WorldWideScience

Sample records for european union treaty

  1. European Union representation at the United Nations : towards more coherence after the Treaty of Lisbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Xi

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores the effects of the Treaty of Lisbon (ToL) on the coherence of the external representation of the European Union (EU) in the field of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) at two main UN bodies, i.e., the UN General Assembly (UNGA) and the Security Council (UNSC). It

  2. Criminal law policy of Latvia in the context of European Union: The treaty of Lisbon

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    Vilks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.

  3. Pragmatism of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s and European Union’s Strategic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    2015). 8 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO Handbook (Brussels: Public Diplomacy Division NATO, 2006), 36-37, http://www.nato.int/docu... handbook /2006/hb-en-2006.pdf (accessed January 26, 2015). 9 Figure 1: NATO Organizational Structure9 European Union (EU) The EU today, began as a...contradiction in its ontological culture which caused it progressively to distance itself from some of the central pillars of the new NATO at the

  4. The European Union Court of Justice after the Treaty of Lisbon

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    Radivojević Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Created by the Treaty of Paris as a judicial authority which ensures respect for the law when interpreting and applying this treaty, the European Court of Justice has so far been repeatedly reformed. The latest reform of the judicial system of the European Union, put into effect by the Lisbon Treaty, largely relies on solutions contained in the unaccepted Treaty on the Constitution for Europe. Novelties that this treaty brings could be grosso modo divided into several basic categories. First, there are organizational changes related to the different name and composition of the courts, appointment of judges and advocates-general and the formation of specialized courts. The new terminology and organization aims to provide a clear distinction between the Court of Justice of the EU, which is an aggregate term or generic designation for the entire judicial system of the Union, and special judicial bodies that enter into its composition. These are the Court of Justice as the highest authority, the General Court which is actually the renamed Court of First Instance, and specialized courts that replaced the judicial panels. The second category includes changes that expand the jurisdiction of the Court to certain new areas owing to the abolition of the former EU pillar structure and the dissolution of the European Community. On such a basis, an integration of court jurisdiction regarding the first and third pillar ensued, as the Court of Justice was vested with general and compulsory jurisdiction over the entire law created in the newly established area of freedom, security and justice. The exception is the area of common foreign and security policy, in which the Court's jurisdiction still remains excluded. The third type of amendment extends the scope of judicial reviews of the validity of acts adopted by EU institutions and enables authorized subjects an easier access to the Court. Their aim is to strengthen the rule of law within the legal system of

  5. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

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    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  6. SECURITY STRATEGIES OF MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FROM THE LISBON TREATY AND THE EUROPEAN SECURITY STRATEGY

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    PABLO RIVAS PARDO

    2017-09-01

    in mind, it is possible to study the variability of the Security Strategy in relation to four strategic guidelines: strategic self-perception, the necessity to tune these postulates with the common objectives of the European Union, the statement of threats and finally the actions projected by these strategies to face the changing environment of international security. This variability will seek the fact of the existence or nonexistence of tuning and consistency between the Security Strategies and the community positions in the matter of security and defense. The selected countries are those who have published their documents after the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon and the publication of the European Security Strategy, in other words, after2009: Austria, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Spain, Estonia, Holland, Hungary, Lithuania, UK and the Czech Republic.

  7. The locus standi of private applicants before the Court of Justice of the European Union after Lisbon treaty

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    Ćirković Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The action for annulment is effective remedy for private applicants in protection of their rights. Treaty of the European Community in Article 230 (4 imposed limits on the standing of individuals as it required the applicant to be directly and individually concerned by the contested measure. This requirement, especially in case of individual concern, was very difficult to meet. The Court of Justice had developed over time very restrictive interpretation of the rules for standing of individuals. There were a lot of attempts to change the Court's interpretation of the locus standi of non-privileged applicants, like the ones in cases UPA and Jégo-Quéré, but with no success. It has also been discussed why the Court does not want to change its interpretation. Among many arguments one is especially often invoked and serves to justify Court's unwillingness to relax the conditions for standing. This is the reluctance to add to the Court's already heavy workload. Finally, the reform has come. The Lisbon Treaty makes some modifications under Article 263 (4 TFEU. Private parties are allowed to contest a regulatory act which is of direct concern to them and does not entail implementing measures. It is clear that the new locus standi relies heavily on the distinction between legislative and regulatory acts. Private applicants have been expecting more from the Lisbon Treaty. They still hope that the Court of Justice of the European Union is going to make new changes in the future. After all, the European judges are those who are familiar with law and with the needs of the legal system. Therefore, they are competent to seek the ways which comply with the requirements for an efficient and fair system of judicial protection.

  8. The Dynamics of Treaty Change – Measuring the Distribution of Power in the European Union

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    Jan Biesenbender

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the distribution of power among political actors is at the heart of political science. I propose a way of analysing changes to the institutional equilibrium of the EU institutions as well as changes in the relationship between the supranational level and the member states from a historical perspective. At the core of the paper is a new dataset that allows us to trace changes to the EU treaties from 1958 to date. The findings are largely in line with what we know from the existing literature: Supranational actors, namely the European Parliament and the Commission have gained power, while the intergovernmental mode of decision-making has subsequently become more limited, thereby weakening the Council. Additionally, the expanding number of policy areas has strengthened the supranational level. The specific contribution of this paper is the transparent and replicable way in which I am able to reveal and map these changes. The dataset could function as a starting point for both qualitative and quantitative studies of European Integration. The dataset is available from the author upon request and will be made public on his website in due time.

  9. The protection of personal data in the fight against terrorism
    New perspectives of PNR European Union instruments in the light of the Treaty of Lisbon

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    Michele Nino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the protection of personal data in the European Union in the context of the fight against international terrorism taking into account the new European Union architecture provided for by the Treaty of Lisbon. After having delineated the European legal background concerning the right to privacy, the author examines the Passenger Name Records (PNR Agreements concluded by the European Union with the United States, Canada and Australia. A further object of analysis is the 2007 proposal for a Council Framework Decision on the use of PNR data for law enforcement purposes, which is aimed at creating an autonomous PNR system in the European Union. The author considers that these instruments are likely to violate rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals, in particular the right to privacy. This is also due to the architecture of the European Union, whose structure is incapable of adequately and completely protecting the right to personal data protection. As a consequence, the author proposes solutions to modify PNR instruments, especially in light of the future changes that the Treaty of Lisbon will make to the structure of the European Union.

  10. “Working the System”—British American Tobacco's Influence on the European Union Treaty and Its Implications for Policy: An Analysis of Internal Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine E.; Fooks, Gary; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. Methods and Findings In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i) provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii) secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii) bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv) provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost–benefit analysis [CBA]) within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical

  11. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine E; Fooks, Gary; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna B

    2010-01-12

    Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i) provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii) secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii) bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv) provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA]) within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical industries have since employed IA in

  12. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA.In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical industries have since

  13. Brexit and Article 50 of the Treaty of the European Union: Implications for UK Energy Policy and Security

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    Augustine O. Ifelebuegu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper articulates the potential implications of Brexit on energy policy and security in the United Kingdom (UK. Given the uncertainties associated with the decision to leave the European Union (EU, the need to consider its potential effects on the UK’s energy sector becomes even more pertinent. Through the lens of a few widely reviewed trade regimes in the light of Brexit, it can be observed that while UK energy policies are unlikely to change drastically, Brexit nevertheless threatens the UK’s capacity to safeguard its energy supply. The uncertainties following Brexit could arguably starve the UK’s upstream petroleum, electricity, and renewable energy sectors of their required investments. Both short and long-term impacts could result in UK residents paying more per unit of energy consumed in a “hard Brexit” scenario, where the UK exits the Internal Energy Market (IEM and must trade with the EU under World Trade Organisation rules. While a hard Brexit could aid the growth of the nascent shale gas industry, a negotiated withdrawal that includes some form of access to the IEM (a “soft Brexit” would be more beneficial for the future of energy security in the UK.

  14. European Private Law after the Treaty of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, G.; Hondius, E.H.

    2001-01-01

    The communitarization of the private law of the Member States has been given a significant impetus by the transfer of EC competence regarding judicial cooperation in civil matters from the third to the first pillar of the European Union. That is to say, under a new title of the EC Treaty, a single

  15. Theory and reform in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Chryssochoou, Dimitris N.; Tsinisizelis, Michael J.; Stavridis, Stelios; Ifantis, Kostas

    2003-01-01

    This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a rich spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing. The book examines constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links ...

  16. General energy competence in the primary law of the European Union. An analysis of Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union in the Lisbon version in consideration of the historical development of energy competence; Die allgemeine Energiekompetenz im Primaerrecht der Europaeischen Union. Eine Analyse des Artikels 194 des Vertrags ueber die Arbeitsweise der Europaeischen Union in der Fassung des Vertrags von Lissabon unter Beruecksichtigung der historischen Entwicklung der Energiekompetenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacklaender, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    With the coming into force of the Lisbon treaty, the internal measures and policies of the European Union were supplemented by the independent title ''Energy''. While the need for supranational management of energy-political task was recognized at an early stage already, the legal instruments for this purpose were lacking. Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union now provides a legal basis for a comprehensive, interdisciplinary energy policy on a European scale. The author investigates the content of the energy article. He shows that the modification of the treaty has brought about greater competences of the Union, especially in the field of energy supply assurance which is greatly influenced by the new regulations on energy solidarity. The book also discusses problems of competing legislation resulting from interdependences between the energy article on the one hand and competence standards with other goals on the other hand and also attempts to define the specific limits of energy competence. (orig.)

  17. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding......What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...... of normative theory; that seeks to work ‘within categories of existing thought' regarding EU external actions, radicalise them and show ‘in varying degrees both their problems and their unrecognised possibilities' (Calhoun 1995: 23)....

  18. THE SOLIDARITY CLAUSE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION TREATY AS A HUMAN SECURITY VECTOR. A FAREWELL TO TERRORISM OR LEGITIMIZATION OF INFERENCE IN INTERNAL AFFAIRS?

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    Antonio MUNOZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The draft European Constitution crafted in the interval between the terrorist attacks of 9/11 in New York and those taken place in Moscow, Madrid, was concluded shortly before the attacks on public transportation in London in 2005, including what is called a solidarity clause (art. 42 and its implementation modalities (art. III-329, however after various vicissitudes, it was never ratified by the Member States and felt into oblivion; while it remained a driving force in the subsequent Lisbon Treaty in force since 2009 as, section 222 in the fifth part under Title VII.

  19. The new architecture of the European Union

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    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  20. The impact of the treaty basis on health policy legislation in the European Union: A case study on the tobacco advertising directive

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    Maarse Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Europe Against Cancer programme was initiated in the late 1980s, recognising, among other risk factors, the problematic relationship between tobacco use and cancer. In an attempt to reduce the number of smokers in the European Community, the European Commission proposed a ban on tobacco advertising. The question of why it took over ten years of negotiating before the EU adopted a policy measure that could in fact improve the health situation in the Community, can only be answered by focusing on politics. Methods We used an actor-centred institutionalist approach, focusing on the strategic behaviour of the major actors involved. We concentrated our analysis on the legal basis as an important institution and evaluated how the absence of a proper legal basis for public health measures in the Treaties influenced policy-making, framing the discussion in market-making versus market-correcting policy interventions. For our analysis, we used primary and secondary sources, including policy documents, communications and press releases. We also conducted 9 semi-structured interviews. Results The ban on tobacco advertising was, in essence, a public health measure. The Commission used its agenda-setting power and framed the market-correcting proposal in market-making terms. The European Parliament and the Council of Ministers then used the discussion on the legal basis as a vehicle for real political controversies. After adoption of the ban on tobacco advertising, Germany appealed to the European Court of Justice, which annulled the ban but also offered suggestions for a possible solution with article 100a as the legal basis. Conclusion The whole market-making versus market-correcting discussion is related to a broader question, namely how far European health regulation can go in respect to the member states. In fact, the policy-making process of a tobacco advertising ban, as described in this paper, is related to the 'constitutional

  1. The impact of the treaty basis on health policy legislation in the European Union: a case study on the tobacco advertising directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Sandra; Maarse, Hans

    2008-04-08

    The Europe Against Cancer programme was initiated in the late 1980s, recognising, among other risk factors, the problematic relationship between tobacco use and cancer. In an attempt to reduce the number of smokers in the European Community, the European Commission proposed a ban on tobacco advertising. The question of why it took over ten years of negotiating before the EU adopted a policy measure that could in fact improve the health situation in the Community, can only be answered by focusing on politics. We used an actor-centred institutionalist approach, focusing on the strategic behaviour of the major actors involved. We concentrated our analysis on the legal basis as an important institution and evaluated how the absence of a proper legal basis for public health measures in the Treaties influenced policy-making, framing the discussion in market-making versus market-correcting policy interventions. For our analysis, we used primary and secondary sources, including policy documents, communications and press releases. We also conducted 9 semi-structured interviews. The ban on tobacco advertising was, in essence, a public health measure. The Commission used its agenda-setting power and framed the market-correcting proposal in market-making terms. The European Parliament and the Council of Ministers then used the discussion on the legal basis as a vehicle for real political controversies. After adoption of the ban on tobacco advertising, Germany appealed to the European Court of Justice, which annulled the ban but also offered suggestions for a possible solution with article 100a as the legal basis. The whole market-making versus market-correcting discussion is related to a broader question, namely how far European health regulation can go in respect to the member states. In fact, the policy-making process of a tobacco advertising ban, as described in this paper, is related to the 'constitutional' foundation of health policy legislation in the Community. The

  2. European Institutional Developments and Evolutions Post‑Lisbon Treaty

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    Cristian Sorin Dumitrescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article aims at analysing the main difficulties the European institutions were confronted to and identifying the axes of urgent reforms of the European construction, which are claimed to be applied, immediately, after the recent parliamentary elections from 25 of May together with the installation of the new decision teams in Brussels. While the first part of the article examine the action of the various European institutions within the new constitutional architecture, the second part will cover some axes needed which could be followed by the Union starting with the new term. In the context of the economic and financial crisis, the first European institutional cycle under the terms of the Lisbon Treaty –2009-2014, became an important challenge for the application of the provisions concerning the functioning of the European institutions. An objective assessment of the ways regarding the practical implementation of the Treaty must take into consideration the negative influence of the economic crisis upon the decisions assumed by the high national and European responsibles.

  3. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

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    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  4. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  5. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

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    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  6. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  7. The accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Callewaert, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Provided for under the Treaty of Lisbon, the accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights is destined to be a landmark in European legal history because it will finally make it possible for individuals and undertakings to apply to the European Court of Human Rights for review of the acts of European Union institutions, which unquestionably play an increasingly important role in our daily lives. After nearly three years of negotiations, a draft agreement on Europe...

  8. THE EUROPEAN JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS IN THE LIGHT OF THE LISBON TREATY

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    OANA-MĂRIUCA PETRESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The judicial cooperation in criminal matters together with the police cooperation were mentioned for the first time in a treaty, as a European legal instrument, with legal binding effect, by the Maastricht Treaty in 1993 in Title VI (Provisions on cooperation in the fields of Justice and Home Affairs. In time, taking into account the political and legal realities faced by the European Union, there have been important amendments brought to the contents of the Justice and Home Affairs policy through the Treaty of Amsterdam (1997 and the Treaty of Nice (2001. Nevertheless, the new amendments brought by the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 in the field of judicial cooperation have determined the “rethinking” and separating it from the “police cooperation” in two different chapters of Title V of TFEU (dealing with Area of Freedom, Security and Justice which will be briefly analysed in this paper. Bearing in mind all mentioned above, the aim of the paper is to analyse, on the one hand, the important amendments brought in the field of judicial cooperation by Lisbon Treaty from the legislative and procedure point of view as well as the new created institutions, highlighting in the same time the relevant principles governing the European judicial cooperation, such as: principle of mutual recognition of judgements and judicial decisions by Member States, mutual assistance in criminal matters etc. On the other hand, we will be able to devote additional focus to studying the contribution of the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU” to the development of the “Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters” since this court has full jurisdiction over this domain by the date of the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty.

  9. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... them an excellent tool for studying and measuring policy change in the EU. In this article, I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data for the main categories of expenditure and how they have changed over the last three decades (1979–2013). Using time-series analysis, I find that the ability...

  10. Nuclear safeguards in the European Union carried out by the European Commission or: the EURATOM treaty. The unknown nature; Kernmaterialueberwachung in der Europaeischen Kommission oder: der EURATOM-Vertrag. Das unbekannte Wesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilb, Wolfgang [European Commission, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Generaldirektion Energie - EURATOM Kernmaterialueberwachung

    2016-03-15

    Nuclear safeguards in the 28 Member States of the European Union are based on a complex structure of national, supranational and international legal acts: A first approach are the three ''S'' to be met: security, safety, safeguards. The EURATOM safeguards are based on two pillars: the control of nuclear material itself, as well as different types of international agreements: the first refers to ''agreements with a third State'', the second on ''agreement with an international organization''.

  11. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  12. Enhanced Cooperation, EMU Reforms and Their Implications for Differentiation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubin Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Initially, before the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty, differences in integration between members of the European Communities (EC; later the European Union were relatively few and usually temporary in nature. The Schengen Agreement, the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Amsterdam, and the possibility of establishing enhanced cooperation meant that the problem was becoming more and more important in the functioning of the EU—both in theory and in practice.

  13. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. Nevertheless, we can say that the Stability and Growth Pact which aimed towards the coordination of national fiscal policies for ensuring the stability and prudence of the budgetary climate, has failed. This failure was primarily due to the lack of specific sanctions for those members that have not fought against the fiscal imbalances and secondly to the stopping the steps forward towards a common fiscal policy. Thus, we can say that the European Monetary Union is driven now by the wrong rule of “no taxation with representation”. For these reasons, this paper aims at showing that the European fiscal federalism is still far away from becoming reality and that the new instruments chosen for the new stability of the European Monetary Union will be the task of the Member States themselves. This paper will also review the main rules that are projected to be the source for the future European financial stability and growth: the balanced budgets and the deficits built only on the “Golden Rule” premises, for which other amendments on European Treaties are expected.

  14. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEPTS OF THE REFORM TREATY (THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty also known as the Reform Treaty provides only an amendment of the treaties considered as fundamental, namely the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union and is the result of the constitutional process triggered by the Laeken Declaration adopted by the European Council. The Lisbon Treaty is still built on the content of the European Constitution from which they eliminated the most controversial provisions, first of all the title of Constitution that might produce concern and panic among the European Union population through the symbolic power it contained, and for Romania this new treaty was the first it signed in quality of a Union member state. Even if does not bear the name of European Constitution, the Lisbon Treaty is a European Constitution for the following reasons: first it is a Constitution because it gathers together most of the fundamental elements of the Constitutional Treaty, even if it does not have the structure or the name thereof, and second the treaties after the Lisbon reform have become small constitutions from the operational viewpoint, they develop the functions of a constitution, limit power and organize the operation of the organization.

  15. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  16. INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Nica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences registered in the early 90s between the economy of the European Union as compared to the economies of the United States and Japan, in regards of growth rates, investment rates, R&D and innovation, international trade, etc., as well as the fast changes of the world economy determined the European Commission to issue the white paper on “Growth, Competitiveness and Employment”, underlining the meaning of the European economy’s competitiveness in the new conditions, and the legal frame for EU’s industrial policy was settled through the Treaty of Maastricht. The document was setting theobjectives, priorities and the six basic principles of the European industrial policy, in a unitary concept. In the spring of 2000, the European Council from Lisbon sets the objective of transforming the European Union in the most dynamic and competitive economy of the world, and, therefore, foresees a working agenda with specific actions going until the horizon of 2009. In December 2002, after EUs enlargement, the Commission forwards to the Council the document titled “Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe”, in which theindustrial development at the moment of new member states integration is analyzed, as well as the effects of EU’s enlargement over the industry, and it suggests actions for the future development of the sector. The industrial policy of the EU must offer solutions for industrial development, by answering the challenges concerning globalization, the technological and organizational changes, the increasing role of innovation and entrepreneurship, and the sustainable development taking into consideration the new socialrequirements. The development objectives set at European level cannot be reached without a tight interconnection of the industrial policy measures with those of some complementary policies, such as thecommercial policy, the single market policy, transport and energy policies, research and development policies

  17. The European Union Response to Regional Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    into force of the Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia , 145-B. Spanish Institute for Strategic Studies, 2010), 18. 4 Felix Arteaga, The European...Security and Defense Policy after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia , 145-B. Spanish Institute for Strategic...Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia , 145-B. Spanish Institute for Strategic Studies. 2010), 37. 15 ENP regulates the EU’s relations with countries

  18. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor powe...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  19. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  20. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  1. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  2. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...... years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. The aim of this report was to characterize...... the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden...

  3. European Union a New Babylon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  4. From Representation to Participation: A More Democratic European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Monica Stoica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the evolution and characteristics of the democratic process in theEuropean Union from the perspective of political science using the recent theories in this field. Following theentry into force, the Treaty of Lisbon establishes the principle of participatory democracy that puts the focusof the European citizen, a citizen who is actively involved in European Union life, strengthening EU - citizenrelationship. The essence of participatory democracy is the destruction of political apathy and the maximizingof active participation of citizens in the democratic tasks. So, the basic principle of the participatorydemocracy is solidarity. The results of this analysis show that although participatory democracy is establishedin the European law, citizens are less involved in the decision-making in EU and are more and moreindividual, contradicting thus the very foundations of this type of democracy.

  5. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  6. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  7. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  8. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address......Inclusiveness of different social groups and responsiveness to the needs of increasingly diverse societies are key criteria for policy analysts to assess the quality of public policies. We argue that an intersectional approach attentive to the interaction of gender with other inequalities...

  9. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  10. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  11. MEASURING THE STRUCTURAL BUDGET DEFICIT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARJOCU ANA-MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the institutional framework of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance put great emphasis on fiscal discipline in the European Union, especially for countries belonging to the Eurozone, but also for the accession countries. Surveillance of budgetary policies and the excessive deficit procedure are directions, which have to be followed, to meet debt limit and public deficit of gross domestic product, so as to fulfil fiscal and financial stability and economic integration. The objectives of this paper are to analyze, using the method of estimating the structural budget deficit, the EU Member State’s ability to fulfill the requirements of fiscal and financial stability. The findings of the scientific research and the methodology used shows the potential of the 28 member states of the European Union to fulfil the requirements for fiscal and financial stability

  12. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  13. Legal Leadership in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leadership does not always come from leaders. Laws provide for its exercise or constraint and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) gives legal but not political leadership. The 2005 constitutional treaty did not create a favourable climate of opinion for the proposed changed EU leadership through a

  14. The Governance System of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin M. Ionescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European governance is an institutional arrangement enabling the cooperation and the competition among the states, the individuals and the pressure groups looking to maximize their welfare. The European governance system is a multi-level non-hierarchical structure, and authority is shared among the supranational bodies, as well as among the latter and the Member States. The structure of the European governance system is influenced by the need to achieve a political balance among the stakeholders, in the environment of a permanent conflict among the public interest regulations and the “captive” regulations (George J. Stigler1 , the latter being determined by the rent extraction rent seeking. In this short analysis I describe the European governance, taking into account the policy-making framework under, “Two-pack”, “Sixpack”, and the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union (TSCG that increases the power of the supranational bodies2 . For this purpose I embarked on two different approaches: the economic theory of regulation (G. Stigler, G. Tullock, S. Peltzman, R.Posner and the normative theories on power distribution. For the time being there is no bridge between these two theories. However, in the specialised literature, the approach to European governance system is mainly based on the normative theories on power distribution (the integration theories. The economic theory of regulation expresses the economic rationale of the decisions made by the EU supranational bodies and by the Member States at national level. This theory also helps the understanding of the behaviour at the supranational level of certain states whenever they negotiate economic policies with regard to currency, energy, tax coordination. For this reason, the economic theory of regulation is the framework for adjust the inefficient institutions3 whereas identifies solutions for public policies. The normative theories on

  15. The concept of economic and social cohesion in the treaty establishing the European Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, E.J.Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This article is a diplomatic history of the development of the concept of Economic and Social Cohesion in the EC Treaty. The article was written in order to check on the span of commitment which the Member States undertook when inserting this concept in the EC Treaty by way of the Single European

  16. Sovereignty and the Shaping of Economic Governance in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, A.; van Rossem, J.W.C.

    2015-01-01

    In her view on the Pringle case, Advocate General Kokott unfolded an interesting analysis with regard to the scope of Article 125 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the no bail-out clause. In order to sustain her argument that this provision did not preclude the euro

  17. Public Health Status and Forecasts for the European Union. Outline for a Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg PW; Helder JC; Hollander AEM de; Kramers PGN; Kromhout D; Smit HA; VTV, ISC, CCM, SB2

    1995-01-01

    Article 129 of the Maastricht Treaty on the European Union (February 1992) has presented the Commission with new responsibilities in the field of Public Health. In several policy documents evaluating this new mandate the need to coordinate policy and programme development and stimulate collaboration

  18. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  19. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  20. Vocational Training in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BALCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union requires some standards in all areas. Today, the importance of training qualified individuals which holds an important place in the development of countries increases and certain standards are adopted creating common European Union tools in the field of vocational and technical education. In this study, vocational education and training policies system and the standards adopted by the European Union are discussed. Furthermore, this study was accepted as a European Union project in 2010 and the results obtained from the Leonardo Da Vinci Life Learning European Union project called “Web Based Basic Vocational Training” between the years 2010-2012 were presented. Since the partners of these projects are Turkey, Spain and Germany, the structure of vocational education, institutions of public and private vocational education and the diplomas and certificates entitled after these educations are included. As Turkey is on its way to become a European Union member, a number of advices are presented for Turkey to reach its destination about vocational education standards that European Union has aimed. The purpose of the study is not only to be a guide for the young who want to get professional training in the countries that are European Union members or candidates about how and where to have education opportunities but also to give a chance for trainers and training managers, participating in vocational training, so as to glimpse different practices from different countries and compare these practices between the countries of European Union and their countries. The study is also very important as it has the opportunities for training managers to see if their countries' vocational education is close enough to vocational education in European Union.

  1. The European Union action in the field of rare diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Montserrat Moliner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Rare diseases, including those of genetic origin, are defined by the European Union as lifethreatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence (less than 5 per 10 000. The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value.

    Methods: The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 152 of the Treaties, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the Second Health Programme has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda.

    Results: The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and the future adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare, end 2009 or mid 2010, have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan drugs, European Committee of Experts, etc..

    Conclusions: Rare diseases is an area with enormous and practical potentialities for European cooperation.

  2. Medical interpreting and the law in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Mary

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, the Danish government announced that from June that year it would no longer cover the costs of medical interpreters for patients who had been living in Denmark for more than seven years. The Dutch Ministry of Health followed with an even more draconian approach; from 1 January 2012, the cost of translation and interpreting would no longer be covered by the state. These two announcements led to widespread concern about whether or not there is a legal foundation for interpreter provision in healthcare. This article considers United Nations treaties, conventions from the Council of Europe and European Union law. European Union member states have been slow to sign up to international agreements to protect the rights of migrant workers. The European Union itself has only recently moved into the area of discrimination and it is unclear if the Race Directive covers language. As a result, access to interpreters in healthcare, where it exists, is dependent on national anti-discrimination legislation or on positive action taken at national or local level rather than on European or international law.

  3. The European Union Policy in the Field of Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Antoni Montserrat; Waligora, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Rare diseases, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases with low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value.The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 168 of the Treaties, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the Health Programmes has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda.The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and in 2011 the adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare., have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan medicinal products, the Commission expert group on rare diseases, etc.).Rare diseases is an area with high and practical potential for the European cooperation.

  4. CFC legislation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with ...

  5. European Union Climate Change Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewiner, C.

    2007-08-15

    In March 2007, the European Union Ministers asked Member States to commit to energy consumption and Greenhouse Gases (GHG), mainly CO2 emissions, reductions of 20%, as well as a portion of 20% of renewable energies in their energy production. The horizon of this 'three times 20% objective' is 2020. The underlying assumption is of course an improved security of energy (and electricity) supplies as well as a growing European economy with sustained tertiary and industrial employment. These objectives were articulated to respond to the present Climate Change issues by avoiding an increase of our Planet's temperature beyond 2 to 3 degrees. In the US, the current government has recognized that CO2 is an issue and has begun to take action, issuing a number of executive orders to reduce emissions. This follows a ruling by the US Supreme Court on CO2. It may be that what is happening in Europe will be a model that the US will follow. These different objectives are interlinked and each European country is in a different situation. Moreover, 2020 is a relatively short time horizon compared to the lead time for construction of large plants such as nuclear plants. It is also a short time frame for the industrialization, at reasonable costs, of carbon sequestration equipment, for the renovation of a significant portion of the existing buildings and houses, and for the switch of the present car fleet to electrical cars. More than 20% of the cars bought in 2007 will still be on the road in 2020. More than 80% of the refrigerators bought in 2007 will still be in operation in 2020, and less than 1/3 of the industrial and utility infrastructures in place today will be renewed by 2020. It is even shorter at the Research and Development time scale to find and industrialize new energy savings devices or low energy consumption and low carbon emitting equipment. One important question is also the net cost linked to these objectives that has not been evaluated today. The

  6. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  7. The New Political Economy of Health Care in the European Union: The Impact of Fiscal Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Jarman, Holly; Baeten, Rita

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the political economy of health care in the European Union is being changed by the creation of a substantial new apparatus of European fiscal governance. A series of treaties and legal changes since 2008 have given the European Union new powers and duties to enforce budgetary austerity in the member states, and this apparatus of fiscal governance has already extended to include detailed and sometimes coercive policy recommendations to member states about the governance of their health care systems. We map the structures of this new fiscal governance and the way it purports to affect health care decision making. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  9. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-01-01

    In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. ...

  10. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...... that helps drain the reservoir of goodwill that the European Union will need fordealing with other conflicts amongst member states....... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict...

  11. Sustainability Begets Unsustainability?: The European Union's Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandatory target for the European Union (EU) for the use of renewable energy in transport by the year 2020 has created a situation where the African continent has witnessed a number of European agricultural firms gaining access to large tracts of land in order to grow crops for the production of agrofuels. This article ...

  12. A comparative approach to European Union citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.N.J. Goudappel (Flora)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAfter a short description of the theoretical and philosophical background of the notions of citizenship and nationality, the contents of European Union citizenship will be described. This notion of European Citizenship will then be compared to the notions of citizenship and nationality

  13. THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT BEFORE THE 2014-2019 PARLIAMENTARY TERM IN THE LIGHT OF INNOVATIONS AND CHANGES INTRODUCED BY THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan VĂTĂMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Viewed through the prism of its historical evolution, the European Parliament has seen an original evolutionary process during which underwent a series of successive modifications of its competences and composition, at the same time with increasing of democratic legitimacy. Legitimated by direct universal suffrage, the European Parliament has gradually strengthened its position within the Community institutional system through a series of treaties, evolving from a purely advisory body, in an institution that plays an active role in drafting legislation, having, also budgetary powers and exercising democratic control over all institutions. Given the international context marked by the consequences of the monetary, financial, economic and social crisis, many Europeans have become more interested in European affairs and want the European Parliament to play a more important role in the future life of the European Union. For this reason, the European elections of 22-25 May 2014 are very important, a vote in the European elections is every citizen's chance to influence the shape of the Parliament and the future political course of the European Union. Therefore, this study seeks to highlight the importance of the 2014 European elections, especially these elections will be different due to the major new developments introduced by the Lisbon Treaty which granted the European Parliament a number of important new powers.

  14. The linguistic regime of the European Union. A multilingual union under the aegis of the principle of the new european humanism: unity in diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin IVAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration is launching a new paradigm of existence to the states and their citizens: unity in diversity. The European Union creates the framework for affirming diversity in an area of common political, social and economic values. Each member state has its own identity, language, spirituality, culture, history, civilization, etc. All this European diversity is governed by the principle of unity. In the spirit of respecting diversity, each Member State language is official language of the European Union. The EU language regime is governed by the principle of multilingualism, regulated in the European treaties. The philosophy of this approach is built on respect for national and for individual identity given by the mother tongue, in the framework of the new humanism that defines the New Europe.

  15. Book Review: The Crisis of the European Union. A Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In his book, Jurgen Habermas explored the options available for the European Union in dealing with the global crisis. The author structured his approach on two essays. The first one, entitled “The Crisis of the European Union in Light of a Constitutionalization of International Law - An Essay on the Constitution for Europe”, emphasizes the fact that while the European decision-makers have focused on solving the currency, banking and debt crises, they omitted the political dimension of the crisis. Moreover, the author considers that in the light of a constitutional treaty for Europe, the transnationalization of the European democracy will be possible if both the public opinion and the politicians can overcome three categories of preconceptions: the dependence of the popular sovereignty to the state sovereignty, the mutually exclusive status of the European citizenship and of the national one, the indivisible nature of the sovereignty. The second essay, entitled “The Concept of Human Dignity and the Realistic Utopia of Human Rights” underlines the imperative nature of the human rights and human dignity interconnected concepts. He states that two conditions must be met in order for the concepts to be valid. Habermas considers that there must be a political community that enacts them and that the two concepts are universally accepted. The Appendix includes three recent political interventions through which Habermas reiterates the uncomfortable and controversial topic of European unification. He concludes that the European Project cannot be allowed to fail because of the raise of German nationalism and the lack of visionary European leadership.

  16. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  17. European Union Financial Crisis: a Marxist Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Farneubun, Petrus K.

    2016-01-01

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national government and economic policies. Responding to the crisis, numerous attemps have been proposed to accelerate the recovery, but the crisis still hit Eurozone and brought serious consequences politically and...

  18. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Canter

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the ...

  19. The Fiscal Governance Treaty - the Recent Act in the European Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica SUSANU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new paradigm that affects the current doctrine is particularly focused on building a strong community and it is also motivated by the intention of saving the Lisbon Treaty with its establishing the European Constitution. In the series of the numerous leading up steps required to achieve this goal, approaches the studies on the concept of sovereignty are necessary for clarification, given that in this way only the Union can be setup as a person - on the one hand, and - on the other hand, this is the basis of ensuring coherence between European political order and sovereignty / autonomy of national institutions. Bitter experiences of radical nationalism which culminated in the disasters of the Second World War led to the conceptual reconfiguration of the sovereignty, gradually replaced with a new expression, the super nationalism. Moreover, in order to hindering the possible future recurrence and the temptation to concentrate all the available powers at certain national governments’ disposal only, a comprehensive course of division of sovereignty was designed, as an optimal strategic alternative in ensuring the durability and sustainability of the European federalist model. In terms of economic integration and trade globalization, the taxation of a state has a rapid impact on another state, so that the rapprochement of the global tax policy, as well as the need to harmonize tax systems across countries are increasingly spoken about. Although that these measures can upset all tax systems deeply changing the approaches regarding both fiscal and political states’ sovereignty, in the current situation, such an unforeseen development is inherent. Therefore, each step meant to approach the full integration of the community raises special efforts for consensus actions and strongly motivated as well, by a very special interest at the highest level of the macroeconomic and political decision.

  20. Why withdrawal from the European Union is undemocratic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.; Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2017-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty from 2009 introduced the possibility for individual member states to withdraw from the European Union on the basis of a unilateral decision. But would withdrawal be democratically legitimate? In fact, the all-affected principle suggests that it is undemocratic for subunits...... to leave larger political units because it adversely affects other citizens without including them in the decision. However, it is unclear what the currency of this affectedness is and, hence, why withdrawal would be undemocratic. We argue that it is the effect of withdrawal on the status of citizens...... as free and equal that is decisive and that explains why unilateral withdrawal of subunits from larger units is democratically undesirable. Moreover, on the ‘all-affected status principle’ that we develop, even multilaterally agreed withdrawal is undemocratic because the latter diminishes the future...

  1. THE BUSINESS RISK AND ENVIRONMENT SPECIFIC OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The international economy is marked by a multitude of base mutations, which re-shape the intricacy of interdependencies based on which it functions. The development of the informational society and the continuous adaptation of economic structure to the rapid changes that happen globally virtually place all nations in a continuous restructuring and transition process. Two main dynamic and interdependent forces lead this process, that is: the strengthening of the world economy globalisation process and the appearance and development of regional economic arrangements. The treaty regarding the constitution of the European Union comprises a series of regulations which refer directly to ensure of the Community industry's competitively - related conditions. This is achieved through a complex system of open and competitive markets.

  2. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S EXTERNAL AFFAIRS POLICY – THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNION FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND SECURITY POLICY – A FAVORABLE FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING A SINGLE VOICE FOR THE EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC SYSTEM OR JUST A NEW BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Bogdan CALANCE

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the Lisbon Treaty, which establishes the new European diplomatic landscape structure, this paper analyses the difference between the objectives expressed in the treaties governing the European Union's foreign policy, and the diplomatic European and international reality. The main objective of this paper is to reveal the extent in which the European Union runs a coherent and unified foreign policy, especially highlighting the problems faced by these institutions in the current in...

  3. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  4. Standard Of Living In The European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Wawrzyniak Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The European Union countries are diversified in terms of the standard of living of the population. The reduction of disparities in the standard of living, along with the elimination of the negative phenomena related to social exclusion form an EU policy priority. In this context, the aim of this article is to compare the standard of living in the various European Union countries and to determine Poland’s position in the ranking. In the study, countries with a similar standard of living of the...

  5. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  6. Innovation in Justice and Security by Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myzafer ELEZI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty is a legal package which includes previous treaties, starting from the year 1957, following the Treaty of Rome and the Treaty of Nice in 2001, summarized in a single text that introduces a number of changes of the way how the European Union works, in order to make it more efficient for its citizens. This Treaty converts the European Union for the first time in a single entity, unifying pillars of its activities which are as follows: the European Communities, Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters, which so far only the European Communities had the status of judicial person. It modifies the Treaty of European Union, created by the European Union and the Treaty created by the European Community, which is in power, but do not replace them. The new Treaty gives the EU the legal framework, and necessary tools to face the future challenges and to respond to its citizen’s perspectives. The Conference will introduce all the innovations that the Treaty of Lisbon brings not only in the field of security and foreign policy of the EU, but also in those related to police and judicial cooperation regarding criminal matters.

  7. The European Union: Stability Despite Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolle Michael

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has remained stable despite all its past and current challenges. This essay explores the reasons for that. We argue that the secret behind its stability lies in its system of negotiation. Against this backdrop, we analyse two recent challenges of the European Union. First, we show how domestically bound European governments were able to bring about a stable internationally negotiated solution for what became known as euro crisis. By means of game theory we boil down why the European Union remained stable even after havoc struck. Second, we analyze the dynamics behind the failed negotiations with Ukraine that have led to the current conflict. Thereby, the role of vested interest in negotiations for stability is emphasized. We prognosticate that due to the very same vested interests that led to the failure of the negotiations, Ukraine will remain united and return to stability in the mid-term. Finally, we conclude that, despite challenges like these, the European Union never experienced a crisis in terms of system theory since it never fell short to fulfil its purpose which is to allow for peaceful cooperative solutions.

  8. Saved by the Union: Romanians’ Attitudes toward the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chiciudean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we show that, in the aftermath of the economic crisis, Romanians remain among the most enthusiastic citizens of the European Union, in what concerns trust in the European institutions, projections for the future, the image of the EU and general attitudes toward the union. Relying on data provided by eurobarometers since the Romanian integration, we argue that the reasons for this peculiar position of Romanians within the EU is largely due to how people evaluate the economic and political performance of their own country: from evaluations of the economy to trust in national institutions, Romanians are very pessimistic about how their country handles the present situation and about perspectives for the future. In this context, they turn to the European Union as to a Savior, who represents their hope and promise for a better future, for economic prosperity and security. This is the reason why, more than five years after the beginning of the financial crisis, Romanians are still among the most optimistic citizens of Europe.

  9. Towards an Administrative Procedure of the European Union: Issues and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying European administrative law principles by mapping the proposal of the European Parliament and assessing the existing principles in the European Union’s rules and jurisprudence. The first section analyses the difficulties to pass from the well-known sectoral procedures to a common procedural framework. It shows, on the one hand, how fragmented is the administrative EU law, and on the other hand, that European Commission tends to support it by derailing the Parliament’s proposal. The second section, is mapping the administrative law principles through an inventory of the Treaties, the Charter, the soft law and the jurisprudence. The last section proposes an assessment of the draft Regulation on the administrative procedure of European Union. The main outcome is that, without the Commission’s involvement the process of making a common administrative procedure for European Union cannot take place.

  10. Humanities in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Vikman, Jutta Maria; Liljenstrøm, Andreas Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the publication strategies of researchers in the humanities, including their choices of language, publication type and co-authorship. Based on data from Denmark, we compare the publication profile of the humanities with the other major fields of science in 2012 an...... conjuncture of the European Union’s internationalization policies in the 1990s and 2000s and a change in the international scientific hierarchy during the 20th century has contributed to the universalization of English in the Danish (and European) scientific field....

  11. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Canter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the need for an integrated policy framework to ensure the security for potential investors and a coordinated approach between Member States. This paper will present recent developments for the most important policies to combat and mitigate climate change in the European Union, starting with "20-20-20" objectives, which are to be met through the package "Energy-Climate Change", continuing with 2030 and 2050 timeframes, and finally presenting the main lines of action to combat climate change.

  12. Consumer Sales guarantees in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiewiorowska, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    The thesis pursues three main aims. The first aim is to present the current legislative situation in the European Union and the process that led to accepting the assumptions concerning guarantees that laid foundations for the rules on the guarantee contained in the Consumer Sales Directive. The

  13. Framing Gender Intersections in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which the emergence of an antidiscrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...

  14. The European Union: a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Fransen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed policies and instruments that address – both directly and indirectly – sexual violence in conflict and beyond. Policy areas that are important in this respect include human rights, gender equality, development cooperation, humanitarian aid and conflict prevention.

  15. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy.

  16. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  17. Sustainable mining in the European Union: the legislative aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hámor, Tamás

    2004-02-01

    This paper is a review of the community legislation of the European Union ("acquis communautaire") with regard to the mineral extractive industry. It highlights the existing inconsistencies of the acquis, which require correction. Historically, the mining industry has received privileged treatment within the European Community. The treaties declare the promotion of a policy of using natural resources prudently and rationally to avoid their unconsidered exhaustion. However, mining is excluded from the scope of major environmental directives or reserves a certain freedom for interpretation. This has led to an increasing number of related cases at the European Court of Justice. The regulatory tools of the environmental acquis are rather diverse in controlling the emission sources, the pollution pathways, and the impacted receptor media through administrative measures or assigning environmental quality targets. A combined approach is needed for controlling the environmental impacts of the extractive industries. The amendment of the Seveso II Directive, the elaboration of a reference document on best available techniques and the preparation of a widescope directive on mining waste management might provide a frame for the elimination of the above discrepancies. In addition, a coherent European Community policy based on the balanced consideration of economic, environmental, and social aspects could ensure a sustainable development of the mining industry.

  18. EUROPEAN UNION IN GLOBAL CLIMATE GOVERNANCE: TO PARIS AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savorskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the European Union is aspiring global leadership in the area of climate change, which is refl ected in its active participation in the negotiations on the international climate change regime. However, those ambitions have not always turned out to be appropriate or justifi ed. Despite the fact that the European Union was able to achieve certain results during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and even more signifi cant results in the process of its ratifi cation, for the most part EU negotiation strategy based on normative considerations, had not been successful, it was especially evident during the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. Partly the disappointing results of EU performance during the Copenhagen negotiations are to be blamed on some of the key features of EU functioning logic, for example, the overall tendency to rely on scientifi c evidence in policy-making, which did not allow the EU to assess other parties’ interests adequately. As the results of the negotiations of parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 in Paris have shown, the European Union did manage to work out its previous mistakes and build a broad informal international coalition. Contrary to the pessimistic expectations, the agreement was adopted and it took into account quite a few of the EU proposals. However, the Paris Treaty has a number of fl aws and inaccuracies, so the ability to eliminate them in a timely manner by the international community and the EU in particular, will determine the future of the new international climate change regime.

  19. Tre proposte per rivitalizzare l’Unione Europea (Three proposals for revitalising the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, the perception that the convergence on the current set of rules is not capable of producing convergence on results, or generally better results, has increased socio-political fragmentation. The result has been an increasing demand for re-nationalisation of sovereign powers. Focusing on the euro area, the paper proposes to revise the monetary operations of the European Central Bank, current fiscal rules and the financial regulatory approach in order to tackle some of the main inconsistencies, rigidities and fragilities in the current design. The new design is thought out to require no changes in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, but at least a minimum political convergence. If successfully implemented, it would contribute to give a viable perspective to the design of the Economic and Monetary Union, capable of attracting those EU non-euro area countries that consider the mismanagement of the recent crisis and of its after-effects reason enough for resisting further losses of sovereignty.JEL codes: E52, E62, F33, F36, F45, G28

  20. The European Courts and the Law of Treaties: The Continuing Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, P.J.; Cannizzaro, E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a critical analysis of the case law of the European Court of Justice and of the General Court relating to the application of the international law of treaties. It covers the some forty cases in which the Courts have referred explicitly to the Vienna Convention on the Law of

  1. THE TAX POLICY WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION: CONCEPTS, INSTITUTIONS, TRENDS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA COJOCARU (BOROVINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the basis of conceiving the tax policy of an European Union member state, one must consider, on the one hand, fulfilling the government's own requirements, and on the other hand, achieving the objectives set by the EC Treaty. At present, the European Union has a quite harmonized and coordinated tax policy in the indirect taxes field, and partially in the direct taxes field, based on the free movement principle of goods, services, capital and labour; thus, although the member states have the freedom to set operation rules of their own national tax systems, this freedom is conditioned by the compliance with the priority objectives of the founding treaties of the European Union. The member states should avoid adopting discriminating tax measures (which could lead to a disadvantageous treatment for the persons, goods and services or capitals coming from other member states. Sometimes, the restrictions regarding free movement on the internal market are generated by the differences between the national tax systems, so that a certain degree of tax harmonization at the European Union level is necessary. The tax harmonization can be achieved either spontaneously (by means of the forces of the market, by means of active actions at the level of the European Union (the implementation of common policies, the coordination of the policies, the harmonization of the legislation, etc. or by means of the passive actions of the European Court of Justice (the interdiction of certain types of conduct of the member states that do not comply with the norms of the European Union. In the absence of the tax harmonization, negative effects can occur, such as: the erosion of the national tax bases, provision of public services and goods at a sub-optimal level, unwanted changes in the structure of the taxes which are levied in the member states, and distortions in assigning resources at the level of the single market.

  2. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  3. Economic integration in North America: Learning from the experience of the European Union for the NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón de Jesús Ramírez Acosta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we analyze, based on previous work from various authors, the degree of economic synchronization between Central and Eastern European countries and the European Union prior to the 2004 adhesion treaties. Then, we formally determine the degree of economic synchronization in North America for the nafta transitional period. In particular, we perform cointegration and common features tests for the gdps of Canada, Mexico and the US. We find that the economies of the region are highly integrated. Based on these results, and the facts identified for the European case, we discuss some possibilities for the evolution of nafta into a deeper form of economic integration.

  4. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  5. FACTORING PERSPECTIVE: CROATIA VS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  6. Reindustrialization Process in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the economic growth and empolyment in EU European institutions have launches ambitious initiatives for a reindustrialization process based on new technologies and green energies. The aim is to increase the share of processing industry in GDP from 15.1% in 2013 to 20% in 2020 according to the objectives of Europe 2020 Strategy and also with those of other EU strategies and common policies. The focus will be laid on innovation and research activites, on supporting/financing SMEs and their internationalization, on the integration of EU firms into global value chains, on developing green energies, bio and key enabling technologies, on smart networks and on free trade and sustainable development.

  7. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  8. Turkish Students’ Metaphors about the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Ocak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to examine and compare the metaphors of Primary School Secondary Level Students related to the European Union. A total of 399 Primary School Secondary Level students were involved in this study. In the form given to students for data collection, the students were asked to express their opinions about European Union. According to the data gathered, the metaphors of the participants were categorized into 8 groups. According to the analysis and the results of the study, the students tried to explain the EU with positive concepts such as development of future, democracy, freedom, success. However, they also produced negative metaphors like dead end, abyss, colonist, difficulty, utilitarian, blankness. This study used a phenomenological design. The data was collected through a semi-structured Interview Form. The data were analysed with content analysis.

  9. Political Budget Cycles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides research on the theme of the political budget cycles. The goal is to find out whether or not the government tries to manipulate the state budget and its components for the purpose of re-election across the countries of the European Union. In order to verify this theory a dynamic panel data model was used. The results were significant, but only if predetermined elections were not counted into the estimations. In that case, the theory of the political budget cycles could be accepted as valid for the EU countries. The main driving force of the political budget cycles across the countries of the European Union is fluctuation of the government expenditures. During the election year, the government expenditures are higher, and a year after the election, government expenditures are lower. This is reflected into the state budget balance.

  10. [European Union funds and clinical toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiszniewiecka, Monika; Cejrowski, Daniel; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Since 2014 we are heading the third programming period of help from European Union (EU). The new budget will run until 2020. From common resources of EU, 106 billion euro will reach Poland, of which about 82.3 billion to cohesion policy, levelling differences of regional development. Clinical toxicology centres will be able to apply for funding under the allocation for the health service. Polish health service very actively benefited from EU funds in previous programming periods, between 2004-2006, and 2007-2013. Thanks to grants from the EU, a large number of health centres were built or renovated. Unfortunately the needs of hospitals, which were underinvested for many years, exceeded available funds according to UE programmes. Except investment projects, also projects training of health professionals were executed. In the current programming period European Union will still support projects aimed at health service. Clinical toxicology centres should have a try of using this period to fulfil their plans.

  11. Climate change in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Anda Veronica Dan

    2007-01-01

    It is now universally accepted that climate change is happening and that is caused by man’s behaviour. Global warming is accelerating and the average temperature is likely to rise up to 4 degrees by the end of this century if nothing is done. The European Union has risen the occasion by putting in place the world’s most famous ambitions global strategy for combating climate change.

  12. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  13. Legislative codecision and its impact on the political system of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Anne; Reh, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has experienced a remarkable degree of change during its history: it legislates in an ever wider range of policy areas, and its institutions and decision-making processes have been reformed repeatedly. One of the most important institutional changes was the introduction...... of the codecision procedure in 1993, which empowered the European Parliament (EP) and transformed the EU system of governance. Following the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon the majority of legislation is now subject to codecision under the ordinary legislative procedure. Consequently, the operation...

  14. The German Social Market Economy – (Still a Model for the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Dieter John

    2007-03-01

    economic order which is based on free markets but, at the same time, includes elements of social balancing. The term “Social Market Economy” can neither be found in the Treaty on European Union nor in the Treaty establishing the European Community. The documents only use the terms “open market economy” and “free competition”. The Commission has never made a clear statement whether its economic policy is guided by the principles of a SME. Because the SME-concept is not new and its value is not undisputed it is worth to reflect on it and to find out what it has to offer for the economic and social policy of the EU.

  15. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  16. The Rise of a European Healthcare Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare has only slowly appeared on the European Union’s (EU) policy agenda. EU involvement in policies concerning the organization, financing and the provision of diagnosis, care and cures to ill people developed along three fragmented tracks: (a) EU public health policies concerning the well......-being of all people; (b) the application of the free movement principle to national healthcare systems in particular by the EU’s Court of Justice (CJEU); and (c) the austerity packages and the stricter EU surveillance of national budgets since the debt crises. The key questions of this special issue...... are whether this fragmented EU involvement has now developed into a distinct European healthcare union, and if so what its driving forces have been. Thus, it explores how European integration in healthcare has moved forward despite widespread reluctance. It also examines the underexplored political dynamics...

  17. The making of a European healthcare union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2016-01-01

    that federalism offers the most fruitful way to do so because of its sensitivity to the EU’s institutional settings and to the territorial dimension of politics. The division of competences and national diversity of healthcare systems have been major obstacles for the formation of a healthcare union. However......, the EU obtained a role in healthcare through the impact of non-healthcare legislation, voluntary co-operation, court rulings, governments’ joint-decision traps, and fiscal stress of member states. The emerging European healthcare union is a system of cooperative federalism without much cost......-sharing. The healthcare union’s robustness is limited, also because it does not generate much loyalty towards the EU....

  18. Emerging Administrations under European Union Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of emergence is generally used to indicate the appearance of patterns, structures, orproperties that cannot be adequately explained by referring only to the system’s pre-existing componentsand their interactions. The term “emergence” has an interdisciplinary approach specific to administrativesciences, too. In this article, the concept of “emergence” signifies lato sensu a kind of change and it will beused to refer to countries that have a high volatility and that are in transition and to define the changes thatsuffer the public administrations of the countries which are part of the European construction. EuropeanUnion through its policies and legislation has a great impact on economic and social conditions in MemberStates. The aim of the paper is to present a theoretical approach on the dimension of emergingadministrations understood as changes and reforms that suffer the institutions from the EU member statesunder the pressure of the European Union rules. The study is using the concept of emergence to researchand to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of thesystems theory.

  19. The Criminal Protection of the Financial Interests of the European Union in the Romanian Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Şerban Morăreanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of criminal protection of the financial interests of the European Communities appeared asa result of allotting their own funds by means of the first project of amending the Treaty of August 6th 1976which modified the Treaties regarding the establishment of the European Communities. Nowadays, one of themajor problems that the European Union is facing is the frauds committed to the detriment of the Unionbudget. The offences bilking the Union budget are extremely dangerous, not only by the amount of thedamage caused, but also by the high degree of organizing such offences. Romania has made significantefforts to align its legislation in this matter to the community legislation, such efforts resulting in theintroduction of a new section in Law no. 78/2000 regarding prevention, discovery and sanction of corruptionoffences – section named “Offences affecting the financial interests of the European Communities”. Thiswork will analyze those offences provided in Law no. 78/2000, committed against the financial interests ofthe European Communities, such analyze including also the relevant judicial training in the matter.

  20. A Sustainable European Union Own Resources System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieslukowski Maciej

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available From 1992, after the UN “Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro, sustainable development has become a priority of many countries and international organizations, including the European Union. After the crisis of 2008+ and the strong criticism of traditional economics, it also became a fundamental element of economic development in the XXI century. This new model is based on a solid and integrated economic, socio-cultural and ecological order. Such a development should be supported by suitable budgetary systems at each level of public government. The paper presents a conception of the sustainable EU own resources system and proposes the methodology of its evaluation.

  1. Energy Cultures in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicki, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    The main object of the analysis presented in the text was to point to and confirm the existence of special “energy cultures” in the European Union. In order to achieve this aim the use was made of research present in the literature, inter alia, in the publications containing statistical analyses by: (1) A. Pach-Gurgul, (2) P. Tapio and his research team – Banister, J. Luukkanen, J. Vehma i R. Willamo, also in a review, (3) Z. Łucki and W. Misiak. Compared with the invoked research, the timefr...

  2. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  3. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  4. The European Union Clearinghouse on Operating Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escrig, D.

    2015-07-01

    In the European Union, a regional network has been established to enhance nuclear safety through improvement of the use of lessons learned from Operating Experience. This network’s hub is located at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Petten, the Netherlands. This organisation is known as the European Clearinghouse on Operating Experience Feedback for Nuclear Power Plants. The ‘Clearinghouse’ is comprised of dedicated staff from JRC and member states that have joined the organisation. Membership is mainly composed of nuclear safety regulatory authorities and their Technical Support Organizations within the EU region. Its Centralised Office gathers nuclear safety experts performing the following technical tasks in support to the EU Member States: “Topical Studies” providing in-depth assessment of either articularly significant events or either families of events. Trend analysis of events in order to identify priority areas.Improvement of the quality of event reports submitted by the EU Member States to the International Reporting System jointly operated by the OECD-NEA and the IAEA.Reporting every three months the main events having occurred in NPPs. Database: a European central OE repository being developed in order to ensure long term storage of OE and to facilitate information retrieval. (Author.

  5. Making public offers in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Florentina Vasile (Epure

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available If a couple of decades ago, the external capital of the European corporations was obtained almost entirely by bank loans, in the present, the situation changed and the finance obtained by issuance of securities is more important. The most significant increase took place on the stock exchange where, in the last few years, the average annual increase of the volume of transactions was major. In these conditions, the problem of creating a standard framework and, consequently, more efficient at the level of the European Union became more stringent because it facilitates for the European corporations the access to the capital with lower costs. The European Commission regulated through some Directives the access to the capital markets and through the MiFiD Directive, major changes were brought with regards to the whole image of the financial markets. It is difficult to estimate accurately the impact that it will be brought by these changes. Maybe the "Bing Bang" notion, used already by part of the analysts, it is not the most suited, but surely the MiFiD Directive will form the catalytic agent of the significant changes of the markets.

  6. Democracy and Governance in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Jachtenfuchs

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that internationalization undermines governance and democracy. This phenomenon has two dimensions. On the one hand, it is a real process which has to be understood. On the other hand, it constitutes a challenge for a number of concepts and theories in the social sciences as well as in law. These concepts and theories are often implicitly based on the idea of a sovereign nation-state. In consequence, it is difficult to conceptualize even the possibility of the transformation of the state as a result of internationalization. This general problematique is most strongly visible in the European Union which over time has developed into a political system of a new type. This system has enormous consequences on democracy and governance in its member states. The first part of the paper presents a view on the EU's political system which does not preclude the possibility of a fundamental transformation of governance and democracy in the EU by the choice of its basic concepts. The second part presents those features of the EU's political system which are most important for the future of democracy and governance. They are uneven Europeanization, permanent institutional change and new patterns of legitimation. The third part discusses two models of the European Union which might be the result of these processes. They represent two different mixtures of the institutionalization of governance and democracy. Both seem to be at least potentially stable forms of political organization but none of them can be reduced to the traditional forms of'state' and 'international organization'. The final part contains an assessment of the prospective development of the EU in the light of the central features of the EU and the system models discussed in the two previous section.

  7. The Control of the Legality of Administrative Activity through the Court of Justice of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goga Gina Livioara

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the law of the European Union, in case one of the institutions of the Union or an organ, office or agency belonging to the Union refrains from making a decision, the member states and theother institutions of the Union are entitled to make a notification to the Court of Justice of the European Union. The Court has the competence to verify the legality of the legislative acts of the institutions, offices, organs or agencies of the Union that are meant to produce judicial effects towards third parties and iscompetent to pronounce itself, by preliminary decision regarding the interpretation of the treaties, namely the validity and interpretation of acts adopted by the institutions, offices, organs or agencies of the Union. Also, according to the primary treaties, any legal issues related to the non- fulfillment of the treaty’s provisions, non compliance with the community legislation, not executing the decisions of the Court of Justice or non compliance with the terms of an agreement between the EU and a third state, as well as the legal aspects related to the application of penalties based on the regulations of the EU, contractual and extra contractualliability are subordinated to the control of the Unions’ judicial instance.

  8. THE STATUS OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS CONCLUDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE EU LEGAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoston Mohay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a member of the international community and is a party to numerous international agreements. The status of these international agreements in the EU legal order however is not made expressly clear by the Treaties. The most pertinent question that arises is whether secondary EU law may be reviewed in the light of international agreements in annulment procedures or preliminary ruling procedures before the Court of Justice of the EU. In its jurisprudence the Court of Justice has tied the possibility of review to the question of the direct effect of international treaties, but there are some issues of consistency in this regard. This problem is a part of the broader question of the relationship of international law and EU law, including the question whether this relationship is more akin to a monist or a dualist approach.

  9. The Impact of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union on VAT Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard, Karina Kim Egholm

    2016-01-01

    The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union became legally binding following its entry into force with the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009, and it has the same legal value as the EU Treaties. Since then, the EU fundamental rights aspect of VAT law has not been subject to much academic...... discussion or particular attention from VAT practitioners. This article contributes to further development of research in the area of EU fundamental rights and VAT law by examining; when the Charter is relevant in VAT law and if so how the Charter manifests itself in EU VAT case law, and what special...... interpretative principles the Charter triggers itself in connection with interpretation of fundamental rights comprised by the Charter. The Charter has proved to play an important—but also diversified—role in both formal and substantive aspects of VAT law, such as national rules on administrative sanctions...

  10. ROMANIA’S ECONOMY AFTER THE EUROPEAN UNION ACCESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADASAN Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available If, during the communism, Romania had an unusual position at the European level, after 1989 it had a different path, in comparison with other former communist states: the country had the harshest difficulties finding its European path, then it had the most important economic growth rate; in the same time, it has been the candidate state facing many economic and social issues, which have worsened during the crisis. In this paper, the authors present the evolution of the Romanian economy, by analyzing representative economic indicators, the dynamics of the national economy, after its accession to the European Union (EU. It is obvious that the country’s evolution has been influenced by the decisions taken and implemented during the pre-accession period. At first sight, it is very difficult to economically separate the two periods of time. However, one can notice that, after the beginning of negotiations (February 2000, Romania’s economic policies have been implemented in a more sustained rhythm, due to the surveillance coming from the European authorities. After seven years of economic growth, which contributed to a partial catching-up with the European average, Romania became member of the EU, having a precarious economic and social situation. Under those circumstances, it would have been normal to continue to implement economic reform policies. Unfortunately, the determination of national authorities has sharply diminished after 2007. The first years of Romania’s membership have been characterized by important rates of economic growth, due, among other factors, to favourable international circumstances. This contributed to an increased trust on the part of Romania’s population and government in the national economy (even too optimistic. This, together with the fact that Romania had an unhealthy economic growth, contributed, after the outbreak of the crisis, to some powerful shocks for the population and for the economy as a whole (a

  11. Patentability of genes: a European Union perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Paul

    2014-10-16

    Unlike the position in the United States following the recent Supreme Court decision in Myriad, in the European Union naturally occurring genetic sequences, whether of human or other origin, remain patent-eligible. Here the basis for such eligibility in legislation and in case law is explained. The utility of a sequence must be disclosed as a condition of eligibility, and requirements outlined in European Patent Office (EPO) and U.K. case law are discussed. A claimed sequence must also satisfy requirements of novelty and inventive step, the latter being considered primarily using the tests of "obvious to try" and reasonable expectation of success. From both positive and negative examples the significance of an identifiable difficulty supported by documentary and/or experimental evidence is apparent. Issues of priority and subject matter added by amendment during prosecution of an application can create unexpected problems given the narrow interpretation within the EPO of the identity of a disclosed sequence, and these problems are explored using as an example an opposition to a European patent covering BRCA1 gene sequences. Practical steps for the drafting of patent specifications to be filed in Europe are outlined. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  13. Combatting Falsification and Counterfeiting Of Medicinal Products in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohli, Vishv Priya

    and falsification of medicinal products meets the social objectives of public health (Articles 9 and 168) and consumer protection (Articles 12 and 169), as envisaged by the Treaty on the Function of the European Union. The thesis establishes that the problem of counterfeiting and falsification of medicinal products...... lies at the intersection of three spheres of law - IP law, Medicine law, and Criminal law. This insight provides the foundation for the understanding of the weaknesses in the legal regime that contains tools for combatting counterfeiting and falsification of medicines in the EU....

  14. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  15. Political public relations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...... to a political context. The nature of the analysis is exploratory rather than definitive, and specific investigations are needed to thoroughly explore and better theorize political reputation and relationship management in various political contexts....

  16. DEBATE ON ROMANIA INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. SÎRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Romanian integration into the European Union through the analysis of statistical data related to the absorption way of structural and cohesion funds available in 2007-2013 (absorption indicators and economic competitiveness indicators: Gross Domestic Product, employment rate, unemployment, population. In addition there are analyzed the structural and cohesion funds available for Romania in 2014-2020, for each category of available operational program and also the measures that must be implemented for Romania to adapt in a performance way to Europe 2020. The analysis results are considered as prerequisites for the development of an underlying model of investment decisions in the integrated sustainable development of Romania.

  17. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  18. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  19. Geriatric medicine in the European union : Unification of diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hastie, IR; Duursma, SA

    The numbers of older people in the European Union are increasing and, with their associated healthy needs, there is a requirement for the speciality of Geriatric Medicine to be available throughout Europe. At present, specialists in Geriatric Medicine are not recognised in some of the European Union

  20. the effect of the european union (mpp6) infrastructural development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and ... Key words: rural infrastructure, agricultural productivity, infrastructural index, European Union Micro Project Program .... state is characterized by tropical climate with high humidity and ...

  1. The European Union and Russian energy politics. External energy relations and interdependency between the European Union and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akca Prill, Melek

    2012-07-01

    The European Union and Russia Energy Politics aims to analyse the energy relationships, energy foreign policy and energy dialogue between the European Union Member States and the Russian Federation. To understand the recent developments in Russian - European Union energy relations better, the study aims to assert the disciplines and approaches of international relations in the example of Russia and the European Union systems of government. The important question here, whether diversification of energy supplier or energy supply routes is possible. If there is a possibility to diversify the supplier, is this then too costly to build, operate and rely on new pipeline routes? More crucial issue is, whether Russia is a reliable energy supplier in terms of European Energy Security approach. Throughout these assumptions, the role and vision of European Union Member States, the possible energy exporter countries, their policies and contributions are going to be discussed.

  2. POSSIBLE TRADE EFFECTS OF THE NEXT EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union next enlargement will constitute a significant qualitative change in the structure of the current Union, as the accession of the Western Balkan countries and of Turkey in particular will bring a brand new set of economic problems. It is expected that this enlargement to have a considerable effect for the new entrants, as well as for the European Union as a whole.\\r\

  3. The European Union and its Neighbours:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chilosi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the status of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the light of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013 and of the present internal state of the European Union. Even if in theory the ENP could have been a valid substitute for enlargement, it does not seem to have reached its aim of providing an adequate surrogate for full membership. Considering the figures of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013, the issue of market access, and the internal power dynamics of the EU, we see that it is hardly conceivable that the ENP could ever give to its neighbours the same economic advantages that membership gives to the poorer members of the EU. Another controversial aspect is the clear asymmetric nature of the ENP, whereby the payoff for neighbours is conditioned on their “good behaviour”, thus amounting to a form of soft imperialism. While ENP tries to establish a comprehensive and coherent framework of the EU’s relations with its neighbourhood, the actual behaviour of EU towards its neighbours is shown to present some inconsistences due to political expedience and pragmatic concerns. The consideration of some related basic issues of EU institutional reform, such as the weakening of the powers of the member states, or the introduction of some intermediate forms of partial membership, concludes the paper.

  4. Mitterrand and the Great European Design—From the Cold War to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available François Mitterrand had a leading role in directing the course for the European integration process. While he orchestrated the economic integration of Europe, he remained deeply opposed to further political integration within the Communities. This article researches Mitterrand’s rationale for his clear focus on economic affairs and develops his vision for the institutional setting of the European Union (EU. The focus of the article is allocated to four different perspectives that reflect the four pillars of Mitterrand’s European policy: the common currency, the establishment of a closely integrated and small Western European based EU, the development of the Social Europe and of a free trade area between Europe and Africa. It is argued that although EU institutions have been established based on Mitterrand’s design, today’s reality deviates from the conditions on which his plan was based. For Mitterrand, the ideal EU involved a deep-rooted Western Europe with France at its core and a loose association with Central and Eastern Europe. His perception resembles the current discussions of multi-speed Europe and the determination of France and Germany to proceed to the next stage of the integration process. Importantly, Mitterrand’s print can still be recognised in the EU’s social policy included in the treaties, yet still far from being implemented. Notably, like all of the French Presidents, Mitterrand developed a design for Africa in which an extensive free trade area between Europe and former French colonies were to be established. In this proposal, Germany was to be assigned the part of the economic engine behind the actualisation of the proposal, while France was to carry out the role of a required middle man of the transactions. To further assure France’s political predominance over the Communities, Mitterrand designed a common currency for a small number of homogenous Western-European states.

  5. Aspects concerning counterfeiting and piracy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global problem of counterfeiting and piracy has increased in European Union though there are special laws defending Intellectual Properties Rights. The aim of this paper is to point out the aspects on the topic of counterfeiting and piracy inside the European Union Single Market. Analysing the information gathered, we can conclude that there are evident facts of growing and increasingly dangerous phenomena in the European Union, with significant impact on the economic and social sectors. European Commission is the one that identifies strategies and effective practices to help rightful owners protect their Intellectual Property Rights.

  6. THE PROSPECT OF THE ACCESSION OF ROMANIA TO THE EUROPEAN MONETARY UNION - AN APPROACH IN TERMS OF REAL CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANISOARA NICULINA APETRI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joining the European Monetary Union and adopting the unique currency - euro requires the states to meet a set of real and nominal convergence criteria. Although the real convergence criteria are not mentioned in the Treaty of Maastricht, they planned a major contribution to the success of adopting a common currency by a European Union member state, especially in recording a great relation between benefits and costs. Starting from this consideration, we decided to conduct an assessment of the level of accomplishment of real convergence criteria by Romania in this moment, taking into account a comparative approach in the Euro zone and at the level of non- European Union countries members of the Euro zone, for the real convergence criteria analyzed.

  7. Judicial control in the European Union: Standing of a member state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Predić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive character of the European Union (EU is indisputable. May it be denoted as a supranational or as a sui generis organization (which is a preferred designation of the European Court of Justice, it is considered to be the result of particular features pertaining to the competences, structure and decision making-process of the EU. It is a truism that other international intergovernmental organizations do share some or all of these features. Almost all of them have at least one institution which is obliged to act independently of the member states; at least some of their decisions are rendered by majority voting, at least some of which are legally binding. What makes the EU truly and genuinely a unique phenomenon in the field of inter-state organization is a strong and independent judicial system, established to 'ensure that in the interpretation and application of this treaty the law is observed'. In effect, it implies establishing a strong and independent judicial system able to enforce the EU law against all those who are under its domain and, above all, to enforce it against the EU Member States. In order to enable the European Court of Justice (the Court of Justice, the General Court and specialized courts to perform this duty, the Court has been conferred a range of specific powers under the provisions of the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union in particular. The Court is empowered to declare that a Member State has failed to comply with its obligation under the Treaties. The founding fathers of the EU designed three different procedures leading to that effect. The first one has proved to be fairly effective; on the grounds of an action brought by the Commission, it enables the Court to adjudge whether a Member State did comply with its obligations stemming from the EU law. The next one provides légitimation active for the other Member State but it has been very rarely used in the

  8. THE IMPACTOF THEMAFIAINITALIANECONOMYIN CRISISOF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mancini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the extent of the financial activity of the Italian Mafia in the economy following the 2008 financial crisis. And pointed out as very relevant in support of the financial flows of the country and its trade relations with Europe.The expansion of financial activity mafia accompanies the integration of markets, with the possibilities of creating companies in sectors with high profitability enough to justify moving the capital. The paper presents empirical evidence of the impact of the mafia in economic variables. The results will be compared and in dialogue with the literature on organized crime and its economic effects. In the European Union, Member States are faced with the additional challenge of analyzing the issue from the perspective of which core values are being put at risk by crime, and if these values are the sum of the values of the members, or the EU represents a set unique values. Themes, from which are questioned failures of public institutions that contribute to the support and expansion of organized crime.

  9. Farm land rent in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Střeleček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Great share of rented land in total utilised area as well as a significant variability of land rent and market prices of land causes a need of research activity that would assess which factors influence the land rent as well as the price of land and how significant such factor are in each state. An average land rent is significantly lower in new member states compared to EU 15 members. There is a strong dependence of land rent on the intensity of production. The influence of subsidies to land rent reports moderate to medium dependence. The same relation occurs in case of the relation of the farm income and land rent. Positive increase of production intensity was connected to lower production use of land rent i.e. a decrease of its cost/revenue ratio. This is reflected in a relative saving of land rent. States with greater land rent per ha of agricultural area usually reports greater saving. An increase of land rent in new member states of the European Union is presumed so that it will be necessary to increase the intensity of production in the corresponding way.

  10. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  11. Teenage fertility in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenet, L

    1996-05-01

    A large proportion of pregnancies which occur among women during their teenage years are unwanted. As such, the abortion rate is high among teenage pregnant women. Teenage women who choose to carry their fetuses to term run an excess risk of delivering premature and low birthweight babies. Teenage mothers often have not finished their studies and will find it difficult to remain in the educational system. There is a high rate of school dropout among teenage mothers. Moreover, they have limited job opportunities, especially in countries like the UK where child care facilities are scarce. Teenage fertility varies widely among the countries of the European Union (EU). In the UK, there are 32 live births per 1000 women aged 15-19, the highest rate in the EU. In the Netherlands, the rate of teenage fertility is only 4 live births per 1000 women aged 15-19 years. In the context of general delayed childbearing throughout the EU, the rate of teenage fertility in the UK has increased in recent years. A more holistic approach to family planning services, improved communication with teenagers, and more appropriate sex education programs are needed if the British government is to succeed in reducing by 50% the conception rate among women younger than age 16 years by the year 2000. An active policy to fight socioeconomic deprivation at the local level should also positively affect teenage fertility.

  12. Transitional Democracy, Legitimacy and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplánová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the ongoing global crisis has triggered an issue how to set up a theoretical framework of global governance. The integration to a supranational level of governance has been a contemporary process of democratization in recent decades. To analyze the institutionalization of global governance means to recognize a normative idea of democracy. The theory of international relations demonstrates that there are four normative models of democracy at the supranational level of governance. In my opinion, a crucial difference of the institutionalization is a concept of legitimacy of global democratic regime. Because of a divided understanding of legitimacy at the transnational level of governance is difficult to find a consensus in which way should be a transnational democracy framed. A dual legitimacy in a supranational organization like the European Union also triggers a specific democratic deficit. My point of view corresponds with the division of transnational orders in normative way and its correspondence to legitimacy. Cla rifying the duality of legitimacy can help us not only to solve all globalizing problems but of course to decide in which way we want to make the supranational organizations work.

  13. WAYS OF COMBAT TAX EVASION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihaela Corîci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion is a complex phenomenon faced by all member economies, regardless of geographic position. Economic transparency of each of the Member States of the European Union helps to have a compact European economic market. This can take place inter alia through exchange of information between tax authorities and a common database for European countries

  14. Zoonoses in the European Union: origin, distribution and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahuerta, A.; Westrell, T.; Takkinen, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of the main findings of the latest report of the European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control on zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union (EU), based on data from 2009. Zoonoses are prevalent and widely...

  15. The European Union’s external trade policy after the Treaty of Lisbon: a neo-gramscian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Ihor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies neo-Gramscian theory to analyze the European Union’s external trade policy after the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009. It argues that despite the claim that procedural and institutional changes which took place as a result of the ratification of the Treaty serve the general interest of the EU citizens, they were in fact orchestrated by the European transnational capitalist class and serve primarily interests of this group. Paper starts by outlining key institutional and procedural changes introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, briefly outlining their implications for the EU. Further on, rationale for these changes is explained by focusing on socio-economic developments that took place in the EU during the past couple of decades. After outlining how the current hegemonic bloc was established, paper proceeds with explaining why the implemented changes were so important for the dominant in the EU social forces.

  16. A decade of African Union and European Union trans-national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy nine security missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security and. Defence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions that. European states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategy designed ...

  17. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial market is possible through a new regulation of the markets. In this project, monetary union of the EU member countries is possible by implementing single mechanism of supervision (Single Supervisory Mechanism and single mechanism of resolution (Single Resolution Mechanism. European Banking Union may be made by monitoring of a single banking supervisor based on a common system for managing and resolving banking crises and a uniform system of protecting people's savings. Romania opted for these unique mechanisms of macro-prudential supervision of the financial system. And by performing the real convergence criteria of integration, Romania will have all conditions of integration in the ,,euro area,,.

  18. What are European Union Public Attitudes towards Robots? (Invited Paper)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donald Loffredo; Alireza Tavakkoli

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a very brief overview of public attitudes towards robots from different geographical regions of the world but focuses on one such study in one particular geographic area, the European Union (EU) of 27 countries...

  19. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  20. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Tanase Diana; Frant Florin,; Manciu Venera; Tanase Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore...

  1. Is European Union at the Heart of Citizens' Identity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CĂRĂUŞAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The departure point of many discussions on European identity is the idea that a political community needs a common set of values and references to ensure its coherence, to guide his actions and to endow these with legitimacy and meaning. The motto “unity in diversity” is generally seen as best describing the aims of the European Union; opinions differ widely as to ho understood. That is why we will try to identify those values which brought the European countries together almost 60 years ago. And we will continue to see, based on the Eurobarometers results, which are the European citizens’ values and what European Union represents for them, in terms of values. For that we will put together the items obtained in the last five years and we will see in the end to which value European Union should pay more attention in the future. Even the surveys show that European Union citizens continue to identify first of all with their own countries and we consider it important to find an answer to the following question: Is European Union a community of shared values?

  2. Nuclear legislation in the European Union; Legislacion nuclear en la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovale, I.

    2009-07-01

    European Nuclear Legislation, developed under the Euratom Treaty, has evolved in accordance with established priorities and the interpretation of the Treaty on the legislative competence of the Community, and prevailing in particular rules on radiological protection and prevention against the risks of proliferation. The approval, in this year 2009, of a Directive on Nuclear Safety, is an important step in the harmonization of legislation on matters that have not been subject to common regulation, as nuclear safety, and it could have its continuation in a future Directive on the safety, and it could have its continuation in a future. Directive on the safety radioactive waste management. As for nuclear safeguards, a reform in the safeguards regimes in both European and international field has been promoted in order to implement an integrated safeguards system, whose implementation is expected to finalise in January 2010. (Author)

  3. European Criminal Law a! er the Lisbon Treaty, or Europeanization of European law, under the co-responsibility of the Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Riza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Same as EU Law, that presents a new area of law and that it is still in progress, the EU Criminal Law is developing. The development of EU criminal law, of course, is dictated by the development of European Law itself, or the EU itself. Depending on it, the EU will be a supranational structure, or will undergo changes and become a Federal State, or another unified form. Taking into consideration the importance of this area of law, which is created for cooperation among states to combat organized crime, and especially terrorism, we can have a Criminal Code European and a European code of Criminal Procedure certainly in the near future, namely, a codification of European criminal field. This paper aims to discuss the development of European criminal law, until the Treaty of Lisbon.

  4. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  5. Designing fiscal and monetary institutions for a European Monetary Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores under what conditions a European Monetary Union (EMU) is an optimum currency area. The scope for an EMU increases with convergence of structural and fiscal policies, small money holdings, a conservative European Central Bank, and dependent national central banks. How national

  6. Controlling delegated powers in the post-Lisbon European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Most European Union rules are made by the Commission, not the Council of Ministers or the European Parliament. But although the Commission is an important rule-maker, it is not autonomous. The member states have always taken care to install committees to control the Commission (comitology). However,

  7. A European Social Union: unduly idealistic or inevitable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article summarises a lecture delivered at the EIB on 5 March 2015, on the idea of a European Social Union. The main argument is that a basic consensus on the European social model has become an existential necessity for the EU. A consensus must be reached on the respective roles of EU

  8. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  9. Vocation or Vocational? Reviewing European Union Education and Mobility Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Amelia; Summerby-Murray, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role that education plays in European Union (EU) integration. We ask whether efforts which historically have been designed to endow European students with a "knowledge of Europe" in terms of an understanding of culture, politics and sensibility have been circumscribed by, or augmented, by the recently…

  10. Tuberculosis treatment outcome monitoring in European Union countries: systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hest, Rob; Ködmön, Csaba; Verver, Suzanne; Erkens, Connie G. M.; Straetemans, Masja; Manissero, Davide; de Vries, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Treatment success measured by treatment outcome monitoring (TOM) is a key programmatic output of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We performed a systematic literature review on national-level TOM in the 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Areas (EEA) countries to summarise methods used to

  11. Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.

    2000-01-01

    To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European

  12. Myths and Realities of European Union Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on the need for calibration in the language rights and language use in law and in practice related to the European Union language policy. It mentions the impact of Brexit on linguistic imperialism and European Commission language policies and mentions use of English in higher...

  13. Timescapes: An artistic challenge to the European Union paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, G.E.E.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of trans-European corridors of mobility to the east of Europe. It argues that the European Union's infrastructures are intent upon erasing the past and integrating the new places with as little tension as possible, for economic purposes only. Running counter

  14. The European Union's role in the G20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amtenbrink (Fabian); K. Heine (Klaus); S. Van Den Bogaert (Stefaan); J. Kantorowicz (Jarosław); R. Repasi (René); N. Blokker (Niel); A. Cuyvers (Armin); C. Hillion (Christophe); H. Lenk (Hannes)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis study on the role of the EU in G20 has been conducted for the European Parliament (Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy). This study forms part of a series of nine studies on the role of the European Union in international

  15. The Harmonization of Public Sector Accounting in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    The European Commission is working on several fronts to achieve the implementation of uniform and comparable accruals-based accounting practices for the European Union Member States and for all the sectors of General Government, that is, Central Government, State Government, Local Government...

  16. Dividends and share repurchases in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eije, Henk; Megginson, William L.

    We examine cash dividends and share repurchases from 1989 to 2005 in the 15 nations that were members of the European Union before May 2004. As ill the United States, the fraction of European firms paying dividends declines, while total real dividends paid increase and share repurchases surge. We

  17. The Citizen, the Culture and European Union

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marine Imberechts

    2009-01-01

    From the beginning of its work (1988), the European Centre of Culture tried to attract theattention of the European institutions on the urgent need to bring in the greatest number of citizens asense of belonging to a new space...

  18. BUILDING A BANKING UNION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – A SOLUTION TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica (ŞAGUNA FIGHIROAE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for a deeper integration of the banking system, as a warranty to support long-term financial stability. It was argued that the grounds of the crisis lie also in an uncoordinated national response to the failure of banks, in a fragmentation of the Single Market in lending and funding and, therefore, a better regulation and supervision of the financial sector can ensure financial stability and growth in the European Union. In order to restore the proper functioning of the internal market and to avoid future crisis, the European Commission launched a set of initiatives, in order to assure a safer and sounder financial sector for the single market; are included here: stronger prudential requirements for banks, improved depositor protection and rules for managing failing banks and a single rulebook for all the 28 Member States of the European Union. The single rule book is the step towards the Banking Union sits. The banking union consists of three pillars: a Single Supervisory Mechanism, a Single Resolution Mechanism and a joint deposit-insurance scheme. As on 4 November 2014 the European Central Bank assumed responsibility for euro area banking supervision, the Banking Union is still under construction. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyse the process of building a Banking Union in Europe. Therefore, the objectives of my paper are to explore the steps to fulfilling a real integration of the European banking system, as a solution to the financial crisis.

  19. The Crisis of the European Union and its Reflection in the Romanian Public Sphere. Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the implications of the euro crisis, which turned from „a Greek mess" to a political, institutional, economic and confidence crisis of the European Union. In our view, the EU public sphere is relevant for the current debate surrounding the crisis because it represents the setting where solidarity among EU citizens and EU states is created. Given our interest in the concept of the EU public sphere and the way the crisis of the European Union influences the debates in the public sphere, the way in which solidarity among EU citizens and EU states is imagined and enacted, we carried out a research project focused on the Romanian public sphere in the context of the crisis. The research project was carried out around a crucial event in the process of crisis resolution: the signing of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union by 25 EU member states at the beginning of March 2012. The results show that in Romania, for the moment at least, the "EU" has not fallen victim to the crisis. There is a considerable drop in public trust in the EU, but it is our assessment that the descending trend could be reversed, provided a clear vision, accompanied by strong leadership, emerges.

  20. Challenges in diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the European Union, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Solovic, I.; Jonsson, J.; Korzeniewska-Kosela, M.; Chiotan, D. I.; Pace-Asciak, A.; Slump, E.; Rumetshofer, R; Abubakar, I; Kos, S.; Svetina-Sorli, P.; Haas, Walter; Bauer, T.; Sandgren, A; Werf, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union (EU) 72,334 tuberculosis (TB) cases were notified in 2011, of which 16,116 (22%) had extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). The percentage of TB cases with EPTB ranged from 4% to 48% in the reporting countries. This difference might be explained by differences in risk factors for EPTB or challenges in diagnosis. To assess the practices in diagnosis of EPTB we asked European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries to participate in a report describing the diagnostic ...

  1. PPPs IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. GUIDELINES FOR ROMANIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian GORIŢĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several starting points could be used in an analysis on the possible routes for developing Public-Private Partnership1 (henceforth PPP projects in Romania, regarded as an alternative financing mechanism for public infrastructure. This paper follows a “classical” approach, with a focus on the pros and cons of the Public-Private Partnership concept, legal forms met in the European acquis, the Eurostat view on such projects in terms of the statistical classification of assets, financing and policy directions in the European Union and lessons learnt for practitioners in Romania, while taking into account the recent developments of the PPP market in the European Union

  2. Flexibilization of labour in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, O.; van der Pijl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Labour market flexibilization has been at the heart of the ‘extended relaunch’ of European integration (the completion of the Single Market and the introduction of the euro in 2002) from the start in the 1980s. Yet the parallel Europeanization of labour market policies, via the European Employment

  3. The Virtual Enterprise – Citizen of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Davidescu (Vasile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Enterprise is a rather young and unclear concept in the business world. A virtual enterprise is a temporary network of companies that share their different resources in order to reach a given goal (the creation of a new product, or the entry on a new market and is a powerful tool in the hands of the business community. The question this article raises is whether European Union's businesses are able to take advantage of this opportunity within the European Union. We discuss several obstacles towards the creation of virtual enterprises: regulatory uncertainties, operational management that dismisses the advantage of an excellent infrastructure, the orientation of innovation creators towards theoretical research and the European business culture. The article also looks at research on the virtual enterprise in the European Union, the legal framework and technologies for virtualization.

  4. Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status; Stilllegung und Rueckbau in der Europaeischen Union. Aktueller Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohm-Hieber, Ute [European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Nuclear Energy, Waste Management and Transport

    2009-02-15

    The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO{sub 2} emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

  5. L’Unione Bancaria Europea. Di nuovo un disegno istituzionale incompleto (The European banking union. An incomplete institutional design, again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposal for a European banking union represents the more recent effort to drive the Eurozone countries towards the effective adoption of a single rulebook and a single supervisory handbook, at the same time endowing them with a centralised mechanism for the resolution of bank crises. The new institutional framework should help to disconnect banking operations from the vicissitudes of sovereign debts, to reverse the recent re-nationalisation of finance and to restore the effectiveness of ECB monetary policy. Although the new framework would mark a significant advancement with respect to the present situation, its predictable incomplete adoption, restricted to the single supervisory mechanism, coupled with the unwillingness to burden it with legacy problems, will most likely produce opposite results from its inception. Although the full implementation of the proposal would not constitute a departure from the political de-centralised design that has so far dominated the European construction, the potential fiscal implications of a centralised resolution mechanism have raised the same barriers that have so far impeded to complete the design initiated with the Maastricht Treaty.

  6. L’Unione Bancaria Europea. Di nuovo un disegno istituzionale incompleto (The European banking union. An incomplete institutional design, again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposal for a European banking union represents the more recent effort to drive the Eurozone countries towards the effective adoption of a single rulebook and a single supervisory handbook, at the same time endowing them with a centralised mechanism for the resolution of bank crises. The new institutional framework should help to disconnect banking operations from the vicissitudes of sovereign debts, to reverse the recent re-nationalisation of finance and to restore the effectiveness of ECB monetary policy. Although the new framework would mark a significant advancement with respect to the present situation, its predictable incomplete adoption, restricted to the single supervisory mechanism, coupled with the unwillingness to burden it with legacy problems, will most likely produce opposite results from its inception. Although the full implementation of the proposal would not constitute a departure from the political de-centralised design that has so far dominated the European construction, the potential fiscal implications of a centralised resolution mechanism have raised the same barriers that have so far impeded to complete the design initiated with the Maastricht Treaty.  JEL Codes: E02, F33, G18 

  7. ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Pazderníková, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the reasons and beginnings of creation of European energy policy, the role of environment in this policy and different kinds of energy sources with special focus on the renewable ones. The hot topic of liberalization of European energy policy is also discussed. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

  8. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the new politics opened up new opportunities for businesses and citizens. The aim of the article is to analyze the balance of the Polish membership in the European Union in the economic, financial, political and social dimensions.

  9. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Diana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore, the paper analyses labour productiveness, employment rate and unemployment rate both in Romania and in the other countries of the European Union. In the end the authors forward conclusions regarding the possibilities of increasing competitiveness on Romania’s labour market.

  10. IDENTIFYING KEY TRENDS OF DIRECT SALES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA BRUTU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selling is the most representative marketing action; without customers there is no organization, and without sales there is no customer. Selling does not mean only to conclude a business (giving an economical good and receiving an amount of money, but also to obtain satisfied, loyal customers. An alternative to the traditional sale is the direct sale. The main objective of this paper is to present briefly the opinions of some renowned researchers regarding selling in general, and direct selling in particular; the righteous dimensioning of direct selling within the European Union and Romania, detecting Romania’s deviations towards the European Union in relation with the characteristics of direct selling, achieving researches, through the SPSS program, which can detect the main trends of direct selling within the European Union.

  11. The European Union - a ‘Sui Generis’ International Diplomatic Actor: Challenges Posed to the International Diplomatic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Laura Boşilcă

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has often been argued that the European Union has a sui generis status by being less than a nation-state, but more than an international organization, which is also reflected in its conduct of diplomatic relations with third states and international organizations. Since its inception, the European Union has managed to set a wide bi- and multilateral diplomatic network – which is subject to the provisions of the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (VCDR. This paper’s purpose is to analyze some of the main challenges posed to the international diplomatic law by the EU’s emergence on the diplomatic scene, in the light of the significant transformations brought by the Lisbon Treaty.

  12. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the ne...

  13. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  14. Unity in Diversity. The Language Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the connections between the law and language in the European Union. The paper concerns the language policy of the European Union (EU and English language priority. The EU faces challenges of finding a common ground for respecting the diversity of its members. So many different states are gathered in one organisation which establishes the law for diversified legal orders. The research question is - which language(s is or should be used in the EU? Does English become lingua franca of the EU?

  15. TOWARDS THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION-Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos G. TURLIUC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has made the need for a more integrated regulatory and supervisory framework for the financial services sector evident. An important step towards this aim is the establishment of the Single Supervisory Mechanism. European leaders have committed to moving toward a banking union, in which bank regulation and supervision, deposit guarantees, and the handling of troubled banks will be integrated across at least the euro area and possibly across the wider European Union. This paper provides an overview of research on this topic. We also identify important future research questions that emerge from both the literature and the current debate.

  16. The European Union's Normative Power in a more Global Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era requires a reconsideration of the nature of European Union (EU) power and actorness in a more global era. The article does this by first looking at the study of the EU in a more global era. Second, the normative power approach will be exa......The globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era requires a reconsideration of the nature of European Union (EU) power and actorness in a more global era. The article does this by first looking at the study of the EU in a more global era. Second, the normative power approach...

  17. The Ultimate Stumbling Block? The Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The protection of human rights within Europe diverges between two systems. On the one hand, there are 28 Member States of the European Union; and on the other are 47 states, including 19 other non-EU states that are a party to the Convention. For states that wish to become Member States of the EU......, supported by Protocol 8 and Declaration 2 of the Treaties. Between 2010 and 2013, a Draft Accession Agreement (‘DAA’ or ‘Draft Agreement’) was negotiated during intense rounds of discussion between the relevant parties. With a long history of attempted EU accession to the Convention and the level...

  18. SCENARIOS REGARDING THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL-IULIAN NEDELCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work has as purpose to argumentatively identify the future evolution of the European construction, identifying a potential scenario which would settle the current contradiction within the European Union, namely the existence of a true “economic federation” and of only a “political quasi-confederation” , being notorious the fact that in Europe, federalism is mainly known as a specific solution of power assignment between the institutions of a central power and those of the member states (for federal states or as a potential model of transnational integration (for the European Union and even for regionalism within certain states (Spain, Italy, France. It shall be tried the decryption of the philosophical and legal base of federalism as a doctrine able to provide a solution of state’s organisation in the conditions of the European integration.

  19. A Structural Analysis of European Union Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the input-output analysis, the paper characterizes the structure of European economy in 2010 and 2011, on six main economic sectors. The sectoral structures of backward and forward linkages, and their absolute effects starting from the final demand, were compared with the real structures of sectors output, sectoral imports, sectoral value added, in 2011 face to 2010. The changes in final demand and in sectoral output can be analyzed in the propagation processes of the inter-sectoral economic flows, and allow us to know the behavior at macroeconomic level of European economy. The common economic policies at European level can be undertaken to keep the equilibrium between different sectors, to stimulate the sectors with high levels of productivity, to ensure the efficiency of using the resources, and the sustainability of economic development, which are the purposes of a smart development.

  20. Short-termism in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Therese

    2016-01-01

    an influential source of inspiration for politicians and lawmakers in foreign jurisdictions. The European Commission currently proposes to amend the Shareholder Rights Directive (2007/36/EC) to counterbalance the financial sector’s alleged triumph over industry. The initiative is motivated primarily...... that the short-termism concept, despite its contemporary authority in the post-financial crisis era on both sides of the Atlantic, is misguided, and even more so in the European context. The Article concludes that the proposed amendments should not be expected to solve short-termism problems or alter...

  1. European Union – China Partnership and its Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Onișoru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims at analyzing the prospects of relations between the European Union and China in 2020 horizon. From this perspective we considered useful a travel insight into history of four decades of Sino-European bilateral relations. In 2015 it was marked four decades after the establishment of the first EU-China relations. During this time relations between the two sides marked important progress in all areas and today China is considered a strategic partner of Brussels.

  2. Age Discrimination Against Older Workers in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Drury

    1994-01-01

    This paper aims to define the concept of age discrimination, to illustrate examples of age discriminatory practices across the European Union, and to describe some positive public policy measures to combat age discrimination.It draws on the results of the first European-wide study of age discrimination against older workers.1 National experts from 11 Member States of the EU examined various forms of age discrimination in their own country. More detailed information is needed, particularly on ...

  3. Why we need a European Social Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.I.G.

    2013-01-01

    Arguments on "social Europe" need to give an unequivocal answer to questions of why, what, and how. With regard to the question of why, I argue that, whereas ten years ago the quest for an operational description of the European social model might have been dismissed as interesting but not strictly

  4. Opting Out of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    European integration continues to deepen despite major crises and attempts to take back sovereignty. A growing number of member states are reacting to a more constraining EU by negotiating opt-outs. This book provides the first in-depth account of how opt-outs work in practice. It examines the mo...

  5. The diffusion of mobile telecommunication services in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, H.; Verboven, F.L.

    2001-01-01

    We study the technological and regulatory determinants of the diffusion of mobile telecommunications services in the European Union, using a logistic model of diffusion. We find that the transition from the analogue to the digital technology during the early 1990s, and the corresponding increase in

  6. Legal analysis of the European Union sustainability criteria for biofuels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides a legal analysis and review of the European Union (EU) sustainability criteria for biofuels, presented in Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper discusses the EU sustainability criteria as a tool that could be efficiently utilized to operationalize and implement the concepts of sustainable development and ...

  7. The effect of the European union (MPP6) infrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and development of rural areas in Imo State. The specific objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, determine the extent of infrastructural development in the area ...

  8. legal analysis of the european union sustainability criteria for biofuels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides a legal analysis and review of the European Union (EU) sustainability criteria for biofuels, presented in Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper discusses the EU sustainability criteria as a tool that could be effi- ciently utilized to operationalize and implement the concepts of sustainable development and ...

  9. International Environmental Problems, Issue Linkage and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze-Gil, J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the circumstances under which issue linkage can be applied to achieve cooperation on international environmental problems in general and on environmental problems in the European Union in particular. A major topic in this thesis is the development and analysis of cooperative and

  10. Improving Aftermath Crisis Management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.; Hamrin, M.; Pastuszka, H.M.; Missoweit, M.; Stolk, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale incidents (man-made or natural) inside and outside the European Union (EU) require a coordinated response from crisis managers and first responders across Europe and with resources from all levels of government. Currently, crisis management (CM) in the EU can be regarded as a highly

  11. Financial integration in the European Union. Measurement and determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this study addresses the measurement of financial integration in the European Union (EU). First, we present empirical evidence on the degree of financial integration as measured with interest parity conditions. Second, the study applies an error-correction model of

  12. Systems of innovation theory and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2004-01-01

    This article asks whether it is possible to conceptualise the European Union (EU) as a system of innovation in accordance with the rich literature of institutional economics on these matters. By developing four further theoretical nodal points of the system of innovation concept, an analytical fr...

  13. Parametrization of the Richardson weather generator within the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der P.; Kramer, K.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Richardson model for mathematically generating daily weather data was parametrized. Thirty years' time-series of the 355 main meteorological stations in the European Union formed the database. Model parameters were derived from both observed weather station data and interpolated weather data on

  14. Personality and European Union attitudes: Relationships across EU attitude dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.N.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    We still do not fully understand why attitudes towards the European Union (EU) differ among citizens. In this study, we turn to the Big Five personality traits Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism as antecedents of EU attitudes. In a national survey, we focus on

  15. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  16. The European Union, Education Governance and International Education Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis; Ritzen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The European Union--comprising 28 member states with individual sovereignty in the formation and implementation of education policy--has developed research and communication strategies to facilitate the exchange of best practices, gathering and dissemination of education statistics and, perhaps most importantly, advice and support for national…

  17. Tough love : the European Union's relations with the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, Steven

    2007-01-01

    As part of the international presence in the Western Balkans, the European Union has adopted sanctions, brokered political agreements, launched its first-ever police and military missions and directed economic, legal and administrative reforms to eradicate the root causes of instability. Yet,

  18. The European Union and Turkey: Who Defines Environmental Progress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Adaman (Fikret); M. Arsel (Murat)

    2008-01-01

    textabstract[European Union] EU environment policy aims to promote sustainable development and to protect the environment for present and future generations. It is based on preventive action, the polluter pays principle, fighting environmental damage at source, shared responsibility and the

  19. The Second Look in European Union Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Under European Union (EU) law, arbitrators and national courts are obligated to apply, ex officio, EU competition law. Also according to EU law, any failure by an arbitral tribunal to apply such rules, or any erroneous interpretation or application hereof, constitute grounds for setting aside the...

  20. Organization and financing of home nursing in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkstra, A.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the organization and financing of home nursing in the 15 member states in the European Union. Home nursing was defined as the nursing care provided at the patients' home by professional home nursing organizations. Data were gathered by means of

  1. Characterizing the European Union's Strategic Culture : An Analytical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biava, Alessia; Drent, Margriet; Herd, Graeme P.

    2011-01-01

    This article does not question whether the EU has a strategic culture, but rather asks how one can investigate its nature. It creates and utilizes an analytical framework to demonstrate that the European Union's strategic culture is based on an extended concept of security and on a comprehensive,

  2. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union internal market seeks to ensure the free movement of goods, services, capital and citizens. The primacy given to these economic freedoms has culminated in a socio-economic reasoning dominated by competition, bringing about side effects that may pose a threat to working conditions

  3. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, J.; Luengo-Fernandez, R.; Sullivan, R.; Witjes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 120000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact

  4. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  5. The fundamental determinants of financial integration in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, J.J.G.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the fundamental determinants of the degree of financial integration in the European Union over the period 1973-1993. Using closed interest differentials to measure the intensity of capital controls and applying a panel data approach, we find realized inflation rates, government

  6. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Pozio, E.; Boes, J.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations. This imposes large economic costs on countries, yet the vast majority of these pigs test negative and the public health risk in many countries is therefore ...

  7. Delegation and accountability in European integration the Nordic parliamentary democracies and the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Torbjorn

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the European Union on national decision-making and the chain of delegation and accountability, the authors look at Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Iceland and Norway. The analyses are based on principal-agent perspective.

  8. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand analyses...... can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...

  9. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    's share of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand...... analyses can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...

  10. NEW OFFSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The offshore activity provides benefits for the host market and has positive effects on services, and on producers that use intermediate services. FDI in services has an important impact on the offshore activity, especially through transfer of technology. Many transnational companies have recognized the advantages of offshoring and the fact that it becomes a key globalization force. Recently, the Central European countries have become popular destinations among offshoring

  11. The EIROforum Collaboration Agreement with the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Collaboration between CERN and the European Union has extended over many years, and the European Commission were granted Observer Status in the CERN Council in 1985 already. In 1994, an Administrative Arrangement was signed between CERN's Director-General, Professor C.H. Llewellyn Smith, and the Commissioner of the European Communities, Professor Antonio Ruberti, "to promote co-operation between the Commission of the European Communities and CERN in research and technological development". (See Annex I). In 2000, the EIROforum was set up composed of the Directors-General of the seven organisations - CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF and ILL - whom now meet regularly twice per year. More information is available at the Web site www.eiroforum.org. On 27 October 2003, the EIROforum members signed a joint "Statement of Intent" with the European Commission, represented by Commissioner Philippe Busquin, confirming their common commitment to developing the European Research Area. The goal is to work together to estab...

  12. EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT OF ECO‐MANAGEMENT AND AUDIT SCHEME (EMAS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SŁONIMIEC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of the Environmental Management and Audit Scheme System (EMAS in Poland and the European Union. It analyzes the existing rules on the implementation and the process of its implementation. It also defines the benefits and costs arising from the registration of organizations in the system. The paper presents the current status of implementation of EMAS in the European Union.

  13. Meeting and mating across borders: union formation in the European union single market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.; Díez Medrano, J.

    2014-01-01

    This editorial introduces a special issue and its different contributions. We provide an overarching background for the special issue by situating it in the context of the European Union integration process and through a general discussion of the role of intermarriage in establishing links across

  14. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE COMMITTEES IN EUROPEAN UNION EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Dumitrascu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the support committees of European Union emerging economies. The importance of good corporate governance is vital for an organization, especially in the emerging markets, fact that leads to a several perceived improvements of the entity, while being more trustable, open and transparent in relationship with all its stakeholders. In our demarche we started by choosing the emerging economies from European Union, which lead us to a sample consisting of the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, Sofia Stock Exchange, Warsaw Stock Exchange, Prague Stock Exchange, Budapest Stock Exchange, without taking into consideration a specific tier. In order to have a heterogeneous sample, we did eliminate the financial institutions from our research. This study is developed at European Union level and takes into consideration the following indices: BET® BUCHAREST EXCHANGE TRADING (Romania, SOFIX (Bulgaria, WIG 20 (Poland, PX (Czech Republic, BUX The Share Index of the Budapest Stock Exchange Co. Ltd. (Hungary. The data are extracted from the Annual Reports, Corporate Governance Codes, Comply or Explain Statement or the websites of the listed companies, from period 2007 - 2011. We choose this period, because we wanted to see the evolution of the corporate governance committees’ implementation from the period when the last countries from our sample joined the European Union since nowadays. Our conclusion is that we can not discuss about good corporate governance practices. Even so, we can observe from our investigation that the trend in this regard is encouraging. Like future research, we thought at developing our study by comparing the emerging economies from European Union with those outside this area. It is an interesting field of investigation, as every country has different regulations.

  15. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  16. The European Union Training Mission in Mali: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the European Union (EU has been increasing its international presence and moving into the role of a global security actor. To support the goal of greater crisis management capabilities, European security integration (ESI has been deepening. This article therefore examines an Ell operation - the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali - with the aim of gauging the success of the EU's efforts at ESI. To determine the success of EUTM Mali and thus of ESI, three propositions are examined: if EUTM Mali is a security operation showing successful security integration, there will be evidence of (i broad participation, (ii financial burden-sharing and (iii the successful incorporation of troops and equipment. The first and third propositions are supported whereas the second does not receive as much support. Overall, EUTM Mali shows considerable success and bodes well for further ESI.

  17. European Union rules in the matter of dismissal of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia-Monica MATIAȘ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available So far, the European Union adopted a Directive on firing any individual content to regulate only matters of collective redundancies due to the social implications that occur usually in case of collective dismissals and, simultaneously, their potential conflicts. Directive no. 98/95/EC of 20 July 1998 on the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to collective redundancies was adopted by the Council of the European Union since it was necessary to grant greater protection to workers in the event of collective redundancies. The provisions of Directive no. 98/59/EC of 20 July 1998 on the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to collective redundancies have been transposed into national law by the Romanian Government Emergency Ordinance no. 55/2006 amending and supplementing the Labour Code so that in this case no question of direct application of Community rules, but can not disregard its interpretation by the European Court of Justice.

  18. Food and Health Inequalities in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    , leading to inequalities being transferred from generation to generation. Therefore “we can’t just tax “junk” food, high in fats, sugars and salt. Taxes alone just make products more expensive, whereas taxation in combination with removal of VAT e.g. on vegetables, fruits and fish will support healthier...... to reduce the amount of cheap energy from sugars and saturated fats available in the European diet. Also, Europe-wide legislation is needed both to restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods to children and to label the “country of origin” of sustainable products....

  19. Revenue Forecast Errors in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, António; Carvalho, Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we assess the determinants of revenue forecast errors for the EU-15 between 1999 and 2012, based on the forecasts published bi-annually by the European Commission. Our results show that personal income rate changes increase the revenue forecast errors: for forecasts made in t for t, increases in the corporate tax rate implies a decrease in the revenue forecast errors, in t+1 and t+2. Moreover, an increase in GDP forecast errors decreases revenue errors, whereas an increase in th...

  20. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...... the view that the EU has forgotten its Caribbean allies and instead channels its attention and funding towards Sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines to what extent this asserted ‘rift’ really signals a profound change in the EU-Caribbean relations....

  1. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...

  2. Nuclear Energy and European Union; Energia nuclear y la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-07-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  3. Liability of the European Union for acts of its Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaescu, Bucura Catalina

    2011-01-01

    The following article will assess the real extent of the potential liability of the European Union. It will fi rstly focus on the recognition and the development by the EU Courts of the conditions which must be fulfi lled in order for the EU to incur liability for the acts of its institutions. It will be emphasised in this regard that, as the EU Courts’ case-law currently stand, the criteria for Union liability can differ, depending on a number of variables including whether the c...

  4. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military......This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... operations undertaken in Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad and the Central African Republic. Having evaluated their success the book goes on to explore the conditions under which military conflict management operations conducted by international organizations...

  5. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... are successful and explores the implications of its findings for the future theory and practice of military conflict management....... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...

  6. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...... operations undertaken in Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad and the Central African Republic. Having evaluated their success the book goes on to explore the conditions under which military conflict management operations conducted by international organizations...

  7. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  8. Protecting animals and enabling research in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Pinto da Silva, Sandra; Townend, David

    2016-01-01

    In 1986, European Directive 86/609/EEC, regulating the use of animals in research, was one of the first examples of common legislation to set standards for animal protection across the Member States of the former European Economic Community, now the European Union, with the aim of securing a level...... European playing field. Starting in 2002, a process of revising European animal experimentation legislation was undertaken, with one of its key aims being to ensure high standards of welfare for laboratory animals across Europe. This resulted in Directive 2010/63/EU, which has regulated this activity...... objectives of the directive, particularly with a focus on securing the same high standards of animal protection across member countries. The analysis focuses on three separate issues: (1) minimum standards for laboratory animal housing and care, (2) restrictions on the use of certain animal species, and (3...

  9. DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF RETAIL TRADE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catana Adina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Karel De Gucht, Trade Commissioner from the European Commission, trade is working for Europe's economic recovery by ensuring growth and jobs. The European renewed trade strategy will open markets and connect Europe to the main sources and regis of global growth. The aim is to ensure that European business gets a fair deal and that countries’ rights are respected so that all can enjoy the benefits of trade. Thanks to the ease of modern transport and communications, it is now easier to produce, buy and sell goods around the world which gives European companies of every size the potential to trade outside Europe. This paper’s objective is to analyse the development stage of the European Union’s retail, and its member countries. The study is based on the research taken in the project of PhD research with the theme: The impacts of Economic Integration on Romanian Retail. For my research I used data from Eurostat, National Statistical Institute, European Union official website In the past 10 years, the volume of retail trade in EU member states has increased, but the extent of the changes varies substantially from one country to another.

  10. (REBUILDING THE EUROPEAN UNION`S INTERNATIONAL ROLE THROUGH HUMAN SECURITY STRATEGY IN THE AFTREMATHS OF THE EUROPEAN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, characterized by profound shifts in the dynamics of global power and by diverse threats to peace and security, the European Union should be an active and peace-promoter actor, according to its founding principles. Thus, the European crisis left hard to heal scars within the European Union internal coherence and for its international role and image. The European crisis determined a cleavage in foreign and defence policy between the EU`s member states, creating dissonances in its internal processes. Therefore, this incongruence determined flawed reactions to international events. In order to determine the impact of the European crisis on the EU`s international role, it is briefly analysed the EU`s and its member states reactions to the conflicts from Libya and Syria. The main hypothesis of this article is that in order to overcome the effects of the economic crisis and to rebuild its international trust, the EU should reaffirm its core principles through a coherent external policy, which should be embedded in a bottom-up legitimized paradigm. This analysis demonstrates that human security strategy and the responsibility to protect principle can become the new European meta-narrative, the fact that they have the potential to overcome the current gap between rhetoric and practice in foreign and defence European policies. Therefore, this article advocates that the human security strategy and the responsibility to protect principle represent an impetus to transform the EU in an important global actor.

  11. Relatedness and diversification in the European Union (EU-27) and European Neighbourhood Policy countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Capone, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of industrial diversification in the countries that were part of the European Union (EU-27) and those that were the target of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in the period 1995–2010 by means of world trade data derived from the BACI database (elaborated UN

  12. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odone, A.; Tillmann, T.; Sandgren, A.; Williams, G.; Rechel, B.; Ingleby, D.; Noori, T.; Mladovsky, P.; McKee, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant

  13. Exploring Ireland's approach to negotiating the 2012 Fiscal Stability Treaty: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Anthony James

    2016-01-01

    On the 2nd of March 2012 the intergovernmental Fiscal Stability Treaty was signed by 25 European Union (EU) member-states with the exception of the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic. The treaty was part of a broader set of planned measures taken by EU member-states to protect the Euro in the wake of the 2007 Eurozone crisis. The treaty aimed to reduce national debt in EU member-states by averting fiscal imbalances. Due to the poor condition of the Irish economy, the treaty was a chance fo...

  14. European Union energy handbook; Petit memento energetique de l'Union Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    While providing graphs and data tables, this document presents and comments key figures about energy in the European Union. The first part gives an overview of the general energy accounting, outlines its traps, gives the main demographic and economic indicators for each of the 27 members, defines and describes the energy production and consumption indicators, and gives an energy appraisal for the European Union. Then, it more specifically deals with final energy consumption in the European Union (per energy source, per sector), with primary energy production and consumption per source (oil products, natural gas, coal, biomass, uranium), with electricity production and consumption, with heat production and consumption. After this overview on energy production and consumption, a set of sheets deals with greenhouse gases and nuclear wastes (climate change and greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, nitrogen oxide emissions, industrial gas emissions, nuclear wastes). The last part deals with the European policies in terms of energy and climate, of energy efficiency, of renewable energies, and of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  15. A Monetary Union in Asia? Some European Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyplosz Charles

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Monetary Union in Europe has been the natural response to the combined desire of stabilizing intra-European exchange rates and of lifting permanently all capital controls. The commitment to stable exchange rate has long been rooted in policymakers’ conviction that trade integration requires precise rules which eliminate the risk of misalignments, whether imposed by the markets or arranged by the authorities. The success in maintaining fixed-but-adjustable exchange rates within the EMS and next in adopting a single currency is largely due to the patient and progressive building institutions that became the uneasy repository of those parts of national sovereignty that have been abandoned. This experience suggests three lessons for current discussions about a monetary union in Asia. First, multilateral regional exchange rate arrangements are more conducive to an effective defense than indirect approaches like basket pegs. They probably require some limits to capital mobility. Second, adopting a single currency necessitates elaborate preparations that can only be underpinned by the gradual build up of collective institutions. Third, a monetary union requires some reasonable degree of real convergence. This implies starting with a core of sufficiently homogeneous countries. At this stage, starting with a monetary union in Asia would imply reversing the European sequencing, which started with a common market, moved on to the EMS, and liberalization of capital movements.

  16. Fiscal policies in the European Union during the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the fiscal policies implemented in the European Union countries since the beginning of the current crisis. With this aim in mind we have analyzed separately the expansionary fiscal policies implemented at the first stage of the crisis and the fiscal consolidation policies that became widespread at the beginning of the current decade. Studying the content of the national fiscal policies (discretionary measures versus built-in stabilizers, revenue-based versus expenditure-based fiscal policies, the relationship existing between the size of the fiscal impulses-adjustments and the composition of these measures shows the significant differences between the fiscal policies implemented in the European Union countries.

  17. INTEGRATED APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrodita BORMA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the new conceptual framework of the Cohesion Policy for 2014-2020. Thus, the paper presents a change of perspective in the Cohesion Policy regarding territorial development and a new vision on integrated development. This new vision presents explanations about the new family of concepts (Structural and Investment Funds, Europe 2020 Strategy, Common Strategic Framework, Partnership Agreement, etc. used in 2014-2020. The changes made by the European Commission at Cohesion Policy level for 2014-2020 programming period, open new opportunities for the development of integrated operations leading to strengthening economic, social and territorial cohesion of the entire union. The herein used research method consists in bibliographic research performed based on information found in the literature and on the official websites of the European Union.

  18. Fiscal policy in the European Union – present and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ramona Mara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main trends of fiscal policy in the European Union, following the economic crisis impact and fiscal policy measures that were applied in this economic context. The study is focused in a few key areas: the evolution of fiscal policy captured by indicators measuring tax burden, public sector size analysis by quantifying public expenditure share in GDP and the evolution of budget deficits. Finally, the study watched correlations between fiscal policy and macroeconomic developments, identifying trends and anticipating possible solutions of fiscal policy to achieve the required coordinates of fiscal governance in the European Union. For realizing this study we use annual data from Eurostat Database for 2000-2010 for EU countries. The major findings of the study are the negative impact of the size of public sector on economic growth for EU and also for Romania and the increase of the tax revenue if the economic growth rates increase.

  19. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  20. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  1. Poland, variable geometry and the enlarged European Union.

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the role of Poland in the European Union, where the traditional Franco-German leadership axis has been replaced by a new ‘variable geometry’ of leadership constellations across a variety of policy areas. In this setting Poland has the potential to move from maintaining an initially passive role as a policy-taker towards becoming an agenda-setter alongside other larger and more traditionally dominant member states, especially Germany. However, Poland's success in this mat...

  2. Social and Cultural Effects of Romanian Migration in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Raluca CRISTIAN; PÃDURE³U Elena; SORLESCU Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Migration is a complex process and phenomenon with a multi-dimensional and multi-motivational feature, which generated and continues to generate a series of challenges, costs and social benefits that need to be managed by each country facing this issue, according to the national and local social scale in the current context of globalization. European Union had been focusing mainly on a philosophy of no visas for work and travel for citizens thus dealing with different specific situations abou...

  3. Tax competitiveness of the European Union member countries

    OpenAIRE

    Konderlová, Beata

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the tax systems and tax competitiveness of the European Union countries. Aim is to analyze the influence of competitiveness on the growth of tax revenues for selected taxes. The analysis is applied to a personal income tax, corporate income tax and value added tax. The method of constant tax shares divides the total tax revenues growth in the monitored period between two effects -- the influence of competitiveness and the influence of growth in total tax revenues. The t...

  4. Economic case for gender equality in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elomäki, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Scholarship on gender and the European Union (EU) has consistently pointed out that EU gender equality policies have always been embedded in the logic of the market and that the economic framing has had negative impacts on the content and concepts of these policies. This article provides novel insights into this discussion by combining a discursive approach focused on framings with insights of feminist economists and examining how the relationship between gender equality and the economy has b...

  5. Internet Purchases in European Union Countries: Multiple Linear Regression Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ksenija Dumičić; Anita Čeh Časni; Irena Palić

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines economic and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development influence on recently increasing Internet purchases by individuals for European Union member states. After a growing trend for Internet purchases in EU27 was noticed, all possible regression analysis was applied using nine independent variables in 2011. Finally, two linear regression models were studied in detail. Conducted simple linear regression analysis confirmed the research hypothesis that the In...

  6. The Political Economy of Online Gambling in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Myllymaa, Antti

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the tripartite question concerning the relationship between a globalizing capitalist market economy, a territorial states system and a supranational European Union. Specifically, this study explains how different societal actors approach the question of the vertical division of competences between the supranational EU institutions and the Member States while juxtaposing this in the pursuit of desired models of socio-economic regulation. Whereas previous studies hav...

  7. European Union Financing of the Climate Change Mitigation Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Calanter

    2014-01-01

    The following paper aims at analyzing the financing by the European Union of the climate change limitation and mitigation activities. The general objectives of the activities directed towards reducing and combating climate change, analyzed on the two directions of action, namely the mitigation of the phenomenon, and the adaptation to climate change, are exposed. The financing action by the EU in order to combat climate change at the international level, both the fast start financing, and medi...

  8. Possible Outcomes of Brexit for European Union Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some implications of the Brexit referendum for institutional and political development of the European Union and for relations between the EU and the UK. The most obvious consequence of the referendum is the collapse of ideology of continuous and progressing development of integration. Instead of endless, irreversible, a priori beneficial for everyone integration process, the European Union has become an organization that does not have a Messianic goal and obliged to prove its usefulness in everyday life. EU systemic crisis will inevitably lead to a profound transformation of its institutional and political structure. After the British referendum, only two options are possible. First of all, partial deconstruction of the European Union. The idea that European integration has gone too far lies in the basis of this strategy. According to this logic, the single market is the main EU achievement. Return to the basics - this is a pragmatic approach to integration, which should replace attempts to fix rotten projects (like Euro or to achieve the unattainable (political Union. This option is hardly probable. Second option is transformation of the EU into the "core and periphery" system having the basis flexible integration. Over the past 20 years, flexibility transformed from temporary phenomenon into a permanent and formalized mechanism; its elements exist in many EU politics. Brexit would be able to accelerate significantly the formation of a cohesive core within the Eu. The core will not be homogeneous; it will include as governing structures: the German-French axis and a group of EU founding countries.

  9. Nuclear power. A key contributor to a decarbonised European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-12-15

    The European energy sector is currently facing a new set of challenges in the light of the COP21 Paris agreement, the Energy Union initiative and new market design projections. Nuclear energy sector understands the post COP21 constellation as a unique opportunity for all low carbon technologies which will be basic for transition towards COP21 commitments. A new policy outlook for Europe is needed in order to provide low carbon capacity, lead to the modernisation of technical processes and contribute to the prosperity of Europeans. The benefits of nuclear are highlighted for a low carbon future and for the security of supply and recommend actions for supporting new investments.

  10. Trailing the unpredictable pathways of European Union lifelong learning policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000 the concept of Europeanization has gained importance as a way of conceptualizing the changes in education and training policy in the European Union. Not least the introduction of the Open Method of Coordination in education and training has launched important policy processes through...... actors from different sites to make a ‘European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality’ (EU Commission, 2001). The changes challenge policy research and its traditional analytical units of the nation-state and the EU as a supranational organization. As stated in the introduction of the book, decision...... actors within the new structures of a European education space. The aim of this chapter is to offer a tentative proposal on how to study the unpredictable pathways of EU LLL policy. The methodology of policy trailing and the use of the mixed methods of discourse analysis and narrative inquiry...

  11. The Relations Between Romania and European Union (1993-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IVAN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of the communism regimes in central and eastern Europe, the states from this area, among which Romania, expressed their aspiration to integrate in the big European family represented by the European Union. In this respect the European Union proposed “association agreements” to these countries, agreements to which Romania adhered in February 1993 (in 1995 Romania presented its request for admission in the EU. Further on, in 1997 Romania launched “The national program for the adoption of the acquis comunautaire”. An important moment for Romania has arrived at Helsinki during the meeting of the European Council (10-11 December 1999, which decided to organize bilateral intergovernmental conferences for all the 13 candidate states in order to begin the accession negotiations, which were opened by Romania on the 16th of February 2000. The Helsinki decision regarding the beginning of the admission negotiations with Romania was a political one; Romania having acute economical, juridical and administrative problems. In the European Commission 2003 country report regarding Romania, there are positive appreciations with regard to the fulfillment of the political criteria and for the progress made in the adoption of the acquis comunautaire as well as for the economical progress but Romania still did not receive the statute of functional market economy. On the other hand the malfunctions still persist in the domains of public administration, agriculture, justice and the fight against corruption.

  12. European Union regional policy in Asia-Europe’s meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1996 the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM was created with the purpose of constituting a mechanism of nonexistent interregional dialogue until that moment and that united the both extremes of the eurasian territorial mass: East Asia (represented by group ANSEA 3 and Europe (represented by the European Union. The expectations erected at the moment of ASEM's creation were many, but with the years it has demonstrated a set of limits that has diminished its effectiveness, at least in the area of the political dialogue. In this paper is described the particular experience of the diplomacy of the European Union in the mechanism of the ASEM, the kind of interregional policy that this one has implemented and the contradictions that it has had to tolerate with respect to his own legal and institutional exigencies. In the paper it is argued that, despite its limits, the ASEM can be a referential case on the reaction of the European Union forehead to the transformation that in historical terms means the political and economic emergency of Asia in the international system.

  13. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM.

  14. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN FOOTBALL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Strezhneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The European football is in need of proper governance. This fact has been acknowledged in a number of EU documents, as well as by some of its member-states, Britain and France in particular. Weak governance undermines the fi nancial stability of football clubs and the ability of sport to fullfi l its key social functions. Besides other things, it open channels of external interference in the functioning of FIFA and UEFA as selfregulating bodies of football governance. The present article is devoted to the exploration of governance modes transformation in European and international football, infl uences by the European integration process. Global governance is employed here as an analytical approach. It allows to specify the role of the EU in development and maintenance of rules and norms, which limit the freedom of state and nonstate actors, involved in the sphere of football. The 2007 Lisbon Treaty endowed the EU with direct competence in the field of sport. But today it will still be a mistake to conclude that the European institutions are directly responsible for the formation of new structures of football governance. Nevertheless, their activity does have an impact on the lives of those who are involved in it. Unsatisfi ed stakeholders (football clubs, players and fans turn to the EU for support when seeking alternative ways for settlement of disputes, when they do not find resolution in the internal structures of football governance. Vertical pathways, established in the traditional pyramid of the European football governance are subsequently undermined. Thus, the EU influence makes it easier to turn to structures of network governance.

  15. Company Tax Integration in the European Union During Economic Crisis – Why and How?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sting (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Company tax integration in the EU is yet to be realised. This article first outlines the main benefits of company tax integration for the Economic and Monetary Union, and also discusses the main legal obstacles the EU Treaties pose for harmonisation of company tax.

  16. Health law and policy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Hervey, Tamara K; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-03-30

    From its origins as six western European countries coming together to reduce trade barriers, the European Union (EU) has expanded, both geographically and in the scope of its actions, to become an important supranational body whose policies affect almost all aspects of the lives of its citizens. This influence extends to health and health services. The EU's formal responsibilities in health and health services are limited in scope, but, it has substantial indirect influence on them. In this paper, we describe the institutions of the EU, its legislative process, and the nature of European law as it affects free movement of the goods, people, and services that affect health or are necessary to deliver health care. We show how the influence of the EU goes far beyond the activities that are most visible to health professionals, such as research funding and public health programmes, and involves an extensive body of legislation that affects almost every aspect of health and health care.

  17. THE FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Menon

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.

  18. The Future of the European Union: A Critical Trade Union View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Medhurst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a radical critique of the current framework of economic policy within the European Union and its negative effect on social cohesion. It defends the aspirations of the “Social Europe” model but suggests this model is now withering on the vine, not least because employers and governments no longer support it and have withdrawn from genuine social partnership. The paper asserts that the undemocratic nature of European policy making institutions is a fundamental bloc to progressive reform of the EU, and criticises the economic philosophy inherent in the Lisbon Agenda and recent controversial European Court of Justice decisions that have expanded that agenda. Lastly, it sketches some alternatives to this direction of travel, drawn from successful models within and outside Europe.

  19. The Internal-External nexus in the security narrative of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Brandão

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of EU security actorness has been accompanied by a narrative on security nexuses (internal-external, security-development, civilian-military, public-private associated with the so-called 'comprehensive approach'. The end of the Cold War enabled the explicitness of EU security actorness. The post 9/11 facilitated the reinforcement of previous trends (transnational threats, externalisation of ‘internal security’, interpillarisation and the introduction of innovative tendencies (comprehensive approach, internalization of the Common Security and Defence Policy, interconnection of security nexuses. This paper focuses on the internal-external security nexus declared by the EU in the post-Cold War, and reflects about the rationale and effects of the European narrative and practices on the configuration of a post-Westphalian security actor. Based on the analysis of three expressions of the nexus, it is argued that the latter reflects a securitising move of the European actor explained by the convergence of opportunity (redefinition of security, prioritization of transnational threats in a globalized world, soft power enhancement in the post-Cold War, capacity (legal, organic and operational in the field of security, after the entry into force of the Treaty on European Union, and (ambition to have a presence. The holistic approach underlying the logic of the nexuses is the result of a co-constitutive adequacy: appropriation of policies and instruments of a multifunctional actor for security purposes (security of the EU and of European citizens; securitization of issues in order to promote the policies and the actor.

  20. National responsibility in an enlarged European Union?; Nationellt ansvar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i en utvidgad Europeisk Union?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Per; Stendahl, Sara; Erhag, Thomas [Dept. of Law, School of Business, Economics and Law, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    -proliferation aspects. The political decision to take part in such international cooperation lies however without any doubt within the national competence. In the European Union the question about responsibility for spent nuclear fuel is not directly regulated. Common legislation initiatives from the commission concerning methods for disposal and storage of spent nuclear fuel has been blocked by member states. The EURATOM-treaty and the EU treaty have a potential reach to national regulation about handling of nuclear wastes and spent nuclear fuel. It should also be noted that there is no binding community legislation where the principle of national responsibility comes to expressions, although the the national legislation competence in the area is expressed in miscellaneous political documents. There exists a hypothetical possibility that the question about the member states' right to maintain a principle of national responsibility can be examined of the EU Court of Justice.

  1. The Black Box of the Nice Treaty Negotiations: The influence of the Dutch cabinet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Luitwieler (Sander)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study applies a relational influence approach to analyse the European Union (EU) Nice Treaty negotiation process (2000) and explain its outcome, focusing on the influence of the Dutch cabinet in the context of the other participating actors (14 member states, the European

  2. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. ...

  3. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  4. The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Rok; Pejič, Nina; Grilj, Blaž

    2017-01-01

    This article appraises effectiveness in operational conflict prevention. By focusing on the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) in Kosovo, it assesses the most extensive civilian Common Security and Defence Policy mission so far. Contrary to prevailing assessments, it posits that EULEX...... different types and levels of effectiveness, considering both means applied and ends achieved. In so doing, the article contributes to the general literature on operational conflict prevention and on the specific case of Kosovo. The empirical analysis is based on fieldwork and semi-structured interviews...... with EU personnel, governmental and non-governmental actors in Kosovo, and independent observers....

  5. European Union Import Demand for In-Shell Peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    Boonsaeng, Tullaya; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Carpio, Carlos E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the European Union (EU) import demand for in-shell peanuts from three sources: the United States, China, and the rest of the world. We find that peanuts from different sources are differentiated by EU consumers. The expenditure elasticity is elastic for U.S. in-shell peanuts, which is associated with their higher quality. The conditional own price elasticities are more elastic for U.S. and Chinese in-shell peanuts. These findings have at least two implications. First, U.S....

  6. Management of migration flows in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Larisa Drugă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International migration can contribute to the economic growth of the European Union (EU as a whole, as well as provide resources for migrants and their home countries, and thus contribute to their development. It can be an opportunity, because it is a factor of human and economic exchange and enables people to achieve what they aspire to. However, there is a need to manage migration in a manner that takes account of Europe's reception capacity in terms of its labour market, housing and health, education and social services, while protecting migrants against possible exploitation by criminal networks.

  7. The dilemmas of tax coordination in the enlarged European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Jens; Jensen, Jesper; Svensson, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic effects of corporate tax coordination in the enlarged European Union (EU) using a computable general equilibrium model. Our main findings are as follows: (i) Corporate tax coordination can yield modest aggregate welfare gains. The 2004 enlargement of the EU has...... increased the potential gains from tax harmonization, provided corporate tax rates and tax bases are harmonized at their unweighted averages. (ii) All scenarios for coordination leave some EU Member States as winners and others as losers. An agreement on tax coordination is therefore likely to require...

  8. The World Trade Organization and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Ladefoged

    2008-01-01

    Analysing the way in which the EU engages in some of the most important international organizations, this book outlines a framework for analysis within this thriving subject of study. By demonstrating how the EU supports ‘effective multilateralism' and global governance, as well as furthering...... developments within foreign policy, this volume adopts a novel perspective on the EU as an international player. Seeking to move the focus of study beyond the European Union as itself an international organization, contributors set out to demonstrate EU aspirations to act within international organizations....

  9. The impact of European Union law on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, John

    The previous articles on the European Union and health law have looked at the effect of EU law on the practitioner and on the patient. This article considers the impact on public health. This is a broad concept, and the impact of EU law is equally broadly felt. There is a general recognition of the importance of health issues, reflected in Article 152 (1) EC, A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Community policies and activities. This article focuses particularly on the impact of Article 152 on public health within individual member states.

  10. INDIRECT TAXATION TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS CRISTIAN MILOŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to outline the recent dynamics of the indirect taxation in the European Union member states, with a special focus on the Romanian case. We could notice that indirect taxation continues to play an important role for all the member states, in their attempt to recover from the global economic crisis. Morover, we have presented some of the recent changes in the legislative frameworks, which happened with a rather rapid pace, and contributed to a rather challenging business climate.

  11. Scientists Debate Geoengineering at European Geosciences Union Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and others have presented forecasts of a warmer world and cautioned that some forms of geoengineering might be necessary to deal with climate change in an emergency situation. A debate about geoengineering the climate, held at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly on 1 May, explored whether any geoengineering techniques should be considered; if so, which might be acceptable; and what circumstances could necessitate their use. Also discussed was whether potential unintended repercussions from geoengineering could be worse than the problem.

  12. The solidarity economy: a possible revival of the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GOUJON

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is in crisis. Economic crisis, but also political crisis and symbolic crisis: the citizens distrust Europe which does not have clear project anymore Our hypothesis is that the solidarity economy can contribute to the emergence of a new European, clear and mobilizing project. A project offering new socioeconomic perspectives to the European citizens and an attractive utopia. This text will take place in four phases. In a first part, we shall describe the exhaustion of paradigm liberal and the limits of paradigm keynesian. Secondly, we shall try hard to demonstrate the theoretical possibility of establishing new one paradigm. In the third time, we shall illustrate this possibility by revisiting, in the light of the European solidarity initiatives, three economic notions keys. Finally, in a last time, we shall try hard to show in what the solidarity economy , which makes some deliberation between equals the best means assign all resources, can contribute to bringout the European construction of the current impasse.

  13. French perspectives in the emerging European Union energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meritet, Sophie [CGEMP, Paris Dauphine University (France)

    2007-10-15

    The debate over a common European energy policy, its necessity and its establishment has been going on for a number of decades. The discussions have been recently brought back into the spotlight by the evolution of energy market fundamentals and the taking into account of environmental protection. In spite of the energy diversity of the European Union (EU), a common vision has always been shared by all over energy development for the future. The achievements of the internal market, the fight against climate change and supply security are the common energy battles that call for a solution in common. This policy remains the responsibility of the States, but decisions vary from one country to the next. To move from a shared vision to a European energy policy, large steps are necessary. The European construction is making evolve the 'typically French vision' of energy policy. France was often characterized as the 'black sheep' in the EU. In the political context of president elections, the energy debate in French is of a high interest. This paper discusses the main issues with the French energy policy in the emerging European energy policy. (author)

  14. VISIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION DIRECTIVE ON DEPOSIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae TAU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to illustrate the role of directives of the European Union in organizing the activity of banking deposit guarantee. Given the fact that, at present, financial crises are becoming more frequent, and the consequences affect the confidence of depositors in the banking system, it is necessary to undertake measures for the creation and improvement of institutions for guaranteeing bank deposits. At the European level, are drawn up directives relating to the imposition of banking deposit guarantee schemes and the member countries, during a given period of time, shall be obliged to transpose the requirements of this directive in the national law. The goal of research is to identify elements of deposit-guarantee schemes recommended by European directives, appreciation of amendments made to Directive 2014/49/EU. The methodology of research. The article was elaborated în base of European directives given in bibliographic references. In order to obtain research results the author was use the analytical method and comparison method, the last having a higher share. The research results. The study allowed the appreciation of the importance of European directives in elaborating the deposit guarantee schemes.

  15. The European Union approach to fuel cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, William K. D.

    The European Union (EU) approach to fuel cell development should be viewed within the wider context of energy and environment policy. The energy policy is built on four main pillars — ensuring security of supply including the long term substitution of fossil fuels, improving competitiveness, achieving greater sustainability, and developing clean, efficient energy technologies. The prospect of fuel cells, as well as other technologies, to contribute positively to all these aspects of energy policy is widely recognised. Fuel cells can exploit diversified primary energy sources including renewable, and offer intrinsically clean, highly efficient energy conversion. Over successive Framework Programmes for Research, the European Commission has increased its financial support to fuel cell RTD&D. The recently launched Fifth Framework Programme introduces a problem-solving approach in which fuel cells will have to compete for funding support by demonstrating their ability to achieve ambitious cost and performance targets.

  16. Legislative Co-decision in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume takes stock of twenty years of practising and studying codecision in the European Union (EU) and examines the procedure’s long-term implications for the EU’s institutions, politics and policies. The introduction of co-legislation between the Council of Ministers and the European...... Parliament in 1993 raised the prospect of increased parliamentary involvement in EU decision-making and promised a new era of more transparent, inclusive and accountable policy-making. This collection draws together contributions from diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives in order to analyse...... the extent to which codecision has delivered the expected gains and to review the unexpected effects that have followed from its introduction, such as the growing informalisation of EU decision-making. Using a combination of in-depth qualitative case studies, wider quantitative analyses, practitioners...

  17. HARMONISATION AND FISCAL COMPETITION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danut, CHILAREZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite all efforts to harmonize the economic and political systems, the economic globalization and the intensification of capital mobility also created the conditions of a fiscal competition between the EU member states. Currently, in the European Union there is not a fully integrated European tax system, which has an impact on how the same decision of fiscal policy is transmitted at the level of each member state. The present paper summarizes some pros/cons regarding the orientation of the fiscal harmonisation efforts in a manner allowing governments to use the fiscal policy as an instrument of public policy in their efforts to cope with the asymmetric macroeconomic shocks and the adjustment of the macroeconomic indicators.

  18. The Rise of Right-Wing Extremism in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevkovski Ljupcho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that in the European Union there is a strengthening of right-wing extremism, radical right movement, populism and nationalism. The consequences of the economic crisis, such as a decline in living standards, losing of jobs, rising unemployment especially among young people, undoubtedly goes in favor of strengthening the right-wing extremism. In the research, forms of manifestation will be covered of this dangerous phenomenon and response of the institutions. Western Balkan countries, as a result of right-wing extremism, are especially sensitive region on possible consequences that might occur, since there are several unresolved political problems, which can very easily turn into a new cycle of conflicts, if European integration processes get delayed indefinitely.

  19. Old 'foundations' and new 'rules' - For an enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C. Schmitter

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel arrangement for the distribution of votes and the rules of decision-making in an enlarged European Union (EU. We make two assumptions: (1 that the EU is condemned to enlarge its membership in the near future; and (2 if it does this without changing the existing rules for voting in the Council of Ministers and distributing seats in the European Parliament, such an expanded EU would suffer severe distortions and disequilibria. However, if it were to adopt a new, simplified system that would combine arrangements for proportional proportionality in representation and concurrent majorities in decision-making, this impending dilemma could be avoided. Moreover, if these reforms were introduced sooner rather than later, they would be easier to agree upon, their impact would be phased in gradually, and their legitimacy could be stabilized in the face of far greater challenges in the future.

  20. Has the European union achieved a single pharmaceutical market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Aysegul; Picone, Gabriel; DeSimone, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores price differences in the European Union (EU) pharmaceutical market, the EU's fifth largest industry. With the aim of enhancing quality of life along with industry competitiveness and R&D capability, many EU directives have been adopted to achieve a single EU-wide pharmaceutical market. Using annual 1994-2003 data on prices of molecules that treat cardiovascular disease, we examine whether drug price dispersion has indeed decreased across five EU countries. Hedonic regressions show that over time, cross-country price differences between Germany and three of the four other EU sample countries, France, Italy and Spain, have declined, with relative prices in all three as well as the fourth country, UK, rising during the period. We interpret this as evidence that the EU has come closer to achieving a single pharmaceutical market in response to increasing European Commission coordination efforts.

  1. Unsustainable Public Debt in a European Fiscal Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kutasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Some EU members faced years of crisis in the first half of the 2010s with an excessive initial public debt, but several others had broad room for fiscal timulus. However, the prolonged duration of the European economic depression expended public budgets, while exhausting stimulus policies and sovereign solvency. Meanwhile, one of the ways out of depression is a proposed centralization of the EU through fiscal union. Are the eurozone countries readyto participate in a risk pool in public finances? The study seeks to answer this question. The article presents the hypothesis that the sustainability of public finances deteriorated during the global and euro crisis in the majority of the eurozone member countries and in the EU, and this phenomenon is discouragingthe core countries from seeking the fiscal union. The analysis uses the Blanchard indicators of fiscal sustainability and the sovereign risk rating of the EURO-18 and EU-28 countries. The analysis presents as results a theoretical summary of fiscal sustainability, the development of fiscal sustainability in the EU member states, indicators of convergence or divergence of fiscal sustainability in the Community, and conclusions based on the indicators of the likelihood of a fiscal union.

  2. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  3. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  4. Turkey’s Road to European Union Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mărgărit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of Turkey to become member of the European Union has raised numerousdebates and concerns. Even the founding principle of unity in diversity seems to be challenged by thepossibility of Turkish accession as this country possesses several features that are different from therest of EU member states. Opinions related to Turkey EU membership are often divergent, each siderelying on their own arguments. Proponents argue that Turkey is a regional power with a largeeconomy and a strong military force that will enhance EU's position as a global geostrategic player.On the other hand, opponents emphasize the demographic projections which indicate that, in aroundten years, Turkey will become EU’s most populous state. They also draw attention upon Turkey’sdifferent cultural and religious background. Objectives: This paper is focused on revealing keyaspectsof EU-Turkey relations in the context of accession negotiations. Furthermore, the paperpresents the image of Turkey as a candidate country, emphasizing the opinion of officials but also theview of citizens, both from the European Union and Turkey. Approach: The paper is based onreviewing and analysis of existing research on the topic, including web-based documentation,statistics, press reports, EU reports.

  5. An alternative energy scenario for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M. [Sustainable Environment Consultants Ltd. (SENCO), Colchester (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The proposed National Emissions Ceiling directive to control acidification and ozone will mean EU emissions of carbon dioxide will rise by 9%, contradictory to Kyoto commitments. Alternative energy strategies including demand management, energy efficiency and low carbon fuels are explored in this report. In addition to abating greenhouse gas emissions, these strategies can facilitate cheaper and greater abatement of other atmospheric pollutants as compared to 'official' scenarios. The given objective was to produce scenarios in which the total emission of carbon dioxide from the fifteen countries of the European Union is reduced by 15% over the period 1990 to 2010. To this end scenarios, called Carbon 15, have been produced for each of the fifteen EU countries taking into account recent historical data and assumed economic and population growth. It is concluded that the Carbon 15 scenarios are technically feasible. The level of demand management is such that, even though natural gas increases its market share, the total European Union consumption of natural gas does not increase very much. It is argued that the Carbon 15 scenarios are economically feasible in that the end use measures are cost effective as against conventional energy supply, and there is no requirement for a large expansion of the supply of any conventional primary fuel. 20 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING AND THE ORIGINS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Brailean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many papal encyclicals were not directly concerned about the appearance of European Union due to many historical, political and social contexts. The fundamental principles developed through several encyclicals from early 19th century to the present day reaffirmed the neutrality of the Church regarding to many forms of government. But the most important idea has its root in the restoration of the Christian principles in society. In a time of de-Christianization and secularism, the role of Church as the foundation of peace is also important to notice. It was considered that every modern democracy is the image of the revealed heart of the universal law of charity (Jacques Maritain. That is why between a supranational entity like the European Union and the Catholic Church should be a friendly and close relationship. A unite Europe has its roots in Christianity, especially in Catholicism. The soul of Europe is animated by religious principles. Whether we talk about Schuman or Adenauer, their Christian faith is the engine for their political success. After the Second World War, in Western Europe, the Christian democratic parties had a huge impact for the democratic governance. The socio-economic policies of these parties were anchored in Catholic social teaching.

  7. Investment Liberalization Treaty and Direct Taxation: Focusing on the European Court of Justice's ruling in the Cadbury Schweppes case (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    SUAMI Takao

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral or multilateral trade and investment agreements have strengthened the ties among national economies all over the world. Against this backdrop, direct taxation of each country may influence or distort cross-border investment flows between or among the countries participating in such agreements. The European Union succeeded in establishing its Internal Market and has already achieved a very high level of economic integration among its Member States. In the process of leading to such i...

  8. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  9. Education in surveying branch under new conditions of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Sedlák

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The state, development and especially the labour market data of surveying branch profession in a continue moving conditions of the European Union (EU and all the world are presented in the paper. According to the rule of CLGE (Comité de Liaison des Géomètres Européens – The Council of European Geodetic Surveyors and FIG (Fédération Internationale des Géomètres – International Federation of Surveyors, which present the highest European and world-surveying forum, the professions mainly in a field of surveying (land surveying, mine surveying, cartography, geographical information systems and real estate register are included into the surveying (geodetic branch. The labour market statistical data of the surveying branch profession and the education and other economic activities of the surveying sector in the particular membership countries of EU and the countries connected to EU since 1972 until 2000 are listed in the paper. Almost 25 million Euros were invested into the project of EU under the name: Gross National (European Product (GNP for a purpose to support and to make effective of the surveying sector in EU. This surveying sector has a downward trend in some economically most powerful countries of EU in last years.

  10. The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The promotion of renewable energy has an important role to play in addressing the growing dependence on energy imports in Europe and in tackling climate change. Since 1997, the Union has been working towards the ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In 1997, the share of renewable energy was 5.4%; by 2001 it had reached 6%. This Staff Working Document gives an overview of the different situations of renewable energy sources in the European Union. It includes part of the formal report that the Commission is required to make under Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC on electricity from renewable energy sources, and it completes the overall picture with information at a country level on the heat produced from renewable energies and biofuels in the transport sector. This Staff Working Document complements the Communication on 'The share of Renewable Energy sources in the EU'. Data is based on different sources. Firstly, on the reports from Member States on national progress in achieving the targets on electricity from renewable energy sources. Secondly, on a study launched by the Commission on the evolution of renewable energy sources. And thirdly, on a variety of sources like the European Barometer of renewable energies, data from the industry, etc. With the enlargement of the European Union, the new Member States are required to adopt the RES-E Directive (renewable energy sources for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the

  11. Continuation or Reorientation - What Future for European Integration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amtenbrink (Fabian)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOn the 25th of March the European Union celebrates the 50th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome by which the European Economic Community was established; the Netherlands being one of the founding members. Until this very day, albeit in revised form, this Treaty still constitutes the

  12. Economic and labor rights in the European Union after Lisbon: an institutional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Margaritis

    2013-01-01

    Economic and labor rights belong to the core of business action, since they constitute the institutional framework for actors involved in business, employers and workers. Since the European integration is progressing, we may speak of a European environment for business, a common market in European legal terms, which became the main aim for the Communities since 1957. At the end of 2009, with the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty amendments, important changes were brought in the fundamental rig...

  13. The European Banking Union: Will It Be a True Union without Risk Sharing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments of the Euro crisis reveal the lack of clear or coherent thinking on the part of both the Eurozone finance ministers and the European Commission. The crisis in Cyprus is partly the consequence of decisions made on private sector involvement in the previous Greek bailout, and other such examples may be made. It is time, therefore, to look reality in the face and strengthen the structures of the EMU. The article is devoted to what has been done and what must still be done to make the European banking system more robust and less permeable to crises, and to preserve the single financial market. It looks at the initiatives of both the European Commission and the European Council to complete the EMU by creating a banking union, the doubts on the wisdom of entrusting banking oversight to the ECB, the organization of the ECB’s new tasks, the continuing absence of facilities for the recovery or liquidation of banks, as well as for a Euro-wide deposit insurance, the need for some form of risk-sharing in order to stabilise the economy, and thus the recourse to a common budget and the possibility of joint debt for the Eurozone.

  14. Challenges in diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the European Union, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovic, I; Jonsson, J; Korzeniewska-Koseła, M; Chiotan, D I; Pace-Asciak, A; Slump, E; Rumetshofer, R; Abubakar, I; Kos, S; Svetina-Sorli, P; Haas, W; Bauer, T; Sandgren, A; van der Werf, M J

    2013-03-21

    In the European Union (EU) 72,334 tuberculosis (TB) cases were notified in 2011, of which 16,116 (22%) had extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). The percentage of TB cases with EPTB ranged from 4% to 48% in the reporting countries. This difference might be explained by differences in risk factors for EPTB or challenges in diagnosis. To assess the practices in diagnosis of EPTB we asked European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries to participate in a report describing the diagnostic procedures and challenges in diagnosing EPTB. Eleven EU Member States participated and reports showed that in the majority EPTB is diagnosed by a pulmonologist, sometimes in collaboration with the doctor who is specialised in the organ where the symptoms presented. In most countries a medical history and examination is followed by invasive procedures, puncture or biopsy, to collect material for confirmation of the disease (by culture/histology/cytology). Some countries also use the tuberculin skin test or an interferon-gamma-release-assay. A wide variety of radiological tests may be used. Countries that reported challenges in the diagnosis of EPTB reported that EPTB is often not considered because it is a rare disease and most medical professionals will not have experience in diagnosing EPTB. The fact that EPTB can present with a variety of symptoms that may mimic symptoms of other pathologies does pose a further challenge in diagnosis. In addition, obtaining an appropriate sample for confirmation of EPTB was frequently mentioned as a challenge. In summary, diagnosis of EPTB poses challenges due to the diversity of symptoms with which EPTB may present, the low level of suspicion of clinicians, and due to the difficulty in obtaining an adequate sample for confirmation.

  15. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law......On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary – the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... requires legal institutions, which support the purposes and policies underlying the substantive law in question, and that legal institutions affect the law. The first observation leads to a discussion of the requirements which a common judiciary in the European patent system should satisfy and different...

  16. Tuberculosis treatment outcome monitoring in European Union countries: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, Rob; Ködmön, Csaba; Verver, Suzanne; Erkens, Connie G.M.; Straetemans, Masja; Manissero, Davide; de Vries, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Treatment success measured by treatment outcome monitoring (TOM) is a key programmatic output of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We performed a systematic literature review on national-level TOM in the 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Areas (EEA) countries to summarise methods used to collect and report data on TOM. Online reference bibliographic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant indexed and non-indexed literature published between January 2000 and August 2010. The search strategy resulted in 615 potentially relevant indexed citations, of which 27 full-text national studies (79 data sets) were included for final analysis. The selected studies were performed in 10 EU/EEA countries and gave a fragmented impression of TOM in the EU/EEA. Publication year, study period, sample size, databases, definitions, variables, patient and outcome categories, and population subgroups varied widely, portraying a very heterogeneous picture. This review confirmed previous reports of considerable heterogeneity in publications of TOM results across EU/EEA countries. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE indexed studies are not a suitable instrument to measure representative TOM results for the 30 EU/EEA countries. Uniform and complete reporting to the centralised European Surveillance System will produce the most timely and reliable results of TB treatment outcomes in the EU/EEA. PMID:22790913

  17. The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viguier, L.L. [MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States); University of Geneva (Switzerland). Logilab-HEC; Babiker, M.H.; Reilly, J.M. [MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2003-04-01

    We estimate reference CO{sub 2} emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO{sub 2} emissions target, applying a country-wide cap and trade system to meet the target but without trade among countries. We use a version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, here disaggregated to separately include nine European Community countries and commercial and household transportation sectors. We compare our results with that of four energy-economic models that have provided detailed analyses of European climate change policy. In the absence of specific additional climate policy measures, the EPPA reference projections of carbon emissions increase by 14% from 1990 levels. The EU-wide target under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change is a reduction in emissions to 8% below 1990 levels. EPPA emissions projections are similar to other recent modeling results, but there are underlying differences in energy and carbon intensifies among the projections. If EU countries were to individually meet the EU allocation of the Community-wide carbon cap specified in the Kyoto Protocol, we find using EPPA that carbon prices vary from 91 US dollars in the United Kingdom to 385 US dollars in Denmark; welfare costs range from 0.6% to 5%. (author)

  18. Who Is Anti-American in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Lawson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The term anti-Americanism has become common in public and academic debate in the last decade. Yet we have only limited knowledge of those who hold such views. From 2003, 2005, and 2006 Eurobarometer data, almost 20% of European Union (EU respondents disapproved of U.S. policy in all five dimensions the surveys examined. Following the literature, this consistent opposition is defined as anti-American. Anti-Americans exhibit systematic differences in age, education, geographical location, policy preferences, and nationality. In addition, although anti-Americanism is associated with a preference for greater European independence, perhaps surprisingly, it is also linked to a desire for a less federal and hence less powerful Europe. In both sets of attitudes, to the United States and to the EU, there are substantial variations within countries between different types of locality, which reinforces the view that it is too simplistic to describe a country as being anti-American or being pro-European integration.

  19. La ciudadanía de la Unión Europea: novedades desde Lisboa y Luxemburgo The citizenship of the European Union: news from Lisbon and Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José Garot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El Tratado de Lisboa, Siguiendo la fallida Constitución Europea, ha introducido un nuevo título II en el Tratado de la Unión Europea, llamado "disposiciones sobre los principios democráticos" que parece completar las ya existentes disposiciones sobre la ciudadanía europea. Una nueva concepción del ciudadano europeo se empieza a dibujar, distinta de la hasta ahora conocida. Además, la recién Jurisprudencia del Tribunal de Justicia de la Unión Europea ha reforzado a su vez la ciudadanía europea que aparece cada día más como el "estatuto de los nacionales de los Estados miembros", incluso en situaciones puramente internas.The Lisbon Treaty, In line with the failed European Constitution, introduced a new Title II in the Treaty on the European Union, called "Provisions on Democratic Principles", that seems to complement the already existing provisions on European citizenship. A new conception of the European citizen, distinct from the one already known, is being designed. Moreover, the recent case-law of the European Court of Justice has on its part reinforced the European citizenship that increasingly appears as the "Status of the Nationals of the Member States", even in purely internal situations.

  20. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization at 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) on the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty. Highlights milestones in the Organization's history of dealing with the Soviet Union, from containment to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Discusses needs, tasks, and challenges that NATO faces in the 1990s.…

  1. Endogeneity and Specialization in the European Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Henryk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a broad discussion about the viability of the European Monetary Union (EMU in its present and prospective confines. Generally, the EMU, consisting of 19 countries, is not considered an optimal currency area due to low labor market flexibility, autonomous fiscal policies, and structural differences among its members. Considerations about the endogeneity effect of currency unions lead to the question whether the EMU will become more viable over time. According to the endogenity hypothesis formulated by Frankel and Rose [1996, 2000], a common currency area may gradually become an optimal currency area at some future point (ex post unification, despite not having been an optimal currency area (OCA prior to (ex ante currency unification. Currency unification should bring about increased intra-industry trade and greater business cycle synchronization among member states. The most recent literature and analyses presented in this paper suggest that the endogenity effect in the EMU has been frail since its onset. While real convergence between EMU member states has not advanced, divergence in i.a. economic structures, national income and productivity levels is observed. The most important economic mechanisms reinforcing convergence and divergence among monetary union members are presented in this paper. Using recent data and related research results, we show a significant divergence in economic structures, business cycle synchronization and productivity levels among Eurozone members in the last decade. The Krugman sectorial dissimilarity index is applied to measure changes in industrial similarity among member countries and the Hodrick-Prescott filter to estimate business cycle synchronization in the EMU. These divergence tendencies have been strengthened by the global financial crisis of 2008 and persist, calling for reforms and new policies within the EMU.

  2. Learning architectures and negotiation of meaning in European trade unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Creanor

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As networked learning becomes familiar at all levels and in all sectors of education, cross-fertilisation of innovative methods can usefully inform the lifelong learning agenda. Development of the pedagogical architectures and social processes, which afford learning, is a major challenge for educators as they strive to address the varied needs of a wide range of learners. One area in which this challenge is taken very seriously is that of trade unions, where recent large-scale projects have aimed to address many of these issues at a European level. This paper describes one such project, which targeted not only online courses, but also the wider political potential of virtual communities of practice. By analysing findings in relation to Wenger's learning architecture, the paper investigates further the relationships between communities of practice and communities of learners in the trade union context. The findings suggest that a focus on these relationships rather than on the technologies that support them should inform future developments.

  3. Towards a better pesticide policy for the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Veronika; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    This opinion article aims to foster the debate about pesticide legislation in the European Union (EU). Numerous formerly authorized and widely used pesticides are now banned in the EU because unexpected and unacceptable risks emerged after their initial introduction to the market. Throughout this time lapse, environmental quality and human health have been threatened by the use of these compounds. These hazards could have been prevented by a more responsive pesticide regulatory framework. This article provides detailed insights into the pros and cons of pesticides, and points out weaknesses of the current pesticide environmental risk assessment procedures. Possibilities for improving the robustness and reliability of the pesticide regulatory framework are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE LIGHT OF COMPARATIVE POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kabat-Rudnicka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the academic literature the European Union (EU is analysed from different theoretical perspectives. Taking the perspective of international relations, the EU emerges as an international organization or a confederation; on the other hand, looking from the perspective of comparative politics, the EU presents itself as a more integrated entity, a federation, a quasi-state or a state in the making. The recent perspective, i.e. the governance school, sees the EU as an original structure, a sui generis entity, a new, emerging system of governance without government. However, at the present stage of development, the EU reveals features that are characteristic for the federal structure, i.e. the federal political system characterised by two leading models of dual and cooperative federalism, hence the comparative method seems to be the most appropriate as a research tool.

  5. THE ORGANIZATION OF JURISDICTION FROM A EUROPEAN UNION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA AGHENITEI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, universal jurisdiction is the favorite technique used to prevent impunity for international crimes and it is one of the most effective methods to deter and prevent international crimes by increasing the like hood of prosecution and punishment of its preparators. In regard to the defendant’s rights, the European Union states consider applicable all the rights that are necessary to assure that the trial is equitable and expeditious. There is no exception to the right to a fair trial. So, a defendant who is being prosecuted on the basis of the universality principle can rely on all the procedural rights provided for the Convention on Human Rights and the domestic code of criminal procedure without any restrictions. In Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, in a case concerning genocide committed abroad, declared expressly that no special criminal proceedings must be provided for specific crimes.

  6. PAPER AND PAPERBOARD INDUSTRY IN EUROPEAN UNION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Cemil Akyüz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkey should benefit from its own resources by realizing their value in the period that it turned its face to Europe. Therefore, the economical potential of the country should be analyzed thoroughly. Knowing its own strength and taking the necessary steps to this effect in order to take the fullest advantage of the strength are of vital importance for the countries in attaining the development level. Within the existing potential, the necessary importance and support should be given to small and medium enterprises that are forming the most effective part of the economic life and to the forest products industry which has a significant position among these enterprises. In this study, certain product groups belonging to paper and paperboard industry situated in forest products industry were discussed what situation they are in Turkey and European Union countries and competition position. In this context, hierarchical cluster analysis and discriminant analysis being of multidimensional statistical methods were used.

  7. Transparency in the Council of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    of the most powerful political forums in Europe, transparency in the Council has its limits. This study explores institutional factors which hinder Council press officers from being as transparent as journalists would like them to be. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with Council press officers......The Council of the European Union is often described as the least transparent of the three big EU institutions although steps have been taken to improve the transparency of its activities during the last couple of decades. This article focuses on the Council’s press officers who provide journalists...... with information and thereby act as day-to-day facilitators of transparency of the Council’s activities. Although these communicators see themselves as contributing substantially to the transparency of the Council’s work and thereby as enabling the media to provide EU citizens with information about one...

  8. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.

  9. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ROTH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through sustainable development the needs of the current generation are fulfilled without jeopardizing the opportunities of future generations. The concept takes into account economic, social and environmental considerations. It has a wide range of applications from natural resources to population growth and biodiversity. One of its most important themes is energy. In this area, sustainable development relates with resource availability and green house gases emissions. Also it takes into account the needs of people without access to energy, and their legitimate quest for development. For the European Union, sustainable development represents an overarching objective. The present article analyzes the concept from a theoretical perspective, contrasting its strong points and weaknesses. It highlights the relation between sustainable development, energetic resources and climate change. The EU policies results in the field of energy are analyzed from the perspective of resources, energetic dependency and climate change efforts.

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION PROCESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore, based on theoretical and empirical research in the field and on data available on Eurostat and European Commission, in the context of financial significant imbalances and thus of the financial stress in the EU countries and especially in the Euro area, the main developments in the fiscal consolidation process given the fiscal effort of each country towards fiscal union. Since the financial crisis started in 2008, many EU Member States demonstrates an obvious macroeconomic imbalance which requires increased responsibility regarding fiscal developments. The impact of the crisis and the causes of sovereign debt high levels trends varied between EU countries as well as the budget deficit levels. Thus, the main priority for EU members must be the continuation of differentiated fiscal consolidation, given the specificities of each economy, favoring growth. The medium-term fiscal policy needs to focus on consolidating public finances along with restoring long-term sustainability.

  11. TOWARDS A COMMON ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Inotai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy policy issues have got increasing relevance in the strategic orientation of the European Union (EU in general, and in identifying specific economic policy tasks, in particular. Steadily high energy (oil and gas prices in the last years constitute one factor. However, global political and security issues of growing degree of uncertainty, the level of dependence on imported energy and, not less importantly, the forecasts of growing external dependence of the EU in this field have substantially contributed to the upgrading of the energy question. Finally, the liberalization of the single market, not least in the crucial area of energy supply and the enlargement of the EU by 12 new members, with specific composition of production and not less specific pattern of imports of energy, enhanced the importance of energy in the enlarged EU, with a view to shape and implement a common energy policy.

  12. Enlargement of the European Union and agricultural policy reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Skovager; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth; Zobbe, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    is that intensiveness of agricultural production corresponds to the willingness to reform the CAP. Political CAP positions, together with the development of member states’ structural fundamentals, are analysed using cluster analysis. The results show that EU enlargements have extensified agricultural production......A connection exists between enlargement of the European Union and reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Based upon rational choice theory, we examine whether the member states’ CAP positions are related to structures in their agricultural sectors. The overall hypothesis...... at the EU level, and that extensive agricultural production in a member state is often an indicator of reduced willingness to reform. However, the intensiveness of agricultural production is only part of the explanation. Moreover, negotiation tactics play an important role for the positions on the CAP....

  13. Challenges for monetary policy in the enlarged European monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Irena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastward enlargement of the Euro area entails significant implications for the accession candidates in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, the existing Euro system and the monetary policy of the European Central Bank (ECB. The present analysis assesses the challenges and critical aspects in monetary policy modeling with special emphasis to enlargement. The focus is on the difficulty of implementing a unique currency policy in view or growing heterogeneity within the enlarged monetary union, and secondly - the issue of the voting mechanism within the ECB. When analyzing those two issues, it is conclusive that the difficulties for the ECB and the current Euro zone members will increase. For the enlarged Euro zone, which is becoming more divergent, it will be very hard to find adequate recipes to meet the needs and requirements of all. The big question is: whether centralization of monetary policy is a sustainable and superior solution?.

  14. Polish Accession to the European Union: Participating Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Waldemar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2014 it was aready ten years since Poland’s accession to the European Union. The accession was preceded by a long period of political action and negotiations between the Polish and the EU institutions. The process of integration was extremely complex. It covered almost all areas of economic, legal and civil aspects of the aspiring country’s economy, in which all necessary requirements had to be met. The aim of the article was to present the institutional framework created for efficient implementation of the process of accession. The considerations involved especially an institutional method. The research resulted in poining out both the actually efficient and less efficient bodies participating in the process of integration.

  15. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  16. Plant varieties protection in the European Union: legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Б. Якубенко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Reviewing the EU legislation on plant varie­ties protection including documents of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV that related to the national laws of its member states. Results. Based on the sources processed, the authors give a brief analysis of the basic EU Council Regulation № 2100/94 of 27 July 1994 on Community plant variety rights and regulations of the European Commission adopted to implement it. Basic copyright concepts, features of plant varieties protection in the EU, including those under the UPOV Convention, are also considered. Conclusions. For Ukraine, obtaining full membership in the EU, on the one hand, requires harmonization of its laws with the re­levant EU legislation, on the other – improvement of the present system of plant varieties protection taking into account national interests of Ukraine.

  17. Energy Relations between the European Union and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kilpeläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European Union (EU-North Africa energy relations with a special focus on renewables in North Africa, arguing that the research so far has not taken due account of North African perceptions of EU external energy policy. It is argued that current research on EU-North African relations has not taken sufficient note of the multidimensionality of energy or addressed the inconsistent nature of EU policy making. However, addressing these issues is vital in approaching EU-North Africa energy relations and EU policy towards North Africa in general. The study of perceptions is introduced as one way to develop research further, to give further impetus on understanding how EU-North African energy relations develop and to understand energy relations in their complexity.

  18. European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violina MARDARI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities. The author focuses on the main research question concerning how the new, uncontrolled migration flows may influence the approach on diaspora engagement policy within member states. This process could have positive as well as negative implications for the Community space even if the EU attempts to develop a new legal framework on migration. The interdisciplinary approach and methods as empirical analysis, comparison and observation on some good practices and new issues gave the possibility to estimate the results of how changing diaspora role perception reduces the gap between different migrants in the EU and improves the diaspora engagement dialogue on institutional and civil society level.

  19. Environmental policy in the European Union. Fostering the development of pollution havens?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cave, Lisa A. [Institute for Regional Analysis and Public Policy Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Blomquist, Glenn C. [Department of Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0034 (United States)

    2008-04-01

    A pollution haven occurs when dirty industries from developed nations relocate to developing nations in order to avoid strict environmental standards or developed nations imports of dirty industries expand replacing domestic production. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the European Union (EU) has increased its imports of 'dirty' goods from poorer, less democratic countries during a period of more stringent environmental standards. Previous empirical studies find evidence that United States imports are responsive to changes in environmental stringency, but the effects of EU policy have not been examined as thoroughly. Our study follows Kahn [Kahn, M.E., 2003. The Geography of USA Pollution Intensive Trade: Evidence from 1958 to 1994. Regional Science and Urban Economics., 33: 383-400.] and examines the impact of industry energy intensity and toxicity, measured by an energy index and a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) index, on imports into the EU, at the 2-digit industry level from 1970 to 1999. We use the signing of the Maastricht Treaty to signify a period of more uniform and stringent community wide environmental standards (1993-1999), and identify the level of per capita GDP within an EU trading partner. We find an increased amount of EU energy intensive trade with poorer countries during the period with more stringent EU environmental standards. This result is not robust, however, when poorer countries are defined by OECD membership and geographic region. We do not find an increased amount of EU toxic intensive trade with poorer countries although there is some evidence of increased EU imports of toxic goods from poorer OECD and non-EU European countries. For our full sample of trading partners in all regions, the evidence supports the PHH for EU energy intensive trade, but not for toxic intensive trade. Results for regional trade analysis are less clear. (author)

  20. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS AND TRAINING OBJECTIVES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Claudia CORBU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a modern society, education plays an important role, it became increasingly a major source of competitiveness in the markets. Qualifications that educational institutions provide them directly and essentially depends on the value of their products, which will result in future generations of specialists that will benefit society. Worldwide currently exist prerequisite that education systems must begin, continue and support transformations and social progress, providing quality education, preparing the individual for the future and at the same time developing its capabilities to adapt to change technical and scientific and to create the new. Ultimately, educational institutions not only transmit knowledge but also often produce or apply new technologies. Today, when knowledge is the most important commodity, and the school is an institution of knowledge implication is obvious. Strengthening and supporting a union of Member States, the objective necessity to dynamism and competitiveness of the United States, but also the participation of Asian countries in the gaming arena of economic, forced the governments of the member countries of the European Union to build political and social systems beneficial for education the latter being considered an important pillar in the economic development of a country in the long term. This was established from the following perspectives: the first focused on integration and identification of models able to be compatible with European systems of education and training, and, second, on individuality and ensuring that all geographic region or country to adapt general principles to specific needs, depending on the ideological factors and social, economic and technological development differences and particularities of human capital.

  1. CSR and Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano AMELIO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the status of non-financial information disclosure in the European Union in order to evaluate the level of acceptance of social responsibility practices. The research is divided into two sections and the approach used is mainly theoretical and qualitative. In the first part the UE financial and non-financial information regulations are analyzed; the European Union launched a process of harmonization then subsequently it moved to the standardization process: the Regulation (EC No. 1606/2002 is part of the standardization process (It must be applied in its entirety across the EU while the Directive 2014/95/EU is part of the harmonization process (it sets out a goal that all EU countries must achieve. The Directive 2014/95/EU states that “large undertakings […] shall include in the management report a non-financial statement […]” thus making mandatory the preparation of non-financial statements. In the second part of the research, not considering the firm only as a system for the production of financial/economic value but also as an economic social actor which operates in a social environment to which it belongs and with which it interacts, the concept of social entrepreneurship is explained. Social entrepreneurship belongs to the entrepreneurs who draw up the social balance, required or permitted by the UE legislation. For this reason, the introduction of obligations in disclosing non-financial information could lead to the increase of entrepreneurship, with positive consequences in the creation of tangible benefits to both the business community and the global community.

  2. THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A GLOBAL PLAYER: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Comanescu

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening the external action of the Union has emerged as a powerful expectation shared both by a large majority of members of the Convention on the future of Europe, and more significantly by public opinion when it has been consulted on this issue. Although there is a consensual desire for Europe to speak with a stronger voice in global affairs, the ways and means to achieve this objective still divide those called to clarify the path to be followed. The European Union is already a significant presence in world politics by its considerable share in the international trade, or its dominant contribution to development aid. Many criticise on the other hand the lack of consistency in the more classical dimensions of foreign policy, or the lack of credibility in the capacity to act attributed to the absence of defence capabilities. Such concerns are currently addressed in the larger debate on the future of Europe, either within the dedicated framework, the European Convention convened to design the future of the EU, or outside the Convention, both among politicians and academics. It is generally considered and accepted that Europe will gain in political influence once the unification of the continent is completed, i.e. the current enlargement objectives are achieved. It goes without saying that devising and making operational appropriate instruments and capacities to act coherently outside its borders are a necessity as well. Institutional guarantees that Europe could in the future continue to influence the course of events in world affairs are becoming imperative. This article will explore some of the proposals in that sense. It will also address the place for Romania as a future EU member state in the new architecture of Europe and its possible contribution to the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

  3. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Apolzan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration refers to trade unification between different states , and one of its most important aspects is liberalisation of capital movement. In this paper is presented a brief evolution of economic integration cases focusing on one of the most integrated economies European Union. We concentrate on the participation of foreign investors in different economies and their impact, taking the example of Central and Eastern European Countries and their markets. Also , the level of influence that direct investments in capital markets entails on the Stock Exchange evolution is presented for the case of Romania .

  4. Reduction in undiagnosed HIV infection in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2012 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sighem, Ard; Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3). PMID:29208159

  5. The Impact of Policy Instruments on Soil Multifunctionality in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrebos, Dirk; Bampa, Francesca; Creamer, Rachel; Gardi, Ciro; Ghaley, Bhim; Jones, Arwyn; Rutgers, Michiel; Sandén, Taru; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural ecosystems provide a range of benefits that are vital to human well-being. These benefits are dependent on several soil functions that are affected in different ways by legislation from the European Union, national, and regional levels. We evaluated current European Union soil-related

  6. Key Competences for the Development of Lifelong Learning in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozjan, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses certain developments in education policy in the European Union since the implementation of the Lisbon strategy. Greater focus on lifelong learning as a means of increasing the competitiveness of the European Union, and establishment of several new, efficient policy tools (above all the "open method of coordination")…

  7. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies. For...

  8. Euroscepticism in Britain and France: Implications for NATO and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    will leave Britain. The union of the United Kingdom would not long survive Brexit.”158 Former Labour MEP Denis MacShane also believes that a Brexit...BRITAIN AND FRANCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION by William R. Walsh March 2016 Thesis Advisor: David Yost Co-Advisor...AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EUROSCEPTICISM IN BRITAIN AND FRANCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION 5

  9. Theorising the New Modes of European Union Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkard Eberlein

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, 'new modes of governance' based on voluntary performance standards, rather than compulsory regulation, have gained salience in European Union governance. Can these 'new modes of governance' offer a credible solution to the challenges faced by EU policy making? We argue that a critical appraisal is difficult when it is based a on the scarce empirical evidence, or b the programmatic pronouncements of policy makers. We suggest instead c assessing the potential of new governance in the light of theoretical approaches to the EU polity. While current theories of European governance shed some light on the challenges to be addressed by new governance, we argue that the theory of democratic experimentalism makes it possible to better identify the potential and the problems of new EU governance. This theoretical perspective suggests, first, that coordination by voluntary performance standards can lead to more effective rules and more opportunties for political participation, second, that the scope of this mode of governance in the EU is not confined to cases which are explicitly flagged as 'new governance', and third, that one of the main problems is how a voluntary mode of governance can coexist with compulsory regulation.

  10. [Interpretation of Guidelines on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices for European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Due to the limitations of pre-authorization clinical trials, the safety information obtained from them is relatively limited. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out pharmacovigilance activities on drugs post-marketing. In order to promote the specific implementation of the new pharmacovigilance regulations, the European medicines agency (EMA) developed the Guideline on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices (GVP), as the new criteria for pharmacovigilance in the European Union (EU). Compared with the previously published, Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance for Medicinal Products for Human Use (2007), the GVP proposed more comprehensive and systematic provisions of pharmacovigilance systems, quality control systems, judgements, pharmacovigilance inspections and audits. In addition, it set more specific and comprehensive requirements on risk management systems, the management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products, periodic safety update reports, post-authorization safety studies, signal management, and so on. Interpreting the basic principles, working mechanisms, key technologies and methods of the GVP provides a useful reference for us to carry out pharmacovigilance (especially regarding safety monitoring of parenterally administered Chinese medicine).

  11. Analysis of European Union Economy in Terms of GDP Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the crises on national economies represented a subject of analysis and interest for a wide variety of research studies. Thus, starting from the GDP composition, the present research exhibits an analysis of the impact of European economies, at an EU level, of the events that followed the crisis of 2007 – 2008. Firstly, the research highlighted the existence of two groups of countries in 2012 in European Union, namely segments that were compiled in relation to the structure of the GDP’s components. In the second stage of the research, a factor analysis was performed on the resulted segments, that showed that the economies of cluster A are based more on personal consumption compared to the economies of cluster B, and in terms of government consumption, the situation is reversed. Thus, between the two groups of countries, a different approach regarding the role of fiscal policy in the economy can be noted, with a greater emphasis on savings in cluster B. Moreover, besides the two groups of countries resulted, Ireland and Luxembourg stood out because these two countries did not fit in either of the resulted segments and their economies are based, to a large extent, on the positive balance of the external balance.

  12. Relevant Market in Commercial Aviation of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kociubiński

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the issue of definition of relevant market in civil aviation within the European Union. The liberalization of the market since the early 1990s has led to a rapid increase in the number of airlines operating in the EU. The increase in the competitiveness of the market has brought many positive changes for passengers, such as lower fares and a better network of connections. At the same time it has created a risk that the airlines, in order to gain a competitive edge, would infringe the rules of competition. This is especially important in the context of the phenomenon that is the development of the airline alliances, which could lead to an abuse of a dominant position. A clear definition of the relevant market is a first step in an assessment of whether such an abuse occurred. This paper focus on the elements that Internal Market regulator, the European Commission, takes into consideration when defining relevant market in the airline industry.

  13. European union mission for the rule of law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we have studied the international circumstances that have affected the deployment of the EULEX Mission in Kosovo. The EULEX mission is the European Union Mission for the Rule of Law in Kosovo. Its main goal is to advise, assist and support the Kosovo authorities in issues of the rule of law, especially in the field of police, judiciary and customs performance. Also this mission has the responsibility to develop and further strengthen the independent multi-ethnic justice system in Kosovo, by ensuring that the rule of law institutions are not politically influenced and that they meet the known international standards and best European practices. This mission was foreseen to be deployed to Kosovo, based on the Ahtissari Comprehensive Status Proposal for Kosovo, but due to its non-approval by the UN Security Council, its full implementation was delayed until December 2008. EULEX acts within the framework of Resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council and under a single chain of command in Brussels. EULEX officials have supported Kosovo Police, the Judiciary system and Kosovo Customs, through MMA actions for achieving objectives and goals that are foreseen by the program strategy of EULEX. But in terms of efficiency, EULEX has only achieved modest results. In the northern part of Kosovo, EULEX has failed, as a result of its ambivalent mandate and incoherence of EU Foreign and Security Policy.

  14. Information technology law and health systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah; Ter Linden, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of European Union (EU) law relating to information technology (IT) on health systems. The study identifies EU directives relating to IT, analyzes them in terms of their impact on the use of IT in health systems, and outlines their implications for health technology assessment (HTA). Analysis is based on a review of literature identified through relevant databases and Internet searches. Developments in IT have serious implications for EU health systems, presenting policy makers with new challenges. The European Commission has adopted a range of legal measures to protect consumers in the "information society" However, as few of them are health-specific, it is not evident that they have implications for health, health systems, or HTA, and they may not be effective in protecting consumers in the health sector. In light of the growing importance of IT in the health sector, legal and nonlegal measures need to be further developed at EU and international level. Where possible, future initiatives should pay attention to the particular characteristics of health goods and services and health systems. Although definitions of HTA usually recognize the importance of evaluating both the indirect, unintended consequences of health technologies and the legal aspects of their application, it seems that, in practice, HTA often overlooks or underestimates legislative matters. Those involved in HTA should be aware of the legal implications of using IT to provide health goods and services and compile, store, transfer, and disseminate health information electronically.

  15. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-10-11

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  17. Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information (PPRI: a European Union project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Arts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: In the European Member States, the systems for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement differ significantly. Amongst the administration and policy-makers at both national and European levels there is a lot of interest in the different pharmaceutical systems of the Member States as a means of learning from their experiences in pricing and reimbursement.

    Objectives: The general objective of the PPRI–Project – started in April 2005 - is to develop a network of authorities and institutions in order to improve information and knowledge on the pharmaceutical systems in the enlarged European Union. This network should facilitate a regular exchange of information and allow a process of learning from each other.

    Project description: The PPRI project team consists of the main partner (ÖBIG, an associated partner (WHOEURO and a network of partners and observers which represent national stakeholders from almost all EU Member States and a number of international stakeholders. The information on pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement will be collected and summarised in country reports (“Pharma Profiles” which follow a homogenous structure. The individual country’s information will be analysed and compared on the basis of a set of indicators (benchmarks.

    Deliverables:The main deliverables of the project are:

     • Pharma Profiles, • a benchmarking report, in which pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement in the Member States is compared,

    • a website containing information on the project and on pricing and reimbursement in the Member States, and

     • a conference at the end of the project during which the study results will be disseminated.

  18. Controlling the EU Executive? The Politics of Delegation in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    . Controlling the EU executive represents the first comprehensive investigation of this conflict. It does so by a combination of methods and data, including process-tracing of the introduction of the new system in the Lisbon Treaty, case studies of selected post-Lisbon delegation situations and statistical......’). However, this system was contested by the European Parliament which was left without any influence. The Lisbon Treaty introduced a new control regime for delegated powers, the so-called delegated acts system, which was meant to supplement the existing system. The new system involves direct control...

  19. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  20. The impact of European Union law on the possibilities of European Union Member States to adapt international tax rules to the business models of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, S.; Kardachaki, A.

    2016-01-01

    European Union (EU) law has played a key role in enforcing the EU BEPS agenda, while also introducing limits to the application thereof. The European Commission (EC) sees a clear link between aggressive tax planning and competition law. Against this background, EU State aid law has been employed to

  1. The European Parliaments Political Legitimacy and the Commissions Misleading Management: Towards a Parliamentarian European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei M. Muntean

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the basic characteristics of the political legitimacy of the European Parliament (EP within the supranational political system of the European Union (EU and argues that an increase in the political legitimacy of the EP might provide a solution to the legitimacy problem at the EU level of supranational governance. The case study of misleading management in the European Commission followed be the en masse resignation of its leadership emphasises the increased powers of the EP in the Amsterdam year and signals the increased potential of the EP in the institutional politics of the EU. Finally, introducing the parliamentary model, this paper outlines a set of mechanisms to increase the accountability of a bureaucratic Commission to the EP and favours increased powers in the EP as necessary for its political legitimacy.

  2. ENERGY IMPORT DEPENDENCY AND SEEKING FOR NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES EUROPEAN UNION CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan Nesimioglu, Serife

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, energy poverty and as a result of this energy import dependency and its possible negative results have been examined by taking European Union (EU) into consideration. This analysis has two aims: the first one is questioning the European Unions’ energy security from supply perspective and the second one is investigating the solutions produced by European Union to get away or at least to reduce its energy import dependency. To guarantee its energy supply security at affordable pr...

  3. REASONS AND EFFECTS OF THE ROMANIAN LABOUR FORCE MIGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Frunză; Liviu George Maha; Claudiu Gabriel Mursa

    2009-01-01

    In the European Union countries and neighboring regions, the expansion will produce a redistribution of the labour force between industries and countries. After the Romania’s adhesion to theEuropean Union, the need for an increased productivity, the lack of capital, the competition on the EU market and the low wages have concurred to the intensification of the migration process of the labour force, especially to the West European countries. As example, from over two millions of Romanians work...

  4. Economic and labor rights in the European Union after Lisbon: an institutional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos MARGARITIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic and labor rights belong to the core of business action, since they constitute the institutional framework for actors involved in business, employers and workers. Since the European integration is progressing, we may speak of a European environment for business, a common market in European legal terms, which became the main aim for the Communities since 1957. At the end of 2009, with the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty amendments, important changes were brought in the fundamental rights protection in EU, mainly with the enactment of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. For a better understanding of the framework of economic and labor rights in EU, the traditional economic freedoms and provisions of the Charter will be examined in this paper in order to draw conclusions on the level of protection of such rights and the modifications that the Lisbon Treaty have brought in EU legal order with reference to economic and labor rights.

  5. Quality assessments for cancer centers in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Anke; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim H

    2016-09-07

    Cancer centers are pressured to deliver high-quality services that can be measured and improved, which has led to an increase of assessments in many countries. A critical area of quality improvement is to improve patient outcome. An overview of existing assessments can help stakeholders (e.g., healthcare professionals, managers and policy makers) improve the quality of cancer research and care and lead to patient benefits. This paper presents key aspects of assessments undertaken by European cancer centers, such as: are assessments mandatory or voluntary? Do they focus on evaluating research, care or both? And are they international or national? A survey was sent to 33 cancer centers in 28 European Union member states. Participants were asked to score the specifics for each assessment that they listed. Based on the responses from 19 cancer centers from 18 member states, we found 109 assessments. The numbers have steadily increased from 1990's till 2015. Although, a majority of assessments are on patient-care aspects (n = 45), it is unclear how many of those include assessing patient benefits. Only few assessments cover basic research. There is an increasing trend towards mixed assessments (i.e., combining research and patient-care aspects) The need for assessments in cancer centers is increasing. To improve efforts in the quality of research and patient care and to prevent new assessments that "reinvent the wheel", it is advised to start comparative research into the assessments that are likely to bring patient benefits and improve patient outcome. Do assessments provide consistent and reliable information that create added value for all key stakeholders?

  6. International Workshops for Teachers at the European Geosciences Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, C.

    2005-12-01

    The 2005 edition of the EGU Geophysical Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshoptook place in April 2005 during the General Assembly of the European Gesciences Union. It reunited 70 teachers from 16 European Countries and 3 teachers from the USA. The general theme of this 2-days workshop was 'The history of the Earth' and it focussed on important, but somewhat ill-known aspects of the evolution of our planet. GIFT-2005 was preceeded by a one-day workshop on Natural Risk Assessment (NaRAs) which included aspects of seismology in the schools and two talks on the 2004 Sumatra tsunami. Both were organized by the Committee on Education of EGU. Both workshops comprised seminal talks by leading scientists in the field, but also presentations by science educators and presentations by the teachers themselved of some off-track activities in their schools. This combitation stimulated discussions between the teachers, scientists and science educators and among the teachers where the different languages did not appear to create major difficulties (the official language of the workshops was English). Some of the contacts between teachers are already evolving in long term collaborations between them and their respective schools. It clearly appears that reuniting teachers formed and teaching within different educational systems, leads to stimulating creative discussions and collaborations, each teacher benefitting from the different background of his/her colleagues. The great output of this kind of international workshop is to show that while there is no educational system 'better than all others', the interactions between teachers, scientists and sciences educators during a major scientific conference, create new stimulus and enthousiasm among the teachers and this will invariably lead to up-to-date and alive teaching of geo-sciences (and scicnes in general) in primary and secondary schools, i.e. where future geoscientist are formed.

  7. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridding, Lucy; Freeman, Stephen N.; Pereira, M. Gloria; Sleep, Darren; Redhead, John; Aston, David; Carreck, Norman L.; Shore, Richard F.; Bullock, James M.; Heard, Matthew S.; Pywell, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1), and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure. PMID:29298300

  8. The European Union as a Comprehensive Police Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anthony Rozée

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has responded to changing security threats by seeking to increase cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of the Member States, granting further powers to Europol and other intelligence-sharing institutions, and by undertaking police missions beyond EU borders. The literature relating to EU policing is generally focused on the ‘internal’ and ‘external’ dimensions, or on specific aspects of police activity. This tendency to concentrate on narrow or isolated areas of policing has led to a significant gap regarding the broader analysis of the EU as a comprehensive police actor. Important questions about the nature of EU policing as a whole, as well as the contribution of policing activities to the EU’s security agenda, remain unexplored in the literature. This article aims to define what is meant by ‘comprehensive policing’ and to indentify criteria by which the comprehensiveness of EU-level policing may be measured. In addition to this, an integrated actorness/police comprehensiveness framework will be presented as a tool for assessing the EU as a comprehensive police actor.

  9. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of Europeanfreshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has facedsome challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the Europeanmonitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science andsuggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensiveprioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters.The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integratedstrategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approachesto advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic “chemical status”assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historicalburdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessmentof contamination. Solution-oriented m

  10. The origins of the bioeconomy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patermann, Christian; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2018-01-25

    This article outlines the context and circumstances that favoured the development of a Bioeconomy Strategy in the European Union (EU) and the role played by the different Framework programmes for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration. Particular attention is given to the biotechnology related programmes and more specifically to the "Cell Factory" Key Action in the 5th Framework Programme (1998-2002). This, together with the parallel development of a Strategy on Biotechnology in 2002, served as a solid foundation for the creation of the, at the time, so-called Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE). The KBBE concept emerged in 2005, a couple of years before the launch of the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013). The experience accumulated over the years and the new societal expectations triggered the EU to launch a Strategy on Bioeconomy in 2012. This article concludes with a brief analysis of the two most important impacts of the EU Strategy on Bioeconomy. One is the Bioeconomy dedicated activity within the Programme Horizon 2020 (2014-2020), and the other the creation of a public-private partnership of bio-based industries. Both the impact of Horizon 2020 on the EU Bioeconomy Strategy and the bio-based industries public-private partnership are analysed in depth in two articles elsewhere in this volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Ben A; Ridding, Lucy; Freeman, Stephen N; Pereira, M Gloria; Sleep, Darren; Redhead, John; Aston, David; Carreck, Norman L; Shore, Richard F; Bullock, James M; Heard, Matthew S; Pywell, Richard F

    2018-01-01

    Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1), and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  12. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A Woodcock

    Full Text Available Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21 and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109. Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1, and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  13. Campylobacter seroconversion rates in selected countries in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, P F M; Falkenhorst, G; Ang, C W; Strid, M A; De Valk, H; Sadkowska-Todys, M; Zota, L; Kuusi, M; Rota, M C; Simonsen, J B; Mølbak, K; Van Duynhoven, Y T H P; Van Pelt, W

    2013-10-01

    As a major foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter is frequently isolated from food sources of animal origin. In contrast, human Campylobacter illness is relatively rare, but has a considerable health burden due to acute enteric illness as well as severe sequelae. To study silent transmission, serum antibodies can be used as biomarkers to estimate seroconversion rates, as a proxy for infection pressure. This novel approach to serology shows that infections are much more common than disease, possibly because most infections remain asymptomatic. This study used antibody titres measured in serum samples collected from healthy subjects selected randomly in the general population from several countries in the European Union (EU). Estimates of seroconversion rates to Campylobacter were calculated for seven countries: Romania, Poland, Italy, France, Finland, Denmark and The Netherlands. Results indicate high infection pressures in all these countries, slightly increasing in Eastern EU countries. Of these countries, the differences in rates of notified illnesses are much greater, with low numbers in France and Poland, possibly indicating lower probability of detection due to differences in the notification systems, but in the latter case it cannot be excluded that more frequent exposure confers better protection due to acquired immunity.

  14. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  15. Implications and Measurement of Energy Poverty across the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maxim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy poverty, or the inability of households to afford adequate access to energy services, is an issue that can have a significant effect on the quality of life and even the state of health of individuals and even the overall development of a nation. Since it was first brought into focus more than two decades ago in the UK, this topic has gradually gained the attention of academics and policy makers all across the EU and beyond. The current paper addresses the topic by providing not only a renewed discussion, but also an improved energy poverty indicator (with clear and relevant results at the EU level: the Compound Energy Poverty Indicator (CEPI. Moreover, knowing that the risk of poverty and social exclusion, efficiency of heating systems, total consumption of energy per household and rising energy prices tend to increase the severity of this problem in some countries, CEPI is then included into an econometric model so as to determine some possible factors that tend to put pressure on an already existing issue of energy poverty. The results of this research are expected to be relevant not only for academics (as it offers insights into the structure and severity of this topic within the European Union, but also for national and EU policymakers who are confronted in the field with the problem of sustainable development.

  16. Usage of Online European Union Information Resources 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joyce

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an explosion of online European Union information resources available to researchers. However, little research into how researchers are accessing and using these resources has been carried out.. The aim of the research which informs this report was to take the first step to begin to rectify this issue. An online survey was conducted, using University of Bristol’s BOS software to which 145 people replied. The survey found that researchers considered themselves proficient at using online services. Surprisingly only 46.4% used them every day though. The Europa website was the most used but also paradoxically the most criticised for problems with search, navigation and transparency. Journals were the next most popular type of resource. Other top services included search engines, news sites and email lists. Web 2.0 has yet to be taken up widely by our sample of researchers, with few individuals having or using blogs or social networking software. The report also highlights that while some researchers are happy with EU online services, many are concerned about poor navigation and the design of websites, bias of information and the increasing abundance of passwords necessary to access multiple information resources.

  17. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while takingin new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and WesternBalkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU.Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform inWBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership onlyif they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected toenlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albaniawill bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiaryfunds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. Thispresentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albaniainspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EU coordinationsystem, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania.Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge forthe future of EU.

  18. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upston-Hooper, K. [c/o Greenstream Network Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Perrells, A. [VATT, Helsinki (Finland); Anttonen, K. [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Helsinki (Finland); Mehling, M. [University of Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The Project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  19. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeaettae, K.; Anttonen, K. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)). Email: kalle.maatta@joensuu.fi; Upston-Hooper, K. (GreenStream Networks, Helsinki (Finland)); Mehling, M. (Univ. of Greifswald (Germany)); Perrels, A. (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT, Helsinki (Finland)), email: adriaan.perrels@vatt.fi

    2009-07-01

    The project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  20. What are European Union Public Attitudes towards Robots? (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Loffredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a very brief overview of public attitudes towards robots from different geographical regions of the world but focuses on one such study in one particular geographic area, the European Union (EU of 27 countries. By far, the Eurobarameter Survey on Public Attitudes towards Robots, released online in 2012, is the largest study of public attitudes towards robots. It focused exclusively on descriptive statistics which are mathematical procedures used to organize, summarize and simplify data. The statistical procedures used in this paper to perform a secondary data analysis of the data from the Eurobarameter Survey on Attitudes towards robots focused on inferential statistics which focus on inference and statistical comparisons. Secondary data analyses are often used when large data sets are posted online for public, professional, and educational use. A one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, and separate two-way independent-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze participant responses on relevant survey questions. The results supported our hypotheses that there are significant differences in EU public attitudes by gender and age group.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN FINANCIAL STABILITY FACILITY ON SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA CLAUDIA ªERBAN; GABRIELA ÞUÞUEANU

    2012-01-01

    The European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF), as a company which was agreed by the countries that share the euro on May 9th 2010 and incorporated in Luxembourg under Luxembourgish law on June 7th 2010, have to preserve financial stability of Europe’s monetary union by providing temporary financial assistance to euro area Member States if needed. This article examines in witch way EFSF can influence the system of governance in an emerging economy. We argue that “good governance practices” ...

  2. Central and Eastern European Social Policy and European Union Accession: Time for Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Lendvai

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union enlargement and accession are reflexive of both EU and post-communist social policies. There is a unique “dialogue“ going on, indicative of fundamental aspects of post-communist, post-transitional social policy. It is also a 'mirror' that reflects shortcomings of governance, and often presents a neglected institutional landscape. Therefore, the Europeanisation of social policy is an essential transformation process for post-communist countries whereby a new language and new concepts are introduced, the outlines of new social-policy governance emerge and enter the space in which social policy is formulated and considered.

  3. Estimation and Comparison of Underground Economy in Croatia and European Union Countries: Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Marsic

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address this issue in three ways. First, we review existing estimates of the size of the underground economy. Second, we apply a novel calculation method for estimation: fuzzy logic. Third, we calculated and compared underground economy index for 25 European Union countries and compared it, with special focus on Croatian underground economy index. Results indicated that Croatia has the thirteenth largest underground economy among measured members of the European Union. This study is the first of its kind with recent data to measure the size of underground economy in European Union countries by employing fuzzy logic approach.

  4. Directives and regulations of the European Union on the protection of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper analyzes the directives and regulations of the European Union pertaining to the protection of environment (water, air and soil. Since emissions frequently exceed local communities and regions, thus gain cross border, and sometimes even global effects, the directives and regulations of the European Union aim to provide bases for the harmonization of national laws in the European Union, as far as the registry of holders of dangerous things or providers of dangerous services, and the measures necessary to settle the consequences of pollution and means of preventing larger-scale environmental damages are concerned.

  5. A New Perspective of Investment Modelling at the European Union Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin OPREANA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study that represents the subject of this paper follows the analysis of the investment function and the influencing factors at the European Union level. The research has, as a starting point, the hypothesis that there is a negative relationship between the European Union investments and tax rates. For verifying this hypothesis, the structural equation modeling is used (SEM, and the same technique is applied in the second part of the research, which will track the development of the investments’ model at the European Union level. The results will highlight the relationships that are established between specific variables that characterize the volume of investments.

  6. Covert Action? Education, Social Policy, and Law in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Explores the legitimacy of the partial control over education matters gained by the European Union since the 1970s, examining in particular the role of the European Court of Justice and the European Commission, in reshaping and altering definitions of legal compensation in the fields of education and training. Discusses implications for democratic…

  7. Fiscal policy surveillance in the enlarged European Union: Procedural checks or simple arithmetic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Batten, Jonathan A.; Kearney, Colm

    2006-01-01

    In its recommendation on the 2004 update of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs), the European Commission (2004) issued country-specific recommendations for fiscal policy in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries that have recently joined the European Union (EU) (henceforth the

  8. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  9. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  10. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  11. Past and Current Paths to European Union Accession: Romania and Turkey a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several decades ago, leaders of six European countries with an inclusive vision of Europe and strong courage started a construction without precedent, the European Union. The remarkable construction evolved not only concerning the number of the Member States, but also in terms of institutional and functional development. Nowadays, the European Union is one of the most important changing factor concerning the governance and the policy-making process at European level and not only, and there is no doubt that the EU will continue to grow as an increasing number of countries express interest in membership. This paper reveals in a comparative perspective the path to European Union Accession, and is based on documentary analysis, using strategy-level documents of the countries and the Progress Reports the European Commission provided during the past enlargement.

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP EUROPEAN UNION - BLACK SEA REGION FOLLOWING THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Livia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the possible interaction between the European Union and the Black Sea region, following the consequences the international and financial crisis placed upon the Eastern neighbourhood of the Union. It provides a comprehensive picture on the economic situation in the Black Sea area, correlating the economic realities from the field with the required domains of policy actions. \\r\

  13. Pattern Persistence in European Trade Union Density: A longitudinal analysis 1950-97

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checchi, D.; Visser, J.

    2001-01-01

    Using annual data on aggregate union membership and density in fourteen European countries, the authors examine the short-term and long-term determinants of the post-war pattern of union growth and decline in Western Europe since 1950. In an attempt to explain the observed convergence in trends and

  14. ONTOLOGY MAPPING IN THE RESILIENCE STUDY: THE ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVE FOR EUROPEAN UNION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu-Tudor SALANŢIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontology mapping in resilience surveillance on organization level can found utilization in analysis of association between idiosyncrasies and structure adaptability. Starting from the data regarding the economic trends for European Union members from 2014 to 2016 the aim of the research is to analyse the European Union resilience through interpretation of the link between members behaviour and structure convergence. The members positioned in European Union was analysed after organization clusterization of the twenty-eight state members. Two different structures are included into analysis for the studied periods: a structure which incorporates just the state members, and other which also take into account the eurozone blue-chips. In order to analyse the members’ relation in structure a gravity model has been developed, the obtained results for each state members pair are contained in a skew matrix. The values are interpreted through a knowledge-base to highlight the European Union resilience degree.

  15. Book Review: A Liberal Actor in a Realist World the European Union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: A Liberal Actor in a Realist World the European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy. Book Author: Andreas Goldthau & Nick Sitter. Oxford University Press Oxford 2015. ISBN 9780198719595 ...

  16. Medical Device Regulation: A Comparison of the United States and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maak, Travis G; Wylie, James D

    2016-08-01

    Medical device regulation is a controversial topic in both the United States and the European Union. Many physicians and innovators in the United States cite a restrictive US FDA regulatory process as the reason for earlier and more rapid clinical advances in Europe. The FDA approval process mandates that a device be proved efficacious compared with a control or be substantially equivalent to a predicate device, whereas the European Union approval process mandates that the device perform its intended function. Stringent, peer-reviewed safety data have not been reported. However, after recent high-profile device failures, political pressure in both the United States and the European Union has favored more restrictive approval processes. Substantial reforms of the European Union process within the next 5 to 10 years will result in a more stringent approach to device regulation, similar to that of the FDA. Changes in the FDA regulatory process have been suggested but are not imminent.

  17. The European Union CREATE project: a model for international standardization of allergy diagnostics and vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Martin D.; Ferreira, Fatima; Villalba, Mayte; Cromwell, Oliver; Bryan, Donna; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Durham, Stephen; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald; Aalbers, M.; Notten, S.; Ooievaar-de Heer, P.; Ferreira, F.; Gademaier, G.; Wallner, M.; Villalba, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Becker, W.-M.; Eberhardt, F.; Lepp, U.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Valenta, R.; Focke, M.; Bryan, D.; Dolman, C.; Das, R. G.; Vieths, S.; Fötisch, K.; Di Felice, G.; Pini, C.; Cromwell, O.; Fiebig, H.; Weber, B.; van Schijndel, H.; Dorpema, J. W.; Marco, F. M.; Monsalve, R.; Barber, D.; Caldas, E. Fernandez; Moingeon, P.; Didierlaurent, A.; André, C.; Kroon, A.; Neubauer, A.; Chapman, M.; Vailes, L.; Tsay, A.; Durham, S.; Custovic, A.; Simpson, B.; Knulst, A.; Rivas, M. Fernández; Mancebo, E. Gonzalez; Bahima, A. Cistero; Moncin, M. M. San Miguel; Mari, A.; Kinaciyan, T.; Quiralte, J.; Pauli, G.; de Blay, F.; Purohit, A.; Rak, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allergen measurements are used extensively in the formulation of allergy diagnostics and vaccines, yet no purified international allergen standards are available for calibration purposes. The aims of the European Union CREATE project were to develop international standards with verifiable allergen

  18. Conflicts of Criminal Jurisdiction in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zimmermann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts of criminal jurisdiction between the Member States belong to the most difficult challenges that the European Union has to face in order to establish a true “area of freedom, security and justice”. This article starts with an analysis of the interests that are affected by such conflicts: on the one hand, they are most problematic for the individual because they can lead to repeated or simultaneous proceedings in different Member States and forum shopping by prosecution authorities. What is more, they can even make it impossible to foresee whether and how severely an act will be punished. Thus, essential criminal law and procedure guarantees like ne bis in idem, the principle of legality, the right to a court established by law as well as the right to an effective defence are jeopardised. On the other, the Member States involved often have a legitimate interest in prosecution—or non-prosecution—and risk to spend their financial and personnel resources for ineffective parallel proceedings. In order to avoid conflicts of criminal jurisdiction, various models are conceivable. However, the most convincing one—according to the author’s opinion—builds upon a combination of different elements: a hierarchy of jurisdictional links should form the basis, but it would have to be complemented with provisions allowing for more flexibility in precisely defined circumstances. With this in mind, this article calls for the adoption of an EU regulation in order to solve the most urgent problems arising from conflicts of criminal jurisdiction and makes concrete suggestions as to its drafting.

  19. International Political Actorness of the European Union: Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GNATYUK N.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a completely new international entity which is hard to evaluate using traditional criteria of political actorness. Its active international presence stimulates the modeling of international actor features beyond the scope of “state-international organization” scheme. The concept of international actorness serves as a starting point for the development of appropriate analytical model. Unlike the traditional state-centered approaches which define an international actor through its affiliation witch the international system, this concept operates at the internal level of international entity and at the international structure level. Furthermore, both of these levels are treated as ontologically neutral and mutually constitutive. This basic theoretical scheme is used for elaboration of evaluation criteria of political actorness. The proposed system of criteria is based on drawing, synthesizing and developing the main writings on “new international actors” since the times of classic work by Carol A. Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett. The key elements of actorness assessed in this article include defining of capacity to act on the global scene as well as the acceptance by other actors and by international system as a whole. At the internal level, the EU’s actor capacity is measured by assessing its core elements ranging from core aspects, such as autonomy, authority, actor capability, coherence and cohesion to identity aspects. On the external level, the decisive criteria are recognition and acceptance by others which reflect expectations and perceptions of the EU. The proposed approach of evaluating the international actorness enables us to consider the political activity of the EU on the basis of coordinated system of interaction between the variables of international and domestic levels of the analysis. Furthermore, this contributes to the development of cumulative, coherent, and comprehensive theory of international

  20. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  1. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavličević, Ivančica; Barać, Lana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at synthesizing funding opportunities in the field of family medicine by determining the number of family medicine projects, as well as number of project leaderships and/ or participations by each country. This was done in order to encourage inclusion of physicians in countries with underdeveloped research networks in successful research networks or to encourage them to form new ones. We searched the Community Research and Development Information Service project database in February 2013. Study covered the period from years 1992 - 2012, selecting the projects within the field of general/family medicine. The search was conducted in February 2013. First search conducted in the CORDIS database came up with a total of 466 projects. After excluding 241 projects with insufficient data, we analysed 225 remaining projects; out of those, 22 (9.8%) were in the field of family medicine and 203 (90.2%) were from other fields of medicine. Sorted by the number of projects per country, Dutch institutions had the highest involvement in family medicine projects and were partners or coordinators in 18 out of 22 selected projects (81.8%), followed by British institutions with 15 (68.8%), and Spanish with 10 projects (45.5%). Croatia was a partner in a single FP7 Health project. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union show significant differences between countries. Constant and high-quality international cooperation in family medicine is the prerequisite for improvement and development of scientific research and the profession. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. Budget perspective in Croatia after accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon accession to the European Union, the New Member State’s budget undergoes significant structural changes due to the appearance of new categories of revenues and expenditures. The aim of this paper is to estimate the possible effects of Croatian membership in the EU on changes in the structure and size of budget revenues and expenditures upon the country’s accession to the EU in the second half of 2013, as well as to indicate the possibilities for utilization of EU funds in the new financial perspective up to 2020. It is shown that in 2013 Croatia might realize a positive net financial position in transactions with the EU budget in the amount of approximately 0.28% of GDP, i.e. EUR 136 m. The total net financial position of Croatia due to EU accession, which includes some additional costs and benefits like different harmonization and the need for project co-financing at state and local levels, is also positive in 2013 and amounts to approximately 0.15% of GDP or equivalently EUR 72 m. Total amount of all funds that Croatia might receive in the new EU financial perspective covering the period from 2014 to 2020 amounts to EUR 6.34 bn, whereby annual amounts increase from EUR 0.7 bn in 2014 up to EUR 1.2 bn in 2020. By using exponential regression analysis it is estimated that in 2020 Croatia should be a net recipient of funds from the EU budget in total amount of 1.72% of GDP, i.e. EUR 1.13 bn.

  3. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Pavličević

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed at synthesizing funding opportunities in the field of family medicine by determining the number of family medicine projects, as well as number of project leaderships and/ or participations by each country. This was done in order to encourage inclusion of physicians in countries with underdeveloped research networks in successful research networks or to encourage them to form new ones. Methods. We searched the Community Research and Development Information Service project database in February 2013. Study covered the period from years 1992 – 2012, selecting the projects within the field of general/family medicine. The search was conducted in February 2013. Results. First search conducted in the CORDIS database came up with a total of 466 projects. After excluding 241 projects with insufficient data, we analysed 225 remaining projects; out of those, 22 (9.8% were in the field of family medicine and 203 (90.2% were from other fields of medicine. Sorted by the number of projects per country, Dutch institutions had the highest involvement in family medicine projects and were partners or coordinators in 18 out of 22 selected projects (81.8%, followed by British institutions with 15 (68.8%, and Spanish with 10 projects (45.5%. Croatia was a partner in a single FP7 Health project. Conclusion. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union show significant differences between countries. Constant and high-quality international cooperation in family medicine is the prerequisite for improvement and development of scientific research and the profession.

  4. Spatial planning in the European Union and the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skatershchikov S. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the principles of spatial planning, which form the basis for this type of urban development in the countries of the European Union (EU and in the Russian Federation. The following principles are considered and compared for both territories: 1 promotion of territorial cohesion through a more balanced social and economic development of regions and improved competitiveness; 2 encouragement of development generated by urban functions and improvement of the relationship between the town and countryside; 3 promotion of more balanced accessibility; 4 development of access to information and knowledge; 5 reduction of environmental damage; 6 enhancement and protection of natural resources and natural heritage; 7 enhancement of cultural heritage as a factor for development; 8 developing energy resources while maintaining safety; 9 encouragement of highquality, sustainable tourism. An efficiency analysis of these principles showed that the level of their application for ensuring sustainable development differs. It is a result of the significant differences in natural and socio-economic conditions of sustainable development in these countries, as well as different experiences and traditions in the space-time dimension. In most EU countries, ministries of spatial planning were established as early as the 1960s; in the Russian Federation, such authority still does not exist. The coordination of spatial development by the Russian Ministry of Regional Development is of fragmentary nature; therefore, at the moment, the efficiency of spatial planning is rather low. The authors find it necessary to adopt EU practices of urban planning in view of the Russian spatial potential.

  5. REAL CONVERGENCE OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA TOWARDS THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mahmutović

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The entire process of Bosnia and Herzegovina's path to European integration so far, is mostly limited to the problems of achieving political consensus, neglecting the essence and purpose of the integration process, which is primarily reflected in achieving the real convergence of Bosnia and Herzegovina towards the EU. The absence of real convergence, and adequate preparation in terms of competitiveness of the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina for the EU membership, can cause negative effects of integration.Considering that there has not yet been written any paper that questions the lack of real convergence, primarily GDP p.c., and that a complete analysis of economic criteria is reduced to the Progress Reports of Bosnia and Herzegovina towards the EU, which summarize the fulfillment of the economic criteria of Bosnia and Herzegovina for the EU membership without concrete suggestions for improvement, this paper analyzes the real convergence of Bosnia and Herzegovina towards the European Union, observed through the income level p.c., prices and productivity of the labor force.The analysis showed that there is a sigma convergence of Bosnia and Herzegovina towards the EU in the movement of GDP p.c., which is reflected in the reduction of the coefficient of variation of the observed parameter in the period from 2000 to 2015 from 89.8% to 85.3%, which is a decrease in the coefficient of variation for 4 , 5 p.p. for 16 years.In the observed period there was an increase in the absolute GDP p.c. gap, which means that Bosnia and Herzegovina must increase the rate of economic growth in the coming period, in order to stop the relative decrease in the standard of living in relation to the EU.In addition, the analysis of sigma convergence has shown that there are sigma divergent trends in the movement of productivity and price level of Bosnia and Herzegovina in relation to productivity and price level at the EU level.It is expected that the price level in

  6. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  7. Financial support of the European Union in the process of modernization of agriculture in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    DARIUSZ KUSZ

    2014-01-01

    The integration of Poland and the European Union has substantially changed the conditions for the functioning of Polish agriculture, among others, financing for development and modernization. The aim of the study is to present and assess the level of financial support of the European Union in the process of modernization of farms in Poland. It points out the significant role of public support under the EU funds in the modernization of agriculture in Poland.

  8. Bildung in der Europaischen Union: Daten und Kennzahlen = Education across the European Union: Statistics and Indicators = Education dans L'Union Europeennee Statistiques et Indicateurs, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This publication provides comparable statistics and indicators on education across the 15 member states of the European Union. The main source of data is the joint UOE (UNESCO, Organisation for Economic Development, Eurostat) revised questionnaire on education statistics introduced in 1995. Educational attainment information draws on data from the…

  9. National And European Law: Problem Of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to one of the main problems for all integration communities –problem of implementation of the integration law norms in the national legal system of member states. Author, on the example of certain member states of the European Union considers mechanism of the European Union law action in it's member states. In the article constitutional norms of the number of member states which set a ratio of the national and European laws are analyzed. According to the principle of competence giving, member states voluntary transfer part of the competence to the European Union. Competences which are transferred to the member states are the competences of the European Union. In the course of research author investigates opinions of scientists and analyze regulations. Author pays separate attention to the question of the European Union creation. For example, author notes that consideration by the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe of the question of compliance of the Treaty to the Constitution of Germany became neither more nor less a most important milestone on the way of Treaty on the European Union ratification by Germany. In the decision on this matter Court defined a number of reference points for the purpose of possible excise if the European integration elimination out of those limits which are set for the government of Germany by its Constitution. The decision of the Constitutional Court of Germany though meant approval of the Treaty on the European Union in the political sense, it was nevertheless unambiguously directed against broad interpretation and federalist vision of the European integration. It is obvious that states, on the basis of constitutional norms may leave contracts that are burdensome for them. It concerns not only international treaties, but also Treaties of the European Union.

  10. PROBLEMS AND COSTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION EXPANSION WITH OVER 27 STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zaharioaie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Once on his way to enlargement, the European Union has taken a road of no return. History has shown that all candidate countries have become a point of EU Member States. The question thus is not where you go to the European Union enlargement, but how it will look after the enlargement of the Union politically, economically and socially. The objective of this paper is to analyze potential problems and costs of enlargement beyond the 27 states. Thus, we performed an analysis on the implications of enlargement to the Balkans to Asia Minor and even to the former Soviet bloc countries.

  11. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING TRANSLATION DIVERGENCES BETWEEN THE AUTHENTIC TEXTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When multiple legal orders and languages co-exist within a single legal regime, there is potential for divergences between the legal texts. The European Union represents on the international legal stage, the most ambitious linguistic project, integrating 28 Member States and 24 official languages. What we undertook with this study was to discover how the multilingual and multicultural environment of the European Union affects its legislative and judicial processes. We tried to argue the problem of translation divergences between the authentic texts of the European Union. Many questions arise. Is ‘controlled multilingualism’ the key to our problem? Is weak multilingualism the solution - especially that it is not new for the European construction? Should one language be chosen as the original? Of course that we have to see that multilingualism is an advantage, a blessing of the European Union and not an obstacle, a curse. We consider that, despite the various problems with the European multilingualism described in this study, it is unlikely that something would change in the foreseeable future. However, we consider that lawyers should research more in languages and legal interpretation. Interdisciplinary efforts could solve the multilingualism problems of the European Union. The present study is part of a more complex research on this theme and it is meant to approach certain important points of the master thesis prepared in Switzerland for a LL.M. program.

  12. Resources and the environment: Development trends in the European Union; Ressourcen und Umwelt - Entwicklungstendenzen in der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaechter, N. [Wirtschaftsvereinigung Bergbau e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    The 6th Environmental Programme of the European Union focuses on ecology, while economic and social aspects are largely neglected. Four priority fieds of action are defined: Climate; Nature and biological diversity; Environment, health and quality of life; Natural resources and waste. The contribution presents examples to show the effects on the German raw materials industry. [German] Die umweltpolitischen Zielsetzungen und Massnahmen, welche die Europaeische Union innerhalb der naechsten zehn Jahre verwirklichen will, werden in dem 6. Umweltaktionsprogramm konkretisiert. Die Ziele und Massnahmen sind fast ausschliesslich auf die oekologische Ebene ausgerichtet, ohne die gleichrangigen oekonomischen und sozialen Belange angemessen zu beruecksichtigen. Das Programm konzentriert sich auf 4 prioritaere Aktionsbereiche - Klimaaenderungen. Natur und biologische Vielfalt, Umwelt, Gesundheit und Lebensqualitaet und Natuerliche Ressourcen und Abfaelle. An wenigen, ausgewaehlten Beispielen soll verdeutlicht werden, welche Auswirkungen diese Entwicklungstendenzen der Europaeischen Union auf die deutsche Rohstoffwirtschaft haben koennten. (orig.)

  13. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, L; Pozio, E; Boes, J; Boireau, P; Boué, F; Claes, M; Cook, A J C; Dorny, P; Enemark, H L; van der Giessen, J; Hunt, K R; Howell, M; Kirjusina, M; Nöckler, K; Rossi, P; Smith, G C; Snow, L; Taylor, M A; Theodoropoulos, G; Vallée, I; Viera-Pinto, M M; Zimmer, I A

    2011-05-01

    Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations. This imposes large economic costs on countries, yet the vast majority of these pigs test negative and the public health risk in many countries is therefore considered very low. This work reviewed the current Trichinella status across the EU as well as the national level of monitoring and reporting. It also reviewed which animal species were affected by Trichinella and in which species it should be surveyed. This information was used to design a cost-effective surveillance programme that enables a standardised monitoring approach within the EU. The proposed surveillance programme relies on identifying sub-populations of animals with a distinct risk. Low-risk pigs are finisher pigs that originate from so-called controlled housing. All other pigs are considered high-risk pigs. Controlled housing is identified by the application of a specific list of management and husbandry practices. We suggest that member states (MS) be categorised into three classes based on the confidence that Trichinella can be considered absent, in the specified sub-population of pigs above a specified design prevalence which we set to 1 per million pigs. A simple and transparent method is proposed to estimate this confidence, based on the sensitivity of the surveillance system, taking into account the sensitivity of testing and the design prevalence. The probability of detecting a positive case, if present, must be high (>95 or >99%) to ensure that there is a low or negligible risk of transmission to humans through the food chain. In MS where the probability of a positive pig is demonstrated to be negligible, testing of fattening pigs from a sub-population consisting of pigs from controlled housing can be considered unnecessary. Furthermore, reduced testing of finishers from the sub-population consisting of pigs from non-controlled housing might even be

  14. Low Emission Energy Scenarios for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Mark (Complex Environment Systems Group, Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, Univ. College London (GB))

    2007-12-15

    Energy consumption is a major cause of carbon dioxide emission, and also largely determines the uncontrolled emissions of many other pollutants. In consequence, energy scenarios are key inputs to the projection of pollution emission, and the formulation of strategies to reduce pollution and achieve environmental objectives. Alternative energy strategies including behavioral change, demand management, energy efficiency, and low carbon fuels are explored in this report. In addition to abating greenhouse gas emissions, these strategies can facilitate cheaper and greater abatement of other atmospheric pollutants as compared to higher carbon scenarios. In general, achieving a given air pollution emission target costs less in a low carbon scenario than in a high carbon scenario. This work is aimed at producing policies that exploit the positive synergy between strategies to limit global warming, and strategies for reaching other environmental objectives such as reduced acidification and improved air quality. Low carbon energy scenarios can improve energy security by reducing the consumption if finite fuels and reducing import requirements. The given objective was to produce scenarios in which the total emission of carbon dioxide from the twenty-five countries of the European Union is reduced by at least 30% over the period 1990 to 2020. To this end scenarios have been produced for each of the twenty-five EU countries taking into account recent historical data and assumed economic and population growths taken from other studies, and selections of policies measures. The scenarios show that, as compared to 1990, CO{sub 2} reductions of more than 30% are feasible by 2020, and that larger reductions are possible, especially in the longer term as technologies with long lifetimes such as power stations, are replaced. Data from the energy scenarios were input to the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model of IIASA (International Institute for

  15. Management of landfill leachate: The legacy of European Union Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Morrison, L; Hynes, S; Norton, D; Clifford, E

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachate is the product of water that has percolated through waste deposits and contains various pollutants, which necessitate effective treatment before it can be released into the environment. In the last 30years, there have been significant changes in landfill management practices in response to European Union (EU) Directives, which have led to changes in leachate composition, volumes produced and treatability. In this study, historic landfill data, combined with leachate characterisation data, were used to determine the impacts of EU Directives on landfill leachate management, composition and treatability. Inhibitory compounds including ammonium (NH4-N), cyanide, chromium, nickel and zinc, were present in young leachate at levels that may inhibit ammonium oxidising bacteria, while arsenic, copper and silver were present in young and intermediate age leachate at concentrations above inhibitory thresholds. In addition, the results of this study show that while young landfills produce less than 50% of total leachate by volume in the Republic of Ireland, they account for 70% of total annual leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) load and approximately 80% of total 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N loads. These results show that there has been a decrease in the volume of leachate produced per tonne of waste landfilled since enactment of the Landfill Directive, with a trend towards increased leachate strength (particularly COD and BOD5) during the initial five years of landfill operation. These changes may be attributed to changes in landfill management practices following the implementation of the Landfill Directive. However, this study did not demonstrate the impact of decreasing inputs of biodegradable municipal waste on leachate composition. Increasingly stringent wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) emission limit values represent a significant threat to the sustainability of co-treatment of leachate with municipal wastewater. In addition

  16. A Rough Orientation Through a Delicate Relationship: The European Union`s Endeavours for (its Minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Toggenburg

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between EC law and minority protection is ambiguous. EU law remains, at least prima facie, and in contrast to international law, silent on this topic. This is interesting as there exists a (supposed tension between the restricting character of some minority protecting measures and the liberalising effect of the fundamental freedoms of the EC treaty. The topic seems even more remarkable given the background of the upcoming Eastern enlargement. This contribution therefore examines, whether EU law contains commitments regarding (its minorities, which could point at the possible establishment of a common principle of law in the area of minority protection (a latter would diminish the mentioned tension.

  17. Slovenia and the formation of sustainable developmental strategy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Plut

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the environmental and developmental reasons, the European Union formed a new active environmental programme in the jirst half of the nineties, which proceeds from the paradigm of sustainable development. Presented are the environmental aims, basic components and Instruments of sustainable environmental programme of the EU and the problems ofadapting Slovenia to European environmental-developmental trends.

  18. Twenty Years of European Union Support to Gene Therapy and Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancberg, David

    2017-11-01

    For 20 years and throughout its research programmes, the European Union has supported the entire innovation chain for gene transfer and gene therapy. The fruits of this investment are ripening as gene therapy products are reaching the European market and as clinical trials are demonstrating the safety of this approach to treat previously untreatable diseases.

  19. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Agricultural topsoils of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix Da Graca Silva, V.A.; Montanarella, L.; Jones, Arwyn; Fernandez-Ugalde, Oihane; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated

  20. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Agricultural topsoils of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix Da Graca Silva, V.A.; Montanarella, L.; Jones, Arwyn; Fernandez-Ugalde, Oihane; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2018-01-01

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated

  1. Plastic surgery in the European Union: A study of development, training, manpowerplanning and migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Tan (King Hoen)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study is to clarify the role of plastic surgery in the European Union (the former European Connnnnity). The idea is that this will lead to a better understanding of the specialty among laymen., colleagnes and healthcare officials. To this end, the historical development

  2. Some Fiscal Issues of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2015-01-01

    The principles embodied in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union also affect daily fiscal life. Their significance increases as the European Court of Justice (ECJ) applies them in judgments on tax matters, including related penalties. The author reacts to some fiscally relevant

  3. STUDY REGARDING THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR FRESH MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanciu, S

    2013-01-01

    The European Union is by far the biggest importer of food worldwide. Import rulesfor meat and meat products are fully harmonized and the European Commissionacts as the competent authority on behalf of the 25 Member States. The EUCommission is the sole negotiating partner for all non-EU countries in questionsrelated to import conditions for meat and meat products.

  4. The Revenge of Europe: NATO and the Transatlantic Relationship in the Era of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    But then there was 2003, the EU’s annus horribilis . In February, simmering inter-European tensions boiled over after most of the candidates EU...Union does not constitute a new type of polity that transcends nationalism. The EU merely moves nationalism to a different locus —a European center

  5. Economic separatism in the European Union member states as a factor of regional security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Shakhina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the economic separatism problem in the European Union member states. It considers specific of the regional separatist movements as exemplified by the conflicts in Scotland, Catalonia, Bavaria, Flanders. Various points of view on the relevance of the budgetary separatism for the European integration process are given in the article.

  6. European Union Council Directive 2009/71/EURATOM; Directiva 2009/71/Euratom del Consejo de la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butragueno, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Summary of Directive 2009/71, approved by the European Union on June 25th last. This text establishes a new Community framework for the safety of nuclear facilities and includes an analysis of issues such as the reactivation of nuclear programmes, the extension of the operating lifetime of the plants beyond their theoretical period of service and the need for safety requirements accepted by all the Member States. (Author)

  7. ROMANIA – RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS AFTER 10 YEARS FROM JOINING THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra STĂNCIULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On the 1st of January 2017, Romania celebrated 10 years of being a member of the European Union. The European Union is both, a major and important subject of international law and an international organization, which created a legal system that regulates economic, political and social issues, binding 28 members. The main purposes of becoming a part of the European family include a significant growth of living standards, a strong accent on the respect of fundamental rights and equity between the citizens of the European Union, of social politics, environment protection and nevertheless support in developing a countryâ s economy. After the fall of communism, Romania saw the opportunity of becoming a member of the European Union and started the long process of joining this organization. After 10 years from the completion of the accession process, the results can be interesting. So, the purpose of the following paper is to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of being a member of the European Union and the objectives are to determine which were the conditions that Romania had to fulfill in order to become a EU member, how this membership changed our legal system, which are our rights and obligations as a EU member today and which are the effects from 2007 and now.

  8. The Policies of the Tourısm in European Union and Cultural Tourism in Turkiye

    OpenAIRE

    EMEKLİ, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    The countries of the European Union have the feautures which play a powerful role in the historical development of world tourism and which lead the world tourism. In the adaptation process from the European Economic Community to the European Union, it is thought that tourism has a role which provides and accelarates the social cultural unity. Especially by forming a united tourism policy, getting inter-culturally closer and a multi-cultural social gathering by means of tourism is aimed.In thi...

  9. A Study of Milk Support Policies in the European Union and in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Toplu YILMAZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of milk support policy in the European Union and in Turkey. Turkey’s adaptation of its milk policy to the Common Agricultural Policy of European Union is on the agenda since Turkey has been a candidate country in 1999. Regarding that the Common Agricultural Policy has been reformed many times, Turkey has to adapt its milk sector to a changing policy. Turkey, on the other hand, pursues different support policy in the milk sector. The producers, who are registered in the Farming Registration System, receive milk incentive premiums. There are no similarities between Turkish milk support policy and European Union’s milk support policy. According to the last progress reports, Turkey has to improve Farming Registration System. Turkey has to adjust milk production process to the European Union standards. Furthermore, in the accession process, Turkey plans to increase consumption and also needs to promote milk and milk products producers’ organizations.

  10. The EU and ‘Enlargement Fatigue’: Why Has the European Union Not Been Able to Counter ‘Enlargement Fatigue’?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szolucha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an up-to-date overview of the problems connected with European integration. It focuses on the phenomenon of ‘enlargement fatigue’ and examines its meaning as utilised by the media, EU officials and academics. The article argues that ‘enlargement fatigue’ is not a new concept since the EU has witnessed many 'symptoms' of fatigue at multiple times in its history. The two main arguments that are often presented in order to explain why the EU has not been able to counter ‘enlargement fatigue’, namely the insufficiently tight conditionality applied to prospective members and the EU's crisis of confidence and accountability after the failed attempt to introduce the Constitutional Treaty and prolonged Lisbon Treaty ratification process, are insufficient to explain why fatigue has been so persistent a phenomenon. This article argues that the EU's failure to develop a new vision of the organisation and adjust its structural design accordingly is a reason why the Union has not dealt successfully with fatigue. Such a vision would encompass notions of “variable geometry”, “avant-garde groups” and make European borders flexible and fuzzy.

  11. Oral surgery in the European Union: challenges of diversity in training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseripour, M N; Hervé, C; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-02-01

    At the crossroads of medicine and dentistry, oral surgery with orthodontics are the only recognised dental specialties by the European Union. The goal of our study is to evaluate the current state of oral surgery in Europe from its teaching to its practice, the hypothesis being that a notable diversity persists despite European Union harmonisation process. To understand the impact of this diversity applied to European Union freedom of movement and its ethical implications for the practice of oral surgery, English and French questionnaires were sent by email to universities and organisations delivering authorisation to practise in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom chosen based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. An analysis of documents on these organisations' official websites was also conducted. Demographic information was obtained from the aforementioned organisations. The profile of practising oral surgeons is different dependent on the country. The university and hospital trainings conform to European recommendations and span 3-4 years. European Board certification is not required. Continuing education is mandatory only in France, Germany and United Kingdom. As for curricula and scope of practice, no consensus can be derived. There is potential conflict of interest between European Union principles of freedom of movement and protection of all citizens, as member countries do not uniformly apply Directives and recommendations. A new survey of all European Union oral surgery programmes as well as organisations delivering authorisation to practise is necessary to implement across the board harmonisation of training and practice to insure patient safety in light of the migration of European Union practitioners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  13. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  14. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. PMID:28703098

  15. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  16. THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR SEAFOOD AND OTHER FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STANCIU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is by far the world’s biggest importer of fish, seafood andaquaculture products. Import rules for these products are harmonized, meaning thatthe same rules apply in all EU countries. For non-EU countries the EuropeanCommission is the negotiating partner that defines import conditions andcertification requirements. Also, for most countries with existing trade, the EuropeanCommission negotiates on behalf of the 27 Member States.

  17. Arrangement of functioning of shadow banking in Poland and in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Huterska; Robert Huterski

    2012-01-01

    Threats related to improper regulation of shadow banking institutions apply as well to their customers as to whole financial system. It is perceived by financial authorities in Poland (Polish Financial Supervision Authority, the National Bank of Poland), and in the European Union (European Commission, European Central Bank), and also globally (Financial Stability Board). However, the task of proper regulation of shadow banking activities is already in early stage of completion and still requi...

  18. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Agricultural topsoils of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Da Graca Silva, V.A.; Montanarella, L.; JONES Arwyn; Fernandez-Ugalde, Oihane; Mol, J.G.J.; C. J. Ritsema; GEISSEN, V.

    2017-01-01

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated information is available for European soils. We provide the first large-scale assessment of distribution (occurrence and concentrations) of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid ...

  19. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in agricultural topsoils of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA VERA; MONTANARELLA LUCA; JONES ARWYN; FERNANDEZ UGALDE OIHANE; MOL HANS; RITSEMA COEN J.; GEISSEN VIOLETTE

    2017-01-01

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated information is available for European soils. We provide the first large-scale assessment of distribution (occurrence and concentrations) of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid ...

  20. THE DILEMMA BETWEEN LEGITIMATE AND FUNCTIONAL LAW IN THE EUROPEAN UNION : How the Greeks and a Financial Crisis Undermine the European Regulatory State

    OpenAIRE

    Mckeighen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Many scholars have advanced theories concerning the so-called democracy deficit in the European Union. The global financial crisis and the sovereign debt crisis in Europe has given a new perspective on how to view these theories, particularly the argument proffered by Giandomenico Majone that the European Union should be judged as a regulatory state. The two crises in Europe have cast doubt on the ability of the European Union as a regulatory state to legitimately engage in functional rule ...

  1. UNDERSTANDING THE TREATY OF LISBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive H. Church

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon comes at a time of continuing lack of agreement about its significance thus justifying a new and less polarized assessment. The article looks at previous assessments, including those that see the Treaty as a major breakthrough for efficiency backed by a new political dynamic and as the unnecessary and undemocratic imposition of a superstate and noxious policies. The article assesses the status, structure and style of the treaty and its contents, highlighting its provisions on values and rights, powers and policies, institutional changes, democratization and enhanced external activity. These, like assessments of the treaty, are often contradictory and point to the fact that Lisbon was yet another compromise document and not a master blueprint. Hence the resulting Union is likely to be a messy hybrid, being legalistic, lacking a single power centre, uncertainly democratic and enshrining more constructive ambiguity.

  2. European Union and the Smart Borders Package: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Valkama, Tuuli

    2017-01-01

    The European Commission suggested in 2008 that the EU border management should take a step forward to combat organised crime and illegal immigration. In 2013 the European Commission published its legislative proposal on the European Smart Borders package for automated border controls. The legislative proposal included three regulations: (1) a proposal to establish the Entry/Exit System that would automatically alert the authorities if a visa holder has exceed his/her stay; (2) a proposal...

  3. The energy title in the Lisbon Treaty. Old wine in new bottles; Der Energietitel im Vertrag von Lissabon. Alter Wein in neuen Schlaeuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenkort, Katja [Bundesministerium des Innern, Berlin (Germany); Wellershoff, Jan-Kristof [Sozietaet Gleiss Lutz, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union establishes the first ever explicit title of competence in the history of European community law authorising the promulgation of measures in the energy sector. Since the expiry of the ECSC Treaty, and with the exception of the regulations contained in the Euroatom Treaty, there has been no competence title authorising the European Union to enact regulations in the area of energy policy. Although such measures were taken nonetheless, they were enacted by the European Community on the basis of various unspecific competence titles. This gave currency to the expression of ''patchwork competence'' in regard to Europe's authority in the energy sector. This article analyses the new title of competence, marking it off against other regulations relating to the energy sector.

  4. A Market for Company Incorporations in the European Union?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)......The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)...

  5. The outlook for Southern Africa in light of the new framework of trade relations with the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bidaurrazaga Aurre

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of so-called globalization, we find ourselves in a process of liberalization of the goods and services market resulting from various regional integration projects as well as the process of multilateral liberalization managed within the GATT-WTO framework.This process has coincided with the recent expiration of the accords regulating, among other things, the trade relations of the African, Caribbean, Pacific countries with the European Union as part of the latter’s cooperation for development policy established in line with the Lomé Accords. The countries of Southern Africa have experienced this process of revitalization in a particularly intense manner since the end of the apartheid era and the South Africa’s subsequent repositioning in the regional and international context. South Africa’s participation in a number of the regional groups that coexist on the subcontinent (principally, the SACU and the SADC, its signing of the free trade treaty with the EU, and the recent Cotonou Agreement on the basis of respect for the GATT-WTO rules mean reconfigure not just the trade relations of the region’s economiesamong themselves but also those with the former colonial powers and raise a series of unknowns for their future as they move down the road toward development.

  6. Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of ‘diffusion theory’ — meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations — we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways — active and passive — of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization’s structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union’s own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts. PMID:29400350

  7. An Empirical Assessment of Economic and Political Challenges of European Union Accession

    OpenAIRE

    Melikyan, Davit N.; Tamazian, Artur

    2010-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union was an exceptional experiment in the economic history of the world, which made the post-socialist countries the subject of various economic studies. Different researchers and organizations tend to monitor the progress of economic and institutional reforms through inventing different indexes (indicators), apparently trying to understand how to detect the end of the transition process. The European Union, opening its door to accession candidates and starting neg...

  8. INSPIRE Harmonisation of existing Energy Performance Certificate datasets: European Union Location Framework Energy Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    MARTIRANO GIACOMO; Pignatelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The European Union is giving more and more emphasis to its energy policies, whose strategy and actions are included in the Energy Union Package and the 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy. Buildings in which people live and work are responsible for an important portion of the energy consumption in Europe (approximately 40% of the primary energy consumption) and there are several policies and initiatives that are aiming at improving their energy performance. In particular, the Energy Perf...

  9. The European Union and armed drones: framing the debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    drones have been active, the US use of European-originated intelligence to execute targeted killings, and the broader status of international law, are developments that illustrate the importance of the topic. Yet, the EU still does not have an official position on armed drones. In 2014 the European...

  10. Introduction: The Nordic Regions and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2004-01-01

    The structure of the book is presented as well as a diskussion of Europeanization, which may be percieved as passive, mental or active. The frame for the comparative part is presented.......The structure of the book is presented as well as a diskussion of Europeanization, which may be percieved as passive, mental or active. The frame for the comparative part is presented....

  11. THE PECULIARITIES OF THE INCIDENCE OF NON-REFUNDABLE FUNDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Moisescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary period is cardinal, especially for the European citizens, potential and active economic agents, to be aware of the opportunities offered by the unique partnership called European Union. The allocation of funding to European Union member states and their absorption capacity is a current topic of great significance in the context of globalization, so that European cohesion implies the existence of grants and the appearance of inherent controversies. In this way, we considered opportune a comparative study between Romania and the other representative countries. So far, Romania has absorbed only 10% of the total funds provided by the European Union for the financial year 2007-2013. Given the gap with the developed countries of the Community, this percentage is not justified, drawing attention in a negative way towards Romanian state. Thus, this facet of Romania enables us to analyze the issue of low absorption rate of European Union funds. As the next trance of EU funds is coming, scheduled during the years 2014-2020, we intend to illustrate viable, propitious solutions to eradicate vicissitudes for the purpose of building a transparent and competitive environment for accessing grants.

  12. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  13. THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND LATIN AMERICA. THE PERUVIAN AND MEXICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manrique de LUNA BARRIOS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has signed a number of free trade agreements with different countries in Latin America because it is aware of the great importance that this region has gained as a destination for its exports and investments. Furthermore, the European Union wishes to reaffirm its ties with countries in the region because it hopes to consolidate its political and economic position as an international player with its presence in those markets. In this paper we will discuss the free trade agreements that the EU has signed with Mexico and later with Peru, because they are two examples where Latin American countries have achieved significant economic growth and where the trade has generated significant benefits. Additionally they are two major trading partners of the European Union and they have allowed the EU to continue to expand its zone of influence in Latin America.

  14. Finance of the Municipal Sector in Comparison with Public Finance of the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Alińska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general financial situation of municipal government in the European Union countries seems to be very good. The dynamics of tax income value growth achieved by local and regional authorities considerably exceed the figures characterizing the all public sector. Moreover, municipal authorities at the local and regional level are a leading public investor in many EU countries, they finance 69,3% of all public investments in average in all EU. Besides the value of their budget deficits, at the level of 0,2% GDP, and also their share in values of the national debt at the level of 5,8% GDP the European Union can be qualified as safe having no negative impact on getting positive economic effects in many countries of the European Union.

  15. RECONCILIATION OF LANGUAGE VERSIONS WITH DIVERGING MEANINGS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As emphasized in a study published last year, when multiple legal orders and languages co-exist within a single legal regime, there is potential for divergences between the legal texts. The European Union gives rise to such divergences, having in mind that it integrates 28 Member States and 24 official languages. After discovering how the multilingual and multicultural environment of the European Union affects its legislative and judicial processes and arguing the problem of translation divergences between the authentic texts of the European Union, it is nowadays our concern to analyse the reconciliation of language versions with diverging meanings in the EU legal order. The present study is part of a more complex research on this theme and it is meant to approach certain important points of the master thesis prepared in Switzerland for a LL.M. program.

  16. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  17. Nuclear weapons and European interests : Discussions in the Assembly of the Western European Union, 1955–1975

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, C.M

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s the Defence Committee of the Western European Union (WEU) Assembly submitted a series of conspicuous reports on nuclear control issues, culminating in a plea for an Atlantic nuclear force. The article analyses the reports and discussions in the Assembly in the field of defence

  18. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Bauman, A.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States.

  19. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  20. Impact assessment tools for policy makers on the European and national level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.E.; van der Kolk, M.

    2017-01-01

    Since the Treaty of Maastricht (1992), every person holding the nationality of a European Union (EU) Member State is automatically a citizen of the EU and is granted an additional set of rights. In 2007, the Lisbon Treaty strengthened EU citizenship by making the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights

  1. Art of disaster preparedness in European union: a survey on the health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-17

    Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal. Disaster medicine; Disaster preparedness

  2. THE "E TRIANGLE": EMPLOYMENT, EMPLOYEE AND EMPLOYER IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest forces of the European Union is its people, people living and working within this Union. This stands not only for the European Union but for every state, as it is well known that people are the ones that can make a state great or poor. For this reason, the matters regarding labor are a continuous concern both for European Union common institutions as well as for every individual state of the European Union. The main interest, on both sides, is to ensure the best for every part involved in labor process because this means, in the end, added value for everyone. The article focuses on the realities as well as on the expectations regarding the labor field highlighting the most preeminent aspects of the so called "E triangle": employment, employee and employer starting with the most needed definition for each and every one of the above going towards even to proposing remedies for the "spots" needing improvement.

  3. Minority Protection in the European Union: From Economic Rights to the Protection of European Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, C.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Minority protection did not receive attention in the original EC treaty of 1956. The concept of nondiscrimination of laborers and later of EU citizens became the cornerstone for minority protection. Gradually the EU became familiar with the concept of human rights because of judgments of the

  4. Bütünleşme Kuramlarının Avrupa Birliği Genişlemesine Bakışı(The View of Integration Theories on European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kutay AYTUĞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement, which is on the agenda of European Union since Rome Treaty, is one of the most important political agents. Enlargements, each of which has been carefully devised, canvassed and implemented within the historical process, have been analysed by theories and approaches which try to explain European integration. The Union, on the one hand enlarges, on the other hand attempts to deepen. The theories and approaches which try to explain that process have been developed and diversified with the Union’s evolution. Though such theories are sometimes seen as they compete with each other, actually they complement each other and partly overlap. The aim of this study is to assess views of the following theories and approaches on enlargement: federalism, neo-functionalism, liberal intergovernmentalism, multi level governance, new institutionalism, social constructivism and to display Central and Eastern Europe enlargement from viewpoints of different theories.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a statistical and economic analysis of the tax system of Romania in the last decade, as well as comparisons with the other states of the European Union. The overall tax ratio of Romania, i.e. the sum of taxes and social security contributions in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, is the lowest in the European Union. Considering the fact that the GDP value, that constitutes the denominator of the overall tax ratio, includes estimates of production by the informal sector (the “grey” and “black” economy, this reduction can be explained not only by tax reductions, but also by the high tax evasion.

  6. ANALYTICAL AND COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EDUCATIONAL POLICIES IN HEALTH EDUCATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Monsalve; Jose Gallego; Jose Manuel Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a comparative study of material Educational Policies in Health Education in the countries of the European Union for the purpose of seeing take shape in Spain. The EU legislation states that if you want to advance as a knowledge society and compete effectively in a global economy, Europe is vital to have an education and training of high quality. In the European Union, education policy is the responsibility of each country, but among all set common goals and share best pr...

  7. The European Union and the Search for an International Data Protection Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuner, Christopher Barth

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has supported the growing calls for the creation of an international legal framework to safeguard data protection rights. At the same time, it has worked to spread its data protection law to other regions, and recent judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union...... (CJEU) have reaffirmed the autonomous nature of EU law and the primacy of EU fundamental rights law. The tension between initiatives to create a global data protection framework and the assertion of EU data protection law raises questions about how the EU can best promote data protection on a global...

  8. ANTI-CORRUPTION AND ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING MECHANISMS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Puzyrev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article based on an integrated approach to developed within the European Union mechanisms of preventing crimes, which affect the financial interests of the EU. In terms of specific examples the legal basis of anti-corruption interaction, especially the structural building of the basic institutions of the European Union, are analyzed. The article discusses the information potential to facilitate the implementation of effective cooperation among the competent authorities in the sphere of combating corruption, fraud, money laundering and other economic crimes.

  9. Obesity in Europe: the strategy of the European Union from a public health law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeh, Andrea

    2012-03-01

    In 2007 the European Commission published a White Paper on a "Strategy on nutrition, overweight and obesity", proposing measures to impede the current trend towards a steady gain in weight by Union citizens. In this article, these ideas are discussed critically in the light of the competences of the Union and from a public health law perspective, in order to scrutinise the effectiveness of the measures and to identify shortcomings in the White Paper. One focus of this article will be European food legislation, as food is one of the leading causes of people being overweight or obese.

  10. The European Union's Role in the Development of Global Environmental Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law.......This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law....

  11. The European Union Perception of Cuba : From Frustation to Irritation

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Joaquín

    2003-01-01

    On Friday May 16, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cuba summoned the newly-appointed charged’affairs of the European Commission in Havana and announced the withdrawal of the application procedure for membership in the Cotonou Agreement of the Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries, and in fact renouncing to benefit from European development aid.1 In a blistering note published in the Granma official newspaper of the Cuban Communist Party, the government blamed the EU Commission for ...

  12. Member States’ liability for judicial error resulting in breaches of European Union Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamt Valentin Paul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the remedies available to persons whose European law rights have been infringed by judgments given by national Courts. The paper firsts presents the concept of state liability for judicial errors in relation to European law, as it stems from the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, then goes on to show how the European Court of Human Rights may give redress to such aggrieved parties. Finally, it discusses the differences in the possibility of redress given by the two courts and the compatibility between their approaches, finally leading to a discussion on the possible convergence of the two.

  13. MIGRATION INTEGRATION AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Daniela FERARU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International migration, together with economic and financial crisis or the different socio-economic development of Member States, is a serious threat to security in Europe. Population migration as a threatening factor, places the European Union in the face of a decision to establish clear policies for the establishment of a climate of external security, both for the migrant population and for the rest of the population. All in all, this study will centre on the following hypothesis: the better we know the challenges of international migration in the European Union and its Member States the more the European policies to mitigate negative effects of the world will be diminished. The aim is to highlight aspects pertaining to migration integration as a factor of economic, social and regional development in the European Union, and less as a factor of destabilization and insecurity. In other words, a good knowledge of the phenomenon leads to drawing up effective policies to reduce hazards, risks, threats and negative effects that happen today due to the increasing number of immigrants. Finally, the study will present a series of conclusions, including on the work hypothesis verification and some proposals related to migration integration efficiency as a factor of regional and economic development in the European Union.

  14. Legitimate Rule in the European Union. The Academic Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Schimmelfennig, Frank

    1997-01-01

    Ein systematischer Überblick über die akademische Debatte der Legitimität des Regierens innerhalb der Europäischen Union. Die Debatte von 1991-1996 wird nach argumentationstheoretischem Konzept anhand deutscher und englischer Beiträgen analysiert. Drei kontroverse Theorien demokratischer Legitimität werden herausgearbeitet: die Theorie der 'input legitimacy' (dass die Politik den Bedürfnissen der Bürger entspricht), jene der 'output legitimacy' (dass politische Gleichheit und die Möglichkeit ...

  15. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.

  16. Freezing and Confiscating the Proceeds of Crime in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have conducted a brief examination of Directive 2014/42/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of April 3, 2014 on the freezing and confiscating the proceeds of crime committed in the European Union, an important legal instrument in the architecture of judicial cooperation in criminal matters within the Member States. This paper continues the research conducted in the field of judicial cooperation in criminal matters which have resulted in the publication of works in this area. The innovations of the paper are represented by the conducted examination, and the expressed critical opinions, opinions aimed at contributing to the improvement of European legislative system. The paper can be useful to academics and practitioners in the field of judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union.

  17. The Briand Plan of European Union Commented by the Interwar Romanian Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel Teodorascu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With each passing day, the construction called the European Union presents increasingly clear signs of disease. Something is not working and it is likely not to work anymore. For this reason, more and more resounding voices announce the decline of Europe. The Greek crisis, the Ukrainian crisis, the refugee crisis are just some of the issues that shows that countries that make up the European family (28 countries find it difficult to act as a whole. After the completion of the Second World War, Romania did not matter in any way in achieving the European family plans, entering in the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union. Things were not always this way. The plans for a federal state comprising the European countries have existed before the interwar period, as we shall see below. The years between the two world wars were marked by political debates on this theme, which have not been seen before.

  18. Jürgen Habermas, The crisis of the European Union: a response,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Dumitru DÎRDALĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During a lecture delivered in April 2013 at the University of Leuven, Jürgen Habermas deplored the fact that “[w]hat unite the European citizens today are the Eurosceptical mindsets that have become more pronounced in all of the member countries during the crisis” (Habermas, 2013. This is not the kind of unity that would satisfy a philosopher whose contributions to political theory have greatly contributed to the understanding of post-war European integration. As a social scientist and an influential public intellectual, Habermas felt it was his duty to respond to the current plight of the European Union. He has done it repeatedly, since the beginning of the financial crisis, and the most substantive effort was a book first published in his native Germany, and translated in English under the title The Crisis of the European Union. A Response.

  19. The Court of Justice of the European Union and Fixed-term Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Emmenegger, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    permanent workers and aims to prevent abuse of this contract form. Surprisingly, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) rulings in this area have by and large been neglected in comparative labour market research. We fill this gap by systematically analysing the CJEU case law concerning fixed......While fixed-term work benefits employers and increases the prospects of employability of various categories of workers, it is inherently precarious. The European Union (EU) directive on fixed-term work emphasizes the importance of equal treatment of workers on fixed-term contracts with comparable......-term work and connecting it to the literatures on labour market dualization and Europeanization of labour law. We develop an analytical framework to analyse the Europeanization of labour law, which we then use to analyse the directive and the case law regarding the directive on fixed-term work. Our findings...

  20. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  1. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  2. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  3. A União Européia: uma comunidade em construção The European Union: a community under construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia de Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O novo Tratado da União, o Tratado Reformador ou Tratado de Lisboa, aprovado na Cúpula Européia de Chefes de Estado e de Governo em outubro de 2007 durante a presidência de Portugal, abre um período de profunda reflexão sobre as razões que levaram a França e a Holanda a dizer "não" ao Tratado Constitucional apresentado à população em 2005 e sobre o novo rumo a ser tomado. Neste artigo, proponho-me a reconstituir o debate político-institucional que cercou esses dois momentos, debate profundamente influenciado pela incorporação ao espaço territorial da União Européia de 130 milhões de novos habitantes de diferentes procedências e identidades, o que certamente vai produzir um impacto crescente na distribuição de recursos políticos e econômicos e na percepção das diferentes identidades entre seus cidadãos. Tanto o debate normativo quanto o da diversidade cultural serão examinados à luz das principais teorias que cercam os estudos sobre a União Européia.The European Lisbon Treaty, approved by the European Council in October 2007 during the Portuguese presidency, opened a period of profound discussions about the reasons that led France and the Netherlands to reject in referenda the Constitutional Treaty presented to the population in 2005 as well about the new course that should be adopted in designing Union's new institutions. The present text summarizes the political-institutional debate that surrounded these two moments. This debate is affected by the incorporation of 130 million new European citizens from different origins and identities to the European Union territorial space, having a growing impact on political and economic resource distribution and on the perception of differences among the European population. Similarly to the normative debate, the cultural diversity will be examined in light of the main theories in the field of European studies.

  4. The European Union, Europe Direct Centres and Civil Society Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents and discusses the activities for civil society organizations developed by the Europe Direct centres of one member state, Italy. Specifically it explores the diverse range of activities that Italian Europe Direct centres put in place during 2007 and it identifies the extent...... to which these activities have contributed to the EU envisaged role of constructing a stronger civil society and enhancing citizens' interest and national debate for European issues. This study of the Italian European Direct activities is based on the findings of a project conducted in 2007 for the Italian...

  5. Offenses of Human Trafficking in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper there were briefly examined the trafficking in persons offenses the two European normative acts, namely the Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA and the Directive 2011/36UE, which repealed the first instrument, and some aspects of legal content of offenses of the two acts. The innovation and interest elements are represented by the comparative examination and highlighted by the incriminations development, thus identifying new ways to prevent and combat them. The work can be useful to those practicing in this field and in the academic environment or to the European or Romanian legislator.

  6. The Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union: Purpose and activities

    OpenAIRE

    Fontenelle, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union was established in 1994 to meet the translation needs of the other decentralized Community agencies. It also participates in the Interinstitutional Committee for Translation and Interpretation, which is working to promote collaboration between the services of the various European institutions and agencies and to achieve economies of scale in the translation field. In this paper, we describe the “raison d‟être” of this agency, whic...

  7. A Constructivist Discourse Analysis of the German Debate over the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    With a view to the Eastern enlargement of the European Union (EU), political debate in Germany took a remarkable turn. After the 1990s little has remained of the earlier euphoria over German unification and the establishment of friendly relations with the country's Eastern European neighbors. In its stead there have been vehement demands for stricter accession criteria, greater reform of the EU, and the institution of transition periods for member candidates prior to full accession. This stud...

  8. Corporate Tax in European Union and the Theory of Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Iwin-Garzyńska Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    One of the main objectives to be accomplished by the European Union law is to eliminate barriers to the functioning of domestic market and in particular improve the competitiveness of enterprises. After several years of efforts, the European Commission approved a proposal for the directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base which is to remove obstacles to the functioning of internal market and increase tax harmonization. The article is aimed at presenting the essence of CCCTB in the ...

  9. Homogeneity of the European Union from the Point of View of Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Siničáková

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the idea of the European Union labour market homogeneity from the perspective of employment, unemployment, earnings and gender pay gap. Due to integration procedures within Europe, important mutual trade, capital and labour force mobility; it can be expected that labour market phenomena are gradually transmitted from western European countries to new member states. The paper proves a certain rate of labour market mimicking within Europe. Tendencies in unemployment, employ...

  10. Review of existing electricity quality label systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    White, Sara; Vrolijk, Christiaan

    2003-01-01

    Green electricity quality labels have been utilised in the European Union since 1990. Of the seventeen European countries analysed here1, at the time of writing nine had no countryspecific quality label, although all electricity tariffs within Europe were able to apply for accreditation under the EUGENE labelling scheme. Germany had several quality labels, each with slightly different criteria. All of the eighteen labels identified in the report applied to electricity from renewable sources. ...

  11. Aspects of youth competencies in the 21st century in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pribac Loredana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the youth unemployment problem that the European Union countries are facing nowadays. To this end, we investigate the competencies and skills considered necessary in the 21 Century. We do this by presenting the competencies considered important by European employers versus Romanian employers. Not least, we reveal future directions in terms of skills required by employers.

  12. Mortality trends for tuberculosis in European Union countries, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahamneh, Moad J; Al-Rahamneh, Anas; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés

    2017-07-18

    The objective of this study was to update and analyze tuberculosis (TB) mortality data in the European Union between 2000 and 2010 separately for men and women and try to detect if there have been any changes in trends in each country and the association with the economic situation and inequalities. Data were extracted for tuberculosis deaths in 2000-2010 for 29 European Union countries and for Switzerland, via the World Health Organization (WHO) European detailed mortality database (DMDB), using the Mortality tabulation list 1 (MTL1) codes for men and women separately for one age group (20-85+). We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, and analyzed data using the Joinpoint Regression Program for men and women separately in the European Union overall and by individual country for each year. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 68,771 recorded tuberculosis deaths in the European Union and the mortality rates were higher for men than women in the entire study zone. Overall, TB mortality rates declined linearly for both genders, but more in women than in men (from 5.43/100,000 in 2000 to 2.59/100,000 in 2010 in men and from 1.37/100,000 in 2000 to 0.51/100,000 in 2010 in women). There was decline in both genders for the entire study period, with a significant Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) of -8.1 for women and -7 for men when alphaEuropean Union decreased overall in 2000-2010 for both genders. Men have higher TB mortality rates than women in all countries. Our findings were consistent with the downward TB mortality trend in many other countries worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  14. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response

  15. Food Safety Law in the European Union. An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.

    2004-01-01

    “Food Safety Law in the European Union” analyses the substantive and procedural elements of food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. In substantive law general principles are treated, as well as the rules on the composition of food, the handling of food, and the communication about

  16. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Jan Cremers has contributed with a main article in Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research (Vol. 22-2). It was published by Sage ahead of print. His article examines the problematic relationship between economic freedoms and labour standards in the context of cross-border labour

  17. European Union competition law, intellectual property law and standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geradin, Damien; Contreras, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the efforts of the European Commission to identify and, when necessary, challenge anticompetitive behaviour with respect to standardization and the licensing of standardized technologies, as well as the case-law of the CJEU on the same subject. The paper starts by

  18. Scandinavia and the European Union: pragmatic functionalism reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    This chapter compares the European policies of the Nordic countries. The authors identify the similarities and differences in Nordic approaches to the EU and argue that Nordic policies towards the EU can be explained in terms of pragmatic functionalism seeking to protect the welfare state....

  19. UK Citizens Lack Simple, Objective Knowledge of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2017-01-01

    Since 2002 the Eurobarometer surveys of public opinion in the EU provide data of ‘objective knowledge of the European Union’ through a series of true or false responses to factual statements about the EU. These questions are generally very simple, for example, how many EU member states are there?...

  20. Romania's accession process into the European Union: discourses at policy-, program-, and project-levels in the justice sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rem (Dana); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSpecial arrangements were made by the European Union for decision-making on the possible accession of Romania and Bulgaria. A regime of extra procedures was added to the arrangements used for the Eastern European countries which joined the Union in 2004. This paper examines how the