. Each Greenbox unit has the potential to reduce 275 metric tons of food waste per year, remove 1320 kg of greenhouse gases, and create 470,000 liters of methane gas while providing a payback period of 4.2 years and a rate of return of 14.9%.

  3. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Co-Combustion of Animal Waste in a Commercial Waste-to-Energy BFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Moradian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of animal waste, in waste-to-energy boilers, is considered a method to produce both heat and power and to dispose of possibly infected animal wastes. This research conducted full-scale combustion tests to identify the impact of changed fuel composition on a fluidized-bed boiler. The impact was characterized by analyzing the deposit formation rate, deposit composition, ash composition, and emissions. Two combustion tests, denoted the reference case and animal waste case, were performed based on different fuel mixes. In the reference case, a normal solid waste fuel mix was combusted in the boiler, containing sorted industry and household waste. In the animal waste case, 20 wt% animal waste was added to the reference fuel mix. The collected samples, comprising sampling probe deposits, fuel mixes, bed ash, return sand, boiler ash, cyclone ash and filter ash, were analyzed using chemical fractionation, SEM-EDX and XRD. The results indicate decreased deposit formation due to animal waste co-combustion. SEM-EDX and chemical fractionation identified higher concentrations of P, Ca, S, and Cl in the bed materials in the animal waste case. Moreover, the risk of bed agglomeration was lower in the animal waste case and also a decreased rate of NOx and SO2 emissions were observed.

  6. Description of European Space Agency (ESA) Concept Development for a Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskis, J.; Berthoud, L.; Guest, M.; Smith, C.; Bennett, A.; Gaubert, F.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.; Duvet, L.; van Winnendael, M.

    2018-04-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the several studies conducted for the European Space Agency (ESA) since 2007, which progressively developed layouts for a potential implementation of a Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF).

  7. Licensing review process of the European Spallation Source (ESS) research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, Erica

    2014-01-01

    On 3 January 2012 a license application under the Radiation Protection Act (SFS, 1988b) for the European Spallation Source research facility was submitted to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. The European Spallation Source research facility will be the site of a new and quite unusual kind of neutron source, based on a large proton accelerator that bombards a heavy material with protons. The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority is now reviewing the application. (authors)

  8. Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: An Italian case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Davide; Catenacci, Arianna; Antonelli, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99m(3)tMSW(-1), MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46m(3)tMSW(-1)). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Waste-to-energy in the United States: Socioeconomic factors and the decision-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Vogt, D.P.; Wolfe, A.K.; Kelsay, M.P.; Feldman, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion with energy recovery, commonly called waste-to-energy (WTE), was adopted by many US communities during the 1980s to manage their growing quantities of MSW. Although less than one percent of all US MSW was burned to retrieve its heat energy in 1970, WTE grew to account for 16 percent of MSW in 1990, and many experts forecasted that WTE would be used to manage as much as half of all garbage by the turn of the century. However, the growth of WTE has been reduced in recent years by project cancellations. This study takes an in-depth look at the socioeconomic factors that have played a role in the decisions of communities that have considered WTE as a component of their solid waste management strategies. More specifically, a three-pronged approach is adopted to investigate (1) the relationships between a municipality`s decision to consider and accept/reject WTE and key socioeconomic parameters, (2) the potential impacts of recent changes in financial markets on the viability of WTE, and (3) the WTE decision-making process and the socioeconomic parameters that are most important in the municipality`s decision. The first two objectives are met by the collection and analysis of aggregate data on all US WTE initiatives during the 1982 to 1990 time frame. The latter objective is met by way of four in-depth case studies -- two directed at communities that have accepted WTE and two that have cancelled WTE projects.

  10. Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sven; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bäfver, Linda; Jones, Frida; Davidsson, Kent; Froitzheim, Jan; Karlsson, Martin; Larsson, Erik; Liske, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop. The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion. In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450 °C and 525 °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525 °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450 °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The European HST Science Data Archive. [and Data Management Facility (DMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasian, F.; Pirenne, B.; Albrecht, R.; Russo, G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the European HST Science Data Archive. Particular attention is given to the flow from the HST spacecraft to the Science Data Archive at the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF); the archiving system at the ST-ECF, including the hardware and software system structure; the operations at the ST-ECF and differences with the Data Management Facility; and the current developments. A diagram of the logical structure and data flow of the system managing the European HST Science Data Archive is included.

  12. The benefit of the European User Community from transnational access to national radiation facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrier, Elise; Manuel Braz Fernandes, Francisco; Bujan, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Transnational access (TNA) to national radiation sources is presently provided via programmes of the European Commission by BIOSTRUCT-X and CALIPSO with a major benefit for scientists from European countries. Entirely based on scientific merit, TNA allows all European scientists to realise synchr...... development of the research infrastructure of photon science. Taking into account the present programme structure of HORIZON2020, the European Synchrotron User Organization (ESUO) sees considerable dangers for the continuation of this successful collaboration in the future....... synchrotron radiation experiments for addressing the Societal Challenges promoted in HORIZON2020. In addition, by TNA all European users directly take part in the development of the research infrastructure of facilities. The mutual interconnection of users and facilities is a strong prerequisite for future...

  13. Trigeneration in waste to energy plants for expanding the efficiency; Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen zur erweiterten Energieeffizienzsteigerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reil, Eberhard [Fernwaerme Wien GmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    An impressive metamorphosis changed Waste to Energy plants from originally environmental risky plants to high sophisticated end of pipe technology sites to finally high efficient Energy production plants. Such described plants are situated in urban places to aware the connections into efficient power grids and district heating networks to provide the base load the whole year round. Nowadays the request for cooling is steady rising and again Waste to energy plants, connected to a district cooling network, takes over an important role for the supply. Such concepts are only marketable, if the required criteria's for efficiency are fulfilled. Such criteria's within Europe are the greenhouse gas emission factor and the primary energy factor. Both proof the efficiency of a system according to sustainability and environmental acceptance. Such criteria's are the result of the EU target to enhance the renewable within the energy supply while a more efficient use of site energy should take place. The Vienna Model was chosen as best practice sample. The district heating network is connected to all Waste to energy plants as well to the gas fired CHP plants in Vienna. The peak demand for the supply is realized by gas fired hot water boilers. In 2006 Fernwaerme Wien started to set up a district cooling network. The base load for the cooling derives from absorption chillers driven by heat from the waste to energy plants. According the EN standard 15316 part 4 and 5, method for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies, the primary energy factor and CO2 factor has been defined for the Vienna model and as a consequence of that also for the waste to energy plant Pfaffenau. The average primary energy factor of the Vienna model calculated for the years 2006 to 2008 is 0,21 for the renewable part. According to the result the savings on primary energy have been 42 % and equates to 6,9 TWh/a. The reduc tion of the greenhouse gas emissions has been

  14. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of different waste-to-energy plant configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio A

    2018-03-01

    Residual municipal solid waste (MSW) has an average lower heating value higher than 10GJ/Mg in the EU, and can be recovered in modern Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants, producing combined heat and power (CHP) and reaching high levels of energy recovery. CHP is pinpointed as the best technique for energy recovery from waste. However, in some cases, heat recovery is not technically feasible - due to the absence of a thermal user (industrial plant or district heating) in the vicinity of the WtE plant - and power production remains the sole possibility. In these cases, there are some challenges involved in increasing the energy performance as much as possible. High energy recovery efficiency values are very important for the environmental sustainability of WtE plants. The more electricity and heat is produced, the better the saving of natural resources that can be achieved. Within this frame, the aim of this work is to carry out an environmental assessment, through Life Cycle Assessment, of an MSW WtE plant, considering different sizes and operated in different ways, from power production only to full cogeneration. The main assumption is that the electric conversion efficiency increases as the plant size increases, introducing technical improvements thanks to the economies of scale. Impact assessment results were calculated using ReCiPe 2008 methods. The climate change indicator is positive when the WtE plant is operated in power production only mode, with values decreasing for the increasing size. Values for the climate change are negative when cogeneration is applied, requiring increasing cogeneration ratios for decreasing size. Similarly, the fossil fuel depletion indicator benefits from increase of both the plant size and the cogeneration rate, but it is always negative, meaning that the residual MSW burning with energy recovery always provides a saving of fossil primary energy. Other indicator values are in general negative and are also beneficially affected by

  15. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical-biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical-biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJprimary/100 MJinput waste, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3-9.5%, 1-18% and 1-8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full

  16. Evaluating the use of waste-to-energy bottom ash as road construction materials : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) generates millions of tons of ash each year. In European and Asian countries, this ash has been recycled into road beds, asphalt paving, and concrete products encouraged and enforced by standards, managem...

  17. Life cycle model of waste to energy technologies in Spain and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Margallo Blanco, María

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT : The high rate of waste generation in the society today has brought waste management to be a priority in European Policies. The European environmental Regulation established waste prevention, reuse, recycling, and finally waste incineration and landfilling as fundamental principles. Despite landfilling remaining the most common practice, waste incineration and recycling have increased in recent years. In particular, waste incineration allows the reduction in waste mass and volume, a...

  18. Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain Distributed Generation Through Non-Conventional Fuels and Fuel Cells

    CERN Document Server

    McPhail, Stephen J; Moreno, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    As the availability of fossils fuels becomes more limited, the negative impact of their consumption becomes an increasingly relevant factor in our choices with regards to primary energy sources. The exponentially increasing demand for energy is reflected in the mass generation of by-products and waste flows which characterize current society’s development and use of fossil sources. The potential for recoverable material and energy in these ever-increasing refuse flows is huge, even after the separation of hazardous constituent elements, allowing safe and sustainable further exploitation of an otherwise 'wasted' resource.  Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores the concept of waste-to-energy through a 5 step process which reflects the stages during the transformation of  refuse flows to a valuable commodity such as clean energy. By providing selected, integrated alternatives to the current centralized, wasteful, fossil-fuel based infrastructure, Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores ho...

  19. Long term analysis of the biomass content in the feed of a waste-to-energy plant with oxygen-enriched combustion air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Johann; Cencic, Oliver; Zellinger, Günter; Rechberger, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    Thermal utilization of municipal solid waste and commercial wastes has become of increasing importance in European waste management. As waste materials are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, a part of the energy generated can be considered as renewable and is thus subsidized in some European countries. Analogously, CO(2) emissions of waste incinerators are only partly accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories. A novel approach for determining these fractions is the so-called balance method. In the present study, the implementation of the balance method on a waste-to-energy plant using oxygen-enriched combustion air was investigated. The findings of the 4-year application indicate on the one hand the general applicability and robustness of the method, and on the other hand the importance of reliable monitoring data. In particular, measured volume flows of the flue gas and the oxygen-enriched combustion air as well as corresponding O(2) and CO(2) contents should regularly be validated. The fraction of renewable (biogenic) energy generated throughout the investigated period amounted to between 27 and 66% for weekly averages, thereby denoting the variation in waste composition over time. The average emission factor of the plant was approximately 45 g CO(2) MJ(-1) energy input or 450 g CO(2) kg(-1) waste incinerated. The maximum error of the final result was about 16% (relative error), which was well above the error (<8%) of the balance method for plants with conventional oxygen supply.

  20. Use of fused deposit modeling for additive manufacturing in hospital facilities: European certification directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Joel J; Vijverman, An; Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify current European Union regulations governing hospital-based use of fused deposit modeling (FDM), as implemented via desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers. Literature and Internet sources were screened, searching for official documents, regulations/legislation, and views of specialized attorneys or consultants regarding European regulations for 3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM) in a healthcare facility. A detailed review of the latest amendment (2016) of the European Parliament and Council legislation for medical devices and its classification was performed, which has regularly updated published guidelines for medical devices, that are classified by type and duration of patient contact. As expected, regulations increase in accordance with the level (I-III) of classification. Custom-made medical devices are subject to different regulations than those controlling serially mass-produced items, as originally specified in 98/79/EC European Parliament and Council legislation (1993) and again recently amended (2016). Healthcare facilities undertaking in-house custom production are not obliged to fully follow the directives as stipulated, given an exception for this scenario (Article 4.4a, 98/79/EC). Patient treatment and diagnosis with the aid of customized 3D printing in a healthcare facility can be performed without fully meeting the European Parliament and Council legislation if the materials used are ISO 10993 certified and article 4.4a applies. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Some expectations from european municipalities Hosting nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moding, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Firstly I want to repeat what I said at the NEA WPDD meeting at Karlsruhe June 2002. Even if the NEA papers so far have focused on the strategies and especially on the important more technical aspects GMF and us from KSO Sweden are eager to underline the social aspects of closing, dismantling and decommissioning. The decisions either to shut down a NPP or to site a new nuclear installation are of highest interest to the affected local democracy, i.e. the municipality. Together with the self evident nuclear safety matter nothing else is as important as the social consequences of any large-scale investment to us as local stakeholders. Too many large scale investments in the nuclear sector have been taken from the top and down, often using the well-known method of 'father knows best' or the DAD principle (decide, announce, defend). Therefore GMF and the European municipalities welcome the NEA initiative and efforts to at least listen to what will be said from us as representatives nearest to the affected citizens. You must excuse us as laymen not being able to melt all your expert dominated strategies. I think that most citizens and affected municipalities just thrust our very competent national and international regulators. We expect a high competence from them and you including an independent to different lobby groups and interests. (author)

  2. Practice of using the educational facilities in some West-European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    1995-01-01

    A review deals with results on using multifunctional educational facilities, choice of their optimal number with simulation of NPP sites in European countries. The role of instructors, the content of educational program, tasks of individual retraining are considered. Cost benefit analysis is made. 5 refs

  3. Development tendencies of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesner, W.; Stuits, I.; Zeltins, N.

    1999-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1997. It outlines the changes in economical situation during this period. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country taken separately. (author)

  4. Complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; D'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterization of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators and the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities under the auspices of the COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD) project funded by the European Commission.

  5. Biomass and waste to energy. Financial incentives for renewables. Altener workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Halen, C.; Kwant, K.W.

    1996-12-01

    The title workshop was organised by Novem in cooperation with its partners in the Altener Waste for Energy (WfE) network, and AFB-Nett (Agricultural and Forestry Biomass Network). Almost 100 participants from 13 European countries attended the workshop. The aim of the workshop was to explore the industrial potential, to discuss mutual differences and financial barriers that appear still to be present. The morning session of the workshop included country presentations of existing national financial incentives to support renewable energy. In the afternoon session three 'Dutch cases' were presented, followed by a presentation of the results of a European comparison, commissioned by Novem. The second part of the afternoon was reserved for an 'in-depth' plenary panel discussion, e.g. on best practices, new instruments, potential and need for harmonization

  6. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiser, Prisca; Becker, Thomas; Losert, Carolin

    2009-01-01

    of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a) stakeholder analysis, (b) international literature reviews, (c) Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d) focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities.Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network...... by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. METHODS AND DESIGN: HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii) identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet...... consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well...

  7. The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - an overview of planned diffraction capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvick, A.

    1991-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is a third generation synchrotron radiation facility presently being built as a joint venture between 12 European countries in Grenoble, France. The ESRF will be a low emittance 6 GeV storage ring aimed at producing high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from 29 insertion devices and from 27 bending magnet ports. The general user program will start in the middle of 1994 with seven ESRF beam-lines. By 1999, 30 facility beam-lines as well as beam-lines built and financed by Collaborating Research Groups are scheduled to be in operation. The guidelines for the first beam-lines to be constructed as well as a survey of the diffraction oriented beam-lines built by the ESRF are given in the article. (author)

  8. Science facilities and stakeholder management: how a pan-European research facility ended up in a small Swedish university town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, Anna; Carlile, Colin

    2017-06-01

    This is the story of how a large research facility of broad European and global interest, the European Spallation Source (ESS), ended up in the small university town of Lund in Sweden. This happened in spite of the fact that a number of influential European countries were at one time or another competitors to host the facility. It is also a story about politics which attempts to illustrate how closely intertwined politics and science are, and how the interplay between those interests affects scientific progress. ESS became an arena for individual ambitions and political manoeuvring. The different stakeholders, in their striving to ensure that their own interests were realised, in various ways and with different degrees of success over the years, have influenced the key decisions that, during the already 30 year history of ESS, have driven the course that this project has taken. What emerges is that the interests of the stakeholders and the interests of the project itself are frequently not in harmony. This imposes challenges on the management of large research facilities as they have to not only navigate in the scientific landscape, which they often are more familiar with, but also in the political landscape. This story is therefore an attempt to shed light on the role of managers of large research facilities and the often delicate balancing act they have to perform when trying to comply with the different and often conflicting stakeholder interests. What is especially worthwhile examining, as we do in this paper, is the role that individuals, and the interaction between individuals, have played in the process. This shows that the focus of stakeholder theory on organisations, rather than the people in the organisations, needs to be redirected on to the individuals representing those organisations and their inter-relationships. At the same time it is clear that the developing field of stakeholder management theory has not emerged into the consciousness of science

  9. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, E.; Boldrin, A.; Jansson, S.; Lundtorp, K.; Fruergaard Astrup, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ash was sampled at 10 different points of the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant. • Samples were analysed for the chemical composition, PCDD/F and leaching behaviour. • Enrichment trends of elements were investigated in relation to boiler conditions. • No significant differences were found between boiler ash samples. - Abstract: The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits

  10. Prediction of combustible waste generation and estimate of potential energy by applying waste to energy technologies in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Cho, Sung-Jin; Jung, Hae-Young; Lee, Ki-Bae; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 total waste generation rate in Korea was 318,670 ton,day. In general waste generation rate shows rising trend since 2000. Wastes are composed of municipal waste 14.9 % industrial waste 34.1 % and construction waste 51.0 %. Treatment of wastes by recycling was 81.1 % landfill 11.1 % incineration 5.3 % and ocean dumping 2.4 %. National waste energy policies have been influenced by various factors such as environmental problem economy technology level (could be made energy), and so on. Korea has the worlds third dense population density environmental pollution load per unit land area is the highest in OECD countries caused due to the fast development in economy, industrialization and urbanization in recent. Also, land area per person is just 2,072 m 2 . Landfill capacity reaches the upper limit, industrial waste generation is increasing. Searching new-renewable energy is vital to substitute fossil fuel considering its increasing price. Korea is the world's 10th biggest energy consuming country and 97% of energy depends on importing. Korea aims to increases supply of new-renewable energy by 5% until the 2011. In this study, we computed the amount of combustible waste from municipality generated by the multiple regression analysis. The existing technologies for converting waste to energy were surveyed and the technologies under development or utilizing in future were also investigated. Based on the technology utilization, the amount of energy using waste to energy technology could be estimated in future. (author)

  11. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, E., E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Boldrin, A. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Jansson, S. [Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Umeå SE-901 87 (Sweden); Lundtorp, K. [Babcock and Wilcox Vølund A/S, Göteborg (Sweden); Fruergaard Astrup, T. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Ash was sampled at 10 different points of the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant. • Samples were analysed for the chemical composition, PCDD/F and leaching behaviour. • Enrichment trends of elements were investigated in relation to boiler conditions. • No significant differences were found between boiler ash samples. - Abstract: The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits.

  12. Integrated municipal solid waste scenario model using advanced pretreatment and waste to energy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Gabriela; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Mărculescu, Cosmin; Badea, Adrian; Apostol, Tiberiu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Appropriate solution for MSW management in new and future EU countries. • Decrease of landfill disposal applying an Integrated MSW approach. • Technological impediments and environmental assessment. - Abstract: In this paper an Integrated Municipal Solid Waste scenario model (IMSW-SM) with a potential practical application in the waste management sector is analyzed. The model takes into account quantification and characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) streams from different sources, selective collection (SC), advanced mechanical sorting, material recovery and advanced thermal treatment. The paper provides a unique chain of advanced waste pretreatment stages of fully commingled waste streams, leading to an original set of suggestions and future contributions to a sustainable IMSWS, taking into account real data and EU principles. The selection of the input data was made on MSW management real case studies from two European regions. Four scenarios were developed varying mainly SC strategies and thermal treatment options. The results offer useful directions for decision makers in order to calibrate modern strategies in different realities

  13. Relative tropospheric photolysis rates of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde measured at the European Photoreactor Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Bache-Andreassen, Lihn; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0.03 ar.......03 are obtained from three days of experiments for each reaction in the period June 17 to July 7, 2006.......The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0...

  14. Optimization of waste to energy routes through biochemical and thermochemical treatment options of municipal solid waste in Hyderabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korai, Muhammad Safar; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Uqaili, Muhammad Aslam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Existing practice of municipal solid waste management of Hyderabad city, Pakistan have been analyzed. • Development of scenarios on basis of nature of waste components for optimizing waste to energy route. • Analyzing the biochemical and thermochemical potential of MSW through various scenarios. • Evaluation of various treatment technologies under scenarios to optimize waste to energy route. - Abstract: Improper disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has created many environmental problems in Pakistan and the country is facing energy shortages as well. The present study evaluates the biochemical and thermochemical treatment options of MSW in order to address both the endemic environmental challenges and in part the energy shortage. According to the nature of waste components, a number of scenarios were developed to optimize the waste to energy (WTE) routes. The evaluation of treatment options has been performed by mathematical equations using the special characteristics of MSW. The power generation potential (PGP) of biochemical (anaerobic digestion) has been observed in the range of 5.9–11.3 kW/ton day under various scenarios. The PGP of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), Mass Burn Incinerator (MBI), Gasification/Pyrolysis (Gasi./Pyro.) and Plasma Arc Gasification (PAG) have been found to be in the range of 2.7–118.6 kW/ton day, 3.8–164.7 kW/ton day, 4.2–184.5 kW/ton day and 5.2–224 kW/ton day, respectively. The highest values of biochemical and all thermochemical technologies have been obtained through the use of scenarios including the putrescible components (PCs) of MSW such as food and yard wastes, and the non-biodegradable components (NBCs) of MSW such as plastic, rubber, leather, textile and wood respectively. Therefore, routes which include these components are the optimized WTE routes for maximum PGP by biochemical and thermochemical treatments of MSW. The findings of study lead to recommend that socio-economic and environmental

  15. New approach to recycling and waste-to-energy in paper production, Urban Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristola, P. [Metso Corporation (Finland)

    2002-10-01

    Greenfield paper mills are commonly perceived as massive investments with a high level of associated impact on the local environment. Parallel to this, increasingly strict targets are being set by modem legislation for reducing waste disposal at landfills. One long-term solution to this dilemma lies in extended materials recycling, combined with effective utilisation of waste as energy. Metso Paper's Urban Mill is a unique pilot concept that promises to become an important part of such a solution. The novelty of Metso Paper's new eco-efficient Urban Mill concept lies in its combination of a small paper mill with using solid waste to generate energy. The roots of the concept go back to the early 1990s, when several mini-mills were built to produce raw materials for corrugated containers in North America. The competitiveness of mini-mills like this is based on several benefits: lowcost, high-quality waste paper raw material, utilisation of adjacent facilities for utilities, and modern machines with lean manning and low inbound and outbound logistics costs.

  16. Waste-to-Energy (WTE) network synthesis for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Wendy Pei Qin; Lam, Hon Loong; 2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" >Varbanov, Petar Sabev; 2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" >Klemeš, Jiří 2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" >Jaromír

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The possibility of utilising MSW as the source of WTE in Malaysia is evaluated. • Real case study is developed and its economic potential is demonstrated. • A MSW supply network with multiple objectives optimisation model is synthesised. • WTE scheme using MSW is one energy solution for country that generates a lot of MSW. - Abstract: MSW has been identified as one of the alternative energy sources that can be used for electricity and/or power generation. This appears to be one enhanced channel to tackle MSW disposal problem. WTE concept is incorporated into the MSW management system in this work. The integrated system is modelled to study its practicability and significance. The proposed model is illustrated with a case study involving the supply network design and the utilisation of MSW from urban sources. The modelling steps involve the generation of a superstructure, mathematical model construction, optimisation and solution interpretation. The MSW availability and its utilisation are investigated through its supply network design. Optimal locations of processing hubs and facilities are determined. Following this, boundaries and sizes of the processing hubs are calculated. The benefits of WTE strategy from MSW is analysed and its energy generation potential is demonstrated. This WTE strategy acts as one potential MSW management scheme for all interested parties

  17. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Jansson, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed...... characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements......, polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections...

  18. Resistance of Coatings for Boiler Components of Waste-to-Energy Plants to Salt Melts Containing Copper Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetz, Mathias Christian; Bauer, Johannes Thomas; Schütze, Michael; Noguchi, Manabu; Cho, Hiromitsu

    2013-06-01

    The accelerating effect of heavy metal compounds on the corrosive attack of boiler components like superheaters poses a severe problem in modern waste-to-energy plants (WTPs). Coatings are a possible solution to protect cheap, low alloyed steel substrates from heavy metal chloride and sulfate salts, which have a relatively low melting point. These salts dissolve many alloys, and therefore often are the limiting factor as far as the lifetime of superheater tubes is concerned. In this work the corrosion performance under artificial salt deposits of different coatings, manufactured by overlay welding, thermal spraying of self-fluxing as well as conventional systems was investigated. The results of our studies clearly demonstrate the importance of alloying elements such as molybdenum or silicon. Additionally, the coatings have to be dense and of a certain thickness in order to resist the corrosive attack under these severe conditions.

  19. Life cycle assessment of waste to energy micro-pyrolysis system: case study for an Italian town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Fantozzi, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Waste disposal represents an important aspect of the policies of politics of developed countries. It is well known that waste management entails several social, economical and environmental aspects. Many different technical solutions have been proposed and evaluated, more or less complicated, from a social and economic point of view, but the environmental burden linked to these solutions still remains an open problem not definitively resolved yet. One of the most promising ways for investigating and comparing the environmental consequences connected to different human activities seems to be represented by the LCA analysis. In this work the LCA analysis of a micro-pyrolysis with micro-gas turbine waste to energy plant, has been performed with the aid of a commercial simulation code. The scenario is analysed with regard to a small, isolated, Italian town. A comparison between the current and proposed case has also been carried out. (Author)

  20. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemann, E.; Allegrini, Elisa; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD....../F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten...... sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355. mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355. mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin...

  1. A possible biomedical facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, M; Jones, B; Myers, S

    2013-05-01

    A well-attended meeting, called "Brainstorming discussion for a possible biomedical facility at CERN", was held by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on 25 June 2012. This was concerned with adapting an existing, but little used, 78-m circumference CERN synchrotron to deliver a wide range of ion species, preferably from protons to at least neon ions, with beam specifications that match existing clinical facilities. The potential extensive research portfolio discussed included beam ballistics in humanoid phantoms, advanced dosimetry, remote imaging techniques and technical developments in beam delivery, including gantry design. In addition, a modern laboratory for biomedical characterisation of these beams would allow important radiobiological studies, such as relative biological effectiveness, in a dedicated facility with standardisation of experimental conditions and biological end points. A control photon and electron beam would be required nearby for relative biological effectiveness comparisons. Research beam time availability would far exceed that at other facilities throughout the world. This would allow more rapid progress in several biomedical areas, such as in charged hadron therapy of cancer, radioisotope production and radioprotection. The ethos of CERN, in terms of open access, peer-reviewed projects and governance has been so successful for High Energy Physics that application of the same to biomedicine would attract high-quality research, with possible contributions from Europe and beyond, along with potential new funding streams.

  2. EURO-CARES: European Roadmap for a Sample Return Curation Facility and Planetary Protection Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    A mature European planetary exploration program and evolving sample return mission plans gathers the interest of a wider scientific community. The interest is generated from studying extraterrestrial samples in the laborato-ry providing new opportunities to address fundamental issues on the origin and evolution of the Solar System, on the primordial cosmochemistry, and on the nature of the building blocks of terrestrial planets and on the origin of life. Major space agencies are currently planning for missions that will collect samples from a variety of Solar Sys-tem environments, from primitive (carbonaceous) small bodies, from the Moon, Mars and its moons and, final-ly, from icy moons of the outer planets. A dedicated sample return curation facility is seen as an essential re-quirement for the receiving, assessment, characterization and secure preservation of the collected extraterrestrial samples and potentially their safe distribution to the scientific community. EURO-CARES is a European Commission study funded under the Horizon-2020 program. The strategic objec-tive of EURO-CARES is to create a roadmap for the implementation of a European Extraterrestrial Sample Cu-ration Facility. The facility has to provide safe storage and handling of extraterrestrial samples and has to enable the preliminary characterization in order to achieve the required effectiveness and collaborative outcomes for the whole international scientific community. For example, samples returned from Mars could pose a threat on the Earth's biosphere if any living extraterrestrial organism are present in the samples. Thus planetary protection is an essential aspect of all Mars sample return missions that will affect the retrival and transport from the point of return, sample handling, infrastructure methodology and management of a future curation facility. Analysis of the state of the art of Planetary Protection technology shows there are considerable possibilities to define and develop

  3. Combined heat and power production planning in a waste-to-energy plant on a short-term basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touš, Michal; Pavlas, Martin; Putna, Ondřej; Stehlík, Petr; Crha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    In many cases, WtE (waste-to-energy) plants are CHP (combined heat and power) producers. They are often integrated into a central heating system and they also export electricity to the grid. Therefore, they have to plan their operation on a long-term basis (months, years) as well as on a short-term basis (hours, days). Simulation models can effectively support decision making in CHP production planning. In general, CHP production planning on a short-term basis is a challenging task for WtE plants. This article presents a simulation based support. It is demonstrated on an example involving a real WtE plant. Most of the models of relevant WtE sub-systems (boilers, steam turbine) are developed using operational data and applying linear regression and artificial neural network technique. The process randomness given mainly by fluctuating heating value of waste leads to uncertainty in a calculation of CHP production and a stochastic approach is appropriate. The models of the sub-systems are, therefore, extended of a stochastic part and Monte-Carlo simulation is applied. Compared to the current planning strategy in the involved WtE plant, the stochastic simulation based planning provides increased CHP production resulting in better net thermal efficiency and increased revenue. This is demonstrated through a comparison using real operational data. - Highlights: • Introduction of a stochastic model of a CHP production in a waste-to-energy plant. • An application of the model for the next day CHP production planning. • Better net thermal efficiency and therefore increased revenue achieved.

  4. Comparison of the uncertainties of several European low-dose calibration facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, H.; Cornejo Díaz, N. A.; Toni, M. P.; Mihelic, M.; Röttger, A.

    2018-04-01

    The typical uncertainty of a low-dose rate calibration of a detector, which is calibrated in a dedicated secondary national calibration laboratory, is investigated, including measurements in the photon field of metrology institutes. Calibrations at low ambient dose equivalent rates (at the level of the natural ambient radiation) are needed when environmental radiation monitors are to be characterised. The uncertainties of calibration measurements in conventional irradiation facilities above ground are compared with those obtained in a low-dose rate irradiation facility located deep underground. Four laboratories quantitatively evaluated the uncertainties of their calibration facilities, in particular for calibrations at low dose rates (250 nSv/h and 1 μSv/h). For the first time, typical uncertainties of European calibration facilities are documented in a comparison and the main sources of uncertainty are revealed. All sources of uncertainties are analysed, including the irradiation geometry, scattering, deviations of real spectra from standardised spectra, etc. As a fundamental metrological consequence, no instrument calibrated in such a facility can have a lower total uncertainty in subsequent measurements. For the first time, the need to perform calibrations at very low dose rates (< 100 nSv/h) deep underground is underpinned on the basis of quantitative data.

  5. Socio-technical systems analysis of waste to energy from municipal solid waste in developing economies: a case for Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyamu Hope O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation is an inevitable by-product of human activity, and it is on the rise due to rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, increased wealth and population. The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW in developed and developing economies differ, especially with the organic fraction. Research shows that the food waste stream of MSW in developing countries is over 50%. The case study for this investigation, Nigeria, has minimal formal recycling or resource recovery programs. The average composition of waste from previous research in the country is between 50–70% putrescible and 30–50% non-putrescible, presenting significant resource recovery potential in composting and biogas production. Waste-to-energy (WtE is an important waste management solution that has been successfully implemented and operated in most developed economies. This contribution reports the conditions that would be of interest before WtE potentials of MSW is harnessed, in an efficient waste management process in a developing economy like Nigeria. The investigation presents a set of socio-technical parameters and transition strategy model that would inform a productive MSW management and resource recovery, in which WtE can be part of the solution. This model will find application in the understanding of the interactions between the socio-economic, technical and environmental system, to promote sustainable resource recovery programs in developing economies, among which is WtE.

  6. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, E; Boldrin, A; Jansson, S; Lundtorp, K; Fruergaard Astrup, T

    2014-04-15

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Generation in Bangladesh: Possible Scenarios to Generate Renewable Electricity in Dhaka and Chittagong City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nazmul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased generation of methane (CH4 from municipal solid wastes (MSW alarms the world to take proper initiative for the sustainable management of MSW, because it is 34 times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2. Mounting land scarcity issue around the world brands the waste to energy (WtE strategy for MSW management in urban areas as a promising option, because WtE not only reduces the land pressure problem, but also generates electricity, heat, and green jobs. The goal of this study is to evaluate the renewable electricity generation potential and associated carbon reduction of MSW management in Bangladesh using WtE strategies. The study is conducted in two major cities of Bangladesh: Dhaka and Chittagong. Six different WtE scenarios are evaluated consisting of mixed MSW incineration and landfill gas (LFG recovery system. Energy potential of different WtE strategy is assessed using standard energy conversion model and subsequent GHGs emissions models. Scenario A1 results in highest economic and energy potential and net negative GHGs emission. Sensitivity analysis by varying MSW moisture content reveals higher energy potential and less GHGs emissions from MSW possessing low moisture content. The study proposes mixed MSW incineration that could be a potential WtE strategy for renewable electricity generation in Bangladesh.

  8. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inventory Analysis and Social Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Incineration in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tsang Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WtE incineration technology is widely used to solve the energy supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation problems in urban areas. In Taiwan, there are new laws and regulations that would affect greenhouse gas management of WtE incineration plants. This research aims to identify or raise key issues to be promoted for WtE incineration plants due to existing management systems and complex issues mixed with GHG, energy, and solid waste treatment. This study utilizes inventory analysis and social LCA (SLCA approach on GHG management of WtE incineration plants in Taiwan to systematically identify materiality issues to be promoted. According to the results of materiality analysis for SLCA, this study generalizes four stakeholders, nine subcategories, and their 15 inventory indicators; and concludes that, among assessment results of 15 inventory indicators, three indicators are at a high level, four at a medium level, and eight at a low level. In total, 12 materiality issues are recognized. This study suggests WtE incineration plants should consider the following materiality issues with respect to priority: a systematic database and calculation methods, the goal and criteria of the laws and regulations, technology development toward circular economy and promotion activity or opportunity for local community and organization level.

  10. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  11. Towards a sustainable paradigm of waste-to-energy process: Enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge with woody biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yanwen; Linville, Jessica L.; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia Anne A.; Schoene, Robin P.; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2016-11-01

    This study presents an integrated waste-to-energy process, using two waste streams, sludge generated from the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and biochar generated from the biomass gasification systems, to produce fungible biomethane and nutrient-rich digestate with fertilizer value. Two woody biochar, namely pinewood (PBC) and white oak biochar (WOBC) were used as additives during anaerobic digestion (AD) of WWTP sludge to enhance methane production at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The PBC and WOBC have porous structure, large surface area and desirable chemical properties to be used as AD amendment material to sequester CO2 from biogas in the digester. The biochar-amended digesters achieved average methane content in biogas of up to 92.3% and 79.0%, corresponding to CO2 sequestration by up to 66.2% and 32.4% during mesophilic and thermophilic AD, respectively. Biochar addition enhanced process stability by increasing the alkalinity, but inhibitory effects were observed at high dosage. It also alleviated free ammonia inhibition by up to 10.5%. The biochar-amended digesters generated digestate rich in macro- and micronutrients including K (up to 300 m/L), Ca (up to 750 mg/L), Mg (up to 1800 mg/L) and Fe (up to 390 mg/L), making biochar-amended digestate a potential alternative used as agricultural lime fertilizer.

  12. Waste-to-energy incineration plants as greenhouse gas reducers: a case study of seven Japanese metropolises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro

    2013-11-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter; however, if GHG reductions, achieved by accounting for waste-to-energy, exceed GHG emissions, incineration can be considered as a net GHG reducer. In Japan, only 24.5% of MSW incineration plants perform energy recovery despite 80% of MSW being incinerated; therefore, there is great potential to extract more energy from MSW. In this study, the factors that should be considered to achieve net GHG reductions from incineration were analysed from a life cycle perspective. These considerations were then applied to the energy supply requirements in seven Japanese metropolises. Firstly, the carbon footprints of approximately 1500 incineration plants in Japan were calculated. Then, the incineration plants with negative carbon footprint values were classified as net GHG reducers. Next, the processes that contribute to the carbon footprint were evaluated, and two processes-plastic burning and electricity savings-were found to have the greatest influence. Based on the results, the energy supply requirements were analysed and discussed for seven metropolises (Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, Takamatsu and Fukuoka) taking into account the energy demands of households. In Kobe, 16.2% of the electricity demand and 25.0% of the hot water demand could be satisfied by incineration to realise a net GHG reducer, although urban design for energy utilisation would be required.

  13. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : European electricity generating facilities: an overview of European regulatory requirements and standardization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, L.

    2002-06-01

    Several factors are affecting power generating facilities, such as the opening of both electricity and gas markets, and the pressure applied on generators and governments to ensure a steady energy supply for consumers. An additional factor is the pressure for the closing of nuclear power facilities. European siting and emissions requirements for coal-fired and natural gas generating facilities were presented in this background paper. In addition, the author provided an overview of the standardization process in place in Europe. The European Union and its functioning were briefly described, as well as a listing of relevant organizations. The current trends were examined. The document first introduced the European Union, and the next section dealt with Regulatory regime: the internal energy market. The third section examined the issue of Regulatory regime: generation and environmental regulations. Section four presented environmental management systems, followed by a section on standardization. Section six discussed European organizations involved in electricity issues, while the following section dealt with European commission programs. The last section briefly looked at the trends in the electricity sector, broaching topics such as compliance, electricity generation, and emissions trading. 52 refs., 2 tabs

  14. The European contribution to the development and validation activities for the design of IFMIF lithium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miccichè, Gioacchino, E-mail: gioacchino.micciche@enea.it [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Brasimone I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Aiello, Antonio; Bernardi, Davide; Favuzza, Paolo; Agostini, Pietro [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Brasimone I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Frisoni, Manuela [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Bologna I-40129, BO Italy (Italy); Pinna, Tonio; Porfiri, MariaTeresa [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Frascati I-0044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Tincani, Amelia [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Brasimone I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Di Maio, PieroAlessandro [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Knaepen, Bernard [Université libre de Bruxelles, I-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Engineering design of the target assembly. • Erosion, corrosion phenomena promoted by the lithium are studied. • Purification system implemented in the LiFus6 loop. • Study of the remote handling maintenance for the IFMIF TA. -- Abstract: The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-driven intense neutron source where candidate materials for fusion reactors will be tested and validated. The high energy neutron flux is produced by means of two deuteron beams (total current of 250 mA, energy of 40 MeV) that strikes a liquid lithium target circulating in a lithium loop of IFMIF plant. The European (EU) contribution to the development of the lithium facility comprises five procurement packages, as follow: (1) participation to the experimental activities of the EVEDA lithium test loop in Oarai (Japan); (2) study aimed at evaluating the corrosion and erosion phenomena, promoted by lithium, for structural fusion reference materials like AISI 316L and Eurofer; (3) design and validation of the lithium purification method with the aim to provide input data for the design of the purification system of IFIMF lithium loop; (4) design and validation of the remote handling (RH) procedures for the refurbishment/replacement of the EU concept of IFMIF target assembly including the design of the remote handling tools; (5) the engineering design of the European target assembly for IFMIF and the safety and RAMI analyses for the entire IFMIF lithium facility. The paper gives an overview of the status of the activities and of the main outcomes achieved so far.

  15. The European contribution to the development and validation activities for the design of IFMIF lithium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miccichè, Gioacchino; Aiello, Antonio; Bernardi, Davide; Favuzza, Paolo; Agostini, Pietro; Frisoni, Manuela; Pinna, Tonio; Porfiri, MariaTeresa; Tincani, Amelia; Di Maio, PieroAlessandro; Knaepen, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Engineering design of the target assembly. • Erosion, corrosion phenomena promoted by the lithium are studied. • Purification system implemented in the LiFus6 loop. • Study of the remote handling maintenance for the IFMIF TA. -- Abstract: The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-driven intense neutron source where candidate materials for fusion reactors will be tested and validated. The high energy neutron flux is produced by means of two deuteron beams (total current of 250 mA, energy of 40 MeV) that strikes a liquid lithium target circulating in a lithium loop of IFMIF plant. The European (EU) contribution to the development of the lithium facility comprises five procurement packages, as follow: (1) participation to the experimental activities of the EVEDA lithium test loop in Oarai (Japan); (2) study aimed at evaluating the corrosion and erosion phenomena, promoted by lithium, for structural fusion reference materials like AISI 316L and Eurofer; (3) design and validation of the lithium purification method with the aim to provide input data for the design of the purification system of IFIMF lithium loop; (4) design and validation of the remote handling (RH) procedures for the refurbishment/replacement of the EU concept of IFMIF target assembly including the design of the remote handling tools; (5) the engineering design of the European target assembly for IFMIF and the safety and RAMI analyses for the entire IFMIF lithium facility. The paper gives an overview of the status of the activities and of the main outcomes achieved so far

  16. CCA-treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna; Weitz, Keith; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy; Thorneloe, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential and industrial applications. Although some countries have banned the use of the product for some applications, others have not, and the product continues to enter the waste stream from construction, demolition and remodeling projects. CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. In the US, CCA-treated wood is disposed primarily within landfills; however some of the wood is combusted in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. In other countries, the predominant disposal option for wood, sometimes including CCA-treated wood, is combustion for the production of energy. This paper presents an estimate of the quantity of CCA-treated wood entering the disposal stream in the US, as well as an examination of the trade-offs between landfilling and WTE combustion of CCA-treated wood through a life-cycle assessment and decision support tool (MSW DST). Based upon production statistics, the estimated life span and the phaseout of CCA-treated wood, recent disposal projections estimate the peak US disposal rate to occur in 2008, at 9.7 million m(3). CCA-treated wood, when disposed with construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW), has been found to increase arsenic and chromium concentrations in leachate. For this reason, and because MSW landfills are lined, MSW landfills have been recommended as a preferred disposal option over unlined C&D debris landfills. Between landfilling and WTE for the same mass of CCA-treated wood, WTE is more expensive (nearly twice the cost), but when operated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, it produces energy and does not emit fossil carbon emissions. If the wood is managed via WTE, less landfill area is required, which could be an influential trade-off in some countries. Although metals are concentrated

  17. An analysis of the Illinois Retail Rate Law and the Cook County waste-to-energy siting battles, 1987--2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendzik, Mark Edward

    2002-01-01

    The analysis explores the environmental justice impacts of the 1998 Illinois Retail Rate Law and Cook County waste-to-energy siting proposals on the Chicago metropolitan area. Particular attention is given to the dynamics of the grassroots environmental organizations which emerged to fight the siting proposals. The organizations are examined in the context of NIMBYism, the antitoxic movement, the environmental justice movement, and mainstream environmentalism. In addition, the underlying causes for the unintended consequences of the Retail Rate Law are analyzed against the backdrop of market and government failure. Face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with forty-one persons familiar with the battles over the Cook County siting proposals and the efforts to repeal the Retail Rate Law. The term "environmental justice" became controversial as siting opponents and supporters both appropriated the issue to support dueling positions on the proposed sitings. However, environmental justice did not play an instrumental role in repealing the Retail Rate Law or the siting proposals. Economic concerns led to the repeal of the legislation and demise of the original siting proposals. The circumstances of the siting battles and opposition groups raise questions about the future effectiveness of the environmental justice movement. A combination of market and government failure led to the unintended consequences from the retail Rate Law. Strategic maneuvering by state legislative leaders delayed the repeal of the legislation by several years. The resulting delay placed considerable cost on individuals, communities, corporations, and the State of Illinois. A bivariate analysis was conducted to examine whether the distribution patterns of ground level concentrations from the proposed facilities would have had a disproportionate distribution in lower-income and minority populations in the Chicago metropolitan area. The statistical analysis did discover evidence that

  18. CHANDA and ERINDA: Joint European programs for research on safety of nuclear facilities and waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Roland; Hannaske, Roland; Koegler, Toni [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz Zentrum DD-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, TU Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Grosse, Eckart [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, TU Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Junghans, Arnd R. [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz Zentrum DD-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In spite of the planned termination of the German nuclear power program neutron beam facilities in Germany can contribute considerably to research studies on the reduction of hazards due to nuclear waste. Transnational research programs support EU groups who want to carry out projects at the new tof set-up nELBE at HZDR, the calibrated n-flux at PTB and the FRANZ accelerator under construction at Frankfurt. Vice versa various facilities in the EU offer beams for transmutation and safety related studies with neutrons to German scientists under support by ERINDA (2011-2013) and CHANDA (2014-2017; solving challenges in nuclear data for the safety of European nuclear facilities). For work in that field scientific visits are also fostered to improve the exchange of experience between the partners (13 and in future about 35 from 18 countries). Plans for new projects as well as results obtained so far are discussed, and special emphasis is given to the present research performed at nELBE on neutron scattering and absorption.

  19. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, E; Allegrini, E; Fruergaard Astrup, T; Hulgaard, T; Riber, C; Jansson, S

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD/F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355 mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355 mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin content. While the total mass of the coarse fraction in this boiler was relatively small, sieving could reduce the amount of ash containing toxic PCDD/F by around 0.5 kg per tonne input waste or around 15% of the collected boiler ash from the convection pass. The mid-size fraction in this study covered a wide size range (0.09-0.355 mm) and possibly a low toxicity fraction could be identified by splitting this fraction into more narrow size ranges. The ashes exhibited uniform PCDD/F homologue patterns which suggests a stable and continuous generation of PCDD/F. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transverse coupling impedance of the storage ring at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Günzel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The vertical and horizontal impedance budgets of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF storage ring are calculated by element-by-element wake potential calculation. Resistive wall wakes are calculated analytically; the short range geometrical wakes are calculated by a 3D electromagnetic field solver. The effect of the quadrupolar wakes due to the flatness of most ESRF vacuum chambers is included in the model. It can well explain the sensitivity of the horizontal single bunch threshold on vacuum chamber changes, in particular, in low-gap sections of the ESRF storage ring. The values of the current thresholds on the transverse planes could be predicted correctly by the model within a factor of 2.

  1. Eurozone Public Debt Crisis: ECB Bond Buying and the Setup of European Financial Stability Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Bălțătescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to briefly review two of the most important policy responses of EU authorities to the Eurozone public debt crisis: (1 ECB bond buying; and (2 the setup of European Financial Stability Facility with the special task of issuing Eurobonds. The Securities Markets Programme approved by ECB marks an important change in the ECB policy. According to European treatises, ECB must remain an independent bank, but since the beginning of the debt crisis, in early 2010, the ECB has been pressured by the Eurozone governments that encountered financial problems to purchase Eurozone government bonds. By surrendering to these requests, ECB is being accused that it became a political bank, like its American counterpart, the FED. The Eurobonds represent as well a controversial measure because they allow the already highly indebted countries to access new funds on behalf of other Eurozone countries with a relative better financial and economic situation. Also, another important problem is that both measures curtail incentives for prudence and responsible fiscal policies for countries that already proved lack of prudence and fiscal discipline.

  2. European facilities for accelerator neutrino physics: Perspectives for the decade to come

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, R.; Mezzetto, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Terranova, F.

    2010-01-01

    Very soon a new generation of reactor and accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments -Double Chooz, Daya Bay, Reno and T 2 K- will seek for oscillation signals generated by the mixing parameter θ13. The knowledge of this angle is a fundamental milestone to optimize further experiments aimed at detecting C P violation in the neutrino sector. Leptonic C P violation is a key phenomenon that has profound implications in particle physics and cosmology but it is clearly out of reach for the aforementioned experiments. Since late 90s', a world-wide activity is in progress to design facilities that can access C P violation in neutrino oscillation and perform high-precision measurements of the lepton counterpart of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. In this paper the status of these studies will be summarized, focusing on the options that are best suited to exploit existing European facilities (firstly CERN and the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratories) or technologies where Europe has a world leadership. Similar considerations will be developed in more exotic scenarios -beyond the standard framework of flavor oscillation among three active neutrinos- that might appear plausible in the occurrence of anomalous results from post-MiniBooNE experiments or the CNGS.

  3. Energy, environmental and operation aspects of a SRF-fired fluidized bed waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Chiarelli, Agnese; Tagliente, Luca; Notarnicola, Michele

    2018-03-01

    A methodology based on the ISO 14031:2013 guideline has been developed and applied to a full-scale fluidized bed waste to energy plant (WtE) burning solid recovered fuel (SRF). With reference to 3years of operation, the data on energy and environmental performance, on raw materials consumptions such as sand and diesel fuel, accidental reasons of plant shutdown, have been acquired and analyzed. The obtained results have allowed to quantify the energy and environmental performance of the WtE plant under investigation by varying the amount and mixings of the inlet waste, available in form of thickened and fluff (similar to coriander) SRF. In terms of the energy performance, the fluidized bed technology applied to the SRF was able to guarantee an adequate production of electricity (satisfying the market demands), showing a relative flexibility with respect to the inlet waste. In terms of net energy production efficiency, the plant showed values in the range of 13.8-14.9% in line with similar installations. In terms of the environmental performance, the adoption of a cleaning system based on SNCR (Selective Non Catalitic Reduction)+semi-dry scrubbing+Fabric filter generated emissions usually well below the limits set by the EU Directive 2000/76/EC as well as the Italian Law 46/2014 (more restrictive) with reference to all the key parameters. In terms of the plant shutdown, the majority of problems focused on the combustion chamber and boiler due to the erosion of the refractory material of the furnace as well as to the breaking of the superheaters of the boiler. In contrast, the mechanical and electrical causes, along with those related to the control and instrumentation system, were of secondary importance. The sand bed de-fluidization was also among the leading causes of a frequent plant shutdown. In particular, results showed how although the SRF presents standard characteristics, the use of different mixtures may affect the number of plant shutdowns. The full

  4. The GMF (Group of European Municipalities with Nuclear Facilities) conference at Cernavoda. Opening talk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, Teodor

    2006-01-01

    Cernavoda NPP by 2015. Romania supports the idea of organizing an European debate related to the future of the nuclear energy. Finally, he stressed the good relationship of the Cernavoda NPP and Mioveni nuclear facility with local communities, as important contributors to the local municipality budget and also, in case of Cernavoda NPP, as the cheapest heating supplier in Romania

  5. Long-term sampling of CO2 from waste-to-energy plants: 14C determination methodology, data variation and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels Hald; Larsen, Anna Warberg

    2014-01-01

    A dedicated sampling and measurement method was developed for long-term measurements of biogenic and fossil-derived CO2 from thermal waste-to-energy processes. Based on long-term sampling of CO2 and 14C determination, plant-specific emission factors can be determined more accurately, and the annual...... emission of fossil CO2 from waste-to-energy plants can be monitored according to carbon trading schemes and renewable energy certificates. Weekly and monthly measurements were performed at five Danish waste incinerators. Significant variations between fractions of biogenic CO2 emitted were observed...... was ± 4.0 pmC (95 % confidence interval) at 62 pmC. The long-term sampling method was found to be useful for waste incinerators for determination of annual fossil and biogenic CO2 emissions with relatively low uncertainty....

  6. Pain in European long-term care facilities: Cross-national study in Finland, Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Gambassi, G.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Liperoti, R.; Noro, A.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Cherubini, A.; Dell'Aquila, G.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    There have been very few and limited cross-national comparisons concerning pain among residents of long-term care facilities in Europe. The aim of the present cross-sectional study has been to document the prevalence of pain, its frequency and severity as well as its correlates in three European

  7. Statistical lifetime modeling of FeNiCr alloys for high temperature corrosion in waste to energy plants and metal dusting in syngas production plants

    OpenAIRE

    Camperos Guevara, Sheyla Herminia

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the corrosion control of alloys exposed to severe and complex conditions in industrial applications has been a great challenge. Currently, corrosion costs are increasing and preventive strategies have become an important industrial demand. The SCAPAC project funded by the French National Research Agency has proposed to study the corrosion for two separate processes: Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) and Waste to Energy (WtE). Although the operating conditions of both proces...

  8. Economic and environmental analysis of four different configurations of anaerobic digestion for food waste to energy conversion using LCA for: a food service provider case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Matthew

    2013-07-15

    The US disposes of more than 34 million tons of food waste in landfills per year. As this food waste decomposes it generates methane gas and negatively contributes to global warming. Diverting theses organic food wastes from landfills and to emerging technologies will prevent these wastes and greenhouse gas emissions while at the same time generating a source renewable energy by collecting the emitted gases. From a waste prevention standpoint, instead of the food waste decomposing at local landfills, it is being converted into an energy source and the by-product may be used as a fertilizer (Fine and Hadas, 2012). The purpose of this study was to compare four different configurations of anaerobic digestion of organic waste to energy technologies from an economic, energy, and emissions standpoint using LCA via a case study at a large food services provider in Northwest Ohio, USA. The technologies studied included two-stage anaerobic digestion system using ultrasound pre-treating, two stage continuous combined thermophilic acidogenic hydrogenesis and mesophilic with recirculation of the digested sludge, long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements, and single stage anaerobic digestion. Using LCA, these scenarios were compared to landfill disposal of the food waste. The findings from the case study indicated that implementing on-site waste to energy systems will result in lower operation costs and lower environmental impacts. In addition, a standardized environmental and economic comparison of competing food waste to energy technologies is provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Upgrading the data acquisition and control systems of the European Breeding Blanket Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannori, Simone; Sermenghi, Valerio; Utili, Marco; Malavasi, Andrea; Gianotti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Data Acquisition and Control Systems (DACS) upgrading of experimental plant for full size thermo hydraulic testing of nuclear subsystems. • DACS development using integrated hardware/software platform with graphical programming (LabVIEW). • Development of simplified models for real-time simulation. • Rapid prototyping with real time simulation of the complete plant. • Using the code developed for the real time simulator for the real plant DACS. -- Abstract: The EBBTF (European Breeding Blanket Test Facility) experimental plant is a key component for the development of the breeding blankets (TBMs test blanket modules, HCLL helium cooled lithium lead and HCPB helium cooled pebble bed types) used by ITER. EBBTF is an experimental plant which provides the double breeding/cooling loops (liquid metal and gas) required for HCLL testing. EBBTF is composed of four subsystems (TBM, IELLLO integrated European lead lithium loop, HE-FUS3 helium fusion loop, version 3 and helium compressor build by ATEKO) with dedicated control systems realized with hardware/software combinations covering 15 years (1995–2010) time span. At the end of 2010 we began to upgrade the HE-FUS3 data acquisition control systems (DACS) replacing the obsolete PLC Siemens S5 with National Instruments Compact FieldPoint and LabVIEW. The control room has been completely reorganized using high resolution monitors and workstations linked with standard Ethernet interfaces. The data acquisition, control, safety and SCADA software has been completely developed in ENEA using LabVIEW. In this paper we are going to discuss the technical difficulties and the solutions that we have used to accomplish the upgrade

  10. Immobilization of antimony in waste-to-energy bottom ash by addition of calcium and iron containing additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Verbinnen, Bram; Cornelis, Geert; de Wijs, Joost; Mulder, Rob; Billen, Pieter; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The leaching of Sb from waste-to-energy (WtE) bottom ash (BA) often exceeds the Dutch limit value of 0.32mgkg(-1) for recycling of BA in open construction applications. From the immobilization mechanisms described in the literature, it could be concluded that both Ca and Fe play an important role in the immobilization of Sb in WtE BA. Therefore, Ca and Fe containing compounds were added to the samples of the sand fraction of WtE BA, which in contrast to the granulate fraction is not recyclable to date, and the effect on the Sb leaching was studied by means of batch leaching tests. Results showed that addition of 0.5 and 2.5% CaO, 5% CaCl2, 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 and 1% FeCl3 decreased the Sb leaching from 0.62±0.02mgkgDM(-1) to 0.20±0.02, 0.083±0.044, 0.25±0.01, 0.27±0.002 and 0.29±0.02mgkgDM(-1), respectively. Due to the increase in pH from 11.41 to 12.53 when 2.5% CaO was added, Pb and Zn leaching increased and exceeded the respective leaching limits. Addition of 5% CaCO3 had almost no effect on the Sb leaching, as evidenced by the resulting 0.53mgkgDM(-1) leaching concentration. This paper shows a complementary enhancement of the effect of Ca and Fe, by comparing the aforementioned Sb leaching results with those of WtE BA with combined addition of 2.5% CaO or 5% CaCl2 with 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 or 1% FeCl3. These lab scale results suggest that formation of romeites with a high Ca content and formation of iron antimonate (tripuhyite) with a very low solubility are the main immobilization mechanisms of Sb in WtE BA. Besides the pure compounds and their mixtures, also addition of 10% of two Ca and Fe containing residues of the steel industry, hereafter referred to as R1 and R2, was effective in decreasing the Sb leaching from WtE BA below the Dutch limit value for reuse in open construction applications. To evaluate the long term effect of the additives, pilot plots of WtE BA with 10% of R1 and 5% and 10% of R2 were built and samples were submitted to leaching tests at

  11. MOSFET dosimetry of the radiation therapy microbeams at the European synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We have developed an innovative on-line MOSFET readout system for use in the quality assurance of radiation treatment beams. Recently the system has found application in areas where excellent spatial resolution is also a requirement in the quality assurance process, for example IMRT, and microbeam radiation therapy. The excellent spatial resolution is achieved by using a quadruple RADFET TM chip in 'edge on' mode. In developing this approach we have found that the system can be utilised to determine any error in the beam profile measurements due to misalignment of RADFET with respect to the radiation beam or microbeam. Using this approach will ensure that the excellent spatial resolution of the RADFET used in 'edge-on' mode is fully utilised. In this work we report on dosimetry measurements performed at the microbeam radiation therapy beamline located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The synchrotron planar array microbeam with size 10-30 μm and pitch ∼200 μm has found an important application in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) of brain tumours in infants for whom other kinds of radiotherapy are inadequate and/or unsafe. The radiation damage from an array of parallel microbeams correlates strongly with the range of peak-valley dose ratios (PVDR), ie, the range of the ratio of the absorbed dose to tissue directly in line with the mid-plane of the microbeam to that in the mid-plane between adjacent microbeams. Novel physical dosimetry of the microbeams using the online MOSFET reader system will be presented. Comparison of the experimental results with both GaF film measurements and Monte Carlo computer-simulated dosimetry are described here for selected points in the peak and valley regions of a microbeam-irradiated tissue phantom

  12. The management of financial resources intended for radioactive waste and decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in the european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatar, F.; Dima, A.; Glodeanu, F.; Miller, B.; Mosmonea, R.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission has developed policies and made recommendations on how financial resources should be established and managed by Member States for the purpose of radioactive waste management. The manner in which these recommendations have been accepted, and are applied, varies between European countries. To some extent, this variation reflects the maturity of the nuclear programs in each country and whether or not nuclear facilities are largely state or privately owned and operated. This paper reviews the European Commission.s policy on financial resourcing for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and evaluates how financial resources are practically established and managed by Member States. The findings from the review are then used to benchmark the situation in Romania. (authors)

  13. European Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR): the new international center for fundamental physics and its research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Sharkov, Boris Yu; Stöker, H

    2012-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) accelerator center at Darmstadt, Germany, will provide the international scientific community with unique experimental opportunities of a scope and scale out of reach for any other large-scale facility in the world. With its staff of over 2500, it is expected to fundamentally expand our knowledge of hadron, nuclear, and atomic physics and their application to cosmology, astrophysics, and technology. In this review, the design details of the accelerator complex are discussed and the experimental research program for FAIR is presented. Particular attention is paid to experiments on the extreme state of matter arising from the isochoric heating of a material by heavy-ion beams. One of the largest facilities of its kind in Europe, FAIR is a part of the strategic development roadmap for the European Strategic Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). (physics of our days)

  14. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea of co-processing them in integration is expected to gain more benefit. The economies of scale and the synergy of co-processing these wastes results in higher quality and higher yield of the end products. In this study, we use cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the integrated management scenario of collecting the three wastes and converting them to energy. We report the total heat of combustion of pyrolytic oil at the maximum and minimum conversion rates, and conduct a sensitivity analysis in which the parameters of an increase of the electricity cost for operating the process and increase of the feedstock transportation cost are tested. We evaluate the effects of economy of scale in the case of integrated waste management. We compare four cases of waste-to-energy conversion with the business as usual (BAU) scenario, and our results show that the integrated co-processing of waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics is the most profitable from the viewpoints of energy yield and economics. (author)

  15. Critical analysis of a method for assessing health effects of the toxic and persistent atmospheric pollutants from waste to energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocarta, D.; Ragazzi, M.; Badea, A.; Apostol, T.

    2005-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is primarily a management tool, but it may also be used like a source of energy. Considering the risks to health posed by MSW incineration, it is also appropriate to make some comparisons with alternatives forms of waste management. The municipal solid incineration with energy recovery (so called waste-to-energy plants) and the indicators in the risk assesment are presented in the paper. A particular aspect is related to the organic micro-pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) role for the human health risk assesment in waste-to-energy plants. There are also pointed out details on the group of the organic compounds Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAH, from which BaP is part, and on the dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). As persistent organic pollutants all the pollutants first mentioned above are to be taken into account in the health risk assesment. The present paper points out how BaP can be a useful indicator of PAH in case of the waste incinerators process so as 2, 3, 7, 8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is for dioxins. (authors)

  16. Design and safety studies on the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) with CERMET fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.N.; Rineiski, A.; Liu, P.; Matzerath Boccaccini, C.; Flad, M.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.; Morita, K.

    2008-01-01

    European R and D for ADS design and fuel development is driven in the 6 th FP of the EU by the EUROTRANS Programme [1]. In EUROTRANS two ADS design routes are followed, the XT-ADS and the EFIT. The XT-ADS is designed to provide the experimental demonstration of transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System. The EFIT development, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, aims at a generic conceptual design of a full transmuter. A key issue of the R and D work is the choice of an adequate fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven Transmuter (ADT) like EFIT. Various fuel forms have been assessed. CERCER and CERMET fuels, specifically with the matrices MgO and Mo, have finally been selected and are now under closer investigation. Within EUROTRANS, a special domain named 'AFTRA', is responsible to more deeply assess the behavior of these dedicated fuels and to provide the fuel data base for the core design of the EFIT. The EFIT concept has to be optimized towards: a good transmutation efficiency, high burnup, low reactivity swing, low power peaking, adequate subcriticality, reasonable beam requirements and a high safety level. The final recommendation on fuels by AFTRA gave a ranking of these fuels based on the mentioned criteria. The composite CERMET fuel (Pu 0.5 ,Am 0.5 )O 2-x - Mo (with the isotope 92 Mo comprising 93% of the molybdenum) has been recommended as the primary candidate for the EFIT. This CERMET fuel fulfils adopted criteria for fabrication and reprocessing, and provides excellent safety margins. Disadvantages include the cost for enrichment of 92 Mo and a lower specific transmutation rate of minor actinides, because of the higher neutron absorption cross-section of the matrix. The composite CERCER fuel (Pu 0.4 ,Am 0.6 )O 2-x - MgO has therefore been recommended as a backup solution as it might offer a higher consumption rate of minor actinides, and can be manufactured for a lower unit cost. This paper is in fact a sequel to our last paper [2

  17. Agriculture/municipal/industrial waste management and resource recovery feasibility study : renewable energy clusters and improved end-use efficiency : a formula for sustainable development[Prepared for the North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-15

    The North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium initiated a study that evaluated the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of a proposed biomass to renewable energy eco-system, using the technologies of anaerobic digestion (AD), cogeneration and hydroponics in a centralized waste treatment and recovery facility. The Okanagan Valley is well suited for the demonstration plant because of its concentration of food producers and processors and abundance of rich organic waste stream. The agricultural, municipal and industrial waste management consortium consisted of a dairy farm, 5 municipalities and local waste handlers. The consortium proposed to combine several organic waste streams such as dairy manure, slaughterhouse offal and source separated municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas in an anaerobic digester. The methane would be processed into renewable energy (heat and electricity) for a hydroponics barley sprout operation. It is expected that the synergies resulting from this project would increase productivity, end-use efficiency and profitability. This study reviewed the basics of AD technology, technological options and evaluated several technology providers. The type and quantity of waste available in the area was determined through a waste audit and analysis. The potential to market the system by-products locally was also reviewed as well as the general economic viability of a centralized system. The study also evaluated site selection, preliminary design and costing, with reference to proximity to feedstock and markets, access to roads, impacts on neighbours and insurance of minimal environmental impact. 84 refs., 82 figs., 10 appendices.

  18. Comparative analysis of waste-to-energy alternatives for a low-capacity power plant in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Elzimar Tadeu de F; Balestieri, José Antonio P

    2018-03-01

    The Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy has been implemented with some difficulty, especially in convincing the different actors of society about the importance of conscious awareness among every citizen and businesses concerning adequate solid waste disposal and recycling. Technologies for recovering energy from municipal solid waste were considered in National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP), given that their technical and environmental viability is ensured, being the landfill biogas burning in internal combustion engines and solid waste incineration suggested options. In the present work, an analysis of current technologies and a collection of basic data on electricity generation using biogas from waste/liquid effluents is presented, as well as an assessment of the installation of a facility that harnesses biogas from waste or liquid effluents for producing electricity. Two combined cycle concepts were evaluated with capacity in the range 4-11 MW, gas turbine burning landfill biogas and an incinerator that burns solid waste hybrid cycle, and a solid waste gasification system to burn syngas in gas turbines. A comparative analysis of them demonstrated that the cycle with gasification from solid waste has proved to be technically more appealing than the hybrid cycle integrated with incineration because of its greater efficiency and considering the initially defined guidelines for electricity generation. The economic analysis does not reveal significant attractive values; however, this is not a significant penalty to the project given the fact that this is a pilot low-capacity facility, which is intended to be constructed to demonstrate appropriate technologies of energy recovery from solid waste.

  19. The Cost-Optimal Distribution of Wind and Solar Generation Facilities in a Simplified Highly Renewable European Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; von Bremen, Lüder; Schyska, Bruno; Chattopadhyay, Kabitri; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the European power system from fossil generation towards renewable sources is driven by different reasons like decarbonisation and sustainability. Renewable power sources like wind and solar have, due to their weather dependency, fluctuating feed-in profiles, which make their system integration a difficult task. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been investigated in the past like the optimal mix of wind and PV [1], the extension of the transmission grid or storages [2]. In this work, the optimal distribution of wind turbines and solar modules in Europe is investigated. For this purpose, feed-in data with an hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 7 km covering Europe for the renewable sources wind, photovoltaics and hydro was used. Together with historical load data and a transmission model , a simplified pan-European power power system was simulated. Under cost assumptions of [3] the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for this simplified system consisting of generation, consumption, transmission and backup units is calculated. With respect to the LCOE, the optimal distribution of generation facilities in Europe is derived. It is shown, that by optimal placement of renewable generation facilities the LCOE can be reduced by more than 10% compared to a meta study scenario [4] and a self-sufficient scenario (every country produces on average as much from renewable sources as it consumes). This is mainly caused by a shift of generation facilities towards highly suitable locations, reduced backup and increased transmission need. The results of the optimization will be shown and implications for the extension of renewable shares in the European power mix will be discussed. The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (Wuppertal Institute, Next Energy, University of Oldenburg), that is financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 03SFF0439A). [1] Kies, A. et al.: Kies, Alexander, et al

  20. Mitigation of gaseous Mercury Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Facilities: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Hg-Oxidation Pathways in Presence of Fly Ash.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    Roč. 206, JAN 15 ( 2018 ), s. 276-283 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * emission * waste incineration Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  1. Mitigation of gaseous Mercury Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Facilities: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Hg-Oxidation Pathways in Presence of Fly Ash.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 206, JAN 15 (2018), s. 276-283 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * emission * waste incineration Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  2. Sustainable energy transitions in emerging economies: The formation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia 1990–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The economic development in emerging economies in Southeast Asia has significantly increased the use of fossil fuel based energy. This has severe implications for global climate change, and against this background, scholars within the sustainable transition tradition have taken an interest...... in addressing how transitions towards more sustainable development pathways in this region may be achieved. This paper contributes to the abovementioned literature by examining the conducive and limiting factors for development and proliferation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia during...... the period 1990–2011. Rising oil prices, strong pressure on the palm oil industry from environmental groups, and a persisting palm oil biomass waste disposal problem in Malaysia appear to have been conducive to niche proliferation, and on top of this national renewable energy policies and large-scale donor...

  3. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  4. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat...... to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...

  5. The impact of regulatory compliance behavior on hazardous waste generation in European private healthcare facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Along with the increased provision of healthcare by private outpatient healthcare facilities within the EU countries, there is also an increase on waste generation from these facilities. A significant fraction of this waste is amongst the most hazardous of all wastes arising in communities, posing significant risks to people and the environment if inappropriately managed. The growing awareness that mismanagement of healthcare waste has serious environmental and public health consequences is r...

  6. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marginean Roxana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a stakeholder analysis, (b international literature reviews, (c Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental

  7. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS): background, aims and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Prisca; Becker, Thomas; Losert, Carolin; Alptekin, Köksal; Berti, Loretta; Burti, Lorenzo; Burton, Alexandra; Dernovsek, Mojca; Dragomirecka, Eva; Freidl, Marion; Friedrich, Fabian; Genova, Aneta; Germanavicius, Arunas; Halis, Ulaş; Henderson, John; Hjorth, Peter; Lai, Taavi; Larsen, Jens Ivar; Lech, Katarzyna; Lucas, Ramona; Marginean, Roxana; McDaid, David; Mladenova, Maya; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Paziuc, Alexandru; Paziuc, Petronela; Priebe, Stefan; Prot-Klinger, Katarzyna; Wancata, Johannes; Kilian, Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii) identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii) at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a) stakeholder analysis, (b) international literature reviews, (c) Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d) focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental disorders must take into

  8. Catalogue of facilities in Member States of the European Community for testing the packaging of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, A.; Swindell, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    A group of experts convened by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels on 2 July 1980 to suggest possible actions in connection with the safe transport of radioactive materials, recommended, among other things, that the Commission should collect and distribute information on packaging test facilities in Member States. In response to that recommendation a letter of enquiry was sent informally, on behalf of the Commission, to the competent authorities of the Member States. The purpose of the enquiry is to assist in the effective implementation of the internationally accepted Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials through the dissemination of information on test facilities and on the terms and conditions under which the services of these facilities could be made available for the testing of packaging designed in other countries. As an aid to the presentation of the material in a harmonized format, it was suggested that the information provided should cover relevant topics. The information received by the Commission has been assembled for each installation according to this format

  9. Plywood production wastes to energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Popov, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    Wood and by-products of its processing are a renewable energy source with carbon neutral and may be used in solving energy problems. ZAO «Arkhangelsk plywood factory» installed and put into operation the boiler with capacity of 22 MW (saturated steam of 1.2 MPa) to reduce the cost of thermal energy, the impact of environmental factors on stability of the company’s development and for reduction of harmful emissions into the environment. Fuel for boiler is the mixture consists of chip plywood, birch bark, wood sanding dust (WSD) and sawdust of the plywood processing. The components of the fuel mixture significantly differ in thermotechnical characteristics and technological parameters but especially in size composition. Particle dimensions in the fuel mixture differ by more than a thousand times which makes it «unique» and very difficult to ensure the effective and non-explosive use. WSD and sawdust from line of cutting of plywood are small fraction material and relate to IV group of explosion. Criterion of explosive for them has great values (КfWSD=10.85 Кfsaw=9.66). Boiler’s furnace equipped with reciprocating grate where implemented a three-stage scheme of combustion. For a comprehensive survey of the effectiveness of installed equipment was analyzed the design features of the boiler, defined the components of thermal balance, studied nitrogen oxide emissions, carbon and particulate matter with the determination of soot emissions. Amount of solid particles depending on their shape and size was analyzed.

  10. EURAC: the JRC proposal for an European fusion reactor materials test and development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kley, W.; Bishop, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    For the last 7 years we examined the use of a Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) as an altenative European Option to FMIT. For an optimized spallation neutron source design we find now for the same beam power the following design parameters: - Linear Accelerator: 600 MeV, 6 m-A-proton beam on liquid lead target - irradiation parameters: 320 dpa/year in 20 cm 3 or 274 dpa/year in 31.5 cm 3 6 -1 sec -1 in order to simulate the Pulsed Mode of Tokamak Power Reactors. The deflected beam can be used for other experiments

  11. Heat Transfer Analysis of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) Core Catcher Test Facility Volley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikkarainen, Mika; Laine, Jani; Purhonen, Heikki; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, Riitta [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. 20 53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Sairanen, Risto [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. 14 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    The EPR is designed to cope with severe accidents, involving core meltdown. A specific melt spreading area has been designed within the containment. This core catcher will be flooded by water, which transfers the decay heat to the containment heat removal system. To improve cooling, horizontal flow channels made of cast iron are located also below the core catcher. STUK, the radiation and nuclear safety authority in Finland, wanted an independent study of the functionality of the core catcher design. Effect of the presence of insulation material and boric acid in the cooling water was to be studied, as well as the general behavior of the system in different phases of the flooding of the core melt spreading area. To verify the function of the core catcher design, a scaled down test facility was built at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Since there are some physical restrictions of a test facility computational tools were applied especially for the tests where steady state conditions could not be reached without endangering the integrity of the test facility. This paper introduces the Volley test facility, computational simulations and compares them with the test results. Simulated temperatures of those Volley tests, which could be run until steady state conditions, are very close to the measured temperatures. It can be concluded also, that the temperatures are evidently below the cast iron melting point with heat fluxes used in the tests, if there is a small flow inside the cooling channels or even in case when only a few adjacent cooling channels are totally dry. (authors)

  12. Heat Transfer Analysis of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) Core Catcher Test Facility Volley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikkarainen, Mika; Laine, Jani; Purhonen, Heikki; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, Riitta; Sairanen, Risto

    2008-01-01

    The EPR is designed to cope with severe accidents, involving core meltdown. A specific melt spreading area has been designed within the containment. This core catcher will be flooded by water, which transfers the decay heat to the containment heat removal system. To improve cooling, horizontal flow channels made of cast iron are located also below the core catcher. STUK, the radiation and nuclear safety authority in Finland, wanted an independent study of the functionality of the core catcher design. Effect of the presence of insulation material and boric acid in the cooling water was to be studied, as well as the general behavior of the system in different phases of the flooding of the core melt spreading area. To verify the function of the core catcher design, a scaled down test facility was built at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Since there are some physical restrictions of a test facility computational tools were applied especially for the tests where steady state conditions could not be reached without endangering the integrity of the test facility. This paper introduces the Volley test facility, computational simulations and compares them with the test results. Simulated temperatures of those Volley tests, which could be run until steady state conditions, are very close to the measured temperatures. It can be concluded also, that the temperatures are evidently below the cast iron melting point with heat fluxes used in the tests, if there is a small flow inside the cooling channels or even in case when only a few adjacent cooling channels are totally dry. (authors)

  13. Energy matching and optimization analysis of waste to energy CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with exergy and energy level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Penghui; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, YenWah; Dong, Pengwei

    2015-01-01

    CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system as a poly-generation technology has received an increasing attention in field of small scale power systems for applications ranging from residence to utilities. It will also play an important role in waste to energy application for megacities. However, how to evaluate and manage energy utilization of CCHP scientifically remains unclear. In this paper, energy level and exergy analysis are implemented on energy conversion processes to reveal the variation of energy amount and quality in the operation of CCHP system. Moreover, based on the energy level analysis, the methodology of energy matching and optimization for the CCHP system is proposed. By this method, the operational parameters of CCHP system can be deduced to obtain an efficient performance and proper energy utilization. It will be beneficial to understand and operate the CCHP system, and to provide a guiding principle of the energy conversion and management for the CCHP system. - Highlights: • Energy level is implemented to reveal the energy variation of CCHP system. • A mathematical energy level analysis model of CCHP system is proposed. • By energy level analysis between supply and demand, optimal zone is obtained. • This study will be useful for energy matching and optimization of CCHP system

  14. Energy, economic and environmental (3E) analysis of waste-to-energy (WTE) strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Sie Ting; Ho, Wai Shin; Hashim, Haslenda; Lee, Chew Tin; Taib, Mohd Rozainee; Ho, Chin Siong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3E impact of WTE derived from MSW were performed. • MSW treatment technologies significantly effects the economic and environmental benefits of WTE. • Different scenarios are conducted based on the waste projections and production. • Comprehensive discussion on the trade-off of both incineration and anaerobic digestion for MSWM. - Abstract: The utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) for energy production has been implemented globally for many decades. Malaysia, however, is still highly dependent on landfills for MSW management. Because of the concern for greenhouse gases (GHG) emission and the scarcity of land, Malaysia has an urgent need for a better waste management strategy. This study aims to evaluate the energy, economic and environmental (3E) impact of waste-to-energy (WTE) for municipal solid waste management. An existing landfill in Malaysia is selected as the case study for consideration to adopt the advanced WTE technologies including the landfill gas recovery system (LFGRS), incineration, anaerobic digestion (AD), and gasification. The study presented an interactive comparison of different WTE scenarios and followed by further discussion on waste incineration and AD as the two potential WTE options in Malaysia. The 3E assessment reveals incineration as the superior technology choice when the production of electricity and heat were considered; however, AD is found to be more favourable under the consideration of electricity production only

  15. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Profile of European proton and carbon ion therapy centers assessed by the EORTC facility questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Damien C; Abrunhosa-Branquinho, André; Bolsi, Alessandra; Kacperek, Andrzej; Dendale, Rémi; Geismar, Dirk; Bachtiary, Barbara; Hall, Annika; Heufelder, Jens; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Amichetti, Maurizio; Krause, Mechthild; Orecchia, Roberto; Vondracek, Vladimir; Thariat, Juliette; Kajdrowicz, Tomasz; Nilsson, Kristina; Grau, Cai

    2017-08-01

    We performed a survey using the modified EORTC Facility questionnaire (pFQ) to evaluate the human, technical and organizational resources of particle centers in Europe. The modified pFQ consisted of 235 questions distributed in 11 sections accessible on line on an EORTC server. Fifteen centers from 8 countries completed the pFQ between May 2015 and December 2015. The average number of patients treated per year and per particle center was 221 (range, 40-557). The majority (66.7%) of centers had pencil beam or raster scanning capability. Four (27%) centers were dedicated to eye treatment only. An increase in the patients-health professional FTE ratio was observed for eye tumor only centers when compared to other centers. All centers treated routinely chordomas/chondrosarcomas, brain tumors and sarcomas but rarely breast cancer. The majority of centers treated pediatric cases with particles. Only a minority of the queried institutions treated non-static targets. As the number of particle centers coming online will increase, the experience with this treatment modality will rise in Europe. Children can currently be treated in these facilities in a majority of cases. The majority of these centers provide state of the art particle beam therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities overseen by the IAEA in the United States and major European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Shikazoh

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to know generally on the activities of decommissioning nuclear facilities in the IAEA, and to compare the regulation and finance concerning reactor decommissioning in European countries and the United States together with the decommissioning policy and the status of research and development. Recently also in Japan, attention has been paid to reactor decommissioning after the termination of operation, and the report by the Decommissioning Countermeasures Committee was published in March, 1981. In the IAEA, the investigation of Reactor decommissioning has been performed since 1973, and the meetings of the technical committee in 1975 and 1977, the international symposium in 1978, and the publication of ''Various factors concerning the decommissioning of inland nuclear facilities'' in 1980 were held. The regulation and finance concerning the decommissioning have been performed differently in each country, and the features of the main policy of decommissioning are indicated. In foreign countries, the measures of account for the decommissioning expenses have been already taken. In Japan, it is desirable to establish the technical standard for the decommissioning including legislation and finance. (Kako, I.)

  18. Assessing reported cases of sexual and gender-based violence, causes and preventive strategies, in European asylum reception facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Charlotte; Keygnaert, Ines; Oliveira Martins, Maria do Rosário; Dias, Sónia

    2018-05-09

    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is a widespread public health problem and a violation of human rights rooted in gender and power inequities. Refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants living in European asylum reception facilities (EARF) are especially vulnerable to SGBV. To contribute to closing the gap on systematic and accurate evidence on SGBV, we aim to explore reported cases of SGBV, causes and preventable measures described by residents and professionals from EARF. We developed a cross-sectional study using the Senperforto project database. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with residents (refugees, asylum-seekers and unaccompanied minors) and professionals (service and health care providers) at EARF, in 7 European countries. We used IBM® SPSS software to analyze our data. Further, statistical tests - Chi-square Test and Fisher's exact test (5% significance level) were conducted. In total 562 respondents: 375 residents (R) and 187 professionals (P) participated in the study. The majority of respondents were male (56.9%), aged 19 to 39 years (67.3%). Respondents described 698 cases of SGBV (R 328, P 370), comprising 1110 acts of multi-types of violence. Respondents from Malta (160) and Belgium (143) reported the highest number of SGBV cases. The main reported causes were frustration and stress (R 23.6%, P 37.6%, p 0.008) and differences related with cultural background (R 19.3%, P 20.3%, p 0.884). Respondents assumed that these acts of violence could be prevented by SGBV prevention interventions (R 31.5%, P 24.7%, p 0.293); improving living conditions (R 21.7%, P 15.3%, p 0.232); and promoting communication (R 16.1%, P 28.2%, p 0.042). The majority of R were not aware of existing preventable measures in the asylum facility or host country. While the majority of P were aware of existing preventable measures in the asylum facility or country. Proposed SGBV prevention strategies in EARF included SGBV sensitization and awareness, improving living

  19. The Eurisol report. A feasibility study for a European isotope-separation-on-line radioactive ion beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The Eurisol project aims at a preliminary design study of the next-generation European isotope separation on-line (ISOL) radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility. In this document, the scientific case of high-intensity RIBs using the ISOL method is first summarised, more details being given in appendix A. It includes: 1) the study of atomic nuclei under extreme and so-far unexplored conditions of composition (i.e. as a function of the numbers of protons and neutrons, or the so-called isospin), rotational angular velocity (or spin), density and temperature, 2) the investigation of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the Universe, an important part of nuclear astrophysics, 3) a study of the properties of the fundamental interactions which govern the properties of the universe, and in particular of the violation of some of their symmetries, 4) potential applications of RIBs in solid-state physics and in nuclear medicine, for example, where completely new fields could be opened up by the availability of high-intensity RIBs produced by the ISOL method. The proposed Eurisol facility is then presented, with particular emphasis on its main components: the driver accelerator, the target/ion-source assembly, the mass-selection system and post-accelerator, and the required scientific instrumentation. Special details of these components are given in appendices B to E, respectively. The estimates of the costs of the Eurisol, construction and running costs, have been performed in as much details as is presently possible. The total capital cost (installation manpower cost included) of the project is estimated to be of the order of 630 million Euros within 20%. In general, experience has shown that operational costs per annum for large accelerator facilities are about 10% of the capital cost. (A.C.)

  20. Sustainable energy transitions in emerging economies: The formation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia 1990–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The economic development in emerging economies in Southeast Asia has significantly increased the use of fossil fuel based energy. This has severe implications for global climate change, and against this background, scholars within the sustainable transition tradition have taken an interest in addressing how transitions towards more sustainable development pathways in this region may be achieved. This paper contributes to the abovementioned literature by examining the conducive and limiting factors for development and proliferation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia during the period 1990–2011. Rising oil prices, strong pressure on the palm oil industry from environmental groups, and a persisting palm oil biomass waste disposal problem in Malaysia appear to have been conducive to niche proliferation, and on top of this national renewable energy policies and large-scale donor programmes have specifically supported the utilisation of palm oil biomass waste for energy. However, in spite of this, the niche development process has only made slow progress. The paper identifies reluctant implementation of energy policy, rise in biomass resource prices, limited network formation and negative results at the niche level, as the main factors hindering niche development. - Highlights: • We examine crucial factors for developing a biomass-to-energy niche in Malaysia. • In spite of interventions for policy support the niche has only made slow progress. • Oil prices, NGO pressure, waste problems and policy support were the enabling factors. • First, reluctant implementation of energy policy was hindering niche development. • Later, low performance level of implemented plants was hindering niche development

  1. Second session: operating European facilities and their programs; Session 2: Les installations Europeennes actuelles et leurs programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iracane, D. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Porracchia, A.; Fougeras, P.; Morey, J.M. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs; Loubiere, S.; Durande-Ayme, P. [CEA Saclay, Nuclear Energy Div., Reactors and Nuclear Services Deptment, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guidez, J.; Goux, D. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, DEN, 30 - Marcoule (France); Dupraz, R.; Brand, B. [FRAMATOME, AREVA-FANP, 69 - Lyon (France); Blanc, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Perthuis, S. de [FRAMATOME ANP, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Le Rouzic, J.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    2005-07-01

    Most European nuclear post-irradiation examination facilities are ageing and the optimization of the remaining infrastructures may lead to connect them through a network implying consistent staff competence between countries and efficient nuclear material transport means. The second article describes the 3 very-low power research reactors operating in France: Minerve, Masurca and Eole. The Osiris reactor is presented in the third article, the author focuses on the devices available in Osiris to perform irradiation in light water reactor conditions and in high temperature reactor conditions and on the associated programs. Phenix reactor located on the Marcoule site had been performing from 1974 to 1990 the necessary technological qualifications required by the fast reactor system. An important upgrading program, led from 1994 to 2003, has allowed the reactor to begin a second life. Its investigation program encompasses research work on the transmutation of actinides and fission products and on new nuclear fuels and materials required for the future fourth generation of reactors. In Europe about 20 hot laboratories offer services to perform examination and qualification required by their national civil nuclear programs. Most are state-owned and show a large range of activities: nuclear fuels, materials, reprocessing, radio-nuclides, and radio-active sources. The last article reviews the main test loops operating in France and in neighboring countries. About 30 installations are reported and classified according to their activity fields : critical heat flux, hydro-mechanics, device testing, accidental situations, helium and severe reactor accidents. (A.C.)

  2. Improvement of environmentally relevant qualities of slags from waste-to-energy plants; Verbesserung der umweltrelevanten Qualitaeten von Schlacken aus Abfallverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwast, Holger [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany); Riemann, Axel [RSP GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    This expert opinion describes options for improving slag quality (further measures for processing slag, as well as improvements of grate firing in terms of firing-technology), to ensure a slag recovery that is as sustainable as possible. In the context of this project, the term ''slag'' serves as a synonym for solid incineration residues that are generated during the incineration of wastes or of refuse derived fuels and that are separated there (e.g. from the deslagger). The term ''slags'' is also used as a synonym for grate ashes. The main focus of this expertise is on resource and climate protection issues with respect to slag processing. Resource protection refers to the saving of resources and natural raw materials, such as, for example, water and metal ores. Climate protection in this context means CO{sub 2} mitigation through a high specific net energy generation in waste incineration plants, as well as a reduced energy use due to avoided new production of metals, which can be recycled from slag processing. The main measure for improving climate and resource protection in slag processing consists therefore of separating as much metal as possible from slags. By recycling those separated slags, the energy that is needed for the extraction from ores and the raw material ore itself can be saved. This advantage in terms of energy, however, can be partially compensated by the energy use potentially needed for the improvement of slag processing. Further important aspects include the protection of water and soils, as well as the suitability of processed slag for an adequate recovery. These last criteria, however, are not central for this expertise. Currently, 69 municipal solid waste incinerators, hereinafter referred to as Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants, and 23 refuse derived fuel (RDF) power plants with grate firing are in operation in Germany. Their total capacity amounts to more than 21 million Mg per year. Another 13 RDF

  3. Life-cycle assessment of a Waste-to-Energy plant in central Norway: Current situation and effects of changes in waste fraction composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausselet, Carine; Cherubini, Francesco; Del Alamo Serrano, Gonzalo; Becidan, Michael; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-12-01

    Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants constitute one of the most common waste management options to deal with municipal solid waste. WtE plants have the dual objective to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills and simultaneously to produce useful energy (heat and/or power). Energy from WtE is gaining steadily increasing importance in the energy mix of several countries. Norway is no exception, as energy recovered from waste currently represents the main energy source of the Norwegian district heating system. Life-cycle assessments (LCA) of WtE systems in a Norwegian context are quasi-nonexistent, and this study assesses the environmental performance of a WtE plant located in central Norway by combining detailed LCA methodology with primary data from plant operations. Mass transfer coefficients and leaching coefficients are used to trace emissions over the various life-cycle stages from waste logistics to final disposal of the ashes. We consider different fractions of input waste (current waste mix, insertion of 10% car fluff, 5% clinical waste and 10% and 50% wood waste), and find a total contribution to Climate Change Impact Potential ranging from 265 to 637gCO 2 eq/kg of waste and 25 to 61gCO 2 eq/MJ of heat. The key drivers of the environmental performances of the WtE system being assessed are the carbon biogenic fraction and the lower heating value of the incoming waste, the direct emissions at the WtE plant, the leaching of the heavy metals at the landfill sites and to a lesser extent the use of consumables. We benchmark the environmental performances of our WtE systems against those of fossil energy systems, and we find better performance for the majority of environmental impact categories, including Climate Change Impact Potential, although some trade-offs exist (e.g. higher impacts on Human Toxicity Potential than natural gas, but lower than coal). Also, the insertion of challenging new waste fractions is demonstrated to be an option both to cope with the

  4. European facilities and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities and time schedules of present and planned accelerators in Europe are reviewed. The history of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project is recalled, and the results of machine feasibility studies are summarized. It seems possible to build in the LEP tunnel a pp collider with √s = 10 to 18 TeV and a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec - . Results from the Lausanne Workshop on LHC physics are reviewed, and some aspects of Higgs and supersymmetric particle production are discussed

  5. The problems associated with the monitoring of complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilski, P.; Blomgren, J.; d´Errico, F.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernández, F.; Fuchs, A.; Golnik, N.; Lacoste, V.; Leuschner, A.; Sandri, S.; Silari, M.; Spurný, František; Wiegel, B.; Wright, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 126, 1-4 (2007), s. 491-496 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC032 Grant - others:ES(XE) Contract no FI6R-012684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation fields * european high-energy accelerators * thermonuclear fusion facilities Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2007

  6. A Request for Planning Funds for a Research and Study Abroad Facility in Geneva, Switzerland in Affiliation with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    campbell, myron

    2013-03-31

    To create a research and study abroad program that would allow U.S. undergraduate students access to the world-leading research facilities at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the World Health Organization, various operations of the United Nations and other international organizations based in Geneva.The proposal is based on the unique opportunities currently existing in Geneva. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now operational at CERN, data are being collected, and research results are already beginning to emerge. At the same time, a related reduction of activity at U.S. facilities devoted to particle physics is expected. In addition, the U.S. higher-education community has an ever-increasing focus on international organizations dealing with world health pandemics, arms control and human rights, a nexus also centered in Geneva.

  7. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  8. The Upgrade Programme for the Structural Biology beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - High throughput sample evaluation and automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theveneau, P.; Baker, R.; Barrett, R.; Beteva, A.; Bowler, M. W.; Carpentier, P.; Caserotto, H.; de Sanctis, D.; Dobias, F.; Flot, D.; Guijarro, M.; Giraud, T.; Lentini, M.; Leonard, G. A.; Mattenet, M.; McCarthy, A. A.; McSweeney, S. M.; Morawe, C.; Nanao, M.; Nurizzo, D.; Ohlsson, S.; Pernot, P.; Popov, A. N.; Round, A.; Royant, A.; Schmid, W.; Snigirev, A.; Surr, J.; Mueller-Dieckmann, C.

    2013-03-01

    Automation and advances in technology are the key elements in addressing the steadily increasing complexity of Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) experiments. Much of this complexity is due to the inter-and intra-crystal heterogeneity in diffraction quality often observed for crystals of multi-component macromolecular assemblies or membrane proteins. Such heterogeneity makes high-throughput sample evaluation an important and necessary tool for increasing the chances of a successful structure determination. The introduction at the ESRF of automatic sample changers in 2005 dramatically increased the number of samples that were tested for diffraction quality. This "first generation" of automation, coupled with advances in software aimed at optimising data collection strategies in MX, resulted in a three-fold increase in the number of crystal structures elucidated per year using data collected at the ESRF. In addition, sample evaluation can be further complemented using small angle scattering experiments on the newly constructed bioSAXS facility on BM29 and the micro-spectroscopy facility (ID29S). The construction of a second generation of automated facilities on the MASSIF (Massively Automated Sample Screening Integrated Facility) beam lines will build on these advances and should provide a paradigm shift in how MX experiments are carried out which will benefit the entire Structural Biology community.

  9. The time-resolved and extreme conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline BM23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, O; Beteva, A; Borrel, J; Bugnazet, D; Gatla, S; Hino, R; Kantor, I; Mairs, T; Munoz, M; Pasternak, S; Perrin, F; Pascarelli, S

    2015-11-01

    BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5-75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. It is a user-friendly facility featuring a high degree of automation, online EXAFS data reduction and a flexible sample environment.

  10. Remedial Measures for Erroneous Environmental Policies: Assessing Infrastructure Projects of Waste-to-Energy Incineration in Taiwan with a Case Study of the Taitung Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lih-Ren Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan, like many other countries, often incentivizes private investors to participate in the construction of infrastructures for environmental protection. The build-operate-transfer (BOT or build-operate-own (BOO model of financing public infrastructure was introduced to Taiwan in the 1990s. Among them, the construction of incinerators to treat the municipal solid waste using the BOT/BOO model was quite a success in the beginning. With the socio-technical change of lifestyle and waste generation, the amount of amount of trash dropped dramatically. The policy failed eventually, however, because the government over-estimated the trash quantity and refrained from inter-municipality cooperation to treat trash efficiently. This failure triggered a rash of intense debates and legal disputes. In the case of the Taitung incinerator, the 26th incinerator located in southeastern Taiwan, the arbitration resulted in the government making significant compensation payments to the private sector. The finished construction was consequently converted into a “mothballed and pensioned off” facility. This study applies in-depth interviews and literature review to discuss aspects contributing to the policy failure and proposes some possible remedial measures. Five aspects are summarized, namely, the administrative organization’s rigid attitude, the irrationality of the BOT/BOO contracts, the loss of the spirit of BOO partnerships, the heavy financial burden on local government, and the abandonment of inter-municipality cooperation. The remedial measures for the policy failure are presented in the form of thorough policy evaluation, room for contract adjustments under the BOT/BOO model, encouragement of cross-boundary cooperation, and revision of the legal framework for implementing decentralization.

  11. "FACILS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology" (hereafter "FACILS") presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methe, Barbara

    2016-02-03

    As we enter the 21st century, the sustainability of the biosphere is a global challenge that can best be met with a global response. This includes how we train and promote our next generation of research scientists in the emerging arenas of genome-enabled biology and a bio-based economy. It is this fundamental issue that formed the motivation for designing and conducting a shortcourse entitled “FACILIS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology” (hereafter “FACILIS”) presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research. This WG was established in 1994 under the umbrella of the US-EC Task Force on Biotechnology Research, a transatlantic collaborative group overseen by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the EC. The Environmental Biotechnology Working Group maintains several goals, including establishing research links between scientists in EU countries and the US and fostering the careers of junior scientists from both sides of the Atlantic to the global nature of scientific cooperation. To that end, a shortcourse was held at the University of Milan in Italy on July 12-25 2014 organized around cross-cutting themes of genomic science and designed to attract a stellar group of interdisciplinary early carrier researchers. A total of 22 students, 10 from the US and 12 from the EU participated. The course provided them with hands-on experience with the latest scientific methods in genomics and bioinformatics; using a format that combines lectures, laboratory research and field work with the final goal to enable researchers to finally turn data into knowledge.

  12. The time-resolved and extreme conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline BM23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathon, O., E-mail: mathon@esrf.fr; Beteva, A.; Borrel, J.; Bugnazet, D.; Gatla, S.; Hino, R.; Kantor, I.; Mairs, T. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Munoz, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Université Joseph Fourier, 1381 rue de la Piscine, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Pasternak, S.; Perrin, F.; Pascarelli, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-10-17

    BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high-signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5–75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5–75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. It is a user-friendly facility featuring a high degree of automation, online EXAFS data reduction and a flexible sample environment.

  13. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  14. Strategies for the co-operation between power generation facilities and power sales organisations in the European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bammert, U.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how the public utilities in Hannover, Germany, have developed a strategy for the operation of their power generation facilities and power distribution network as independent yet co-operating units. Three models that were examined are described: 'free-sailing', where generation and distribution were kept completely independent, the 'wedding' model, where they were closely tied together and 'Enercity', a mixture of both models. The various rules necessary and the degrees of freedom needed to implement the 'Enercity' model are discussed, as are the advantages it offers to both the power generation and the sales units

  15. Euratom experience in safeguarding reprocessing and thermal reactor mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities within the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The legal basis and instruments for the application of safeguards in the European Community are described. Euratom safeguards apply throughout the fuel cycle starting at the ore stage. Euratom has had experience in the application of safeguards to small and medium size reprocessing and MOX fabrication plants. In reprocessing plants accountancy, containment and surveillance methods are applied and the plant is divided into three material balance areas. Similar procedures are applied at fabrication plants. Euratom inspectors apply their main verification activities at strategic points but have the right of access at any time to all places which contain nuclear material. Under the Euratom-IAEA Agreements 'Joint Teams' of Euratom and IAEA inspectors will operate together to minimise the burden on operators and to avoid duplication of effort while enabling both organisations to achieve their safeguards objectives

  16. Insomnia in long-term care facilities: a comparison of seven European countries and Israel: the Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindin, Jacob; Shochat, Tamar; Chetrit, Angela; Epstein, Shulamit; Ben Israel, Yehoshua; Levi, Sarah; Onder, Graziano; Carpenter, Ian; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; van Hout, Hein; Henrard, Jean-Claude; Nikolaus, Thorsten; Topinkova, Eva; Fialová, Daniela; Bernabei, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    To assess insomnia and its correlates as part of the Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care (SHELTER) study, funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. Cross-cultural investigation. Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in eight European countries (Czech Republic, France, Finland, Germany, England, the Netherlands, Italy) and one non-European country (Israel). Elderly residents (N = 4,156) of 57 LTCFs. Information on insomnia, age, sex, activities of daily living (ADLs), cognitive status, depression, major stressful life events, physical activity, fatigue, pain, and sleep medication use was extracted from the International Resident Assessment Instrument (interRAI)LTCF instrument. Rates of insomnia and its correlates were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with insomnia, controlling for demographic variables. The prevalence of insomnia was 24% (range 13-30%), with significant differences between countries (P < .001). More insomnia complaints were reported in older than younger residents (P < .001). Higher rates of insomnia were associated with hypnosedatives and depression in all countries (P < .001) and with stressful life events, fatigue, and pain in most countries (P < .001). No associations were found between insomnia and ADLs, physical activity, or cognitive status. Age, depression, stressful life events, fatigue, pain and hypnosedatives were independent significant predictors of insomnia, controlling for all other variables and for country. Hypnosedatives and depression were strong predictors of insomnia beyond cultural differences. Overall, psychosocial variables were more strongly related to insomnia than functional and mental capacities. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Guidelines for equipment and staffing of radiotherapy facilities in the European countries: Final results of the ESTRO-HERO survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter; Grau, Cai; Defourny, Noémie; Malicki, Julian; Borras, Josep M.; Coffey, Mary; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Slotman, Ben; Lievens, Yolande; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; De Hertogh, Olivier; Hadjieva, Tatiana; Petera, Jiri; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Jaal, Jana; Bly, Ritva; Azria, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: In planning to meet evidence based needs for radiotherapy, guidelines for the provision of capital and human resources are central if access, quality and safety are not to be compromised. A component of the ESTRO-HERO (Health Economics in Radiation Oncology) project is to document the current availability and content of guidelines for radiotherapy in Europe. Materials and methods: An 84 part questionnaire was distributed to the European countries through their national scientific and professional radiotherapy societies with 30 items relating to the availability of guidelines for equipment and staffing and selected operational issues. Twenty-nine countries provided full or partial evaluable responses. Results: The availability of guidelines across Europe is far from uniform. The metrics used for capital and human resources are variable. There seem to have been no major changes in the availability or specifics of guidelines over the ten-year period since the QUARTS study with the exception of the recent expansion of RTT staffing models. Where comparison is possible it appears that staffing for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and particularly RTTs tend to exceed guidelines suggesting developments in clinical radiotherapy are moving faster than guideline updating. Conclusion: The efficient provision of safe, high quality radiotherapy services would benefit from the availability of well-structured guidelines for capital and human resources, based on agreed upon metrics, which could be linked to detailed estimates of need

  18. Different methods for waste to energy transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J. de

    1998-01-01

    In the past 25 years, many technological developments have taken place in the thermal treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Apart from the initials goal of the technology (i.e., volume reduction and inertisation), flue gas emissions, solid residues, energy efficiency and economics became

  19. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated, and that waste available for heat recovery in 2030 is equally determined by total generation volumes by this year as by future EU deployment levels of district heating. - Highlights: • European municipal solid waste time series data analysed from 1995 to 2012. • Review of modelling approaches to assess future European waste generation. • Weather corrected district heat data for EU Member States in 1995 and 2012. • Low average heat recovery efficiency in current European waste incineration. • Future heat recovery efficiencies as determinant as future generation volumes.

  20. Urban prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in the European capital city Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, D; Schmalwieser, A; Szakmary-Brändle, K; Stessl, B; Wagner, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in urban public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in a European capital city. More than 91% of all municipal public lavatories in Vienna close to public hubs were included in this study. Overall, 373 swab samples of public lavatories and shoes of facility patrons were enriched, according to ISO 11290-1. Listeria monocytogenes isolates were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 24 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 6.4% (24/373). Listeria monocytogenes was found in 2.1% (8/373) of all samples. Swabs from lavatories in parks, container lavatories and lavatories at markets had the highest prevalences of 20.7% (6/29), 20% (2/10) and 12.5% (1/8) Listeria spp., respectively. These detection rates were statistically significantly higher than those associated with lavatories in shopping centres (P = 0.003, P = 0.002, P = 0.02) and at public transport locations (P = 0.0004, P = 0.005, P = 0.02). Shoes sampled at Christmas markets showed the highest Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes prevalences of 80% (4/5) and 40% (2/5), respectively. With regard to shoe type, Listeria spp. detection rates were 14.3% (3/21; winter boots), 13.3% (2/15; hiking boots), sport shoes (5.9%; 2/34) and brogues (5.1%; 4/79). No Listeria spp. were found on shoe soles that had smooth treads (0/76), while Listeria spp. were detected on 19.5% (8/41) of medium depth tread shoe types and on 9.4% (3/32) of deep tread shoes. These data suggest that soil environment is still one of the most important reservoirs for the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Overview of research and therapy facilities for radiobiological experimental work in particle therapy. Report from the European Particle Therapy Network radiobiology group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Jones, Bleddyn; Pawelke, Jörg; Pruschy, Martin; Sørensen, Brita Singers

    2018-04-24

    Particle therapy (PT) as cancer treatment, using protons or heavier ions, can provide a more favorable dose distribution compared to X-rays. While the physical characteristics of particle radiation have been the aim of intense research, less focus has been placed on the actual biological responses arising from particle irradiation. One of the biggest challenges for proton radiobiology is the RBE, with an increasing concern that the clinically-applied generic RBE-value of 1.1 is an approximation, as RBE is a complex quantity, depending on both biological and physical parameters, such as dose, LET, cellular and tissue radiobiological characteristics, as well as the endpoints being studied. Most of the available RBE data derive from in vitro experiments, with very limited in vivo data available, especially in late-reacting tissues, which provide the main constraints and influence the quality of life endpoints in radiotherapy. There is a need for systematic, large-scale studies to thoroughly establish the biology of particle radiation in a number of different experimental models in order to refine biophysical mathematical models that can potentially be used to guide PT. The overall objective of the European Particle Therapy Network (EPTN) WP6 is to form a network of research and therapy facilities in order to coordinate and standardize the radiobiological experiments, to obtain more accurate predictive parameters than in the past. Coordinated research is required in order to obtain the most appropriate experimental data. The aim in this paper is to describe the available radiobiology infrastructure of the centers involved in EPTN WP6. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The European XFEL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floettmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation synchrotron radiation facility based on the SASE FEL concept and the superconducting TESLA technology for a linear accelerator. In February 2003 the German government decided that the XFEL should be realized as a European project and be located at DESY in Hamburg. The paper will give an overview of the overall layout and parameters of the facility, with emphasis on the accelerator design, technology and physics. (author)

  3. Quantification of main and trace metal components in the fly ash of waste-to-energy plants located in Germany and Switzerland: An overview and comparison of concentration fluctuations within and between several plants with particular focus on valuable metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Jasmin; Koralewska, Ralf; Schlumberger, Stefan; Schuster, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The elemental composition of fly ash from six waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in Germany and two WTE plants in Switzerland were analyzed. Samples were taken daily over a period of one month and mixed to a composite sample for each German plant. From two Swiss plants, two and three of these composite samples, respectively, were collected for different months in order to assess temporal differences between these months. In total, 61 elements, including rare earth elements, were analyzed using ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The analysis method was validated for 44 elements either by reference materials (BCR 176R and NIST 1633c) or analysis with both methods. Good recoveries, mostly ±10%, and high agreements between both methods were achieved. As long as no additives from flue gas cleaning were mixed with the fly ash, quite similar element contents were observed between all of the different incinerators. For most elements, the variations between the different months within the two Swiss plants were lower than differences between various plants. Especially main components show low variations between different months. To get a more detailed insight into temporal fluctuations within the mentioned Swiss plants, the concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb, and Sn are presented over a period of three years (Jan. 2015 - Oct. 2017). The concentration profiles are based on weekly composite samples (consisting of daily taken samples) analyzed by the routine control of these plants using ED-XRF. The standard deviations of the average concentrations were around 20% over the three years for the regarded elements. The fluctuations were comparable at both plants. Due to the relatively low temporal concentration fluctuations observed within the plants, fly ash would be a continuous and constant source of secondary raw materials. Beside Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd, which were already recovered on an industrial scale, Sb, Sn, and Bi also show a high potential as secondary raw material due to the high

  4. Development of laparoscopic surgery and training facilities in Europe: Results of a survey of the European Society of Uro-Technology (ESUT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, M. P.; Schreuders, L. C.; Rassweiler, J. J.; Abbou, C. C.; van Velthoven, R.; Janetschek, G.; Breda, G.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The European Society of Uro-Technology (ESUT) conducted a survey in order to assess the application of laparoscopy and the facilitation of training programs within Europe. Methods: A total of 430 urologists and residents from European countries answered the ESUT survey during the XVIIIth

  5. European collider's success provides a blueprint for mega-science projects 35 countries contribute labor and money to build a physics facility too costly for any one nation

    CERN Multimedia

    MacDonald, K

    1999-01-01

    Many scientists believe the construction of the LHC could become the blueprint for future international collaborations on large-scale scientific facilities and projects too large and costly for individual countries to fund alone (2 pages).

  6. The Upgrade Programme for the Structural Biology beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility – High throughput sample evaluation and automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theveneau, P; Baker, R; Barrett, R; Beteva, A; Bowler, M W; Carpentier, P; Caserotto, H; Sanctis, D de; Dobias, F; Flot, D; Guijarro, M; Giraud, T; Lentini, M; Leonard, G A; Mattenet, M; McSweeney, S M; Morawe, C; Nurizzo, D; McCarthy, A A; Nanao, M

    2013-01-01

    Automation and advances in technology are the key elements in addressing the steadily increasing complexity of Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) experiments. Much of this complexity is due to the inter-and intra-crystal heterogeneity in diffraction quality often observed for crystals of multi-component macromolecular assemblies or membrane proteins. Such heterogeneity makes high-throughput sample evaluation an important and necessary tool for increasing the chances of a successful structure determination. The introduction at the ESRF of automatic sample changers in 2005 dramatically increased the number of samples that were tested for diffraction quality. This 'first generation' of automation, coupled with advances in software aimed at optimising data collection strategies in MX, resulted in a three-fold increase in the number of crystal structures elucidated per year using data collected at the ESRF. In addition, sample evaluation can be further complemented using small angle scattering experiments on the newly constructed bioSAXS facility on BM29 and the micro-spectroscopy facility (ID29S). The construction of a second generation of automated facilities on the MASSIF (Massively Automated Sample Screening Integrated Facility) beam lines will build on these advances and should provide a paradigm shift in how MX experiments are carried out which will benefit the entire Structural Biology community.

  7. European nuclear data studies for fast systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullhusen, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Mondelaers, W.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear data needs for fast systems are highlighted and the following projects are described: Joint European research projects: MUSE Experiments for Sub-critical Neutronics Validation; High- and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data for ADS (HINDAS); and the Time-Of-Flight facility for Nuclear Data Measurements for ADS (n T OF N D A DS); European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS-NUDATRA); and CANDIDE; Programmes for transnational access to experimental facilities in Europe: European Facilities for Nuclear Data Measurements (EFNUDAT); Neutron Data Measurements at IRMM (NUDAME); European facility for innovative reactor and transmutation neutron data (EUFRAT) (P.A.)

  8. A comparison of the European renewable energy directive default emission values with actual values from operating biodiesel facilities for sunflower, rape and soya oil seeds in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) set a binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target for transportation biofuels and other bioliquids. In this study, the GHG emissions of biodiesel chain from sunflower, rapeseed and soybean were calculated in compliance with the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). Input data used for the agricultural step were referred to the Umbrian region for sunflower and rapeseed and to the Veneto region for soybean, while data obtained from the main Italian biodiesel plants were employed for the processing step. Results showed that GHG emissions were higher than default values reported in the RED for sunflower and rapeseed and lower for soybean. Only sunflower biodiesel does not reach the minimum value of GHG saving (35%). The main differences with data used in the RED concern cultivation step, while the processing step has overall the same values of GHG emissions. Finally, three case studies were examined in order to identify possible improvements to make the analyzed supply chains more sustainable. -- Highlights: ► GHG balance of biodiesel from sunflower, rapeseed and soya was analyzed. ► Cultivation has the highest environmental impact for sunflower and rapeseed chains. ► Typical Italian data were adopted for cultivation and processing steps. ► GHG emissions were lower than RED default values for soya biodiesel. ► Cogeneration for the processing plant can greatly increase GHG saving.

  9. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  10. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  11. European Decommissioning Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V. S.; Hornacek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Experiences from the first run of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) are reported in details. EDA was created at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Slovakia, based on discussion and expressed needs declared at many international meetings including ECED2013. The first run successfully passed 15 participants during 7–26 June 2015. Academy was focused on decommissioning issues via lessons, practical exercises in laboratories, on-site training prepared at NPP V-1 in Jaslovské Bohunice, Slovakia as well as four day technical tour to other European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy. Detailed information can be found at http://kome.snus.sk/inpe/. (author

  12. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  13. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  14. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  15. Facility Management Innovation (FMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, Mark P.; Nardelli, Giulia; Kok, Herman; Konkol, Jennifer; Alexander, Keith; Alexander, Keith

    2014-01-01

    This current green paper deals with innovation in facility management (FM), a subject which is at the heart of Working Group 3, in benefit of the EuroFM Research Network. It aims to stimulate discussion and further collaborative work, and to generate new knowledge for the European FM community. We

  16. Test Standards for Contingency Base Waste-to-Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    test runs are preferred to allow a more comprehensive statistical evaluation of the results. In 8 • Minimize the complexity , difficulty, and...with water or, in the case of cyanide - or sulfide-bearing wastes, when exposed to mild acidic or basic conditions; 4) explode when subjected to a

  17. Waste to Energy Potential - A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    of the solids placed in the bioreactor and, generate a biogas • What do you get? • Biogas that can be...contains methane = fuel source • Biogas measured by flow meter • Biogas generated was correlated to mass of volatile solids destroyed • Biogas ...to enhance operation and biogas production Applicability to larger scale Verification of power generation using a microturbine Refinement of

  18. Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Type (based on 40-million SCF* of biogas per year**) Generator Type Megawatt‐hours/year PAFC 2,900 MCFC 3,300 Mi t bi 1 800cro‐ ur ne , Reciprocating...anaerobic digestion of organic matter, are most easily mated to these fuel cell systems . Innovation for Our Energy Future Comparison by Generator ...Engine 1,500 * ~830 Btu/SCF (HHV) ** WWTP serving a community of about 110,000 people This comparison ignores the fact that generators do not come in

  19. An innovative simulation tool for waste to energy generation opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Abderezzak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new world energy policies encourage the use of renewable energy sources with clean technologies, and abandon progressively the fossil fuel dependence. Another energy generation trend called commonly the “Waste-to-Energy” solution, uses organic waste as a response for two major problems: energy generation and waste management. Thanks to the anaerobic digestion, the organic waste can provide a biogas composed essentially from Carbone dioxide (CO2 and Methane (CH4. This work aims essentially to help students, researchers and even decision makers to consider the importance of biogas generation. The proposed tool is the last version of our previous tool which is enhanced and completed. It presents the potential to produce biogas of any shortlisted kind of waste, including also some energy valorization ways. A technical economical data are introduced for eventual feasibility studies.

  20. adaptation of plastic waste to energy development in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Plastic wastes, Energy, Sustainable development, Environment, ... countries to be rationalising energy supply to their people. .... Managing waste in Lagos is may be a herculean task in ..... uncertainties in a life cycle perspective.

  1. Waste-to-energy: Dehalogenation of plastic-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yafei; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Xingming; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    The dehalogenation measurements could be carried out with the decomposition of plastic wastes simultaneously or successively. This paper reviewed the progresses in dehalogenation followed by thermochemical conversion of plastic-containing wastes for clean energy production. The pre-treatment method of MCT or HTT can eliminate the halogen in plastic wastes. The additives such as alkali-based metal oxides (e.g., CaO, NaOH), iron powders and minerals (e.g., quartz) can work as reaction mediums and accelerators with the objective of enhancing the mechanochemical reaction. The dehalogenation of waste plastics could be achieved by co-grinding with sustainable additives such as bio-wastes (e.g., rice husk), recyclable minerals (e.g., red mud) via MCT for solid fuels production. Interestingly, the solid fuel properties (e.g., particle size) could be significantly improved by HTT in addition with lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, the halogenated compounds in downstream thermal process could be eliminated by using catalysts and adsorbents. Most dehalogenation of plastic wastes primarily focuses on the transformation of organic halogen into inorganic halogen in terms of halogen hydrides or salts. The integrated process of MCT or HTT with the catalytic thermal decomposition is a promising way for clean energy production. The low-cost additives (e.g., red mud) used in the pre-treatment by MCT or HTT lead to a considerable synergistic effects including catalytic effect contributing to the follow-up thermal decomposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PSO 5806 Material development for waste-to-energy plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Jørgen; Frederiksen, Jens; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2010-01-01

    The vision of this project (PSO 5806) is to throw light and focus on some of the refractory material characteristics of major importance to predictable service.......The vision of this project (PSO 5806) is to throw light and focus on some of the refractory material characteristics of major importance to predictable service....

  3. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  4. A road map for european facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "The youthfull field of astroparticle physics - thes tudy of the universe via the cosmic rays, gamma rays, gravity waves, and neutrinos that rain down on Earth - has a growing appetite for infrastructure funding."(2/3 page)

  5. European trends in greenhouse gases emissions from integrated solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Gori, Manuela; Lubello, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has 28 member states, each with very different characteristics (e.g. surface, population density, per capita gross domestic product, per capita municipal solid waste (MSW) production, MSW composition, MSW management options). In this paper several integrated waste management scenarios representative of the European situation have been generated and analysed in order to evaluate possible trends in the net emission of greenhouse gases and in the required landfill volume. The results demonstrate that an integrated system with a high level of separate collection, efficient energy recovery in waste-to-energy plants and very limited landfill disposal is the most effective according to the indices adopted. Moreover, it is evident that a fully integrated system can make MSW management a carbon sink with a potentiality of up to approximately 40 Mt CO2eq year(-1).

  6. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  7. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  8. International Mapping of Antenna-Measurement Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccia, Luigi; Breinbjerg, Olav; Di Massa, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive international mapping of antenna-measurement facilities. This initiative, conducted within the framework of the Antenna Centre of Excellence (ACE) of the European Union, is oriented toward all institutions having research, development, or operational activities...... measurements, in particular from the wireless communication industry, to identify and contact antenna-measurement facilities. The first phase of the mapping showed a significant and encouraging reaction to this initiative, with more than 50 European facilities currently registered. The next phase aims...

  9. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  10. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  11. European nuclear education initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    international and bilateral information exchange on operating experience. Within the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), academically recognised nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation courses are organised by the JRC. Those should in the future be part of a newly created European Nuclear Safety and Security School with the goal to make JRC's nuclear research facilities better accessible for graduate and post-graduate training and education programmes in Europe. Furthermore the JRC is running the Actinide User Laboratory (ACTUSLAB), offering researchers the possibility to use its unique facilities and associated expertise on basic research related to the actinides elements of both fundamental and applied interest. Similarly the JRC is pooling its facilities to the partners in the ACTINET network, to facilitate the efficient use of major nuclear research facilities by the scientific community. E and T is a key element in order to reach students and young scientists in the EU by organising summer schools and supporting students to attend international conferences, workshops, seminars or to participate in traineeships. (author)

  12. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  13. Maximization of revenues for power sales from a solid waste resources recovery facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The report discusses the actual implementation of the best alternative in selling electrical power generated by an existing waste-to-energy facility, the Metro-Dade County Resources Recovery Plant. After the plant processes and extracts various products out of the municipal solid waste, it burns it to produce electrical power. The price for buying power to satisfy the internal needs of our Resources Recovery Facility (RRF) is substantially higher than the power price for selling electricity to any other entity. Therefore, without any further analysis, it was decided to first satisfy those internal needs and then export the excess power. Various alternatives were thoroughly explored as to what to do with the excess power. Selling power to the power utilities or utilizing the power in other facilities were the primary options.

  14. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  15. Dance Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Dudley, Ed.; Irey, Charlotte, Ed.

    This booklet represents an effort to assist teachers and administrators in the professional planning of dance facilities and equipment. Three chapters present the history of dance facilities, provide recommended dance facilities and equipment, and offer some adaptations of dance facilities and equipment, for elementary, secondary and college level…

  16. European Academy of decommisioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Hinca, R.

    2014-01-01

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11.9.2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 500 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 35 per year.Having in mind the actual EHRO-N report from 2013 focused on operation of nuclear facilities and an assumption that the ratio between nuclear experts, nuclearized and nuclear aware people is comparable also for decommissioning (16:74:10), as well as the fact that the special study branch for decommissioning in the European countries almost does not exist, this European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) could be helpful in the overbridging this gap.For the first run of the EDA scheduled on 2014 we would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future in Europe.A graduate of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) should have at least bachelor level from technical or natural science Universities or Colleges and at least one year working experiences in the area of NPP decommissioning or nuclear power engineering. This study creates prerequisites for acquiring and completion of professional and specialized knowledge in the subjects which are described. (authors)

  17. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  18. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  19. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  20. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  1. Teleconferencing facilities for EFDA members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundzins, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Many groups of Latvian University scientists are participants in European Fusion Development Agreement projects. This work needs good contacts with other groups. With purpose of saving time and money EFDA develops different remote participation facilities, using information technologies and progress in high speed Internet accessibility. Some remote participation methods possibly will be demonstrated

  2. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  3. The future of small hydropower within the European union. An environmental policy study based on the European Water framework directive and the renewable energy directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabbruwee, Kees

    2006-01-01

    Small hydropower facilities according to European Union (EU) standards have an installed capacity of less than 10 MW. The Renewable Energy Directive has set targets for installed capacity and electricity produced by small hydropower facilities to be reach

  4. Facilities Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Robert V.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for physical facilities management written 17 years ago is still worth following today. Each of the steps outlined for planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and evaluating must be accomplished if school facilities are to be properly planned and constructed. However, lessons have been learned about energy consumption and proper…

  5. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2000-1065) of the 25. of October 2000 reporting the publication of the convention between the Government of the French Republic and the CERN concerning the safety of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and the SPS (Proton Supersynchrotron) facilities, signed in Geneva on July 11, 2000. By this convention, the CERN undertakes to ensure the safety of the LHC and SPS facilities and those of the operations of the LEP decommissioning. The French legislation and regulations on basic nuclear facilities (concerning more particularly the protection against ionizing radiations, the protection of the environment and the safety of facilities) and those which could be decided later on apply to the LHC, SPS and auxiliary facilities. (O.M.)

  6. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  7. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  8. The European gas market from a Belgian point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The European gas distribution industry will be faced with real challenges during the coming ten years. Additional import of natural gas from non-European Community countries will be required in view of the growing demand and the concomitant decrease in gas production in the European Community. This implies that facilities for the long-distance transport of gas will have to be built and that considerable investments are required. It is argued that the recommendation for the liberalization of the gas market by the Commission of the European Communities is unsuited to face future developments of the European gas market. (A.S.)

  9. Radioactive ion beam facilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The past two decades have seen extraordinarily rapid development of radioactive beam physics throughout the world and in particular in Europe. The important scientific advances have stemmed from a large number of facilities. Previously existing stable beam machines have been adapted to produce rare isotope beams and dedicated facilities have come on-line. This talk gives an overview of the present European installations highlighting their complementary nature. The European roadmap calls for the construction of two next generation facilities: FAIR making use of projectile fragmentation and EURISOL based on the ISOL technique. The future FAIR facility will be described and the path towards EURISOL presented in the light of the construction of 'intermediate' generation facilities SPIRAL2, HIE ISOLDE and SPES and results from the ongoing EURISOL Design Study.

  10. European Committee for Future Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvey, John

    1983-01-01

    Nearly 21 years ago, in December 1962, Viktor Weisskopf and Cecil Powell, then respectively CERN's Director General and Chairman of the Scientific Policy Committee, called together a group of European high energy physicists to advise on steps to reach higher energy. The CERN PS had been in operation since 1959, its experimental programme was well established and the time had come to think of the future. The Chairman of the group, which later took the title 'European Committee for Future Accelerators', was Edoardo Amaldi and his influential report, presented to the CERN Council in June 1963, reviewed the whole structure and possible development of the field in the CERN Member States. Its proposals included the construction of the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), and of a 300 GeV proton accelerator which was then envisaged as being the major facility of a second CERN Laboratory elsewhere in Europe

  11. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  12. European XFEL (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    European X-Ray FEL – free electron laser is under construction in DESY Hamburg. It is scheduled to be operational at 2015/16 at a cost more than 1 billion Euro. The laser uses SASE method to generate x-ray light. It is propelled by an electron linac of 17,5GeV energy and more than 2km in length. The linac uses superconducting SRF TESLA technology working at 1,3 GHz in frequency. The prototype of EXFEL is FLASH Laser (200 m in length), where the “proof of principle” was checked, and from the technologies were transferred to the bigger machine. The project was stared in the nineties by building a TTF Laboratory -Tesla Test Facility. The EXFEL laser is a child of a much bigger teraelectronovolt collider project TESLA (now abandoned in Germany but undertaken by international community in a form the ILC). A number of experts and young researchers from Poland participate in the design, construction and research of the FLASH and EXFEL lasers.

  13. AIDA – pushing the boundaries of European particle detector research

    CERN Multimedia

    Naomi Gilraen Wyles

    2011-01-01

    AIDA (Advanced European Infrastructures for Detectors at Accelerators), a new project co-funded by the European Union and worth a total of 26 million euros, will be officially launched at CERN next week. The kick-off meeting will take place on 16-18 February, during which Europe-wide detector physicists will come together to begin work on detector infrastructure developments for future particle physics experiments.   Coordinated by CERN, AIDA involves more than 80 institutes and laboratories from 23 countries as beneficiaries or associate partners (the full list can be found here). This four-year project will receive 8 million euros from the European Commission's FP7 Research Infrastructures programme. AIDA will develop facilities covering the four main goals identified by the European Strategy for Particle Physics. These are the LHC upgrade, Linear Colliders, Neutrino facilities and Super-B factories. These facilities will also be available for other researchers in the fields of nuclear and par...

  14. Support facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, F.S.; Blomquist, J.A.; Fox, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Computer support is centered on the Remote Access Data Station (RADS), which is equipped with a 1000 lpm printer, 1000 cpm reader, and a 300 cps paper tape reader with 500-foot spools. The RADS is located in a data preparation room with four 029 key punches (two of which interpret), a storage vault for archival magnetic tapes, card files, and a 30 cps interactive terminal principally used for job inquiry and routing. An adjacent room provides work space for users, with a documentation library and a consultant's office, plus file storage for programs and their documentations. The facility has approximately 2,600 square feet of working laboratory space, and includes two fully equipped photographic darkrooms, sectioning and autoradiographic facilities, six microscope cubicles, and five transmission electron microscopes and one Cambridge scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray energy dispersive analytical system. Ancillary specimen preparative equipment includes vacuum evaporators, freeze-drying and freeze-etching equipment, ultramicrotomes, and assorted photographic and light microscopic equipment. The extensive physical plant of the animal facilities includes provisions for holding all species of laboratory animals under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and lighting. More than forty rooms are available for studies of the smaller species. These have a potential capacity of more than 75,000 mice, or smaller numbers of larger species and those requiring special housing arrangements. There are also six dog kennels to accommodate approximately 750 dogs housed in runs that consist of heated indoor compartments and outdoor exercise areas

  15. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  16. SYNER-G buildings, lifelines, transportation networks and critical facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pitilakis, K; Kaynia, AM

    2014-01-01

    This volume collates serviceable fragility functions from an international selection of seismic risk probability research, developing and adapting them to a European context to improve damage forecasts for buildings, infrastructure, and critical facilities.

  17. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  18. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  19. 2nd European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Ralph; Grebenyuk, Julia; EAAC 2015

    2016-01-01

    The European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop has the mission to discuss and foster methods of beam acceleration with gradients beyond state of the art in operational facilities. The most cost effective and compact methods for generating high energy particle beams shall be reviewed and assessed. This includes diagnostics methods, timing technology, special need for injectors, beam matching, beam dynamics with advanced accelerators and development of adequate simulations. This workshop is organized in the context of the EU-funded European Network for Novel Accelerators (EuroNNAc2), that includes 52 Research Institutes and universities.

  20. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  1. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  2. Energetic use of the urban solid wastes (waste-to-energy); Aproveitamento energetico de residuos solidos urbanos (waste-to-energy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodde, Paula Arrais Moreira; Fonseca, Zilton Jose Sa da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: pauladodde@yahoo.com.br, ziltonfonseca@ig.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper approaches the advantages and disadvantages of energetic using of biomass present in the garbage (the urban solid residue is composed by average 65% of organic material)This paper effluents technologically.

  3. The Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESFR in Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, R.

    1994-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESFR) is the first synchrotron radiation source of the 3-th generation for Roentgen radiations.It permits a new series of experiments in the domains of physics, chemistry, materials studies, micromechanics, biology, medicine and crystallography. The main part of device represents the 850 meter storage ring of 6 GeV electrons. (MSA)

  4. Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-01-01

    Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs

  5. The planned Alaska SAR Facility - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, Frank; Weeks, Wilford

    1987-01-01

    The Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) is described in an overview fashion. The facility consists of three major components, a Receiving Ground System, a SAR Processing System and an Analysis and Archiving System; the ASF Program also has a Science Working Team and the requisite management and operations systems. The ASF is now an approved and fully funded activity; detailed requirements and science background are presented for the facility to be implemented for data from the European ERS-1, the Japanese ERS-1 and Radarsat.

  6. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research FacilityFacilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  7. Decommissioning Plan for European Spallation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the European Spallation Source initial decommissioning plan developed in compliance with Swedish Regulatory Authority requirements. The report outlines the decommissioning strategy selected and the baseline plan for decommissioning. Types and quantities of radioactive waste estimated to be generated at the final shut-down of the facility are further provided. The paper ends up with the analysis of the key elements of the decommissioning plan and the recommendations to the ESS management team..

  8. Corporate strategies for European gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    In January 1992, the Commission of the European Economic Community issued a proposal for accelerating the process of building up a single market for natural gas. After the first step, already taken, to introduce price transparency, the Commission is willing to introduce progressively Third Party Access (T.P.A.) and the freedom of establishment in all segments of the natural gas industry: L.N.G. terminals, storage facilities, transmission lines and public distribution. 1 tab

  9. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Moons, F.; Safieh, J.

    2005-01-01

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  10. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  11. The European market of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-09-01

    This market study on renewable energies presents: 1 - the different renewable energy industries for power generation: the field of renewable energies (hydropower, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and biomass power plants) and their common points, their characteristics, advantages and constraints; 2 - the political and regulatory context with its ambitious goals: main steps of worldwide negotiations, Europe and the management of CO 2 emissions, stiffening of the environmental regulation, the energy/climate package and the efforts to be borne by the different member states; 3 - Economy of the sector and the necessary public support: investment and production costs by industry, wholesale prices and competitiveness of the different power generation means, government's incentives for projects profitability; 4 - dynamics of the European market of renewable energies: energy-mix and evolution of the renewable energies contribution in the world and in the European Union, key-figures by country and by industry (installed capacity, production, turnover, employment); 5 - medium-term development perspectives: 2020 prospect scenarios, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives of development for each industry; 6 - the strengths in presence in the domain of facilities: main manufacturers, market shares, innovations, vertical integration, external growth; 7 - the strengths in presence in the domain of power facilities operation: main European operators, position and ranking, installed capacities, projects portfolio; 8 - medium-term perspectives of reconfiguration: best-positioned operators in a developing market, future of European manufacturers with respect to Asian ones, inevitable concentration in the operation sector. (J.S.)

  12. The European perspective for LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangler, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    LSST is a next generation telescope that will produce an unprecedented data flow. The project goal is to deliver data products such as images and catalogs thus enabling scientific analysis for a wide community of users. As a large scale survey, LSST data will be complementary with other facilities in a wide range of scientific domains, including data from ESA or ESO. European countries have invested in LSST since 2007, in the construction of the camera as well as in the computing effort. This latter will be instrumental in designing the next step: how to distribute LSST data to Europe. Astroinformatics challenges for LSST indeed includes not only the analysis of LSST big data, but also the practical efficiency of the data access.

  13. Reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Murase, Michio; Yokomizo, Osamu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a BWR type reactor facility capable of suppressing the amount of steams generated by the mutual effect of a failed reactor core and coolants upon occurrence of an imaginal accident, and not requiring spacial countermeasures for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel. Namely, a means for supplying cooling water at a temperature not lower by 30degC than the saturated temperature corresponding to the inner pressure of the containing vessel upon occurrence of an accident is disposed to a lower dry well below the pressure vessel. As a result, upon occurrence of such an accident that the reactor core should be melted and flown downward of the pressure vessel, when cooling water at a temperature not lower than the saturated temperature, for example, cooling water at 100degC or higher is supplied to the lower dry well, abrupt generation of steams by the mutual effect of the failed reactor core and cooling water is scarcely caused compared with a case of supplying cooling water at a temperature lower than the saturation temperature by 30degC or more. Accordingly, the amount of steams to be generated can be suppressed, and special countermeasure is no more necessary for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel is no more necessary. (I.S.)

  14. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 15 events were recorded on the first grade and 1 on the second grade of the INES scale. The second grade event is in fact a re-classification of an incident that occurred on the second april 2001 at Dampierre power plant. This event happened during core refueling, a shift in the operation sequence led to the wrong positioning of 113 assemblies. A preliminary study of this event shows that this wrong positioning could have led, in other circumstances, to the ignition of nuclear reactions. Even in that case, the analysis made by EDF shows that the consequences on the staff would have been limited. Nevertheless a further study has shown that the existing measuring instruments could not have detected the power increase announcing the beginning of the chain reaction. The investigation has shown that there were deficiencies in the control of the successive operations involved in refueling. EDF has proposed a series of corrective measures to be implemented in all nuclear power plants. The other 15 events are described in the article. During this period 121 inspections have been made in nuclear facilities. (A.C.)

  15. ATLAS OF EUROPEAN VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M Ed Uwe Krause

    2008-01-01

    Uwe Krause: Atlas of Eurpean Values De Atlas of European Values is een samenwerkingsproject met bijbehorende website van de Universiteit van Tilburg en Fontys Lerarenopleiding in Tilburg, waarbij de wetenschappelijke data van de European Values Study (EVS) voor het onderwijs toegankelijk worden

  16. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  17. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  18. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  19. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  20. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  1. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  2. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  3. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  4. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  5. Testing of the European LCT coil in the TOSKA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, W.; Katheder, H.; Krauth, H.

    1985-01-01

    The EURATOM-LCT coil was tested as a single coil in TOSKA. Load cells were mounted in the support structure to monitor forces between coil and vacuum vessel during cooldown and coil charging. Disturbances of components by magnetic fringing fields were carefully considered. To investigate the mechanical behaviour and compare it with FEM-calculations the coil was equipped with strain gauge rosettes and displacement transducers. Van Mises stresses in the coil case are in agreement with calculations. As known from special investigations during coil manufacturing the average radial Young modulus varies along the periphery caused by the different curvatures. This leads to differences with FEM-calculation (larger gaps between winding and coil case) assuming a larger constant Young modulus performed at the beginning of the project

  6. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  7. Research Facilities | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Facilities Research Facilities NREL's state-of-the-art wind research facilities at the Research Facilities Photo of five men in hard hards observing the end of a turbine blade while it's being tested. Structural Research Facilities A photo of two people silhouetted against a computer simulation of

  8. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  9. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  10. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  11. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  12. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  13. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  14. A hard lesson for Europeans: the ASEAN CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibayrenc, Michel

    2005-06-01

    Despite the growing threat of major pandemics, the European Union is planning no more than a meager surveillance agency staffed with 70 people on the 2007 horizon: the new European Centre for Disease Control. I argue that an effective structure should be much larger and include a strong research activity. Asian countries, inspired by the US CDC, are now taking this concept in hand and creating an ASEAN Center For Disease Control, with sophisticated laboratory facilities to be included. This is a tough lesson for us Europeans, and our avarice in this domain could have tragic consequences in the future.

  15. IDRANAP - European Centre of Excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Florin D.

    2003-01-01

    Selected by the European Commission (EC) experts out of 185 proposals from 11 countries, IDRANAP (Inter-Disciplinary Research and Applications based on Nuclear and Atomic Physics) is the only EC Centre of Excellence in nuclear physics. The project, initiated and developed by a remarkable team from our institute, researchers with a recognized international scientific level, has as main objectives: - promotion in Romania and in the region of modern applications derived from basic and applied research in nuclear and atomic physics; - disciplinary research in ecology, health, biology, science of materials; - specific nuclear and atomic physics research aimed to open new possibilities for applications; - to ensure stimulative conditions for PhD students from Romania and other EC candidate countries to improve their knowledge and experience by joining scientific activities in the region, a fact that might counteract their tendency to migrate to Western countries. The high scientific level of researchers, their access to national and international facilities as well as the link with prestigious laboratories abroad and the socio-economic demand motivated the development of the project. Among expected results, we mention: improving and spreading the scientific knowledge by publications; producing new facilities, devices and instruments; application of nuclear methods in industry, health-care and environment protection, and training of young researchers. The project consists of 18 workpackages structured in 5 distinct areas: - Determining environmental pollution; - Nuclear methods in biology and medicine; - Radionuclide metrology; - Analysis and characterization of materials; - Nuclei far from stability, decay modes, cosmic rays, and facilities.We make an up-to-date presentation of obtained results and activities performed within IDRANAP project, as well as a short overview of our institute. (author)

  16. Recycling and recovery of post-consumer plastic solid waste in a European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewil Raf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of waste plastics has become a major worldwide environmental problem. The USA, Europe and Japan generate annually about 50 million tons of post-consumer plastic waste, previously landfilled, generally considered as a non-sustainable and environmentally questionable option. Landfill sites and their capacity are, moreover, decreasing rapidly, and legislation is stringent. Several European Directives and US legislation concern plastic wastes and the required management. They are briefly discussed in this paper. New processes have emerged, i.e., advanced mechanical recycling of plastic waste as virgin or second grade plastic feedstock, and thermal treatments to recycle the waste as virgin monomer, as synthetic fuel gas, or as heat source (incineration with energy recovery. These processes avoid land filling, where the non-biodegradable plastics remain a lasting environmental burden. The paper reviews these alternative options through mostly thermal processing (pyrolysis, gasification and waste-to-energy. Additional research is, however, still needed to confirm the potential on pilot and commercial scale. [Acknowledgments. The research was partly funded by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities RC1101 (PR China and partly funded by Project KP/09/005 (SCORES4CHEM Knowledge Platform of the Industrial Research Council of the KU Leuven (Belgium.

  17. The European network of excellence Emil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The network of excellence EMIL (European Molecular Imaging Laboratories ) is the only European network of excellence in molecular imaging for oncology. It was set up and is coordinated by the 'in vivo imaging of gene expression' group of CEA Orsay. Included in Priority Thematic Area 1 (life sciences, genomics and biotechnology for health) of the European Commission's 6. Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP6), this five-year project (2004-2009) aims t o merge the leading European research teams in molecular imaging, in universities, research centres and small and medium enterprises, to focus on early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic evaluation of cancer. The EMIL network brings together 58 partners representing 43 bodies in 13 European countries, and integrates 6 technological facilities: Orsay (France), Turin (Italy), Cologne (Germany), Leiden (Netherlands), Milan (Italy) and Antwerpen (Belgium).The research and training activities of the EMIL network are based on 9 thematic working groups or 'work packages' (wp), forming a common activity programme including : Integration activities: creation of a network of technological and training facilities favouring the mobility of researchers and the integration of small and medium enterprises into the EMIL network. Dissemination of expertise activities: training, communication, common knowledge management and intellectual property rights. Research activities: a common research programme with a horizontal dimension, making use of methodological tools of physics, biology and chemistry necessary for the further development of molecular imaging (instrument techniques, molecular probes, biological engineering), and a vertical integrative dimension, bringing together cancer imaging applications (early diagnostic imaging, development of new therapies imaging for drug development). (author)

  18. The European network of excellence Emil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The network of excellence EMIL (European Molecular Imaging Laboratories ) is the only European network of excellence in molecular imaging for oncology. It was set up and is coordinated by the 'in vivo imaging of gene expression' group of CEA Orsay. Included in Priority Thematic Area 1 (life sciences, genomics and biotechnology for health) of the European Commission's 6. Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP6), this five-year project (2004-2009) aims t o merge the leading European research teams in molecular imaging, in universities, research centres and small and medium enterprises, to focus on early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic evaluation of cancer. The EMIL network brings together 58 partners representing 43 bodies in 13 European countries, and integrates 6 technological facilities: Orsay (France), Turin (Italy), Cologne (Germany), Leiden (Netherlands), Milan (Italy) and Antwerpen (Belgium).The research and training activities of the EMIL network are based on 9 thematic working groups or 'work packages' (wp), forming a common activity programme including : Integration activities: creation of a network of technological and training facilities favouring the mobility of researchers and the integration of small and medium enterprises into the EMIL network. Dissemination of expertise activities: training, communication, common knowledge management and intellectual property rights. Research activities: a common research programme with a horizontal dimension, making use of methodological tools of physics, biology and chemistry necessary for the further development of molecular imaging (instrument techniques, molecular probes, biological engineering), and a vertical integrative dimension, bringing together cancer imaging applications (early diagnostic imaging, development of new therapies imaging for drug development). (author)

  19. ENEN - European nuclear engineering network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, Olivia; Paraschiva, M.V.; Banutoiu, Maria

    2002-01-01

    declining number of courses associated with it, and the declining interest among students, is arrested. Even in countries not now developing additional nuclear power, qualified people are still needed to operate the existing plants and fuel-cycle facilities (many of which will operate for decades), manage radioactive waste, and prepare for future decommissioning of existing plants. Now and for the generations to come, these activities will require expertise in nuclear engineering and science if safety and security are to be maintained and the environment protected.' Clear conclusions are drawn regarding main achievements and future European actions in the field of nuclear education concerning reactor design, construction and maintenance, as well as, waste management and radiation protection. (authors)

  20. Jupiter Laser Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Jupiter Laser Facility is an institutional user facility in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate at LLNL. The facility is designed to provide a high degree...

  1. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  2. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  3. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  4. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  5. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union......’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...... of Europe after the Cold War to contemporary conflict management efforts in the Western Balkans and the Eastern neighbourhood. The purpose of this endeavour is to examine whether lessons from the European experience can be observed that may facilitate future regional stabilisation processes – within...

  6. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  7. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  8. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    of the problems society is facing today. To facilitate the creation and operation of such RIs, the EU adopted legal frameworks for European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC). On August 31, 2015, the European Spallation Source (ESS) was established as an ERIC. Under the ERIC Regulations and ESS Statutes......, the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...

  9. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  10. ELSY. European LFR activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, Alessandro; Carlsson, Johan; Malambu, Edouard; Orden, Alfredo; Cinotti, Luciano; Struwe, Dankward; Agostini, Pietro; Monti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The European Lead Fast Reactor has been developed in the frame of the European lead system (ELSY) project funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of EURATOM. The project, coordinated by Ansaldo Nucleare, involved a wide consortium of European organizations. The ELSY reference design is a 600 MWe pool-type reactor cooled by pure lead. The project demonstrates the possibility of designing a competitive and safe fast critical reactor using simple engineered technical features, whilst fully complying with the Generation IV goals. The paper focuses on the main aspects of the proposed design for the European lead fast reactor highlighting the innovation of this reactor concept and overall objectives. Special attention has been dedicated to safety starting from the first step of the design development taking into account other important aspects, such as the investment protection, the compactness of the primary system as well as sustainability. The main safety features of the proposed innovative decay heat removal (DHR) systems are presented. From the beginning of 2010, and for a duration of three years, the European Commission (EC) is financing the new project Lead European Advanced Demonstration Reactor (LEADER) as part of the 7th Framework Program. This paper highlights the main objectives of the LEADER project. (author)

  11. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  12. High Throughput Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s high throughput facility provides highly automated and parallel approaches to material and materials chemistry development. The facility allows scientists...

  13. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  14. Facility Registry Service (FRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Facility Registry Service (FRS) provides an integrated source of comprehensive (air, water, and waste) environmental information about facilities across EPA,...

  15. Instrumentation of the ESRF medical imaging facility

    CERN Document Server

    Elleaume, H; Berkvens, P; Berruyer, G; Brochard, T; Dabin, Y; Domínguez, M C; Draperi, A; Fiedler, S; Goujon, G; Le Duc, G; Mattenet, M; Nemoz, C; Pérez, M; Renier, M; Schulze, C; Spanne, P; Suortti, P; Thomlinson, W; Estève, F; Bertrand, B; Le Bas, J F

    1999-01-01

    At the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) a beamport has been instrumented for medical research programs. Two facilities have been constructed for alternative operation. The first one is devoted to medical imaging and is focused on intravenous coronary angiography and computed tomography (CT). The second facility is dedicated to pre-clinical microbeam radiotherapy (MRT). This paper describes the instrumentation for the imaging facility. Two monochromators have been designed, both are based on bent silicon crystals in the Laue geometry. A versatile scanning device has been built for pre-alignment and scanning of the patient through the X-ray beam in radiography or CT modes. An intrinsic germanium detector is used together with large dynamic range electronics (16 bits) to acquire the data. The beamline is now at the end of its commissioning phase; intravenous coronary angiography is intended to start in 1999 with patients and the CT pre-clinical program is underway on small animals. The first in viv...

  16. Catalogue of European earthquakes and an atlas of European seismic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gils, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Catalogue of European earthquakes and an atlas of European seismic maps has been prepared in the framework of the activities of the CEC Working Group on the safety of ligh-water reactors. Seismic hazards are considered to be an important element of possible external accidents to be taken into account in the design, construction, and operation of nuclear power plants. The report relies on the data base available, the historical as well as the present-day data. After a short historical review, actually-used intensity scales are discussed. The scale applied in European countries and the one proposed in the United States of America are compared. The different seismic maps of interest are explained and a mathematical procedure presented which allows, under certain conditions, to draw seismic maps by computer facilities

  17. ACTINET: a European Network for Actinide Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard Boullis; Pascal Chaix

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The research in Actinide sciences appear as a strategic issue for the future of nuclear systems. Sustainability issues are clearly in connection with the way actinide elements are managed (either addressing saving natural resource, or decreasing the radiotoxicity of the waste). The recent developments in the field of minor actinide P and T offer convincing indications of what could be possible options, possible future processes for the selective recovery of minor actinides. But they point out, too, some lacks in the basic understanding of key-issues (such as for instance the control An versus Ln selectivity, or solvation phenomena in organic phases). Such lacks could be real obstacles for an optimization of future processes, with new fuel compounds and facing new recycling strategies. This is why a large and sustainable work appears necessary, here in the field of basic actinide separative chemistry. And similar examples could be taken from other aspects of An science, for various applications (nuclear fuel or transmutation targets design, or migration issues,): future developments need a strong, enlarged, scientific basis. The Network ACTINET, established with the support of the European Commission, has the following objectives: - significantly improve the accessibility of the major actinide facilities to the European scientific community, and form a set of pooled facilities, as the corner-stone of a progressive integration process, - improve mobility between the member organisations, in particular between Academic Institutions and National Laboratories holding the pooled facilities, - merge part of the research programs conducted by the member institutions, and optimise the research programs and infrastructure policy via joint management procedures, - strengthen European excellence through a selection process of joint proposals, and reduce the fragmentation of the community by putting critical mass of resources and expertise on

  18. Guide to research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  19. The European UV/VUV storage ring FEL at ELETTRA: first operation and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, R P; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle; Dattoli, Giuseppe; Eriksson, M; Garzella, D; Giannessi, L; Marsi, M; Poole, M W; Renault, E; Roux, R; Trovò, M; Werin, S; Wille, K

    2001-01-01

    A European project to develop the first storage ring free-electron laser on a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility is presented, including a description of the main features, initial performance at 350 and 220 nm and future prospects.

  20. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  1. Nuclear waste management, a European task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W.

    1989-01-01

    The coming into force of the Single European Act on July 1, 1987, which is to stepwise create a truly frontierless internal market of the European Community up to the year 1992, will have an effect also on the nuclear waste management sector. The goals of the energy policy and fuel cycle policy of the FRG, however, will not be changed by this. The contribution in hand discusses in particular some problems encountered at the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, namely nuclear spent fuel reprocessing. Activities in this branch of nuclear industry for more than ten years already have been a joint, European task. Spent fuel elements from West German reactors have been sent for reprocessing to facilities in France and in Great Britain, for example. The task of spent fuel reprocessing in the eyes of the author has a dimension exceeding the scope of the European single market: cooperation in this field for years has been including Switzerland and Sweden, for example, and is likely to include in future some countries of the Eastern Bloc. (orig.) [de

  2. Accelerating sustainability in large-scale facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research centres and large-scale facilities are intrinsically energy intensive, but how can big science improve its energy management and eventually contribute to the environmental cause with new cleantech? CERN’s commitment to providing tangible answers to these questions was sealed in the first workshop on energy management for large scale scientific infrastructures held in Lund, Sweden, on the 13-14 October.   Participants at the energy management for large scale scientific infrastructures workshop. The workshop, co-organised with the European Spallation Source (ESS) and  the European Association of National Research Facilities (ERF), tackled a recognised need for addressing energy issues in relation with science and technology policies. It brought together more than 150 representatives of Research Infrastrutures (RIs) and energy experts from Europe and North America. “Without compromising our scientific projects, we can ...

  3. Dosimetry intercomparisons in European medical device sterilization plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy of the o...... of the order of +/-5% (1 sigma) for both Co-60 and electron beam plants. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. TRESCIMO: European Union and South African smart city contextual dimension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available the question is raised if insights into a South African Smart City can strengthen European initiatives. A need for inter-continental automated testing facilities such as those developed by TRESCIMO is identified through which integrated experiments can...

  5. CMS Virtual Visits @ European Researchers Night, 30 September 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Lapka, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    CMS hosted four virtual visits during European Researchers Night. Audience from Greece (NCRS Demokritos, Athens), Poland (University of Science and Technology in Krakow), Italy (Psiquadro in Perugia & INFN in Pisa) and Portugal (Planetarium Calouste Gulbenkian, organised by LIP) had an occasion to converse with CMS researchers and "virtually" visit CMS Control Room and underground facilities.

  6. A promising niche: waste to energy project in the Indian dairy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, Mahesh; Patwardhan, Anand; Verbong, Geert

    2010-01-01

    The dairy sector is known to have significant local and global environmental impacts; but it also has proven renewable-energy generation potential. This paper analyzes a specific niche experiment in the Indian dairy industry, wherein cattle waste management is carried out by a multitude of stakeholders. These include the waste collectors, local technology adopters, research institutions, multilateral donor agencies, the Indian government, technology suppliers and operation and maintenance teams who have managed an uninterrupted 1 MWe energy production over the past 4 years. This analysis uses the sociotechnical regime framework to study the interaction of social, technological, economic and policy-related aspects relevant to the niche experiment. The analysis shows a potential to contribute to the development of two complementing regimes-one related to cooperative waste management and the other related to grid-connected renewable-energy-based electricity generation. Key factors for a successful development are not only a long-term financing protection through government subsidies to cover higher capital cost and a preferential tariff related to energy throughput, but also the adaptation of technology, the embedding in the local cooperative structure and the removal of regulatory barriers.

  7. Waste-to-Energy Thermal Destruction Identification for Forward Operating Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    volume reduction, anaerobic and aerobic digestion, food waste comminution etc)  Upfront reduction in waste (i.e. biodegradable shipping materials...or more gallons of cooling water. Biological driven processes depend on microorganisms , which cannot survive in the extreme military operation or

  8. Material Analysis of Bottom Ash from Waste-to-Energy Plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Krausová, Aneta; Kameníková, Petra; Šomplák, R.; Pavlas, M.; Zach, Boleslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 73, MAR 2018 (2018), s. 360-366 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bottom ash * urban mining * metals recovery Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use OBOR OECD: Energy and fuels Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  9. Thermal Catalytic Syngas Cleanup for High-Efficiency Waste-to-Energy Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    recuperator used was an off-the-shelf item that is used for high-temperature (1150°C) heat recovery in industrial furnaces. It was a shell -and-tube...design and was installed such that the raw syngas passed within the tubes and the reformed gas passed through the shell side. Figure 11...R.Q.; Monfort, S.M.; Arkenberg, G.B.; Matter, P.H.; Swartz, S.L. Sulfur Tolerant Magnesium Nickel Silicate Catalyst for Reforming of Biomass

  10. A Computer Program for Modeling the Conversion of Organic Waste to Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragasen Pillay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a tool for the analysis of conversion of organic waste into energy. The tool is a program that uses waste characterization parameters and mass flow rates at each stage of the waste treatment process to predict the given products. The specific waste treatment process analysed in this paper is anaerobic digestion. The different waste treatment stages of the anaerobic digestion process are: conditioning of input waste, secondary treatment, drying of sludge, conditioning of digestate, treatment of digestate, storage of liquid and solid effluent, disposal of liquid and solid effluents, purification, utilization and storage of combustible gas. The program uses mass balance equations to compute the amount of CH4, NH3, CO2 and H2S produced from anaerobic digestion of organic waste, and hence the energy available. Case studies are also presented.

  11. Life cycle assessment of thermal Waste-to-Energy technologies: Review and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent...

  12. PLASMA GASIFICATION – THE WASTE-to-ENERGY SOLUTION FOR THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsan N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma WtE is currently subject of extensive research and a number of companies across the globe are trying to develop a suitable, eco-friendly and efficient WtE technology for the future. While all of these companies are still working on concept designs or small-scale prototypes, there is one company already building large industrial scale plasma gasifiers around the globe to treat MSW, Industrial and Toxic waste all together. In 1999 in Japan, Hitachi Metals and Westinghouse Plasma Corp (“WPC” built the World’s First commercial demonstration plasma WtE plant. Hitachi Metals operated the plant for one year on municipal solid waste and obtained a certification from the Japan Waste Research Foundation (JWRF. Subsequently, Hitachi Metals leveraged this success into the two commercial plants at Mihama-Mikata and Utashinai in Japan, both having at the very core the now proven Westinghouse Plasma gasification technology. For more than 20 years, Westinghouse Plasma Corp (WPC has been leading the technology platform for converting the world’s waste into clean energy for a healthier planet. The WPC technology makes landfills obsolete and replaces Incineration as the primary process for WtE. The WPC technology already operates in three reference plants around the world and other three new commercial plants are under construction (two plants of 1000 tons/day in UK and a 650 tons/day in China, all three designed to convert municipal solid waste to electricity and district heat, in the most efficient and environmental-friendly manner.

  13. Optimal utilization of waste-to-energy in an LCA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, T; Astrup, T

    2011-03-01

    Energy production from two types of municipal solid waste was evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA): (1) mixed high calorific waste suitable for production of solid recovered fuels (SRF) and (2) source separated organic waste. For SRF, co-combustion was compared with mass burn incineration. For organic waste, anaerobic digestion (AD) was compared with mass burn incineration. In the case of mass burn incineration, incineration with and without energy recovery was modelled. Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion was evaluated for use both as transportation fuel and for heat and power production. All relevant consequences for energy and resource consumptions, emissions to air, water and soil, upstream processes and downstream processes were included in the LCA. Energy substitutions were considered with respect to two different energy systems: a present-day Danish system based on fossil fuels and a potential future system based on 100% renewable energy. It was found that mass burn incineration of SRF with energy recovery provided savings in all impact categories, but co-combustion was better with respect to Global Warming (GW). If all heat from incineration could be utilized, however, the two alternatives were comparable for SRF. For organic waste, mass burn incineration with energy recovery was preferable over anaerobic digestion in most impact categories. Waste composition and flue gas cleaning at co-combustion plants were critical for the environmental performance of SRF treatment, while the impacts related to utilization of the digestate were significant for the outcome of organic waste treatment. The conclusions were robust in a present-day as well as in a future energy system. This indicated that mass burn incineration with efficient energy recovery is a very environmentally competitive solution overall. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible...

  15. Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Scacchia, Federica; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches. In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical analysis of thermal disposal plant solutions with energy recovery has been carried out. The considered plants enable the combined treatment of OMW and OH which, although penalizes the energy recovery, proves to be feasible and profitable in a future legislative scenario when stricter limitation on OMW disposal will force oil producers to bear high disposal costs. Results are compared by using economic performance measures, including revenues from produced energy and avoided disposal costs. A sensitivity and risk analysis is also performed in order to assess the economic profitability of the proposed solutions

  16. Waste-to-Energy Plant Environmental Assessment, Dyess Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Integrated Material Management Plan IWMP Integrated Waste Management Plan MACT Maximum Achievable Control Technology MRL Minimum Risk Level MRR...Education, Cerro Coso College, CA, 1994 Years of Experience: 15 Kevin J. Peter, Program Manager B.A., Anthropology, Pomona College, CA, 1975 M.A...hazardous wastes would occur with selection of any proposed action alternative. Under the no-action alternative, existing procedures for the management

  17. Integrated waste-to-energy conversion and waste transportation within island communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsigraiova, Zdena; Tavares, Gilberto; Semiao, Viriato; Carvalho, Maria de Graca

    2009-01-01

    Usually in islands both primary energy sources and drinking water are missing. Additionally, municipal solid waste (MSW) must be managed avoiding exclusive use of landfills, which limits sustainable development. Power generation from MSW incineration contributes significantly to replacing energy produced from fossil fuels and to reduce overall emissions. A solution based on thermodynamics, environmental and economic analyses and 3D-GIS modelling for the afore-mentioned problems for Cape Verde is proposed. This model integrates waste transportation optimisation and incineration with energy recovery combining production of heat and power (CHP), the heat being used for drinking water production. The results show that extraction condensing steam turbines are more suitable when power production is a priority (5.0 MW with 4000 m 3 /d of drinking water), whereas back-pressure turbines yield 5540-6650 m 3 /d of drinking water with an additional power production of 3.3-4.7 MW. The environmental and economic assessment performed shows the feasibility of the proposed CHP solution, which brings a considerable reduction in net air emissions (1.6 kt), including a significant decrease in the greenhouse gas emissions (131 ktCO 2 ), and that the revenue from energy sales ( Euro 15 million) has potential to balance the incineration cost. Moreover, when terrain relief is accounted for in the route optimisation for minimum fuel consumption, savings up to 11% are obtained.

  18. Chemistry and Thermodynamics of Solid Waste Streams used in Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In spite of our best efforts to minimize the amount of disposable supplies (and the associated packaging) used during space missions, the accumulation of solid...

  19. Shredded Waste Downdraft Gasifier for Overseas Contingency Operations Waste-to-Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Figure 13). The producer gas was sampled downstream of the filters in syringes and its composition determined by gas chromatography . A vacuum...for temporary storage. Utilize Gas Chromatography using a TCD and FID to detect CO, CO2, H2, CH4, N2 and O2. Syngas Tar/Moisture content Collect a...dimensional view from end one, other side. Final Report 64 June 2015 7 LITERATURE CITED 1. Reed, T.B. and Das, A., “ Handbook of Biomass Downdraft

  20. Evaluating the use of waste-to-energy bottom ash as road construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Current management practice, existing regulations, and environmental consequences of municipal solid : waste incineration (MSWI) ash utilization were comprehensively reviewed worldwide and nationwide : in the U.S. Efforts were made to physically and ...

  1. Food Waste to Energy: An Overview of Sustainable Approaches for Food Waste Management and Nutrient Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paritosh, Kunwar; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Yadav, Monika; Pareek, Nidhi; Chawade, Aakash; Vivekanand, Vivekanand

    2017-01-01

    Food wastage and its accumulation are becoming a critical problem around the globe due to continuous increase of the world population. The exponential growth in food waste is imposing serious threats to our society like environmental pollution, health risk, and scarcity of dumping land. There is an urgent need to take appropriate measures to reduce food waste burden by adopting standard management practices. Currently, various kinds of approaches are investigated in waste food processing and management for societal benefits and applications. Anaerobic digestion approach has appeared as one of the most ecofriendly and promising solutions for food wastes management, energy, and nutrient production, which can contribute to world's ever-increasing energy requirements. Here, we have briefly described and explored the different aspects of anaerobic biodegrading approaches for food waste, effects of cosubstrates, effect of environmental factors, contribution of microbial population, and available computational resources for food waste management researches.

  2. Management of solid residues in waste-to-energy and biomass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehlow, J.; Bergfeldt, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Wilen, C.; Ranta, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Schwaiger, H. [Forschungsgesellschaft Joanneum mbH, Graz (Austria); Visser, H.J.M. [ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Gu, S.; Gyftopoulou, E.; Brammer, J. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    A literature review has been performed for getting in-depth information about quality of residues from thermal processes for waste and biomass as well as their disposal or utilisation options and current practices. Residues from waste incineration have been subject to intense research programs for many years and it can be concluded that the quality of bottom ashes has meanwhile a high standard. The question whether an utilisation as secondary building material is accepted or not depends on the definition of acceptable economic impac. For filter ashes and gas cleaning residues the situation is more complex. Their quality is known: due to their high inventory of heavy metals and organic micro-pollutants they are classified as hazardous waste which means they require specific measures for their safe long-term disposal. A number of stabilisation and treatment processes for filter ashes and gas cleaning residues including the recovery of species out of these materials have been developed but none has been implemented in full scale due to economic constraints. There is reason to speculate that even recovery processes which are not profitable for private companies might point out economically useful if future and long-term costs which have to be covered of the society, e.g. for rehabilitation of contaminated sites, are taken into account. Their quality as well as that of residues from combustion of contaminated biomass is mainly depending on the quality of the fuel. The inventory of critical ingredients in fuel produced from waste or waste fractions, especially of halogens and heavy metals, is often rather high and shows typically a wide range of variation. A reliable quality control for such fuels is very difficult. Other residues can - like gas cleaning residues from waste incineration - be inertised in order to meet the criteria for the access to cheaper landfills than those for hazardous waste. A similar conclusion can be drawn for the quality and management of residues from pyrolysis or carbonisation of biomass. A high potential of application of such charcoal is theoretically possible but the ecological compatibility of some of the proposed scenarios has not yet been shown. An open question is also the potential of such residues for the recovery of ingredients with fertiliser capabilities like potassium of phosphorous. Limited sound information, too, was found for residues from anaerobic digestion of agricultural and other biomass and organic waste fractions. There are two main issues concerning their environmental compatibility: the potential pollution in case materials originated from waste is treated respectively co-treated and the inventory of nutrients in case 'clean' biomass from the agricultural sector only was used. A final conclusion can be drawn that there is need for further research on long-term reliable management strategies, especially for all types of residues from gas cleaning in all processes.

  3. Material development for waste-to-energy plants. Refractory linings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hede Larsen, O.

    2010-10-15

    Evaluation and SEM analysis of plant exposed, failed linings confirm over and again that failure in broad lines is linked to excess porosity, inferior quality on raw materials, detrimental reactions between raw materials and other mix constituents, volume growth reactions between base material and salt depositions, thermal stress induced crack formation, and uncontrolled craftsmanship. Extensive evaluations, calculations and considerations revealed numerous ways to execute the formulation of experimental castable mixes, of which some formed a broad base for phase I trials. Three mixes of the experimental castable phase II batches reached apparent porosities of {approx} 10% measured with alcohol, estimated to less than 8%-9% if measured in water. These results compare favourably to the open porosities measure with water of generally applied LCCs in the Danish marketplace of 15.5-16.0%. Converted to bonding phase porosities the low levels realised in experiments look rather good: 28% vs 55-57%. Salt cup tests confirm state of the art resistance. Experiments and assessment of surface oxidation of Silicon Carbide grains of three levels of purity confirm that it is impossible to stabilise SiC by pre-oxydation for the purpose of creating a thicker, protective surface layer of SiO{sub 2}. It is evident from the literature and qualified assessment that free Si, as a remnant surplus from SiC manufacture, does indeed hydrolyse in the castable basic environment under development of H{sub 2} gas bubbles adding on to unwanted porosity. Heat conductivity measurements of six different, representative products conducted by the Danish Technological Institute from 300 dec. C to 750 dec. C according to their credited calorimetric method confirm that the pre-firing to excess temperatures and subsequent measurement according to the DIN/EUN norm does indeed give misleading data of up to 45% for a castable containing {approx} 55% Silicon Carbide. Finite Element analysis confirms the stress levels between steel and refractory with the higher stress level at the top of the panel wall tube. As, however, no intimate and solid bond exists in the finite border layer between the two, the expected cracking may not occur. At least it has not been observed in reality. Experiments with forced, vigorous heating of dried and wet castable blocks, respectively, confirm that spalling and cracking at initial lining heat-up are caused by reversible thermal expansion below boiling point of free, unbonded water left in the micro and capillary porosity, and not by decomposition of hydrates. (Author)

  4. From organic waste to energy: A feasible option in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available , paraffin, wood, coal and other products are burned for heating and cooking purposes. The burning of these fuels generates gases and particulates, which can result in lung and other respiratory diseases, especially in the young, elderly or immuno... 16th Edition, Washington DC. De Baere, L. (2006). Will anaerobic digestion of solid waste survive in the future? Water. Science and. Technology. 53(8): 187-194. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT). (1999a). National...

  5. Power Sources Focus Group - Evaluation of Plasma Gasification for Waste-to-Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    improved tapping. • Modifications to the venturi scrubber and better cooling of quench water have reduced gas cleaning maintenance (particulate...Chamber Quench Venturi Scrubber Cyclonic Separator Shredder Mill • Safe with no risk of fires • Meets or exceeds MARPOL regulations • Rapid...passes through a Venturi scrubber to remove particulate matter. A packed column is used to remove acid gases. A bed of iron oxide catalyst is used to

  6. Proceedings of the 1st Army Installation Waste to Energy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    hydroelectric project. Biomass — Any lignin waste material that is segregated from other waste materials and is determined to be nonhazardous by the Ad...The temperatures are relatively low in dry ash gasifiers, so the fuel must be highly reactive ; low-grade coals are particularly suitable. The

  7. Plasma ARC/SCWO Sysems for Waste-to-Energy Applications Utilizing Milwaste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    configuration and physics 4. Gasification and pollution abatement systems 5. Slag chemistry, refractory design, and glass and metal pouring 6. Energy...Manganese (g/L) 0.07 Nickel (g/L) 0.05 Zinc (g/L) 0.49 GA successfully processed the simulated waste for 6 hours at steady state flow

  8. Bioethanol Production from Waste Potatoes as a Sustainable Waste-to-energy Resource via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, A. A.; Shah, F. A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ever increasing demand of energy and corresponding looming depletion of fossil fuels have transpired into a burning need of time to vie for alternative energy resources before the traditional energy sources are completely exhausted. Scientists are continuously working on sustainable energy production as an alternate source of energy to meet the present and future requirements. This research deals with conversion of the starch to fermentable carbon source (sugars) by fermentation through liquefaction by using yeast and alpha- amylase. The results show that the significant bioethanol production was achieved while using the parameters like temperature (30 °C) pH (6) and incubation time of 84 hrs. About 90 ml of bioethanol was produced from potato intake of 800 g. Pakistan being an agricultural country is rich in potato crop and this research bodes well to open new vistas to arrest the energy shortage in this part of the world

  9. Waste-to-Energy Decision Support Method for Forward Deployed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Throughout history , the availability of logistical support has played a key role in success of military operations. Logistics operations in the...Thermochemical Technologies for Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Treatment." Venice , Italy, . CENTCOM. 2012. CENTCOM Contingency Environmental Standards

  10. Material development for waste to energy plants. Overlay welding and refractory linings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard Hansson, A.

    2011-02-15

    Waste is an extremely corrosive fuel. In order to recover a higher percentage of the energy in waste, waste incineration plants have developed from purely heat producing units to heat and power producing units. The change in concept results in higher material temperatures and thereby faster material degradation. As a result material failures have been observed in many waste incineration plants. The purpose of this project was to develop materials with higher resistance to the corrosive elements, in order to reduce the cost of maintenance, increase the availability, and increase the efficiency. The focus is on overlay welding and refractory linings. Inconel 625, alloy 50, alloy 686, and Super 625 offer equivalent corrosion protection at panel walls. 100% overlay performs better than 50% overlay. The corrosion morphology changes with increasing temperature from pitting and general corrosion to pitting and selective corrosion (dendritic core or grain boundaries). The previously observed detrimental effect of Fe on the corrosion resistance was not confirmed. It probably depends on factors such as microstructure of the alloy and local metal temperature. Ni-overlay also reduces the corrosion rates on superheater tubes. However, the superheater environment is less aggressive than the water wall environment. Failure of refractory linings is linked to excess porosity, detrimental reactions between raw materials and other mix constituents, volume growth reactions between base material and salt depositions, and thermal stress induced crack formation. Free water and not decomposition of hydrates causes spalling and cracking during the initial heating of refractory linings. Finite Element analysis confirms the stress levels between steel and refractory with the higher stress level at the top of the panel wall tube. A number of LCC mixes were formulated, adjusted and tested. Mixes with low open porosities ({approx} 10%) and state of the art resistance to KCl were achieved. (LN)

  11. Small-Scale Waste-to-Energy Technology for Contingency Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    Maintenance, Operator Skill Level Requires Waste Sorting/Pre-processing Scaling and Capacity Issues Technology Readiness Issues Composting Useful By-Product...combustion temperature possible with this technology. These variables are important for improved tar conversion, increased tolerance for high moisture

  12. Optimal utilization of waste-to-energy in an LCA perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy production from two types of municipal solid waste was evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA): (1) mixed high calorific waste suitable for production of solid recovered fuels (SRF) and (2) source separated organic waste. For SRF, co-combustion was compared with mass burn incineration....... For organic waste, anaerobic digestion (AD) was compared with mass burn incineration. In the case of mass burn incineration, incineration with and without energy recovery was modelled. Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion was evaluated for use both as transportation fuel and for heat and power production....... All relevant consequences for energy and resource consumptions, emissions to air, water and soil, upstream processes and downstream processes were included in the LCA. Energy substitutions were considered with respect to two different energy systems: a present-day Danish system based on fossil fuels...

  13. Life Cycle Comparison of Waste-to-Energy to Sanitary Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to evaluate the environmental footprint of products, processes, and services. An LCA allows decision makers to compare products and processes through systematic evaluation of supply chains. Also known as a “cradle-to-grave” approach, LCA ev...

  14. Technology Evaluation of Army-Scale Waste-to-Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    ot by installing generally comparable: in series with package in- acoustic partitions, with low-resistance blast panel% cinerator-boiler systems...labyrinth seals and heat- Automatic temperature controls are used. A pri- resistant gaskets to inhibit air leakage. mary pyrometer monitors the

  15. Research and Development for Robotic Transportable Waste to Energy System (TWES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Feedmiser package - 100-gal duplex Feedmiser package, including two hp Grundfos pumps rated to 15 gpm at 602 ft of head and a 100-gal tank The...observed. This was possibly from a bad weld between the back plate and a fire tube, or a leak from a tube itself. This problem warrants further...for damages (to be inserted where spool piece resides on 2” MPS header) Completed • Inspect welds on pipe supports and boiler Completed TWES

  16. Waste to Energy : The Waste Incineration Directive and its Implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duman, Murat; Boels, Luciaan

    2007-01-01

    Essent operates a coal-fired power plant, called AC-9, in Geertruidenberg. A gasifier connected to AC-9 thermally treats waste wood through gasification. The waste wood Essent used is demolition and construction wood, the so-called B-wood. The gas produced through gasification is fed into the

  17. Investigating Efficient Tar Management from Biomass and Waste to Energy Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    internal combustion engine (ICE) can mean spark ignition or diesel ( compression ignition ). It is likely that the light tars could be made to burn in...filled with methyl chloroform to allow rapid acquisition and analysis via an auto handler on the gas chromatography machine. An additional test...flare and venturi are lost. If the venturi were lost air can draw back into the process pipe creating an air fuel mixture that may ignite . PLASMA

  18. Summary of the Swedish report Waste-to-energy, an inventory and review about dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelin, A. [RVF - The Swedish Association of Waste Management (Sweden)

    2002-10-01

    Continuous efforts are being made to further improve waste incineration as a means of dealing with household waste and other combustible material, while also producing valuable energy. The main aims are to further reduce the already low emissions to air, and to ensure effective long-term deposition of ashes and other residues from the flue-gas treatment of the waste incineration process. In order to increase knowledge in this area, the Swedish Association of Waste Management (RVF) has taken the initiative for the biggest study to date into dioxins and waste incineration in Sweden. RVF is a trade association working within the areas of waste management and recycling. The owners of Sweden's 22 waste incineration plants are all members of RVF. The study has been carried out by engineer Nils Ahlgren, an independent consultant in energy and the environment, and Professor Stellan Marklund of the University of Umeae, who has a doctorate in dioxins and conducts research into incineration technology and environmental effects. A summary of the report of this study is presented here. The order of the text in this summary follows that of the respective sections in the main report, see below for further explanation.

  19. Municipal Waste-to-Energy plants in Poland – current projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyranka Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions show why in the current situation development of Polish WtE infrastructure is right, i.e. operation of aforementioned plants that will ensure benefits associated with energy production, reduction of landfilling and informing public opinion regarding modern waste management models. Additionally, the article draws attention on the high responsibility that will be put on WtE plants operators and that experience gained during WtE implementation can be used to improve even further for future Polish Waste Management Systems.

  20. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  1. A European experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is an experiment in nuclear fusion research which was planned as a joint effort between national research laboratories and Euratom. Before approval was given for it to be built it became a political football in the European Communities. This book describes the background against which JET was conceived, designed and planned. It gives a chronological account of the political imbroglio which followed between 1975 and 1978 and indicates how close the project came to collapse at one point. In addition to the two years' delay caused by Ministerial conflicts over its siting, the project suffered many compromises in its financing, its staffing and its organisation. An account is given of the unique structure of the European Communities and its procedures, which shows how idealism constantly faces reality. The role of Euratom is discussed, taking into account the difference between its approach to applications of nuclear fission as opposed to those of nuclear fusion. (author)

  2. The European Nuclear Science network touches base at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    ENSAR (European Nuclear Science and Applications Research) is an EU-supported project, which aims at fostering cooperation within the European low-energy nuclear physics community through the active sharing of expertise and best practices. The project also includes a transnational access programme to allow a large community of users to access the participating facilities, which include CERN’s ISOLDE. In the last week of April, CERN hosted the General Assembly and Programme Coordination Committee meetings, about 18 months after the project’s kick-off.   Participants in the ENSAR project. ENSAR involves 30 partner institutes, which include the seven large nuclear physics facilities in Europe. A large part of the European nuclear physics community is represented in ENSAR, in particular scientists who are performing research related to nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and applications of nuclear science. In 2010, the project was awarded 8 million euros from the Europe...

  3. AOV Facility Tool/Facility Safety Specifications -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Develop and maintain authorizing documents that are standards that facilities must follow. These standards are references of FAA regulations and are specific to the...

  4. Management and Marketing Elements in Maritime Cruises Industry. European Cruise Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Boşneagu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European cruises market has a major impact on all aspects of maritime industry: boarding ports, ports of call, shipbuilding, ship maintenance, supplies, sales and marketing, ship crews and administrative facilities. While in 2013, fiscal and economic conditions in Europe have continued to have a constraint to increasing demand for cruises, the number of passengers, Europeans or visitors of European ports, has grown moderately. For the next years, a higher growth of Europena market cruises is expected.

  5. European Union, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-01-01

    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  6. European immigration a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.

  7. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  8. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  9. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  10. HiPER: The European path to laser energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Chris

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While for decades, energy production relying on laser inertial fusion has been a strong motivation for the development in Europe of a few high-energy laser facilities and dedicated scientific programs, the HiPER initiative launched in 2004 fostered an ambitious large-scale coordinated European program toward inertial fusion energy. Anticipating the successful demonstration of fusion ignition and gain at the National Ignition Facility (NIF in the USA, scientists and engineers from across Europe are developing the case for a next generation laser fusion facility, HiPER, to be constructed in Europe. The single-facility build strategy of HiPER (High Power Laser Energy Research Facility aims at first demonstrating some key elements of a fusion reactor in a high rep-rate few-second cycle mode, before addressing energy production on a high rep-rate continuous mode in a second area.

  11. Environmental performances of different configurations of a material recovery facility in a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardolino, Filomena; Berto, Chiara; Arena, Umberto

    2017-10-01

    The study evaluated the environmental performances of an integrated material recovery facility (MRF) able to treat 32kt/y of unsorted mixed waste, made of residuals from household source separation and separate collection. The facility includes a mechanical sorting platform for the production of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) utilized in an external waste-to-energy plant, bio-cells for tunnel composting of organic fraction, and a sanitary landfill for the safe disposal of ultimate waste. All the MRF sub-units have been analysed in depth in order to acquire reliable data for a life cycle assessment study, focused on the environmental performances of different configurations of the facility. The study investigated a "past" configuration, including just mechanical sorting, landfilling and biogas combustion in a gas engine, and the "present" one, which includes also a composting unit. Two possible "future" configurations, having a gasifier inside the MRF battery limits, have been also analysed, assessing the performances of two fluidized bed reactors of different size, able to gasify only the residues generated by the sorting platform or the whole amount of produced SRF, respectively. The analysis evaluated the contributions of each unit in the different configurations and allowed a reliable assessment of the technological evolution of the facility. The results quantified the positive effect of the inclusion of an aerobic treatment of the waste organic fraction. The SRF gasification in situ appears to improve the MRF environmental performances in all the impact categories, with the exclusion of that of global warming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. European Network Against Racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    This article reviews ENAR’s (European Network Against Racism) history from its inception in 1998 to the present – a development which reflects an increasing need for a professionalised lobby organisation with the ability to respond to Brussels-induced demands. Furthermore, against the backdrop...

  13. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  14. Gifted European American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.; Perkins, Carol O.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes factors affecting the achievement of 15 highly accomplished European American women in the fields of business, higher education, and law and government. Findings indicate participants tended to attribute their success to external factors while simultaneously employing proactive strategies to overcome potential barriers.…

  15. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  16. Play the European card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Otto Majewski, Chief Executive Officer of the Bayernwerk AG utility, in his capacity as Chairman of the European Nuclear Council pointed out at ENC 98 in Nice that national energy policies constituted a major danger to the use of nuclear power. At the same time, he indicated ways and means by which to evade that danger. The decisions taken in Sweden and in the Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of the use of nuclear power show that national energy policies can seriously jeopardize the use of nuclear power. Bayernwerk CEO Dr. Majewski urged nuclear power plant operators to counteract these tendencies by playing the European card. Nuclear power anyway was a classical topic of European cooperation which, in the past, had resulted in higher safety standards and in the development of the EPR. It should also be attempted, by working on European institutions, to strengthen the use of nuclear power, even on a national level. He invoked economic arguments against nuclear opponents, especially the preservation of competitiveness by means of lower electricity prices, and arguments of climate protection. (orig.) [de

  17. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  18. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  19. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  20. The european ALARA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croueail, P.; Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s the European Commission sponsored projects on the understanding and practical implementation of the ALARA principle. These projects helped ensure that ALARA was integrated into many organisations radiation protection programmes, particularly in the nuclear industry. However there was still much to be done in the non-nuclear sector, as well as for the management of internal exposure. Therefore, the European Commission decided to set up, as of the first January 1996, a European ALARA Network (EAN) whose main goals are to: Further promote ALARA within non nuclear industry, research and the nuclear cycle; Provide a means for feedback experience and the exchange and dissemination of good radiological protection practices in these areas; Initiate proposals for research projects and workshops on topics dealing with optimisation of radiological protection for all types of occupational exposure. The Network has a Steering Committee of experts from 11 countries, with CEPN being the co-ordinator. Twice yearly, the EAN products for the international community a European ALARA Newsletter that reaches several thousand individuals or institutions, mainly in Europe. Each year since 1997, the EAN has organised an ALARA workshop attended by 60 to 80 experts from about ten countries. The first three Workshops were devoted to: ALARA and Decommissioning (1997, Saclay, France), Good Radiation Practices in Industry and Research (1998, Chilton, United Kingdam), and ALARA and Internal Exposure (1999, Munich, Germany). Each of these Workshops gave rise to sets of recommendations to the European Commission which included proposals for further research, modification of regulations, and actions to support feedback experience within the member states. (author)

  1. European Identity and European Citizenship: the Case of Missing Polis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šejvl, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2008), s. 49-56 ISSN 1789-1035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : the European integration * law of citizenship * European identity Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  2. Isolation rooms for highly infectious diseases: an inventory of capabilities in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusco, F M; Puro, V; Baka, A

    2009-01-01

    Isolation of patients with highly infectious diseases (HIDs) in hospital rooms with adequate technical facilities is essential to reduce the risk of spreading disease. The European Network for Infectious Diseases (EUNID), a project co-funded by European Commission and involving 16 European Union...... on prevailing circumstances. Sporadic HID cases can be managed in the available HIRs. HIRs could also have a role in the initial phases of an influenza pandemic. However, large outbreaks due to natural or to bioterrorist events will need management strategies involving healthcare facilities other than HIRs....

  3. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    , the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...... of the problems society is facing today. To facilitate the creation and operation of such RIs, the EU adopted legal frameworks for European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC). On August 31, 2015, the European Spallation Source (ESS) was established as an ERIC. Under the ERIC Regulations and ESS Statutes...... international research collaborations? The complex relationship between scientific excellence, innovation, and IPRs must be carefully considered. Taking the European Spallation Source ERIC as an example, this article investigates ERIC Regulations and EU policies and discusses what issues and perspectives ERICs...

  4. European Research Reloaded : Cooperation and Integration Among Europeanized States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron; Haverland, Markus

    2006-01-01

    European integration has had an ever deepening impact on the member states. The first wave of research concerned the process of institution building and policy developments at the European Union (EU) level. The second wave, on Europeanization used the resulting integration as an explanatory factor

  5. The ISOLDE Facility: Radioactive beams at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The Isope Separation On-Line (ISOL) technique evolved from chemical techniques used to separate radioactive isotopes off-line from irradiated "targets". The ISOL targets of today, used at e.g. ISOLDE, can be of many different types and in different phases but the isotopes are always delivered at very low energies making the technique ideal for study of ground state properties and collections for other applications such as solid state physics and medical physics. The possibility of accelerating these low energy beams for nuclear structure studies, and in the long term future for neutrino physics, is now being explored at first generation radioactive beam facilities. The upgrade towards HIE-ISOLDE aim to consolidate ISOLDE's position as a world leading radioactive nuclear beam facility and it will be a pre-cursor to a future all European ISOL facility, EURISOL, with order of magnitudes higher radioactive beam intensities and energies. Prerequisite knowledge and references: None

  6. Legal regime of water management facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the legal regime of water management facilities in the light of Serbian, foreign and European law. Different divisions of water management facilities are carried out (to public and private ones, natural and artificial ones, etc., with determination of their legal relevance. Account is taken of the issue of protection from harmful effects of waters to such facilities, as well. The paper points also to rules on the water management facilities, from acts of planning, to individual administrative acts and measures for maintenance of required qualitative and quantitative condition of waters, depending on their purpose (general use or special, commercial use o waters. Albeit special rules on water management facilities exist, due to the natural interlocking between all the components of the environment (water, air and soil, a comprehensive approach is required. A reference is made to other basic principles of protection of water management facilities as well, such as the principle of prevention, principle of sustainable development and the principle "polluter pays". The last one represents the achievement of contemporary law, which deviates from the idea accepted in the second half of 20th century that supported the socialization of risk from harmful effects of waters.

  7. Lesotho - Health Facility Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The main objective of the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS) was to establish a baseline for informing the Health Project performance indicators on health facilities,...

  8. Armament Technology Facility (ATF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Armament Technology Facility is a 52,000 square foot, secure and environmentally-safe, integrated small arms and cannon caliber design and evaluation facility....

  9. Projectile Demilitarization Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Projectile Wash Out Facility is US Army Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE 1300). It is a pilot scale wash out facility that uses high pressure water and steam...

  10. Rocketball Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test facility offers the capability to emulate and measure guided missile radar cross-section without requiring flight tests of tactical missiles. This facility...

  11. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  12. Materiel Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CRREL's Materiel Evaluation Facility (MEF) is a large cold-room facility that can be set up at temperatures ranging from −20°F to 120°F with a temperature change...

  13. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  14. Dialysis Facility Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Dialysis Facility Compare helps you find detailed information about Medicare-certified dialysis facilities. You can compare the services and the quality of care that...

  15. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  16. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  17. Facilities for US Radioastronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaddeus, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Discusses major developments in radioastronomy since 1945. Topics include proposed facilities, very-long-baseline interferometric array, millimeter-wave telescope, submillimeter-wave telescope, and funding for radioastronomy facilities and projects. (JN)

  18. Neighbourhood facilities for sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper these are referred to as ‘Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability’. Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability (NFS) are initiatives undertaken by individuals and communities to build local sustainable systems which not only improve...

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  20. Ouellette Thermal Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Test Facility is a joint Army/Navy state-of-the-art facility (8,100 ft2) that was designed to:Evaluate and characterize the effect of flame and thermal...

  1. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  2. Facility design: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The design of shielded chemical processing facilities for handling plutonium is discussed. The TRU facility is considered in particular; its features for minimizing the escape of process materials are listed. 20 figures

  3. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  4. Political dimension of European constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplánová Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Author in the article tries to analyse different elements of document called European Constitution. Analysis is supported with theoretical framework of federalism, presented by Brezovšek. Authors is playing with idea of (confederal and international organization elements of European Constitution and their mix. They are also trying to set some connections between so called common European identity as necessary condition to give legitimacy to the European Constitution. This became important question after „votes of non-confidence“ to the European Constitution in France, despite it should be addressed already before. However, European Constitution is important document on the path of European integration and lack of support to it will slow down this process of widening and deepening European ties.

  5. Botany facility, phase A study. Part 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, B.; Frey, A.; Schiller, P.

    1983-10-01

    A facility for spaceborne botany experiments to be flown on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) is proposed. Configuration and design, thermal control, electronics, subsystem design, add-on concepts and ground support equipment are described. The facility has 16 sample-containers at microgravity and 8 on the centrifuge. Containers are 50 x 50 x 150 mm and are observed by video and optical cine cameras. A controlled environment can be assured during 6 month operation.

  6. CLEAR test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    A new user facility for accelerator R&D, the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR), started operation in August 2017. CLEAR evolved from the former CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) used by the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The new facility is able to host and test a broad range of ideas in the accelerator field.

  7. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the

  8. The European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The creation of a single European market also will have its effects on the power and electricity sector. Expectations tied to this abandonment of borders on the electricity market are different: some hope for a reduction of energy costs, others fear safeguarded supplies to be at risk. It cannot be fully judged at present what the situation will be on a strongly integrated, European power and electricity market, and the brochure in hand is intended to present a first survey of the situation from the perspective of the power industry and energy policy, concentrating on main aspects. The survey is compiled in the form of reprints of journal articles written on this topic by a number of well-known German experts in the field. (orig./HP) [de

  9. European Nuclear Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Gonzalez, E.; Diaz Diaz, J.L.; Jimenez, J.L.; Velarde, G.; Navarro, J.M.; Hittner, D.; Dominguez, M.T.; Bollini, G.; Martin, A.; Suarez, J.; Traini, E.; Lang-Lenton, J.

    2004-01-01

    ''European Nuclear Features - ENF'' is a joint publication of the three specialized technical journals, Nuclear Espana (Spain), Revue General Nucleaire (France), and atw - International Journal of Nuclear Power (Germany). The ENF support the international Europeen exchange of information and news about energy and nuclear power. News items, comments, and scientific and technical contributions will cover important aspects of the field. The second issue of ENF contains contributions about theses topics, among others: Institutional and Political Changes in the EU. - CIEMAT Department of Nuclear Fission: A General Overview. - Inertial Fusion Energy at DENIM. - High Temperature Reactors. European Research Programme. - On Site Assistance to Khmelnitsky NPP 1 and 2 (Ukraine). - Dismantling and Decommissioning of Vandellos I. (orig.)

  10. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  11. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...... European consensus, we find markedly lower levels of support for nudges in two nations: Hungary and Denmark. We are not, in general, able to connect support for nudges with distinct party affiliations....

  12. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  13. The European Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.

    The European Union started the introduction of competition in the European market for natural gas. Today, mid-2016, the process of restructuring is still going on. In parallel, important changes in geopolitical, environmental and technological determinants can be observed in the European and global

  14. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  15. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  16. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  17. Facility or Facilities? That is the Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viso, M.

    2018-04-01

    The management of the martian samples upon arrival on the Earth will require a lot of work to ensure a safe life detection and biohazard testing during the quarantine. This will induce a sharing of the load between several facilities.

  18. European wind turbine catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

  19. European industry outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Europe's offshore oil and gas industry is estimated to spend around Pound 14bn per year out of a world total of some Pound 43bn, showing that despite its maturity the North West European Continental Shelf remains a dominant segment of the world's offshore business. Especially in the U.K. sector, expenditure is booming and 1991 is expected to be a record year. This activity level is likely to continue into 1992, but there are factors which could limit activity later in the 1990s. This volume lists some 225 undeveloped discoveries and fields under development in the U.K. sector, 80 each in Norway and the Netherlands, and 17 in Denmark. New technologies, particularly subsea separation and multiphase flow will be prominent factors in ensuring that the numerous small oilfields within this inventory of discoveries will eventually achieve commercial development. The effects of likely European Community legislation continue to concern many in the industry, with a more open and regulated purchasing regime for major contracts becoming more certain. A major step has been taken towards open access rights, and if this policy is pursued it could open the European gas industry to a new era of free competition, especially if a U.K.-Continental transmission link were to be realised. The long term implications of the increased share of natural gas in the total energy mix to virtually all companies engaged in offshore activities (and many not so engaged) are likely to be fundamental and far-reaching. (author)

  20. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms...... of the establishment of homological structures and the formation of conjunctural alliances between the field of European social-scientific research and the field of European policy. The three interwoven processes that I depict are: first, the production of a European field of social research, connected to both...... European and national scientific institutions; second, the establishment of European Union (EU) institutions and organisations that were able to identify and link up with social researchers; and third, the formation of conjunctural alliances between the two fields (social science and EU research policy...

  1. Considerations about the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Hinca, R.

    2014-01-01

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11.9.2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 500 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 35 per year.Having in mind the actual EHRO-N report from 2013 focused on operation of nuclear facilities and an assumption that the ratio between nuclear experts, nuclearized and nuclear aware people is comparable also for decommissioning (16:74:10), as well as the fact that the special study branch for decommissioning in the European countries almost does not exist, this European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) could be helpful in the overbridging this gap.For the first run of the EDA scheduled on 2014 we would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future in Europe.A graduate of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) should have at least bachelor level from technical or natural science Universities or Colleges and at least one year working experiences in the area of NPP decommissioning or nuclear power engineering. This study creates prerequisites for acquiring and completion of professional and specialized knowledge in the subjects which are described. (authors)

  2. The European Nucelar Engineering Network Program (ENEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, M.; Boeck, H.; Hajek, M.

    2002-01-01

    As of 2002 there are 439 Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) and 264 Research Reactors (RR) in operation world-wide, out of these countries, 11 countries in Europe account for 145 NPP and 18 countries in Europe for 37 RR. A large fraction of both the NPP and the RR are over 30 years old. The same age problem exists also among the qualified nuclear staff. Most of the nuclear staff joined those facilities in the 60-ties and 70-ties and are now approaching retirement age. Due to this fact a large amount of experience and competence will be lost in the next decade [1]. Therefore it is of utmost importance to improve and harmonize the nuclear educational system among European countries. Having this target in mind an EU project, the European Nuclear Engineering Network (ENEN), was submitted by 17 countries to the European Union. The proposal was accepted and the two year project started officially on January 1's't 2002. In this paper a survey on the history and the structure of ENEN is given, the targets and timetables of the individual 10 Work Packages are discussed and the results up to September 2002 are presented.(author)

  3. The European Nucelar Engineering Network Program (ENEN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, M; Boeck, H; Hajek, M [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    As of 2002 there are 439 Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) and 264 Research Reactors (RR) in operation world-wide, out of these countries, 11 countries in Europe account for 145 NPP and 18 countries in Europe for 37 RR. A large fraction of both the NPP and the RR are over 30 years old. The same age problem exists also among the qualified nuclear staff. Most of the nuclear staff joined those facilities in the 60-ties and 70-ties and are now approaching retirement age. Due to this fact a large amount of experience and competence will be lost in the next decade [1]. Therefore it is of utmost importance to improve and harmonize the nuclear educational system among European countries. Having this target in mind an EU project, the European Nuclear Engineering Network (ENEN), was submitted by 17 countries to the European Union. The proposal was accepted and the two year project started officially on January 1's't 2002. In this paper a survey on the history and the structure of ENEN is given, the targets and timetables of the individual 10 Work Packages are discussed and the results up to September 2002 are presented.(author)

  4. European Decommissioning Academy (EDA). Ready to start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11 September 2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 2,000 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 150 each year. The article describes the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) which is prepared for the first term in June 2015 in Slovakia. The main goal is a creation of new nuclear experts generation for decommissioning via the Academy, which will include lessons, practical exercises in laboratories as well as 2 days on-site training at NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Four days technical tour via most interesting European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy are planned as well. After the final exam, there is the option to continue in knowledge collection via participation at the 2nd Eastern and Central European Decommissioning (ECED) conference in Trnava (Slovakia). We would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future.

  5. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  6. ITER primary cryopump test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersohn, N.; Mack, A.; Boissin, J.C.; Murdoc, D.

    1998-01-01

    A cryopump as ITER primary vacuum pump is being developed at FZK under the European fusion technology programme. The ITER vacuum system comprises of 16 cryopumps operating in a cyclic mode which fulfills the vacuum requirements in all ITER operation modes. Prior to the construction of a prototype cryopump, the concept is tested on a reduced scale model pump. To test the model pump, the TIMO facility is being built at FZK in which the model pump operation under ITER environmental conditions, except for tritium exposure, neutron irradiation and magnetic fields, can be simulated. The TIMO facility mainly consists of a test vessel for ITER divertor duct simulation, a 600 W refrigerator system supplying helium in the 5 K stage and a 30 kW helium supply system for the 80 K stage. The model pump test programme will be performed with regard to the pumping performance and cryogenic operation of the pump. The results of the model pump testing will lead to the design of the full scale ITER cryopump. (orig.)

  7. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: the European Network adult ADHD

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooij, Sandra JJ

    2010-09-03

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  8. Simulation Facilities and Test Beds for Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarmann, Bernhard Kl.; Leonard, Arian

    2002-01-01

    Galileo is the European satellite navigation system, financed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Commission (EC). The Galileo System, currently under definition phase, will offer seamless global coverage, providing state-of-the-art positioning and timing services. Galileo services will include a standard service targeted at mass market users, an augmented integrity service, providing integrity warnings when fault occur and Public Regulated Services (ensuring a continuity of service for the public users). Other services are under consideration (SAR and integrated communications). Galileo will be interoperable with GPS, and will be complemented by local elements that will enhance the services for specific local users. In the frame of the Galileo definition phase, several system design and simulation facilities and test beds have been defined and developed for the coming phases of the project, respectively they are currently under development. These are mainly the following tools: Galileo Mission Analysis Simulator to design the Space Segment, especially to support constellation design, deployment and replacement. Galileo Service Volume Simulator to analyse the global performance requirements based on a coverage analysis for different service levels and degrades modes. Galileo System Simulation Facility is a sophisticated end-to-end simulation tool to assess the navigation performances for a complete variety of users under different operating conditions and different modes. Galileo Signal Validation Facility to evaluate signal and message structures for Galileo. Galileo System Test Bed (Version 1) to assess and refine the Orbit Determination &Time Synchronisation and Integrity algorithms, through experiments relying on GPS space infrastructure. This paper presents an overview on the so called "G-Facilities" and describes the use of the different system design tools during the project life cycle in order to design the system with respect to

  9. MYRRHA successfully launched. After Belgium, a European recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahim, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The green light of the Belgian governments to MYRRHA in 2010 was one of the major milestones for SCK-CEN. In the years to come, a research team will look for answers to unresolved scientific and technological issues, and will finalise the design of this cutting-edge research reactor. In 2010, MYRRHA received wide recognition at the international level as well. MYRRHA was selected as one of the most promising nuclear technologies in the European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII) and received a prominent place in the list of priority research facilities of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI).

  10. European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) - successful 1. run in june 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Hornacek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiences from the first run of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) are reported in details. EDA was created at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Slovakia, based on discussion and expressed needs declared at many international meetings including ECED2013. The first run successfully passed 14 participants during 7.-20.6. 2015. Academy was focused on decommissioning issues via lessons, practical exercises in laboratories, on-site training prepared at NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia as well as 4 days technical tour to other European decommissioning facilities (Swiss, Italy), respectively. Detailed information can be found at http://kome.snus.sk/inpe/. (authors)

  11. The European network of Biosafety-Level-4 laboratories: enhancing European preparedness for new health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisii, C; Castilletti, C; Di Caro, A; Capobianchi, M R; Brown, D; Lloyd, G; Gunther, S; Lundkvist, A; Pletschette, M; Ippolito, G

    2009-08-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infections and possible bioterrorism acts will continue to challenge both the medical community and civilian populations worldwide, urging health authorities to respond rapidly and effectively. Established in 2005, the European Community (EC)-funded European Network of Biosafety-Level-4 laboratories (Euronet-P4), which brings together the laboratories in Porton Down, London, Hamburg, Marburg, Solna, Lyon and Rome, seeks to increase international collaboration in the areas of high containment laboratory biosafety and viral diagnostic capability, to strengthen Europe's capacity to respond to an infectious disease emergency, and to offer assistance to countries not equipped with such costly facilities. Network partners have agreed on a common strategy to fill the gaps identified in the field of risk group-4 agents' laboratory diagnosis, namely the lack of standardization and of reference samples. The network has received a further 3-year funding, to offer assistance to external laboratories, and to start the planning of field activities.

  12. Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Europeanization Mutual Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Europeanization policy of the European Union towards the Eastern Partnership participant countries. Suffering from the lack of clear strategy and ultimate goal in the European Neighbourhood Policy the European Union enhances external democratization and its governance in post soviet states without immediate Union's membership perspective. Underestimation of common neighbourhood geopolitical duality in the context of growing rivalry between European (EU and Eurasian (Custom Union/Eurasian Economic Union integration gravitation centers presents the Eastern partners of the EU with a fierce dilemma of externally forced immediate geopolitical and civilizational choice while not all of them are well prepared to such a choice. The mutual Europeanization trap here to be studied both for the EU and its Eastern partners (involving Russia is a deficiency of regulating cooperation mechanism in the situation of European and Eurasian free trades zones overlapping. Vilnius Summit 2013 results test the "European aspirations" of the New Independent States and upset the ongoing process of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the context of growing economic interdependence in Wider Europe. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis escalation during 2014 as a new seat of tension provokes unbalance of the whole European security system and creates new dividing lines in Europe from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

  13. 10th European Zebrafish Meeting 2017, Budapest: Husbandry Workshop Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltová, Jana; Barton, Carrie; Certal, Ana Catarina; Argenton, Francesco; Varga, Zoltán M

    2018-01-02

    A husbandry workshop on July 3, 2017, at the 10th European Zebrafish Meeting in Budapest, Hungary (July 3-July 7, 2017), focused on the standardization, optimization, and streamlining of fish facility procedures. Standardization can be achieved for example by developing novel software and hardware tools, such as a fish facility database for husbandry and environmental facility management (Zebrabase, Oltova), or a hand-held, air-pressurized fish feeder for consistent food distribution (Blowfish, Argenton). Streamlining is achieved when work hours are reduced, as with the standardized fish feeder, or by limiting the number and types of fish diets and observing the effect on animal welfare and performance (Barton). Testing the characteristics of new fish diets and observing whether they produce better experimental outcomes (Certal) optimizes diets and improves fish productivity. Collectively, the workshop presentations emphasized how consistency and harmonization of husbandry procedures within and across aquatic facilities yield reproducible scientific outcomes.

  14. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  15. Conference on the research facilities for future nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangel'skij, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of the European nuclear society Conference (Belgium, June, 1996) is described. The main topics of 60 presented reports are the following ones: necessity of developing new experimental facilities and their parameters; financing prospects and international cooperation in this field

  16. Facilities inventory protection for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    The fact that shut-down applications have been filed for nuclear power plants, suggests to have a scrutinizing look at the scopes of assessment and decision available to administrations and courts for the protection of facilities inventories relative to legal and constitutional requirements. The paper outlines the legal bases which need to be observed if purposeful calculation is to be ensured. Based on the different actual conditions and legal consequences, the author distinguishes between 1) the legal situation of facilities licenced already and 2) the legal situation of facilities under planning during the licencing stage. As indicated by the contents and restrictions of the pertinent provisions of the Atomic Energy Act and by the corresponding compensatory regulation, the object of the protection of facilities inventor in the legal position of the facility owner within the purview of the Atomic Energy Act, and the licensing proper. Art. 17 of the Atomic Energy Act indicates the legislators intent that, once issued, the licence will be the pivotal point for regulations aiming at protection and intervention. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. The European populist challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Stavrakakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Europe, the word ‘populism’ usually refers to right-wing populism or the populist extreme right. Is, however, the concept of ‘populism’ the proper theoreticopolitical instrument through which such identifications should be perceived, categorized and debated? What are the implications (direct and indirect of such a naming? And what are the risks for critical analysis and for democratic politics in the European context? The hypothesis explored in this essay is that sticking to a restrictive association between ‘populism’ and the extreme right poses certain dangers that have to be seriously taken into account, especially in times of crisis. For a start, it is often premised on a rather simplistic euro-centrism that reduces the broad conceptual spectrum covered by the category ‘populism’ in its global use to a very particular European experience and then essentializes the resulting association, over-extending its scope. In addition, the category ‘populism’ is aften used to describe political forces, identities and discourses in which the role of ‘the people’ is only secondary or peripheral, to the extent that it has to coincide with strongly hierarchical and elitist visions of society. What complicates things even further is that, within the context of the European (economic and political crisis, whoever questions/ resists the austerity agenda – especially on the left – is increasingly discredited and denounced as an irresponsible populist. Indeed, it is not by coincidence that doubts are increasingly voiced both in the theoretical and in the political literature regarding the rationale behind such a strong association between populism and the extreme right. A series of points will thus be raised that may help us develop a plausible theoretico-political strategy in the new emerging conditions from a discursive perspective.*

  18. The European Logarithmic Microprocessor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coleman, J. N.; Softley, C. I.; Kadlec, Jiří; Matoušek, R.; Tichý, Milan; Pohl, Zdeněk; Heřmánek, Antonín; Benschop, N. F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 532-546 ISSN 0018-9340 Grant - others:Evropská komise(BE) ESPRIT 33544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Processor architecture * arithmetic unit * logarithmic arithmetic Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.611, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZS/kadlec-the%20european%20logarithmic%20microprocessor.pdf

  19. Discussion: European Commission policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldwell, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents the debate which arose following two papers presented to a seminar run by the Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries, on 11th November 1992, on European Commission (EC) energy policies. The issues raised cover how an internal market for electricity and natural gas will be implemented under a proposed EC directive, bearing in mind the level of opposition from a number of Member States. How this Directive will apply to vertically integrated structures, such as Scottish Electricity Industry, is also considered. (UK)

  20. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph; Werlauff, Erik

    , and the United Kingdom are taken into account; Italy is now included in this new edition. As in earlier editions, the authors demonstrate that analysis and comparison of national corporate laws yield highly valuable general principles and observations, not least because business organizations, wherever located...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  1. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  2. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  3. The European Community context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The chapter discusses the following: energy resources and energy policy within the European Community; political aspects in the Member States; Community involvement in the transport of radioactive materials; responsibility for safety in relation to transport lies with the governments of the Member States, but the Community through its various organizations also has certain responsibilities, e.g. to ensure that transport regulations are harmonised, to carry out safeguards checks, to provide standards for health and safety of workers and the public, and to cooperate with Member States in developing guidelines for transport safety. (U.K.)

  4. Facilities projects performance measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The two DOE-owned facilities at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), are described. The performance measurement systems used at these two facilities are next described

  5. The European Spallation Source (ESS) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a proposal for a next generation neutron source in Europe. The first phase of the project - establishing the scientific case and the technical feasibility - is now followed by an intensive period of R and D activities. Three target station options: l) a 5 MW 50 Hz short pulse station, 2) a 1 MW 10 Hz short pulse station and 3) a 4 to 5 MW 16 2/3 Hz 2.5 ms long pulse station, and the use of novel advanced cold moderators will be studied. A superconducting option for the accelerator will be investigated in a Europe-wide feasibility study for a multipurpose facility (CONCERT) with potential applications in areas such as neutron scattering, high power irradiation, R and D on transmutation and radioactive beams. It will explore possible synergies of such a facility compared with a standalone solution for the ESS. The milestones for the next three years are: June 2001 - Decision on neutron parameters and target station options, June 2002 - Conclusion of the Concert multipurpose accelerator study and June 2003 - Proposal ready for submission to funding agencies. The facility could be ready for operation around 2010. (author)

  6. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...... allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional...

  7. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology...... research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness...... of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology...

  8. 340 Facility compliance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, S.L.

    1993-10-01

    This study provides an environmental compliance evaluation of the RLWS and the RPS systems of the 340 Facility. The emphasis of the evaluation centers on compliance with WAC requirements for hazardous and mixed waste facilities, federal regulations, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) requirements pertinent to the operation of the 340 Facility. The 340 Facility is not covered under either an interim status Part A permit or a RCRA Part B permit. The detailed discussion of compliance deficiencies are summarized in Section 2.0. This includes items of significance that require action to ensure facility compliance with WAC, federal regulations, and WHC requirements. Outstanding issues exist for radioactive airborne effluent sampling and monitoring, radioactive liquid effluent sampling and monitoring, non-radioactive liquid effluent sampling and monitoring, less than 90 day waste storage tanks, and requirements for a permitted facility

  9. Trauma facilities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Jesper; Nielsen, Klaus; Primdahl, Stine C

    2018-01-01

    Background: Trauma is a leading cause of death among adults aged challenge. Evidence supports the centralization of trauma facilities and the use multidisciplinary trauma teams. Because knowledge is sparse on the existing distribution of trauma facilities...... and the organisation of trauma care in Denmark, the aim of this study was to identify all Danish facilities that care for traumatized patients and to investigate the diversity in organization of trauma management. Methods: We conducted a systematic observational cross-sectional study. First, all hospitals in Denmark...... were identified via online services and clarifying phone calls to each facility. Second, all trauma care manuals on all facilities that receive traumatized patients were gathered. Third, anesthesiologists and orthopedic surgeons on call at all trauma facilities were contacted via telephone...

  10. Do provisions to advance chemical facility safety also advance chemical facility security? An analysis of possible synergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a study on the applicability of existing chemical industry safety provisions to enhancing security of chemical facilities covering the situation in 18 EU Member States. This paper reports some preliminary analytical findings regarding the extent to which exist...

  11. Biosecurity measures in 48 isolation facilities managing highly infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an "insider attack."

  12. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  13. Facility of aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G; Regnier, J

    1975-04-18

    Said invention relates to a facility of aerosol filtration, particularly of sodium aerosols. Said facility is of special interest for fast reactors where sodium fires involve the possibility of high concentrations of sodium aerosols which soon clog up conventional filters. The facility intended for continuous operation, includes at the pre-filtering stage, means for increasing the size of the aerosol particles and separating clustered particles (cyclone separator).

  14. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  15. Geodynamics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This GSL facility has evolved over the last three decades to support survivability and protective structures research. Experimental devices include three gas-driven...

  16. Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Materials Characterization Facility enables detailed measurements of the properties of ceramics, polymers, glasses, and composites. It features instrumentation...

  17. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  18. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  19. Geospatial Data Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Geospatial application development, location-based services, spatial modeling, and spatial analysis are examples of the many research applications that this facility...

  20. Facility Environmental Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the Web site of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) facility Environmental Management System (EMS)....

  1. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  2. Magnetics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Research Facility houses three Helmholtz coils that generate magnetic fields in three perpendicular directions to balance the earth's magnetic field....

  3. Transonic Experimental Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  4. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  5. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  6. Pavement Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Comprehensive Environmental and Structural AnalysesThe ERDC Pavement Testing Facility, located on the ERDC Vicksburg campus, was originally constructed to provide an...

  7. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  8. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  9. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  10. Surplus Facilities Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coobs, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    This is the second of two programs that are concerned with the management of surplus facilities. The facilities in this program are those related to commercial activities, which include the three surplus experimental and test reactors [(MSRE, HRE-2, and the Low Intensity Test Reactor (LITR)] and seven experimental loops at the ORR. The program is an integral part of the Surplus Facilities Management Program, which is a national program administered for DOE by the Richland Operations Office. Very briefly reported here are routine surveillance and maintenance of surplus radioactively contaminated DOE facilities awaiting decommissioning

  11. Imagery Data Base Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Imagery Data Base Facility supports AFRL and other government organizations by providing imagery interpretation and analysis to users for data selection, imagery...

  12. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  13. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  14. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  15. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  16. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  17. DUPIC facility engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-03-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) the refurbishment for PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) and M6 hot-cell in IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility), (2) the establishment of the compatible facility for DUPIC fuel fabrication experiments which is licensed by government organization, and (3) the establishment of the transportation system and transportation cask for nuclear material between facilities. The report for this project describes following contents, such as objectives, necessities, scope, contents, results of current step, R and D plan in future and etc.

  18. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 400 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination resulted from an evaluation conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 400 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Two major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 400 Area were evaluated: the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fuels Manufacturing and examination Facility. The determinations were prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of these two facilities, only the Fast Flux Test Facility will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. The facilities management market in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    for researching the market but particular the definition of space including acquisition as well as development, administration, operation, maintenance and utilities in the same main product is problematic. Research limitations/implications: The market research is limited to the Danish market, but the results......Purpose: To present the results of market surveys in Denmark, which have been based on and used to test a proposal for a new European standard for a taxonomy of Facilities Management (FM). Design/methodology: The market research included surveys of both the client side and the provider side...... and was carried out by a management consultant company by telephone interviews based on definitions developed from drafts for the European FM taxonomy standard by a university researcher, who is a member of the standardisation work group. Findings: The proposed taxonomy for FM is in general a good basis...

  20. European innovation and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The promotion of technological innovation by European national governments and the EC in pursuit of both increased recovery and the anchoring of technology in supply, manufacturing and service sector companies has been a feature of the strategic involvement by European states in exploration and production research and development. This paper summaries past trends in this activity and reviews the targets for future industry innovation which will enable European (primarily the North Sea) production to be sustained for a further generation